Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department

Material Information

Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title:
Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date:
Monthly[ FORMER 1901- Sept. 1905]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
-v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note:
Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note:
Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
28473206 ( OCLC )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

Volum 24 Nmber

Supplement to



OCTOBER 1, 1914



Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-claus
matter under Act of Congreas of June. 1900.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."



U. 2Li,,"o L/ ucpp /. lb ~, \("'


Volume 24

Number 4


i~ c





The following articles on the Kudzu vine and its value
as a forage plant for Florida, by Hon. E. B. Eppes, of
Tallahassee, and Mr. C. E. Pleas, of Chipley, Florida, are
the first authentic publications of special value or merit
concerning this plant.
The fact that both Mr. Eppes and Mr. Pleas are scien-
tific Agriculturists, who are successful farmers in the
highest degree, adds much weight to their statements
concerning this plant. Their experience with it continu-
ing through ten years or more of unfailing success, is
convincing testimony of its great value to the farmers of
Florida. Its adaptability to so many farm purposes un-
doubtedly places it among the foremost of both forage
and leguminous plants.


By HON. E. B. EPPES, Tallaha..sec, F1'riida.

This remarkable vine gives promise of being one of
the leading sources of wealth in the Southern States in
future. It is really a pea vine that springs up from the
roots when the first warm days come in the spring of the
year and grows vigorously until a killing freeze comes
in the fall. This gives a growing season of at least eight
months in the year, during which several cuttings of hay
can be made (some instances are known where four cut-
tings of hay, averaging two and one-half tons per cut-
ting and making a total yield of ten tons per acre in a
single season, have been made). This hay is of the highest
quality, being equal to cow pea or alfalfa and much richer
than timothy.
The analysis made by the State Chemist of Florida
shows protein 17.43 and starch and sugar 30.20, being a
somewhat richer food than wheat bran. Another remark-
able feature is that although the hay is as rich a food

as alfalfa, yet it is entirely free from the tendency to
cause loose' bowels and bloat in horses and other live
stock that interferes so seriously with the use of alfalfa.
When moistened, kudzu hay becomes almost like fresh
foliage again and makes an excellent green ration for
poultry in winter. It is well adapted for use in making
mixed feed stuffs and for all other purposes -that alfalfa
can be used for.
The hay cures very quickly, retaining ,it leaves and
bright green color instead of shedding as cow peas and
velvet beans do; in fair weather it requires only one day
before it is ready to put in the barn. For this reason it
can be easily cured in the fields in stacks under duck
covers, thereby avoiding the expense of building barns
and saving labor by using sweep rakes instead of hauling
the hay on wagons, after first cutting it with a mowing
,machine and raking it inti windows with a common
horse rake. The hay is worth about $20.00 per ton and
up, making the product of an acre yield $200.00 or over.
Kudzu is of even greater value for grazing purposes
than for hay, as it requires no cultivation after the first
season and. will thrive upon land that is too poor and
,rough for any other crop. It has been carefully tested
,on all of the types of soil found in Florida and found to
do well on all of them from pure sand to the stiffest clay,
provided the land is sufficiently drained to admit of grow-
ing corn or velvet beans; where the soil is too wet to
grow these successfully it is also too wet for kudzu.
Like any other crop, kudzu will make a stronger growth
oh rich land, but it does well on land that is too poor
for other hay crops and rapidly improves the soil by
drawing in nitrogen from the air through its leaves and
fixing it in the soil by means of the bacteria in the tuber-
cles on its roots, for it has the same power that cow peas
and other legumes have in this respect. This addition
of nitrogen to the soil and the protection from washing
rains and the baking heat of the sun afforded by the

dense growth of vines, causes rapid improvement in the
quality of the land planted in kudzu; even poor, worn-
out land soon becomes like the rich soil that has been
recently- clear dfrom the virgin forest. Yet although
poor land becomes rich within a few years when planted
in kudzu, it is advisable to use some fertilizer on such
soil the first season in order to hasten the growth/of the
kudzu until it can draw in this atmospheric nitrogen.
After this it will not require fertilizing, for its deep root
system draws potash and phosphoric acid from the sub-
soil, while its leaves draw all of the nitrogen needed by
the plant from the air. In this way tthe soil becomes
richer every year instead of becoming exhausted as from
growing grasses for hay. These deep roots live to a great
age and become stronger and more vigorous as the years
pass by.
One planting is permanent and the yield of hay in-
creases as the ground becomes more thickly set with
plants from the vines, taking root at the joints. The
great number of vines struggling for air and light have
a tendency to become more slender and leafy also, and
this improves the quality of the hay by eliminating Any
coarse vines, thereby enabling horses and other live stock
to eat it up cleanly without wasting any of it. The vines
-that run along the surface throw out roots at the joints
that become new plants and bind the soil firmly together,
thereby preventing the washing and erosion of hill sides
by heavy rains. While this improvement of the soil is
taking place the field is giving fine returns to its owner
by the immense supply of rich green forage, on which
the cattle, horses and other live stock can graze, thereby
keeping fat and in fine health at a very small cost for
eight months of the year.
The,roots of the kudzu penetrate so deeply as to make
it proof against any dry weather that is ever likely to
prevail here. This feature and its peculiar habit of
neither blooming or bearing seed causes the vines to

