Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 The perfect drainage of farm lands...
 Some experiences in drainage...
 The value of Florida's low wet...
 Upper St. Johns drainage distr...

Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00074
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00074
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The perfect drainage of farm lands necessary for successful farming
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Some experiences in drainage work
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The value of Florida's low wet lands for truck growing, general farming and stock raising
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Upper St. Johns drainage district
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text

Volume 26 Number 2

Supplement to




APRIL 1, 1916



Entered January 31. 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-clam

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Fl
matter under Act of Coinress of J





orida, as second-clau
une, 1900.


8 : I
W.. j

;i-l p----n~-pn -r~q~q~ppb
1 '~






,N'., 2 .-


Proceedings Florida Drainage Association
Jacksonville, Florida, March 25, 1915

The second annual meeting of the Florida Drainage
Association convened in the Banquet Hall of the Cham-
ber of Commerce Building, Jacksonville, Florida, on
March 25, 1915.
The Convention was called to order by the President,
George W. Oliver, of Bartow, and in a brief address
The President in his opening remarks emphasized the
importance of drainage and the fact that more than one
half of the entire area of the State of Florida is classed
as swamp or over-flowed lands by the United States
Governmnet, and that the greater part of the best lands
in the State can never be utilized for agricultural pur-
poses until it has been reclaimed by drainage; that in its
present state such lands are practically worthless.
The President stated that when he came to Florida,
something over three years ago, he was surprised to find
so little interest in drainage and that so little drainage
work had been done, but that he was now pleased to
learn that many drainage districts have been organized or
are being organized throughout the State. He stated
that under the drainage law enacted by the legislature
of Florida in 1913, known as the Drane Drainage Law,
Chapter 6458, laws of 1913, many districts comprising
more than half a million acres, have been or are .now
being organized, which means that not only valuable
agricultural lands will be reclaimed, adding millions
to the taxable values of such lands, but also the eradi-

cation of mosquitos and other pests, and the consequent
improvement of health and sanitary conditions; that
this Drane Drainage Law, so named in honor of Senator
H. J. Drane, who introduced and was responsible for
its passage in the State Legislature, had been prepared,
after careful consideration of the Drainage Laws of other
The President further emphasized the necessity of co-op-
eration and organized effort of all those interested in or
in sympathy with the work of the Florida Drainage
Association; that already attacks are being made upon
this Drainage Law by persons apparently not in sympa-
thy with the drainage of Florida's most fertile lands, and
that such steps as are necessary should be taken to
strengthen instead of to weaken this drainage law and
to encourage in every way possible the great work of
land drainage.
Ex-Governor W. S. Jennings, of Jacksonville, who has
been closely associated with the operations of the pres-
ent drainage law, was called and discussed briefly some
phases of the drainage problem. He stated that he was
heartily in sympathy with this great movement; that he
had frequently had occasion to observe the great value
of drainage by increasing the price of land; that lands
that in earlier days that would hardly be accepted gratis
and which have been drained are now considered of
great value. He placed great stress upon the Drane
Drainage Law and its operation, stating that it was
modeled largely after the Missouri Drainage Law, and
the Model Drainage Law prepared and adopted by the
National Drainage Congress. He stated that he had
organized three drainage Districts under this law, and
that after giving it his most careful consideration he
pronounced it a very exhaustive piece of legislation, and,
so far as he was able to say, entirely comprehensible

and unusually clear and practicable; that in his expe-
rience he has found no fault with this law and recom-
mended that this Association go on record as being op-
posed to any hasty amendments, but on the contrary,
first test it out and then make the necessary amend-
ments. He showed the injustice of a proposed amend-
ment which it is rumored will be put before the legis-
lature at its coming session, providing that each land
owner in a drainage district have equal voting power
in the organization of districts, electing supervisors, etc.,
regardless of the number of acres owned by each ana
limiting the right to vote to residents, and excluding
all non-residents, no matter how great their interests
might be. Under the proposed amendment a man owning
ten acres would have as much voting power as the man
owning ten thousand acres. The expense of the drainage
operations is borne by an assessment of the land in
the District, and it is but simple business justice and
fairness that a man shall have a voice in what shaHT
be done with his property.
Mr. Frank L. Bills, of Melbourne, concurred in the
opinion of Governor Jennings and made particular ref-
erence to the case of the Upper St. John's Drainage
District, where twelve companies and corporations own
ninety-eight per cent of the lands in the District and
that it would have been impossible to have organized
said district had each land owner been given equal voting
power as under the proposed amendment. The owners
of two per cent of the lands in this case could have made
it impossible to organize this drainage district and en-
tirely defeat the drainage of the vast area of fertile
land therein.
Ex-Governor A. W. Gilchrist, of Punta Gorda, suggested
that it would be advisable for the Association to try to
secure the passage of an Act by the Legislature providing
for the validation of Drainage District and Sub-drainage

District Bonds. He further suggested that a Special Com-
mittee be appointed at this time consisting of five mem-
bers, to report at the afternoon session, appropriate reso-
lutions to be adopted by the Association, showing its atti-
tude toward the proposed amendment substituting equal
voting power for the present acreage vote in the organiza-
tion and management of drainage districts; and whether
the Association would recommend the passage of an Act
providing for the validation of Drainage District and Sub-
drainage District Bonds. He moved that the President
appoint said Special Committee, which motion was duly
seconded and unanimously carried. The President there-
upon appointed upon said Committee:
Albert W. Gilchrist, of DeSoto County.
A. K. Cook, of Pinellas County.
W. S. Jennings, of Duval County.
Lycurgus Burns, of Polk County.
Charles A. Parrish, of Polk County.
Then followed a general discussion of the present drain-
age laws of the State of Florida by:
S. C. Harvey, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
A. K. Cook, St. Petersburg, Atty. Pinellas Park Drg.
Lycurgus Burns, Winter Haven, Supervisor Peace
Creek Drainage District.
Dr. G. L. Sipprell, Florahome, Fla.
P. J. McDevitt, Pinellas Park, Supervisor Pinellas
Drainage District.
The President then appointed the following Commit-
Credentials-J. E. Mears, Bartow; Dr. G. L. Sipprell,
Florahome, and D. D. Rogers, Daytona.
Resolutions-P. J. McDevitt, Pinellas Park; G. C.
Hardy, Florahome, and F. L. Bills, Melbourne.
Permanent Organization-A. K. Cook, St. Petersburg;
Chas. A. Parrish, Davenport, and Lycurgus Burns, Win-
ter Haven.

