Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department

Material Information

Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title:
Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date:
Monthly[ FORMER 1901- Sept. 1905]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
-v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note:
Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note:
Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
28473206 ( OCLC )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

Number 4

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida




'Q.q j/i1 t\

0_1 u

Supplement to



OCTOBER 1, 1914.






The investigation upon which this report is based was
undertaken by the Forest Service in co-operation with
the Department of Agriculture of the State of Florida,
the work being done under the direction of O. T. Swan,
in charge of Industrial Investigations, United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The statis-
tics were compiled from data collected in 1912, covering
a period of one year. The State Department of Agricul-
ture is authorized to publish the findings of the investi-

r' -t




Florida extends farther south than any other State,
and approaches within sixty miles of the torrid zone. It
covers six and one-half degrees of latitude. No part of
the State has a cold climate, but many tree species which:
flourish in the cool Appalachian Mountain ranges extend
into northern Florida, and there find the boundary of
their ranges. The southern portion of the State has a
sub-tropical climate, and the vegetation shows it. Where
there are soil and fertility enough .to support vegetation,
it is very dense. Trees belonging to tropical regions have
gained a foothold along the southern coasts and upon
the hundreds of islands and reefs lying near the shores
of the peninsula. Several tree species are found, there
and nowhere else in the United States.
The greatest length of Florida is 700 miles, and its
average width is 90 miles. Its area is 58,680 square miles,
of which 4,440 are water. Its coast line is longer than
that of any other State, and notwithstanding much shal-
low water near the shore, there are a number of excellent
harbors. No point in the State rises more than 300 feet
above sea level. Delaware is the only State which does
not at some point attain a greater elevation than Florida.
fTle' surface of Florida is far from being a dead level,
though the differences in elevation are small. The north-
ern portion is diversified with rolling hills and gentle
slopes. The south hplf has no hills, but irregularities of
surface are numerous. Some of the red soils which

abound in Georgia seem to have overlapped into portions
of northern Florida; but in the southern part of the
State, the white sand worn from the coral reefs and
limestone deposits covers most of the surface, and in
some localities the great coral reef which forms the skele-
ton of south Florida, protrude through the thin sand cov-
ering, and appears at the surface. Low swales and de-
pressions abound in places, and these have accumulated
and they hold black muck which looks like wet pulverized
The whole peninsula was originally wooded, except
about ten thousand square miles of swamp and coral
ledges known as the Everglades. A few trees of fair
size grow in that region, but most of the Everglades is
treeless, and during half of the year is covered with wa-
ter from a few inches to several feet deep. Tall, reed-
like grass grows out of the water, and at intervals over
small flat islands, a few inches above water, on which
grow thickets of myrtle, bay, and other bushes. Little,
if any, of this growth ever attains a size fitting it for
use, and the Everglades have never contributed to any
considerable extent to Florida's lumber supply.
Tropical species are found in the rocky hammocks of
the southern part, where they frequently grow in almost
impenetrable jungles; but when the hammock land ends
and the sand begins, the hardwoods give way to Cuban
and sand pine, and the change from a rich and luxuriant
vegetation to a thin and poor one is often almost instan-
taneous. The pines in the southern part of the State are
generally but not always small. There is abundance of
rain, but in many places the white sand contains so little
humus that trees do not reach a large size.
Agriculture has not yet greatly lessened the timber
areas of Florida. About one acre in eight has been
cleared. In many parts, in the southern half of the State
particularly, the forest cover is so thin that the woods
afford about as good pasturage as if the trees were not

there. In the northern part, where the hardwoods of
the Appalachian region overlap on Florida and soil is
better, the forests are generally much heavier.
Many of the Florida rivers are ideal as driving streams
for logs. The currents are sluggish, and the water
usually deep. There are a few bars and no rapids. On
small streams the chief obstacle in the way of log driving
is frequently trees which grow along the banks and down
to the extreme low water mark. These trunks sometimes
so nearly close the channels that little space is left for
logs to pass through. That difficulty is not often met on
the larger rivers.
The study of the wood-using industries of Florida was
made in the spring of 1912, and was carried out under
the same plan as other similar State studies. All known
manufacturers of wood commodities in the State were
sent blanks to be filled, showing the extent and character
of their operations, the kinds of woods employed, and
the cost of the lumber used. Those who neglected to
reply to the mail request were visited and the desired
statistics were procured in nearly every instance. The
accompanying tables will show summaries of the result.
The total annual output of manufactured wood commodi-
ties in Florida ranks rather low compared with some of
the other Southern States, but high compared with many
of the Northern and Central States. The Southern
States which exceed Florida in total product are Louis-
iana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and North
Florida is manufacturing its softwoods into flooring,
ceiling, siding, sash and mill products, but is not yet
doing much with its hardwoods. No States south of
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas are active in
the way of manufacturing their hardwoods. Florida is
doing what other Gulf States are doing; that is, cutting
pine and cypress, and leaving the rest. These species
are most abundant, and under present conditions there

is more money in them than in' the smaller and more
dispersed hardwoods; but the people of Florida should
not lose sight of the fact that they have a rare lot of
hardwoods and that there is a good market for them if
pains are taken to reach that market in the right way.
More than 95 per cent of the wood now passing through
Florida's factories is pine and cypress. These species
are exploited at the expense of all others. While they
last, they will make the lumber business profitable, but
when they are gone, the wood-worker's attention will turn
to what is now being neglected-the hardwoods.
Florida appears to be suffering more from forest fires
than most of the other Southern States. The fires are
small and slow. They do not attract much attention as
they creep along among the pine, but-they get in their
deadly work no less surely, though more slowly, than the
forest conflagrations which wipe out many square miles
in one stretch. The traveler in Florida, almost anywhere
outside the boundaries of the swamps, is soon accustomed
to the sight of long lines of .fire which keep close to the
ground. The blaze may not be more than a foot high,
but when it has passed, it leaves every tree seedling dead.
The mat of saw palmettoes, which nearly always casts a
low shade to protect the ground, are scorched brown
wherever the fire touches them. They may sprout again
the next year, and tree seedlings may come up again, but
the fire will follow, and every visitation leaves the ground
more barren. No forests will stand fire indefinitely, and
Florida's in every part of the State are showing the re-
sults of burnings.
The control of forest fires in Florida should be easier U
than in most States, because the country is flat, the woods
often open and thin, and watercourses numerous. But
efforts to control are infrequent. Persons well acquaint-
ed with customs in the State say that ten fires are pur- -
posely set, for every one extinguished. The Florida razor
back hog is indirectly one of the forest's worst enemies.

It is a gaunt, ungainly animal, adapted for foraging and
built for speed, and it roams the woods in a never-tiring
search for something to eat. In the late winter the own-
ers of the hogs go out with a box of matches and burn
the range. That clears away old stalks, and tender shoots
spring up with a plentiful supply of swine pasture for a
few weeks. The men who set the fire care little for the
young trees destroyed and the old trunks weakened. A
thousand seedling pines perish that a hog may lay on a
few pounds of fat; and Florida sentiment generally does
not seem to oppose the process.


Florida has 165 unused species of trees, a few more or
a few less, depending upon whether some of the minor
species are included or excluded. Trees which belong
in northern latitudes reach into the northern part of the
State and there have their southern limit, while others
which are tropical or semitropical reach their northern
limit somewhere in the State.
It is a wealth of species rather than a wealth of wood,
because in a commercial sense many of the trees are not
of much importance on account of scarcity, or the small
size, or poor form of trunks. A few of the most abundant
supply nearly all the lumber cut in Florida; while the
scores of others contribute very small amounts now, with
little prospect that the amount can ever be much increased.
The State is at present an important lumber producer;
but, with the depletion of the principal woods, it may be
expected that the annual output of sawmills will fall to
a much lower place. That will tend to bring into use
the numerous scarce and small species, and the wood-
using industries may be expected to undergo a change.
The output of planing mill products will diminish as the
pine and cypress grow scarcer; and the manufacture of
articles from cabinet woods, which are numerous and at-

tractive, though in total amount not large, may be ex-
pected to increase until in time that will become the
leading wood-using industry of Florida.

In view of what will probably be brought about in
the future, it is opportune to examine the State's timber
resources. In the first place, after excluding the pines,
cypress, and a few other species which now furnish the
bulk of Florida's sawmill output, it should be borne in
mind that the State's timber consists for the most part
of species which do not reach large size. Therefore, in
dustries which shall make use of them must produce ar-
ticles suited to the material. In the second place, most
of this timber belongs to the hardwood class, and a large
part of it is colored sufficiently t6 place it in the cabinet
woods list. Therefore, it may be expected that the fu-
ture wood-using industries of Florida will be such as
can profitably handle small timber, and hard and col-
ored woods. That will call for a rather unusual class
of commodities. They will be selected from many in-
dustries. That phase of the State's development lies al-
most wholly in the future, for very little of it is now
under way. The larger timber is being worked up, but
the great wealth of small woods remains-more than
one hundred species which at this time are scarcely
touched at all.

A study of the kinds and character of the many woods
suggests certain commodities which can be profitably
manufactured in Florida. The list, however, should be
considered simply as suggestive. Most of the articles
have not been manufactured to much extent in the State,
and in some instances a trial would probably show that
they could not be profitably made; but the majority of
the woods are valuable, and will some time attract manu
facturers. The following list of commodities is suggested
as probably suited to the character of many of the Florida
species which at the present time are not in use:

Athletic goods,
Billiard cues,
Brush backs,
Carved ornaments,
Clothes pins,
Curtain rings,
Insulator pin,
Manicure sets,

Mathematical instruments,
Medicinal extracts,
Musical instruments,
Picture frames,
Small furniture,
Sporting goods,
Umbrella handles,
Wooden ware.

Various other commodities might be added to the list.
For many of them a small tree may be used in that way
to advantage, though not large enough for ordinary lum-
ber. The list of species which follows includes only
those woods which are not now reported by any manu
facturer in Florida, according to returns secured in the
recent wood-using study in the State. It shows a re-
markable wealth of material waiting for manufacturers.
It is impracticable in the space here available to describe
each wood very fully. In each instance, however, the
best available information is given concerning each spe-
cies' average height, trunk diameter, hardness or soft-
ness, strength or weakness, weight, and color. Such gen-
eral information will indicate to the prospective manu-
facturer what woods will likely suit his purposes. If
favorably impressed with a sufficient number of them, he

can make further investigation for himself along his par-
ticular line.
American Holly (Ilex opaca).-The common holly that
bears the red berries used in Christmas decorations.
The tree may attain a height of forty feet and a diameter
of a foot or more. The wood is nearly white when freshly
cut, and changes to a brown with age.
Andromeda (Andromeda ferruginea).-It is often
called titi, and attains a height of twenty feet and a
diameter occasionally one foot, but usually smaller. The
wood is heavy, hard, not strong, light brown, tinged with
red. It grows on Cedar Keys and about Apalachicola.
Angelica Tree (Aralia spinosa).-Size is against much
use for this tree, which is often called Hercules Club.
The trunk may reach eight inches in diameter, and a
height of thirty feet. The wood is light, soft, brittle, and
brown with yellow streaks. It is found in the ni.,rihli n
part of the State.
Beech (Fagus atropunicea).-The comfnon and well-
known beech is found in the western part of Florida,
but the trees are small and rather poor, and are usually
found on sandy hammocks.
Bitternut (Hicora minima).-The bitternut species of
hickory grows in western Florida, where it reaches its
southern limit.
Black Calabash (Crescentia ovata).-It is found in
Florida only in the south, and is too small to be of use
for other than small articles. Its height is 15 or 20 feel,
trunk diameter 4 or 5 inches, wood heavy and hard, and
light brown or orange in color.
Black ('l,, i y (Prunus serotina).-The ordinary cherry
of which furniture and house finish are made is found
only occasionally in Florida.
Black Ironwood (Rhamnidium ferreunm).-This is one
of several ironwoods found in the south of Florida. It is

among the commonest of the small trees in the region
where it grows, and attains a height of 20 to 30 feet, and
a diameter of six to ten inches. The wood is exceed-
ingly heavy and hard, and is rich brown in color.
Black Jack (Quercus marilandica).-It is not one of
the valuable oaks, but in some localities trees of usable
size are found. It grows as far south as Tampa Bay.
Black Olive Tree (7'Tirwi,,iill; buceras).-A tendency
to branch near the ground is characteristic of the black
olive tree. Trunks may be two feet or more in diameter
and forty feet high. The wood is exceedingly hard and
heavy, and is usually light yellow brown. The tree, is
found on the southern keys.
Black Sloe (Prunus unmbellata).-A Florida name for
the tree is hog plum. The trunk is small and generally
crooked, the wood reddish brown and heavy..
Black Walnut (Juglans nigra).-A little black wal-
nut, the well-known cabinet wood, is found in the west-
ern part of the State.
Black Willow (Salix nigra).-Willow trees of commer-
cial size are not abundant in the State, but specimens
exist in many places.
Blackwood. (Avicennia. nitida).-This tree is often
called black mangrove. It reaches a diameter of one-or
two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood is very
heavy and hard, and is nearly black.
Blolly (Pisonia obtusata).-The blolly is found in the
extreme south of the State, where it attains a height of
30 to 50 feet and a diameter 15 to 20 inches. The wood
is heavy and weak, and yellowish- brown.
Blue Beech (Carpinfs carolinana).-The wood of blue
beech is strong, its color light, and the tree is generally
small and of poor form for lumber.
Blue Jack (Quercus brevifolia).-Large trees of this

species are not often seen, and the wood is too coarse for
any but rough uses.
Buckthorn Bilmelia (Bumelis lycoides).-Some call
this tree mock orange, and some ironwood. It attains a
trunk diameter of six inches and a height of 25 or 30
feet; wood is heavy and weak, and of yellow color.
Bustic (Dipholis salicifolia).-Cassado is one of the
names by which the tree is known in Florida. It attains
a height of 50 feet and a diameter of 20 inches. The
wood is red, exceedingly hard and heavy, and is found in
the extreme south of the State.
Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto).-The cabbage pal-
metto is abundant in many parts of the State, and trunks
40 feet high and a foot in diameter are not uncommon.
Chinquapin (Castanae pumila).-This little chestnut
tree grows in the northern part of the State, where it
reaches the southern boundary of its range.
C',inaln,, Bark (Canella winterana)'.-A height of 25
feet and a diameter of eight inches are usual, and the
wood is very heavy and exceedingly hard. Its color is
dark brown. The species grows on the southern keys in
the shade of other trees.
Cockspur (Crataegius crus-galli).-This thornbush occa-
sionally becomes a small tree. Its wood is heavy, hard
and strong.
Cocoa Plum (Chrysobalanus icaco).-Gopher plum is
another name for this tree which may be 25 feet high and
a foot in diameter, with strong, hard, heavy, brown-col-
ored wood. It is confined in Florida to the southern part
of the State.
Corkwood (Leitneria floridana).-A small amount of
this species is found in western Florida near Apalachi-
cola. It is little more than a shrub in size, and the wood
is soft and very light.
Crabwood (Gynmanthes lucida).-The wood is dark

brown and rich in color; very heavy and hard. Trunks
are six or eight inches in diameter and -20 or 30 feet tall.
The species grows in the extreme south of the State.
Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).-This is common cot-
ton wood.
Dahoon (Ilex cassine).-In practical use this holly is
about the same as the common holly. It is neither abun-
dant or of large size.
Deciduous Holly (Ilex decidua).-Most hollies are ever-
green, but this sheds its leaves in winter. The wood is
white like the others.
Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).-It is often called
wild olive, and reaches a height of 40 or 50 feet and a
diameter of ten or twelve inches. Wood is dark brown,
heavy, very hard, and difficult to work.
Dogwood (Cornus florida) is the common dogwood, a
hard, heavy, smooth wood that may reach a trunk diame-
ter of one foot and a height of twenty or thirty.
Dwarf Sumach- (Rhits copallina).-This is generally
quite small, but sizes large enough for use are found.
The wood is richly colored with yellow and black or dark
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus).-This is not a na-
tive tree, but has been introduced from Australia, and
is often called blue gum.
Fevertree (Pinckneya pubens), called Florida quinine
bark in some places, is so rare that the wood will prob-
ably not be much used, though the bark may possess
Fiddlewood (Citharexylum villosum) abounds on the
southern keys, and is small. Trunks are four or five
inches in diameter and fifteen or twenty feet high. The
wood is bright red, heavy, and very strong.
Florida Buttonwood (Conocarpus erecta) grows on
muddy tidewater shores in southern Florida. It is 20 to

30 inches in diameter and 40 to 60 feet high. The wood
is very heavy, strong, hard, and burns slowly like char-
coal. It is dark yellow-brown.
Florida Box.wood (Schaefferis frutescens) or yellow
wood as it is occasionally called, is found on the south-
ern keys, attains a height of 30 or 40 feet and a diame-
ter of six to ten inches. The bright yellow wood is heavy
and hard.
Florida Caper (capparis jamaicensis), locally known
as caper tree, is found in the extreme south of the State,
and is usually quite small. The wood is tinged with red
and is hard and heavy.
Florida Cat's Claw (Zygia unguis-cati) .-Some call this
tree longpod. It is found in the southern part of the
State, where it attains a height of 20 to 25 feet and a
diameter of 7 or 8 inches. The wood is a rich red, vary-
ing to purple, and very heavy and hard.
Florida Maple (Acer saccharum floridanum).-This
is a small maple found in western Florida.
Florida Plum (Drypetes lateriflora), called also Guiana
plum and whitewood, is found in the extreme southern
part of the State where it reaches a height of 20 to 30
feet and a diameter of five or six inches. The wood is
dark brown, brittle and hard.
Florida Torrcya (Tuniion taxifolium), is a scarce spe-
cies found in western Florida near the Apalachicola
River. The wood is yellow, and the tree is often called
stinging cedar.
Florida Yew ( Tai ,i floridanum), called also Savin
and Chattahoochee pine, has its range on the east bank
of the Apalachicola River in western Florida. The tree
is seldom more than 25 feet high and one foot in diameter.
Its wood is hard and is dark brown.
Fraser Umbrella (Magnolia fraseri), sometimes called
water lily tree, ranges through portions of western Flor-

ida. It is thirty or forty feet high and 18 or 20 inches
in diameter. The wood is soft, light, and weak.
Garber Stopper (Eugenia garberi) .is scarce and is
found in the extreme south of the State.
Geigertree (Cordia sebestina) is 25 or 30 feet high, six
inches or less in diameter, and is scarce. The wood is
brown, heavy, and hard.
Golden Fig (Ficus area) is a parasitic tree reaching
its best development in the south of Florida, where it may
be three or four feet in diameter and fifty or sixty high.
It is one of the lightest, weakest woods in this country,
and is subject to very rapid decay.
Green Ash (Frai.inus lanceolate) is found in small
quantity in the northern part of the State.
Green Haw (Crataegus viridis).-This is generally a
shrub, but is sometimes 30 feet high, with trunk a foot
or more in diameter.
Guettorda (Guettarda elliptica), or nakedwood as some
call it, grows on the southern keys, and is small, but the
wood is heavy and hard.
Guiana Plum (Drypetes keyensis) has its range on the
southern keys, where it develops a trunk five or six inches
in size. The dark brown wood is hard, heavy, and brittle.
Gumbo Limbo (Busera simaruba), or West Indies birch,
is sometimes 60 feet high and three in diameter. The
wood is soft, weak, spongy, light, and of a brown color.
Its range is in the southern part of the State.
Gurgeon Stopper (Eugenia buxifolia) is confined to
the south of the State, where it is usually a shrub, but
is sometimes twenty feet high and a foot in diameter. The
wood is brown, shaded with red, and is very, heavy and
exceedingly hard.
Gyminda (Gyminda grisebachii), or false boxwood,
grows on the southern islands, where it is occasionally
25 feet high and six inches in diameter. The wood is
nearly black and is very heavy and hard.

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis).-It grows in most
parts of Florida and is of commercial size. The wood
is light in color, rather soft, and not very strong.
Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), or wafer ash, is a north-
ern species but reaches Florida, where it is too small to
be of much use. The yellowish brown wood is heavy and
Inkwccod (Exothca paniculata), and also one of the
numerous species locally called ironwood, is confined in
the United States to the south of Florida. It is 40 or
50 feet high, a foot in diameter, and the wood is very
strong, and bright red.
Ironwood (Cyrilla racenmiflora) .-This is likewise
known as red titi. The tree may be thirty feet high and
one in diameter. The wood is brown, tinged with red,
and, though hard and heavy, is not strong.
Jamaica Dogwood (Ichthyomethis piscipula), grows in
many parts of Florida, and may reach a height of 40 or
50 feet and a diameter of two or three. The yellow-brown
wood is heavy, hard, and durable in contact with the
Joewood (Jaqiinia armillaris) is a rather scarce wood
of southern Florida, and the trees are small. The wood
is a rich brown and is beautifully marked with darker
medullary rays. It is hard and heavy.
Lancewood (Ocotea catesbyana) is comparatively abun-
dant in south Florida, and is a tree 20 or 30 feet high and
a foot or more in diameter. The wood's color is rich
dark brown, and it is hard and heavy.
Largeleaf Umbrella (Magnolia macrophylla) is known
as cucumber tree in Florida. The wood is hard, but is
light and weak. It is not abundant.
Laurel Cherry (Prunus caroliniana), or mock olive, is
30 or 40 feet high and six or eight inches through, and
its hard, strong, heavy wood is dark brown.

Laurel Oak (Quercus laurifolia) attains largest size
in eastern Florida, where trees 100 feet high and 3 or
4 feet in diameter are occasionally seen. The wood is
heavy, very strong and hard.
Leucaena (Leucaena glauca).-The little of this species
in the State is on the extreme southern keys.
Lignum vitae (Guajacum sanctum) is found on the
Florida keys, where it forms a round-headed crown 25 or
30 feet high, and the trunk is two or three feet in diame-
ter. The wood is exceedingly hard, and much of it is
richly colored.
Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus), or tan bay, is a
tree 60 to'75 feet high and a foot or more in diameter,
with light, soft, not durable, red wood.
Longstalk Willow (Salia, occidentalis longipes) is small
and scarce in the State.
Manchineel (Hippomane mancinella).-This tree is
small in Florida, though larger in the West Indies. It
grows only in the immediate neighborhood of the ocean.:
Mangrove (Rhisophora mangle) is usually only fifteen
or twenty feet high and a few inches in diameter, form-
ing with its aerial roots impenetrable thickets; but some-
times trunks are thirty or forty feet long, clear of
branches, while the trees are 70 or 80 feet tall. The wood
is exceedingly heavy, hard, and strong.
Marlberry (Icacorea paniculata).-This tree is small,
but the wood is a rich brown beautifully marked with
darker medullary rays. It is heavy and hard.
Mastic (Sideroxylon mastichodendron), or wild olive,
has a trunk three or four feet in diameter and 60 or 70
tall. The hard, heavy wood is a bright orange yellow.
Mockernut (Hicoria alba) is a valuable and well-known
species of hickory.
Mountain Laurel (Kolmia latifolia) does not often at-
tain tree size, though it is sometimes 30 or 40 feet high

and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is hard, strong,
and brittle.
Naked Stopper (Anamonis dichotoma) may be six
inches thick and 20 feet higlh. It belongs in the southern
part of the State. The wood is light brown or red, and
is hard and very heavy.
Naked-wood (Colubrina reclinata), or soldierwood as
it is sometimes called, is native in the extreme south of
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and three feet or
more in diameter. The hard, heavy wood is dark brown
tinged with yellow.
Narrowleaf Crab (Pyrus angustifolia), or crabtree, as
it is frequently called, in northwestern Florida is 20 or
25 feet high, with hard, heavy reddish brown wood.
Odorless Myrtle (Myrica inodora).-This small tree is
very scarce in Florida.
Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) is a commercial species
with its southern limit in western Florida. It is not
abundant there.
Paradise-tree (Simarouba glauca), or bitterwood, is
native of southern Florida, occasionally 18 or 20 inches
in diameter and 40 or 50 feet tall. The brown wood is
soft and light.
Parsley Haw (Crataegus aplifolia) is found in the
northern part of the State, with a small trunk, seldom
more than 20 feet high.
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba).-This tree is small and
S the wood is light, soft, and weak.
Pigeon Plum (Cocolobis laurifolia) attains a diameter
of one or two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood
is strong, heavy, and exceedingly hard. It is a rich dark
brown, tinged with red.
Pignut (Hicoria glabra) is one of the commercial hick-
ories and grows in northern Florida.