remain green and growing during the entire term from
spring to fall. The hay can accordingly be cut at any
time that is convenient when weather conditions, are
suitable for curing the hay, as kudzu does not become
injured by waiting for good weather as other hay crops
do. This feature gives an immense advantage over any
other hay crop.
Kudzu is propagated by means of the plants that have
rooted from the joints of the vines and whe transplanted
carry with them on their roots the tubercles that are
needed to inoculate the soil of the new field so as to
provide for fixing the nitrogen from the air into the
soil. In planting kudzu, first plow the land deeply and
harrow it, then check it into rows 8% feet 'apart each
way, setting a plant at each check. Lay tap roots along
the bottom of the furrow with crowns slanting upward
to within two inches of the surface, covering them with
loose earth to the level of the surface. This requires
1,018 plants per acre. Give them level cultivation during
the first season. A row of cotton may be grown between
each row of kudzu the first season if desired. After this
they will need no further cultivation, as the vines ,will
run all over the ground the next season and take root at
the joints, growing so rapidly as to choke out all other
plants (even such pests as nut, Johnson and Bermuda
grasses), yet it is an easy matter to get rid of kudzu if
desired, for the plants will only sprout from the crowns
and can be killed by cutting off these crowns with a disk
plow in hot, dry weather in summer. For this reason
there is no danger of kudzu ever becoming a pest.
Kudzu will be an excellent crop to replace cotton in
boll weevil sections; ,he demand for the hay is strong
and there is no danger of raising too much, as it can be
sent to all parts of the world for a market. After the
first season there will be no further expense except for
harvesting the hay, which requirPes much less labor than
making cotton, and it will enii.-i the soil instead of

making it poorer as cotton does; this will avoid having
to buy fertilizers. It is free from insect enemies and
diseases also, and for these various reasons will be far
more profitable than cotton.
Agricultural scientists have been searching in vain for
such a plant as kudzu and it will fill a long-felt want
among our farmers. Unfortunately, however, the supply
of plants is very limited an dthe demand for them can-
not be fully supplied for many years, to come.
Kudzu is perfectly hardy all over the United States
and endures the winters as far north as Nova Scotia. It
will therefore be a valuable crop in the Northern States.
as well as in the South, although the longer growing
season South will be an advantage.



The Solution of the Forage Problem
in the South

By C. E. PLEAS, b l ,ph, Florida.

The man who first introduced Kitdzu to America as a:
\ forage plant.

One great cause for the slow development in Southern
Agriculture has been the ,lack of good, nutritious pas-
tures and roughage that lasts throughout the entire year.
What we need is a forage that stock can live fat on
the year round. There are many most valuable cultivated
crops that make great yields, etc., but their period of
mature life is short, making frequent plantings neces-
sary in order to have a complete succession. The Velvet

'Bean is an all-season crop, yet it is not ready to feed till
November. The cow pea, soy bean and the various sor-
ghums and millets are good forage crops, but all must
be planted in succession and cultivated for best results.
And for those that are to be harvested before feeding,
the farmer only has a few days in which to get it in
in its prime condition and that is frequently impossible
in sections of frequent rains, especially during the rainy
All the legumes (with the exception of Kudzu) are
more or less bad about dropping their leaves and shat-
tering while curing and harvesting. And a heavy rain
on them, or any of the grass, hays or fodders, while cur-
ing, means serious injury if not ruin. Kudzu overcomes
all these difficulties and sas many other features in its
favor. One planting lasts for many years and it may
be cut or pastured at any time during the season, from
about the middle of April, in North Florida, till frost,
and where a growth is left on the ground, stock will feed
on it all winter. I found that my stock would eat the
dead leaves and vines that had laid out and weathered
till March, and then been hauled in for bedding, in pref-
erence to the best hay I could buy. They at the Kudzu
out from under their feet and left the $20.00 hay in
their mangers.
The next winter after making this discovery I had all
this trash raked up and hauled and piled outside the barn
before we began digging and shipping plants, and win-
tered two horses and a milk'cow and a calf or two, on
that alone as roughage, giving them their usual grain
feed, of course, and every oneof them came through the
winter in as good condition as they had formerly done
on good hay.
I do not mention this to advocate such a method, but
merely to illustrate the fact that Kudzu does not lose
its feeding value as readily, by rain or neglect, as other
forage plants do, and that there is something about it,

even in its poorest condition, that appeals to the animal's
appetite. And the properly cured hay has a delicious
fragrance, resembling tea, that is irresistible to stock.
To illustrate the endurance of Kudzu hay in rainy
weatlier, I would cite that in 1908 we made our first
cutting with a two-horse mower, cutting 5-12 of an acre
in July from young plants set the year before. The yield
was 2.88 tong per acre, and when almost dry the following
morning after cutting it, it rained just enough to soak the
hay good. When dry the next day and men were in the
field cocking it up, there came a very hard rain and it
drizzled along for three, days. Just how badly it suffered
could not bedetermined, but it looked better than velvet
bean hay ever does an dthe' stock ate it with apparent
relish. In 1912 we cut near 20 tons from about six acres
plante din 1910, and with the exception of about two
tons that were cut before the rainy season set in, all of
it was thoroughly soaked one or more times while curing,
and yet no one who did not know the facts would suspect
that it had ever had a drop of water on it, and it was
doubtless better than most shipped hay:
As to Kudzu's adaptability for cutting or pasturing
at aiy time during the season, I would point out that
hay taken May 1st Analyzed 17.60% protein. That taken
July 30th (a third cutting) analyzed 14.80%, protein,
while that which had stood all the.season without cutting
or pasturing analyzed 16.59% protein, and an exception-
ally well cured sample analyzed as high as 19.82% protein
and about 35% carbohydrates.
In my 35 years' experience in farming in different
States, and with various hay crops, I have never seen' a
hay that cured so quickly, held its leaves so well, or kept
its color so perfectly, under various conditions, as Kudzu
does. It does not require lime, as is the case with Alfalfa
and some other legumes. It does not require a rich soil,
and so far as our experiments have gone during the past
ten years, fertilizing is not only unnecessary but unprofit-