Capt. R. E. Rose, State Chemist.

Mr. President and Gentlemen:
It is unnecessary for me to say to this Association that
I am heartily in sympathy with the objects of your organ-
ization, and pleased to know that such an organization
has been formed for the purpose of fostering what to my
mind is one of the most important agricultural develop-
ments of the State, to wit: the proper drainage and fit-
ting for successful agriculture the 'vet lands of the State.
Lands of wonderful latent fertility andproductiveness
only requiring that they be relieved of their super-abund
ance of water, thus allowing the air and sunlight to per-
form their beneficient functions, of converting into fruit-
ful fields large tracts of now useless and non-productive
It is well known to all of you that I have for many years
been an advocate of the drainage of the wet lands of our
State. In fact, have been termed a "drainage crank," pos-
sibly with good reason, as it has been for many years my
constant study, with considerable experience both in
drainage of wet lands and cultivating the same, the suc-
cessful results of which, agricultural and financial, are
known to many of you.
I have stated publicly on several occasions, and again
repeat, that in my opinion there is scarcely a township in
Florida, certainly not a county, that could not be made
to produce much greater agricultural results by a proper
system of drainage.
That Florida possessed enormous areas of "swamp and
overflowed" lands, susceptible of successful drainage, thus
preparing them for profitable cultivation, was recognized
many years ago and was agitated by our State govern-
ment and our. representatives in Congress, years before
the grant of the "swamp and overflowed lands" of the

State to the State of Florida (and other States) in 1850,
by which grant the State of Florida received from the
general government more than twenty-two millions of
acres of wet lands, designated "swamp and overflowed
lands," granted to the States by Congress under the fol-
lowing explicit condition: "Provided, however, that the
proceeds of the said lands, whether from sale or by direct
appropriation in kind, shall be applied exclusively, as far
as necessary, to the purpose of reclaiming said lands by
means of the levees and drains aforesaid," is a matter of
The State of Florida, by this act, obtained some 22,000,-
000 acres of land. She had, in addition, each sixteenth
section, one thirty-sixth of the entire area of the State,
granted for public schools, together with large donations
for "internal improvement." and another large grant for
seminaries. As the State of Florida has about 35,000,000
acres of land, it is readily seen that more than two-thirds
of her entire area was granted by the national govern-
ment, to be "applied exclusively, as far as necessary, to
the purpose of reclaiming said lands." Thus, it will be
seen that sixty-five years ago our statesmen (whom at
that time were mostly agriculturalists) recognized the
necessity of providing for the reclamation of the wet
lands of the State, recognizing their great agricultural
value, when properly drained and reclaimed.
I shall not attempt to go into the history of the disposi-
tion of this vast empire entrusted to the State for the
benefit of her agricultural development. This history is
contained in the acts of the various legislatures since the
grant of 1850. You gentlemen know the results. The ex-
treme paucity of performance under the trust, and the
fact that less than one and one-half million acres of this
vast territory now remains, to accomplish the work now
being accomplished by the Trustees of the I. I. Fund and
Drainage Commissioners. I simply cite these historical
facts to emphasize that wise men of past generations rec-

ognized the necessity of drainage, and the value of the wet
lands of the State when drained, and provided ample
means for its accomplishment.
The results are before you. There still exists in Florida
large areas of soil found in every county in the State, in
larger or smaller bodies, soils which when properly
drained are of unexampled fertility and productiveness.
On you gentlemen rests the responsibility of performing
this task, of such enormous economic value to our State.
A task, which, when completed, will make Florida the
most productive agricultural State in the Union-a State
with a fertile soil, in a semi-tropical climate, with abund-
ant sunshine, and an annual rainfall, well distributed, of
practically sixty inches per annum, a territory unique in
all its features, of unexampled agricultural possibilities;
provided her wet lands, which comprise practically one-
half of her area, are properly drained and reclaimed, con-
ditions foreseen by our fathers and liberally provided for,
a condition which still largely prevails, a problem that is
presented to you, on the correct solution of which, to a
very great extent, depends the future prosperity and agri-
cultural wealth of our State.
There are many problems which you will have to
meet, discuss and decide. You will find many different
solutions offered for each, particularly by those who have
no knowledge of the subject at all, having neither exper-
ience nor proper information, knowing neither "why" for
"how." Most particularly will you have to deal with the
"expert" who is often one who has consulted some bulle-
tin, visited a few Farmer's Institutes, and who knows
little of agricultural science, and less of the practical ap-
plication of scientific truths on the farm. Possibly he may
have some scientific knowledge. If so, he won't class him-
self as an' "expert." Scientific men are modest and don't
pretend to be "experts," recognizing that agricultural
science is the youngest of all "Sciences," although it is

the oldest "Art" practiced by mankind, knowing that
much of the information we now imagine we possess may
not be correct information. That some of the "truths"
proclaimed may, on further investigation, prove false.
One of our foremost agriculturists, a scientist and a
practical agriculturalist, has said publicly before aud-
iences in this State: "That the greatest difficulty he
now had was to forget many things taught at college,
which he knows to be false, or at least incorrect." It
is, therefore, with much hesitancy that I attempt to
answer some of the questions you will have to answer.
They will come to you in many forms, modified by local
conditions and individual necessities.
(1.) When and why is drainage necessary?
Drainage is necessary when the soil is permanently
filled with water, or subject to overflow, for a time suf-
Ificient to destroy the millions of bacteria necessary in
a productive soil, thus drowning not only the living
bacteria but the cultivated plants by cutting off the supply
of air and food, necessary for the growth of the plants.
Drainage is necessary when the soil to a depth that should
be occupied by living bacteria and roots of healthy crops
is limited by the line of saturation. This may be but
temporary, still great damage to crops will occur when-
.ever the "water table" reaches into the zone occupied
by the roots of the crop.
(2.) How deep should soils be drained?
To the full depth that air and the roots of crops in well
drained soils will penetrate. Not less than three feet
to be permanent water table, in my opinion never less
than three; and in soils well filled with humus, not less
than four feet. This has been demonstrated by the su-
perior crops grown on tile drained lands with the drains
four feet below the surface, as compared with similar
crops on similar soils under similar conditions,
where the drainage was from 18 'inches to

two feet below the surface. Also by practical experience
on drained lands in Florida, where similar crops were far
superior on lands drained full three feet deep with nu-
merous drains, to those on adjoining fields with but 18
inches drainage with drains double the distance apart.
(3.) Is it possible to combine drainage with irriga-
tion? Can a drainage system be reversed for irrigation?
No, drainage and irrigation are diametrically opposed
to each other. To reverse the flow of a drainage system
for the purpose of irrigation has necessarily proven dis-
astrous. It is now conceded that the cost to drain the
irrigated lands of many large irrigation systems (not pro-
vided with natural drainage) will be far in excess of the
cost of irrigation. Drainage and irrigation must neces-
sarily be simultaneous in order to cause a circulation of
water and air throughout the soil, a condition always
found on naturally well drained, productive soils.
(4.) Can we close the drains and hold the drainage
water in dry seasons?
Not without danger to the crop. Irrigation water
should be placed on or near the surface and be allowed
to drain into and circulate through the soil, into the
drains, thus maintaining the necessary moisture and also
the necessary air in the soil, for the healthy growing of
the necessary bacteria and plants, neither of which can
exist in a saturated soil, in which there is no air (free
(5.) Would it be profitable to drain high rolling lands,
with clay sub-soil?
Unquestionably. Numbers of such instances, of great
improvement in productiveness are known in this and
other states, such drains, particularly tile drains, allow
the rains to penetrate the soils, followed by the air, ren-
dering the soil productive, from which, before drainage,
the rains passed off rapidly, without penetrating the
soil. This has been frequently demonstrated on high

rolling red clay hills, barren before tile drained, and
productive thereafter. The lack of such drainage has
been largely the cause of the "washes and gulleys" of
many of our Southern cotton fields. Terracing is but
a substitute for drainage, causing the rain water to pass
down into the soil, and drain away at a lower level,
thus avoiding surface wash. Terracing is but irrigation
and drainage combined.
(6.) Should irrigation be practiced on Florida soils,
particularly on drained lands?
Certainly. Whenever the soil water falls below the
crop requirements, irrigation is beneficial. Provided,
always, that the surplus is drained away either naturally,
through a porous sub-soil, or artificially through a
properly designed drainage system. Saturation, flood-
ing of soil, either by rain or otherwise, is not irrigation.
Stagnant water will destroy crops and render unproduc-
tive fertile soils.
(7.) How should irrigation be applied to drained
Upon or near the surface, overhead or through fur-
rows from a head ditch, the drainage system being kept
open at all times, the irrigation water to pass down and
through the soil into and out of the drains or into the
sub-soil, thus at all times draining (circulating) the
water and the air throughout the soil. Circulation of
water and air is as necessary in productive healthy soil,
as the circulation of the blood in animals and for the
same purpose, to convey properly prepared food to the
organs of absorption.
(8.) What is the difference between drainage and
There is a vast difference. Dried soil is not necessarily
drained soil. A mixture of soil salt or sugar in a pan
or bowl may be dried by evaporation. When dry the
same mixture of salt, sugar and sand, will remain in the

vessel. If the vessel be perforated by a hole in the bot-
tom, and water poured into the vessel, the mixture will
be drained. The salt or sugar (alkali or acid) will be
drained off, and the sand or soil filled with water and
air become a healthy medium for growing crops. This
is frequently demonstrated by a plant in a pot. Close the
drainage aperture and the plant may be drowned, with a
small quantity of water, saturated. Open the drainage
aperture and a constant stream of water may be applied,
and the plant will thrive.
(9.) Are well drained soils more subject to drought
than improperly drained soils?
No. On the contrary, soils naturally or artificially
properly drained are less apt to suffer from drought
than improperly drained soil. Well drained soils, properly
plowed and cultivated, will store and hold sufficient
water, particularly in humid climates, to at all times
contain sufficient water and air to perfect crops. This
applies particularly to soils well filled with humus.
Humus, vegetable matter, is the universal sponge or ab-
sorbent provided by the Creator to hold water in the
soil for the sustenance of plants, and applies particularly
to the swamp and overflowed lands of Florida generally.
Vast beds of muck, almost pure vegetable matter, con-
taining generally, when in good condition, from 50% to
60% of water, and seldom even in dry season less than
40% of water in the zone occupied by plant roots, though
the surface may be dry. Such soil, when properly drained,
full three feet to the permanent water table, properly
plowed twelve to eighteen inches deep, and duly culti-
vated, will produce maximum crops in the dryest seasons.
This has been so frequently demonstrated in this and
other states in the south, particularly in Louisana, where
56 inches of annual rainfall is not unusual, though pro-
tracted spring and summer droughts sometimes occur,
maximum crops are made on thoroughly drained muck


or alluvial soils, and disastrous failures, on partially
drained similar soils, as to have fully convinced myself
and many others that muck lands can not be drained too
deep (drained, not dried,) when they are deeply plowed,
and properly cultivated, and that they will, without ir-
rigating, produce maximum crops, even in the dryest
These, gentlemen, are a few of the problems -you will
meet. They will come in many different ways, with many
combinations of local conditions, varying conditions-
depth of soil, class and condition of sub-soil, water sheds
and outlets, proper depth of main, lateral and sub-lateral
drains, size and frequency of field ditches, and a thousand
other problems, from a thousand different men, each with
different ideas, each with a number of well-attested facts
to prove his theory and the correctness of his views.
I can only say that anything worth doing should be
done well and thoroughly, that no expedients or make-
shifts of any kind should be tolerated. If you determine
to drain a territory that needs drainage, drain it perfect-
ly, as deeply as local conditions and the permanent water
table will allow. If you can't drain to at least three feet
below the surface by natural means, then employ artifi-
cial means to remove the water to at least three feet be-
low the surface, as practiced in Louisiana, where the art
of drainage is probably better understood and practiced
than any other part of the United States. When properly
drained, then properly plow and cultivate the soil and
expect remunerative crops.
The foregoing conclusions are summed up concisely in
the following quotations from the Encyclopedia of Ameri-
can Agriculture, L. H. Bailey, Vol. 1, 1907, an accepted
authority on agricultural science:
Water Capacity of Soils.
"The water capacity of soil is measured by the total
pore space, and varies widely in different soils. Soils

that are saturated hold 4 to 6 acre-inches per acre-foot of
soil, or 20 to 32 pounds per cubic foot. The volume of
water in a given volume of soil is lowest in a sandy soil;
is somewhat greater in a loam or clay, and reaches its
highest point in a soil that contains a large amount of
organic matter. Soils that are adapted to crop produc-
tion are never saturated, and hence the water capacity of
soils under field conditions is much less than the total
water capacity of the same soils."

"When the soil is full of water to within a few inches
of the surface there can be no circulation of air among its
particles. Adequate ventilation can be provided for such
a soil only by drainage. Drainage ventilates the soil by
lowering the ground water three or four feet, and thus
makes it possible for the roots of plants to penetrate the
soil more deeply. Thus conditions are secured
that promote the growth of plants, facilitate the work of
the unlimited host of soil bacteria, and hasten the forma-
tion of available plant food."
These fundamental truths have been so fully borne out
by practical demonstration that they are now accepted by
agriculturalists and scientists generally, who recognize
that drainage, to be effective, must be thorough in order
to cause a circulation of the two life-giving elements-
water and air-in the soil, among the roots of the crops
in sufficient quantity to prepare and convey to the plant
the necessary foods in soluble condition. This condition
can only be maintained in properly drained soil, in which
both water and air can freely circulate, carrying to the
plant the foods prepared for it by unnumbered hosts of
bacteria, themselves microscopic plants, organisms that
perish when deprived of air and water, or when sub-
merged in stagnant water.
It is as necessary for soil water to circulate (drain) to
convey food to plant roots as for blood of an animal to
circulate to convey food to the various organs of the body,

and that free oxygen be furnished to the plant as well as
the animal, a condition which can not be had with a soil
saturated with stagnant water. Water and air must cir-
culate (drain) throughout the soil to a depth occupied by
the roots of the plants, thus obeying natural laws or-
dained by an allwise Creator, which may not be violated
by any of His creatures, animate or inanimate, with im-
By E. Nelson Fell.
To the Members of the Florida Drainage Association:
Gentlemen-My claims for addressing this meeting are
very slight, but in consideration of the important part
which drainage will play in the future in the development
o' Florida lands, some notes of the experience which I
have gained in the prosecution of the drainage work with
which I have been connected may prove worthy of your
attention. Before entering upon a discussion of the ques-
tion of drainage, it is well to define our terms. When can
lands be described as "drained"? Is it to be absolutely
immune from all conditions of rainfall, or is it to be rea-
sonably protected? Our Florida climate is capricious,
and we are, in the summer time, occasionally subject to
extremely heavy rains and to heavy tides caused by
winds. I think it would be unwise to lay out such a
drainage system that the lands would be absolutely guar-
anteed against these very rare occasions of excessive
floods. The first cost of the system would be great and
the cost of maintenance of such huge canals would be a
never-ending source of large expense, quite out of propor-
tion to the rare benefits to be derived therefrom. I be-
lieve that if we assume that a rainfall of 12 inches per
month for two consecutive months should be provided for
we have adopted a practical definition of the term
"drained lands".

The lands of this State which require drainage on a sys-
tematic scale are of two kinds: First, the sandy .lands,
either pine or prairie; second, the muck lands, and I am
almost tempted to add a third group comprising the shal-
low muck lands lying between the sandy lands and Jhe
4leep muck lands-deep muck being assumed in these
notes to have a depth of four feet or more.
Of the three groups the sandy land is the most difficult
and the muck land is the easiest to drain. The' surface of
the large muck areas in our State is extraordinarily level
and the grades of the ditches can be easily maintained,
and the character of the material is such that when the
cut is not made below the muck the banks maintain them-
selves in a sound condition. Of course, the muck presents
the difficulty of softness, but, as I shall show, machines
can be devised to overcome this difficulty. On the other
hand, the surface of the sandy lands is always more or
less undulating and for cutting ditches in it some form
of machine must be devised which can cut to a set grade
independent of surface undulations, and the nature of the
soil is such that easy slopes must be given to the ditch
sides, and, whatever the slope may be, the maintenance
of the ditch is continual and expensive.
In undertaking the reclamation of any given tract, the
first decision to be made is the depth to which drainage
shall be carried, and the second is the question of whether
the canals are to be constructed for navigation or not.
The second question is largely dependent upon the first.
It is difficult to define the depth to which, in the sandy
lands, the drainage should be carried, but in the muck
lands my opinion is that effective drainage to a depth of
three feet is advisable; a depth of four feet would do no
harm, and, indeed, it is difficult, I believe it is impossible,
to overdrain deep muck land. Of course, an occasional
rise of water in the ditches, during a term of heavy rains
above the three foot mark, will do no harm, and good crops
can be raised with less than this prescribed freeboard, but

a three-foot standard (and better still, a four-foot stand-
ard) should be provided when laying out a drainage sys-
tem on muck lands. Important and desirable as naviga-
tion may be, it should not be considered, if it would inter-
fere with drainage conditions as above laid down. Deep
drainage means deep aeration of the soil, and the creation
of a reservoir of vast absorptive capacity in times of
heavy rains.
After the general character of the drainage system has
been determined the next decision to be made is whether
the work is to be of a complete character, whether the
land is to be turned over to the individual land owner in
such a condition that he will not be required to perform
any drainage work outside of the boundaries of his land,
or whether only the primary arterial drainage is to be
carried out, leaving the secondary detail drainage to be
completed by the individual land owner. Physical condi-
tions are of such a character in Florida that in nearly all
cases a community primary drainage system must be pro-
vided with which the secondary detail drainage may be
connected. The financial aspects of the problem at this
stage are of the utmost importance. Good financing will
enable the work to be carried out at a reasonable cost,
whereas poor financing will add enormously to the ex-
penditures without producing adequately practical re-
sults. Under normal conditions, the primary drainage
can be carried out at a cost of $3.00 to $5.00 per acre, and
the secondary drainage at a cost of $5.00 to $15.00 per
acre, according to conditions, character of work contem-
plated, etc.
If the decision is made that the work should be of a
complete character, the cost can be closely estimated
by engineers and the necessary funds raised by a lien
of some kind upon the property to be improved, but if
it is decided to carry out the primary drainage only,
and leave the secondary drainage to be completed by