Planertree (Planera aquatica) is 30 or 40 feet high
and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is light and
soft, and light brown in color.
Poisonwood (Rhus metopiumn), or coral sumach, grows
on the southern keys. It attains a height of 30 or 40
feet and a diameter of one or two. The wood is heavy
and hard, but is not strong. It is dark brown, streaked
with red, and within its range it is abundant.
Pond Apple (Annona glabra), or custard apple, ranges
through south Florida, and may be 30 or 40 feet high,
with a trunk often much swelled at the base. The weak,
light wood is brown, streaked with yellow.
Poplarleaf Fig (Pious populnea), or india-rubber tree,
is found in southern Florida, and is 40 or 50 feet high,
and a foot or more in thickness of trunk. The orange-
brown wood is light and soft.
Pond Pine (Pinus serotina), sometimes called loblolly
pine in Florida, though it is not the true loblolly, is of
moderate size, the wood is resinous and heavy, and of
dark orange color. It occurs in the northern part of the
Post Oak (Quercus minor) is one of the commercial
trees of northern Florida and the wood resembles white
Prickly Ash (Xanthoxylum clavaherculis) is also called
stingtongue and toothache tree. It is from 25 to 30 feet
high and a foot or more through the trunk. The wood
is soft and light.
Princewood (Exostema caribaeum) is found on the
southern keys, with trunks 10 or 12 inches in size and
20 or 25 feet high. The wood is very heavy and exceed-
ingly hard and strong, light brown, and handsomely
streaked with different shades of yellow and brown.
Pumpkin Ash (Fraxinus profunda) is too scarce in
Florida to be attractive to wood users.

Queensland Pine (Casuarina torulosa) is an Australian
tree, which has been. introduced in southern Florida,
where it grows with great rapidity.
Red Bay (Persea barbonia), sometimes called sweet
bay and Florida mahogany, attains a height of 60 or 70
feet and a diameter of 2 or 3 feet. The bright red wood
is strong, hard, and heavy.
Redbud (Cercis canadensis), or Judas tree, is some-
times 50 feet high, but is generally small. The wood is
not strong, but is hard and heavy. It is rich dark brown,
tinged with red.
Red Ironwood (Reyibosia latifolia), often called darling
plum, is a southern Florida species of a height of 20 feet
and six or eight inches in diameter, with rich dark brown
very hard and heavy.
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) grows as far south as In-
dian River, but is not important or plentiful.
Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) occasionally reaches com-
mercial size in the State. The wood is dark reddish, hard
and strong.
Red Stopper (Eugenia procera).-Height 20 to 25 feet,
diameter one foot; wood light brown, heavy, and hard.
River Birch (Betula nigra) reaches commercial size;
the wood is plain, strong, and medium heavy.
Royal Palm (Oreodoxa regia).-Height 80 to 100 feet,
diameter 1 or 2 feet. The wood is spongy.
Saffron Plum (Bumelia angustfolia), also known as
downward plum and antswood, is 20 feet high with a six-
inch trunk. The wood is hard and heavy, brown or orange
Sargent Palm (Psuedophoenix sargentii) grows on the
southern reefs, but is very scarce.
Sassafras (Sassafras sassafras) reaches the southern
limit of its range in central Florida, and is not commer
cially important.

Satinleaf (Chrysophylltm monopyrenum).-Height 20
feet, diameter one foot, wood hard and heavy, light brown,
shaded with-red. The tree is not plentiful.
Satinwood (Xanthoxylum cribri. Esa).-This tree at-
tains a height of 30 or 35 feet and a diameter of one or
more. The wood is brittle, heavy, hard, and of light
orange color.
Scarlet Haw (Crataegus coccinea) ; height 18 or 20 feet,
diameter 4 inches, wood hard and heavy.
Sea Grape (cocolobis uvifera), or seaside plum. The
wood is hard and heavy, and of dark brown or violet color.
The trees are small, seldom more than fifteen feet high.
Shagbark Hickory (Hicoria ovata).-This is a valuable
and common species of hickory.
Shittimwood (Bumelia lanuginosa) reaches its south-
ern limit in the northern part of the State, and is not of
much commercial importance.
Silktop Palmetto (Thrinax parviflora), also called sil-
ver thatch, grows on the southern keys, and reaches a
diameter of eight or ten inches and a height of 20 or 30
Silverbell-tree (Mohlrodendron carolinum), also known
as snowdrop tree, extends'into northern Florida, which
is the southern limit of its range. The light brown wood
is soft, and sometimes finely figured.
Silvertop Palmetto (Thrinax microcarpa), or brittle
thatch, is native among the southern keys, where it may
reach a height of 30 feet.
Slippery Elm (Ulmus pubescens) is found in western
Florida, where the tree reaches commercial size. The
wood is strong and without much figure.
Small-leaf Haw (Orataegus uniflora) ; in northern part
of State.
Snowdrop-tree (Mohrodendron dipterum) ; height 20 or

'25 feet, diameter 6 or 8 inches, wood light brown, soft,
Soapberry (Sapindus saponaria), also called false dog-
wood in the southern part of the State, is 23 or 30 feet
in height, and 12 inches or less in diameter. The wood
is hard and rather heavy, light brown tinged with yel-
Sour Tupelo (Nyssa ogeche), sometimes called gopher
plum, has the southern limit of its range in northern
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and two feet or less
in diameter. The wood is weak and soft, and light in
Sourwood (Oaydendron arboreum) grows in north-
western Florida, but is of small size. The wood is heavy
and hard, and is brown, tinged with red.
Southern Red Juniper (Jun.iperus barbadensis).-This
species closely resembles the common red cedar.
Southern White Cedar (C('I i, i ii, iypri ; thyoides).-This
is a swamp cedar extending its range from the North into
northern Florida. The wood is light and soft.
Spanish Oak (Quercus digitata).-This tree is some-
times called red oak in Florida. It grows as far south
as the center of the State. There are several oak species
in this country which are called Spanish oak in some
part of their range.
Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra).-A number of trees are
called spruce pine in some parts of their range. The
species here listed as spruce pine grows in the Chatta-
hoochee region. The wood is tolerably white and soft.
It is sometimes called poor pine and white pine.
Stopper (Chytraculia chytraculia); height 20 feet, di-
ameter 4 inches, wood very heavy, hard, brown tinged
with red.
Strongback (Bourreria havanensis), also called strong-
bark, grows on the Florida Keys to a height of 30 or 40

feet, with a buttressed trunk 8 or 10 inches in diameter.
The wood is brown, strong, and hard.

Sugarberry (Celtis mississippiensis) is very similar to
hackberry and often passes as such.

Summer Haw (Crataegus aestivalis); or apple haw;
height 18 or 20 feet, diameter 12 or 18 inches.

Swamp Bay (Persea pubescens) ; 30 or 40 feet high and
up to one foot in diameter; wood heavy and soft, but
strong; orange in color, streaked with brown.

Sweet Birch (Betula lenta).-This is one of the birches
used for furniture in the North. A little grows in west-
ern Florida.

Sweetleaf (Symplocos tinctora), also called Florida
Laurel and horse sugar, attains a height of 30 or 35 feet,
with a slim trunk. The wood is light red, and soft. -
Sycamore (platanus occidentalis).-A little of this
species grows in the northern part of the State.

Titi (Cliftonia monophylla), or buckwheat tree, is found
in northern Florida; height 40 feet, diameter a foot or
more, wood heavy, hard, and brittle.
Torchwood (Amyris maritima).-This is a south Flor-
ida tree, 40 or 50 feet high, and rarely a foot in diameter.
The wood is exceedingly hard, heavy, and strong, very
resinous, extremely durable, light orange color.
Tough Bumelia (Bunmelia tenax), also called ironwood
and black haw, reaches a height of 20 or 30 feet, with a
bole not above 6 inches. The wood is heavy and hard
and is light brown, streaked with white.
Tree Huckleberry (Vaccinium arboreum), also known
as sparkleberry, farkleberry, and gooseberry, is 20 feet
high and 8 or 10 inches in diameter, with wood heavy
and hard.

Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) is a wet-land tree that attains
large size, and its wood is serviceable for many purposes.
Turkey Oak (Quercus catesbaei), sometimes called
forked leaf, is generally a small tree of little commercial
importance, but occasionally is 60 feet high and two in
diameter. The wood is hard and heavy.

Wahoo (Evonymus atropurpureus), is a small slender
tree with heavy hard wood, and reaches its southern limit
in Florida.

Water Ash (Fraxinus caroliniana), called also pop ash
and swamp ash, is seldom 40 feet high or more'than a
foot in diameter. The wood is light, soft, weak, and
nearly white.

Water Gum (Nyssa biflora).-This is a small tree of
little commercial value.

Water Hickory (Hicoria aguatica), or swamp hickory.
This is one of the commercial hickories, and is sometimes
80 feet high and two in diameter.

Water Locust (Gleditsia aquatica), or thorn tree,
reaches a height of 50 or 60 feet, with trunk large enough
for sawlogs. The wood is strong and hard, and a rich
brown, tinged with red.

Water Oak (Quercus nigra) is often called red oak.
The wood is strong, hard, and heavy.

Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera).-This small tree has
many names, among them being puckerbush, candleberry,
and bayberry. The dark brown wood is brittle, soft, and
West India Cherry .(Prunus sphaerocarpa); height 25
or 30 feet, diameter 5 or 6 inches, wood clear red, heavy
and hard.

White Elm (Ulmus americana).-This is the common

and most abundant elm in most regions of the United
States east of the Rocky Mountains.

White Buttonwood (Laguncularia racemosa), or white
mangrove, grows in southern Florida. Height 30 feet or
more, diameter one foot and upward. The wood is heavy
and hard, dark yellow brown.

White Ironwood (Hypelata trifoliata).-This species
grows on the southern keys, but is rare; height 35 or 40
feet, diameter 18 or 20 inches; wood rich dark brown,
hard and heavy.
WlVite Stopper (Eugenia monticola).-This tree is oc-
casionally 25 feet high, with a 12-inch trunk. The wood
is strong, heavy, hard, and is brown with red tinge.
Wild China (Sepindus marginatus) is sometimes called
soapberry. It may reach a trunk diameter of two feet
and a height of 50. The brown, yellow-tinged wood is
strong and heavy.
Wild Lime (Xanthoxylum fagaria) ; height 25 or 30
feet; wood heavy and hard; range, southern Florida.
Wild Sapodilla (Mimusops sieberi) ; only on the south-
ern keys and not abundant; height 30 feet; wood very
heavy, hard, and strong; rich very dark brown.

Wild Tamarind (Lysiloma laitisiliqua).-This species
in Florida is confined to the keys where it occasionally is
3 feet in diameter and 50 feet high. The wood is heavy,
hard, and tough, but not strong, and is of a rich dark
brown color.
Willow Oak (Quercus phellos), often called red oak in
Florida, is one of the State's commercial woods which
seldom appears under its own name as lumber.
Wing Elm (Ulmus alata).-This wood goes into lumber
simply as elm. The name refers to a flattening of the
small twigs.


Witch, Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).-This is gen-
erally a shrub, but it may attain a height of 25 or 30
feet, with a diameter of a foot or more. The wood is
hard and heavy, and light brown in color.

Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria).-This species of holly is often
called cassena. The trees are small, the wood white,
hard, and strong.
Yellow Buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana), or yellow
wood, is seldom more than six inches in diameter. The
wood is rather hard, but is light and weak.

Yellow Haw (Crataegus flava).-This tree is small, sel-
dom more than 20 feet high, and 8 or 10 inches in diam-
Yellow Oak (Quercus velutina).-This is one of the
large commercial oaks, and its wood often passes for red



Quantity Used Annually. Average Total cost Grown in Grown out
KIND OF WOOD. cost per f.o.b. Florida. of Florida.
COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. Feet b. m. Per Cent. 1,000 ft. factory. Per cent. Per cent.

Longleaf pine......
Cuban pine........
Loblolly pine......
Shortleaf pine.....

Spanish cedar.....
Evergreen magnolia
ted gum..........
White oak ........
White ash .........

Sand pine.........
Yellow poplar.....
Hickory ..........
Sweet magnolia...
White pine........

Black gum........
Live oak ..........
Red oak...........

Pinus palustris..........
Pinus heterophylla ......
Pinus tacda.............
Taxodium distichum.....
P.inus cchinata..........

Ccdrala odorata..........
Magnolia foetida........
Liquidamar stryaciflua..
Quercus alba............
Fraxinus americana.....

Pinus clause ...........
Liriodendron tulipifera..
Hicoria. ................
Magnolia glauca........
Pinus strobus...........

Swiietcnia mahogoni.....
Nyssa sylvatica ......
Qucrcus virginiana......
Betula ................:.
Quercus rubra.........

Sugar maple...... Acer saccharum ........
Spruce ............ Picea...............








.96 24.95
.51 8.02
.19 11.55
.13 35.91
.05 25.07

.05 13.20
.02 89.02
.02 32.90
.02 22.00
.02 87.04

* 104.29
* .10.00
* 59.00
* 70.71
* 72.58

* 30.00
* 37.00
















...... 100.00
...... 100.00

Basswood ......... Tilia Americana......... 2,000 35.00 70 ...... 100.00
SMadeira........... Lysiloma bahamensis.... 1,600 168.75 270 ...... 100.00
STeak.............. Tcctoria grandis......... 1,000 225.00 225 ...... 100.00

Red cedar ........ Junipcrus virginiana..... 44.00 22 100.00
Rosewood ......... Ptcrocarpa crinoccus .... 100 400.00 40 ...... 100.00

Total.............. 521.141.796; 100.00 $12.41 $6,464.863 91.48 8.52
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.


Table 1 contains a list of 27 woods used in Florida last
year, according to reports made by manufacturers. It is
shown in the table also that some of these woods were
procured wholly in the State, others wholly from with-
out, while some came partly from within and partly from
the outside. The average cost of each and all at the fac-
tory is stated in the table, together with the amounts.
The table is a summary which shows in condensed form
the principal statistics of the wood-using industries of the
State. The detailed statistics are shown in the industry
tables which follow.
Preceding pages of this report list and briefly describe
a large number of unused woods in the State, those which
manufacturers either do not new employ, or use them
in so small amounts that they do not consider them
worth reporting. It now remains to take up in a similar
way the woods that are used. Longleaf pine leads in
amount, and rosewood is least. lRosewood is highest in
price, madeira next, mahogany third, and evergreen mag-
nolia is cheapest. Seven of the woods come wholly from
the State, ten entirely without, and the others are di-
Longleaf Pine.-More than half of the entire wood sup-
ply of the State, as shown in Table 1, is longleaf pine.
It is reasonably certain that some Cuban pine and some
loblolly are listed as longleaf, but is was not practicable
to ascertain how much or to separate them from long-
leaf. If the length of the needles alone is taken as a
means of identifying the several species of the Southern
yellow pines, it is not always a reliable test; for needles
of the same species vary in length, depending upon en-
vironment. Longleaf pine has thin sapwood and abun-
dance of heart; the other Southern pines may be expected
to show very thick sapwood in proportion to the heart.
That fact helps to distinguish longleaf logs and lumber

from other species. Some lumbermen have only two
names for'Southern pines: "heart pine" for longleaf, and
"sap pine" for the others. These terms express pretty
clearly the chief difference which lumbermen recognize in
the Southern pines. Of course there are other differences,
some of which do not appeal so directly to the eye. Long-
leaf pine is harder than the others, and stiffer, stronger,
and heavier than most. It is of slower growth and the
annual rings are narrower. The wood is generally but
not always of darker color than that of the other pines
associated with it. The longleaf pine occurs in the north-
ern two-thirds of Florida. Its reproduction is not gen-
erally vigorous, but in some sections many young trees
are taking possession of vacant places. As a whole, it is
doubtful if young growth can to any appreciable extent
make good the loss through sawmill operations, and the
result seems inevitable that longleaf pine supplies will
decline in the State, as in other -regions, until scarcity
results. The habit of frequently burning forest lands
perhaps works more harm to longleaf pine than to any
other tree, by killing the young growth.

Cuban Pine.-Next after longleaf, this species shows
longest use in the State. The same difficulties as in the
case of longleaf pine are met in separating it from asso-
ciated pines. One is often mistaken for another. The
Cuban pine is known under several names. It grows in
nearly all regions of Florida where any pine grows. It
has thick sapwood and is resinous; the rings of annual
growth are wide; the wood is stiff and strong. As the
southern part of the State is approached, the Cuban pine
becomes smaller. A good many stands exist in which
the mature trees are too small to attract sawmills. It
responds to good soil, and patches of merchantable tim-
ber may be found, surrounded by scrub growth.
Loblolly Pine.-This valuable timber tree belongs in
northern' Florida, extending south to about the center of
the State. In quantity of timber manufactured in Flor-

ida it is third largest, its total falling a little short of
one-tenth that of longleaf, and its average price per thou-
sand being practically the same. It grows rapidly, re-
produces vigorously, and is one of the softest and whit-
est of the yellow pines. It is known by so many names
that the name alone is not a certain means of identifi-
cation. It holds its ground better than longleaf pine,
and is more promising as a source of supply. The soft-
ness of its wood places it in a line of uses somewhat dif-
ferent from those of longleaf. It is popular for doors
and for window frames. It attains merchantable size in
less time than lonfleaf.
Cypress.-Fourth for quantity in the list of Florida
woods is cypress. It is a very little below loblolly pine,
but the average cost is considerable higher. Cypress is
one of the substantial, all-round woods of the South, and
one of the largest species. The-small trees are symmetri-
cal and graceful, but the old ones are not attractive with
their thin, ragged foliage, and dying tops. They are
among the longest-lived trees of the South, and an age
of two or three centuries is not unusual. At least a hun-
dred years are required under ordinary circumstances to
produce a trunk large enough for sawlogs. It is a swamp
species. Trees live standing in water much of the year.
Some of the best cypress timber in Florida grows along
the margin and about the mouths of large rivers, where
the land is frequently flooded. Some of the cypress for-
ests near the mouths of the Chattahoochee, Apalachicola
and Suwannee rivers are dense and dismal in the ex-
treme. When these forests disappear under the operation
of lumbermen, there will not be much young cypress com-
ing on to take their place, for it is not a tree that repro-
duces vigorously. It is not of much commercial im-
portance south of the center of the State.
Shortleaf Pine.-The Shortleaf pine is supposed to be
the opposite of the longleaf species, so far as needles are
concerned; for its leaves are shortest of the four leading

Southern yellow pines. The tree grows rapidly when
young, but after it reaches an age of forty or fifty years
it is apt to increase its size more slowly. For that rea-
son the annual rings in a characteristic shortleaf trunk
are broad near the heart and narrower as the bark is
approached. The sapwood is thick, the heartwood com-
paatively small. The wood is rather soft. The com-
mercial range of shortleaf pine extends into the northern
part of the State, its best development being in regions
farther north.
Spanish Cedar.-All of this wood is imported, as it
does not grow in the United States. It comes from Cuba,
Mexico, and adjacent regions. Most of that used in Flor-
ida was cut in Cuba.
Evergreen Magnolia.-It appears in Table 1 as the
cheapest wood in Florida, and more than two and a half
million feet were used. It is an evergreen of beautiful
foliage, and with wood varying much in value. The best
has been compared with yellow poplar, but the poorest
is intersected with hard streaks and black patches. The
largest trees are 80 or more feet high and three or four
feet in diameter; but an average size is scarcely half that..
It does best in rich, wet ground. In early lumber opera-
tions it was frequently left standing because its conver-
sion into lumber was not profitable; but in recent years
uses have been found for the wood and it is now cut
when lumbermen come to it. In Florida the boxmakers
are largest users of magnolia.
Red CGum.-Red gum is cut in most-parts of the north-
ern half of Florida, but it is not as important as in some
of the more northern and western States. It attains
large size and is of good form for sawlogs, but it does
not usually occur in thick stands like the pine, and it
goes to the mills along with other hardwoods. Its chief
use in Florida is for boxes and crates, but farther north
its greatest importance is as furniture material and house

White Oak.-A small quantity of this wood is credited
to Florida in the reports by manufacturers who use it,
but nearly all comes from outside the State. It is one
of the best known and most substantial of the oaks. It
is used for nearly all purposes for which any American
wood is used. The chief part of that reported in the
State went into car construction. While some of the
Florida white oak is of excellent quality, many users are
of the opinion that the average quality of the State-grown
oak is much beneath that of some of the Northern States.
White Ash.-The southern limit of the white ash's
range lies in northern Florida. It is of the most common
of the same species of ash in many parts of this coun-
try. The wood is characterized by stiffness and strength.
Its chief uses are. for farm tool handles, boat oars, and

Sand Pine.-In certain localities only does this tree
grow large enough for sawlogs. Trees of small pole
size are often numerous over-considerable tracts. It ex-
tends two-thirds of the distance down the Florida penin-
sula from the north. Its most common name is spruce
Yellow Poplar.-Some of the yellow .poplar manufac-
tured in the State was cut there, but most came from the
outside. The largest poplar timber comes from the moun-
tains of Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. It is
among the highest priced of American woods. The aver-
age reported in Florida was $89.02.
Hickory.-Several species of hickory are generally con-
sidered as one wood when they reach the factories. In
the forest, the lumberman knows the species separately,
but the wood of one so much resembles another that all
go together under one common name. Its toughness,
elasticity, strength, and hardness unite in such a remark-
able degree that hickory has been called the indispensable
wood. No substitute has yet been found anywhere in

the world for this wood, particularly for parts of small
vehicles, hammer and ax handles, and some kinds of ath-
letic goods. The State supplies nearly all home demands
for hickory.

Sweet Magnolia.-The entire quantity of this wood
went to a single industry and was made into boxes at
an average cost-of $22 a thousand. That is a high price
for box lumber, but magnolia is an attractive wood, and
much of it went into high grade boxes. All was cut in
the State. The heartwood of this tree is a pleasing red
or brown, which takes a fine polish.

White Pine.-Florida has no native white pine, and all
that was reported came from the Lake States. It grows
in several of the Northern and Northwestern States, as
far south as easterli Tennessee. Next. to yellow poplar,
it was the highest-priced native wood reported in Florida.
A number of other woods in this country are called white
pine with a modifying term. Western white pine grows
in Idaho; California's white pine is the western yellow
pine; Mexican white pine comes from Arizona and Mex-
ico, and is a white pine. The Norway pine of the Lake
States is often mixed with white pine and sold with it.

Mahogany.-More than ten thousand feet of mahogany
were reported cut in the forests of south Florida last year,
and used by industries in the State. Nearly one-third
of all this wood used was home-grown. It has been
popularly supposed that mahogany long ago ceased to
exist as a commercial wood in Florida, though it was well
known that botanical specimens were still obtainable.
The present investigation in Florida has shown that such
is not the case, and that the wood is still cut and mar-
keted there. More than half a century ago mahogany
cutters, who were likewise operating in the Bahama Is-
lands, invaded the keys south of the Florida mainland,
and also the mainland itself, and cut all the mahogany
trees within reach of water, and shipped the logs to Eu-

rope. Some trees escaped discovery in the dense ham-
mock forests; and some that were then small have since
grown to merchantable size.
Mahogany trees are now being cut, and the logs reach
Miami, and other points, where boat builders and others
buy them. The number thus reaching market is not large.
Logs generally come in one or two at a time. They are
cut by negroes, for the most part, who find a tree here
and there. The logs are rolled or hauled to the near-
est water and are towed by a canoe or boat through nar-
row and obscure channels, often several miles, to open
water, and are thence taken to some point designated
by the buyer.
Black Gum.-This tree is not in much favor anywhere,
but when it is convenient, the sawmills cut it, and it
finds its way to the factories. The whole reported quan-
tity used in Florida is only two carloads. Sometimes
there is doubt as to what is meant when black gum is
reported. That name is applied to water gum (Nyssa
biflora) in Florida.
Live Oak.-Considering the abundance of this wood
in Florida, its use is small. Formerly it was in much
demand for ship knees, and a flourishing business was
carried on in this State; but it is not so used now. It is
not a tree of good form for lumber. The trunk is short,
and is generally rough; but the wood is hard, strong,
and when carefully selected, is of good grain and color.
Birch.-Two species of birch grow in the State, but
none of either was reported by manufacturers. All came
from the outside of the State, and the high price indicates
that it was the sweet birch or yellow birch of the North.
These two species go to market together, and little at-
tempt is made to keep them separate. For that reason
birch is listed in this report without the species being
designated. The river birch of Florida was not reported
for any purpose.

,Red Oak.-The true red oak (Quercus rubra) does not
grow in Florida. Other oaks pass by that name. The
red oak listed in Table 1 is the Northern tree, one of the
highest grade of the many species of oak. There is much
confusion in classifying oak lumber. A dozen different
species are called white oak, and so many others are
known as red oak.

Sugar Maple.-The maple sugar and syrup of com-
merce is made from the sap of this tree; and from this
species is cut the hard maple lumber, or most of it. The
tree is found in Florida, but it is not abundant, and none
was cut in the State, according to reports of manufactur-
ers. Very little was used.

Spruce.-Spruce is in the list with birch and hickory
in one respect-several species are often grouped under
one name. When the word spruce is used in Florida
it generally refers to the black or red spruce of the North-,
ern States, but it might be the Sitka spruce of Oregon
and Washington. There are other spruces occasionally
found in the lumber markets, or woods which pass by
that name.

Basswood.-The demand for this soft, white wood is
so small in Florida that it is hardly worth taking note
of. It is a Northern species, the largest quantity of lum-
ber coming from the lake States and the central Appa-
lachian region.

Madeira.-This wood from the West Indies was used
to a small extent by Florida boat builders. It ranges
in price with mahogany, and is of a dark color and is hard.
Other tropical woods sometimes pass by that name, and
it was once applied to mahogany in some parts of this

Teak.-Boat builders brought this Asiatic wood into
use in the State because it is regarded by many as one

of the best woods in the world for some parts of boat
building. .It is very hard and not very heavy.
Red Cedar.-Much red cedar is cut in Florida, and
scarcely any is used for manufacturing purposes. Pencil
makers take much of the best.
Rosewood.-This is the most expensive and least used
wood reported by manufacturers in Florida. A number
of trees in different countries are called rosewood. That
reported in Florida came from Africa.


This industry is much larger than any other among
the wood .uses of Florida. More than 92 per cent of all
the material considered in this report is found in the out-
put of planing mills. Not only in quantity, but in value
it surpasses all the other industries. The cost of the
rough lumber laid down at the planing mills ready for
the machine to work on, was $4,747,165; and the cost of
all the rough lumber used in the State was $6,464,863.
Planing mill lumber averaged cheaper than the other, but
that does not mean that it is of poorer grades.
Planing mill products are the simplest forms of manu-
facture after lumber leaves the sawmill. In fact, the
planing mill is usually an adjunct of the sawmill that
cuts the logs. The product that comes from the ma-
chines consists of flooring, ceiling, and siding. Stock
sizes and kinds are made and put on the market. It is a
commodity which goes from the mill that makes it with-
out having any particular market or buyer in view, and
thus differs from those commodities which are largely
made to order and for a particular place or purpose.
Longleaf pine leads by long odds all the other woods
appearing in Table 2. Nearly 77 per cent consists of
longleaf, which is at present usually. regarded as the
most abundant timber tree of Florida, and among the


best. Its great strength makes it suitable for flooring, its
grain, figure, and color fit it for ceiling, and its lasting
properties qualify it for siding. The mills that turn it
out are generally those of large capacity, and it is lum-
bered and otherwise handled by the most advanced scien-
tific methods, from the felling of the trees to the comple-
tion of the finished product.
Cuba pine is second in quantity for planing mill prod-
ucts. This species is known under several names, and
it is not infrequently called longleaf, though the men who
work it know very well the difference between it and the
genuine, thin-sap longleaf yellow pine. Some call it slash
pine. That alludes to its habits of coming up in old cut-
tings when fire is kept out, which, unfortunately, does not
happen as often as it should. The relative abundance
of Cuban pine increases southward in the State.
Loblolly pine falls somewhat under Cuban pine in quan-
tity, according to the reports supplied by manufacturers.
Very probably that is a fact, but a good deal of confusion
exists at some of the mills as to what is Cuban and what
is loblolly; for the species bear considerable resemblance
both in the standing tree and in the wood. Both are
frequently called loblolly. The ground for confusion does
not extend far southward through the peninsula, for lob-
lolly gradually disappears.
Ten million feet of shortleaf pine was reported by mills
in the northern part of the State. This species does not
range far south, and it is probable that some of that list-
ed under the name of shortleaf was loblolly or Cuban.
Four-fifths of the sand pine reported in the State was
listed with this industry. The trunk of this pine is usual-
ly quite small, but occasionally groups of trees are found
large enough for good sawlogs. The wood has thick sap-
wood which is nearly white, while the heartwood is light
yellow. It is moderately light in weight and not very
strong. It is likely that a good deal of this wood is mar-


keted under some other name. When the trunk is seen
at, a distance of thirty or forty yards it resembles the
red or the black spruce of the North, though it is usually
more limby than the spruce which grows in the deep shade
of Northern forests. The foliage, being light and thin,
looks somewhat like that of spruce when too far away
for the individual needles to be seen. This similarity is
responsible for the name spruce pine which is commonly
given it.
The birch and the yellow poplar in Table 2 are the most
costly woods listed. They were imported from the North.
Nearly half of the cypress reported in the State is found
in this table.



Longleaf pine ............. ...
Cuban pine .........................
Loblolly pine ........................
Cypress ............................
Shortleaf pine .................... .
Sand pine ..........................
B irch ...............................
Yellow poplar ........ ..............
T otal ..........................
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.

Quantity Used C
Annually. o .

10,775,000 2.64 11.60 124.950 10.775,000
C0 0

312,760,007 76.71 $11.36 $3,552.290 286,523,315 | 26,2-6 692
39,715,000 9.74 13.46 534,725 39,015,000 700,000
30,270,000 7.42 12.08 365,680 26,770,000 3,500,000 &j
13,9ojS,000 3.43 11.82 I 165.160 13.968,000 .........
10,775,000 2.64 11.60 124.950 10.775,000 .........
200,000 .05 14.00 2,800 200,000
12,000 65.00 780 .......... 12,000
12,000 65.00 780 .......... 12,000
,07 712,007 100.00 I $11.64 $4.747.165 377,251.315 30.460,692


Cuban pine leads in Table 3. That is because this
species is most abundant in the south of Florida where
the large market gardens and citrus orchards are located.
Boxes are made near where they are needed, when it is
practicable to do so. The demand for large-quantities
of shipping crates and boxes draws upon the most avail-
able supply of timber, and Cuban pine's geographical
range makes it convenient and cheap for the orange and
grapefruit growers, and for the gardens which ship early

Longleaf pine is so close a competitor of Cuban pine
that the latter has very little advantage in quantity. The
longleaf averages forty cents a thousand feet cheaper,
which, in all likelihood, is due to better facilities for log-
ging it rather than to any weaker demand. The aver-
age is low for all woods used in box and crate making
in Florida, but three of them run fairly high. They are
Spanish cedar, sweet magnolia, and hickory. The last
named was made into crates for shipping vehicles and
machinery, and was employed to meet the demand for a
strong, tough wood.

Spanish cedar and sweet magnolia are handsome woods
suitable for high-grade boxes for fancy commodities.
Sand pine supplies fifty thousand feet to the industry.
This rather small tree should be able to contribute liber-
ally to the supply of cheap box and crate nmterial in
the future. In some localities it is abundant, and much
of the best is within easy reach of orange, pineapple, and
vegetable lands where crates and boxes in large numbers
are needed. Though it is not a very strong wood, it pos-
sesses enough strength to answer all ordinary purposes
of Florida fruit and vegetable shippers.

Evergreen magnolia is the cheapest material used by
the box and crate makers, and many persons consider it

about as good as the best, unless some particular property
is required; but it does not run even in color. Some trees
have wood much darker than others, and where printing
and stenciling of the packages are necessary, the mag-
nolia must be graded, and the dark wood thrown out.
Some of it is sufficiently white to meet all requirements
of a good stenciling wood. Now and then the wood of
a certain tree contains hard, flinty streaks which may be
objectionable, and there may be black knots which de-
tract from appearance and value.
Black gum is used in less quantity than any other wood
on the box maker's list. It is plain material, never sought
after, but is cut when it is found among other woods.
In some localities the name black gum is applied to tupelo
and water gum, but never under the mistaken notion that
they are the same species. Their leaves bear some re-
semblance, but the characteristic swell in the tupelo trunk
near the ground is not found in the black gum.
The abundance and cheapness of cypress in Florida
ought to lead to its more extensive employment by box



Cuban pine ........................
Longleaf pine ......................
Loblolly pine ......................
Evergreen magnolia ................
Spanish cedar ......................
Red gum ................ ...........
H ickory ............................
Sweet magnolia ....................
Sand pine ..........................
Cypress ............................
Black gum .........................

Total ..............

Quantity Used




$546,125 1 53,469,000










. .........






Longleaf pine and cypress make up nearly the whole
amount of material reported in Table 4. Six other species
are represented, but altogether do not constitute a quarter
of one per cent of the total of the nearly 36 million feet
made into sash, doors, blinds, and general millwork in
The presence of a little live oak in this industry is un-
usual, for the wood is almost universally rejected by man-
ufacturers of these commodities in the Southern States;
and the rejection is often without just cause. The lum-
ber does not come in as good form as white and red oak;
the logs are always short and frequently of poor shape,
but when live oak is carefully selected it is handsome and
serviceable. The people have not been accustomed to
use it, otherwise it would enjoy a better reputation. It
is strong, and though it does not show the variety in
figure of some of the other woods, it has a color that is
pleasing. The lighted flecks in the wood, dispersed in
profusion, show well in furniture and finish. The live
oak reaches its best development in northern Florida,
and good logs of large size may be had in many localities.
Manufacturers would do well to investigate its possibili-
ties, and see if a trade in this wood can not be developed.
The industry shown in Table 4 differs from that in
Table 2 in being more highly developed. Four kinds of
machines are needed to make flooring and siding; but
more specializing is required, and machinery with greater
range of uses is needed in producing doors, frames, sash,
stairwork, panels, turned posts and balusters, spindles
for grills, and the many other commodities included in
the general term mill work.
Few doors other than pine and cypress are produced
in Florida. White oak, live oak, and birch are employed


to some extent, but chiefly as thin veneers covering soft-
wood cores. The average cost of the hardwood employed
in this industry is about five times as much as in soft-
A large part of the product is sold outside of Florida,
some of it reaching Northern cities and some going to
foreign countries.



Quantity Used O
Annually. .

Longleaf pine ......................
Cypress ............................
W hite oak ..........................
Loblolly pine ........................
Birch ..............................
W hite pine ........................
Live oak ............................
Red cedar ..........................









36,000 -


Totals ..........................I 35.856,500 I 100.00 $18.49 1 $662,928 35,262,500 | 594,000

*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.

, ,


The manufacture of cigar boxes is the fourth in size
in Florida's wood-using industries, and is shown in Table
5. More than nine and a half million feet are listed. As
far as shown by statistics of wood manufacturers thus far
collected in the United States, Florida far surpases any
other State in the amount of wood converted into cigar
boxes. The center of this industry is at Tampa.
In most of the Northern States where cigar boxes are
made, the Spanish cedar, which is the leading material,
is usually sliced in thin veneer which is glued over other
woods in making boxes. The prevailing custom in Flor-
ida is to use the Spanish cedar solid. It is sawed in thin
lumber and is handled that way.
Most of the Spanish cedar comes from Mexico and
Cuba. Some of the large Florida users procure their
supplies in Cuba. The Spanish cedar grows to large size
when circumstances are favorable and time is sufficient.
Early explorers in the West Indies spoke of cedar canoes
large enough to carry twenty or more men, and the Carib
Indians made long journeys in vessels of that kind. Cedars
of large size are not often found now. The supply with-
in reach of the sea was cut long ago. The cigar box
wood imported into Florida comes from trunks about the
size of telegraph poles. These are carried to Florida in
the rough form, the knots being trimmed, and the bark
generally peeled from the logs. A whole tree often comes
in one piece. The larger box factories buy that way, and
have sawmills of their own for converting the logs into
box lumber. Small box makers purchase lumber partly
Spanish cedar enjoys the prominent place it holds in
the cigar box business because the wood has an odor which
adds to the value of the cigars packed in the boxes. It
is handsome, and increases the attractiveness of the wares.
It is not a high-priced wood, considering that it is an


import from foreign countries and is not very plentiful
there. It is lumbered by cheap labor and is brought from
the interior mountains where it grows. Transportation
from the stump to the seashore is often by oxen. The
average cost in Florida is $24.02 per 1,000 feet log meas-
ure. It is too cheap to offer much temptation to the imi-
A million and a half feet of cypress was reported for
this industry in Florida, but the cost per thousand was
less than half that of Spanish cedar.



Spanish cedar.......................
Cypress ...........................

T otal .......................... I

Quantity Used P,
Annually. 0
__ __ _V_ 00.

0* -o0n ( .
r- 0~
8a S ^ ^* fa

fe ~~. iii <; o *


9.616.235 I



96162350 21 93 A210 842 1547027 8 00 20
, I ______

$210 842

1 K4707 n.


. .fi ..92n .


No large car factories are located in Florida, but a con-
siderable amount of building and repairing is done.
Twelve woods are listed, but more than 81 per cent of all
is longleaf pine. For many parts of car building it is
ideal. It is strong, stiff, lasting. It is made into sills
and frame where it carries loads and sustains jars and
strains. It is good for car floors and siding, for braces
and roofing. It may be had in long pieces, measurably
free from knots and defects, and with little or no sap.
No loblolly pine was reported by car builders, but it
grows of proper size and form in the State, and likely
some of that passing as longleaf is loblolly. It is not
considered quite as strong as longleaf, but for a num-
ber of purposes it is as good, and-for some it is preferred.
Cypress is an all-round car timber, but it lacks some
of the longleaf's strength and rigidity, and was not used
in one-tenth of the amount of pine in Florida, but what
was bought cost more by the thousand. The small
amount of white pine reported in Table 6 was for pat-
terns. It cuts so easily and holds its shope so well that
it stands pre-eminent among pattern woods.
There is so much difference in the cost of the red oak
and white oak used by car builders in Florida that an
explanation is necessary. These two woods, if of the
same grade and in the same market, cost about the same;
but in Table 6 the white oak is less than nineteen dollars
and the red oak more than seventy-two. They were not
of similar grade. The white oak was used for repair
of freight cars, and the red oak was for high-class finish.
Both came from outside the State. By reversing the
grades, the costs might have been reversed-the red oak
would have been cheap and the white oak expensive.
Mahogany was the most costly lumber in the industry.
It is a cabinet wood and is employed for fine finish in
passenger cars, chiefly as veneer laid upon cheaper woods.


Yellow poplar is second lightest in cost, and it is used
much the same as mahogany. The smoothness of its
grain makes it among the best of woods for fine paint-


Quantity Used 0
0 0.
0Q ce S *a

Longleaf pine ...................... 6,970,865 81.57 $17.52 $122,102 5,204,435 1,766,430
Cypress ............................ 505,500 5.01 20.23 10,225 255,500 250,000
White oak.......................... 457,679 5.36 18.65 8,535 ...... 457,679 2
White ash .......................... 257,000 3.00 21.50 5,525 125,000 132,000
Red Gum ........................... 250.000 2.93 20.00 5,000 125,000 125,000
Yellow poplar ...................... 72,344 .85 96.19 6,959 ........ 72,341
Cuban pine ......................... 8,000 .09 20.00 160 8,000
Mahogany ........................... 6,500 .08 137.23 892 ........ 6,503
Red oak ............................ 6,200 .07 72.58 450 ........ 6,500
Spruce ............................. 5,000 .06 37.00 185 ........ 5,000
Sugar maple ........................ 5,000 .06 30.00 150 ........ 5,000
W hite pine ......................... 1,500 .02 60.00 .90 ........ 1,500
Total ........... ............. 8,545,588 | 100.00 $18.76 ] $160,273 | 5,717,935 | 2,827,653


With more length of coast line than any other State;
with several fine harbors for large vessels, and with al-
most innumerable small harbors; with hundreds of miles
of navigable rivers flowing through semitropical scenes
of rare beauty; with many lakes of ample size and with
romantic surroundings to invite the pleasure seeker; with
a climate so mild and equable that the waters are en-
joyable the whole year round, Florida holds a very low
place in the boat-building industry. It is not because
boats are not used. The harbors, rivers, lakes, and pas-
sageways swarm with vessels during many months of the
year, and the landscape, with its interlocking waters, are
scenes of the greatest activity; but the boats seen by thou-
sands are nearly all made elsewhere than in Florida.
The resources for boat building are ample, and the mar-
ket for high pleasure boats ought to be among the best
in the United States. A large proportion of the winter
visitors in Florida are possessed of means sufficient to buy
yachts, canoes, dories, and craft of every kind that the
place and climate call for. Vessels in large numbers ply
the waters, but they are not made in Florida. They come
from New England, New York, Michigan, Maryland, and
many other places where lumber is not as plentiful or
cheap as in Florida.
A few manufacturers have taken advantage of the op-
portunities, and are building boats. Table 7 shows the
amount of wood used and the kinds. The total is a mil-
lion and a half feet, which is about one-fourth as much
as Maryland demands annually. The Maryland market
calls chiefly for business boats, while Florida demands
pleasure vessels. Yet boats for business purposes are by
no means few in Florida. The tradesmen about Pensa-
cola, the sponge fishermen in the shallow water off Apa-
lachicola, the lumber tugs which load the sea-going ves-
sels, the many fishermen on both the east coast and the

west, and the barges which transfer freight up and down
its rivers-all of these constitute-a market for home-built
Eleven woods were used last year by Florida boat build-
ers, and longleaf pine constituted about seventy per cent
of it all. Some vessels are built almost wholly of this
wood, and all that was used was grown in Florida. It
makes both inside frame and outside covering. It pos-
sesses the required strength, and its lasting properties
insure long service. The price of longleaf pine is higher
in this than in any other industry in Florida. High-
grade material was demanded, and price goes with grade.
Cypress is next in quantity, and is higher in price than
long leaf. It is used for. finish and deckwork. The dif-
ference in price between it and longleaf is largely re-
sponsible for keeping cypress below that wood in quantity
in boat building.
White pine, which is soft, white, and expensive, is em:
played only when some customer demands it.
Live oak is reported to the amount of 30,000 feet, at
$60 a thousand. It was made into rudder stock, and is
bought in hewed logs eighteen inches square. These logs
are sawed into heavy stuff for rudders. Live oak is hard
and strong, and lasts well under water.
Nearly 27,000 feet of mahogany is reported in this in-
dustry, and more than a third of it is native of Florida.
This is the species cut in the West Indies and Mexico,
and it is not found growing in any other State than Flor-
ida. This and other expensive woods listed in the boat
industry show that high-class work is being turned out
of the yards.


Quantity Used '
Annually. .


Longleaf pine....................... 1,110,000 69.76 $29.35 $32,574 1,110,000
Cypress ............................ 197,000 12.38 41.02 8,080 172,000 25,000
W hite oak .......................... 177,000 11.13 64.01 11,330 ........ 177,000
Cuban pine ......................... 40,000 2.51 40.00 1,600 40,000 .......
Live oak ............................ 30,000 1.89 60.00 1,800 30,000 ......
Mahogany .......................... 26,900 1.69 170.74 4,593 10,500 16,400
W hite pine ......................... 6,500 ..41 80.00 520 ........ 6,500
Madeira ............................ 1,600 G .10 168.75 270 ........ 1,600
Teak ............................... 1,000 .06 225.00 225 ........ 1,000
W hite ash .......................... 1,000 .06 40.00 40 1,000
Rosewood ........... .......... ... 100 ** 400.00 I 40 j ........ 100
Total ........................... 1,591,100 1 100.00 $38.38 $61,072 1,363,500 227,600
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.

Table 8 presents statistics of vehicle manufacturers in
Florida. The quantity of wood demanded is small, but
the shops are well distributed over the State. There are
only a few factories which make buggies and wagons as
a business. The shops occasionally make a few vehicles,
but their principal work is repairing. Nearly all coun-
try blacksmith shops, and practically all in the towns,
repair wagons. A considerable part of the 167,095 feet in
Table 8 was used for repair work. The same woods which
eitter into new vehicles serve for repairs of old. The aver-
age price is higher than in any other of the wood-using
industries of Florida. The species are the same as in
other industries, but the grades are better. Cypress is
third from highest; and is twenty-nine dollars above the
cost of the wood in any other table. The other woods
higher in this table than in any other are hickory, loblolly,
pine, mahogany, and white ash. One of the contributing
causes of the high cost of wood to the Florida vehicle
makers is that many of them buy in small amounts, and at
retail, and must pay more than if they took advantage of
wholesale prices.



Quantity Used g
Annually. '.
S~0 3 B4

44 0 0r

Longleaf pine ......................
White oak ........ ...............
Cypress ............................
H ickory ............................
W hite ash .........................
Yelow poplar .......................
Loblolly pine .......................
M ahogany ..........................




$ 980


Total ........................... 167,095 | 100.00 $56.02 $9,361 113,020 ( 54,075

.. .




Table 9 is made up of four woods and contains some-
thing over two million feet. This represents the odds
and ends left over after all that properly belongs with
industries has been taken care of. Some commodities are
not manufactured in amounts large enough to entitle
them to be called industries, and they go in this mis-
cellaneous table. Among some which fall in that class in
Florida are lard buckets, candy tubs, water pails, pat-
terns, trunks, sample cases, and wooden ware of several



Quantity Used


Cypress ............................. 2,000,200 66.00
W hite Pine ......................... 50,071 2.86
Red gum..... ...................... 3,000 .14
Basswood .......................... 2,000 .10
Totals ........................ 2,064,271 100.00







59,071 _
3,000 (






Of the twenty-seven woods reported by Florida manu-
facturers, and listed in Table 10, ten are used by only
one industry each, and also one in all the industries. Cy-
press is that one, and as far as Florida is concerned, it is
the universal wood. The makers of vehicles use the
smallest quantity, the planing mills the most. Some of
the industries take woods because they are cheap, others
because of particular properties desired. Boxes -and
crates afford an instance of the first kind, vehicles of the
second. Certain boxes make exacting demands upon lum-
ber, generally whatever is convenient and cheap is used.



a )_
0 a)H
a) 0 -. g
KIND OF WOOD. 0f 0 as
0 a) P
P3 r
raL3 S 2 Sl '"'o a i
"iU "' FIS.A 1'^ S
I)CS I) u -S~
x x g (1 .-0 M .
00 Cd "s
Pq ;>

asswoo uuu ....... ...................
Birch ............................
Black gum ..........................
Cuban pine .....................
Cypress ............................

Evergreen magnolia ................
H ickory ...........................
Live Oak ..........................
Loblolly pine .......................
Longleaf pine .....................

M adeira ..........................
Mahogany ..........................
Red cedar ...........................
Red gum ...........................
Red Oak .........................
Rosewood ...........................






........- -.. .. .
.......... ........
74.50 ....
.......... ......
.......... I .


. ...... i






19. 1 ......... ........

25.20 .30 .......
100.00 ......... .......
.. ...... ......... ........







...... .2

...... ..

6.25 93.75
.08 ........
5.81 .30

........ 100.00
...... .. 80.31
.... 100.00

....... .100. 00.....
......... 1 100.00

Sand pine ..........................
Shortleaf pine.......................
Spanish cedar ......................
Spruce .............................

Sugar maple.................. ..
Sweet magnolia ....................
Teak .......................... .
W hite ash ..........................
W hite oak ..........................

W hite pine ....................... ..
Yellow poplar ......................

Total per cents ................




I .. .. .. .. .

I . . .

. .. ...... .. ...... 80.00 .........
.0.. 0.... ..... 100.00 .........
79.19 ... 00.. .......... ........ ....
........ 100 00 ......... ........ ...

........ 100 .00 ......... ........ ... ......
........ ....... ......... ....... .........

........ 91 .78 ......... ........ ........
........ 65:27 ........ ........ 5.14

..... 1.90 74.70 ........ 15.18
........ 69.33 ......... 11.50 .........

S 10.67 1.84 1.64
1 10.671 1.841 1.641

........ . . ..
100.0 ...
.36 7.86
25.24 4.35

8.22 .... ...
... 19.17

.40 78.23 6.88 .31 .03
.401 78.231 _6 ___--- _

.. .. .




t I .a
C.) C 02
C) C) F

Basswood ..........................
Birch .............................
Black gum ...... ...................
Cuban pine .........................
Cypress .............................

Evergreen magnolia ................
H ickory ............................
Live oak ........................
Loblolly pine ......................
Longleaf pine ......................

Madeira ............................
Mahogany ....................... ..
Red cedar ..........................
Red gum ..........................
Red oak ..........................
Rosewood ..........................


...... .

. ... .. .. .
. .. ... .. .



20.00. ........
20.23 30.50


137.23 .......

20.00 40.00
72.58 ........
. ......... .......



"... ...




12.08 20.00
11.36 16.20

........ : 44.00

$. ......





$ ...

... .. o'.




$..... .. ..| ... .. ..... $
.......... .....:.. ..


Sand pine .......................... 1
Shortleaf pine ........... .......... ......
Spanish cedar ...................... 2
Spruce ............................. ....

Sugar m aple ........................ ....
Sweet magnolia .................... 2
Teak .................... .......... .....
W hite ash .......................... ......
W hite oak .......................... .....

W hite pine ................. ..... ......
Yellow poplar ...................... ....

Total Average costs........... $

0.00 ....... .. ...... ......... 4....... ..... 0. ........
.... ....... ..... .. ......... ... ..... ... ...... 400 .00 ......
!8.47 24.02 ........ ....... 14.00 ................. ....... ..
.. .. .. 37.00......... 11.60 .....................

.... ........ 30.00 ...... ......... ....
2.00 ........ ........ ......... .. ..........
..... ........ ........ ......... ........ ......... 225 .00 .........
.... ........ 21.50 ......... ........ ......... 40.00 66.14
..... ........ 18.65 ........ ........ 93.06 64.01 64.36

.. ........ 60.00 99.88 ........ 31.00 80.00 .........
.. ..... .. 96.19 .. 65.00 ........ ........ 77.50

9.82$ 21.931$ 18.76$ 32.501$ 11.641$ 18.491$ 38.38 $ 56.02


Table 11 is a companion of 10. One shows the appor-
tionment of woods among the industries, the other shows
the cost per 1,000 feet of the several woods by the indus-
tries. A cursory examination will show that wood is not
fixed in price, as wheat and cattle, or many other staple
commodities are. Differences in prices for the same spe-
cies are not due to differences in freight and handling
charges, as is the case with many other wares. The red
gum for cars costs more than twice that bought by box
makers. Ash employed by vehicle manufacturers is three
times as expensive as what car builders use. The white
oak which goes to the door manufacturers is five times
as high in price as that purchased for car shops. Cypress
varies in cost as four to one, depending upon what the
manufacturer is buying it for.
These instances are representative of the rule. The
cost of wood depends on quality to a larger extent than
with most commodities. Cypress good enough for boxes
would fall far below the requirements of the vehicle mak-
er who uses it in tops for light business wagons. Hickory
which will make satisfactory crates is too cross-grained
or knotty for buggy spokes or carriage poles, consequently
the buyer of wood for those purposes must pick his grades
and pay the price, while the crate maker takes the refuse
at less than half the cost.


Table 12 is arranged to show at a glance the quantity
of wood used by each of the industries in 'Florida, to-
gether with the average price paid by each industry, and
the per cent of the material grown in the State and out.
The average cost of the wood demanded by the Florida
manufacturers does not differ much from the reported
average cost in other States which grow large amounts
of yellow pine. Following are averages:
Arkansas ..................... $11.49
Louisiana ................... 11.63
Mississippi .................. 12.22
Alabama .................. .. 12.24
Florida ..................... 12.41
Texas ........................ 13.30
In the six large lumber-producing States of the South
the average cost of material varies only $1.81 per thou-
sand between the highest of the States, Texas, and the
lowest, Arkansas. No such agreement in price as this
could be found in an equal number of the Northern States.



Quantity Used, E
n orr o Ca O n
a ) ~o a

F1 0 0

Planing mill products...............
Boxes and crates, packing..........
Sash, doors, blinds, and general mill
w ork .............................
Boxes tobacco ......................
Car construction ....................
Miscellaneous .......................
Ship and boat building.............
Vehicles and vehicle parts..........
Totals ..... .....................I














There are other wood-using industries in Florida than
those shown in preceding tables and statistics of this
report. The Bureau of the Census, in co-operation with
the Forest Service, collects certain data each year and
publishes it. These statistics show the quantity of lum-
ber cut annually by the sawmills in the State; the num-
ber of lath and shingles; the extent of the wood distilling
industries; amount of tanbark and tanning extracts pro-
duced; railroad ties bought; staves and headings for bar-
rels; cut of veneer and the kinds of wood used; and other
facts of interest.
In order to make this report for Florida more com-
plete, an abridgement of the several census reports is
presented below. The total cut of lumber in the State
for 1910 was 992,091,000 feet, apportioned among species
as follows:

Yellow pine ..................
Cypress ....................
Yellow poplar ...............
Red Cedar ..................
H ickory .................. .
Oak ......................
Cottonwood ...............
Ash .............. ..........
Tupelo ......................
Red gum ...................
M aple .......................


Lath used by plasterers are made at many sawmills
from large slabs and defective logs, which otherwise would
be wasted. Most of the lath are pine, but any wood,
except the hardest, will answer. The output in Florida
in 1910 was 42,404,000 lath.
Shingles in Florida are nearly all manufactured from

cypress and pine, the former predominating. A consid-
erable part of the output is a by-product :of sawmills,
made from crooked or faulty logs, or from large slabs.
There are mills which make shingles only, and they use
good timber as well as poor. The latest returns give
Florida's yearly cut at 171,421,000 shingles.
Two classes of cooperage are made, one for liquids,
the other for dry substances. The former is called tight
cooperage, the latter slack. The former is much more
exacting in its demand for wood, and the material costs
more. Good tight cooperage should not only be free from
knots and other defects which might cause leakage, but
the wood must be dense. Otherwise the contents of the
barrel or cask may escape through the pores of the wood.
Most woods are of such open structure that they will not
hold alcoholic liquors. Slack cooperage is not so exclu-
sive. Nearly any wood will do for some classes of slack
cooperage, while others are more exacting. A consider-
able part of Florida's cooperage stock is bought by the
naval dealers who ship rosin in cheap, but strong bar-
rels. Fruit growers and truck gardeners use many bar-
rels for their products, and oyster rakers and fishermen
are pretty large users.
The output of tight cooperage staves in the State in
1910 was 1,350,000 staves and 61,000 sets of heading.
Slack staves were largely pine and totaled 24,451,000.
There were produced 1,122,000 sets of heading and 1,-
029,000 hoops.
The production of veneers in Florida was seven and a
half million feet less in 1910 than in 1909. The output
for four years was: 1907, 18,183,000 log feet; 1908, 28,-
256,000; 1909, 33,293,000; 1910, 25,842,000. Most of the
veneer is rotary cut; that is, it is produced by pressing a
heavy knife against the rim of a revolving log, and peel-
ing off long ribbons of wood, round and round, until the
log is reduced to a small center piece called a core. Sta-
tistics do not show what species of wood are used in

making the Florida veneers, but it is known that most of
it is pine, and that the veneer is manufactured into bas-
kets, boxes, crates, and other shipping containers.
There are higher classes of veneer than this, but little
of it is made in Florida. It is made by sawing or slicing
hardwoods very thin, and is used principally by makers
of furniture, fixtures, and interior finish. The thin sheets
of the costly veneer are glued upon backing of cheaper
woods. Most furniture, except the cheapest and the most
expensive kinds, is veneered. The cheapest kinds are of
plain, inexpensive material, while the most costly sorts
are often made of solid in order that the carver's orna-
ments may be cut in the wood.
Statistics of tanning materials are not compiled in a
way to show what each of the States contribute, but
the country is considered as a whole. The listing of
mangrove, however, shows that Florida is an important
contributor to the general supply, because that is the
only State producing it. The principal supply comes
from foreign tropical countries, and is'of record among
the imports. In 1909, 18,925 tons of mangrove bark, and
1,401,000 pounds of extract were used in this country
for tanning and dyeing purposes. The imports of the
bark that year were 12,263 tons, leaving a balance of
6,662 tons which was presumably obtained in Florida.
Complete statistics later than 1909 have not been pub-
lished; but the imports of mangrove bark in 1910 were
17,088 tons.
Next after Alabama, Florida contributes more to the
softwood distillation industry than any other State. Most
of the wood used in Florida is longleaf and Cuban pine.
The total amount in 1910 was 52,144 cords, which was
27,000 cords more than was reported the year before.'
Both kinds of distillation are used, the destructive pro-
cess, which destroys the wood by burning, and the steam
process which employs heat, but not enough to char the
wood. The principal products secured by the destructive

process are charcoal, tar, and turpentine; and by the
steam method, turpentine and heavy oils. Owing to the
difference in the resinous content of pine wood, the yield
per cord of the several products varies greatly. About
one-half of the material was body wood, the remainder
was limbs, stumps, slabs, sawdust, and other mill waste.
Florida contributes largely to the country's output of
naval stores. Almost half of the whole product of spirits
of turpentine in 1909 came from Florida, and it led all
the other States in rosin.


The manufacturers who reported the woods which have
been tabulated in this report, reported likewise the pur-
poses for which they were used. That information is
given in the following list:

Sample cases.


Black Gum.


Fruit boxes.

Crates (veneer).

Car lining.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Cases for cigars.

Vegetable packages.
Cuban Pine.
Finish. Molding.
Flooring. Siding.

Coach roofs.
Interior finish.
Packing cases.
Evergreen Magnolia.
Fruit boxes.

Wagon bodies.
Wagon panels.

Vegetable packages.




Cabinet work.
Car repairs.

Car decking.
Car finishing.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Door frames.

Auto shields.
Auto trim.






Live Oak.
Friction blocks.

Loblolly Pine.

Door frames.
Porch Work.
Longleaf Pine.

Fruit boxes.
Packing cases.
Porch work.
Scroll work.


Boat Inish.
Car finish.
Red Cedar.


Red Gum.

Shook veneer.
Store fixtures.


Rudder stock.

Scroll work.
Store Fixtures.
Vegetable packages.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.

Store fixtures.
Table legs.
Vegetable packages
Veneer boxes.
Wagon beds.
Window frames.

Interior finish.




Boat finish.


Cabinet work.
Car repairs.

Cigar boxes.


Car building.




Boat ribs.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.

Coach repairs.

Red Oak.

Car sills.

Sand Pine.
Shortleaf Pine.
Door frames.
Fruit packages.
Porch work.
Spanish Cedar.

Sugar Maple.

Sweet Magnolia.

White Ash.
Store fixtures.
White Oak.
Interior finish.
White Pine.

* Rails.
Scroll work.
Store fixtures.
Vegetable packages.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.

Wagon bodies.
Wagon gears.
Wagon panels.



Yellow Poplar.
Car repairs. Vehicles.
Interior finish. Wagon bodies.


Below -is a list of Florida wood-using manufacturers
who supplied much of the data contained in this report.
Those manufacturing several products classified under
different industries will appear in the list, with their ad-
dresses, under more than one industry.


Consumers Lumber & Veneer Co ................ Apopka
Archer Crate & Basket Co ............. ........ Archer
E. 0. Carver ................................ Carters
J. J. Mendenhall ........................Clearwater
Biscayne Box Co. ..................... Cocoanut Grove
A. T. Kelley & Co. .......................Gainesville
Standard Crate Co. ................. ...... Gainesville
The Irvine Crate & Basket Co. .................. Irvine
Lakeside Veneering Mills ................... Kissimmee
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ............... .Leesburg
Overstreet Crate Co. ........................Lockhart
King Lumber Co. ........ .................Nocatee
The McDowell Crate & Lumber Co. ............... Oak
Ocala Mfg. Co. ..... ............................ Ocala
J. R. Pounds & Son ................. :..........Ocala
L. Warnell Veneer Co. .................... Plant City
NW M. Bothamly ............................. Sanford
D. N. Holway & Co. ........................... Tampa
The Shelp-Weidman Co. ...................... Tampa
Wauchula Mfg. Co. ......................... Wauchula
Newsom Mfg. Co. .... ....................... W illistolL


Williston Mfg. Co. ......................... Williston
Wolfenden & Co .......................... Worthington


D. N. Holway & Co. ...........................Tampa
Sheip & Weidman Co. ..........................Tampa
Tampa Cigar Box Co ..........................Tampa


John Marshall Co. ...................... Apalachicola
Gress Mfg. Co. ..........................Jacksonville
Jacksonville Electric Co. ................... Jacksonville
Seaboard Air Line Ry. ..................... Jacksonville
Florida East Coast Ry. .................. St. Augustine
Tampa Electric Co. ...........................Tampa
Edge-Dowling Lumber Co. ................ Taylorville
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad .............. Wilmington


Florida Trunk Mfg. Co. ..............:..... Jacksonville
Merrill Stevens Co. .................. ....Jacksonville
G. M. Davis & Son ......: .................. Palatka
Florida Woodenware Co. ....................Palatka
Florida East Coast Ry. .................. St. Augustine
C. E. W ittmyre ............................... Tampa


L. R. Davis ................................ Alachua
Standard Lumber Co. ..........................Alton
Cypress Lumber Co. .................... Apalachicola
Aycock Lumber Co. ...........................Aycock
J. W. Bevis ................................ Bascom
Blountstown Mfg. Co. ................... Blountstown
Bonifay Lumber Co ..........................Bonifay


Southern Saw Mill Co ....................... Bonifay
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. ............... Century
Carolina-Florida Lumber Co. ................... Corey
Ingram-Dekle Lumber Co. ..................... Dade City
Beach Rogers & Co. ................. DeFuniak Springs
McCormick Lumber Co............ ........... DeLand
Browning Lumber Co. ...................East Palatka
Dantzler, Williams Lumber Co. .............. Edenfield
Geneva Lumber Co. ..........................Eleanor
Gainesville Planing & Coffin Co. ........... Gainesville
Holmes Lumber Co. ........................... Glen
Bond Lumber Co. .............................Glenwood
Simpson & Harper .........................Graceville
E. I). Abernathy ............................. Graham
V. D. Eddy .............. ........Green Cove Springs
Wager, Von Horn & Wager ......... Green Cove Springs
Greenville Yellow Pine Co. ................ Greenville
Union Mfg. Co. ...........................Greenville
J. L. Greer ............... .................. Greer
Gulf Lumber & Railway Co. ................... Helen
West & Reaves Lumber Mills ................. Inverness
Cummer Lumber Co. .....................Jacksonville
The Doscher-Gardner Co. ................. Jacksonville
Enterprise Planing Mill Co. ............... Jacksonville
Forsyth Street Planing Mill ............... Jacksonville
.1. C. Halsema Mfg. Co. ................... Jacksonville
Middleburg Lumber Co. ................... Jacksonville
Morgan Lumber Co. .......................Jacksonville
Renfroe & Williams ................... .. Jacksonville
Upchurch Lumber Co. ..................... Jacksonville
Hamilton Lumber Co. ........................Jasper
Strickland Lumber Co. .......................Kathleen
J. Mizell & Bro. .......................... Kings Ferry
Kissimmee Lumber Co. ................. ...Kissimmee
Osceola Lumber Co. ....................... Kissimmee
The E. W: Bond Co. .................. .....Lake Helen
Britton Lumber Co. ....................... Lakewood


J. S. H ussey ................................... Largo
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ................ Leesburg
McGehee Lumber Co. .........................Levon
Geo. E. Porter, Jr. ........................ Marianna
Marianna Mfg. Co ..........................Marianna
Martel Lumber Co... ........................ Martel
Martin & Co. .................................. Martin
Scotland Mills .......................... Middleburg
German-American Lumber Co. ................ Millville
Alabama & Florida Lumber Co. .................. Noma
E. E. Converse .............. ................ Ocala
Gulf Pine Co. ................................ Odessa
A. L. Beck Lumber Co. .......................Orlando
Orlando Novelty Works ...................... Orlando
Pounds Bros. .............. ... ............ Orlando
Otter Creek Lumber Co. ................... Otter Creek
Escambia Land & Mfg. Co ...................... Pace
Wilson Cypress Co. ........................Palatka
Battle Bros. ................ .'.................. Pasco
Florala Saw Mill Co .........................Paxton
The DeSilva & Ferriss Co. .................. Pensacola
B. C. Duvall .............................. Pensacola
Florida & Alabama Land Co. ................. Pensacola
Joel Frater Lumber Co. ................. .. Pensacola
S. H. Peacock ....................................Perry
McMillan Mill Co .......................Pine Barren
Bay Point Mill Co. ................... -.....Pinewood
S. J. Fletcher .......................... River Junction
Rodman Luipber Co. .........................Rodman
Canfield Co. ............................St. Augustine
Gulf Novelty Works ................. St. Petersburg
W. P. Carter & Co. ..........................Sanford
E. P. Rentz Lumber Co .................... Silversburg
Childs Bros. ............................. Tallahassee
Tallahassee Lumber Yards ................. Tallahassee
Gulf Pine Co. ...........................:....Tampa
Kirkland Lumber Co. .........................Tampa


T. W. Ramsey .............................. Tampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co. ............... Tampa
Tarpon Springs Lumber Co. .... ...... Tarpon Springs
*Hall Lumber Co. ............................. Terrell
East Ooast Lumber Co. .................... Watertown
West Bros. ........................ ........ Westlake
Roess Lumber Co. ........................... Zuber


Cypress Lumber Co ................... .Apalachicola
Lamb & Price ............ ..................... Arcadia
Carters Mfg. Co. ........................... .. Carters
Joe M. McCormick & Co. ..................... Eustis
The Lumber Mfg. Co. ...................... Gainesville
The Doscher-Gardner Co. ................. Jacksonville
The Duval Planing Mill Co. .................. Jacksonville
Paul & Wayman ........................... Lakeland
M. G. Rushton ............................... Manatee
Marianna Mfg. Co. ......................... Marianna
Seminole Novelty Works ....................... Miami
C. S. Marcy ...........................New Augustine
Orlando Novelty Works .....................Orlando
Selden Cypress Door Co ..................... Palatka
E. T. Roux & Son ................. ...... Plant City
Quincy Variety Works ............. ............ Quincy
G. E. Hood & So ....................... St. Augustine
W H. Mitchell .........................St. Augustine
St. Petersburg Novelty Works ........... St. Petersburg
Tracy & Richardson ............................. Taft
Empire. Novelty Works ...................... Tampa
Jetton Lumber Co. .................... ..... Tampa
T. W Ramsey .................................. ... ampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co. ................. Tampa
D. B. Whittle ..............................Tampa
Ybor City Novelty Works ..................... Tampm
W. H. Lambert .......................... .Wauchula


Merrill-Stevens Co. .................. ..... Jacksonville
W I. Huffstetler ............................. Miami
Southside Boat W works .................. ........Miami
Al McCabe ........................ South Jacksonville
St. Johns River Ship Building Co. ... South Jacksonville
South Jacksonville Dry Dock Co. .. South Jacksonville
Thiebeaut & Lundstrom ........... South Jacksonville
Tampa Steam Ways .......................... Tampa


Chapman's Carriage Factory .............. Jacksonville
McMurray & Baker ...................... Jacksonville
Smith & Neil Co. ......................:.. Jacksonville
Terrill Wagon Works .......................Lakeland
J. A. Dann Wagon Works .....................Miami
K. M Large .................................. M iam i
G. M. Dykes ............................... ..Miami
Magic, City Wagon Works .................. .... Miami
Florida Hickory Wagon Works ...........Tallahassee

Full Text


t?v"'.,==u.,.=========N==u==m =~ ::; : =:::,: \)> (<\) Supplem e nt lo :FLORIDA ~UARTERLY Bl'LLETIN AGR!





NOTE 'rhe iuniatiga1ion npon whiel1 !hill report ia bni;c-d "a& uudertaken b y the Porest Service iu co-opern 1iou ,..;1b t h e Depnrtment of Agriculture of the Slale of Floridn, the work being tlo11 e un~ler the direetiou of 0. T. Swan, In charge of Tndu~triul f nveulgftt\0111>, United Stultij I),, partmenl of Agric u lture \\'a a hiugton, D. C. The statis liC1!. werl! eom11iled fr om dntn coll~ted In 1 1)12, eo,eriug n per iod of one ,nar. The State Dejmrtment o f Agricul lure f8 nu1horiF.ed IO 1rnhlill.h the flndiogii of the lnn,1ti gation.


REPORT ON THE WOOD USING INDUSTRIES OF FLORIDA. By HU MAXWELL Fl.,ridu extends farther so u t h th;rn rwy otluc!r Stal,:-, 11.ndupp 1ooc he1!11 thlni;luymil.-..oftlleto r r i dzou e. lt c ove,s i;ix :u,d ouc-h.i!f t1~1,"'ecs of lalitudc. No 1~wt uf the Srn1e ba s a cold cli um te, but m uny t ree 1>pc<::i.-.. whk : 1 Uomish in tile e0 11. n~gctntio u, it is ,ery de use. Tr;;eshelong in g to tro J ikn l r egions lwni gai n ed II fooU1o ld ulo n g the KOllthern coas t s and 11pou the hundl'ed~ of islands nud rocfs lyjng 11 e:ll' the shor01 of the peni n sula. &i,e r nl tree species ml' fo und tlie1e a nd nowlieree lire i u tin .United States The gre at es t l eng t h of Florida is 700 mi les, nntl it;; av er age width is !IO m ile;i, Jt ij u1ea i ~ fiS,GSO S (IUa 1~ mile ~, of which 4,H0 a r e wat e r. lt e t-oa s t l i n e is lo n ger t lrnu tl111t o f any o the r State, and notwith s tanding much slial low wat,:-r 1u:':tr 1 1 U.' ~hore, tlwre are a unmhe, of ,;:xc,:lk nl harl!ol"!l. No J JO iut iu the Sta te 1 isc:s m ore than 300 feel aW,e lern l. ])cla11 areistheonlyS1atewhic h doeH n otatsome 1 10l n tattai ua greatereleva ti on than F lori d a ("Tiie surface of P loritla i s fa1 from h ,:in g ll ,Jeutl J e,cl, f though th e d iffei~nes in eleYnt iou arc sma ll. The no1th er n portio n is dinr,;i6e,J w i th ['(llli ng hills and gentle slopes 'J:'hesouthh;1lfh1u;11ohillij butlrregu l arit i esof ~mface nre n mne r on~ Some of t he red ,;o i l ~ wh k l,


abound in Oeo~ia ~ecm to have on r lai)ped into portions of northern Florida; hu t in the southern part of the Stntc, the white sand worn from the coral reefs and limestone deposits 001 ers most of the surface, and in somelocalitiesthegreuteora lreerwh ichforrn s 1heskele t on o f S(!Ulb. Florida, protrude thffiugh the thin Band cov ering, and appearH nt the surface L-Ow swales and de prP,Bsions abound i n 1lfaces, and these have nccumulnted nud they hold black muck which looks like wet pnlverit e

ther e. Ju tbe northern par!, where t h e l rnrdv,oods of th e All]ll\lachirm 1 -.:i;fo11 ore,lnp on Floridn n n d llOil ill l,(:lter, t he fol"elltll n r egcnern l ly much h envier. Y a n y or the J,' Joridn ril'el"I! IIN:! ld e ,'11 u driling 11 t ream.'! for l og11. Th e c urr c n1 ~ are al ngg l,h, a n d th e wa.1rr usuall y dee p rh cre 11rc n fow bnr ~ und no rnpid R Ou ~ mu ll atreams t il e ch i tf o b ;tncle l u tbc way of lo g driving is f requentl y tr e('II wh ieh nlon::; th e i,, 1111. snn d d o., n to lhc ex tN:!m e l ow wnter m a r t. Th ese trnuks $omc t i m e11 so nenr!y e]ose the ellnnncl~ t ha t l iHl c 11 1m ce 111 le rt ror loi:_,gtopMllthrough. TllR t d ll!ie nlt r i 11notoften 111 ei on th clnrgc r r isr crs. The stu dy o f the v,,x11l-11 11ing Indust r ies o f Fl or i,Ja V.'ll!! made In t h c 11 prln g of 1!1 1 2, 11. nd was ca rried ont under t he same pfon ak o th eri, \ru !lnr State s tudies. A ll known manufoetureni of v,ood co mm od iti ea in the Slate were i,eut h ln n kB lobe fl ll ed, 3 ho wi n g t hec xten t n nd chara cter of !hei r 0l)(!rntl o n g, t he dn( l 8 of w ooda c rnpl oye,,1, and th e coat of th e lum be r n~t. T ho i;e who nei;:l ec ted to !'\! l ily to th e m oil l'('( IU Cllt were visited 111111 th e d e11 lreJ &ta li J;til'II! were 1 1 r oc u red in n f' ar ly every in~t11 11 ce. The n cco m pn n ,1 J11g tnbl~ v,ill ~ h ow 11ummnrlea oI the re1rolt T he 1 0 1u1 :rnnu.11 011t 1 mt of nrnnufactured wood com mod tiC!! in Fl o ri da rniih rnth l'r lo" compnred with 110111e of li e other So u t h ern States, but l,igb compared " il h o rnu _,, of the Nort h (' rn a nd Ct>n tnll Stntei,. The Southe rn Stnl ca w hi ch fl.~ceed Flor i d o in total produet nre Loula i a n~ TexR8, Arl m n sni., ) li 1111 i l!kip pi, Alnbomo., and :Nort h Car-olinn. F lorida is mauufoetm i ng it~ 1<0ft11ootl~ In to flooring, cdlin ,:' a iclin)!' ~ akh 01111 mill JJrodueu. b u t i ~ not y et doiug much wi(b It~ h o rdw O-Oda. :No Stn ie s so uth of :X o rlh Carolina, Tenn c,:see, n11d Ar knnM~ ore 11ctire in t he woy o f manufaetorinl:' t h e ir h ar dl\ "ooda. florid11 ia .d o ing ,vbat o t he r G u lf f:tut ea are d oing ; h ot i 6, c utt i ng p ine a11d r_v 1 1r eJ!~ nnd l c1 w/ng l he rC!!I T hese ijf}l! cie~ are in o1 t nbundnnt, nnd u m l e r 11r e;;en f cond iti ,;o n i ther e


10 1, more UI O!l(lY 111 t hem tlUUI i n tb e $Ullllle 1 uud lllOI" ~ di H J>e i!ed l m r dWOO(l,; b ut the p co 1 1lc or Floddu s lt o ul d notl~ s l& -l1tof t hefactt h at l he. havearnrelotof burdwood 111 11,d 1hat there is u i;ootl mnr ket for them if pain s are tnkeu 1 0 1 roch t h at marke t iu th e r ight way. :Uorelha.n !lt'.il)crcentoft h ewooduow11m1si11gthrougli Fl oridn's 1H ecorie11 111 pine 1111d Q' l" ~llll. These spcci~ nreex11loltl'tl 11.t 1heexpeuseofllll 01hc1'1!,. \\'hi!e th ey l a11t, the f wm mok e 1 he l111111Je1 bu,iHl'Ki! 1woft1uh le hul whe u t he yaregune,t h c11ootlworkcr'ijntle11tionwlll tm t o wh a t il! now bcj11g 11e:,:!&1ed-the hnnh1()(ll!. Plorida app(''1U to l,e &utreriui; mv,e from fore!t flrets thu n 010 st of the O l her Sou th em StnlN The li"-"l 11. r e 1mu1ll and slow. T h ey do not attract much nt1e11tio11 "" they creep along amo ug the 11ine, but h ey get in their de(u l l y "or);:: no le S11 11uroly,though more 11low ly than the forest c oun : gra1ion11 wltlch wipe out ma11y M(Jullre m ileic i n one atret c h '!' h e fruyeJcr in Flori dn nh 11 0M I nnywherc out!lide t h e b o m1 dnrle11of t.h e~ wamp s, i s 9001, nccustorued to the sight of long 1iue11 of fire which ke<>p do11e to th e ground. Tl,e blnr.c mny not be rnor o thno a root hiJ;h, lmt w h en it hll1l 1 iu ~sed, it Jenn~ e>er.l' t~ ,ieedling de:ul 'fho mat o f snw pn l mettoes, 'lltich nearly a l w11,r11 cns1s 11. IO'I' shade 10 1,ro1 ec1 the ground 11 1 '

ll It i ~ n g.i uut u11i;:ni n ly animal, nda p led t or fotrtgiug u nd !m i lt for11 J oeed,1 rn di1 r Olllll!!t h e"oodsi u Y n ever-t i ri n g 1,,,,,11-d, for>!(l111e t hl u gtoettt. J u t he l a t ewiu1 e r t h eo,.n t.: r s o f t h e I.log s go ou t nilh n box o r mah:he11 nud burn th e ran ge. r h u t cle 11r 11 11n1yold st n lks, nml tc l'iil! 11 1111 11 hog 11 111. lny on a fe11 pouu d 11 or fol; 1111d F lorilln iic n ti m cnt gener,1 l ly d Ol.'O! uor s~w to 01i p o"e t h e p t oef!~. T H E U .NUS E D W 001)8 O F FJ ,O R ll) A Flori d u hm,i J r.5 u n~, I 11 pe de11 M trees, u f t>w more or 11 few le8>-, dept:uding upon ,,,bcther w m e of llul miuo. ijpec i ei; a r c include d 0 1 ucluded. T ree!! w h ich bt: l o n g iu no rt h e rn l nti !Uo.l CII t "e nc h In to 1 he n or11 ie rn 111 11 -t of 1h ll !;t 11 1e 11 nd U u~re l, n e th ei 1 lll) ut lu:r i limi1 "' b ile ot li eri whic h a til l ~t lh,u lhen n m un t <:A n e1e r be m u c h iucre:u,e, J. T he i:!t n te i~ 111 1in.1,er1 1 an lm p ortnnt J u mher 1 1ro,.l11et!r; hu t, w it h the d cplet i o 11 or t hep r it n : ip a l w oo d 11, it 11 111 ,b!' ,; xpc et e d t hat t h e n ru m a\ o utput of ~ awrn i ll ~ "' 'ill Cn ll to o m u ch lowe r 1 1lm:e. T h a t will te nd t o b l'i n :: Im o 11.i;,1 t he n n mel'fi U !I iocnrce nnd f m l\11 !l]"-"'le,;, 1 rn d t h e w001 l u~i n g indu 11 1r l et1 n m y be ei p ede d 10 u ndergo II drn n ~c. The o u tput or pinning mill ,rodu c t~ wilJ dimin i 11 h IU! t h e vine and cyp r e>1~ :;row l!l!n~r; nnd th e mnnufoct u re of R r ticles f rom cnbi 11 et wood~, wldc h o r e IlUIIU 'TQ ll ij ll ll l l M


12 trncti"e, t hough ill total amount no t large, m ay be CX peeted to incre a se un t il in time that w i ll heeorn e th e leading w ood-using industry of Florida. In ~iew of what w i ll p ro b a bly be brought about in tb.e future it fa opp ort une to examine t he State's timbe~ resourceH. Jn the !lnit plaee, nfter excluding th e p ines, cyprt>i!.., :rnd n few other species whic h now furnish th e Lulk of F lori da 's saw,nill ,mt 1 mt, it slto uld be b o rne In m iud t h flt the State~ timber con s i sts for the m ost p nr t of spee i es whlch do not rcnch l arge s ize. Thcr eforc, in dustric s width 8hnll rnnke 11 8C of thern mu st 1 1r odu ce ar t i cl('II; su ir e, I lo t h e m11H:r i al. 111 t he st"COlld ph ce, mo s : of !histimberbel ong,. lo t he hard woo d class, and a l arge p:irt of it is colo r e d ~ u0l c ie11tly tO p ltl ce lt ln the cab in e t woods lis t. Therefore i t mn} he ex 1 1e d ed that t he fu tun:i wood u 1< in g ind 11 f;t,i es o f Florida will be s u c h as <.'au p rofltah l J" handle .s m 11U timher, lllld ha r d mid c<> l1 wed wood ~ 'f hnl 11i/l call for n rnther u uu.snnl clne1; or co n1111 od iti es T he y will b e selected from mun y in t l us t ries Tltat p hn Jre o r th,i S t nle's d e elo pn 1ent lies a l m ost wholly h i the future, f or very little or i l is 11 on u n de r way. Tbe l arg er t i mb!ll:


Athletic goo d s, Balls, Billirmlcues, Ill'llCkets, n,ushl~u:h, Canes, Cancdornnments, Castors, Ch ain ;, Clothes pins, Curtain rings, DyewO(")S, Enscls, Games Grilles, Randle,;, Inlny, ln slll a torp in, Knobs, Mani c ure aets, :\f,H\Juetry, )fothcmat i cal in str uments, Medicinal e,;tracts, )lusicnl ln!!lrnrnents, J-'allcttes, Panel li, Pnr(]uetry, l'ictnrcf ra mes, Jtu l erB, ShuWes, Snudl furnin 11:e, Sou, e uirs Spind le s, Sporting goo ds, Toys 'frays, Turncry, \Jmh e!la l,nmlles, Ve n eer, \\'oodcu ware. Various other oornmoditiCI! might lH.l n (Mcd to the list. For many of 1hem a small trre moy be n~ in that way toadvnntagc,though n otlnrger,nough forordinarrlum her. 'l'he list of s i> cde~ ,diich /ollo,vs i n ch1des only t h ose woods wh i ch ui-.i uot 110w reported by ,my rn31rn facturer in Fl ol'idn, acco r ding to returul! secn l'e d iu the re<:ent wood usiug study in the State. Tt s how s a r e marka bl e wcnlth of mnterlnl wait i ng fo1 manufo.-turers. Ttisin 1 practicab!einthlls J ia~hereavailablctodcseri\Je each wood er~ fu lly In each instuuce, howe, er, l hl' best u, ailab l e iufonnation is ghen couccrnlng each s ve, cies' average height, tnmk diame ter, hardnL'!IS or soft ne~s, strength or weakness, weight, and color. Such generat informat i on will ind icate lo the pros p ective manu faclnrer w h at woods wi ll likllly suit his purposes. H fornrnhly imprellSed with a sufficient n u mber of them, he


can make further in 1estigation foih hu..elr a long his pa, ticulnrline. ,lmerk.:m Holly (fie:,: opaca ) .-'fh e comn1oll holly thllt beau the 1 ed be,.ries used ill C hri 1

nmou~ t h e co 111111 oue,;:t o ( the rmu11! r.-iu Che region n herelt growr,,nudnttn i na11.helght or20 t o SO reet,11od n tffnmtter of sii< to ten incl,e ~. The wood ls exceed in g l y h eu1~ uud hard, an,! l s ric h \Jrowu In co l or Rlar;k J(lck (Q11C1"cm, maFil,rndieu).-lt i~ not o u c or th ernl ua\Jl eou k s, \Jutins o rnelo cn l l t i eti l rccHofnsn !J l e ~ize nre founi l. lt growil u s for &0 u t h as Tampa B uy. 8111ck Olire 'l'ree (T<.'rm i nalia b11 oc1'M)-A teodeoc~ to brn11ch nenr t h e groun d ie chnrl'lctcrlette o r t h e b!nek oli 1e tree T r un h m ar be hrn feet or more l u di1111.1e te r HIid forly foet high. T h e wO(N I iii ex c eed in g l y hard a m! heavy, 11nd J@ u~u:il/y light yellon bron Th e tree is foun d ontheirouthcrok ey11. lllack S l oe ( /'rim11, nmltcllntn).-,\ Florida n ame fo r the t1'1)() is hog p.lum. The trunk le sma ll nnd generally Cl'OOked, the wood re(ldish brown nn (l hca 1 y . Rl'1 ck 11''1/md (Juy l,m a ,i iyra). A littl e h l nek wal u ut, t h o 11 <:ll kno ;.. n ca li i n et woocl, l.1:1 fo un(l i n th e we s t f.'rn Jlllr\ o r the S t al!! Rlack ll 'i //01 0 (811/i.r nigra). Wlllo11 tl'ffll ot eommer ci11\ .1:1 i ze ure no t 11 huml a nt in the S!ale, bu l ij p e,cirneus exist In mun y placel!. lJl aC k lCOOd, (,h-ice,rni a. 11/lido).-Tbls 11'1)() ie o ften ca lled blac k ma11gro1e. It re:ichesn dl11u1Cte r ofoneor 111 feet an d a height of GO or iO. Th e uood ts nry henvynni l h nrd, nnd i11neurlybtack. JJ/olly (Pi~(m ia olttusata).-1'1,e b!oll~ 111 !o n ncl i u the ei:1re u1 e ~o u th of the State, w h ere It nttuin~ 11. h eight of 30 t o ~O feet nnd II dium eter Hi to 20 i11 che.1:1. The woo d l~ hen11 nud ucak, u nd yellowi8hbrov.. Rin e D~ -cch (C o,11i"H$ C(!1-01"11an11).-The wood of b ln c lleee h i~ ~ lrong it~ rolor lig h f, nud th e lree i~ gericrnlty .1:11unllandofpoorformforl11mber. JJ/ 1 1 0 ,lfJ ck ( Q11crcu,y bre"i/olin ) ..:.... f.nrg e trees of thi~


" Sl)e('ic, tlol orteu seen, and the wood is too coarse for auy bnt l'ough Use!!. Bu ckthr.;m numcli!l (Rumcli8 fyco;du). Some "call tbiG tree mock orange, 9nd so me iro n wood. Jt nttaius a tru nk dinme1er or ~ix inches and a height of 25 or 30 f eet ;woodis hea1'Jrmdweuk,uudofyellow c olor. Ru8tic (Dipho li 8 aalicifolia).-CaAAarlo is one of the 1rn.mca by which th e nee I s koowo in F l oYicla Tt ,tttain~ a height of ..0 feet an d a diameter of 20 tncbes The woodi sre<.l,oxceed ini;ly hard nndheo.vy,nntlisfound in thecxtn:mesouth or t he State. Cabl>agc Pal metto ( Salm! palm etlo).The cnhbage pnl 1 m:t t o iR abundant in mnn Y pa r t\! of ihe State, and tr unh .iO feet high nnd a foot in diarnefor tll"il not uneommou. Chinquapin (Cn.s_lalluoo) .Gopher plum is another name for thi ~ tree whle h mny be ::.:; fed high and a foot in dlometer, with ~trong, hard, hca1 y, hrown~ol ored wood. It i s confined in Flol"ida to the southern part of the State. Cork1rood (Lcit1wl"ia f/ sma ll amount ot this species fa fo und !n westcru F lo rid n near Apnlflchi co\a. Itialittl om oreth:mashrul.,insize,and t hewooI issot t andverylight Crabwood, (Gynm 11ntMa lucido ). The wood l s d,irk


17 brown and l"id 1 ht colo r ; ,err heu ,., ,m o h,1rd. Trm1k ~ are sii: or eigh t inches iu di1 1me hw aml-:!O o r 30 feet tall. Tlte s pecie s grow.11 in the ex1remc ~ou1b. of the State. Co(to111cood (J opulu8 deltoid n). -T hish common cot ton wood. Dalw(m ( II ,:;,, i:assine) -ln practical use this holly is about the same as the common holly.' It ls neithcrulnw duntoroflnrgc s l:7.e Dc, : iduoir8 llo//y (lle:r

18 30 inches in diameter o.nd 40 to 60 feet high. The wood is very heavy, stl'(l ng, hard, and burns slow ly like c lmr coal. It la durkyel!ow-brow u .F'lorida Bw,1Cood (Scliac{fcrie frutaccne) or yellow wood ns it is ocea~ionully c.slle1sca1~r tree, is foun d i n 1 liecxt n,mesontJ l of the Stotc, oud is mr11111ly quite sma ll. The wood is tinged witti red andishnrdaodhe:tvy, Florida Oat'8 Claw (Zygia m1gui 1cati).-Some call thb t!X'e longpod. 1 t is found in the ~outhe r n part of the State, where it atta ins a height of 20 lo ':!ti feet a nd dinmeter of 7 or 8 i nches. The wood i8 a rich red, vary ing to pnrple, and \ cry hcnvy nnd hnrd. Florida Alaple (Acer ~acchan1m /lor/d(rntw1). 'fbis i s a small maple found ill westeru Florida. Florid,iPlum (Dr!ff)ci e& latcr,flor1.>), c nlle dnl soG11i>1 no p lum am! whltewood, ls found in th e e:ureme southern p u rt of the Stn1e whi!re i l N!nehes a height of Z0 to 30 feet an d a diamete r or Jh-e or six iuehes. The wood is dmk lJrowll ,brittlenndhn rd Florid11 'I'on-eya ( Tu11 i ioii taJ:ifoliHm), ls a scarce s()e cies fonnd in western Flor i da ne:ir 1he Apafachieoln Rirnr The wOOtl i s yellow, and the tree is often Cll!led st in ging ced a r Flori111\\ i s dntk brown. FNJscr Umbrella (Magnolia fraur/.), some t imes e:illed wnterl!ly tree, r nngesfhroug h portions of western Flor


" ida. lt is t hirty or forty l ed high a11d J S or 20 i nehe~ in diameter. The wood issoft,lig h t,:1nd w.-ak Garber Stopper (Eugenia garberi) is RC:iree and i11 found in thea. t reme s outh o f the Siate. Geiyet"trec (Coldia ee~eetina) is '.!;'i or 30 feel high si:x incl,es or leM in diameter, ;llld is scarce The wood IH b r ow11, hc ,n y, :rnd lrnrd. G olden Pig (Ffot1801rrc a ) is n parasitic tree reaching its best den-:lopment in the south of F! or id o.,. where it niay bethreeorfou r ft!etindiameterand llttyoi-sht yb igh. It i s one of the lightest weake$t woods in thi!I country, and iij s nbjed to ver,v rapid de,:,a~Grccn A sh (F'ra.1inm1 lmwcolatc) i s found in small quanli ty inthenorl.he r npartofilieState. Green lfai~ (Cn1hper (E119e11ia bu.rifolia) i s ooutined t o lhe s outh of the State, where it is usun!ly n shrub, but i s ><0methne@ tr,enty feet hi~h am! a foot in diameter. The wood i s hror, u, 8hndetl with red, nnd is ,err bea1 y ,rn d exceedinglyhnrd Oy.,,inda (Gyminda yr i~ebacliii), or false boxwood, grOW8 on the southern islnnds, wheN! it is oecnslonally 2;:; feet high and s i x inche11 in diameter The.wood is near ly bla ck nml i s 1ery hea_,y and hnrd.


20 Hnckberry \Oeftie occidcntulie). lt grow s iu mo ~ t par ts of P lo rida nnd is of com mercia l size._ 'l 'he wood i 11!igh tincol o r ,rat!Jer11ort,ni1tlnot,er.,trong. Ilopt1-ee (J>tdea trifoliatu), 01 w afer a s h, i s a n o r !!,. cm spec ies lmt reaches Fl or id a, ,,here i t is roo smn ll to L e _o( 11 111 c h u ~ e. T he yello wi s !1 !Jro,rn wood is heav y aml lu m l. hlkuxod (E"oll,ca 1>rmic11/ata ), m,d also oue of t he nur11e ro us wedes locally eulled h on wood i s con fined in t h e Un ited 8tares to the south. of F J ol'idn It i s 40 o r 50 feet high, a foot in diarnelcr, and th e w oo,J i s er., strong ,a n(lhrig ht r ed l ronu;o o d (Cyril/a nwemif/tlra).'l'hi11 is Jikewbl' known a& red tlti. T h e tree um y be thir t r feet hi g h and one in diameter. T h e wood l s b r own, 1 .luged with red and, though l mnl am h eavy, ls not stro ng. Jama ica D ogwood (lcJilh you icthi~ 1,isci pul a ) grows h mnoy pnrtso!Floridn,:rnd tna y m1chnheighlof,I00 1 ~~~\:nl ~e: ;:a;::~l:: ~;~,~ 11 -~,~\i;;~;l !~~l~;t:;~:1 ::~ groond. Jotwooc! (J'aqui11i1< armillmia ) i s a 1 01.ber sca1-<:il wOOtl o f ~outhern Florida, and the tre(,'!l i n c ~1111111: The wood i s a rich hrown and is beautifully nmrketl with d 111 e1 mcdullary ro ys. Jtishar,Jand h e:wy. Lti,i c ezcooa ( Oootea ooteeby(lua) i.~ t~im1miiit i>-el y a b un dant ln ~o ut!, Fl or id a a m.I isu tre<;J :2 0 o r3 0 feet hi gh ani or ls ric h dar t brown, ~ nd it fa har d and he,,, _r La>'gcleaf Umbrella ( Jf ag,iolia 111acrophylla) i s kno11'n n,a; cucumbe r tl'e() i n J<'l o ri du The woo d h l1ard, bu t b llgh t andwt"ak. Itl snot abundaut. 1,aurel Chen'!! ( l'>'mW 8 caroliui(llrn), or moc k o lhe, is 30 o r 4 0 f ed l_li gh u ll\l ~i:,: o r ei~ht ln e h es thro u g h, ilml itij h nrd, st rong, heav,r w OO<.l i s tl nr k brown.


Laurel Ou k (Qucrcit8 /(mrifolia) a tt nl n a forgt'>lt 11i?.e i u .,.a111er 11 Floridu where r r ee\j 100 fttt high and :I or feet ill dlnme ter ore oecu,s ion ally ~ecn. Tlu :i wood i~ heu .r,.-eQ'lltrongandhard. /,cuoaena (LCUOOCNUghrnro).-The l ittleo tth iSHJ>eeie. in t h e Staie is on the extreme so mh e r n l.:e y11. l,ign11111. ~ il ae (ONajacum wnctum) it foum l 011 t he Floridak e ya, w bereit forms a ro und -h t-ad cd cro ,rn :!aor :JO feet high, a11d the trunk il! hio o r 1brec fee l I n di,ume ter The wood i @ exc o.. '

a nd af{H> to rrnore i ndi a 111e ter 'fl,ewood ishard,stroug, au1i& di clwtuma) may \Je si:i: in c hes t.hicli and 20 feet h ig~ It be l ongs in the southern pa r t of the Stare. Til e wood is ligbt bt'OW n or red, and i slm1 da11d1eryhc:11y. N ake~ od (Colubrina 1eclinata), or soldie nvood as i t i s ,;ometi m es called, i s u ative In the e.,:treme sou1 h ot .Florida, whcr.: il is 50 o~ 60 feet h i gh nod t h l"()(l foot or mo re In diameter 'l'he ha rd heavy w oo d is dark browu tinged with yel!on. \ an om l ,:,:, f Crnb (Pyru anyustifoliu), or er uh l r ce UM it i s freq nen1J ~called, ln northw es t e rn Florida is 20 o r 25 feet high w ith ba rd, hea1y reddisb brown wood Odorlc~! Jf11 tfo (J/y1'1CU inud(a). Thi~ s m n ll tree is ery sen r ee in F lori da Ovi:roup CJk (Q uerou, l gruta) Is a commercial speda with its southern limit in westem F l orida. It is no t abundaatthere. Par adiae-tre c (Sim anwb u ylauca), or hi Uerwood, i s nathe of gou1.h ern F!oti du, oeeusio u ally 1 8 o r 20 inch es in diame t er nnd 40 0 1 50 feet tall. T h e broll'n 11ood i s sortnnd ligh t. l'arakv Hu m (C1.,,tae9116 111,l ifolia) is foun d in the northerti part of the State, 1vith 11 s mall trunk, ge idom mon.tbau20 f eetb igh. Pa wpaw (Aai ff i ina tri loba).-T hi s tree is s m a ll and thewood ls lJght,ll Oft,m;dwea k. 1'ig ~on Pl um (Cocolobi6 laur;folia) at t nin s a d iameter of on e ortv;o feet 11nd a lic i ght or 60 or 70 The wood ill strong, heavy, and exceediugly hard. It i~ a rich dark brown Uuge d with red. Pign u t ( lli eoiia glabni) is one of 1he comm e r dal h i d, oric ~ an d growR i n norther n Florhfa.


23 /'11,rn e rlre e ( Pluncra G of rellow nn d hrowu. l'umpki11 Aah (Fr uJ:/1111 prnfunda ) l e t oo ~c11 rce in Fl orida to llf! ntlrnetl\ e to 11ood userK.


Quccn,.la,u/ J'in e {CaA 11adna toruloa ) i ~ au A,111truliau I N'e, w hi ch ha-, !x -e ,~ introd11eed In /!OUthcrn Flor i da 1d1e r eitgrow 11 wlthgre11t rapidity. R ed HllJJ ( P er~b111lmn ia) l!Ornetime.i called ~weet ha., and F lo ri da Ulllh ogn ny. 1111:lim i u height of 60 or 70 fe(! I 11.nd a diam etero r:?or3 f e(!t. 'fh e l,right red WOOll la u rong h11rd.1111d h en \'y. Red~utl (Oerci8 ca,i(l1fcn.wi), or Jmfa~ trellfoliu), nh ;. o known ns do,mward plum und nnl~11!1, is 20 fret high with a !iX lnch t run l;. Th e ,.i l11 h a rdnndbC11\ Y,bro11 norornnge colored. Sar9e 11t Pa/111 ( P edo p1'oe,;;;,:, -argc,itii) grow11 on the so utlu i rn reefs, b11lh11ery~arce. Sauafra, (S a u 11jrat uuafYII) rend i es the 30uU 1ern llmitofit 6 range in centro.l Flor i, fa, and 1 6 n ot conimcr dally import1111t.


25 S11linl caf iCl1l'yiop/1y/111111 ,nonop/'C111m1). H eii;bt 20 t ect, dl a mete1on e too1 ,woo d h ur d un dh eo.vy,Hghtbro1n,, ~l utle d with -re d. The tree i s n ot plenti f ul. Safinu:ood ( Xtmtho.ry/um cri brot1m1 ).Tb la t ree nt lnln.11 n he i gh! of 30 or 3:i f ee t 11nd n dinmete r o f one or mote. The wood in britt l e, heary, h nrd, nn d o f light ornni;:eco l or. Scrlet H uw (Crn/ 11 e9urcocc inro); h elght18or!.'O reel, d inme t e r4 inch e.,, wo o d hord nn d hen, y. Srn Grape (cooo l obia ui -if c ra), or lll'RJ! id e [l lum. 'f he woodl11 hordnndhe nYy,nn tlofdarkb ro11no r\ lolct eo lor .' T he 1rne11 are am111\, 11e ldorn more tbnn fifteen feet h ig h. S/1119barl: H ickory ( H icori11 O!!llla).Thl g 1 1! ll vn lu a ble nmlcommo n sricctet1of hickory. f)'lli ttim,cood. (B1 e ll.lre ti ( Mohrodendron oorolf 11 rrn1), al .80 k DOW D n~ ~ n Ol\ 1 l rop tree e xre11d ~ In to nortl 1crn F lorida, which ill t he so o t hern limit o f HM r,rnge. The ll g ht brown l\'oo'lthout much 6gt1 r(!. Sm!lll-lcaf Tlov /(J,atac9u11111i/fora. ); in northeru purl orstate. S11om lrop-t, ce (. \l ?1!1'0dc11dro 11dipt cn1m); h eig h tZ O o r


' 12!5 r eet, diamet er (I or 8 in ches, wood l ig h t brown, oort &trong. Soapberry (Sap/Ndu,aapo1mria},nlsocnl!ei l faJ s;e dog wood in the so uth er n pol't of t he Stille, ll! 23 or 30 feet in he i ght, a nd 12 inehe11 o r less In d lnmete r. Th e ,, oo d Is hard an d rather hea1 y, light b ro"n lin ged 11ith ye l I OI\', Sour Tup elo ( Ny,ra ogoohe ) l!Ometime11 ca lled gopher p lum, ha11 th e so uth el'n limit of itllrange tn n ort hern Florido., wher e i t i s6 0or r.Ofet!t high and t11 o feetorlea~ ln dlnme1er. T he wootl i ll weak and ~oft n nd light in eo\or. Sourirood (0;>-j/Uendn>fl. orbore11m ) grow i n nor th "'el'!t ern F lorida bot i of & m nll size. Tb e.,,ood l a hen1y nnd h a. nl :u 1dl&bro"n,tlngedw\lhl'('( I. 8out h-ern Ir ed Junir,e,(JuMper11,11 barbadenai a ) .-Thh s l! f le(ies clo s ely r t'l!C mbl e11 t he com,non f'W cedn r 8011 th tT11 Whit e Cedar ( Chamu t.'!f 1 1 ari ~ lh y-0ide8 ).-1'hl s l sn11wa mpc eda r extc ndlngitsr1111gc f ro m theNortb into northern Fl o r ida. 'Ih ewood !.sl\ght nnd 110ft. Spani"h Od : (Q11 t r c 111 digilUltJ.).T hlt tree ls r.o m tlm es called red oa k in Florid.a. It g ro ws 111 far IIOuth ue t hecent e r of t lleShne. The reure11e t> crnl oo L: spe<::ie1t in thi s eo un try which ure called Spanis h onk in l!()me 1mrtuftheirra n ge. S pruc e Pin t (Pi11111 glabra ) A numb e r or trees ure cull ed spr u ce p l ue in 110 m e pn rt,; of th ei1 rnuge. Th e 11pec l es he re llatetl llij ij 1 ,rure pine gro,v~ In th e Chattn h oochee region. The w ood is tolerably white nnd @Oft. lt i.9so m c lim eeea lled poo r 1 1ln ennd hH e 1 1i 11 e. Sloppc~ (Chy l raCftfia chytracul/a); heig h t 20 f e,et, d i u m etcr 4. inc b e,i, .,, oo,I ,ery he1wy, hard bro., u tinged with red. f:,'lro ngba ck ( J1 011rrritJ. //acu,icn,11ia), lll >KI culle d s t ro ng bark grows on the l?lorida Ke ys toll hel g hi of 30 or 40


27 feet,with ti buUl'elllle, I tr,mk Sot lOiuc b eti in di111ueter. The wood is l>rovtn, 11t rong, a nd hard. 811gwrl,,my (Otltis m/ssissippic1M i 1) i$ very lj.lmllar tu hackherr~ 1111d often ~ @fie:! 1111 ijUeh. Summtr H uu; (C rnlut1.1u llUllt-0//1)) or a11ple lun,; height 18 or:?0 feet, diameter 1 2 or IS tnche,i, Stcamp l JJ(ly (l'el'Bell //llh'8Cell l) ; 30 or 40 { e(lt high :ind u11 to out fool iu tlilrn1eier; l\'000 hMy and 110 ft, b u t; ornn,;ein tolor, 11 treated 11"ith bro,.n . Sired Hire/I ( JJ clu/o /1mfo).-1'hi11 i" one of the birehci; used forfurulture in theXorth. ,\ littlogrowe In v,cst crul'loridn. Sweetl~f (Symploco, t111ctoro), ahio called Fl orida Ln.n1'i?londbon1e sugu r ,uttuiJll!al ,ei ghtof30o r a5feet, with n s lim trunk. The v;ood ie light red, and l!Ort, Syromor e (plotiinus oocirle11l/l li ,). -A little o f tbiij epeci~gro,n1iutl1euor!llcr111)arlortbeS1ate. 'l'iti (Oli/tonio mo11op1lylfo), or ln1 el:w l1ent tree, 111 found in uortber11 Florida; heiglit 40 fl.'l:I dlumeter a foot or m o1-e,woo d1.teu,-r l u ,n l,1 indbrl ttle. 1'o,-chwood (Amyl'it 111a,i/i,1u,).Thls i tt a i!OU!h }'Jor i da t n.-e 40o r50 feet high,aud nm .!ly11 foot In dlameler. The "ood is exceedlug\y h ard, henry, and 11trong, er:r ~i1101U1,cxtremelyd11r11hlc,ligbtornngecolor. 'Tong/I Bmnelia (Bu11tclla tct1u;r), 111110 culled fron wood niid black hw, reach e,.n height of20 or 30 f ee t with ,1 bole n0t : bo, e G ln c h N. The "''ood i 11 hear~ :i nd hard a11d i s light brow11,11treaked wi th whlte. Tnc Jluc/.:.foberry ( Vu~..-;i,,iuti~ orborcum), oll!O km.>wn AA sp.1,rklel,<;rry, fa1kl c\ie rry, nnd ~fJOijelierry, i ~ :!O foet bigh and So r 10 Inches In diam eter. nill wood hem y andh1ud.


1'upe/Q (NyMa aquatiM) is n wet-land tree that tittnim, large size, and its wood i s ~crv i ce_able for um11y purposes. 7 urkcy Oak (Q 11 cro1u catc~haci), sometimes. ca lled forked leaf, i~ ge nerally It smnll tree v f liltle C()"lm11ercia! importance, but oeensio ru:ill y is GO feet high n111 l two in rlinruetcr The\\ :ood i B hard oud lJa hcightof50or60feet,with ti-uuklargeenough for wwlogs. The wood iij St ron g and ha!, and a rich brown,tingetlwith red. Water Oak (Qucrcus fligra) ls often called !d oak. The wood i s11trong,h ard,all(J heavy. Wa:i: Myrtle ( Myrica cerifera).-This small troe hn 's m ouy u amll1!, 0lllQng th ernbejngpu c k er bu s li ,ca ncll eberry, and bayberry. The dark bro"ll" U wood i s liri1t!e, IIQft, nud light. \Ve at Tndia Chen'"!) (.Pr"""" sphaerocarpa ); heigh t 25 QI' 30 feei:, diameter 5 or G inches, wood clear red, )u;avy an d hard. White Elm ( UlmM a111ericana). Tbi s i~ the eommou


" nnd utO/lt 11 lm mlnut elm in m ~t l'egions of the United 8tntea enst o!tbe Hock .r Mouutain s. ll'hit c H1#.to111cood (l.agrmn1lr,ria ro~,m:iso), or 1''lilM m11ngro1c,grows i n so u t b ern F l o rid u. Height 30 foot 0 1 1110 1 .-, dlumeter one foot nu d upword, T h e wood is heuvy uud hurd,darkyel!owbrown. Whit e fr0nK,OOd ( Jlypelaia trifoii!lla).-Thls Hpecies growe on tbeMllllhern keJ~ but hi rate; b e l gbt 3i>or 40 feet, d iamete r 18 or 20 i11 cht11; l\"00d ric h da r k brown h1tr1landhe111y. While Siopper (B119niia monlirola).-Thi!J tree is oe t'Uslounlly 2a feet high, 1\"it h a L 2i ud, trunk. The wood isij(rong, h e1wy, h nrd,a nd isl1rown with re1l !inge. Wild Ohi11a (Scf)i1Wu, marglllalu~) is wrnetime11 ca lled SM J lbc rr y. It mny reac h n t r u nk dlnmeter of two feet 11 11,\ H height of 60. The bl 'OWll, ycllow.J! n ged W()(ld i s 11trong nuU li llllv~. 11' ilit Lime (X1rnllwzyll< fayariCl)i height 25 or 30 feet; n-01:>d hea1._1 aod hard; range, sou 1 heru Florida. ll'ild SupodillCI (.l!im111op., licbcri); o n ly o n the 1J011i h : ern L:ey11 R ud not abundan1 ; height :m !eet; 11ood ery heav.v, hnrd ,and @trong; rich 1ery dark brown. Wild 7'am11ri11d (l,yailoma laitiltliq1w).-Thl11 specie'! I n J,'Jo r ida i11 confined to the L:ey1111herelt occ,udonally is 3 feet In diameter and 50 feet high. The wootl i11 heavy, ha1d,undtougl:1,butnot111rong,nndl80for\c h dark btow11 color. H'illo10 011k (Que,-c,1$ 1 ,lu.:/101), often ca ll ed n!d oak i n I<'lorldo, 111 one of the State'~ comrncrciu! woods w h ich se ld om appc11u under its own na m e na lum~r. Wing b'lm (Ufom, ofata).-Thl~ wood goet! into lumber 11im 1 Jl.v 118 eh 11 'fli t uarne 1 -efel"I to a flattening of the :11mnl! twigs.


.30 Witch ll a::cl ( Ha mamclilll vhginfo11u) Thiij is gcn ernlly a @hruh, but It mny a ttnlu a height of ~5 ot :JO feet, wilh a dh1metcr of :1 foot o r more. The wood i ~ hard a n dh eM-y,and l ightbrow11loe-0lor. Y,rnpo,1(//c;r:1;0t11itflrill),-'fl1i ij8 J >eclesofloollrisor1e 11 cn lled cauienn 'l'h e are kmnll, (be wood wh it e, har d and ~ll'Ong. } c/1010 11,u : 1.:tlwr,. (IU1am11111 coroli11im,u), o r .rellow wood, i ~ ~clt\on more t han six l uche~ in (llnmek t. 'T hti wootl i~ rntllcr hard \mt iB light n r u l weal;. l'c/10 1() H tuo (Cro t ( u : 9u,, f/,11:a ).Tllis tree i ~ ~ mall IS('] ,10111 mor e tha n :!O ft>el high, :rnd or JO iudu~ in diom ~1er l 'c l/01 0 Ouk ( Q11 C 'l:tf rdut iHa) .Tii i s i ~ d often JlA~U?M for re oak,


... ;'..; ;= ; :=.


WOODS USED IN l<'l.OUID.-\. Tnl;le 1 toutain~ a list of :!7 wood11 u~ed in Florida year, according to reports nmde l;y n muu/ac rnr er,,: It is sbown i11 lhe table ul,;;o 1h,it 11omo of tli,;,,,e woods were 1 ,roc u~d wholly in 1he State, otheu "holly Crow with out l'hi!e ~no cnUJe partly from within and purtty from theonts idc The1 we 1og ec0Mofo,Hl,andall at the fac tory is Rlated In the table, together with 1 .!Je amonnt.l!. ' he tnlJte ill a 11um111my which 11how~ in tondcnsed form the priucip.~l 11tatis ti c w o f the wooI u t e ~howu in t heindu~try 1ab1Cl!which follow. P.-ececling pages or th i s reJMJrt li11t und hrieny dc!;CrilJe n l argeuutnberofuuused wood~ iu the t,\tate, those which manufncturers elthH .Ju no t new em11loy, or use iliem i n so sma ll a 1 nutmb t h id t h ey U u uot consider tllem worth l"C l 10rli 11g. 1 1 11011 renrnin11 to fake up in a ~irnilur w ay tile woods that nrc u:;ed. Luug l caf pine le ads iu amount, nud rosewood i s lenH. Ho gewood ii, highest in 1>r i ce, rnadoir:t next, mahogany thio-d, and e,ergreen mug nolia is cheapest. Se,en of the 1voo,l;ico1Hcwholly from the State, teu entirely withonl, ,u1d the others are di 1hle d. l.rmglcof l'ine.~hlorethanha!foftheentirewoods11Jl ply of tlte Stnte, a i, shown in r:1b le 1, i~ louglcuf pine. ltiSl"Cllf;OOabl., cer t:,in !ltw l >lHHlCllhAn 11iueillld some l ohlolly a re li ,;red Hs longkaf, hut Is w/18 not p1actkn\Jle to a~rtnin lw11 ,nu ch orto,;eJIOt nlethemfrom lon g leaf. If the length of the uee.Jlei! alone i!I takeu !18 a nienusofi

from othet species. Some lumbermeo hn,e o nl y tw o name,, !or'Southem inei: "heart J Jiue'' for l011glenr, nod '~11p pine" for the others 'l'hese t erm~ e :rpress pretty elendy the chief d i fference whicl, lumbermeu re<..'Ogoii e i n the Southe rn pines: Ofcom"t<, some ofwhiehdonot11r,pea\ 110 dire ctly to the eye. L ong font pine ls hnrd e1 than the ot hers, aud ijt iffer, str onge r and heiwic r than 1110#!. lt i~ of HIOwer (;"l'Owth arid the annua l rin gs nre narrower. The wood i ~ gene ra lly bnt not nlwny~ of darke r color thun that o f the other pine,; D8~oeia1ed with ii. The l ong lea f pine oecm1! iU: the n o rth ern two.thirds of Florida. lt s reproduct ion ls not gen em!! 1 vigorou8, but in nome Hect i oms mnuy youni;trees aretakingJJ088=lonof,nt>antplaees. Asawhole,itin donbtfol if young growth cDn to any appreeillble eittenl nrn ke goO'ita hle that Jongleaf pin"e sup plie s wili decline 1 11 the 8tnte, as in otber-regiom1, unlll sca r d ty resultH Th e hahit of frcqueut!y burniug !nnd~ pe1haps works more \111r111 10 longlenf pine than to a11r other tree, by killing the young growth. CHb/ln Pine.-Ncxt ,1.ftcr louglea r, !h i s spe cies sho w s lo n:,.'CSt use in the State. The same difiicultics us i n the CllSeof longl eaf pi nearernetin f!Cpamtlngitfromasso cinted many ijfands exist in wh ich the mature tree@ ure too 1

idn it is tblr d largest, its total falling a little 1,hor t of ouete nth thnt of Jongfoaf, and it~ u1 erage J) rice11er thou 1!8 of it s wood plac;,s it in a !inlJ of ns e11 somewhat dif ferent from those of longleaf. It is llO\lU]ai for d o or~ nr,,J for window frames. I t nttnins merchantable si1.e in lesstimethnnlo n f!caf Cypress. Fourth for f] l uu11ity in th(! list or Florida woods i,; cy p ress. It is a very lit tl e be l ow loblo\ly 11ine, the n, ernge cost is considerable higher. Cypress Is oue of the ~uloshu 1 ti1ll, atJ.rou11d wonJ10sed to i,e the oppogite of the long!eaf specie~, so far a s needlei; are concerned; fori1slea,e11:nes\Jorlestofthcfonrlend i n i;


37 Southern ~ellow J>lnca. The t r ee gn.,11s rnpldly "hen young, lout nfter It tt.>acbes nn nge or forty or ttfty year,; it ill 111,1 to increa l!e its s i?.e m ore 11lo wly. F Qr thn t rea son the ,urn u al rln: ~ in II chnr11cte r i,tic 11 h ort l cnf trunk ar11 bro11d near tbf! hffirt and narrower IUI 1h e Lnrk i,i lli>J,roaehed. The IU ll" 'ood i11 thick the heart1>ood C<)lll I);'llllhely 11nall. 'fhe wood ill rather ilOfl. 'The com m erc ia l n rnge of ~ ho r!leuf pine c:ue n tls iuto the nort hern part of the Sta te its best developme ut being In rcgion11 fart h er north. Bp,rmid Ctdar..-AII of 1 hi8 "ood i s im p o r ted, ns it doea not gro" in the U nited Stote,s. It oomi.,; from Cul~", Me:tko undndjncentrt'gions . \10 Htof th l\t11ije, J i11 l,'l or ida wn11 cut In Cnbn. 1-J i:erg,'ttfl. Jlag 11ol i a.-It 11 1 ea r i n Tab l e la s t h e cheaJll'l!t 1rnod iu P lor id n,and more t han tno an d a halt million fe!!t ~rere useI liei!t in rld1, w<'t g r ound. I n Clltly lumberoper. ti o1111 It wus ft~ 1 uenlly left s t anding hecnn11e 1111 con\"er1;:\011 lntolumberw1"notprofltnble; but in r:cn tycar s uses hnn. been f ound for the 11ood a nd ii t, nov; cut when lumbernum come to It. In F loridn the boi:mnl:en1 nrelRrgeBtlll!e No fm ug n olia l(ed, Gmn R ed gum i~ cut ln mo11.t fltlr t ~ of Ilic uort b ern half of Florida but I t is not iu1 importn nt 11.11 ln !!Ollie of th e more nor the r n Mud '1 Jnri;e sl?.e an d is of good form for 1<.1w lo 1,,'i!, but i t d <>e11 not usually occur ln thick 11 tnud 1, li ke the piuc, and it goe;i to the rnill 11 nloug with oth.:r h!l r dw ood~. It~ chief 1111e in Florida i s fo r boxe11 and c1111es, but far1her north i111gret11estimpor1aneeisnijfurnlturcmaterin\1111dhon;,e linl~J1.


38 Whih, Oak .-,\ JI IUR11 < [llllt > ti ty of th\ 3 WO(ld iR credited to Florida in t h e re))(lrt ~ b y 11111nur 1 ctul'('u who u se It, liu t nenrly Rll eorn et1 from o ut si d e t h e State. It !s one ofthebet:Jtlmol\nnm ]m 03ts u bs ta ntln l ofth eon t 11. It i s used for nearl y n l l 1 i ur1Kl!!es for l\'h l ch nn y Americ a n l\ ood is used Tbe c h ief par! o f lhat reported i n the Srnle we n t i n to ea r con1 1t nu :: t i on. ~n1il c 1SO m e of the ~ J o rida white onk ill of exee llcn t '!UR!it y, n mny 11 ser3 are o fthcopin iouihnt thenverai;eq11allt yo f l h e 8t11t~i:rown oak i 11 11111 eh benea t h l m t o f so rnc oflheNot th et-n S t/lf es White A 8 11. Th e ~o uth em limit of the white a sh'~ r1mge li !.'I! i n uorth er n Florida. 1t i@ of the JUOl!t common of the ~ m e i.pecieti of n~ lt in man y part of !h i s eo u n fry, Theuood la clu1ra e 1 eri~bystiffnef!ijnn d st reng t h. ll ~chi etuSe11n re f orfnrm tool b andl ef!., t,on t onrs, nnd hi clff.. S(lu ,l P/ Hc. l n certa in l oca litil'I! oul y U OCII th is tr ee g r o w hu-ge e n o u g h fo ,8!1W/oga. 'l' rt prleed of American wOOtl $. The n1 nge re1iorted In F! orldu wa 11 '139.02 H fo!o ry.-Sc1 e r a l s p ee i l.'I! of hicko ry urc gene rally con g id ered nsone11 t l w h en t h ey rea c h tl1 ef a cto ri a I n th e fores t, t h e Jumben111111 lrnow11 the spec i es &epara 1el y. b u t the wo o d ofoneeo much resemhlei; 11.nothe r that all ~o tog ether mule 1 ouc co mmon nam e. It s 1 oug hne s~, cl:is Cicity, stre11gth, 11 11,l h nrtlr u ;l!I< uu itc in @ 11 c h n rt) IJlnrk nl!I ,; d

" tl,e l\'Orld for tbi1111'000, particularly for J)ll r f~ of small veh icle,;:, harru uer 1111d nx hnndle1:1, a11d l!Otne kind of a1l1 l et i cb'OOd!:I. 'l' he8toll!l! up plief! nP.11rl y n llhomctlemand !:I for hickory. Sweet Mot,,wlia.-'l'he e n tire (]Unntlty of t his wood went to a 11logle iudu1:1try nod was made int o boxee nt an nverage cost"of $:!2 11 tb ou!Jllnd That i ij n blgh price for box lumlier, but mngnolin 1' an nt1tnetin i wood, nu,J much of it went into high grade bo>:Cij. .\II was cut lu l ite Stnte. The b<'ll. t hrnod of 11 i" t~ le n J)le ~uing red or brown, l\'hich tnkl:t! n flue poli~h. Whil e P i11t.Fl orlda hn !:1 uo unt i l"C whHe 1,i11e nud nll tlint l\'aS reported came from the Lake Stateo. It grow s in se1ernl of the Northern and ~ortlun!l!tern Srn\eij, ,1~ far JIOUth n emsteru 'fenn~l!ce. Xex t to yellow poplu,, it WMI the h ig h esl prired natil'e wootl reported in Flor idn. ,1._ number of other woods in thi ~ couuh~ are cnlled white pin e 1\ith II modifying lerm, We!!tel'll while pine gr0W8 i11 Id aho; Qil i fo rui n' 11 11hite pine i i< the WCfllCrn ~c!lo11 ph1e; Uex.ic a n white pine rome,, from Arlzonn nnd llu ko, 11n d is a white J)ine. Th e Norway 1 ii ne. or the 1 'lke Slnt Cl!I la o fl t-n m i xe d with 11 hite pine mu.I sold with it. Jfahoga,1y.-More thnnten thousnud reetefm n hogn11,1 11e1erepor!ed cut I n tt11 forC11t11otsouth Floridn lltijfyeu 1 and U!!e< l by h1d11 11trit':I! i11 t he Stace. ):early oue. ihird of all this 11 ood 11 .,.,_'<1 wn8 honie,gro.,. n. It hns been popularly 8UpJ1osed that mnhognny Joni,:: i 1 1:-o cen@ed to exi H I 11 ,;: 11con1m<;reinl11 00t li 11J.'!orlda,tho11ghltweswell kno11u that bot:rnicn l @peclmen" were 81111 obta iu uh l e. Th e p1-e:,cnt l11,estigntlo11 iu J,'loridn hn! shown that such is 1101 the cal!e, and 1hat the wood i~ ~till cut nnd mnr ke4c il thl!re. ) l ore lhnn hnlf a cen1urr ngo roabogo.ny cuttCl'!I who were lik e wiioe operating In ths Balinmn T lnud a, iiwallcd the kc,v~ aont h or the Floridn 1nui11h11HI, ,rnd ali;o the mainland itl!elr, and cu t n il the mahognny 1r-11ithin rcnchofwnter,nnd&hi11pe,l thelog st o Eu


ro ..... SUWl.l tr ee/! e11c11 1 ~tl tli/lCOY~ry iu the tlen,ie ham mvck fot~st11; n11d t10me thin were then surnll hnn i 11incc gr-0w111omerehantnl.ilesize. Mahogany II'are uow \Je ing cut nud the l o gs reach .\linmi and other pui11t11, .. here boot l.iuilder111wd other~ l,u y the,n. Thennmlierthu>1'UCl1i11 gmurke1 i>,not lnrge. l gs genl.lrully wme !n on e or two at II Huie. 1 'hey are cut by negroe.t, for the mo~t art, wbu find n tree he~ nnd there. The log11 ,ne 1olled or llan led to Che near t,l!l wi1tctndnrc t owed by n cnnoeo 1 l,uat 1h1ol!gh 1rn r row nrul ohiKure chan nels, orten 11eni1ul mll e11, t o opc.1, 11 nter, and urc 1heuce rnken to l!Ome point tle11\gnnte.:l t,y the bnyer. BJcl.: Clurn .-T ll i ,; tree Ii uot iu 11111ch favor an_r11b cre, hut w hen ic l11 con1en len1 the ><111i1111 cut h nutl it tlods ifl! 1\'llY to th e fuctu1ie!!. The "'hole l'CJ,ol"led qmrn tity u sed in .Flod{]11 l~ u11ly 1wo carlond11. 8ome t io1e,; the,e i duul,t 1111 to what ls meaut wlioin h! uck i;u111 i,; re1,01ted. Thu! uuue Ji; applied to wute1 ,;1111 1 U!J~S:i.s e, nr!ed on in thi11 Brnte; but It is not !!O n Sl..-d 1 ,ow. 11 il!I not u tl'W ol' good fOl 'tt 1 for lu1nlier. The trunk is short, nntl is ge11e1~11Jy rough; bill the wood i 11 hard, ;itrong,.. nud nhcnc11 r efully1iidected !sof good IP'lllnnnd color. 8irch.-T11 ~piCij of Gird, grow in the State, hut none ofeither'ft'al!l~ J )Orted by rnanufaclure ra. Ali c11. we from the outl!iide o1 the St u tc, nnd the h igh 11rl ce imJlcates t luir it 1vas the 1SWeet birth or yellon bi rd, of t h e Nor o ,. Tlle,ie two 1111ecfe.: go to marke t togelher, nml lihle at tempt i@ mutle to kec11 them ,iep :nn te. For that reason l.oi1-eh i" lis ted l o thi s l'C]lOtt withou1 Ill e ~ J )(.des l.,elng dcMlgnHtetl Th e r h er hlrd1 of Pl or id n \\'a R 11 0! ,~1 1 ,o r1e{] f orn uy purfl(>llt'.


,lled O o l.. -' fh et r ue r ed oak ( Qu e r clldr11bra) does not i:row i n Florida Ot h er o uk>1 1m11 8 b y th at name. The r(lod oak \i ~ted in '.1"11hle 1 i s the ;\o r thcrn tr oo, one o f t he h i ghest gra d e of 1 he1uru)~ IJ>t,'Cieii of onk. There i.l! rnueh cou fu11ion in el11Kl!if~ ing onk lumber. A d oze u different .l! Jll:!tie!J nre cnlle d white oul.: 011 d lj{I many ot he rs 111-e 1.:uowu 1u1redo11I.:. S11.t1a r Maplc.-The 11111ple 11ugnr nn d syru 11 of com merce i.l! made from t h e 11u p of this 1ree; u1ul from t h i~ 111)eC itlS is cm lhe hard rn11ple lumloer or mo 11t of it. The tree is found iu f 'lot'!da, bu t it is not :,bundant,and none ll"H II Cuti n th e State, ncrordi11i; to re1oortM of,unnufactur el"II. Ver, l i nle l\ Hll Ul!ed. S11rmx. --S1,rm :e is iu I li c li@I w i th birc h 1111d hic k o r y lo Olle re1hlt e ,.-ood 1 8 HO @mu ll tu Floridll thnt it i~ hardl~ worth taking note o r It Is a .\" orthern ij!M.'<:it:'H, tbc l n r ge,;t (J1L 1 111ti1y of h i m ber l"Om i ug fro lll t h e lnke 8tut('lj um l t he ~entrnl Appa la c h inn region. J!utlei,.a.-This nood from the West Iudie a 'l"a!! u !!ed ton small e xtent by Fl orida boot bnilde ni. It rangeij in1rice1> i lhm11hoi,"ll n )".O lldhofa 1 farkeolo r 1rndls hal"U O 1 her tropica l .. -oo, l s NOmelimes pas,; b y name 11w\ it wn!! o n ce :1 1,p lie, l to nmhogan~ in J

of t he be~t woo{kin the wor ld for son1e part~ o f bo.'lt l>uihling, Jtis,eryharcl a nd notve ryhea,y. Ncd _Cc tfor.-lluch r.!d t-....:lnr iH cut i n Floridn, (Ind scnreely n ny is used for rn auufac tur ing purposes. Pencil makers take mudi of the OC ~ t. Rosci coo d. This i s the mo st ex 1 icns l 1e and least u se d 11ood reporte,I hy rnannrnctun s in Fl o rida A num OCr of treet. i u d iffere nt cuuutrie~ nre c11Jled I'O ~ cwood. Tha i r e ported ln Fl orida ca111e fr om Africn. l'L.-\~l?>G lfll,T PUODl:CT S. Thiij indu ~try i s mu ch larg e1 t han auy othe1 mnong tile wood uoos of Fl o rida. lfore than 92 per cent Qf nil the mate ri a l consiflercd in thi~ l'Clpo rt i~ f,i1111d in lite om Jlut of plan ing milts. Xotonly in qunntity, bu1 in 1al11e it ~ ur p11s8e8 all the ot h er iudu ~1rles. Tile co~t of the rough lumb er fold down at the 11h111 in g mill~ rco(ly tor the ma c hin e to work o n, wa~ f4,7H,tr.5; and the cou of all 1 he roug h l umber u~e d !n t h e Stn1e wa >1 $fl, 464 ,8G3. Pinning mill lmni>er a>' emge,J dicn l)(, r t h n u the olh er, bur that d oes no t mean that i t [~o f 10001c r grades. P laniugmill producc;;an. theSirnplestform s ormnnu facture after lumber Jea,es the f

" b ~t. 1tsgrc n t 11t r Cuict h m nkcslt11ui t1t bl efor no or ing,i t11 g r n in flgnl'(', : mil ~olor flt it for ce l ling nnd lb lu 1t ing 1 ,ropertiet1 < f y it for 1; idln g. The mlll8 thut turn it o u t nre gcnernlly th oHe o f large enr.,citf 1u1tl It is l um bered an d otbcrl\"lije handled by th e m OJ1t 111k1tuced 111: icn till.c wethodi;, from t h e felling of the tn;e,i to the oomple tio n o r the ll.ni11. h ed J Jl'(H l uct. Cuba pio e ill second l u qu11nt i1~ for planing mill prod U cl1$. Thi s ~peeiet !11 k nOWll under HC\'Hul nou,~, and l ti11uot ii,fr~11u ~u tly ca lled Jonglcu.f 1 h ough t h e m e n who wo rk it lrnow rcry Trell the dl1Jere11cel,ttweeu i t und th e genuine, thir..i111p Jonil e ~f yellow Piue. Some call it 11!ash pine That 111lude1110 llll h ab!L~ o f coming up in oltl c ut tlugswhco tlrelskeptout," h icl 1 ,1111fo r 1t11llltely, doesnot happen a s often III ii 11. honld. T he reln l h'c abundance of Cuban pine in c rea ses flOUl h wurd i n t h e State. L oblo!ly pine fn ll so me1\'h11t uml er C ub an pine in ,p mn tlt y, according t o th e NlJlOrt11 s11pplieil by m n nuf nct urefl'!. Yer., prohably th nt 1 1111 foct, bu t a good deal of confusion exist, at some of th e mill 1111 to what J, Cubllu 1md what ill !ob lo lly;fortbe11pecies befl r con5.i d (!J'llbleresemblnnce boll, in the 11tandi ng tree an d In th e wood. lloth are freqnentl~ ,wiled lohlollJ. The groun d tor conf1udo n doe11 not extend for sonthward th.rough the Jltmi n 1111lA, ro r l obl olly gradtlally dillt1J)J)e!tr11 Ten mill!on feet of s hortlea f p ine w11~ 1-e1>orted b y mill 11 In the nortlter11 p art. or t he Sta te "l'hl R sped~ doe;i not rnnge f11r !!OUI IJ a nd it Is probnb!eth:1t -"-Orne of lliat list ed n m.ler th e name of sho rtle,,.f ,.-1111 loblolly or Cullan. F our-flrilu, of the l!llll d pine reported In the Sta te ,.-a;i li&le d v.-ith th.i~ in dust r y. The trunk or !hi@ prne I ~ usu11l ly quite s111al!, but oeen11 ionally i:;roup;,oftrttSn~ fouml lnrgc e11ough for 1,ood gnwlogs. The wood hn~ th.lei,; snp wootl which i 8 11 e11rly white, while the henrt1' oo d \11 lig h t ~cllow. 1t l11 moderutcly light in wcli:h l n11 ,J not very &t roug 1t is lik ely thnt II i:;ood a~l o f thi ~ 1\'0o

keted under some ot h er 1m n1e. When i .l.t e trunk is sccu a t. a distance of thirty or foi-ty yards it resemhle s tht re ll or the black s prul'e of the :North, though itis usunll,, more limb~ lhnu the sp ruc e which grows in the deep shade or Northc1"11 forests. TIie folia ge, being li g h t and thiu, looks s omewha t lite that of ~pruce wheu t oo fnr away for the i n d kldual 11l'edlc s to lie seeu. his sl m ilarl1y i11 respousi\Jle fo r t h e 1111me 11pruc,i pine whic h i~ co1 n rnouly given it. The birch and t he yellow po11!11r in T ablc 2 n re the mo.t ~ '(lstly wood.'! li~(ed. The., were ituLIOrtcd fro m the North. Nearl yhal fo f the cy pr ei;s rcpor te d in tbc!Stntc i sfo und i u t hi~ ta\Jl e.




l'ACKJNG DOXES AND Cl?A'l'ES, Cuban pille lead in Table ti. 'l hnt 1 8 IJC(llllt!C thl .~ s1. ,ede11 ia rn oij t alJnmlnot in the ll(luth of J, Jo r idn "here t heJargem 11 rk etgn rdeu-a11dcltru 11ore h ar d .sa roloeated. lloxC>! arewade uear when! they are uooded, w hen it i1 praeticnble to do eo. Th e denmud for l a rg e q u a11titie,, ofllhi 1 111i11gcru.te,i nnd boxes dr.;v; M upi.)n t ll e wo st arail able supply or timber, und Cul>un pln e'K i;:eosraphit"JI 1angc makes it i:onve11le11t an d ch e ap for 1he ota11ge and l:(l'llPclr uit groll'er,, 1111tl for the garacu s w h ieb ship c a ,.ly ,egetables. Lo11gleaf pine 18 ~o d ose a eo, u p,et i wr of Cubn u pine tl u t t tloe lnlterluu 1 !ry littleadrnntnge in qu a ntit y. The lo uglenf a1erai;e11 fol'(y ,:eu(JI : 1 thom iu nd ft >et c heap u r, which, in all likelihootl, l a Jut to bell~r fu eilltiCII fo r lei:> giug it r ather thuo to nuy weoke1 demand. The a1er ni;u i 11 low for nil woods used in box nnd Cl'llle making Ju Florida, i,ut tlll' ee or them run fairly hi g h. They aro ijpu.nil;h cedar, 1111le t magnolia, 1uid hicl.ory. Tht la 111 unwed was mad e into crates for ,i.h i ppiug 1 hieles niu l machinery, n11d a11 e mployed to meet the dema nd for a ,;lrong, tough 11 oot1. Spauilill cedar 1ULd sw eet mag nolia nt-e handsome wood ~ auitnble for high-grade tx,:xCll for fancy conuuodlllcs. Sand pine ,;uppl!ce Jlrly thousn utl feet to the iud1111tr~ Thl,;mt h cr11mnlltreeshouldbeabletol\l u trih11lel ii!b s1reng th to a11swer nll o r dluury purj)O$(.'S ofJo'loridafr11lt1111drcgetableshlpp,er11. ~er-green nmgnolJ11 i8 the cheope $t material used by the h ox and cra1emd:cre,nndmany pcl'6(lt1 8CO D iderlt


about lli!Ome loenl i tie~ tbe name black gnm ls iq1plled 10 t111ielo a11d 1n11cr gum, In.II nc,er u nder the 111i~h1ken untion thnt the _v lll'C the 1;11 rne ~pede!!, Their ICU\ ei! lie ur 110111e N! se111bloncc,butlhe chorocterist i cs11e!llnt!1ctuJoelutr 1111k n ea r th e g r ouu d is not found i11 the hind, i;uu,. The 11l>undu11t'(l and cheaJJllCI!~ of e~ 1 11-eS11 In Florida Ou{:ht to lcmJ IO it ij mo,-e ex1cu~h e e u11lo.rn1ent l,o.1 mnke l'lr:


49 SAS IT, Doons, Ul ,TN DS A N I) GENERA i, .\!ILL WORK Longl eaJ p ine an d cypr~ m aJ;,i up Tiearly the whole amounto f matcrialrepo11cdin'l'able4 S ix;o the r spedeii ar erepreseu t e d,hulalt oge1 h e rdonot co n stit u 1eaquarte r ofonepercentof tb. e t otill of the nea rly 36 million f eet m ade i nto sas h doors, M inds, and general mlllwork in Fl orida. 'l'he prese nc.i of a l i ttle li>' eonk i n this indu stry is un usual, f or the w oo d is almo st unhetsnlly reject()(] by mim u fae turer~ or the/le commodit i es in t he Sou t he rn State,;; a nd t h e rej ection is often w i thou t jus t cau se. Tu e l u m ber d oes no tcomelnasgoo d form as wlaitea. ud r eduak ; the log a arc a lways ~ hort an d f l'C{)u c ntly of pc1!e 2 in i>e i ng more h i boh ly de1eloped. Four khadl! of machines a re u eedcd to make Hooring and siding; but more SJ.M)C ializin g is req ui l'(!d, and m achi ne ry with b'l'eater tangeofn~Hitneeded in pro,lndngdoors,rrames,sagli, stairwork, panel!!, turne d posh a nd balUl!tel"l!, spi ndl.:!i for gri!!R, a nd the many oth er commodities included In th egi:, 11 era l tenn mill work. doo!'ll other than pin e and cy pi -et!R are produce d in Florida 'Whiteoak, lfreoak,andbird1o r eemp lo yl-d


50 t o someexient, b utc hie fly u11thin veneerecowiringwft wood corCII. The nvcrnge coet of the h ardwood employed i n this indu s try ie nbout fll'e 1lmci; nemuch nsin 110ft woods. A lar ge p,l r t Of the Jf rtHluct i~ sohl out8ille of Florida, 90me of' it reaching Northern cities n nd some going to f on! i g nc ouu t rlel!.


52 TOBACCO BOXES. The manu fact uro of cigar 00:i:es is the fourth in siw in }' lor ida' b 11 ooduslug i_nd u,.t ri et:1, and ls shown in Tab!!! U ~fore ihan nine aud a 1,alf million fef:!l are listed. As far a~ show11 !,~ s 1a ti,.ties of wood manufacturers t hus far collected in the Unite d Stales, l<'l orlda far surpMes any other Staie in the amount of wood con,erted into cigar boi1e are carried to F !o ri,la iu t he rough form the knots being trimmed, au d the bark generally peel('d from the l og~. A whole tree often com~ In one piece. The la rg er box fac to ri es bu y that w ay, and hnre sawmills of their own for co111 er_ling the logs into box lumber. Small box makers pureha* lumbe r parll y m,innfactured. Span i sh ceda r e njoys t he prominent place it holds In thecignrboxhnsincsshausethewoodhasano

import f rom fo re i g n co un trlca o od 1 not \ r y pl e ntiful l h ere. 11 i,Jurnbered by c beaJ) l aborand 1 brought from the in terior mounta ins l\'here it grows. Trnll8l)O r la! ion from th e @ turnp t o !h e >ienl!l ore i H orten by oxen. Th e n1e111geC011t in Floridn i a $Zl.02 pt"r 1 ,000 feet Jog mlltlH ure It I~ l oo c he nJ) toofl' e r nuch tecu 1 > tnt lon 1 0 I h e im i t ator A m illio n and o l lu. U f eet o r cypreN 1"118 repor t ed f or thiq i n du stry in Fl o ri da, but th eeoij t per th onKarnd wa q leM th a n ba lf that of Spanish cl.'d n r.


55 C AR CONSTU O OI' IO N. No largecnrfa ctorle11n r e lo t11 l e din 1''1orldn hu ta coi, : sidernb l e amo un t o r bui lrl iug nn d re1m iri ng i s done T wcl,.c woo d s nre J!J1t ed but more than 81 fll!t' cen t of nil 111 lon g lear pin e. F or m any p.i r t .11 of ca r buildi n g i t i s Ideal. Tt i1, 11tro, 1 g, 11ti ft', lnstln g. It is mode In t o sill~ and fr a mci wher e lt c nrl'ie s lo :ul k and 11 u s t nl n 11 jnr s 11ml 11trn i11 11. It i ij good tor ca r 11001' ~ 111H l sld lu g, for hrac e11 11. u d roofing. I t may be h a ,l In tong plecc11 m ea.11urably fr ee from k ooha nd dcfecra, ao d w ith li tlleorno11o1 J ). No Job lol y p ine 11 1U1 reportW. b y car builtle ri., lmt lt gt'01)' 8 of proper size and form In the Slnl c, nn d lik el, 1 ti omc or that pnuing M l o ugleuf is loblolt y. Jt is 11 ot co n si dered q uite III st rong a N long l enf, bu t for a uum berotpul"I)Osesit i s asgood ,and forso m eit i s preferred. Cypre,;s i5 an 11. l l-roun d car timbe r, bul i t h 1 cJ.:s some o f thelougle11f'11stN:!ogt h nnd rlg l dlt y,a ud wne n ot u se d in on et enth of t h e nmonnt of pin e hi Fl or i du, but l\ hu t wu bought co st more h y the thousand. 'I' h e s m all am oun t or wh i t e 11in e reported In Table fl w11 11 fo r pnt teru. s It c ut.II 110 {'Q8ily n utl b ol d a i ls gho pe &0 well t hat it stn nd .s pre --ll minen t u mon g patt e rn wood~. 1' h crels somuc h di1Teren ceiu t h ecostofthere do n k n od white oa k u s ed b y ear bu ilde n in Horida th at 1111 explanation i s ne'lltra ry. Tb eee two wood s, If or t h e s am e gr ade a n d in the same m ii. r lr. et, e011t about the ~e; bu t i n Table 6 tb!'!whlteoak is legs than nineteen dollars a n,\ the rod oak more than sc v c n ty two. The y were n ot of sltn i lnr grnde. The whi te o a k was WJed fo r N:!palr o f fr eight ears, and t he red 011.k WOJI for b ig b dn flll Onigh Bot h ca m e from o utsi d e the Sta te. D y re-er!J i ng t h e grades, the C Olllll have bee n re;ersed -t b e red oak wou ld h11,cbeent:lleapand the wb lt eoalr. ei: Jll!ll 8ive. l l n.b ogan y11asth"emosteostlylumbexinthelnd u stry. It I s a ca bin et 'l'OO d an d Jg employ ed f or flae finish In pa MetJgercani,c bl e H yH\"e neer lai dupoucbeaperwood s.


56 Yellow poplnr ls Ml'eOlld llgh t <,11 of ii ~ gndn mak es it among the beilt of 'l\'oodll !or flue puint Ing.


! ;~ ~~;-----: 7 7777t---a.::rt--:::n-i .c-h~+-.aC '"k,~


" SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING. With UI0relength of coast line1.ban any othc1 Sta i e; with several flneharbor11 for lnrgeveisscls, 1rnd with al most inn~crablc small hnl'bors; Witb lrnndreds or mile of navigable rhers flowh1g throug h semitropical scenes or raNJ b

" west, aud the \mrg1,,-s whicb transf e r freight up nnd dowu itsrive!'ll--alloftbesecoust'ituteamarkctforhomelmilt boats. Elcn!n woods were used last year by Florida boat build el'l!I, and l oogleaf 11inecoustitutedobout1:1neuty percent of it all. Some t..-ssell! are bnilt u!most wholly of this wood, and n ll t h at was used was grown in l'lorida II makes both inside l'rame a nd ontl;idc l'(ffering. It pos sesscsthe=1nired11trength,:rnditslasti11gpropcr1ie,, in sure long ,;cr,icc. 'l'he price of lo ngleal J!ine is higher in this tl,au in R D Y other industry in l' l oridn. Hi gh grade material 11as demanded, and price goes with grade Cypress i s nc:ttin qnaut it y,oml isltigher in price t ha n loug le,'lf His used for llni~h and deckwork. The dif ference Ju price between it a nd !ongleaf is largely re sponsible for keeping cy pr ess l;c low lhnt wood io qnantity inboatbnildiog. White pine, w h i~ h is soft, vd1ite, and expensive, is em: J!lo yed only when some cuatomer demanda it. Lil'e oak h l"(lported to the amount of 30,000 feet, af $60 a tho u saud. It vrnamacleintorucldcrstoek,and is bought in hewed logs eighteen inchel!I square. These logi:1 are sawed into hea,y Stuff for ruddel"1!. Li, e oak i" hanl and strong, pnd la~h well under water Nea rly 27,000 feet o f mab.ogany ill reported in this in:

61 VEHICLES AND VEHICU; PAH'l 'S Table 8 111'e!leut s statis ti cs o f vehi c le m,rnurcrnrers I n Floriila. Th e ,11rn nti ty of wood dcmunded 'i s small, but the s hops ore well distributed over the State. Ther.. are only a few fac torks which m ake buggies und wagons a;i a busines s The shops oe<:asioua lly m ake a few v eh i ck'I<. but their prindl'lli work i s riipuii'ing. Nearly all COUi l try hlachmith s hops a nd practically all in th e to'l\'llS, ~pair wagons. A considerab le l)tlrt or t he 1G7,095 feet in T a bl o 8 was used for repnir work, 'I'he same wO(>l l ij which c1 1 leri n lontlw,ehid~serl'eforrepain1ofold Thea1er age prie.i is higher 1hnn i n nny other of the wood using ind u str ie s of Pl ori d a The spe cies are the same us in -01her iudu~tries, b ut the grades are better. Cn1ru;s is thirdfromhighest ;und is t,, cn t y-ninc doll(! l'l!Ullovethe eost of thu Wll-O d iu a n y othl!rta b le. Thi! othl!r wood~ higher in thi~tnblethmi in anrotherarehieko1y, lohlolly, 11lne, mullo1,,'1t11y,nnd l'i"hlienRh. One o f t h e contributing cause,,; o f 11,e hi!;h c<.>~t of woo,! to the Florida vel, i c le makers i$ that man y of t h e,u lmy in s to a ll au,ouuts, a n d at r ernil, a nd mu~t pnymorc t han if the,r took ad,antage o f wholesale price~.


63 MTSCE T ,LANF,,()US. Table !l ia ma d e up of four wood~ and contains some thing over two million feet. 'l' his represents the odds a nd ends left over alter nil properly belong!il with lndlli! tri es has been t aken care of. SomeoomliloditlClll are not manufac t ured i11 mnounta large enoug h to entitle them to be called i nUustrie!! um] they go in thi~ mis cellaneous table Amongsomewhlchfalllnthatclassi n Florida a r c lard buckctH, ca ndy tubs, water pails, pat terill, t runk~, l!llmple c11 s

Al'l'OUTJON.\U:~T OF WOOD AMONG JND US TUJES. O f th e t went eu wo ods r e J 10rted by Fl o r ida m a uu tnc tur, .m1, aud li s ted in Table 1 0, ten are used hf only oue i ndus try ea c h, aud ai w oue i u nl! t h e indW!lri es Cy lll'CS8 i St h11tone ,all(las fa rns Flo rida i l!COUCCr DCd, itiN rile uu il'crsa l wood, T he makers of ,eh i c l eo! nse th e sma lle st quautity, the (l l an i n g mills th e mo sl. Some of the i nclu 6tri e s rnke wood~ ~cnuse t h e~ are c hea p, others becau,se of particul:tr prop errie8 d esired Boxes a n d cratei;alfor.Janinsrn n ceo(t h efir,stki nd ,vehic\esofthc ,sec ond f'...crfai11 hox c,a. urnkeexaetingdemands upon Ju m be r g ener ally whate, r is c on,enle n t a n d c heup i$ nse d.


COtl T Ot' S PECIE $ U Y 1-XD US THIES T a ble 11 ill a co m 1mnion of 10. One flho -w s th e apper. t ioumen to fw oo, l s among the I ndu st ri es, theoth e1 s how s 1.h e cost rtr 1 ,000 feet of t h e gevernl woods by the Indus triCII. A c u l'80ry exnm ln 11t i o11 wlll sho'I\' that wood Is nol fix ed in pri ee, a tJwhent nnd en Hl e, o r many other 11t11 pl i, oomruodltieij are. nJITere n C(!.~ in pd ct,11 (o r the sn1 n e spe cies are not due to diff e renCN In fre l gl1t an d hn ndlin,i: ch11rgea :is is th e Cll!!e "'i tlt m11ny ot h er ware11The l't'< l gum lor cnl'!le(Hlts moret hnn 1wicctlln f00ug h t Ly Lo x 1nnlre u. ,U h e mplo yed b .r vcii i cle nmnufacturet'I! i~ fhreo, times a~ ci:pe n slrn 11~ b et ear bu i lder s u se. rh e 11h i tc oak whic h g~ to th e door m annfuet n reI'l! is th e ti m e,c All h igh hJ 1 1r i ce as ihnt purehn11ed fo r ca r sh op s. Cy pre u varies in cit 1111 lo ur to one, depending u1 JOn wlmt the manu fo cturerisbuy i ngilfor. Thet!e i n 1 t11nces nre repl"('l!entntini of the rule. The cost o( wood depend~ o n '}Ullllt y to a l orger extent tha u wit h moat c o mmodill~ Cypta11 good enough for 0011:('l'I would fa ll f e r below l he requlrt:ment" of the tchicle m d: er wh o 111Je11 It in to 1 m for light bnsincAA wngons. Hickory which wJll nmke ,atis tnct o ry crat e s l s t oo Cl'( l s&g raincd orknottyfor hu ggye 1 ,oJ.:c,iorca r ri11b'llJJO l a,conseq1ie n tly the buyer of 11:oodfor1 b ce 1111rpose:sm11 s l 1 1ick his grade!! a nd pay tb f! p rire, while th cc rnt e m ake r iakl'II th e r e fu ec nt l~sthnnb n lfthceo!!t


71 S U)lllAilY nY INDUSTJUES OF WOOD S U S ED L\ I<'J ,O[IJD~ Tablt 12 is arran ge d to ~how at a g lnnce the ( jU1tutit ,Y or wood used b y cnch or th e ln du a t r l CII i n t1od da to gelher 11it h the ave r age pri ce paid by e ac h i111ll.11 1try, and the per ce nt of tl ,e m ater i al grow n in t h e Stalennd out. 'rhe averu ge OOijl of tl, e 1v ()() ,J demnmled by tho Florid a man u fa c turerii d oes not di ll'er mnc h from tli i: 1 epo rt ed n,ernge cost in other States whic h grow h1l'ge amouut11 o r yellow pi ne. 1-' o llowin g are a nrnges: A.rkun1;rus. _3 11.0 U'>u!Binnn 11.(l:t 111.ti!i llili ppi... l'.! .!!'.! Al e. ba111 n. 1 2.: H F lori d a . 1 2. 41 Tera,;. 1 3.30 In the I x lar ge lunibe r-1 1rod ucin g S t nlel! of the Sonth tbc nv erngc cOl!t or 1u11terln l \'arieii ouly $ 1. S J per t hou u nd h etwl!en the h \g-he!!t ot lh e S!11ies, Te:rn Jt, a nd tlu lowe,i 1 Ark11n!llls. No s u ch agreeme nt lu pri ce 1111 t hb co uld be found in au equal nnml ~ r of t h e Northern State~.


Al'f'ENDTX There are other wootlu8iug i udnMri{'.f, in Florida than those s h ow n in preceding tnhlei< and Mnllstics of this ~1.ort. 'f he B11 rean of thn CcnsuJ!., i n co-vpc r nt i on with the Forest Ser1 lec, collect~ c cr tn i u dnla e,ich year aud pulo lishes it. 'I'heoo stat istics ~h vw the quantity of luui her cut nnnuldly hy the fll,wmllls iu the Stute; t h e OUl[I l.,eroflnih on,lshl u l!:les; iheex1e111 of the wood distilling lndu81ries; amount of tn nlo nr k and tauuiog exl,.,,d8 pro

,. cyprea.a aud 11ine tlu~ former predominating A c onsld e!'able pal't of the output is a 1,_vproduct or sawmills made from crooked or faulty loo,~, or from large sl ab &. Thero are mills which make s hin gles only, and they u se good timher ns well as poor. The la test retnni/i giy<= F Jo rida'II yearly c u t at 171,421 000 11h ing!es. Two d a>58e8 of cooperage are made, o ne for li q uids, the oiher for dry substance$;. The former is culled tigh t oooperage, the latter slack. The former is much mor e cxaCtini;r in lti! demaud fo r wood, and the material cost~ more Good tightcoopc r agcS:hould no to nl,1 befreefr om knotsund olher def~! is whid, might cause leakage, bnt the wood must he dense. Otherwi~e the contents or the burrelocask ma,ye s eape through theporeaofthewood. Mostwoodsareofsuch opcustructnl'1l 1battltcy will not hold akoholi c liquors. Slack coo1oernge i s not so excln sfrc Nearly any wood will d() fo r 110me cle9se<"\ of slack cooperage, while others are rnorc exacting. A conside!' ablc part of Florida' s cooperage 11 1 ock i11 bought by the mwal de11lers whoship ros in in cheap, bu t strong bar rcl i; Fruit gro,vers and truck gardeners use man y bar rels for their r,roduct11, and o;i's t er rakens and flshermcu n1'eprettylargcuscn. Tho o utpul of li g ht cooperoge st aves in the State in 1910 was 1,350,000 !liaves and 61,000 seb of heading. Slack slaves were lorge ly pi ne and totaled 2-1.,451,000. There wer-e produced 1,122,000 sc ts of hcoding anrl 1 029,000 hoops. The pl'Qduc tio u of 1eneers i11 Flori<.la wa11 s e1cn trnd a ha l f million feet less in 1910 than in 19ml. The output for four ycors was : 1007 18,18.~,000 log feet; 1 008, 2s,. 2M,000;l909,33,2!13,000;rn10,25,342,ooo. Jlostorthe 1enceris rotary cut; t h at i8, it i8produced by pressing n hcavy k n!tengninstthurimotarevok i nglog,and~l ingotr lou'gribbou so! wood, rotlm.l an d 1-.:, und, unti l the tog i s redu ced toasmnll centcrpiececnlled a co~Sta 'tlstics do not a ho" what spe-clcij of ""ood arc u sed in


75 uiakiug the Florida ,e11 ~r,s, but ltisknowu that mo st of it is pine, a nd that the rnneer is rn111infaeturcd into bu~ kets,boxes,e1-utes,audothershi p piugeontainer1>. 'l'here are bighe1 classes of veneer t h a u Thi~, but little ofitisrnadeiuF!orida. It ismadebysawingorslicing hardwoods very thin, r111d i s llll

76 process are d1Hco11l, t:H', ;iwl turpentlue; _nnd by the steam rnethotl, turpe n tine and IH!III'~ oils. Owiog to the diffcreu c ein thercsi110W!coutcnt o !piuewood,t h eyiel,\ 1icr cord of t h e sowernl prloldln g Crnt eo e nl!

Crating, Balostert. Bl!n d ll BMkOl$. Uraeke ta Cab!nH wo r t g!:e~1,a1r$. g;m~:lg}[ Cardeek!ng. Carft n l11h1ng, Car rer"dr ... Caro ld lng .. Auto 11b leld s. Anto trim. lloata Crates t::i~ur e H ickory, LOblOllyPJne. l)(x)r frame,. .. .F n !Jb Flooring. Framing. ~:: :~ 11 ~\'ork H all~. Bas il. Longl n fPlne. M a hog a ny 'AOlltlnlsh Car ftnls h Vegeta b l u PlCka!l;ea.


78 Blind. Door1. tloKM. 81 u h. llaluMen. Buk,._ r 1m Doon. Flnlab Floor i ng Molding, E~:; .. o,k. S idin g. StorellI\nte Tl.b1u. V&fl e U.ble paekq:eo. ~:=~bom. W l o4o1' fram ea. Wngonbodleo. W A!l{I Ill!'8'1rA, WaROn l);'lnela. )lo\dl.Dp., Siding. sm .. Stalr1. \ 'ehlc l n, Patter n . Suh. Shlln1.


79 Yellow Poplar. Vehlele s Wag,oobodle s DJRECTOHY. B elow h a li st of Florida wood using mnnofncturers who suppl i ed much of the da ta conta i ned in this rq Jor t. T hose urnnufucturini;: 11evera l 1 1roduct~ dassilied rnulf'r diff erent iudustl'ies will appear i n l be list, with their ad

80 . wimston Willi~1on MfA: Co . Wolfeotlcn &C o . ......... Worthin g t on BOXES TODAC(,'(). D. N Holwa y & Co. . ......... ... Tampa S h e ip & Weidmnn Co. . .. T nmpa Tnmpn C ign r Box Co. . .. ... .. ........... .. T nmpn C AR CO NSTRUCTJO K. Jo hn Mnrslmll Co.. ...... ApnlachiCQ]a GreHll Alfi; Co .... ........ ..... .......... .Ja ckso nvlllt Jac k 90 m ill e El ectrle Co .. .... ....... .... J ;u:ksonv i lle Seaboard .-\.Ir Lin e By,. . ..... ....... J ackson ville Flo ri da Ens t Con st B y .. ......... ...... St. Augustine Tain lJ(l Electri c Co . . . . . . ... ... .. Tampa Edge-Dowling L u mb e r Co. . ... . . . ..... l'ny lorwille Allant.icCon stl, tn o l faill'Ond ...... .. .. . W i hu in gt on Mli;CE L LANEOUS. Plorida Tru nt J U g. Co.. . .. : ...... l uckson.-me Merrill St e1ens Oo. ....... ..... ..... J11.cksou1 lll e G ,\[. D aviB & So n P LA. 1 -.; I N(i l lILI, PRO Dt.'C'TS. J .. IL. D avis. . .... .. ............ Alachua St andard Lumber Co. . .... ... . ..... .. .. A.Hon Cyprt!!s L umber Co. . ..... Apalach i eola Aycock Lum be r Co. . . Ay~'()(!I. ,f. \V. &,t~ . ........ . ....... ; ..... D 1uwom Blo untstown i\ff g. Co . ... ... Bloun tst own nonif lllJ' L umber C,. . .. .. ... B oni t a.,


81 f'lo utlo ern !':nw ~Iii! Co .. ...... no11i fny 'l'l,e \l1,:er-S11lli1,rn J.11ruber Co ... .. ..... Century Cl1mli 1t nl ?Jor i,la l,mnher Co, ..... , ..... , ... Corey l 11gr11m ll ekl11 l .umher 1 . ........... D ude Cit.v 1 1.cuch H oge,.~ & Co. ........... 1l nJ<' u11i ak Spring~ ~k Cor111i,: k I.urn her Co , DeLnu,I nn,wnirig l.umher Co . ......... .. E:i st l' alut kn n:111 tilc Willf nm~ l.nmb e C,, ............ EdenOehl Ocnc,n Lumber OJ . ... .. . .. ... .. ...... Ele:i n or Gnin e,;1' ill e l 'lauin;::: & Cottln ( 'n Gaiuesvill c ll olml!lt l,umller Co. Ho,ul l ,urnherCo 1' im 1 ,;ron & Uarper I':. 11. Ah e nmll, ,. . ................. Gruham \'. ll. Edd y ... ..... .... . ....... <:reen Co ve Spring~ W ager, Von Unrn & \\'nger ........ tlrecn Cove Sprin,i;:~ nrN!nl'illc Ycllo1, P in c C o ... ......... Of{!(! t ll'ille l nt o 11 .Mf~. <'o . ..... .......... ....... Greenl"i ll e, .J J.. On-nn.,. J m11h er )!ill~ .... .. ... ... ... J nver11eN1 Cmn,ner l. urnher Co. . .......... l "ekl!!l n ville The Jle l 'lnnin~ )!ill Cn. . ... J/l ctJ!j:mv ille 1, 11yt hf;:trret l'l nning:) rill . ........ lRcke on ville .1. C. llnl l!ef rtQ M f,:. Co. .. ............... Jnel

82 ,I. R, Hu ssey ... !Argo l .ei!s l mrll' Saw & l' laoinj!; Mill . .. Leeshurg McGe h ee L umbor Co. . . . . . . ........ .. l ,evon Oeo. E. P u rter .Jr ... ..... ... .... . .... . Marianna i\IarinnuaMtg.Co.. .... . . ... .... Marlarmu Martel Lumber Co,. .. .. :',fartel Martin & Co,. .. .. ......... . Martin SeoOnrnl Mill s ... .. .. ... ... ..... . ... ~[idtlle b urg O e rmun-Americnn Lmn\Jer Co. .. 11.Hlh ll e O r landn :Xon,lly Works ... .. ... .... ... Orlaudo l' ounds llros . .. .. . ... . Orlumlo Otter C~k L umber Co. . . ... Otter (,):eek Es cambia l ,nn d & Mfg. Co ... ... .. ............ Pace Wll!!On Oyprei

  • PAGE 83

    ., T W. Ua.msey ...... 'fninpn Sou th er n J, u mhtr & 8111 11,t y Co . . . ...... .'fomJ~ l 'r nrpon 'Sr,1-in:,, Lumber Co. . ..... TnrJ)on 8priug~ A ~ll I.umber C
    PAGE 84

    SI REIi i AKI> BOAT l ll"ll ,l)JN(; .\for ril H,tcn 11 1< Co .. W. l. IT11ff>1t \\'ork1< .. .... . .... ..... .. :.M i ami Al McC a be ... Sout h J nd:Aon v illc St. f oh n ,; llfre, Rhip lluiltlinit Co . Sout h J acksonville Ronth ,Jiwhon, il le Dr,, n,wk Co. .Ro,uh J11ek8onville Th ich crrnt & L1111