able, and I have had plantings in which some were located
in the very poorest of soils-soil that would not produce
corn, melons or even cow peas, and with the exception
that the young plants did not start off quite so readily
on these poor spots, no one could tell the difference at
the end of the second season.
We .have never used a pound of fertilizer of any kind
except in a very small way as an experiment, and I am
safe in saying that our poorest soil will produce six tons
of dry hay per acre, in a season, when the plants become
matured, without fertilizer, and I have had as high as
ten tons per acre on ordinary soil.
Kudzu is known to thrive in all. the United States as
an ornamental vine and therefore it must be adapted to a
greater variety of soils and conditions than almost any
other plant; and if it will thrive thus as an ornament,
why not under field conditions, making allowance, of
course, for a proportional yield as the season is long or
short in different localities.
Our native cattle manage to subsist the year round on
the indigenous wire grass, and for two or three months
in the spring are fat enough for the block, while many
die of starvation during the winter, and are too poor to
butcher the balance of the year, for the want of nutrition.
Blooded stock cannot stand range conditions and subsist
on wire grass alone. They require nutritious feed the
year round, and Kudzu comes nearer filling this want
than any other one forage, yet it is deficient in some feed
elements, and to make up the deficiency I recommend
the Japanese Sugar Cane, the two making practically a
balanced ration. The best way of feeding this combina-
tion is, in my mind, to put the cane in the silo and pas-
ture the Kudzu during the growing season, with the cane
silage to balance, say a feed at night, and in winter, feed
Kudzu hay and silage.
This cane is a true sugar cane and not a sorghum, and
is not propagated from seed, but by laying the matured

stalks, which grow vei'y rapidly and increases in yield
from year to year, stooling out from the past season's
stubble, each year, until it makes a very dense growth
and producing as many as 75 or 100 stalks to a single
hill, with a yield of 25 tons oir more of green forage per
But for the farmer who cannot afford a silo, this cane
may be cut and piled, about frost.time, and fed in racks,
first running it through a cutter or chopping it into short
lengths, or it may even be pastured, but pasturing is
wasteful, as is also the method of feeding the stalks
whole, as much will be tramped under foot.
This cane is adapted to the various-soils of our gi4f
coast region from South Carolina to Texas and for a
distance of some 250 to 30 Omiles north of the gulf. For
sections north of the limits of this, cane sorghum may
,be substituted, though an annual and not nearly so pro-
In the green state, Kudzu contains less water than the
clovers, cow peas, velvet beans and alfalfa, etc., which
enables it to cure so quickly, the heaviest cuttings re-
quiring only 24 to 28 hours in ordinary weather.
It does not injure horses like alfalfa and is less liable
to cause bloat in cattle than clover. In fact, it has every
:evidence of being ideal for all kinds of stock, and .for
-,dairy purposes. One test was to feed it to a milk cow
that had never produced yellow butter in the two years
we had owned her. The effect was like inagic and in a
few days' time she was making the first yellow butter
since we had owned her, and on the dry hay at that.
We have not been able to pasture Kudzu or cut it very
extensively, owing to the great demand for plants, which
has required our entire acreage to be devoted to plant
production, but we, as well as others, have tried it suffi-
ciently to know that it is entirely successful if not over-
pastured. Our plan is to have a succession of three or


four fields, and when one is pretty well eaten down, say
in two orthree weeks, turn into the next, etc.
Most people think that because Kudzu is a vine and.
makes such a tremendous growth in a season that it
must be practically impossible to cut and handle it as a
hay crop. Our repeated experience has been that it is
no more trouble to cut or handle than a like heavy crop
of red clover, Mexican clover or pursley, crabgrass or
any other hay that makes a matted growth, and it is far
less trouble to handle than either cow pea or velvet bean
hay. Unlike the velvet beans or cow peas, Kuqzu is
anchored to the ground every few inches, so that the
vites cannot drag ahead of the mower blade, as do the
cowpeas and beans.
We do not look for the dividing line in cutting, but
watch the left mower wheel instead and see that it fol-
lows in the track of the right wheel of the previous round.
We straighten out the guard, rod on the inner shoe of
the cutter bar and set forward and just as high as will
allow, the doubletrees to pass over it without hanging,
and the trick is done. Every vine is thus forced down
by the traces and under this rod and cut in two, leaving
no cross vines longer than the width of the swath.
We turn the hay with forks immediately after cutting,
and in doing this it is an easy matter to separate it into
fork fulls and handle it the same way throughout the '
process of curing, loading and housing, and when thus
handled in bunches it will come out of the mow the same
way in feeding and is easier taken out of the mow than
any other loose hay I have evei handled.
On a heavy crop of three or three and a half tons per
acre there is little need of a rake, as it is not the trouble
to gather up that short hay is, and when in the cock it
covers about 1-4 the ground. The teeth stand straight
down and do not catch on the ground vines, yet serves
the purpose perfectly.

I believe the side delivery rake would work in Kudzu,
all right, though I'have not tried it.
Some writers and farm papers, in describing pnd com-
mhenting on Kudzu, make-the mistake of saying that the
vine is coarse and grows very large. This is in a sense
true, when the vines are allowed to grow for years with-
out cutting or pasturing, but-as a field crop, the state-
ment is misleading, for when allowed to stand the entire
season the vines are no coarser than velvet beans, and
they become woody when cut as hay. Under field condi-
tions the vines rarely liver over winter and usually die
back between the plants. But even if they did live over
it would be an easy matter to go over the fields with a
disc or cut away harrow and remedy that during winter.
Even that will be unnecessary when pasturing, for the
stock will tramp these runners so that they will never
make trouble.
After years of experimenting with the various methods
of propagating Kudzu we have discarded all except the
self-rooted plants. The seed germinate very poorly if at
all and must be grown in beds for a year before trans-
planting, and the resulting plants usually have but one
root, a tap root, that cannot be taken out whole. True,
the self-rooted plants cannot be taken out whole, but they
have many branches usually, which is far better than
only one piece.
The cutting method of propagating we discarded after
several unsuccessful attempts. We could get perhaps
one per cent to live, but they never made vigorous plants
and had the same fault as the seedlings-they were not
inoculated. I
Our self-rooted plants are all inoculated; in fact, it
would be impossible to find one that does not carry the
bacteria with it when handled in the usual manner. Thus
soil inoculation is unnecessary.
For planting, I prefer old ground, or at least second-
year new ground, and if possible, land that had velvet


beans on it the year previous! I break the ground "broad-
cast" and prepare it as for seed bed by using the drag
last. Then I lay it off in five-foot rows and set the plants
about every five feet in the row. This will require about
1,600 plants per acre. One ran and a boy can set several
acres in a day. The man carries a shovel and opens up
the holes by sticking it iAl the ground and pressing the
handle forward, while the b by, carrying the plants, sticks
them in back of the shovel, with the crowns about an
inch below the surface. The shovel is removed and the
man steps on each side of the plant to press the earth
firmly after it falls back on the plant.
The proper time for planting Kudzu is' two to three
weeks in advance of corn planting time or a little earlier
if one can get the ground ready. A full crop of corn
may be grown o nthe same land, the first year, by drop-
ping the grains between the plants. Neither will inter-
fere wit hthe other and both need about the same atten-
tion, only the ground shall bbe left smooth- and level at
the last cultivation to permit easy rooting of the vines or
runners and subsequent mowing for hay. Plants cannot
root as well on a rough surface.
The advantages of Kudzu over other hay crops are
almost legion and one cannot realize them until he has
fully tried it out. Some get the idea that it will become
a pest, once they get it on their farms. I have had it for
ten years and have not found it so in any particular. If
it gets into the fence rows let it go and you will soon
have some most valuable feed in the place of the worth-
less weeds andobriars. When your crops are off, turn the
stock in and they will clear your fence corners out. If
you ever do wish to get rid of it (and I would not ad-
vise it, as it is the most valuable crop one can raise),
put enough stock on it to keep it grazed close for about
two months in the spring and the work is done. Or it
may be thoroughly broken, preferably wit ha disc plow,
.after cutting, during the hottest, dryest season, or after

killing frosts in the fall, and rarely ever a plant will
At the nominal price of hay, which is about $20.00
per ton in the South, and at the low estimate of five tons
per acre, think what a few acres of Kudzu would mean.
I have yet to see any other crop that will yield such a
revenue with so little labor and expense, and at the same
time build up the soil.
It has taken the velvet bean fifteen or more years to
reach its present state of popularity and usefulness, and
there are now thousands of head of cattle and hogs fat-
tened pn it annually, and I venture the assertion that in
fifteen years there will be ten times as many fattened on
Kudzu and Japanese Cane.
The South is waking up to the fact that it can grow
feed stuff cheaper than the North can, and the North is
beginning to realize the same thing, and it will be only
a few short years till this section will be teeming with
Northern stock raisers and farmers to supply the North-
ern markets. Now is the time for the Southern farmers
to get busy and be on the ground floor.
To kive an idea of what is already being done, I might
add that over fifty thousand plants were set out the past
season in West Florida alone, that I know of, and prob-
ably twice as many in other States.
Parties who only had a small area last year have in-
creased it many times over the past winter one man
putting out forty acres, another ten, and so on, while our
own acreage is only limited by amount of cleared land
on bur farms. Another year we expect to at least double
our acreage, and those who are in a position to know
what Kudzu is actually doing have only the highest
praise for it. Same may be said of the Japanese Cane,
for the two should go together.
To get an idea of one successful grower's estimate of
Kudzu, I wrote him to know the lowest figures that would
buy his acreage, either entire or on a five or ten-year
lease, and he refused to set any price.

Full Text


IOL F(,%b /r==========;,_ "' IIC Volum e 24 Number 4 Supplement to FLORIDA Q U ARTll:RLY BULLETIN AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT OCTOBER 1, 1914 ff. A. McRAE COMMISSlO:r-,'ER OP AGRlCO'LTURE TALLAHA SSEE FLA KUDZU GROWIN9 IN FLORIDA ..,1,.,, Juu,, 11, 1 -. at 'r.llobu-. rlotl4o. u _,..,1 .. Ut



KUDZU The following artieleson th e Kudzu vine 11nd i tll,a luo as ll fornge p l ant for l<'lo r ida, by lion. E. B. Eriiea, of TallahnS!lee, and Mr. C. E. Pleas. or C liipley, Florida, are the first authen ti c 1mb lieatiorui of tpeci,d ,alue or m erit eoncerningt hiaplnnl. TJ1e [act that botli ;\l r Epp es and Mr. Pic as ure scien t i fic Agrieultnrisl!J, who are 1<11C1;c~sful farmers in the highest degree, add s much wei gl1t to their statements concerningthis plant. Thcirupcriencew i th iti:ontinu ing through ten or more of unfailing aucee1111, is\ng testimony or its great v11lue to the f1mu en of Florida. It s ada1,t11bility to sci man y farm purpose$ ,m. doubt c d!y pl11ces it 11mong tho foremo~t of both forage an~ l eg uminoua planu KUDZU THE MI S SING LINK IN OUR CHAIN OF LEGUMINOUS FORAGE PLANTS By 110N J-J. B 1-;PPE.<;, Tr1/lnlw~.,.,,. f"/-Jrir/u Tb.a remarkable vin o gives promi se o f be ing one of th e leading soureCII of wealth in the Southen 1 State11 in future. Tl is really n pea vine th>1t s 1 1 rings up from the root ~ when the finit ivarm days eome in th e spring of th e year lUld grow>1 vigorously until a killing freeze comes in tl1 e fall. This g iv es a growi ng season of a t least eigh t month a in the year, during which 6'!\'e ral cutting1 of hay can bl! made (some inst&necs ar e known where fo u r cut tings ot l iay averaging two and one-half tons p er eut ting and making II total yield of t en ton~ per aere in a 1iogle &eason, h ave been m ade). Thi a hay ill of the highest quality, being equal to co,l'peao r allalfa.aud mu c h r icher than timothy. Tl,e 111111lysis mado by the Stat o Chemist of l<'lor i da fibo wa protein 17.43 a nd atareh tUld eugn r 30.20, being a somewhat rieher food than wbeat bran. Another remark able feature is Urnt altho ugh th e hay is as rich II food


ail n l fnlfa, yet it is ent i rely f ree from t h e t endency t o l oo1e bowels 1 111d bl oat i n horsc11 and othe r J iv e stoek th 11 t int ei f e r n 110 oo r io u slr w ith th e u se of al falf a Wh en moi61ened ku d zu hay hecomeai 1t l mO!lt like fresh fo l i li i;r,., 11g11 i11 11 n d m 11kes an e x ce ll e n t 11 r c en r ati o n fo r poult r y in w inter. T t i11 well 1 ulll rJtc d !or ult! in maldn11 mi xed fe u d & t uffM an d for 11!i o t her purposes-t h at alf11\fa e11 n bc11.Sedfor. The h ay cures c r y qu i ckly, reta i ninfr it l ~aveR n n d bri g ht g r ee n co l o r i n ste nd of s h edd ing iu e o w p e 11 g nud elvet be1 n $dO; i n f air weat l 1er it requires only one day b efore it is re a d y t o pu t in th e b n tu. Jo or tl tie reason i t can be euily c u red in the fie l d& i n B l 11cks und e r d u c k eovC l'II, t h e reby noi d ing t he expe n $e o f bu ihli ng ba rn s a nd MIIVing l a b orbyusingijwee pr a k eis iM t e 11

rle n se g ro wth of v in es, e11 u sts r n11 id improvem e n t in t h e q u ality o f t h e lan d pl an terl in kud.iu ;" eve n JJOO r wo m o ut lan d aoon becomes l ike 1 he r i c h !!O i l that J i u been l'f:een t ly el e ar c dfrom th e v i rgin fo r est. \' e t although poo ; la n d b11C o me11 r i c h wit h in II f ew ye a n when 11hrnte d in kmlzi.J i t i i advi sa ble 1 0 u so so m e f e r t ili1.e r on ~ n ch ao ilth efi r s t scnso ni n ord e r to l 1llllte o l h eg ro wth / o f t h e iku dzu u ntil it can dr a w i n 1 hi.s a tm ru; ph eric ni t roge n. Arter t hi s i t will n ot re quiN! ferti l, fo r itJ; d eep mot system d raw i J JOt.11 $ h a n d ph 011 p ho ri e acid fr o m 1 h e 11ub110il, whi le i tz le11ve s dr aw 1111 o f lh c nitro1,oe 1 I n ee d e d by t h e plant r, 0 11 1 th e a ir I n !hi s wa y u h e MOi l b i e o m e s r i c h e r e vory yen rind oa d o f beco ming exhausted M fr o m g r o wing g r aAAe s fo r ha y. Th ese dee p roob liv e to II g r eat age a n d be e ome a trongerand mor e i go ro tlJIIIII th e y c aMI Jl &lill liy. O n e p l o t1t i n g ia pe n n11ncn t 1111d the yi e ld o f hay in, ere1 1 scs as th e i:roun d becom e,i m ore t h i ckly se t w i t h pl a n t a from th e vin es, t11k i u g r oot at th e join ts T h e g r ea t n u m be r of v in es a trn gg l ing fo r 11 ir a nd l i 11ht have a tendency to b eco m e mo r .e s l eud e r a n d leafy a lso, an rl t h i s im p r o ve, th C qu ali ty of t h e hay by el imi nati n g ri n y coarse ,i n c,, t h er e by enabl in g h o nies a n d other l h e K toc k to ea t i t u p c le11.11 l y wit h out w as t in,r any of it. Th e vines ~ th a t i-un al o n g th e Hn r face th row o ut root~ H t t h e jo i ntll t h at bee o m c u o p lan ts a n d bin d t h c il firm l. Y toget her t h ere b y preven t ing t h e llas l in g a nd e ro s i o n of hill s i d e!! b r h ea, yra i n 1 W h i l e thill im 1 1rovc m ent o f t h o ROil is ta k i n g pl ac e th e fle lo i s giv i n g f in e re turns t o itll o w n er ~[e 1!: 1: 0i::a : 11 : :~ ; ,: ~ ii~: M ~;~ e!: r :~:~t~h:~:i kee ping fa t a n d i n fine l 1 e 11l t h a t a ve r y & mal l e o~t fo r eig ht m ont h s o f t h e yea r ,., T he root>< of t h o kud zu pe 11 e tra1.e ao 1leep\_\ 11.i to make it pro o r ag,illll t a11 y ~y we at h e r that i s cnr J i k e l., 10 pre a l h e re. Thi ~ fe ature a ml i ts peculia r h a b i t of n ei ther 0 loo m i n g o r b eHrin g ~~c d e n 11 su t h e vin u l o


rema}n green and growing during the entire term from spring to fall. The hfly can aec ord ing l y be c u l at a n y time that is eon1enie n t when weather eo nditions are :~1~~,::~e :;\J;::~: :: r e g1::i \~:a~~::.a:::e;1~t 113 ~e:: 0 :: do. 'f his fea t ure gi\e, an immensa advlllltnge over any 01ber hay crop. R ud.tu is p ropagated by means or the planu t hat have rooted from 1he joims of the Yincil and whe 1 1lra11sphmted earr.v with them on their roots thc tubere l u that 11re needed to i noculate t h e soil of th e new lleld so as to pr ov ide for fixing the nitrogen from the air into the soil. In plantin g kmb.u, first p l ow the ln nd deeply and harrow it then cheek it in t o rowa 81f~ f ee t apart each way, setting p lant nl each cheek. Lay tap roots along the bottom of the furrow with crowns s l anting upward to within tw o inches of the s u rface, covering them with loose earth to the le\e l of the surface. This require,; 1,0 1 8 pb1n t8 per acre. Give them J e v o! c ultivation (lur iu g t. h e first season A row of e otton mny be grow n be tw ecu each row of kudzu t h e first seaso n if dcKirc d Aft er t h is th e)' will need no further eultiv11tion, as the vine9 will nan nil ovet the ground the n ext &eaaon and I/Ike root at the joini., growing so rapidly 111 to chokc 1 o ut all other pl 11111a (even 11u'c h pe$U a.s nut, Johnson 11nd Bermuda grall8es), yet it ia 1u1 euy matt e r to get rid of k u cltn if desircrl, for the 1 1llllllij will only JJ prout from the crowna and e11n b e killed by cu tting off the~ crowns with II disk plow in h ot, dry weather in s um mer. }<'or tl1 i s rea son there Ill no dange r or kudr.u e cr becoming a pest Kudzu will be nn excellen t crop l o rep la ce cotton in boll weevil 11eetion9; ,t he demand for the hay i;i stronc 11nd t here ill no danger of raising t oo much, M itean he aent tn 1111 partaofthe world for a market .Afte'r the first season there will IM! no further expense except for harvesting the hny, wh i ch roquirea mucl1 lees l abo r thnn making e~tt on , m e\ it will enrfJh t1 1e soi l in stea d of


making it poorer as co tton does; t h i s will avoid l 11n ing to buy fe r t ili z cra. It is ree from insec t enem ibs and diseases also :ind for th ese variou s reasons will be t a r more profitable than cotton. i\gri~ultural 6Cientists have been searching in a in for sueh a plant as kudzu ,rnd it ~ill fill a lo n g-felt want among o,ir farmeu. Unfortunately, however, the supply o f plants i s very l imit ed an dthe demand for them can no t be folly su pp l ied for many years to come Kudzu is pcrfedl~ hardy all ci er the United St11te~ and endures the wintera as frunorth II!! No,a Scotia. It will tlierefore be a Yaluable erop in the Northern Stotes /lJj w~ll >1~ in the Soutl1, although the l onger g r owing season South will be 1m advan t age. KUDZU AND JAPANESE SUGAR CANE Th e Solution of th e Fora ge Problem in th e South \ li!f G E. f I,fJA8, Chipley, l forilUI. TIie ma11 ,,.,;o firi/t i,itro1111c ett K11d::11 to A .1M1ica 08 n \ fnrarw l)fout. On;:i great cau se f or t he s l ow development in Southern Agr i culture hlllj been the ln c k of good, nutritious Pas tures and r oughage tha t lasts throughoul the entirr, yenr. What w e need ia II forage that stock eau live fat on th e yenr round. 'l'bere are m a ny mosl valuable e ultivnted crops thnt. make great yields, etc .. but th e ir pe r io d of matur e life i s sho r t, making frequent plantings neces sary in ortler to liave a comp l ete suceCS11ion. 'f he Velvet


'f lei. n i s an all11ea11on c r o p ye t it is not r ea d y to foe(l till N'nvember The eow pen, soy beau a n d tho various ior g l rnms and mill ets ar e good forHge c rop ,i, but 1111 must h e planted in Hucee"8ion and cultivated !or best res ul ts. And for those lhat ,m! to be harvested befort! feeding, lh e fllrmer o n ly !tu a few d & )'S in wbi e h to get it in i n i ts pri m e cond i t ion and thal i s frm 1 uently impossible :a::'_io1111 of !requ~ n t rltlll.f, espee ia lly during t h e rainy All the legum es (w ith the exception nf Kmb ;11) are m ore or less ha d ubout dru11piug th eir lcn v ea and s hnt t e ri ng whil e c ur ing 1 rnd h a rv eat ing .And o hea,~r a in o n them, or any or tho gr11>111, hays o r fodd c r 11, while cur i n J:I, means ser i ou11 injur y i f not n 1io Kud~u overeo m es a ll 1bese diffl eullie11 1111d SM m any ot h er features in its fav o r. One ,,1anting 1Mta for many yean and it may be cut or paJ< t u te( l a t any time during the seuo o from 11bout t h e mi ddle of A pr il iu North Florid11, till fr ost, r111 d whc!'() 11 g r owt h i ll l ef t on the g rou n d stock win foed on it 11 11 wi n ter, I fo u11d th11t 0 ll\ y s to ck would oat th e d ead l c 11v es ond vin ca thsi had lai r\ out a nd weatherer\ 1. ill M a r ch, and the111, een hauled in fo r b edd ing, i n pref ere n ce 1 0 the bC!II h ay J cou ld bnJ'. They at the K udzu out fro m under their foc t and l eft t h e '20.00 hay in their mangeni, rhc next w int er after making thiadiseoverylhad all t lli $t ra8 l 1r11ked 111 1.11 ml b1111ledandpiled outJide the barn h cfo r e we begnn digging and ~hi ppin g phm t~. and win t e red two h onrea an,1 tt milk oow aud a cnlf or two, on th at alone u roughage, giving them their usna! grai n feed, of course, and e,cryo n e,o fthem came through t he win i er i ii as good con diti o n M t hey had forme rl y don e o n good hay. fdo not m e n tion t hi s to advocates\lch a method, lmt inertly to illt11i.lrllto t ho faut that Kud zu d ou not l ose it s focd ing valu e a~ roadil y, b y rain or uo glect, M other forage p lant~ do , ,md th at t h ere i 5 some thin g about it,


e ven in it s poore M e omliti o n, lh11t ap pe a l s to th e 1mima\'g nl)p c tit e_. An d th e pro perly e ured h ny h 11!! n d elici ou s lr ngra nc e, feaemblinl! te a thut is irr es i u ihle le 11 t oe k. To jll ustr ate the endurance of Kudzu hay in ra i ny weallie r I would c it e that Ill 1 908 we made our finrt cutting with a two -h onie m owe r euuing 5 -12 or Ml nerc in Ju ly from young plant s set th e yea r be fore 'l'hc yid d wtl!I 2.88 t or~ per acre, and whe n almon dry t h e follow ing morningaft e r eutting i t,it.rainedj11Bteno 11 g h toso11 k t h e h11 y lfUOd When d ry th e m 1~ 1 dny and men were in the field co ckiug it np, ther e ca m e a v ery ha rd ruin nnd it d ri ule d a l ongfo r t hre cdny11 Ju s t howhadly it 1 uft' el'\ld eoulcl not bti_delcrmined. but it look ed be t te r than veh e t b ea u hay ever does an tith e' st""k Ille it with a11 11 are n t reli ~h. In 191 2 we C u t n ea r 20 tons from about 11ix acres plant e din 1 910, and with the fJ::rneptien of abo ut two tons that were cut before the r ainy 11c11so n set in, 11 11 of it w113 thoroughly soa k ed one o r more times wl1ih 1 c uring, 111111 y e t no one who did n ot kno w the foe t s woul,\ s uijpect th at i t ha d eve r had II d r op of wa ter "" it, and it was doubtl ess b etjer than m MI .s hi p[lll d 1111.y: Aa l o Kudin '~ adap t abil i ty for cutting or p,u:turing at n11y tim e dur inl!" the RCll$0n, I would point out that hay t 11ke n i.fuy l at ima!yz cd 17 (iO 'lo pr ote in fhnt taken Jul y 30t h (a third cutting ) analyied 14.80 % 11 rotc in, while tha t wh ich h a d stoo d all the !ICI.IIO ll witho u t e u lt ing er p ast nrin::: analyr.elc nn a l ym18t ten y e Ars, fertiliiing i i. no1 on ly unn eeessn ry \mt i mprofh.


10 able, ~ nd I ILave h nd ptanlingsinwhieh 90 m cwere loeated in th e ,er,r ponre ~ t of KOi l 11-s oil tha t would not produce c<>~ 11, melou~ or c v e 11 co w p e oa, and with t h? e 11:.eeption tha t th o youn!l' 1,l:rn tR rli d not start olT ile II<> re n
  • lfc iu ~11ting tlu1t our JWlorest ao i l will prO1<:Weeome matur e d, witho\lt for ti!iz e r and I hav e had 118 high a s ,en 1011 11 per 11cr~ on ortli11nry so il. Kwlm is know11 t o t hr ive in all the United Sta t tt a s n nor u amen t al 1i11e1111<\ therefor e it mu s t be adapted I on l!'rt'll t er va r iety or &0i l 11 and eondit i on8 than 11.lmos t any :::, 1 _; r n ~l:nt :r: d::d fli :1~ 1 c:~~ i::r ~e ~,l : ~ ~n~ : 1; 0::~::,e~r course, for II pro1 1<1r ti oual yield Ill! the $Ca80n i11 long or hnrlindiff" ercntlo.c11l iti es. Our unliv e cuttle manage to s ub ~Ult the ycnr round on the indig cnon~ wire i,:raM, and fo r two or three mont h s in th e spring Ill"<' fat cnot fg h for the blo ck; while man y di co!stan at ionduring t hew iot e r ,a rnl 11re too po a.r t o lrn 1c h e rt hehnla nc eof lh 11 ye a r. for the w11ntof n11 triti1>n, Blooded atock ,:annot ~land r ange eoo di tiOllll an d subs i SL o u wire gra.&11 alolle. 1'h ey re.:1uiro nutrit i ous feed t he year round and K 11di 11 comes near er flllin_g this want tlmn 1;n yo th ero n e forage, ytt itisdcfi e i e ut in 6 omclecd elemc 11t 11, 1111d t o 111nke up tho defi c i ency J re c ommend th" ,fopan ese S u~ 11 1 Cnnc, the two m11king pr 11ctica lly 11 bnlnneed rati on. Th e b est way of fe e d ing rhi s eom bins tion ii,. i n my mind, lo put t h e cane in the silo and pas ture th e K udzu dur i ug 1he growing eeMO n wi l h t h e eane 11i l nge In b 11lancc, gn~ a focd 111 n i g ht and in winter, feed K111bu hay and silnp:c. T his can e i s a rrn e H ui:-ar e ane and hot 11110rg hum and is n ot prnl?agat ~ d from sc~ d but by lurin g th e mat.ured

    PAGE 11

    f!talks, which gr0l\' vei-y rapidly and increases in yiel
    PAGE 12

    four fields, and when one i s pretty well eaten down, say in two orthree weeks, tnru into t he next, ete. Most people ti,ink that because Kudzu i s a vine and makes such II kemendous growt h in a season that it mu11t be praetically i mpossible to eut and handle it 11s a' hay crop. Our repeated expe ri enee ha~ heen tl111t i t. i8 no moretroubletoe11torlurnd lc thau11 li kehe11v,\erop of red elover, Mexican elover or pursley, cr11bgr118'1 or any other h11y 11111t 11111k es b u111ttcd growth, 11nd it is far icH troub l~ t.o handle than either eow pea or \.ei\'et \)e 1>1\ hay Unlike the velv e t beans nr eow peas, Ku~zu i~ anchored to the ground evd of the mower blade, as do the cow11eas and beans. We do uot look f or th~ divi,ling line i n cut1in;:, \mt watd, the lef t mower wheel inrtteud and see !hat it fol lows iu 1 he trRek of t he right. whcel of the prev io118 round We str11ighteu out the guard rod o o the inner s hoe of the cutter bar and set f or ward und just as h igh M will allow th e douhl et reeij to pass over it w ithou t h>1nging, 11ud the tri,:k i s done .. Ev ery v ine i>1 thus force d d own by t he tr11ee~ and under th in rod 11n
    PAGE 13

    I I bel i ev e th.e 11 id l' delh e ry r11k e woul! are :tll ino culnt cd ; i11 fac t it wo u ld b e irnp0& ~ible to find on e that doe,i nn l cu ry the l,a cle ria with i t when /11111d le1) in the \l ijUl\ l m1111n ~ r Th11 & snil i11 oe ul nt i o11 is um1 ec...,~ 11 r y. F o r pl1mting I prefor old ground, n r ut eut weo ud yeKr new gro uud a.nd if p 0>111ih l c, land tha t had v e l vc~

    PAGE 14

    I bc1rns on it the ycnr pr~viou~ r I hr<:>ak. the gro1rntl "broa d 01ut" and prepare it 011 for 1 see d bed by using t he diag la.ijt. 1'heu 1 lay it of!' in tlv { foot rows and set the vlants abo ut ernry five fe et in the row Th is will re(]nire,about !~: 1;~a: ~!:~ a;~: 11 ?:,~ J.:~; ; ;1: :h~:~l c~:t; :~:e;: l~ e holes by st i cking it iii / the ground ,md preiilling the lumd l e fonn.rd, whil e the boy, carrying th e 11hmr"', stiekij them in back of the Mhove'i, with t he crowns ehoul 11n inr.h below the s ur face. ~'he sho v el i11 r emo,e d and the 1111111 s t e ps on each 11 id e of the plant to pre~ij t h e earth lir1 n ly !lfter it fall~ baek 011 the .plan t. 'l'he proper time to r pl111uiug Kudzu i s"two to three wcek.sinadvaneeofcorn 1 l11nling timeoralittl eor lier if one ca n get the gro1111d ready. A full trop of CCl rn may be grown o nthe aame land, the tint ye11r, by drop. ping the graina hetw een tl 1e plame. Neithn will inter fere wit lnhe other and bod n e<'! d about. the aa me atten rio n. only th <, gro,ind shall~ lef t amoothn;l level at tho t11atcu lti vatioutopermileasy rooting of th e vineiior runucrs and mbse<1uent mowi11g for hay. Plau b canno t root as wdl on,: rough urfaee. The advantage. of Kudzu ove r other hay crops are ahno~t l egion and one cannot realUC th e m until he has fully tried it out. Some get the id ea that it will become 11 pe11t, once they get ito n theil"farma. I have lrnd it for ten yenrs and have not found it HO i'n any particular. I( it geta into the fe11ee rows let it go and y ou will soo n have some most valuublc feed in th e place of tl1<, worth le111weedsandlbria". Whenyoureropaareolt,turnthe ,toek in and they will elear yo ur fence eorc.en out. Jf you e,e r d o willh to get rid of it (and T would not ad \ille it, a~ it i s the mo6t l valunhte ero11 one can raise ) 1mt enough stock on it to keep it elo!e for about two months i n the s pring end th e wo1"k is doue. O r it ma.y \Jc thoroughly \Jroken, preferably w i t h u disc plow, ,nhel' e utting, durin ir the liottest, dryest ijC HllO!I, or after

    PAGE 15

    killing frosts in th e fall, an d ra rely c,er n plan t will s urviv e . At the no minal p rioo or hay, whiel, iK 11\xrnt $2 0 .00 1 11e r ton in th e Sou th a nd h e low est im ateoffl. \ etonR per acre, th\nk whM a few ,:,.e r e, o f Kud z u would m ean I hawi yet to aee RUY ot her crop t hat w ill yiel d l!lle h a revenue w ith 90 liu l e labor and e:,;pen!I(.', 11 11 d nt the aume lime bu ild 1111th eaoil. It ha&tnk cn tll e v e l vet h Mn fif t een or n101'(l ycnn; t o ree.e h its pre>1en t s of popularity nnd usof uluc ,i,;, and th er e a re n ow thm1 ~a nd~ Ot h ea d of ca ttl e a nd hog~ [at ~~';:1/;.~!~t~~;~ll~, il ~~~ ~ c:; e~i 1 ~:: : : 1 t .,~ n7~ r ~~::c~:t Kud~u and J apa n ege C ane Th e Sou t h Lil wak'ing u p to the fac t that it ca n grow feed st u ff cheaper than t he No rtl i can, uul t h e No rth i>I begin n ing t o rculiie the a am e thing, 1uu \ it will be on l y 11 fe w s hor t ~ earH till th is section will b e teem in g with No rth ern sioek rai!lllrs n nd !a rmeni to s up plr th e Nor th cr 11 murkc ts No-w is th o time for th e $ou1 .l1 e r11 fnr m ei-.i to get busy and be on t h e groun d fl oo r. 'fo kive au idea of whflt is a\ rcady being dorm, I might Ad d t h at over fltty t hol.lStl n d plants wer e l!<'ll out the p seaso n in W est Flo r ida alo ne, tha t l kl)ow of, and l'roh ab l y t wice as many in ot h er States. P artie11 who only had II am11 II a r ea lllllt yea r have in c r ea8e d it man y timo, o v e r.,the pa st winter oue man pu tt ingoutfort yMrca, an othe rt e 11 a11dij<1011 wh i leour own acreage i s on ly limit e d by 11111011nt o f c leare d l a nd onO urfanlll. An ol h errca rw eexpcett o atlenstdouble o nr acreage, an d t hose w h o are in II posirio n to know what K udr:u lll aeh111 1l y do in g ha, e < 111l y t h e highest. p r aise fo r iL Same m a y be sa id of th e J apa n ese Cane, for th e two s h ou ld go toget h e r. To get an id ea of one succcsdul grower'11 c1ti m ntc Or K u dzu, l wrot e him to k n ow the lowe 8 t flgor es thnt w o uld buy h i~ a creage, eith e r enti r e or on n liv e or te n-y ea r lea se, andh erc fu sedtosc tanyprie e