the individual land owner, it is of vital importance that
the property should not be so encumbered by the lien for
the primary drainage that the individual land owner
should find himself in a condition where he could not
offer satisfactory security to enable him to obtain funds
for the completion of the secondary drainage of his
lands. Unless care is exercised there is danger of such
conditions arising, and improperly studied financial con-
ditions may wreck otherwise meritorious projects. The
most effective method, in my opinion, for avoiding finan-
cial disaster of this kind (when placing a lien upon land
for drainage purposes) is to provide that any land unit
(of a size which may be decided upon) may relieve itself
from the burden of such lien by commuting its annual
interest and sinking fund payments by one cash pay-
ment and thereby create for itself an unincumbered bor-
rowing power for perfecting its own secondary drainage
system, or for other improvement it may wish. Too
much stress cannot be laid upon the importance of
proper financing. A great deal of thought and ingenunity
is often expended on reducing the cost of operation by a
quarter or half cent per yard, while the financing is
neglected and dollars are wasted by hundreds and thoils-
These points being decided the field is now clear for
actual operations, and we will suppose that it has been
decided to carry the operations to a complete finish; that
is to say, to provide ditches on each side of every forty
acre tract in the area to be drained. The first work is
to cut the necessary arterial canals. This class of work
is now well understood and in most cases presents no
especial difficulty. Different types of machines must be
provided to meet the particular conditions of each case;
this machinery will be of two types; the first type suitable
for working on dry lands through the deep sand cuts, and
the second type suitable for working in the soft sub-

merged lands-usually the floating dredge; where rock
occurs especially machinery must be provided for deal-
ing with this class of material. I will not attempt to
deal with these mechanical problems, as they are well
understood by engineers. I will mention, however, a
few points which have come under my notice.
The right-of-way should be provided at least twice as
wide as calculations show to be necessary. More dificul-
ties and disappointments arise from rights-of-way proving
too small for the numerous purposes which they may be
called upon to fulfill than from any other cause. In
the case of a particular canal, which I have in mind, the
cut was 122 feet wide on the top and 18 feet deep; and a
right-of-way 400 feet wide was considered ample; exper-
ience proved this to be insufficient, as the wash from the
spoil banks trespassed on the abutting property. The same
experience followed, in the construction of the other canals
on the property and the rights-of-way had to be continu-
ally increased, which is a difficult and expensive opera-
tion after plats have been filed and the land sold. There-
fore, I say, calculate the extreme which will be required
aqd then double it; it will probably not be too large. The
slope of the banks in sandy lands should be 2 to 1.
Although nature will make her own slope, and although
after a couple of years it will not retain its form as
cut, yet the provision for a 2 to 1 slope gives nature a
chance to make her own slope without destroying the
stability of the canal. The free berm must, of course,
be ample; certainly not less than 20 feet where a large
canal is cut through sandy land, and 30 feet will be better.
The grade of the canal should be from 6 inches to 1 foot
per mile; in my opinion the latter is the best where
levels permit. I do not believe that, with a grade of 1
foot, erosion will be objectionable in our average Florida
soil conditions. In sandy lands, on the banks of large
canals I believe it is advisable to control the water which

falls between the summit of the spoil bank and the edge
of the canal; this can be done by a roll on the extreme
edge of the canal bank and admitting the water into the
canal by culverts at intervals. After the arterial work
has been completed, the secondary drainage system must
be undertaken, which is designed to connect the individual
small tracts with the arterial canals. This secondary sys-
tem consists of small cuts which I will designate as
"ditches," in distinction from "canals." Until a few years
ago there was very little machinery devised for this class
of work, but marked progress has been made of late. Two
different types of machine are required; for the sandy
lands, which are always more or less rolling, the most
important requisite is that the machine should be able to
cut to any designated grade, as the depth of cut varies
with the rolling surface of this land; it should be as
mobile as possible and capable of traveling over shallow
soft muck ponds. We have found a light Type of drag
line machine very useful for this work, provided with a
peculiar locomotive device of a very efficient character.
The cost of operating this machine varies very much ac-
cording to the ground traversed. During the last eight
weeks our machine has been cutting in difficult ground,
flat woods and soft ponds. It has covered a distance
of four- miles, working one shift; the ditch varying from
three to eighteen feet in width, and from three to five
feet in.depth. When the ground is reasonably good only
three men are required to run the machine, and from 450
to 600 cubic yards can be moved in ten hours.
We have also devised a machine with-a caterpillar
crawl and a bucket arrangement like a steam shovel.
This is especially adapted for rapidly running over the
small ditches, removing bars, making small enlargements,
correcting grades, etc. As roads will probably follow the
ditch lines it is essential that the rights-of-way along
the ditches should be amply large.


For the deep muck lands, the chief requisite is that
the machine should be able to stand up on the lands, as
they are at this stage of the drainage operations exceed-
ingly soft; after much experimenting we have succeeded
in perfecting a machine which performs its work admir-
ably. It is of the caterpillar type with a cutting wheel
behind which cuts the ditch to be fixed template. Our
newest and best machine cuts a ditch:
6 feet to 7 feet deep,
5 feet wide on top,
2 feet wide at bottom,
giving about 4,000 cubic yards per mile.
It will travel over the softest lands; the following
figures are of interest:
Total weight of machine loaded............ 35 tons
Size of caterpillar tread 18 feet by 8 feet.
Weight per square foot of tread about 325 pounds.
The records of this machine from August to December
1914, were as follows:
Mileage cut, approximately................ 50 miles
Cubic yardage excavated........200,000 cubic yards
Cost per mile.............................. $148.00
Cost per cubic yard....................3 7/10 cents
Our best month with this machine was 171/4 miles. It
is operated by a crew of 6 to 8-who live in its super-
structure built on the machine itself.
For cutting ditches where the muck varies from-one to
five feet in depth we have adopted a machine built on
the same lines as the last described, but with a cutting
wheel of different shape designed to cut a ditch:
4 feet to 5 feet deep,
6 feet wide on top,
2 feet wide on bottom,
giving about 3000 cubic yards per mile.
The question of the method of admitting small ditches
into the medium sized canals is a question which must

be considered. In the muck lands there is no difficulty,
but in the sandy lands the question of erosion arises.
After many experiments we have found that the best
plan is to allow the erosion to occur at the time of a freshet
and then to clean out the bars in the canal which result
The first freshet does all the erosion, and subsequent
freshets have no further effect. This system is preferable to
any protective system, which sooner or later always proves
ineffective. It would not, however, be permissible where
the ditches empty into large important canals. The
banks of such canals should be broken into as seldom
as possible and should be well protected at these points.
I feel that I am wandering into details which are only
interesting to a few, and will close by saying that if any
in this audience wish for further details on technical
points I will be pleased to meet them and give them what
information I have. Only by this interch of experi-
ence can progress be made.

By Lycurgus Burns, Winter Haven.
I have assisted in the drafting and passage of the first
modern drainage laws in two States: The Drane Drain-
age Law of this State and the Waller Drainage Law of
Missouri. I have organized and assisted in organizing
five drainage districts in five different States: Illinois,
Missouri, Louisiana, California, and the Peace Creek
Drainage District in Polk County, Florida. I have seen
such splendid benefits to humaniity and general improve-
ments from this work I am naturally an ardent supporter
offgood drainage work.
In July, 1912, after more then ten years' absence from
Florida, I renewed my acquaintance here on a tour of in-


section looking for a good investment. I was not only
pleased with signs of activity for good modern develop-
ment, but down in Polk County I found a large body of
deep fertile prairie, muck land on the upper reaches of
Peace River, lands so fertile they could be used to fertilize
much of the soil growing truck and oranges today most
profitably. This body of land impressed me as the most
valuable body of good truck and farm land I had ever
seen in the United States or abroad. I bought it,.and we
have organized the Peace Creek Drainage District of
44,000 acres. We have 31 feet of fall in 14 miles, and are
making our 125 miles of ditches under the Drane Drain-
age Law.
This body of land is surrounded by Polk County's beau-
tiful highlands with their hundreds of deep clear lakes,
the center of the greatest citrus industry in the world
and the homes of many of the happiest people from every
State in the Union; happy because they live midst scenes
of great with the finest all-the-year-round climate
in -th ed States, where they can gain a livelihood
with e least effort and get rich if they hustle.
Nfineteen million acres, more than one-half the total
area of this State, is classified as wet lands. These lands
casi nearly all be drained by gravity drainage'under the
Drane Drainage Law, enacted at the last session of the
State Legislature.
This law provides for owners of a majority of the acres
of wet land in any district forming a drainage district
and taxing all the land benefited by drainage; thereby
relieve the owners of lands in the district from the bur-
den of heavy taxation on non-productive land. This law
provides for the issuance of bonds to mature and to be
paid at some future time after the lands can be reclaimed
and made productive. These bonds become a lien on the
land and bear a low rate of interest. When provision was
made to secure the money to pay the cost of reclamation
of wet lands in this State by drainage the only barrier

was removed to the development of Florida's greatest re-
source, her most valuable permanent asset.
The greatest increase in population in our State will
be felt when we can cultivate our wet lands. They will
not only sustain a greater population of agriculturists in
the drained districts, but the adjoining regions will be
more habitable and better people will build good homes
and improve living conditions everywhere. Through
the greatly increased production of our fertile
lands every line of trade industry in every city and
town will increase in proportion. No line of develop-
ment means more to transportation lines both in in-
creased freight tonnage and passenger traffic.
Every live owner of wet lands in each and every dis-
trict should get busy and organize drainage districts to
drain the wet lands. These lands today are a public nuis-
ance. They breed insects that pester man and brute; the
mosquito which gives us malaria; and they increase the
humidity of the atmosphere which is depressing. They
double the cost of rail and wagon road building, and to-
day they practically bring us nothing. They will not
even grow good pasture grass. But if they did, stock
cannot be healthy pestered by insects bred in swamps and
wet places. Grasses grown on water-soaked land are not
nutritious, and are washy.
When this 19,000,000 acres of land is well drained and
put in a high state of cultivation it is most conservative
to estimate their average value at $100.00 per acre or
$1,900,000,000 and their products will sell for more than
$1,000,500,000 annually. They would furnish homes
and a splendid living on the farms and the trade and so-
cial centers for more than five millions of people.
Florida has several million acres of very fertile muck
lands which will be the most valuable truck and farm
lands in the world, when drained. As examples of the
practical possibilities, we have muck farms growing

lettuce, celery, tomatoes, potatoes and other vegetable
crops that have a value of more than $1,000.00 per acre
per annum. Muck lands in this State produced 140
bushels of corn per acre last year without fertilizer and
was cultivated with traction engines.
Sweet potatoes as a summer crop, after at least two
winter vegetable crops on the same ground, grows from
300 to 500 bushels per acre and the potatoes are of the
best quality. No where will rice grow better and as
a summer crop 20 to 30 barrels of, good Honduras rice
can be grown per acre. It has an average value of about
$3.75 per barrel. It is worth $5.00 now, I believe.
Sugar cane will grow from 30 to 60 tons per acre;
Para grass, maiden cane, and Japanese cane are unsur-
passed in nutritive value and large production on our
muck lands; and together with corn, rice, millet, Bermuda
grass and other forage crops and grasses, we can grow live
stock and dairy products to compete with the world.
Mr. Parrish, who is at the head of the drainage scheme
in the Davenport District, says he will sell none of his
muck lands even at $150.00 per acre, because they have
a greater value for cattle raising and that they will soon
have a large herd.
Florida is rapidly coming to her own, notwithstanding,
all the "knocking Florida." She has surpassed any state
in the Union in increase of wealth and population the
past two years and in that period of hard times-in other
states-she has done more that stands for good material
permanent development than was done in all her earlier
history. No State can boast of a climate and of soil
that will produce three to four crops per annum of equal
value. Many acres of her best truck lands rent at from
$50.00 to $100.00 per acre cash per annum. Florida's new
development is distinctly high classed and modern and
her citizens are the best people from every State.

No single branch of development means more to the
State than the development of the winter truck growing
industry in which Florida truly holds a monopoly and
nothing means more to greater development of that
monopoly than good well drained muck land on which,
to grow delicate winter vegetables.
Our winter tourist, who is sure to become a Floridian
after one or two winters here, will more surely bring
his old neighbors and friends here to live next door to
him if we create that one very greatly needed improve-
ment, drainage.
Let us one and all become live wires on the subject of
drainage, good roads, and local option stock or fence
laws, until we have good roads everywhere, compel owners
of stock to fence their stock where the cost of fencing
fields is greater than the value of the wild stock in the
district, and until we have no wet lands that can and
should be drained.

By J. N. Whitner, Sanford.


Complying with a request that I furnish you the reasons
why the state and the owners of the lands in the Uprer
St. Johns Drainage District are undertaking the drain-
age comtemplated, and our rights in the matter, I submit
the following as sufficient to petition that the War De-
partment do not interfere with this reclamation. Indeed
it was for this purpose that the Federal Government
gave these very lands, as swamp and overflowed lands,
to the State for reclamation. The State having parted
with these lands in compliance with this act of Congress
for internal improvement, is by her countenance assist-
ing the present owners to accomplish the purpose of
the government. Now one of the Departments of the

Government is withholding its assent to our petition to
be allowed to remove the surplus water, which at times
inundates 'our lands, because, in doing this it will be
necessary to keep the water in the upper river at average
.low water stage. In withholding their consent, the engi-
neers give no reason and find no justification except
government control of navigable streams. Their present
attitude is a practical reverse of their own reports which
.are adverse to doing anything for the river above Lake
Harney, because of want of feasibility and because there
is no present or probable traffic.
They, the engineers, have in their files letters calling
attention to the fact, over which there is no controversy,
that the upper St. Johns River has never been navigable
except for short periods during high water, and has been
abandoned for more than twenty years, and not a single
car load of commerce has gone either up or down the river
in that time. The engineers were right in their adverse
report, because, should the government by condemning
all our lands and using them to catch and hold all the
rains that fall and then by expensive and long dams
and locks and then canaling the present little stream
make it navigable, they would for all time and at all
times do away with the need of navigation by making
permanent the loss of these rich prairies for agricultural
purposes by turning them permanently into boggy
marshes, as they are now at high water. They would
make the river unapproachable at all times for teams.
Should the back country become productive and people
for sentimental reasons desire to leave the railroad near
by and haul or travel to the artificial provided for them,
the Government could with equal propriety build and
maintain embanked road through these marshes for their
pleasure, but not to their profit.
It is not surprising that the talk of drainage on the
upper St. Johns should raise the question of navigation


on the lower river in the minds of the uninformed. But
this should not apply to the engineers who have the levels
showing that up to Lake Harney, as far as there is navi-
gation, the present navigation is not dependent on -the
negligible supply of water furnished by the St. Johns
above that Lake; indeed the Econlockhatchee running
into the St. Johns just above Harney in dry times, like
last summer, furnished more water than the St. Johns.
The fact is, and this has been published repeatedly and
not controverted and cannot be, the supply of water fur-
nished by the St. Johns river in dry seasons is not suffi-
ient, even when aided by its tributaries Salt Lake run and
the Econlockhatchee, to supply the evaporation from the
three big lakes, Monroe, Jessup and Harney. And the
St. Johns river above the Econlockhatchee and Salt Lake
run would not be able to take care of the evaporation
in the lesser lakes like Mullet, Puzzle and Cain. The
records in the engineer's office, incomplete as they may
be, will confirm this contention.
In very dry seasons evaporation lowers these lakes to
the point where the water runs up stream from the mouth
of the Wekiva into the above Lake Monroe. Affidavits by
engineers and numerous leading citizens resident at San-
ford and no way concerned in this drainage matter testify
to this phenomenon.
Whether the suggestion by the writer that the spring
fed Wekiva river meeting slack water at its mouth fur-
nishes the current which has been observed for many
years is not material in this argument, for facts and not
theories are what I wish to furnish. The above corrobo-
rates the government surveys and establishes the fact that
at mean low water at Lakes Monroe and Jessup ana
Harney, they are but little above tide level and the affi-
davits prove that during extremes of low water the water
to maintain this level comes from below. During the
past dry spring and summer this condition prevailed

for a period of some months during which time the large
steamers, City of Jacksonville and Osceola, made unin-
terrupted trips into Lake Monroe and doubtless could
have gone to Harney.
It will be seen from the foregoing that up to Lake
Harney navigation is in no way dependent on the river
above. From the upper bar of Lake Harney the river
runs through marsh and prairie from two to six and
eight miles in width, to its head in the saw grass 70
miles South, more than 100 miles by the stream without
a settlement in this vast territory. And from where Salt
Lake run enters it, at Orange Mound, it is a narrow
crooked stream with considerable current as most of the
ascent in the entire length of the St. Johns is from this
point to Lake Poinsett. From Lake Poinsett to the Saw
Grass, including Lakes Winder and Washington, another
level stretch is found. This plateau is embraced in the
Upper St. Johns Drainage District and from which it is
proposed to take the surplus water through short canals
into the Indian river through some of its tributaries or
In considering this subject it is necessary to consider
the rain fall on the peninsula of Florida which is gen-
erally estimated at 60 inches annually. If this could
be confined to 5 inches each month there would be little
or no need of drainage, but where, as is often the case,
two-thirds to three-fourths of this falls in two or three
months, and, as has occurred, 12 to 15 inches fall in three
or four days, it will be seen that this proposed drainage
district would catch more water during the rainy season
than could run through this narrow tortuous stream in
weeks at such times, making the land useless to man and
uninhabitable for cattle. It is needless to say that these
lands are very fertile arid unlike most Florida lands are
free from timber and when the water is removed are ready
for the plow, and without delay or expense for clearing,

And yet, without process of law, the Department would
practically confiscate our property to hold water to
furnish navigation on which its own engineers have re
ported adversely. Can the Department justify such

It was moved that the proceedings of the meeting
be furnished the daily and weekly papers in the State
.ith request that they give same such publicity as they
might deem proper and advisable; also that proper notice
of the meeting be furnished to the Manufacturers Record,
which motion was duly carried.
Upon motion by Governor Gilchrist, duly seconded and
carried, the Secretary was instructed to write the Clerk
of the Circuit Court in each County of the State, request-
ing a list of the drainage districts organized in his
County, with the names of Supervisors, officers, etc., same
to be used for the information of the Association, and in
order to enable the Association to keep in touch with the
development along this line, same to be embodied in a
report by the Association when sufficient data is obtained.
The Special Committee appointed at the morning ses-
sion reported that it was ready to report. Said Com-
mittee by its chairman then presented the following re-
port, which was read, and upon motion, unanimously
adopted, viz:
March 25th, 1915.
Mr. George W. Oliver, President, and Members of the
Florida Drainage Association, in Annual Convention
Assembled, Jacksonville, Florida:
Gentlemen-Your special committee appointed under
motion during the forenoon session to inquire into and
report on two propositions, namely:
(1) The proposition of whether or not the pres-
ent Drainage Law, Chapter 6458, of 1913, should or
not be amended by the approaching session of the

will produce millions of dollars annually if planted in the
great staples, corn, oats, rice, hay and sugar cane.
You will note that the owners of this district propose
to put these hundred of thousands of acres in condition
to feed the State, if need be and export as well, at their
own expense. Nor is this proposed by a great corpora-
tion to serve a selfish end, but by many land owners
combined under the laws of Florida. In addition to
the owners of the lands in the district the owners of the
balance of these prairie lands from Harney to the dis-
trict are heartily in favor of the drainage, as far as Ii
can learn, and I know it is true of eighty or ninety per
In the face of these facts, and I challenge the success-
ful tradition of any statement herein, it seems clear to
my mind that the owners of this property have a right
to set aside any dream of navigation for the manifold
and magnificent advantage to be derived from the use
of the land. At any rate it would appear singular for
a Department of the Government to intervene to prevent
our carrying out the purpose of an Act of Congress with
the approval and assistance of the sovereign State of
Florida. It would seem that this zealous Department
could very well afford not to interfere, but leave that to
any parties, either corporate or otherwise, who think they
have present or future rights that may be abridged.
I trust that after a careful, dispassionate and unpreju-
diced consideration of the whole matter, assurance of
non-intervention will be given by the Department.
If this is withheld I would suggest that due consideration
be given to our rights as property holders to drain our
lands, remembering that these lands are now held by
many owners, under fee simple title originating under
patent from the Government, by deed from the State, on
which annually taxes are levied and collected, all of
which guarantees the use and enjoyment of property.

State Legislature, particularly relating to the ques-
tion of the lands within the proposed District be-
ing represented by acreage vote or by vote of own-
ership as distinguished from acreage vote;
(2) Whether or not the general law relating to
validation of bonds covers the question of validat-
ing bonds of Drainage Districts,
report as follows:
Your committee have considered the provisions of the
present drainage district law, particularly relating to the
organization thereof by an acreage vote and respectfully
recommend that the present drainage district law be en-
dorsed without qualification by this convention, and that
this convention instruct its Legislative Committee to urge
upon the Legislature that such law be not amended.
Second-We have examined the statute relating to
the validation of County and Municipal Bonds, Chapter
6237, approved June 3, 1911, and find that the Act is lim-
ited to the validation of County and M.nicipal Bonds
and does not embrace or cover or provide for the valida-
tion of Drainage District Bonds. Therefore, we respect-
fully recommend that a bill be passed to cover and provide
for the validation of drainage district bonds and that
the Legislative Committee of this Association be instruct-
ed to prepare such a bill and present the same to the
Legislature soon to assemble and to urge its passage.
Third-We further recommend the adoption of the fol-
lowing resolution by this association in annual conven-
tion assembled; namely,
RESOLVED by the Florida Drainage Association in
annual Convention assembled at Jacksonville, Florida,
that it is the sense of this Association after discussion
relating to the efficiency, completeness and practicability
that the provisions of Chapter 6458, Drainage District
Law adopted in 1913, should be maintained without
amendment for further trial before any attempt is made

to modify or change its present terms, conditions and
RESOLVED, further, that a bill be passed to provide
for the validation of Drainage District Bonds and Sub-
Drainage District Bonds, and that the Legislative Com-
mittee of the Association be and are hereby advised and
instructed to prepare the necessary bill and present the
same to the Legislature and urge its passage.
Yours very truly,
The Committee on Resolutions offered the following:
RESOLVED, that the Florida Drainage Association
in Convention this day assembled at Jackson-
ville, tender a vote of thanks to Hon. W. A. McRae, Com-
missioner of Agriculture, and Hon. H. S. Elliot, Chief of
the Agricultural Bureau; for their interest manifested in
the work of the Association by publishing the proceedings
of the organization meeting at Bartow,
That a vote of thanks be tendered to the Jacksonville
Chamber of Commerce for the use of this building for
this meeting,
That a vote of thanks be tendered E. B. O'Kelley for his
services as Secretary of the meeting; also
That a vote of thanks be tendered to President George
W. Oliver, for his efficient services and untiring efforts
in trying to aid in every way possible the drainage move-
ment in Florida.
Upon motion said report was unanimously adopted.
The Committee on Permanent Organization made its
report to the Convention, whereupon the following were

elected as the officers of the Association for the ensuing
GEORGE W. OLIVER. Bartow, President,
W. S. JENNINGS, Jacksonville, 1st Vice-President,
A. W. GILCHRIST, Punta Gorda, 2nd Vice-President,
E. NELSON FELL, Fellsmere, 3rd Vice-President,
J. N. WHITNER, Sanford, 4th Vice-President,
P. A. VANS AGNEW, Kissimmee, 5th Vice-President,
E. L. MACK, Bartow, Secretary-Treasurer.
The President then announced the appointment of the
legislative committee as follows:
W. S. JENNINGS, Jacksonville,
A W. COOK, St. Petersburg,
F. L. BILLS, Melbourne,
F.C. ELLIOT, Tallahassee,
A. W. GILCHRIST, Punta Gorda.
Meeting adjourned.


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs