County map of state of Florida
 Why Florida should lead the eastern...

Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00079
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00079
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Why Florida should lead the eastern United States in the growing of livestock
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text

Volume 27






APRIL 1, 1917.



Blnaed January 81, 1908, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-clan
matter under Act of Congres of June, 1900.






Number 2r 9(P




q CA
'~O~iW~* o it)
M ALA R 0 N 1 0

- -- 1- O L


PASCO---- --





N- Vi 1~ , (ViA


By H. S. Elliott, Chief Clerk, Department oy

In the Thirteenth Bi-ennial Report of this Department
the writer published a bulletin on the Growing and Feed-
ing of Live Stock in Florida. The effect of the bulletin
referred to was as hoped for and intended. It attracted
country-wide attention to the possibilities of livestock
production in this State in a way never before realized.
It brought immediate results in the form of many hun-
dreds of inquiries, requesting further and additional in-
formation on the subject. The transformation that has
come about in the large and rapid development of the in-
dustry in the past two years is within the knowledge of
all who are interested in this-the greatest of agricul-
tural industries in America or the world.
The good accomplished by the bulletin alluded to leads
the writer to publish the following bulletin embracing
another and most important branch of the same subject.
This bulletin is devoted principally to a discussion of
the pasture and hay grasses of the State. So little is
known and so little information has been given to the
public on this phase of the subject heretofore, that thou-
sands of people have never and do not now realize the
great importance and economic value of the natural and
cultivable grasses of their State. It is the object of this
bulletin to bring these facts to the notice of the people,
that they may take advantage of them and utilize them
for their personal use and the benefit of the public.
The tables inserted in various parts of the bulletin
showing the feeding values of various forage plants are

l- 22 0 op

incidental to the main subject, and are intended more
especially to illustrate and to assist the reader in keeping
up with the more important point sof the subject; so
also with the figures relating to construction and con-
tents of silos, etc.
It must be realized that this bulletin covers a great
range of territory-the whole State, the area of which
is upwards of 37,700,000 acres.
Throughout this vast domain extending from the ex-
treme southern end of the State to its far western bound-
ary there are literally millions of acres of magnificent
land adapted to all branches of agriculture. There are
immense areas of timbered lands of the most valuable
kinds, broad savannas, and meadow lands stretching
miles in extent in close proximity to each other, that will
'support hundreds of thousands of heads of cattle or sheep
in fine condition nine or ten months of the year, in fact,
the grazing capacity of these lands is as unlimited as the
uses they can be put to for agricultural purposes.
Not only are the soils adapted in a high degree to the
production of all of the crops necessary to feed and care
for livestock of every kind, but a glance at a map of the
State will show that it is abundantly blessed with a
never failing and well distributed water supply; a neces-
sity that cannot be overlooked or ignored, but is one of
those things absolutely essential to all branches of agri-
culture if it is to be successful, and especially with live-
stock raising, but is a vital asset which is lacking to a
great degree in most, and to a considerable extent in all
the livestock producing sections of the United States,
especially the Southwest.
Another essential of equal importance, as we have indi-
cated, is the capacity of the soils, to produce all of the
necessary grain and forage crops, as well as the pastures
for grazing purposes. There is no limit to. this, except
the will of the grower. To give an idea of the large num-

ber of these crops that can be successfully produced on
the soil above referred to, we submit the following list,
which includes both forage, hay and grazing plants fully
adapted to the soil and climate in this section of the

Name of Variety.
Red Kaffir Corn......
Sirak... ............
Honey ...............
Brown Durra ........
Minnesota Amber.....
Planters Friend, No. 36
Orange ..............
Gooseneck, Erect .....
Planters Friend, No. 37
Sumac ...............
White Kaffir .........
Gooseneck, Pendant..
Collier ..............
Red Amber ..........
Cigne ...............
Jerusalem Corn. .....
Yellow Milo..........

field per Ac
Green Fora
in Tens.

re of

Yield per Acre of
Grain in Head,
in Pounds.

............ 1,050,00
............ 562,50
............ 550,00
............ 450,00
............ 975,00
............ 787,00
............ 1,366,50
............. 793,00
............ 887,50
............ 1,033,50
............ 429,50
............ 2,112,50
............ 727,00
............ 856,25
............ 742,50
............. .1,500,00
............ 900,00
............ 458,00
............ 900,00

Yield per Acre
in Tons of Dry Hay
per Season.
1 Hairy Vetch ....................... 2 to 3
1 Alfalfa .............. .............. 5 to 6 .
Lespedeza ................ ......... 1 to 2
1 Burr Clover ....................... 2 to 4
Crimson Clover ..................... 2 to 4
Rhodes Grass ...................... 4 to 6

Natal Grass ..................... .... 1 to 2
Orchard Grass ...................... 1 to 2
Bermuda Grass ................... 1 to 2
Crab Grass ........................ 1 to 2
Tall Meadow Oat Grass ............. 1 to 2
Para Grass ........................ 2 to 4
Herds of Red Top Grass ............ 1 to 2
Crow-foot Grass ............... 1 to 2
Millet ................. ......... 3 to 5
Johnson Grass ..................... 3 to 6
Rape (never cut) ..................

1 Should be inoculated.


All Cow or Field Peas.
Velvet Beans.
Soy Beans.
Beggar Weed.
The following table gives the average of a few of the
best hays and will serve further to impress those inter-
ested with not only the capacity of the soils of this State
to produce the most valuable forage and hay plants, but
with their high quality and value, as feeding products.
The following table gives the average composition of
some of the best hays:

R 1F Cd

Dry Hay F 0
U4 U

Cowpea ................. 11.9 8.4 14.4 41.2 21.5 2.5
Alfalfa ................... 8.4 7.4 14.3 42.7 25.0 2.2
Soy Bean ............... 13.3 7.2 15.4 38.6 22.3 5.2
Clover (Red) ............ 15.3 6.2 12.3 38.1 24.8 3.3
Peanut Vine ............. 7.6 0.8 10.7 42.7 23.6 4.6
Lespedeza ............... 11.5 4.1 9.6 40.1 31.4 3.3
Timothhy ............... 13.2 4.4 5.9 45.0 29.5 2.5
Johnson Grass .......... 10.2 6.1 7.2 45.9 28.5 2.1

Per Cent of Digestible Matter.

Cowpea ............. .. ... ... 9.3 29.1 .2.1 1.9
Alfalfa .................. ... ... 10.6 28.2 10.7 0.9
Soy Beans .............. ... ... 10.9 26.6 13.6 1.5
Red Clover ................ ... 7.6 26.3 12.1 2.0
Peanut Vine ............... ... 6.7 29.9 12.3 ...
Lespedeza ............... .. ... 7.6 31.0 ... 1.8
Timothy ................. .. .. 2.8 28.3 15.1 1.4
Johnson Grass ........... ... ... 3.2 24.8 16.5 0.8

Protein. Carbohydrates.
Beggarweed ...................... 16 per cent. 69 per cent.
Cowpeas ......................... 16 per cent. 67 per cent.
Velvet Bean .................... 14 per cent. 72 per cent.
Peanut ........................... 13 per cent. 73 per cent.
Crowfoot Grass ................... 8 per cent. 75 per cent.
Crab Grass ....................... 7 per cent. 79 per cent.
Timothy ......................... 6 per cent. 82 per cent.
Millet ............................ 6 per cent. 76 per cent.
Mexican Clover .................. 5 per cent. 79 per cent.

Showing Feeding Value of Some of These

Timothy ....................................
V elvet Bean ..................................
P eanut .......................................
Beggarw eed ...................................
Crab Grass ....................................
Cow pea ..................................... .
M exican Clover ...............................
Crowfoot Grass ...............................
M illet .........................................

$20.00 1
20.05 ]
20.00 ]
19.95 1
19.60 ]
19.50 ]
19.05 ]
10.00 ]
18.65 1


There are many more, but these are enough, as they are also
the best of the forage plants

As all of the products referred to below figure largely
in the following pages, we discuss them in their relation
to hog feeding, as well as in relation to pastures.


Any one of the following rations should be found sat-
isfactory for fattening hogs. The question of cost will,
of course, enter into the selection of a ration. It will
be found necessary, perhaps, to estimate the cost of the
different feeds and see which will be the most economical
to use.
SProtein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn .............. 12 0.96 j 7.94 0.51
Sweet Potatoes .... 10 0.09 2.75 0.53
Cottonseed Meal.... 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cowpeas .......... 5 0.84 2.74 0.06
Total.............. 30.75 2.55 13.80 0.77

F Protein Carbohyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn .............. 15 1.20 9.93 0.64
Soy Beans ......... 3 0.87 0.70 0.44
Dwarf Essex Rape.. 25 0.50 2.02 0.05
Total............. 43 2.57 12.65 1.13


Sorghum Seed......
Corn ..............
Cowpeas ..........






The Component Parts of Which Are Grown in Florida.

Average Peroentage Composition and Digestible Matter.

Percentage Composition. Percentage
Carbohy- Digestible.

Feeding Stuffs. s

SC .
d $ S .5 ^i

rX4 P4 U rM2
Flint Corn ...... 11.3 10.5 1.7] 70.11 5.0| 8.001 66.21 4.3

Corn Meal ...... 15.0 9.2 1.9
Corn and Cob
Meal .......... 15.1 8.5 6.6
Wheat Bran...... 11.9 15.4 9.0
Shorts .......... 11.2 16.9 6.2
Cowpea ......... 14.6 26.5 3.9
Soy Bean ........ 11.7 33.5 4.5
Kaffir Corn ...... 9.9 11.2 2.7
Sorghum Seed ... 12.8 9.1 2.6
Milo Maize Seed. 9.0 10.7 3.0
Cottonseed ...... 10.3 18.4 23.2
Cottonseed Meal.. 7.0 45.3 6.3
Sunflower Seed. 8.6 16.3 29.9
Chufa ........... 79.5 0.7 2.2
Sorghum, green .................
Cowpeas, green .. ..... ..... .....
Skim Milk ....... 90.4 3.3 .....
Buttermilk ...... 90.11 4.0 .....
Dwarf Essex Rape ..... ..... .....
Sweet Potatoes .. ..... ..... .....
Bermuda Grass... ...............







Pork production in Florida is not receiving the atten-
tion it deserves. At the present time there are perhaps
near a million head of hogs in the State. This number,
however, does not supply the demand for pork. Florida
farmers can certainly produce pork more cheaply than
the cost of production elsewhere plus the freight.

To make the largest profit from hogs they should be put
on the market at the youngest possible age. Many of the
Florida hogs are from one year to a year and a half old
before they are ready for market. The Florida market
demands a hog that will weigh 125 to 160 pounds.
Animals of such weight can be produced in five to seven
months. When they have to be kept and fed for a year
to a year and a half, the risk of loss and the cost of feed
become too great to yield any assured profit. Farmers
in the corn belt, where the demand is for hogs weighing
from 200 to 250 pounds, have their hogs ready for market
at nine months to one year of age.
There is a too common impression among many farm-
ers that the hog is a sort of scavenger, that any refuse will
do for it to eat, and any filthy pen will do for it to live in.
It is true that hogs do often act as scavengers, and also
that they can live in filthy places, but these conditions
are generally brought about when the animals have no
choice in the matter. Hogs are not naturally a filthy ani-
mals, but they are capable of existing under unsanitary

If we are to get the largest possible returns from rais-
ing hogs it will be found necessary to make the hogs pay
for their keep. One of the best ways to do this will be
to make them harvest the crops grown for feed. The cost
of harvesting the various crops adds considerably to the
cost of production. This, in a measure, explains the high
cost of production when we try to raise hogs by keep-
ing them in small pens. When they are kept in small
pens we do not only have to harvest and carry the feed
to them, but in many cases we are obliged to carry all
the water which they drink. Therefore, we should make
the hogs harvest as many of the crops as practicable.
In the small pen it is impossible to keep the animals
under sanitary conditions. If they are not kept under

healthy conditions, we are inviting disease to visit the
herd, which means a big loss instead of a profit. It will
also be found that hogs will not make as rapid growth
while kept shut up in small pens as when given the run
of a small field.


There are many breeds of hogs. Some breeds are bet-
ter adapted to certain climatic conditions than others.
For Florida there are several breeds that will be found
well adapted to our needs.
Farmers wishing to produce pork should raise Berk-
shires, Poland Chinas, Duroc Jerseys, and Essex. Those
wishing to produce bacon should raise Hampshires and
Tamworths. A hog that is raised for pork alone or for
bacon alone is more profitable to us than one that is
raised for both pork and bacon. In general, Florida con-
ditions are more favorable for pork production than for
In selecting a breed for Florida conditions it will be
found advisable not to select a white one, as these do
not do as well in our climate as the black or red breeds.
White hogs sun-scald easily, and become scurfy and
mangy. When in such a condition they cannot be ex-
pected to grow and develop as they would if healthy. If
given an abundance of shade and water at all times there
is less trouble from this source.
However, the selection of the breed is a personal mat
ter. A person should choose the one he fancies most and
which will produce the results he desires. It may be that
the Duroc Jersey will meet with your approval, while
your neighbor across the road will say that the Berskhire
is the only breed for him. This is because he has had bet-
ter success with the Berkshire, and is probably better
temperamentally adapted to that breed. Therefore se-
lect the breed you like best, barring the white ones.


The disappearance of unimproved blood by the contin-
uous use of pure-bred sires is shown in the customary
way in the following table:
Sires. Dams. Offspring.
Pet. of Pot. of Pet. of
Generations. Pure Breed. Pure Breed. Pure Breed.
1 ...................... 100 0 60
2 ...................... 100 50 75
3 ..................... 100 75 87.5
4 ..................... 100 87.5 93.75
5 ..................... 100 93.75 96.87
6 ...................... 100 96.87 98.44
Hypothetically, the offspring from the sixth generation
will have retained on the average 1.55 per cent. of the un-
improved blood from the original dam or the dam of no
breeding. (This applies only to the average of large
numbers and does not apply to individuals.)
The breeder must be reminded that to produce the high
grade, no other sire than a pure-bred one of the breed
selector can be used. No progress will be accomplished
by using a grade, scrub, or crossbred sire. Nor can pro-
gress toward eventual purity ol blood be made by using
pure-bred sires of different breeds for each cross or occa-
sional cross. Grading up means using a pure-bred sire
for the first cross and continually crossing the female
offspring with pure-bred sires of the breed first selected,
until all impure blood has been practically bred out.
It is not necessary for the farmer who is producing
pork for the market to keep a breedi ig herd of registered
sows. A herd of high grades will answer the purpose
nearly as well and they can be purchased at a much
cheaper rate. The one important thihg is that the breeder
use a pure-bred sire. If he must start with a herd of in-
ferior sows, by using a pure-bred sire it will only be a
question of two or three years until he will have a herd
of good grades.

2-Bull. Sup.


The ideal farm for raising hogs is one that will afford
an abundance of shade, with enough fresh running water
and in addition a liberal amount of grazing. It may not
be possible to find all of these conditions naturally in
one field, but they can be supplied at a comparatively
small outlay. Shade can be furnished in a short time by
planting some quickly-growing trees or shrubbery. If
necessary, some annuals may be grown for the first year
until the permanent plantings become large enough to
supply the shade. If there is not already a sufficient
amount of water at hand, it can be supplied by putting
down a well and erecting a windmill or installing a gaso-
line engine. The supply of fresh water is as important
to the welfare of the hog as is the grain given. It is well
known that if pigs are not given an abundance of water,
they will not fatten as rapidly as they should.
Some kind of green feed for the hogs to graze on, or
as soiling, will go a long way toward reducing the cost
of production. The green feed supplied will not entirely
replace the grain; but it will replace a part of it, and at
the same time increase the gain that it is possible to
get from a given amount of grain. For instance, if one
hundred pounds of corn fed, alone will produce eight or
ten pounds of pork, this same amount of corn, when fed
with some green feed will produce from 12 to 15 pounds
of pork. This is not entirely due to the food value of the
green feed, but partly to the fact that the green feed reg-
ulates and tones up the digestive and circulatory system
and keeps the animals in healthy condition.
There is hardly any grass or grain that hogs will not
eat when green, and there are many weeds on which they
will feed. The following is a list of useful forage crops
for hogs in Florida. The crops in this list will give pas-
ture through the entire year.

Can be pastured from
Dwarf Essex Rape.........................December to March.
Japanese Cane...........................November to March.
Rye, Oats, Barley .......................... November to April.
Sorghum..................................May to November.
Cnufas ...................................August to December.
Sweet Potatoes..........................October to December.
Cowpeas and Soy Beans ......................July to November.
Peanuts............................. September to December.

For a permanent pasture it is doubtful if we can get
anything better than Bermuda and crab grass. These
do not furnish pasturage for the entire year, but can be
depended upon from early spring until late fall.


The brood sow and boar are the foundation of the hog
industry. It is important, therefore, that the most care-
ful attention be given to these. They must receive such
food and care as will insure good, healthy brood sows and
strong, healthy litters of pigs. Each represents one-half
of the herd.
Prolificacy, though more or less an inherited charac-
teristic, is, to a large extent, controlled by the feed and

care of the sow. Good breeding sows are often reduced
in value as breeders by improper feeding. If the sows
are fed largely on carbonaceous ration, they are likely
to become too fat. When the sows are kept too fat, they
are not regular breeders. When they do farrow, the re-
sult is a small litter of weak pigs.
The sows should not be starved at any time. They
should be fed on a well-balanced ration with plenty of
protein to produce an abundant flow of milk. After the
pigs are weaned the sow requires nearly the same ration.
It is a common practice with many farmers to put the
brood sow on a starvation ration as soon as the pigs are
weaned. It is as bad to feed them on corn only. Corn
alone may do for fattening an animal, but when fed alone
to pregnant sows it does not supply enough protein to
properly develop the growing foetus. The result is the
sows will farrow small litters of weak pigs. If we wish
to maintain a prolific strain of brood sows, we must give
attention to how they are fed.
This subject is so necessary to successful livestock feed-
ing and is also referred to so often in the following pages
that it is inserted here:


Table No. 1.

Relation of Size of Silo to Length of Feeding Period and
Size of Herd.

Feed for 180 Days.

Estimated Size of Silo.
of silage
consumed, Diam Heighl
tons. feet. feet.



Feed for 240 Days.

Estimated Size of Silo.
of silage
consumed, Diam. Height,
tons. feet. feet

The following table gives further figures regarding the
capacity of silos of different sizes.

Table No. 2.

Capacity of Silos of Different Sizes.

Inside diameter of silo in feet.

Depth of silage, ft.
10 12 14 16 18
Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons.

25 ................ 36 52 68 96 122
28 ................ 40 61 81 108 137
30 ................ 44 68 90 115 150
82 ................ 50 72 95 126 162
34 ................ 53 77 108 142 171
36 ................ 57 82 114 158 194



V ow

After ascertaining the capacity of silos of various sizes
and learning the length of time the silage in each will
last with a given number of animals to feed, our next
question will probably be, "How many acres of corn are
required to fill a silo of given dimensions?" The answer
to this question can be found in the data given below.

Average Yield of Silage Per Acre.
Yield of corn, Yield of s~lage,
bushels, tons.
30 6
40 8
50 10
60 12
80 16
100 20

It will be seen from the figures just given that corn
yielding 50 bushels to the acre will make ten tons of
silage to the acre. Quoting Professor'C. H. Eckles, in
the bulletin just mentioned, he states:



"Upon the basis of total food value, 2J tons of silage
are equal to one ton of timothy hay. This means that a
yield of ten tons of silage per acre is equivalent in feed-
ing value to 4 tons of timothy hay per acre. On the same
basis, when corn is worth 50 cents per bushel, a ton of
silage is worth $3.35. Calculated in this way, an acre of
corn yielding 50 bushels per acre when put into the silo
is worth $33.50, while at 50 cents per bushel, the grain is
worth $25.00."


Sometimes we would like to know just how many
pounds or tons of silage remain in a silo after we have
begun feeding. Feeders have been heard to say: "If I
had known that my silage would run out before grass was
good enough for pasture, I should have fed a little light-
er." If the silage is partly used out of a silo and we wish
to sell the remainder, we would like some method of com-
puting the number of tons that we may have for sale.
The table given below shows the computed weight of
well-matured corn silage at different distances below the
surface, and the total weight to those distances two days
after filling.

Weight per Total weight
cubic foot of one square
Depth of silage, feet. silage at foot area to
different depth given,
depths, lbs. lbs.

1 .......................... 18.7 18.7
2 .......................... 20.4 39.1
3 .......................... 22.1 61.2
4 .......................... 23.7 84.9
5 .......................... 25.4 110.3
6 .......................... 27.0 137.3
7 .......................... 28.5 165.8
8 .......................... 30.1 195.9
9 .......................... 31.6 227.5
10 .......................... 33.1 260.6
11 .......................... 34.5 295.1
12 .......................... 35.9 331.0
13 ....... ........... ....... 37.3 368.3
14 .......................... 38.7 407.0
15 .......................... 40.0 447.0
16 .......................... 41.3 488.3
17 .......................... 42.6 530.9
18 .......................... 43.8 574.3
19 .......................... 45.0 619.7
20 .......................... 46.2 665.9
21 .......................... 47.4 713.3
22 .......................... 48.5 761.8
23 .............. ............ 49.6 811.4
24 .......................... 50.6 862.0
25 .......................... 51.7 913.7
26 .......................... 52.7 966.4
27 .......................... 53.6 1020.0
28 .......................... 54.6 1074.6
29 .......................... 55.5 1130.1
30 .......................... 56.4 1186.5
31 .......................... 57.2 1243.7
32 .......................... 58.0 1301.7
33 .......................... 58.8 1260.5
34 .......................... 5..6 1420.1
85 .......................... 60.3 1480.4
36 .......................... 61.0 1541.4


The concrete silo has the advantage over all others in
permanency and stability. A well constructed concrete
silo will last indefinitely; there is no danger of its blow-
ing or burning down, rotting out, or being attacked by
vermin. Little attention is required to keep it in good
condition. The chief objection to it is, its cost. In the
end it is cheapest.


Recent data on the cost of home-made silos collected
from all parts of the country show the following relative
cost of the three types:

Number Average Average cost
Type of silo. of silos. capacity. cost. per ton
tons. capacity.



00 tons or less....... 71 71 $220.47 $3.10
)1 tons or less....... 50 135 348.68 2.59
[ore than 200 tons... 23 219 446.42 2.04
Total concrete......I 144 117 I 301.08 2.58
lifted Wisconsin.....| 8 116 I 185.52 1.61

00 tons or less....... 25 63 118.40 1.87
ver 100 tons......... 16 129 187.46 1.45
Total stave ......... 41 89 145.35 1.63

The following table will show the proper diameter of
the silo for herds of different sizes to be fed different
amounts for winter feeding, when two inches of silage
are removed daily:

Relation of size of herd to diameter of silo for winter feeding
on basis of 40 pounds of Silage per cubic foot.

Number of animals that may be fed,
Inside Quantity
Diam- of silage
eterof in depth of 40 30 20 15
silo. 2 inches, pounds pounds pounds pounds
per head. per head. per head. per head.

Feet. Pounds.
19 524 13 17 26 35
11 634 16 21 31 42
12 754 19 25 37 50
13 885 22 29 44 59
14 1,026 25 34 51 68
15 1,178 29 39 59 78
16 1,340 33 44 67 89
17 1,513 38 50 75 101
18 1,696 42 56 85 113
20 2,094 52 70 104 139

A 900-pound cow will ordinarily consume 30 pounds of
silage a day; a 1,200-pound cow about 40 pounds. Year-
lings will eat about one-half as much as mature animals;
fattening cattle, 25 to 35 pounds for each 1,000 pounds
live weight. A sheep will take about one-eighth as much
as a cow. Horses should be limited to 15 to 20 pounds
In general, the depth of the silo should not be less than
twice nor more than three times the diameter. The great
er the depth the better the silage, on account of the pres-
sure from above. If less than 24 feet in height the quality
of silage will not be the best. A very great height, how-
ever, is to be avoided on account of the excessive amount
of power required to elevate the cut corn into the silo.



Capacity of Cylindrical Silos, for Well-Matured
Corn Silage, in Tons.

Inside Diameter of Silo, Feet.

of Silo

20 ..
21 ....
22 .
23 ....
24 .
25 ....
26 ....
27 ...
28 ....
29 ....
30 ....
31 .
32 .
33 ...
35 ...
36 ...
37 ....
38 .
39 ....
40 ....
41 .
42 ..
43 .
48 .
49.. .
50 .. .

10 11 12 13

30 36 45 51
31 39 48 54
33 41 50 57
34 43 52 60
36 45 55 64
38 48 57 68
40 50 60 71
42 52 63 7E
44 54 66 79
46 56 70 83
48 58 75 86
50 62 79 90
53 66 84 94
55 69 89 98
58 73 94 102
61 77 100 106
64 82 105 110
67 86 109 115
70 89 114 119
73 951 118 124
75 98 121 129
77 101 125 134
80 1041 128 139
.. .... 132 144
.... .... 135 150

.... ...... .... . 176 195
.... ......:. .... 182 200
.... .... .... .... .... ....

16 I 17 I 18 1 19 I 20



1711 188


Table Showing Required Acreage and Stock Feeding
Capacity for Silos of Various Sizes.


10 x 20
10 x 24
10 x 28
10 x 32
10 x 40
10 x 20
12 x 24
12 x 28
12 x 32
12 x 40
14 x 20
14 x 22
14 x 24
14 x 28
14 x 32
14 x 40
16 x 24
16 x 28
16 x 32
16 x 40
18 x 30
18 x 36
18 x 40
18 x 36
20 x 30
20 x 40
20 x 50
20 x 60

Capacity in


Acres to Fill. Cows it will keep
6 mos., 40 lbs.
15 tons to Acre. Feed per day.


The cost of a silo will depend on local conditions as to
price of labor and materials; how much labor has to be
paid for; the size of the silo, etc. The comparative data
for the cost of two round silos, 13 and 25 feet in diameter,
and 30 feet deep, is given by Prof. King, as shown in the
following table:

13 Feet Inside 25 Feet Inside
Diameter. Diameter.
Kinds of Silo.
Without With Without With
Roof. Roof. Roof. Roof.

Stone Sila ............. $151 $175 $264 $328
Brick Silo ............. 243 273 437 494
Brick-lined Silo, 4 ins.
thick ................ 142 230 310 442
Brick-lined, 2 ins. thick. 131 190 239 369
Lathed and plastered
Silo ................. 133 185 344 363
Wood Silo with Galvan-
ized Iron ............ 168 185 308 432
Wood Silo with Paper.. 128 222 235 358
Stave Silo ............. 127 183 136 289
Cheapest Wood Silo.... 101 144 195 240

The following rule for feeding good dairy cows is a
safe one to beguided by: Feed as much roughage (Succu-
lent feeds like silage or roots, and hay) as the cows will
eat up clean, and in addition, 1 pound of grain feed (con-
centrates) a day per head for every pound of butter fat
they produce in a week (or one-third to one-fourth as
many pounds as they give milk daily.

The farmer should aim to grow protein foods like
clover, alfalfa, peas, etc., to as large extent as practic-
able, and thus reduce his feed bill.

The following table gives actual chemical analysis of
the products mentioned an includes the entire contents
of the various feeds. The next table shows the average
amount of digestible nutrients in the more common
American fodders, grains and by-products, and is the
table that should be used in formulating rations. The
table gives the number of pounds of digestible nutrients
contained in 100 pounds, of the feeds and these figures
can, therefore, be used in figuring out the amount of di-
gestible nutrients in any given amount of food material.
3-Bull. Sup.

Average Composition of Silage Crops of Different Kinds,
in Per Cent.

a) 0 Cg d 5g 5-a

Corn Silage, Mature Corn. 73.7 1.6 2.2 6.5 14.1 .9
Immature Corn .......... 79.1 1.4 1.7 6.0 11.0 .8
Ears removed ........... 80.7 1.8 1.8 5.6 9.5 .6
Clover Silage ............ 72.0 2.6 4.2 8.4 11.6 1.2
Soja Bea Silage.......... 74.2 2.8 4.1 9.7 6.9 2.2
Cow-pea Vine Silage...... 79.3 2.9 2.7 6.0 7.6 1.5
Field-pea Vine Silage..... 50.0 3.6 5.9 13.0 26.0 1.6
Corn Cannery Refuse
Husks ................. 83.8 .6 1.4 5.2 7.9 1.1
Corn Cannery Refuse Cubs 74.1 .5 1.5 7.9 14.3 1.7
Pea Cannery Refuse...... 76.8 1.3 2.8 6.5 11.3 1.3
Sorghum Siilage.......... 76.1 1.1 .8 6.4 15.3 .3
Corn-Soja Bean Silage.... 76.0 2.4 2.5 7.2 11.1 .8
Millet-Soja Bean Silage... 79.0 2.8 2.8 7.2 7.2 1.0
Rye Silage .............. 80.8 1.6 2.4 5.8 9.2 .3
Apple Pomace Silage..... 85.0 .6 1.2 3.3 8.8 1.1
Cow-pea and Soja Bean
mixed ................. 69.8 4.5 3.8 9.5 11.1 1.3
Corn Kernels ............ 41.3 1.0 6.0 1.5 46.6 3.6
Mixed Grasses (Rowen).. 18.4 7.1 10.1 22.8 36.0 5.7
Brewers' Grain Silage .... 69.8 1.2 6.6 4.7 15.6 2.1

Analysis of Feeding Stuffs, of the More Common Ameri-
can Fodders, Grains and By-Products.

Digestible Nutrients in
Dry 100 Pounds.
Name of Feed. in Ether
100Lbs Protein. Carbohy- Extract
Lbs. drates. (Crude
S Lbs. Fat)
Green Fodders.
Pasture Grasses, mixed... 20.0 2.5 10.2 0.5
Fodder Corn ............. 20.7 1.0 11.6 0.4
Sorghum ................ 20.6 0.6 12.2 0.4
Red Clover .............. 29.2 2.9 14.8 0.7
Alfalfa .................. 28.2 3.9 12.7 0.5
Cow Pea ................. 16.4 1.8 8.7 0.2
Soja Bean .............. 24.9 3.2 11.0 0.5
Oat Fodder .............. 37.8 2.6 '18.9 1.0
Rye Fodder .............. 23.4 2.1 14.1 0.4
Rape .................... 14.0 1.5 8.1 0.2
Peas and Oats............ 16.0 1.8 7.1 0.2
Beet Pulps .............. 10.2 0.6 7.3
Corn .................... 20.9 0.9 11.3 0.7
Corn, Wisconsin Analysis. 26.4 1.3 14.0 0.7
Sorghum ................ 23.9 0.6 14.9 0.2,
Red Clover .............. 28.0 2.0 13.5 1.0
Alfalfa .................. 27.5 3.0 8.5 1.9
Cow Pea ................ 20.7 1.5 8.6 0.9
Soja Bean ............... 25.8 2.7 8.7 1.3
Dry Fodder and Hay.
Corn Fodder ............. 57.8 2.5 34.6 1.2
Corn Fodder, Wisc. Anal.. 71.0 3.7 40.4 1.2
Corn Stover ............. 59.5 1.7 32.4 0.7
Sorghum Fodder ......... 59.7 1.5 37.3 0.4
Red Clover .............. 84.7 6.8 35.8 1.7
Alfalfa .................. 91.6 11.0 39.6 1.2
Barley ................... 85.2 6.2 46.6 1.5
Blue Grass .............. 78.8 4.8 37.3 2.0
Cow Pea ................ 89.3 10.8 38.6 1.1
Crab Grass .............. 82.4 5.7 1 39.7 1.4
Johnson Grass ........... 87.7 2.4 47.8 0.7
Marsh Grass ............. 88.4 2.4 29.9 0.9
Millet ................... 92.3 4.5 51.7 1.3
Oat Hay ................. 91.1 4.3 46.4 1.5
Oat and Pea Hay......... 85.4 9.2 36.8 1.2
Orchard Grass ........... 90.1 4.9 42.3 1.4
Prairie Grass ............ 87.5 3.5 41.8 1.4
Red Top ................ 91.1 4.8 46.9 1.0
Timothy ................ 86.8 2.8 43.4 1.4
Timothy and Clover ...... 85.3 4.8 39.6 1.6

Analysis of Feeding Stuffs, of the More Common Ameri-
can Fodders, Grains and By-Products.-(Contiued.)

Digestible Nutrients in
Dy 100 Pounds.
Matter Ether
Name of Feed. in Carbohy- Extract
100 Lbs. rates. Protein. (Crude
Lbs. Lbs. Fat)
Vetch ................... 88.7 12.9 47T 1.4
White Daisy ............. 85.0 3.8 40.7 1.2
Grain and By-Products.
Barley .............. .... 89.1 8.7 65.6 1.6
Brewers' Grains, dry ...... 91.8 15.7 36.3 1.6
Brewers' Grains, wet ..... 24.3 3.9 9.3 1.4
Malt Sprouts ............ 89.8 18.6 37.1 1.7
Buckwheat .............. 87.4 7.7 49.2 1.8
Buckwheat Bran ......... 89.5 7.4 30.4 1.9
Buckwheat Middlings .... 87.3 22.0 33.4 5.4
Corn .................... 89.1 7.9 66.7 4.3
Corn and Cob Meal...... 89.0 6.4 63.0 3.5
Corn Cob ................ 89.3 0.4 52.5 0.3
Corn Bran ............... 90.9 7.4 59.8 4.6
Atlas Gluten Meal........ 92.0 24.6 38.8 11.5
Gluten Meal ............. 90.9 7.4 59.8 4.6
Germ Oil Meal............ 90.0 20.2 44.5 8.8
Gluten Feed ............. 90.0 23.3 50.7 2.7
Hominy Crop ............ 88.9 7.5 55.2 6.8
Starch Feed, wet......... 34.6 5.5 21.7 2.3
Cotton Seed .............. 89.7 12.5 30.0 17.3
Cotton Seed Meal......... 91.8 37.2 16.9 8.4
Cotton Seed Hulls........ 88.9 0.3 33.1 1.7
Cocoanut Meal ........... 89.7 15.6 38.3 10.5
Cow Peas ................ 85.2 18.3 54.2 1.1
Flax Seed ................ 90.8 20.6 17.1 29.0
Oil Meal, old process...... 90.8 29.3 32.7 7.0
Oil Meal, new process.... 89.9 28.2 40.1 2.8
Cleveland Oil Meal........ 89.6 32.1 25.1 2.6
Kaffir Corn .............. 84.8 7.8 57.1 2.7
Millet ................... 86.0 8.9 45.0 3.2
Oats ..................... 89.0 9.2 47.3 4.2
Oat Feed or Shorts....... 92.3 12.5 46.9 2.8
Oat Dust ................. 93.5 8.9 38.4 5.1
Peas .................... 89.5 16.8 51.8 0.7
Quaker Dairy Feed ....... 92.5 9.4 50.1 3.0
Rye ..................... 88.4 9.9 67.6 1.1
Rye Bran x............... 88.4 11.5 50.3 2.0
W heat ................... 89.5 10.2 69.2 1.7
Wheat Bran ............. 88.1 12.6 38.6 3.0
Wheat Middlings ......... 87.9 12.8 53.0 3.4
Wheat Shorts ............ 88.2 12.2 50.0 3.8


Why should the farmer go on raising meadow hay as
his main supply of coarse fodder and buying grain to sup-
plement it, when by growing leguminous crops the ni-
trogen required by animals can be produced at the low-
est cost? The crops of red clover, crimson clover, Japan
Clover (Lespedeza), Velvet Bean, cowpea, alfalfa, soja
bean, horse bean, serradella, and many others of this
class far surpass common hay in the food materials they
contain, both pound for pound and in yield per acre.
They may be grown as catch crops and used for soiling or
pasturage, or they may be grown for making hay or
silage. By mixing the green crops with corn and ensil-
ing the two together, a palpable and nutritious food is
produced, which is much richer in protein (nitrogen)
than silage made from corn alone.
The cultivation of these leguminous plants involves
somewhat more labor, as a rule, than raising grass hay,
but it will prove profitable, for it enables the farmer to
raise his own concentrated feed at the same time that
he raises his coarse fodder. For instance, experiments
have proven that soja-bean meal is fully equal to cotton
seed meal for milk and butter production. This meal is
one of the richest feeding stuffs we have. It exceeds lin-
seed meal and gluten meal in protein (nitrogen) and far
exceeds these and cotton seed meal in fat. It is only
surpassed in protein by cotton-seed meal and some of the
oil cakes little used in America. The beans can be thrash-
ed out and ground and the straw fed as course fodder.
This straw is richer in food materials than good meadow
hay. It contains about 9% per cent. of protein while
meadow hay axerage about 71/2 per cent. The cowpea
may be treated in a similar manner. The ground cow-
peas are a richly nitrogenous feed, although not as rich
as'sojo-bean meal velvet beans are the equal of either, and


the vines are nearly or quite equal to clover hay, and
far surpass grass hay in richness.
The following table is only intended to show the aver
age composition of hay from leguminous crops as com-
pared with hay from grasses, and indicates forcibly the
value of legume Jays over grass hays:

Average composition of hay from grasses and legumninous Urps

Hay from-

Red Top .........................
Orchard Grass ...................
Tim othy .........................
Hungarian Grass .................
Kentucky Blue Grass............
Red Clover ......................

Japan Clover ....................
Alsiro CloverT*

q 7

*g S-
o oc5
&; &1


66 3a


W hite Clover .................... 9.7 15.7 63.4 2.9
Alfalfa ........................... 8.4 14.3 67.7 2.2
Cowpea .......................... 10.7 16.6 62.3 2.9
Serradella ....................... 9.2 15.2 65.7 2.6
Vetch ............................ 8.4 14.5 67.8 2.1
Soja Bean ....................... 6.3 14.5 66.6 5.6
Average for grasses .......... 10.94 7.52 75.64 2.7f
Average for leguminous plants.. 10.20 14.37 64.14 3.23

It may be said in general that 100 pounds of hay from
leguminous crops contains about twice as much proefin
as 100 pounds of hay from grases. The leguminous hty
may be safely estimated as worth from one-fourth to
one-third more for feeding than common hay. This is
true in spite of the fact that it does not usually command
a higher price in the markets, owing to certain un-
founded prejudices against its use.


Assuming that the common grasses yield 2 tons of hay

per acre, and clovers, etc., 3 tons of hay, the amounts of
food materials and fertilizing materials in the crops are
approximately as follows:

Relative amount of food and fertilizing materials in crops of
hay from grasses and from leguminous crops.
(This forcibly indicates the difference in value of the crops).

Z Food Materials in Fertilizing Materials
.2 Crop per Acre. in Crop per Acre.

Hay from- )
|d P Oc o

Tons. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Red Top .... 2 158 1,520 38 23.0 7.2 20.4
Timothy .... 2 118 1,480 50 25.2 10.6 18.0
Red Clover.. 3 369 1,887 99 62.1 11.4 66.0
Alfalfa ..... 3 429 2,031 66 65.7 15.3 50.4
Cowpea ..... 3 498 1,869 87 58.5 15.6 44.1
Soja Bean... 3 435 1,998 168 69.6 20.1 32.4

The amount of hay produced on different farms varies
so widely that it is difficult to strike an average, espec-
ially for the leguminous crops. It will be seen that on
the above basis, which is believed to be a fair one, the
leguminous crops furnish from two to four times as much
protein per acre as common grasses, together with much
more fat and rather more carbohydrates. They also con-
tain nearly three times as much nitrogen and about
twice as much potash. It should be remembered that un-
der favorable conditions they may draw a large propor-
tion of this nitrogen from the air, instead of depleting
the soil, and that their long roots enable them to feed
upon the potash deep down in the soil beyond the reach
of surface-feeding plants.


Green manuring improves the physical properties of
the soil by making the soil more porous and adding to

its supply of humus. It brings up the dormant plant food
from deep down in the soil and deposits it near the sur-
face, where it can be used by plants feeding near the
Green manuring with Hungarian grass, and other non-
leguminous plants adds practically nothing to the soil
which was not there before, except a mass of vegetable
matter which decays and goes to form humus.
Green manuring with clovers, peas, beans, lupines, etc.
(leguminous crops), actually enriches the soil in nitro-
gen drawn from the air. These plants can grow with
very little soil nitrogen. They store up the nitrogen of
the air as they grow, and when plowed under, give it up
to the soil and to future crops. It is the cheapest means
of manuring the soil with nitrogen.
But animals, as well as plants, require nitrogen for
food. By feeding the crops of clover, cowpea, etc., only
about one-fourth of the fertilizing materials of the crop
is lost if the manure is properly cared for. As the nitro-
gen of the air is the cheapest source of nitrogen for
plants, so it is the cheapest source of protein (nitrogen)
for animals. The leguminous crop is best utilized when
it is fed out on the farm and the manure saved and ap-
plied to the soil. The greatest profit is thus secured and
nearly the same fertility is maintained as in the green
For renovating worn or barren soils, and for maintain-
ing the fertility where the barnyard manure is not prop-
erly cared for, green manuring with such leguminous
crops as cowpea, clovers, and lupines is recommended.
A dressing of potash and phosphates will usually be suf-
ficient for the green manuring crop.
The practice of green manuring on medium and better
classes of soils is irrational and wasteful. The farmer
should change his system so that the barnyard manure
will be as well cared for as any other farm product. Loss
from surface washing, leaching, fermentation, and decay

should be guarded against. Then the feeding of richer
food will mean richer manure and better and cheaper
The system of soiling, or feeding green crops in the
barn in place of pasturage, enables a larger number of
animals to be kept on a given area of land, and the man-
ure to be more completely saved. For this purpose
leguminous crops are extremely valuable.
Hay from leguminous crops is about twice as rich in
protein as hay from the grasses. In the one case this pro-
tein (nitrogen) is obtained very largely from the atmo-
sphere; in the other it is all drawn from the fertility of
the soil. Leguminous crops yield larger crops of hay to
the acre than grasses. Hence the production of food ma-
terials on an acre, especially protein, is several times
larger with leguminous crops.
If allowed to ripen, the seed of the cowpea and sojo
bean furnishes an extremely rich concentrated feed which
can be ground and fed in place of expensive commercial
feeds. The straw remaining may be fed as coarse fodder,
for it is richer than ordinary hay; therefore
Grow Leguminous crops. They furnish the cheapest
food for stock and the cheapest manure for the soil. They
do this because they obtain from the air a substance nec-
essary for plants and animals alike, in the form of fertil-
izers and feeding stuffs.
Grow grasses for pasture, and legumes for hay and soil
Green manuring, or plowing under green crops raised
for that purpose, is one of the oldest means of improving
the fertility of the soil. It was advocated by Roman
writers more than two thousand years ago, and from that
time until now it has formed a most important resource
of the farmer, especially where the supply of barnyard
manure is insufficient. Its advantages are many. The
more striking are that it furnishes the surface soil with
a supply of fertilizing materials needed by crops, in-

creases the humus, and improves the physical qualities
of the soil. As a humus-former, green manuring stands
next to barnyard manure.
By this means, land which is practically barren, may
in time be brought up to a State of fertility where it will
produce profitable crops.
Again, green manuring may be used to take the place
of more expensive fertilizers and manures on soils al-
ready under cultivation. It is in this latter use that it
finds its widest application.
It will be remembered that the principal'fertilizing in-
gredients required by plants are nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, and potash. These are each and all more or less
essential to the healthy growth of crops. Consequently
they are applied to the soil in the form of commercial
fertilizers and other manures. Inn attempting to ex-
plain how the fertility of the soil is maintained by green
manuring, it has been said that the plants with long
roots, like clovers, feed deep down in the soil or subsoil
on materials beyond the reach of surface-feeding plants;
and that when the tops of these plants die down and
are mixed with the surface soil, they enrich it much the
same as an application of barnyard manure. This is un-
doubtedly true, but it fails to explain how such large
quantities of materials can be obtained, especially when
clover is grown continuausly for a number of years. The
question has finally been solved by one of the most inter-
esting and important discoveries yet made in agricul-
tural science. It has been found that certain plants can
feed upon the nitrogen in the atmosphere and store it up
in their tissues as they grow. They take their phosphoric
acid and potash from the soil, but they obtain their ni-
trogen very largely from the air. Hence they draw from
the air a material necessary to the growth of crops, which
in the form of commercial fertilizers, as nitrate of soda,
ammonium suplhate, dried blood, etc., is paid for at a
fixed price per pound.


The natural forage plants vary as largely as the soils.
Some adapt themselves to almost any situation, and are
quite general in their distribution, while others are ex-
tremely local; some become more vigorous and abundant
under frequent grazing, while others soon disappear with
any change of surroundings.


With a climate favorable to an almost continuous
growth, and with soil easily worked and promptly re-
sponding to good management, it is not difficult to secure
permanent pastures of the highest quality; but in order
to obtain the best returns, the same intelligent care must
be used in their preparation and management as ape
give other portions of the farm.
The best patures are those which contain the greatest
variety of plants yielding palatable food for stock. These
plants should be such as to make their greatest growth
at different seasons, in order that there may be a conthn-
uous supply; a portion of them should be legumes, both
for their superior fattening qualities and for their effect
on the soil, and as large a proportion as possible should
be perennials. Such a pasture cannot be made in onl
season, but requires time for its best development, and
when once secured, its value and feeding capacity will
increase yearly under good management.
Excellent pastures are sometimes made from the na,
tural sod, but in most cases it is more satisfactory, and
in the end less expensive, first to plow the ground and
use it two or three years for corn or cotton, which will
kill the wild broom-sedges and wire-grasses and change
the character of the soil so that the cultivated grazing
plants will be able to establish themselves so thoroughly
as to prevent the growth of other and less desirable sorts.

The prairie lands make excellent pastures without plow-
ing. The coming in of the carpet grass can be materially
hastened by mowing an old pasture in July or August
when the grass is maturing its seed and scattering the
hay over the new field. Wet places should be planted
with either roots or seed of the large water-grass, which
grows well insuch places and is especially valuable dur-
ing winter. Many of the coast soils are so deficient in
lime that it is difficult to secure a good growth of any of
the clovers. Where the soil is not too light, leapedeza
will do fairly well, and as its growth improves year after
year, it pays to sow it in all pastures. On light soils
which contain lime, like many of those in Florida, the
Florida beggar-weed grows well, reseeds itself freely, and
makes good summer and fall grazing, but yields noth
ing during the winter and spring months. It is very
little trouble to make good pastures on the coast soils
which have once been in cultivation, as carpet-grass takes
possession of such fields very quickly. Bermuda will
cover the more fertile spots, and the sowing of lespedeza
or beggar-weed will provide the best leguminous grazing
plants for these soils.
Rich and moist alluvial soils, like those along the riv-
ers and streams, will finally become covered with a
growth of Bermuda grass, but even on such lands the
spread of the grass is slow, and the ground can be cov-
ered much more quickly if it is first plowed to kill the
coarser growth and bring it into better mechanical con-
dition. These soils make better pastures than do any
other, as they are naturally the most fertile, most easily
kept in condition, and will support a greater variety of
plants. For these, as for all fertile soils, Bermuda is the
best possible foundation, and should be planted as de-
scribed elsewhere further on. As its season for good graz-
ing lasts only six or eight months, it should have other
species planted with it. Large water-grass and Terrell
grass will give good winter grazing along the water

courses and in damp places, while burr-clover and les-
pedeza should be sown on the drier portions. Along
creeks, the borders of marshes, and other wet places red-
top and alsike clover should be sown at the rate of a
bushel of the former and two quarts of the latter per
acre. On black soils four quarts of red clover seed may
be added with advantage.
On the drier and hardened upland soils it is almost
impossible to secure good pastures without previous cul-
tivation of the land. The natural pastures in this region
are all that can be desired during the summer and early
fall, but fail qulckkly after the first frosts and do not
become really good again until April. Here, as else-
where, Bermuda and lespedeza are the best foundation
for a pasture, as both make vigorous growths and both
are permanent, although neither is of much value during
the winter or spring. No grazing plant has been found
which will make a satisfactory winter and spring growth
on the dry, hard, clay, hill lands, and such localities can
be depended upon for summer and fall grazing only.
On the seepy hillsides and on the lower lands the graz-
ing season may be greatly extended and good perma-
nent pastures are not hard to make by the use of the
same plants which have been recommended for the alluv-
ial soils. Bur-clover does well on these soils, and in
many places wild vetches are abundant, beginning their
growth in the earl winter and making good grazing by
February or March.
Where the soil is somewhat sandy, old fields are often
made into pastures by mowing carpet grass and scatter-
ing the hay over the knolls and hilltops in the fall, and
following this with lespedeza seed in the spring. It costs
but little to seed a pasture in this way, and it is often
the best plan to follow. The ground is sure to be cov-
ered with a good growth of crab-grass the first year, and
by the second year the crab-grass and lespedeza will be
scattered over the entire field. On many farm tempo-

rary pastures with annual plants in rotation with culti-
vated crops are more economical and satisfactory than
are permanent pasture fields.
In the greater part of Florida, where the growing sea-
son is practically continuous, the above grasses can be
largely replaced by carpet grass, while fewer perennials
and more annuals can be used to add to the yield and
variety. Crab grass and Mexican clover are everywhere
in cultivated fields from which the crops were removed
by mid-summer, and on many of the native pastures
beggar-weed is the predominant growth. In the larger
part of Florida, only a very small proportion of the
land, comparatively, is in cultivation, so that the cattle
have such an abundant range in the woods, that
the need of permanent pastures has scarcely been
felt as yet, and but little attention, comparatively, has
been given to the cultivated grazing plants. On the na-
tural ranges and old fields, cattle will make a good gain
for six months, about hold their own for three months.
and will need feeding during the other three months to
keep them in good condition. As the proportion of cul-
tivated lands increases, the ranges and permanent pas-
tures will become as important in Florida as elsewhere.


In general, the making of good permanent pastures is,
to some extent, difficult. There is no one grazing plant
which continues in active growth through the entire
year, and the best growth of most species is made in the
course of three or four months. Some make nearly their
whole growth in the early spring months, others do not
begin their growths until killed by frost, while still
others begin their growths with the summer and fall rains
and mature their seed in the winter or early spring.
When one species has completed its growth, or becomes
dormant for a few months, others are ready to take its
4-Bull. Sup.

place at once, and so a constant succession is maintained.
This feature is one of the immense advantages in Florida.


With such constant changes it is often difficult to se-
lect species for a mixture, each of which will hold its own
without overgrowing weaker species, or being crowded
out by its stronger neighbors, as the best plants for per-
manent pastures must be either perennials or annuals,
which reseed the ground freely and surely; they must
be adapted to soils of widely different character, their
roots must be able to endure continued drought. and
they must be palatable to all kinds of stock. No one
species will cover and hold the ground throughout the
whole year, and so it is necessary to use a mixture of sev-
eral kinds, at least one of which should be a legume, and
it is difficult to arrange these mixtures so that they will
be suited to the widely varying soils, or even to the dif-
ferent soils which are usually found on a single farm.
Whatever may be planted will usually prove to be only
the foundation of the pasture, as every locality has na-
tive or naturalized species which will finally occupy a
considerable portion of the ground, and often some of
these self-introduced sorts will prove as valuable as
many of those which have been introduced and deliber-
ately planted. For practically the whole of the State,
excepting the sandy soils near the coast, Bermuda and
Japan clover is probably the best foundation for every
permanent pasture. On alluvial lands add red-top and
alsike clover for the damper soils, with orchard grass,
sweet clover, and bur clover for the drier lands. On the
uplands, yellow loam, and clay sections, orchard grass
and burr-clover do very well on the dry soils, while for
wet places, red-top, large water-grass, and alsike clover
should be added. On the light soils of the coast, carpet
grass, large water-grass and giant beggar-weed replace
the red-top and clover.


In a region where it is so difficult to secure perennials
for permanent pastures, and where the growing season is
so long that two or more crops can be grown on the
same land yearly, temporary pastures of quick-grow-
ing annuals will always be largely used, and in many
sections will afford the most economical grazing for dif-
ferent seasons. Fields from which oats, melons, pota-
toes, and other early crops have been removed, make fine
pastures from July until the end of summer and into fall.
Cornfields in which cowpeas and velvet beans have been
planted, make the best of fall and early winter grazing,
while oats, rye, rape and vetches make abundant and nutri.
tious winter feed. These can be grown on land from
which early crops have already been taken. They cost
nothing but the seed for the sowing, and on many soils
heavy volunteer crops give fine grazing for three or four
months with absolutely no cost. Under such conditions,
temporary pastures are not makeshifts, but are an im-
portant part of a well arranged rotation.
Among the most valuable plants for summer and fall
grazing in Florida, are crab-grass, crowfoot, Mexican
clover and Florida beggar-weed, all of which make vol-
unteer growths so late in the season as not to interfere
with other crops, and will cover and protect fields which
would otherwise be idle. Crab-grass is abundant every-
where in cultivated land. Crowfoot is a close second to
crab-grass and is possibly of a little higher feeding qual-
ity. Mexican clover is more abundant near the coast,
where it is usually found in fields with crab-grass, but
is valued less for grazing than for hay. Beggar-weed is
more abundant in Florida than elsewhere, and fields con-
taining a mixed growth of that plant, crab-grass and
crowfoot are unexcelled as pastures. Where it does do
well it is regarded as the most valuable plant for sum-
mer and fall pastures. It is eaten by all kinds of stock

and is fattening, but as with clover, horses and mules
must have grain in addition when doing hard work.
For later grazing the same plants may be used, and
cowpeas and velvet beans, together with pickings from
the corn and hay fields, make the fall pastures rich and
varied in favorable seasons; but in seasons of severe
drought they may become poor and dry, and it is in such
seasons more than at any other time that silos and soil-
ing crops are needed. Although cowpeas do not bear
grazing well, they make the best feed and are often more
profitable when used for pasturage than when used in
any other way. Velvet beans can be grazed late into
fall. The droppings from the grazing animals are left
in the field and serve to maintain the fertility of the
soil. On very light or sandy soils the plowing under of
the vines is less beneficial than the trampling of the
stock and the addition of the manure. While it is more
profitable to cut the vines for hay when grown by them-
selves, pasturing them is usually better when they are
grown in cornfields. The fertilizing value of the crop is
worth more than the cost of the seed, so that the pastur-
age is all clear profit.


For winter grazing, oats, rye, barley, and hairy vetch
are the most successful crops, and a mixture of oats and
hairy vetch has given more satisfactory results than has
any other winter grazing crop which has been tested.
The rust-proof oats are more hardy than are most other
varieties. They stool very freely, often sending up 100 or
more stems from a single root, and they bear close and
long continued grazing without injury. For winter graz-
ing they should be sown late in October or early in No-
vember though December sowing may be made for early
spring feed.
These oats ripen earlier than do most other varieties,

and the yield of grain is about the same or better. Ordi-
narily they are entirely free from rust.

The More Important Hay and Pasture Grasses.

Following are the more important of the native or cul-
tivated hay and pasture plants grown in Florida. A
good many of these are seen in other sections of the coun-
try also, but many are native and all are well adapted
to Florida, and afford pastures or hay not surpassed by
those in any country.
Bermuda grass is the foundation of all the best per-
manent pastures in the South, likewise in Florida, and
in many localities is important for hay. It endures se-
vere drought without much injury, makes excellent graz-
ing from late spring till heavy frost, and yields a fine
quality of hay. It requires a rich and fairly moist soil
for its best growth, being dwarf and spreading in habit
when on hard clay or light sandy soils, but becoming
more erect and dense as the fertility of the soil is in-
creased. It is one of the best grasses for creek and river
bottom lands, for binding leves and ditch banks, and for
lawns which have good care. It is propagated by either
seed or roots. When seed is used, the ground should be
well prepared with a fine, smooth surface, as the seeds
are small. The seeds should be mixed with cotton-seed
meal or fine soil to increase the bulk, so that they will
be distributed more evenly. They should be sown in
March or April at the rate of 5 pounds per acre, and may
be covered by using a roller or light smoothing harrow.
As the seed is expensive and somewhat uncertain in germ-
ination, Bermuda gr"ss is usually propogated by plant-
ing small pieces of the runners or joints, but being indi-
ginous to Florida, it propogates itself spontaneously.
When a fiefild is to be used as a meadow, it should be

well prepared and pieces set 2 to 3 feet apart. This may
be done at any time from March until August. Very
little care is necessary in planting. The common method
is to cut pieces or joints from an old field and separate
into small pieces. These are dropped at the proper dis-
tances and forced into the ground with a forked stick
such as is used in planting sweet potato draws. When
planted for pasture, it is not so necessary to have the
surface of the ground smooth. A common method of
planting is to run furrows 3 or 4 feet apart, drop pieces
of sod at intervals of 2 or 3 feet, and cover with the foot.
The grass will seldom do much more thancover the
ground the firstseason, but when a good sod is once
formed, it will last indefinitely. The yield of hay on rich
bottoms may be as much as 4 tons per acre, less on poorer
soils, and on dry clay hills not worth harvesting, though
it makes good grazing. The feeding value of the hay is
about equal to that of timothy.
The planting of this grass is objected to by some on
account of the difficulty of eradicating it when the field
is wanted for other uses. With proper management, how-
ever, this is usually not a serious matter. It is difficult
to kill it with even the most persistent cultivation, but
it is easily destroyed by any dense smothering crop
which keeps it heavily shaded. Plowing the ground in
late summer, sowing oats and vetches, and following that
with a summer crop of cowpeas or velvet beans will kill
nearly all of the grass. This method will furnish two
profitable crops, besides putting the soil in fine condition
for any successful crop of

Carpet grass is to the light and sandy soils what Ber-
muda is to the heavier soils. It reaches its greatest per-
fection on the light soils where it "comes in" very quickly
when the land is pastured or heavily trampled. Its creep-
ing habit of growth enables it to bear close grazing with-

out injury. It is strictly a pasture grass, seldom grow-
ing large enough to be worth cutting for hay. It will
stand close grazing and heavy trampling better than any
other grass, in fact, a considerable amount of tramp-
ling seems necessary to its best growth, as it disappears
when stock is taken from the field or the land is put into
The usual method of propagation is to cut some of the
grass which has been allowed to mature seed and to scat-
ter the hay over the pasture in which it is wanted. Lit-
tle seed is produced where the grass is closely grazed,
but when the stock is taken from the field in July or
August an abundant supply can be secured in September
or October. It grows readily when scattered on the sur-
face of the ground, and comparatively little seed is
needed. When even a few patches become established
in a pasture it soon spreads over the entire field, and
o na field which is well trampled it will make a good sod
in about two years, even where the ground has never been
plowed. A quicker and surer method of propogation is
by transplanting joints, as Bermuda is propogated, but
this is much more laborious and expensive.
Although it makes little growth after the first heavy
frosts in the fall, it furnishes good winter grazing if the
stock has been removed from the field in July or August,
for it will make a growth of 6 to 12 inches by November,
and the lower stems and leaves which are protected from
frost will remain green and give fresh grazing
through the winter, but the pastures which have been
grazed closely all summer give little winter feed. Like
Bermuda grass, it needs sunshine for its best growth,
though it makes considerable good feed in wooded pas
tures and brush land.


Para grass, which is probably native to South Amer-
ica, is now common in some parts of Florida and is rap-

idly coming into favor. It is best adapted to Florida and
the Gulf Coast. It is a rank growing perennial, spread
ing by runners, often 30 or more feet in length, which
form roots at each joint that touches the ground. As
soon as the ground becomes fairly well covered with
these runners, erect or ascending branches are produced,
reaching a height of two to three feet or more and pro-
ducing a heavy yield for either hay or grazing. Although
Para grass spreads so rapidly by its long runners it is
more easily killed than Bermuda, as the runners are
wholly above the surface of the ground and can be de-
stroyed by a single shallow plowing late in the fall, fol-
lowed by a thorough harrowing. In regions where heavy
frosts occur, it is killed by plowing alone, if the work is
done at the beginning of cold weather. While it makes
a fair growth on moderately dry soil, it does much bet-
ter where the ground is wet, and on the margins often
reaches to where the water is 3 or 4 feet deep. It is a
desirable species for planting on lands liable to over-
flows, as it is not injured when covered by water for a
month or more.
Para grass produces little good seed and is usually
propagated by division of the runners. These root
easily if cut into pieces of two or three joints each and
pushed into freshly plowed ground so as to leave the
upper joint just at or a little below the surface. When
sets are abundant it is better to put them about 2 feet
apart. Planting may be done at any time from early
spring until about three months before frost is expected.
It makes a rather coarse hay, but is sweet, tender and
nutritious, and the yield is very heavy. Florida growers
make three to four cuttings annually, and the hay finds a
ready market at a high price. It is also an excellent pas-
ture grass when not grazed too closely. A field which is
well set with the grass may be kept in good condition
almost indefinitely if it is given a shallow plowing in the
spring and then seeded with cowpeas. The grass will

then make a vigorous growth and the first cutting will be
ready when the peas begin to mature, the mixture making
a hay of choice quality and a better yield than when the
grass is grown alone. The pea vines will make no further
growth, but the grass will make two to four later cuttings,
each heavier than if the ground had not been plowed.
Growers who have it thoroughly established in their
groves complain that Para grass makes cultivation diffi-
cult, and that it is seldom advisable to allow it to gain a
foothold on land which is to be cultivated. In the ex-
treme southern part of Florida, where the rainfall is
heavy and frosts are rare, it might become a dangerous
weed, but it is easily killed by withholding the water a
short time. It is killed to the ground by heavy frosts and
is not recommended for planting where the temperature
falls below about 18 degrees F. This, however, makes it
safe in about all parts of Florida.

Guinea grass, a native of Africa, is now a common
grazing grass in Cuba and other West Indian islands,
whence it was introduced into Florida as early as 1870.
Though very different in appearance and habit of growth,
it has often been confused with Johnson grass, which has
been called by the same name. Johnson grass spreads
by long, fleshy underground rootstocks and has seeds
which are of a red, yellow, or nearly black color, while
Guinea grass grows in dense erect clumps, does not spread
by rootstocks, and has seeds which are dark green in
color. The leaves of Guinea grass are never streaked with
red or yellow, as those of Johnson grass often are. Any-
one who notes any of these characters will never mistake
one grass for the other.
Guinea grass grows to a height of 6 to 12 feet and is
used principally for grazing and soiling. Its range of
profitable cultivation is about the same as that for Para
grass, including the whole of Florida. It does well on

moderately dry soil and can never become a pest like
Johnson grass. It is propagated by divisions of the roots
or by seeds. When roots are used the old clumps should
be dug out early in March and divided, a single stem with
a few good roots being sufficient for a set. If planted
about 3 feet apart in roows 6 feet wide, the young plants
will give a good cutting or be ready for grazing in May.
Seeds are planted at the same season as the roots, the
usual practice being to plant them in drills and then to
transplant the seedlings when they are 3 or 4 inches high.
Voluntter seedlings are often found in abundance where
the old plants have been allowed to mature seed. Sets
are more expensive and troublesome than seedlings, but
will give an earlier and heavier yield the first season.
When the crop is to be used for soiling and heavy yields
are expected, the ground should be occasionally cultivated
and a dressing of cottonseed meal given just before each
cultivation. The grass begins its growth rather late in
the spring, seldom giving much feed before May, but after
that time it will give good cuttings once every three or
four weeks until its growth is stopped by frost. In the
most favorable part of the season cuttings may be made
every 10 or 12 days, though such a rapid growth is main-
tained for only a few weeks. It makes the best feed if
cut when 18 or 24 inches high. If allowed to stand too
long the stems become hard and woody. It is difficult to
even estimate the yield per acre, as it is used principally
for grazing and soiling, its habit of growing in large
clumps making it hard to cut for hay. It is claimed that
it will feed four head of cattle per acre through the entire
season, and also that it is the best of all grass for either
grazing or hay.


Rhodes-grass, a newly introduced species, is a native of
central and southern Africa, where it is regarded as one
of the best species for pastures on dry soils. It is per-

ennial, growing from 3 to 4 feet high, with a large number
of very long, narrow and tender leaves and with rather
few branching stems.
When grown from seeds its growth is commonly erect
the first season, but when grown from roots, or the second
season when grown from seed, it makes runner-like
branches 2 to 4 feet long, which root at the joints and so
cover the ground quite rapidly.
It is propagated both by seed and roots. When seed
is used it should be sown at corn-planting time at the rate
of about 10 pounds per acre on a soil having a fine mellow
surface, and then given a light harrowing. As the seed
is produced only in small quantities and as it continues
to be developed and matured through the entire season,
little of it can be gathered at any one time; consequently
the grass is more commonly propagated by roots. The
roots may be planted on well prepared land at any time
from February to July, putting them 2 to 4 feet apart and
protecting them from grazing until they become well es-
tablished. This grass has been introduced so recently
that seed is still scarce in the market.
While the principal value of the grass is for grazing, it
is also used for hay, giving two or three cuttings of about
1 ton each per acre. The hay is of excellent quality. It
bears severe drought and moderate frost without injury,
but is easily killed by plowing late in the season. It is
not recommended for cultivation except in the eastern
and southern parts of the State. It makes a hay equal to
Northern Timothy.

Natal grass, from South Africa, is much like crab-grass
in habit of growth, but where the soil is very sandy it
makes a heavier yield of better hay. It has become thor-
oughly established in parts of Florida and is gradually
spreading over the sandy coast lands to the southward.
The roots are killed by heavy frosts, but from central

Florida southward it becomes perennial and is used occa-
sionally for permanent meadows. Further north it is an
annual, making a volunteer growth in fields from which
early crops have been gathered and often producing a
heavy growth in cornfields after cultivation ceases. It
very much resembles redtop, but is totally distinct.

Crab-grass is a native grass of considerable importance
as a volunteer hay crop, especially on sandy soils. It
makes its growth late in the season on lands from which
early crops, like oats, melons or potatoes, have been taken
and often makes a good growth in fields of cowpeas,
where it adds largely to the yield of hay. The crop should
be cut early, soon after the first seeds begin to mature.
It is somewhat difficult to cure, but when well handled at
the proper stage of growth it makes a hay of good quality.
It is always a volunteer crop and need never be sown. Its
feeding value is almost equal to Timothy and is far more
valuable for feeding than is generally supposed.

While orchard-grass seldom makes a heavy wield of hay
in Florida it is an excellent pasture grass on wet and
heavy soils. It is a perennial which begins its growth
very early in spring and is ready to cut in April. It fur-
nishes good grazing until its growth is checked by the
summer drought. With the first autumn rains it starts
a new growth of leaves, making rich fall pasturage and
remaining fresh and green through the winter when the
cold is not too severe. The hay made from it is of excel-
lent quality, though its habit of growing in large clumps
is against its use as a hay grass. It bears grazing well
and recover quickly when cropped down. It does well
when mixed with redtop and succeeds better than almost
any other grass in woodland pastures. Sandy soils are
not well suited to its growth, and it is not recommended

for light, thin lands. Seed should be sown in August
or September, or very early in the spring, at the rate of
20 to 30 pounds per acre.


Two species of rye-grass, Italian (Lolium multiflorum)
and perennial (Lolium perenne), are commonly culti-
vated. The former, while not truly an annual, is agricul-
turally treated as such. It makes a more rapid and us-
ually a larger growth than the latter. Both are quickly
injured by excessive heat or drought and so are not
suited for permanent meadows or pastures, but as they
make a quick and vigorous growth soon after planting,
they are valuable where immediate results are wanted.
They are especially desirable for sowing with newly
planted Bermuda, red-top and other slow-starting grasses.
If sown in the fall, they will give rich late-winter and
spring grazing, or they may be cut for hay in April or
May, after which they soon disappear. It is important
that the crop be cut as soon as well grown. If that is
not done the warm rains of June and July will cause
the leaves to decay very rapidly and smother the small
plants and other grasses which may be growing on the
same ground. On rich alluvial lands these grasses often
persist two or three years when used for hay, but sel-
dom last more than one year when grazed. They are
among the best of grasses for planting on newly-made
lawns, as they soon cover the ground and give it an at-
tractive appearance, while the Bermuda and other slower
starting sorts are becoming established. Seed should be
sown in October or February at the rate of 20 to 30
pounds per acre when sown alone, or half that amount
when sown with other grasses. Italian rye-grass is be-
coming more and more used for fall planting on the
sandy coast lands. It makes a much better winter pas-
turage or hay than rye. It affords the prettiest and most

attractive lawn of any of the grasses used for that pur-

While redtop is seldom used alone for either hay or
grazing, it is an important factor in both meadows and
pastures. It is slender in growth, and the yield is not
large, though the hay is of good quality. It makes its
best growth on soils too poorly drained for most other
crops, and therefore is important on all wet lands. Red-
top is a perennial which bears frost and so gives winter
grazing. It does better on wet clay soils than on those
which are sandy and has little value for dry uplands. It
is one of the best kinds for creek banks, and margins of
swamps, overflowed lands, and similar places where Ber-
muda grass and other upland kinds cannot be grown.
Seed may be sown in either fall or spring at the rate of
6 to 10 pounds of recleared seed per acre. The growth is
usually weak the first year, but it gains vigor with age
and holds the ground well against other grasses. While
redtop will make a fair growth on land which has not
been plowed, it pays to prepare the ground well when
large fields are to be sown. If from 4 to 6 pounds of the
redtop seed are mixed with from 30 to 40 pounds of Ital-
ian rye-grass, a good crop of the mixture will be secured
the first season, after which the rye-grass will gradually
disappear and the redtop will occupy the ground. Un-
less the fields are cultivated, this grass will become per-
manent and form an all-year-round pasture.


Rescue grass, Schrader's grass, or Australian Oats is
sometimes highly valuable and at other times disappoint-
ing. When planted on a very rich loamy soil and the
season is favorable, it makes a heavy winter growth,
which affords fine grazing from December to April, or a
heavy yield of hay in early spring and often a second

cutting later. If the conditions are not favorable, it
may not begin its growth until late winer, only a poor
stand will be secured, and its growth will be weak and
unsatisfactory. It disappears on the approach of hot
weather, but a few of the plants will live through the
summer and with the scattered seed will often make a
good volunteer growth the following season. Its growth
and behavior are so" uncertain that it is a reliable hay
plant in only a few localities, but its winter growth
makes it a desirable addition to pastures, especially for
mixing with orchard grass, bur-clover and vetches. It
makes its best growth only on freshly plowed land and
seldom persists many years where other grasses are al-
lowed to form a sod. Seed should be sown in August or
September at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre.


Crowfoot grass is a common grass in cultivated
ground, coming up as a volunteer crop after oats, melons
and other early field crops have been harvested. It is us-
ually more or less mixed with crab-grass, Mexican clover
and beggar-weed and is highly valued as a hay plant. It
comes up so late in the season that it is rarely trouble-
some as a weed. Many feeders prefer it to crab-grass,
as it cures more easily. It appears to be very abundant
in Florida, and in many sections of the State, much of
the hay saved for home use is from this grass, grown in
cornfields. Crowfoot hay is of good quality, though the
yield is seldom more than one ton per acre when the
grass is grown alone; it is often double that amount
when mixed with Mexican clover or beggar-weed.


Tall meadow oat grass is a valuable hay and pasture
grass. It starts early in spring and lasts until late fall;
gives two good cuttings per season. The hay is more
nutritive than Timothy and the yield twice as great. It

matures at the same time as orchard grass and gives
good results sown with it and red clover. Sow three
bushels per acre in either spring or fall.

Sudan grass is quite similar in general appearance to
Johnson grass. It usually produces a taller, more erect
stem than Johnson grass, and the leaves are larger and
more abundant, making it especially valuable for hay.
The most important difference between Johnson grass
and Sudan grass is that the later grass does not possess
the underground root stocks by which Johnson grass is
propagated from year to year and which render it such
an undesirable plant on most farms. While Sudan grass
is free from these underground root stocks, extreme care
must be exercised to see that this crop is not grown in
close proximity to fields of Johnson grass, as the two
plants cross readily, which would finally result in the
Sudan grass becoming perennial rather than annual in
its habits of growth. It is also especially important
when seed is secured to see that no Johnson grass seed
is present. In fact, the only safe plan is to buy certi-
fied seed; or in other words, seed from fields that have
been inspected by some competent person to determine
whether or not there is any Johnson grass present or
any other undesirable condition.
Under favorable conditions Sudan grass will yielld
from two to three cuttings, and some cases four cuttings,
per season. The yield of hay varies, ranging from one
to eight tons per acre, an average yield being three and
a half or four tons. This grass produces an abundance
of seed and at the present time is being more largely
grown for this purpose than as a hay plant.
While Sudan grass has been found to grow success-
fully on most all soil types, ranging from extreme sands
to stiff clays, it makes its best growth on rich, loamy
soils. It is necessary that the soil be well drained, and

as a usual thing the use of nitrogen supplying fertilizers
proves profitable.
It is best in preparing the seed bed for Sudan grass
to plow the land in the spring rather than in the fall. The
primary reason for this is that the Sudan grass requires
a warm seed bed. Spring plowing leaves the soil in a
rather loose condition in which it warms up quite read-
ily. It must be remembered, however, that it is possible
to get the soil too loose and good results are often ob-
tained by using some form of sub-surface packer after
The date of seeding is usually about the same as for
corn or perhaps a little later. Nothing is to be gained
by planting the seed while the soil is still cold, as this
usually results in poor fiermination or a weakened con-
dition of the plants. The best method of planting the
seed is that of using an ordinary grain drill. This grain
drill distributes the seed quite uniformly, provided clean
seed is used. In regions of abundant rainfall, the high-
est yields of the best quality hay are produced as a re-
sult of either broad casted or closely drilled seed. In
the drier sections of the country it is advisable to seed
this crop in 31/2 foot drills, or where suitable cultivating
instruments are available, the crop may be seeded in 18
to 24 inch drills. Broadcast seeding requires from 16
to 24 pounds of seed per acre. The larger amounts are
used in humid sections, whereas in arid sections 16
pounds of seed per acre are sufficient. When seeded in
18 to 24 inch drills, about five pounds of seed per acre are
required, while seeding in 36 inch drills requires about
three pounds of seed per acre. Cultivation is similar to
that of any other winter tilled crop.
When grown broadcast for hay, it is usually harvested
by means of a hay mower. It is easily cured and makes
hay of a most excellent quality. When grown for seed,
it is customary to harvest the crop with an ordinary
grain binder which ties the grass in bundles. These
5- ull. Sup.

bundles are later shocked in the same way as for small
grains. For Hay making, Sudan grass should be har-
vested shortly after the blooming stage. For seed pro-
duction the crop should not be harvested until the more
advanced plants are mature and the seed beginning to


Japan clover may be classed among the most valuable
leguminous hay and pasture plants of the State. It is a
native of Japan, which was introduced into this country
about 1830, and is now thoroughly naturalized over the
whole country south of the Ohio River. It grows on all
soils, but does best on good loams containing a fair
amount of lime. It will also grow on hard, dry clay and
even where the soil is quite sandy. On thin soils, its
growth is very flat and spreading, while on better soil,
it becomes erect, and is often two feet in height. It en-
dures heat and drought without injury, and stock eat it
greedily. It never causes bloating, but occasionally has
a slight salivating effect on horses, though that appears
to occur in only a few localities. It starts late in the
spring, but from May intil after heavy frost it gives the
best of grazing, and should be in every pasture. Al-
though mostly used for grazing, it is a valuable hay plant,
making a good yield of from 11/2 to 2 tons per acre.
When wanted for hay, it should be sown early in the
spring, at the rate of one-half bushel per acre, or it may
be sown with oats in the fall, as it makes but little
growth before the oats are harvested. For pastures, it is
necessary only to scarify the surface of the ground with
a disc harrow, and it will often grow well without any
previous preparation of the soil.


Mexican Clover, sometimes called "pusley" or "purs-
lane," though entirely different from the plant known

by those names in the North, it is not a true clover, but
belongs to the same family as the madder, poverty weed,
and a number of other common plants It is an annual
of much the same habit of growth and size as common
red clover, but the leaves are opposite and simple instead
of alternate with three leaflets. It grows most abund-
antly in cultivated fields from which early crops have
been rem~ived, but often makes a heavy growth in corn
and cotton after those crops have been laid by. It is sel-
dom planted, as, like crab-grass and beggar-weed, it
makes a volunteer growth late in the season. It is doubt-
ful if the yield would be increased materially if it were
sown early and the ground given up to it through the
whole summer. It is common in old fields near the
coast. It makes a fair growth on soils too poor for most
other crops and may be used both for hay and for graz-
ing. While the hay is not of the best quality, it is eaten
readily by most animals, as it is usually more or less
mixed with crab-grass and beggar weed, it adds largely
to the bulk and value of an inexpensive crop. When
used for grazing, it is more valuable for hogs that for
othe stock, though eaten well by mules and cattle. It
can be grazed from about June until after heavy frosts
and then will reseed the ground abundantly.
The seeds are very small and difficult to save, though
they are sometimes beaten out with flails or gathered
from the bottom of a mow in which the hay has been
stored. From four to five pounds per acre are sufficient
for seeding, but the common method of distributing the
plant is by mowing after some of the seed is matured
and scattering the hay over the field on which the crop
is wanted the following season.
While it is not a nitrogen gathering plant like the
true clovers, its growth is usually volunteer and so costs
nothing, but it protects the surface of the ground from
the scorching sun in the summer and washing rains in
winter, and adds to the fertility of the soil by furnish-

ing humus. The plant should be regarded as an inexpen-
sive substitute for something better, rather than as one
to be carefully planted and cultivated. It is.a better
pesture plant than its description suggests.


Barnyard grass is an annual which stems singly or in
clumps; is erect, sparingly branched and 3 to 6 feet high.
The leaves are very long and abundant; the panicles
heavy and compact and spikelets awned or awnless.
This requires a rich and somewhat moist soil, its name,
"barnyard" grass indicating the locality which it prefers.
It is a coarse and succulent grass which is not easily
cured into hay, but it is quite valuable for soiling and for
the silo, as it yields heavily and produces an unusually
amount of seed. In some sections of Florida it makes a
good part of the volunteer growth which is used for
hay. Hundreds of acres are annually mowed, and farm-
ers who have tested it thoroughly for many years prefer
it to the best corn fodder.


While these grasses are quite different from the forego-
ing they all nevertheless can be pastured successfully,
and a number of them are among the best for that pur-
pose, especially for fall and early winter pasturing as
well as for hay.
Wheat, oats, rye, barley, and to some extent rice are
used both for winter pastures and for hay. All except
rice are usually sown in the fall, as they then give good
grazing through the latter part of the winter. If the
stock is taken off just before the stems begin to shoot, a
fair crop of hay can be made by cutting the wheat when
it is in the milk stage and the oats when a little riper.
Spring-sown oats also make fine hay, but do not usually
yield as well as those sown in the fall. Rye and barley
make poor hay, but are excellent for winter and spring

grazing. For most winter grain crops about one and one-
half bushhels of seed are used per acre; for oats the
quantity of seed is usually a fourth or a half greater. In
many parts of the rice districts good hay is made from
the fields which have been cut for the grain. Such fields
usually make a considerable second growth and may even
head well, but seldom mature good seed. The land on
which such hay is made must not be flooded while the
second growth is coming on, or the leaves will become
covered with sand and mud and make the hay danger-
ous for feeding.


Probably more acres of sweet sorghum than of any
other crop are grown for soiling, and it is used largely for
hay. It can be used from May to January and makes a
very good quality of rather coarse hay. When wanted
for hay it is sown very thickly to prevent a too ocarse
growth and then cut as soon as the heads appear. When
planted early two cuttings may be made in the northern
part of the State, while in the central and southern parts
three or four cuttings are sometimes made from a single
planting. The yield of hay is often very heavy, the amount
depending largely on the richness of the soil and the
length of the growing season. Crops for soiling should
be planted in rows four feet apart and cultivated at least
once after each cutting. The last cutting made in the
fall is sometimes windrowed like sugar cane and some-
times shocked and allowed to stand in the field until used,
as it keeps in good condition Iwo or three months when
treated either way. When matured stalks are fed it pays
to run them through a feed cutter or a shredder and if
they have been in shocks for some time to wet them well
before feeding. It is one of the best crops for grazing
hogs, and cases of the poisoning of cattle when grazing
on it late in the season in the South are extremely rare.
The varieties in most common use are the Amber for

early and the Orange for a heavier yield and a succession
of cuttings. The Sumac or Redtop variety is in most
places much superior to the Orange. The Gooseneck is
also a desirable variety. These sorghums will sometimes
on rich land yield as much as ten to twelve tons of dry
feed per acre.


Teosinte needs a long season of warm weather, a rich
soil, and abundant moisture in order to succeed well, and
it is useless to plant it where all those conditions can not
be had. It is a remarkably vigorous grower, reaching 10
or 12 feet in height, with an unusually abundant supply
of leaves and slender stems which continue to grow until
killed by frost. It is planted and cultivated like corn,
and if cut when it reaches four or five feet in height
makes excellent fodder and will produce a-second cutting
fully as large as the first. If left to grow until Septem-
ber or October it furnishes excellent material for the silo
in greater quantity per acre than either corn or sweet
sorghum. It is also one of the vest plants for soiling
purposes. The plants stool freely, sometimes as many as
fifty stalks growing from a single seed; its leaves are sim
ilar to those of sweet sorghum, but much longer, and the
stalks contain 8 to 10 per cent of sugar. Its growth is
very rank, the Louisiana station reporting a yield of over
fifty tons of green feed per acre on rich alluvial soil. Its
season of growth is so long that it seldom matures seed
north of latitude 30 degrees N., but it has ripened well
at the Florida and Louisiana experiment stations. The
seed, four to five pounds per acre, should be planted in
hills four to five feet apart each way at about the time
cotton is planted. The greater distance should be given
on the richer soils. This is a splendid crop for South
Florida, but is not suited to North Florida because of
its tender growth.


Leguminous plants, those belonging to the pea and
clover family, should be grown in every permanent
meadow and pasture, as they make a large increase in
the total yield, their mixture with the grasses makes the
feed of better quality, and their cultivation adds to the
fertility of the soil. Many of them are annuals, and so
can be used as catch crops. Some make their growth
during the summer, others grow only during the winter,
while still others are perennial and continue a vigorous
growth for many years. Many of the annuals reseed the
ground freely, and so are easily grown from year to year.
Few of the perennial sorts bear grazing as well as some
of the.grasses, while some of the annual sorts are among
the best of pasture plants. The hay made from the le-
gumes is especially valuable for young and growing ani-
mals, for animals which are being fattened, and for those
which are not doing hard work. For hard-working an-
ing and cultivating season, hay made from grasses, or a
mixed hay, is preferable to one made wholly from le-
The legumes are not only valuable for hay and pas-
tures, but they are also the best plants which can be used
for green manuring, which is of the highest importance in
the cotton region, where the supply of humus and conse-
quently of nitrogen in the soil becomes exhausted rapidly
with the clean cultivation given to cotton and corn and
the constant warmth of the soil. In few other parts of
the country is green manuring more necessary or more
profitable than in the South, and the growing of legumes
provides a large part of the fertilizer needed for other
crops. On this account they should be included in every
system of rotation, if possible, and follow every crop in

Bur clover is strictly a winter-growing annual and will

succeed on a wide range of soils. While it does not make
a hay crop it furnishes a large amount of grazing for
cattle, sheep and hogs at a season when other green feed
is scarce. Horses and mules do not eat it well. There
are two kinds in cultivation, the spotted and the Califor-
nia, the former being the stronger grower and the more
desirable. The hulled seed sold by dealers is usually of
the California variety, while the spotted bur clover, the
one more commonly grown in the South, is usually sold
in the bur. As the burs always retain small particles of
soil when they are gathered from the ground, no other
inoculation is needed when they are used, while the
cleaned seed must be inoculated as for alfalfa and the
clovers. Spotted bur clover is also more hardy than the
California, resisting frosts that the latter will not. We
advise planting only in Florida the variety known as the
Georgia. It is an excellent winter grazing plant. Few
are better.


Cowpeas are grown more widely in the cotton region
than any other legiminous crop and should have a place
on every farm. They vary greatly in habit and time of
growth. Some varieties produce long, trailing vines,
while others are usually erect and bushy in growth;
some ripen in two months from planting while others re-
quire four or five months; even the same variety varies
greatly when planted on different soils or at different
seasons. Cowpeas are inexpensive to grow and make a
good growth on all soils except those which are very wet.
They are excellent for hay or grazing and are the best
summer catch crop for green manuring and improving
soils. Though this crop will make a fair growth on very
poor soil, it responds quickly to an application of ferti-
lizer, and as a heavy growth of cowpeas is the best pos-
sible insurance for a heavy following crop it pays well to

use any fertilizer which will produce a more thrifty
growth of vines.
Cowpeas may be sown broadcast or in drills three to
four feet apart, the first method requiring more seed and
less labor, while the drills permit of one or two cultiva-
tions, require less seed, are more easily mowed for hay,
and usually give a heavier yield. From four to six pecks
per acre are used in broadcasting and from two to three
pecks for seeding in drills, though even two quarts of
some varieties are sufficient when carefully dropped by
hand. A common and excellent practice is to sow them
between the rows of corn just before the last cultivation.
When cowpeas are sown broadcast with a small grow-
ing variety of sorghum, like the Amber, using a bushel of
the peas and a half a bushel of the sorghum seed per
acre, the mixture makes fine hay, and when sown in drills
with a coarser sorghum like Orange, makes excellent
Saving the hay in good condition is usually a difficult
matter in unfavorable weather, and for that reason the
planting should be done at such a time that the crop will
mature during the dry weather which usually prevails
during September and October. For making the best
hay the vines should be cut as soon as the earliest pods
become yellow, though the work may be delayed a few
dayys if rain should threaten. When cut at that stage
the vines cure much more easily and rapidly than when
cut earlier, when the total yield is at its heaviest, and
though the hay may be not quite so tender, it will be
eaten readily and will have a higher nutritive value.
A common method in saving the hay is to start the
mower as soon as the dew is off in the morning and run
it until noon. As soon as the upper surface of the cut
vines is well wilted a tedder is run over the field to turn
the vines over and expose them more thoroughly to the
sun and air. If the crop is very heavy this may have to
be done twice. When a tedder is not available the work

can be done with a pitchfork, but this is slower and
more expensive. Vines which have been cut in the morn-
ing and turned in the afternoon will usually be dry
enough to put into small cocks the following afternoon,
and if the weather promises to be favorable they should
be left in these cocks two or three days before they are
hauled to the barn. If it should rain before the vines
are put in cocks, they should not be touched until the
surface is well dried and then turned as though freshly
cut. If the hay is handled prompptlyy and properly, a
light rain does very little harm, even after curing has
begun, and a heavy rain may fall on freshly cut vines and
do little or no damage. The vines should be handled as
little as possible or many of the leaves will drop and be
lost. When the weather is fair and settled the freshly
cut vines are sometimes rolled into bundles as large as
can be handled easily with a pitchfork and allowed to
lie in the field until thoroughly dry. This method saves
labor and prevents any loss of leaves, but the tangled
bundles are hard to dry if they should be wet with rain.
When peas are grown with corn and are wanted for
hay it is best to cut the stalks and vines together and
make into windows the same day. The cornstalks pre-
vent the vines from packing closely, so that they dry
more quickly. Such hay can often be put in the barn
safely two days after it is cut. Cowpea hay is often
cured by stacking the wilted vines around poles four to
six feet high with two or three cross pieces nailed on
each. A still better device consists of four poles six feet
long joined at the top and held four feet apart at the
bottom by means of crosspieces on which the vines are
piled so as to cover the pyramid. The object of both de-
vices is to permit the air to circulate more freely among
the vines and so dry them with very little handling and
loss of leaves.
When fed on well-cured cowpea hay containing a fair

amount of matured pods, horses and mules will keep in
good condition through the winter with no grain feed.
The selection of the variety for planting should be de-
termined by the use to be made of the crop. If a heavy
yield of hay is the principal object, a vigorous upright
variety like the Whippoorwill or the Groit is the best.
If the crop is to be pastured or left to decay on the
ground through the winter, any of the trailing sorts sold
as Black, Red Ripper, and Unknown are good. The
Blacks are especially esteemed for this purpose as the
seeds do not decay easily. Where land is infested with
wilt or with root knot, only varieties resistant to these
diseases, like the Iron and the Brabham should be used.
No plant grown in Florida surpasses this in value for hay
and it makes good pasture too.


Although the soy bean has been grown in this country
occasionally for a long time, it is only within the last
ten years that it has attracted general attention as a
forage crop. It has been found to grow well in all the
cotton region, as well as farther North. It is strongly
drought resistant and makes a hay similar in quality to
that from cowpeas, though usually with a larger pro-
portion of seeds and somewhat more woody stems. There
are many varieties which differ greatly in time of growth.
some ripening within ninety days from sowing the seeds,
while others require the whole season. The Mammoth, a
late variety, is now commonly grown in the South. The
Ito San is a good early variety and is quite commonly
grown. A number of recently introduced varieties are be-
coming popular, among them the Haberlandt, Acme and
The land should be prepared as for cowpeas and the
seed planted in drills at a sufficient distance to permit one
or two cultivations. One bushel of seed will plant two
to three acres, the amount depending on the distance be-

tween the rows. The planting should be shallow, never
more than two inches, or many of the seeds will decay
Inoculation with soil from an old soy-bean field is de-
sirable but not usually necessary in the South. Rabbits
are exceedingly fond of the young plants and sometimes
cause serious injury to the crop when the field is near
woods. If wanted for hay the crop should be cut when
the upper leaves begin to turn yellow, but if wanted for
seed the gathering should be delayed until nearly all the
leaves have fallen. The hay is easily cured and is fully as
nutritious as that from cowpeas. The yield of seed varies
from ten to thirty bushels per acre. It is not a desirable
crop to plant with corn, as it matures too late.
As the seeds of many varieties shatter badly, the gath-
ering for seed should not be delayed longer than is neces-
sary for their ripening, and many more seeds will be
saved if the cutting is done early in the morning while
the pods are still damp with dew.
The following tables from Henry's "Feeds and Feeding"
shows the feeding and fertilizing value of soy beans.


Crude Carbohy-
Protein. drates. Fat.
Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Wheat bran ............ 12.50 41.6 3.0
Alfalfa hay ............ 10.60 39.0 0.9
Soy bean (grain)....... 30.70 22.8 14.4
Soy bean (hay)......... 11.70 39.2 1.2
Red clover ............ 7.60 39.3 1.8
Timothy hay ........... 3.00 42.8 1.2
Corn stover ............ 2.10 42.4 0.7
Linseed meal ........... 30.20 32.6 6.7

The above is conclusive evidence of the great value of
soy beans Ts a feeding stuff, and the following from the
same authority shows how they stand as a fertilizer:


Nitrogen. Phos. acid. Potash.
Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Wheat bran .............25.6 29.5 16.2
Alfalfa hay ............. 23.8 5.4 22.3
Soy bean (grain)........ 58.4 13.7 24.7
Soy bean (hay).......... 25.6 6.8 23.8
Red clover ............... 20.5 3.9 16.3
Timothy hay ............ 9.9 3.1 13.6
Linseed meal ........... 54.2 17.0 12.7


The velvet bean is the most rank-grownig annual
legume cultivated for forage and is one of the best
plants for the production of feed and as a restorative crop
in the rotation. It is not as good as the cowpea for mak-
ing hay, as its growth is so strong and the vines are
so long and tangled that it is difficult to cut and cure,
though when cut early and well cured the hay is of ex-
cellent quality. It makes an immense amount of fall
and winter grazing, produces seeed abundantly, and
leaves the soil in a fine condition for any fc'_owing crop.
It needs a long season for maturing, from four to eight
months, depending on variety. It is most commonly
grown on sandy lands east of the Mississippi River and
especially in Florida. It is one of the best plants for
growing on newly cleared lands, as its growth is so dense
that it smothers all grasses, sprouts and weeds, and
"civilizes" new soil better than any other crop.
To secure the best results, the vines must be given
some support to keep them up from the ground, or they
will not fruit well or make so vigorous a growth. Poles
may be used for this purpose, but they are troublesome
and expensive, while growing corn serves the purpose well
and is much cheaper. Some strong growing variety of
corn is planted about a mo'th before the beans, and the

stalks give the vines the needed support. Pearl millet
is also used for the same purpose and gives a better sup-
port than corn, but is less valuable for grain. Some
planters top the corn as soon as the ears are fairly ma-
ture, asserting that the part of the stalk which is left is
not pulled over by the vines as easily as is the taller whole
stalks. Others plant three rows of corn and one of beans,
maintaining that by that method they get a good crop
of both corn and beans. Still others plant the corn in
six foot rows and when it is about a foot high plant beans
in the middles. Planted in this way the corn makes a
fair crop and the vines have abundant support, though
the late planting makes only a light yield of seed. The
heaviest yield of both vines and seeds is undoubtedly se-
cured when the beans are planted in the row at the same
time as the corn, but with such treatment the yield of
corn is usually small and difficult to gather.
When grown alone velvet beans should be planted at
about the same time and in the same manner as corn,
using eight to twelve quarts of seed per acre. With a
good support for the vines the yield of seed is very heavy,
from 30 to 50 bushels per acre. The seed is gathered by
hand. It costs from 15 to 20 cents to gather a barrel of
pods, which will shell about a bushel of beans. Thrashing
is somewhat difficult, as the pods are very hard and tough,
but at present prices the seed is a profitable crop. When
a crop of seed has been gathered the vines and immature
seed left make rich grazing, and the fertilizing value of
the crop is little reduced.
Grazing usually begins at about the time of the first
frost and may be continued through the winter, as both
vines and beans remain in an eatable condition. The
beans are quite hard when mature and dry, but are eaten
readily in the fall and again when they become slightly
softened in late winter, so that all are consumed before
the ground is plowed in the spring. Dairymen find that
it gives the greatest stimulus to milk production when

grazed in the fall, while beef growers value it more high-
ly for winter grazing. Hogs usually find plenty of good
feed left by the cattle. It is undoubtedly the most pro-
ductive annual legume.


This is an important forage plant, being most common
as a volunteer growth in old fields having a light sandy
soil. It is an annual which makes its growth late in the
season at the same time that crabgrass is growing most
rapidly, the two being usually found together. It is erect
in growth, reaching a height of five to seven feet on good
soils and is used for hay, silage and grazing. When cut
at the right time and properly cured it makes superior
hay, but it must be handled carefully. If allowed to be-
come too old before it is cut many of the lower leaves are
lost and the stems become woody. After cutting it should
be windrowed as soon as wilted to prevent the leaves from
dropping. To make good hay it should be cut when not
more than three or four feet high, usually in July, and a
second cutting can then be made a few weeks later. Al-
though not sufficiently bulky for use in filling a silo, a
little of it mixed with other material adds greatly to the
value of the silage, as it gives a marked "June" flavor to
butter even when used in midwinter. Its greatest value,
however, is as a grazing plant in late summer and early
winter, as it is even more fattening than alfalfa or cow-
It usually makes a scattering and uneven growth on
land which has not been plowed during the year, though
when occasionally strips are left standing at the second
cutting and the field is then harrowed crosswise to scat-
ter the seeds a good crop is secured the second season
after plowing. The better practice is to reseed the
ground after oats, melons or some other early crop has
been removed, using twenty to thirty pounds of the rough
seed per acre. The seed is usually saved by stripping it

from the plants by hand, the labor making it cost about
3 cents per ponnd. Clean hulled seed is now handled by
In the region where it is grown most commonly it is
seldom seen as a volunteer crop on newly cleared lands,
but is more or less abundant, growing with crabgrass and
Mexican clover in nearly all old fields, especially in corn
and cotton, where it springs up after the crops are laid
by and furnishes a large amount of good grazing after
the crops have been gathered. Some cotton growers ob
ject to it in their fields, as the immature seeds are some-
what rough and the stalks when switched about by the
wind often pull seed cotton from the bolls.
It is easily killed by a single cultivation in late sum-
mer and soon disappears from fields which are not
plowed. While it is a crop of secondary importance and
seldom used alone, it is a welcome addition to any hay
crop, and when so abundant as to afford good grazing it
will fatten horses, mules and cattle more rapidly than
most other plants.


Peanuts are often profitable, both for hay and for
grazing, the Spanish variety being best suited to these
purposes. The crop does best on light sandy soil, which
must contain a good suply of lime or many of the pods
will fail to fill. Any sandy soil may be made to produce
good yields by the application of fifty bushels of ground
limestone per acre, broadcast, just before the ground is
plowed. The planting requires about two bushels of seed
per acre, and in the northern part of the State these
should be carefully shelled before planting, though that
is not necessary in the southern section. The crop re-
quires no special cultivation except to keep it free from
weeds and to keep the surface so mellow that the shoots
can bury themselves easily. If the crop is to be used
for hay, it should be gathered just before the first frost.

When vines of the Spanish variety are pulled nearly all
of lhe nuts will adhere to the stems and after drying will
make a hay even richer in protein than that from cow-
peas or soy beans. Hogs eat both the vines and the nuts,
and the crop should not be grazed before the nuts begin
to mature. Hogs pastured on peanuts are often planted
with corn, after the manner of planting cowpeas and soy


Cassava is grown to a considerable extent in central
and southern Florida. It does best on light sandy soils,
on which it yields five to ten tons of roots per acre. The
roots are similar in appearance to those of sweet pota-
toes, but are much larger and make an excellent feed for
cattle and hogs. Cassava is propagated by sections of the
old stems, which are cut into pieces four to six inches
long and planted about four feet apart each way, the
after cultivation being the same as that given to corn.
Cassava should be planted about the same time as cotton,
the crop maturing from October to November. The roots
will remain in the ground all winter in good condition,
but as they decay in a few days after exposure to the air
they should not be dug until wanted. The stems which
are ussed for planting are killed by moderate frosts and
are somewhat difficult to preserve in good condition
through the winter, except in the extreme South. The
best method of preserving them where heavy frosts occur
is to cut them when well matured and bury them in a dry
place where they will not become frozen.


The millets which are most valuable are those which
belong to the foxtail group. Of these there are several
varieties, the principal being the Common, the Hunga-
rian, the German and the Pearl, which differ mainly in
size and period of growth. Common millet was one of the
6-Bull. Sup.

first varieties to be cultivated in the United States and
is one of the most hardy sorts, bearing severe drought
with little injury and making a heavier yield than the
others when grown on poor soils. The hay is also of
finer quality, though when grown on rich soil it does not
yield as heavily as the German. Hungarian millet does
not bear drought as well as Common millet, but under
favorable conditions of soil and moisture it gives a
somewhat better yield. German millet makes a much
heavier yield than either of the others when grown on a
rich, moist soil, but is not as well adapted to dry uplands.
The hay is coarser than that of the others and should
never be allowed to become overripe.
All of these millets make their best growth during
warm weather, and so are used largely as catch crops, to
be sown in May or June on land from which oats or some
other early crop has been gathered or on land which is
wanted for planting in September or October. They are
shallow-rooting plants, and therefore the upper two or
three inches of soil should be made as fine and mellow
as possible before seeding. When a previous crop has
just been removed a thorough disking is usually all that
is needed, after which the ground should be harrowed
smooth and the seed sown at the rate of two to three
pecks per acre and covered by rolling or by light harrow-
ing. Rich, heavy soils require less seed than those which
are thin and light. It is important that all of the va-
rieties be cut early, as when overripe the hay is harsh and
woody, is not easily digested, and often has a decided
laxative effect when fed to horses or mules. A common
practice is to cut as soon as the grass is well headed,
which will be in forty to fifty days from sowing for the
Hungarian, fifty to sixty days for the Common, and sixty
to seventy days for the German. If the weather or other
conditions are such that it cannot be cut until the seed is
well developed, it will usually be better to let it stand a
week or ten days longer and then save it for seed, which

as a rule brings a good price. All of the millets are ex-
cellent soiling plants as well as forage pants.


The time for promiscuous inbreeding of live stock on
the range has passed. It must cease if we would have
the success in this industry that our natural resources
and advantages make possible. We must grow a better
grade of live stock of all kinds.
This can be easily done by grading up with the best
native cows and thoroughbred bulls of the improved
breeds that have by experiment been proven to be
adapted to our climate and conditions. There are a num-
ber of such breeds, such as the Hereford, Short Horn or
Durham, Aberdeen-Angus, Red Polled and Devon, all of
which are of the highest type of beef animals. In this
respect no other breeds of cattle are superior. The same
rule is true of all other live stock, as to grading up, and
applies with special force to hogs and sheep.
From the breeding standpoint the important steps are
(1) the use of tried pure bred sires, (2) proper feeding of
breeding animals, (3) careful culling of barren and poor
breeding females, and (4) replacing culls with the best
females in each season's product.
As it costs little or no more to produce an 8-cent ani-
mal than it does to produce a 5-cent animal, the profits
to be derived from producing live stock is limited by the
quality of the animals. Good sires must be obtained and
the herd must be carefully culled. Remember that the
sire is at least half the herd.

THE Purebred Sire Means The Scrub Sire Means

1. Uniformity. 1. Lack of uniformity.
2. Individual superiority. 2. Mongrels and misfits.
3. Early maturity. 3. Late maturity.
4. More marketable stock. 4. Poor market demand.
5. More money for your feed. 5. Less money for your feed.
6. Credit to the owner. 6. Discredit to the owner.
7. Bigger profits. 7. Loss and dissatisfaction.

In grading up or rather b ailding up live stock in this
way, two essential and valuable features are obtained
and transmitted through the offspring; they are: The
vigor and hardiness obtained through the acclimated
native female and the size and hardiness obtained
through the acclimated native female and the size and
added vigor and vitality on the part of the male. Un-
questionably the grading up of all live stock is the best,
the cheapest and the surest, as well as the quickest
method of creating and improving either a herd or a
Taking the State as a whole, we can safely say that
there is no other area of like proportions in the eastern
portion of the United States that presents such an at-
tractive opportunity, and possibility for live stock grow-
ing as Florida. The climate conditions throughout the
year are unexcelled. Shelter, except occasionally, is
rarely necessary, and even then for very short periods,
and the time when feeding is necessary seldom goes be-
yond three months.
Principal among other reasons why live stock should
be grown in this State, aside from the fact it can be suc-
cessfully grown, and that it is one of the most profitable
industries is, that it is also the best aid in building up
and maintaining the fertility of farm lands.
It is the first and most important step in solving the
great problem of soil conservation.
It brings about diversification in farm practice and

makes successful crop production, both possible and cer-
tain, and until these things are accomplished, farming is
but a poor experiment. And it also relieves the farmer of
the necessity for store credits and the cure of the crop
mortgage system with its blighting influences, and almost
inevitable ruin as a result.
There is no part of this State in which success to a
greater or less degree in live stock growing cannot be at-
tained. But the extent of that success will depend upon
the man, for the soil will do its part, if given the oppor-
tunity. The climate and the seasons will perform their
part in the plan of nature, working harmoniously in the
production of the grasses, in growing the forage and
grain for feeding purposes and in keeping up the water
supply. We do not advise going into live stock raising
in this country but by degrees. The average man should
start with the right kind of stock in a moderate way, and
build up. We believe it is possible to get well started
in the industry within three years. If a new man in the
business he will by that time become equipped with the
knowledge and experience that will enable him to branch
out on a large scale. If he is a grower of experience
he may increase his herd and flocks more rapidly. But in
all of this, and in either case he should adopt the im-
proved methods-rotating crops, feeding, pasturing, and
general management of the stock, for his knowledge and
experience will then become as great a factor as his soils
and its products and also in the productive capacity of
his farm; in fact, he will then become the dominant fac-
tor, and his success will be limited only by his desires
and the attention he bestows on his business.


Should persons desiring to take up live stock farming
wish improved land, it can be had either in small, medium
or large tracts, as there are fine improved lands to be
had in every county. In many counties there are large

farms or small that will make ideal dairy farms and
which can be located close to local markets or railway
transportation. The dairy industry is a very profitable
one in most of the counties, but the supply of these prod-
ucts is not "a drop in the bucket" so to speak when it
comes to supplying any one of the near by big city mar-
kets. The demand always far exceeds the supply.

There are many other reasons why the people of Flor-
ida should grow live stock, besides those already men-
tioned. It is an industry especially adapted to this State.
the physical conformation of which is a most favorable
feature, its innumerable streams of fresh water that flow
.;,cross it form its northern boundary to the Gulf of Mex-
ico, and from east to west across the peninsula, together
with its numerous lakes, is an asset equal in importance
to the productivity of the soils. A climate and seasons
which enable it to produce bountiful grazing the entire
year, with but small and rare necessity for shelter. Its
immense areas of cutover lands are yet cheap by compari-
son and can be purchased at reasonable prices, improved
or unimproved, in tracts from one acre to thousands.

To those who would better their prospects in life, live
stock growing should be an attractive industry. There
should be a fascination about it for young men particu-
larly. It offers to them a life in the open, where they
can live amid the glories of nature and breathe the pure
air of Heaven and enjoy health, instead of existing be-
tween office walls, or in dingy stores with little or no
hope for future betterment of their condition. Besides
it is possibly the oldest avocation of man, for from earli-
est times, even when the first records of human history
were but mere fragments, handed down through tradi-
tion or legend from generation to generation, man has

owned flocks and herds of live stock. If there are doubt-
ers, let them go back to the most ancient history they can
find and read it.
In ancient times live stock growing was considered a
profession of great dignity. Cattle were the earliest do-
mesticated animals. They are mentioned in the oldest
written records of the Hebrew and Hindoo peoples, and
are figured on Egyptian monuments that were erected
3,000 years B. C. They are also referred to in the
Neolithic age of man, and all recognize it as one of the
signs of the Zodiac. Let them read the history of the
Byzantine Empire, of Babylon, of Greece, of Rome and
Carthage, and India and China, and then come down to
the days of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Certainly this is
good company. From these times to the present day the
growing of live stock has been perhaps the most profitable
branch of agriculture. It is in this branch of agriculture
that the State of Florida offers to every capable man ad-
vantages unequaled in any other section of country in the
Eastern United States.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs