Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department

Material Information

Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title:
Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date:
Monthly[ FORMER 1901- Sept. 1905]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
-v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note:
Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note:
Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
28473206 ( OCLC )


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Full Text

Supplement to



OCTOBER 1, 1914



Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee. Florida, as secoud-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1000.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."

Volume 24

Number 4



Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director
Experiment Station.


For the successful production of live stock it is impor-
tant to have an abundance of feed and forage at all times.
If the natural grasses do not afford this, we must plan
our crop rotation so as to supply the feed when needed.
It may be that the natural grasses will supply sufficient
feed for all live stock, except for a short period during the
winter months or during a severe drought. It is just at
such times that the animals must need our help. If we
fail to supply sufficient food to young growing animals,
development is retarded or growth stops. We get as a re-
sult undersized and poorly developed beasts, and often
what are commonly known as runts. Such stunted ani-
mals never develop into as good live stock as do those in-
dividuals that are kept growing from birth to maturity.
During the past ten years the numbers of cattle in this
State have doubled. On January 1, 1900, we had 412,820
head of cattle. On January 1, 1910, there were 807,000
head of cattle. If the number of cattle should increase as
rapidly in the next ten years as in the last ten years, we
shall own one million and a haff head in 1920. Such a
rapid increase would require that our farmers take steps
to produce enough forage to properly feed the increment.
There will probably be a like increase in hogs and sheep,
and also a considerable increase in the number of horses
and mules. The needed extra supply of forage can easily
be obtained by the growing of Japanese cane. There is

no other crop that we can grow that will produce such a
large yield of forage at so small a cost.
Florida is more of a live stock State than many realize.
On January 1, 1910, there were 807,000 head of cattle, 98,-
000 sheep, and 456,000 hogs. These are all forage-eating
animals. To supply the needs of all these animals we
must provide forage of some kind from November to
March. Japanese cane is a' crop that supplies a large
amount of roughage at the very time of the year when
the natural pasturage is limited. The want of an abun-
dant supply of forage is one of the hindrances to the pro-
duction of good live stock in Florida. Stockmen have
been negligent in supplying the necessary food to main-
tain their live stock during the winter seasons and dur-
ing the times of severe drought. To produce a good grade
of live stock an abundance of good feed must be supplied.
The best forage to grow is one that will produce the best
yield per acre, and that will supply the largest amount of
nutrition in the feed. As well as being nutritnous it must,
of course, be palatable.


Japanese cane was introduced into Florida from the
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station some sixteen or
eighteen years ago. The Louisiana Station grew it for a
number of years for comparison with other varieties of
sugar-cane as a source of sugar and syrup. It is rather
probable that the Japanese cane was imported from
Japan into Louisiana by General LeDuc, U. S. Commis-
sioner of Agriculture, 1878. (There is, however, also a
possibility that it came from Brazil.) However, the ques-
tion as to where it came from is of secondary importance.
The question of most importance is how we can so handle
Japanese cane so as to obtain the best results in feeding
it to ous live stock.


Its chief value to the farmers of Florida, is as a forage
crop for the feeding of live-stock. It may be used as
silage, winter pasture, or dry forage. When first intro-
duced to Florida, Japanese cane was grown for the pro-*
duction of syrup. In most sections of the State and
under the usual conditions, the regular sugar-canes are
much more satisfactory as crops for syrup production.
This is because the Japanese cane is harder, and requires
more power in grinding. It is also more difficult to strip,
which increases the cost of stripping. However, as re-
gards the quality of the syrup, there is but little differ-
ence between the regular sugar-cane and Japanese cane.
The yield of syrup per acre from Japanese cane will vary
from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of Japanese
cane will be all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Ala-
bama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana and southern
Texas. Any section in which the velvet bean will mature
seed will be found a good place to grow the Japanese
cane. This will be up to 200 to 250 miles north of the
Gulf of Mexico.


Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the mid-
dle of November to March. Cattle waste but little of it
when pastured. They first eat off the green blades, then
the tender joints at the top, and continue to eat from the
top until there is nothing left but the short stubble. It
should not be pastured late in the spring. If pastured
after growth starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will
eat off the new growth and soon kill out the plants. It
is not advisable to pasture later than March 1, or after
new growth begins in the spring.


Japanese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is
relished by cattle, and the yield that can be secured makes
it one of the cheapest and most economical crops that the
'Florida farmer can grow for silage. It has been used in
feeding experiments .with the dairy herd at the Experi-
ment Station with quite satisfactory results. The cost of
silage from this crop should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per
ton. As compared with sorghum or corn silage the cost
is about one-third less for Japanese cane silage.


Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry
winter forage. It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in
storage is small. If it is stored in a barn or shed there
will be hardly any loss. At the Experiment Station we
have stored it in a barn in November and December and
kept it until the following June and July. Six months
after harvesting there was practically no loss; and when
run through a feed cutter it was relished by cattle, horses
and mules. If, barn or shed room is not available, it can
be stored in the barnyard and fed out as wanted. But
with this method the loss will be considerable. It will be
found profitable to put up a temporary shed under which
to store the dry forage. This need not be an expensive
shelter. It may be made of any material that will shed
rain. It will perhaps be advisable when stacking the
forage to set the butts of the canes on the ground. In
this way the canes absorb some of the moisture from the
soil, and will not dry out so much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding ex-
periment in beef production. In this test the following
feeds per 1,000 pounds live weight were fed: Corn, 12.50;
velvet beans in the pod, 18.75; sweet potatoes, 20.8; 'and
Japanese cane, 12.50 pounds. During a period of sixty

days the steers made a daily average gain per 1,000 pounds
live weight of 0.5 pounds, at a cost of 4 cents per pound of
gain. .

.TJiliit-, cane is a crop well suited to a variety ofsoils."
Good hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest
yields. But even,.the high pine lands will give good re-
turns when properly fertilized. On swampy muck, land
Japanese cane will make a fairly good growth. On such
land the growth will be greatly increased applica-
tion of lime (ground limestone, or burnt lime). The
amount of this which it is necessary to apply will depend
upon the amount of acid in the soil, and will vary from
2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone, or one-half
these amounts of air-slacked lime per acre. An applica-
tion at the rate of 2,000 pounds of ground limestone per
acre on high pine land on the Experiment Station from
increased the yield to the extent of 10.37 tons per acre
during the season of 1909.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a few acres of
Japanese cane, whether he has the class of soil best suited
to it or not. If it is not the best soil, Japanese cane will
produce as heavy a yield as will any other crop that can
be grown on the same soil, or even a heavier yield. High
pine land properly fertilized will give a yield of 15 to 20
tons per acre. Good hammock land will produce yields
beyond these figures.


Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last
many years if properly handled. This in itself causes
quite a saving in the expense of growing the crop. In
fact, it reduces the annual cost of production by about
50 per cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes or


by divisions of the stools. The cheapest and most econom-
ical way of propagating it is by cane cuttings. Therefore
care and attention must be given to the saving of the seed-
canes. Poor seed-canes, like poor seed, result in poor
stands and unsatisfactory yields. The seed-canes should
be selected and cut before there is danger of frost, so as
to insure soundness. The buds will only stand a very
slight frost without injury, and it is not safe to risk pos-
sible exposure to frost.. The canes should be cut and
banked before there is any likelihood of the first fall frost.
The date for this will, of course, vary in different sections
of the State.
Almost every farmer has his own method of banking his
seedcane. Perhaps one method is about as good as an-
other. The important facts to keep in mind are: The
canes should be covered sufficiently deep to protect them
against frost; the bank should be situated so as to get
perfect drainage; if there should be standing water or
abundant moisture, the canes are likely to rot; if the soil
about the beds should become dry the canes may take the
dry rot, and a large amount of the seed be lost. It is,
therefore, important that we get the proper condition as
to moisture in the bank where we store our seed-canes.
It will be found better to make two or three small beds'
than one large one. It would be well to bank more canes
than you expect to use for planting. There is always
some possibility of loss from various causes. Sometimes
the loss may not exceed 10 per cent., while at other times
it may be as high as 25 to 50 per cent.


The number of canes required to plant an acre will de-
pend upon the distance between the rows, the distance at
which the canes are dropped in the row, and the length to
which the canes are cut. Our experience has shown that,
putting the rows 8 feet apart, 3,000 whole canes are suf-

cient to plant an acre; and if good seed is used are
enough to give an excellent stand. Select only healthy
canes, and reject all that are green and unripe. Plant in
rows eight feet apart. Cut the canes in pieces having
three to four eyes to a piece, and drop them in a double
Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to
18 inches apart in the row. By this method of planting
it will only require from 1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an
acre. The disadvantage is, however, that a thin stand
will be obtained, which will result in a small yield of
forage. This small yield of forage will not only be for
the first year, but there will be a light yield for several
years. It is nearly impossible to fill in the missing places
properly. Where new canes .are planted in the missing
hills, it will be found that they make either no growth or
a very unsatisfactory one. The old established canes
have such an extensive root system and draw so heavily
upon the plant food and soil moisture, that the new
canes have little chance to make any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of canes should
be obtained at the first planting. If only a half or two-
thirds of a stand should be secured, it will follow that
one-third to one-half of the crop will be weeds. For
weeds will grow up between the canes unless the stand
is thick enough to smother them out, and it costs less to
cultivate an acre that will produce 20 tons of cane than
one of half that yield. Hence we should obtain at the
start the very best possible stand.


Before planting, the ground should be plowed broad-
cast to a depth of six inches. Plow under all vegetable
growth on the land. As soon as the land is plowed it
should be harrowed with the tooth harrow. Harrow it
twice if necessary so as to put the surface in good tilth.

The rows can be laid off by the use of a marker, which is
made of 2 by 6-inch lumber, the runners being set on edge
at the distance apart that the rows are wanted and then
braced sufficiently to keep them in place. A tongue is
attached to the cross-brace in front, and a guide marker
is attached at the side, at the proper distance to mark
the next row.
For opening up the furrow in which to drop the seed-
canes the disc cultivator will be found most satisfactory.
The beginner, however, is likely to have trouble until he
learns how to set the disks. In throwing out the rows,
they should be set close together, so as to leave as nar-
row a ridge as possible in the bottom of the furrow. The
cultivator should be set to run quite deep. If not, when
the canes are covered the ground will be left in ridges, in-
stead of being level. In covering the canes it will be
found necessary to set the disks as far apart as possible,
so as to give room for the canes between the disks. When
the disks are set close they will catch the canes, which,
instead of being covered, will be thrown out on the top
of the bed. The use of the disk cultivator for this work
will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to 40 per cent.,
which means much in the total cost of production.


Just when to plant the-seed canes in Florida depends
on the locality. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the
time of selecting the canes. This method reduces the
expense by the omission of the cost of banking. Fall
planting is perhaps not well suited to all parts of the
State. In the northern and western portions of the
State, where the winters are more severe than in the
southern part, there is likely to be a greater loss of seed-
canes during the winter season. Hence if fall planting
should be practiced, the result may be an unsatisfactory
stand. If the seed-canes are banked and kept till spring,

then only first-class cane will be planted. This will in-
sure a good stand. Fall planting would be advisable for
central and south Florida, and'spring planting for north
and west Florida. For fall planting, November 10 to
20 will perhaps be the best time. For spring planting,
the month of March will be the most satisfactory. All
territory north of Gainesville should practice spring
planting. All south of Gainesville may find fall planting
satisfactory under ordinary conditions.


The best formula to use in fertilizing Japanese cane is
yet an unsettled question. We know, however, that Jap-
anese cane has a very large root system and is a gross
feeder, and so we may use quite a liberal amount of fer-
tilizer. Any crop that produces such a tonnage of forage
must necessarily draw heavily upon the fertility in the
soil.' The following formula has given good results on
the Experiment Station farm, and perhaps may be taken
as a guide until we get better information:
Ammonia ....................... 3 per cent.
Phos. acid ........................ 6 per cent.
Potash ............... ........ 7 per cent.
(Apply fertilizer at the rate of 400 to 600 pounds per
Ground limestone, 2,000 pounds per acre.
It makes little difference whether our source of am-
monia is dried blood or sulphate of ammonia. Likewise
the source of potash makes no material difference.
Since it requires a long growing season (from March
15 to November 15 at Gainesville) for this crop to ma-
ture, it will be found advisable to give the fertilizer in
two applications. The first application may be made in
the latter part of April, and the second during the early
part of August. By putting the fertilizer on in two ap-
plications, there is not likely to be so much of it lost by
ir-.-iliug during the rainy season.


"" Japanese Cane, Feitilizer Test, 1909-1910; i ',

SPlot Plot Plot Plot
S_____.... ....i

iilph. ite of ammonia ......... .. ....... ... .. 72
Dried blood ....... 11 2 .... ..112 ......
Miiriate of potash................. 84 84 ....:. 84
Sulphate of potash .......... ... ...... ....... .
Acid ,phosphate ....................... 224 224 :24
"Ground limestone ........ ... .... .... .. ... .. ... ... ..
Total fert. per acre................. 196 308 336 38,0
tYield, tons, 1909.................. 24.2 17.7 16.1' 19.1
TYield, tons, 1910...........;....... 14.6 12.4 10.0 :14.4
Sucrose per cent, 1909............. 11.85 13.50 13.75 13.65
Sucrose per cent, 1910............... 11.00 10.85 10.501 11.00
Brix, 1909 ........................ 16.7 17.2 17.7 17.4
Brix, 1910 .........................I 15.35| 15.40 15.301 15.40
*Ground limestone is not considered as a fertilizer, but: as a
soil corrective.
tGreen material.

TABLE X- (Continued.)

Japanese Cane, Fertilizer Test, 1909-1910.

Dried blood .......................
Sulphate of ammonia..............
Muriate of potash.................
Sulphate of potash................
Acide phosphate .................
*Ground limestone ................
Total fert. per acre................
tYield, tons, 1909..................
tYield, tons, 1910..................
Sucrose per cent, 1909..............
Sucrose per cent, 1910.............
Brix, 1909 ........................
B rix. 1910 ........................I

Plot Ploti Plot
5 6 7 ,

112 ...... 112
...... 72 ......
84 ...... ...... .
...... '4 84
224 224 224
. ..... ...... j......
420 1380 420
19.5 18.9 16.6
11.8 16.7 '14.1
13.60 13.501 13.58
11.20 11.10 10.95
17.4 17.5 17.6
15.60 15.601 15.501




*Ground limestone is not considered as a fertilizer, but as a
soil corrective.
tGreen material.

Since the Japanese cane makes a new root-system each
year, it is not necessary to give the first application of
fertilizer so early in the season, as many have been doing
in the past. If we examine the roots of the canes when
growth starts in the spring, we will find that the feeding
roots do not start until the tops have made a considerable
growth. In fact, the tops may have grown as much ,as a
foot before the roots make a start. This early growth
comes from the stored-up plant food in the old stubs of
the ratoons, and the plants do not draw on the soil fer-
tility until the roots have begun to grow.
The amount of ground limestone or lime to apply will
depend on the acidity of the soil. The more acid in the
soil the heavier should be the application of ground lime-
stone or lime. There should be an amount sufficient to
neutralize about all of the acid in the soil.


The cultivation of Japanese cane is nearly the same as
that of corn or cotton. The important point to remember
is the thorough preparation of the seed-bed before plant-
ing the canes. In the succeeding years the early spring
cultivation should be somewhat as follows: About the
time growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring
the ground to a depth of three or four inches. This may
be done with the disk harrow going between the rows,
or with the two-horse cultivator. There is no danger of
injuring the roots at this time of the year, as the new
roots have not yet made any growth. The first applica-
tion of fertilizer should be applied just before the second
cultivation. The second cultivation should be thorough,
but not as deep as the first. As the crop continues to
grow, the depth of cultivation should be less each time.
Deep cultivation will be found to do much root pruning.
If one will take time to examine the root system when
the cane is nearly matured, a mass of fine feeding roots

will be found very near the surface, many of them not
more than' one-half inch deep. Deep cultivation destroys
these roots, reducing the feeding capacity of the plants
and so reducing the growth of the crop.
There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of
a hurry to harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best
quality of feed all forage crops must reach, a certain
stage of maturity. This is especially true of all saccha-
rine forage crops. The chief value of this crop as a feed
is its high sugar content. The higher the percentage of
sugar, the higher its feeding value. The formation of the
sugar does not take place while the crop is making a
rapid growth. When growth ceases, and the crop begins
to mature, which occurs in the fall when cool weather
comes, is the time the formation of sugar takes place
most rapidly. Harvesting, therefore, should be delayed
until near danger of frost. If it is to be used for silage,
the silage will keep better and will have a higher feeding
value if the cane is allowed to mature before putting it
into the silo. If used for dry forage it will also give
better results if not harvested until well matured. How-
ever, there is the danger of allowing it to stand in the
field until injured by frost. If it is used for feed a short
time after being injured by frost the loss will be but
slight. The feeding value after freezing deteriorates with
At the present time we cannot recommend any machine
that will successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes
are too hard and heavy for a mowing machine. After a
couple of years' growth the rows spread out too widely
for a corn harvester to work successfully. A machete
corn knife, or hoe will be found to do satisfactory work.
No doubt as more farmers grow Japanese cane there will
be a demand created for the necessary machinery for har-
vesting this crop.


The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be in-
creased by planting velvet beans between the rows. If
the rows of Japanese cane are eight feet apart, a row or
velvet beans may be planted between the rows and still
leave room to cultivate both cane and beans. Plant the
velvet beans as soon as the cane starts new growth in
the spring. Drop the beans about two or three feet apart
in the row. Gith both cane and beans good cultivation
until the beans throw out long runners. If the beans are
not planted early in the season, the Japanese cane will
get the start and will almost completely smother the
velvet beans.



Water ........................... 6.75 per cent.
Protein ........................... 1.37 per cent.
Fats ............................. 1.89 per cent.
Fiber ............................ 20.60 per cent.
Ash ............................. 2.04 per cent.
Nitrogen-free extract (sugars, etc.)..67.35 per cent.

Analysis from unpublished data of the Chemical
Department of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in pro-
This should be remembered when feeding it. We
should not expect it to take the place of all the concen-
trates in the ration. However, since it is rich in carbo-
hydrates, it is only necessary to supply feed rich in pro-
tein ii' combination with Japanese cane to obtain the
best results. If this point be kept in mind we will not


be disappointed in the results we obtain from feeding
this to our livestock.
Good Rations.

Percentage Composition.

Japanese cane, 10 pounds......
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds........
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds.
Total ...................
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.5)

Japanese cane, 12 pounds......
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds.
Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds....

Total .....................
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.6)

Japanese cane, 10 pounds......
Compea hay, 10 pounds........
Velvet beans in pod, 8 pounds..

Protein Carbohydrates Fats

.14 7.30 .19
1.08 3.86 .11
1.71 6.19 .46
___________- ___________- I --
2.93 17.35 .76

.16 8.76 .23
1.71 6.20 .46
.74 .34 .24

2.61 15.30 .93


Total ..................... 2.50
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.7) 1

7.30 .19
3.86 .11
4.95 .37

16.11 .37

Is Japanese cane hard on land?-This is a question
asked quite frequently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard
on land. Any crop that produces such an abundant
growth of forage must necessarily draw very heavily upon
the plant food in the soil. If then the plant food is not
supplied by liberal application of fertilizer the soil will'
soon become exhausted and the yield obtained from the
crop will be unsatisfactory. The plants produce a new-
root system each year. Hence there is some humus added
and a small amount of plant food returned to the soil
annually, but the amount left in the soil does not equal
the amount taken out each season.



1. The great need of Florida stockmen is an abun-
dance of nutritious forage.
2. Japanese cane is the cheapest forage and silage
crop that we can grow.
3. Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will
last for many years if properly cared for.
4. Japanese cane will supply an abundance of good
pasturage during the time of the year when this is most
5. To obtain the best results in feeding, Japanese cane
should be fed in combination with feeds rich in protein.
6. Japanese cane produces good yields of forage on a
variety of soils.
7. Japanese cane has an immense root system and is
a heavy feeder; hence it should be given a liberal applica-
tion of fertilizer.
8. Japanese cane should not be pastured in the spring
after new growth begins.
9. Japanese cane should be well matured before it is

Full Text




JAPANESE CANE JJ_y .JO.U N ,11. SCOTT, lnimol T 11dui1trffili;it rrn,L AUiBtOnt Dir ector E1t11Crime11t Station INTRODUC'l'IO N. F o r the s ucc ess fu l )ll'0du ction of live stock it is l m por \ tantt.o b 111 ean ab undan ceoffeed nnd forage at all time s If the natural grasses do not nffo1 i1 this we must plnn ourcroprotatlonsonstosupply the f eed when needed. It may be thn.t the n a tura l grasses will s upply s uffi cient feed fora1llh'estock,exceptfor11 11h ortp cr iod dur!ngtbe winter month.s or during a se1ere d roub>l,t. It is j ust at such times that the animals m u s t nceJ our be l p. U w e fall to sup pl y sufficient rood to yo un g gr ow i ng anlrnnls, dcvclopmenti11retardedorg1 "0 wtl.tsto11 s. Weg,,tasnre su it uml.ersi1.ed 1u11l poorlr ,levelopeJ h ell11t.g, 11 nd ofte n whnt :,re co mm only kn own :n 1 runts Sucl, st unted 3 n ~ mal11neverdcvel o p i n to as good lin l stoc k us do those in. ilivii1 1 m ls thnt are kept gro wing fro m i,jr t h t o maturit y Du 1 ingtbepa stte n years the numhcr ~ or cnt tl e in t hi s State have d o ubl ed. On J nn uary 1 l!J0 0, we find 4 1. 2,820 hcnJ of cntt l e Ou J nnuary l, 1910, thern wcrn 80 7 000 hea d of cattle. Ifthenumberofcattlesllouldincren~as rnpldl y ;n th e n ext ten y cal" s as i n the Inst te n yc11rs, we s hall own one mill i o n auil a ha ff h e ad in 192il Such a rnpld inereasewou l d requi re thatourfarme111 tako steps to proilnce eno ugh for age to pr ope r ly f eed the incremcut. Th o rc w illprohal,l ylm alikeln c rt!ascinhog11and she, anilal s o a considerableincre11scin the nmnhcro f lior acs and mules. The needed e:,c t ra supp l y or forage c an ea sil.1 he obt nlnea bs t he growing of Ja pa uese C/l n e Thcttd s


no othercroptltnt w ec un i;row tlHlt will produ ce me lt n Jor g e yie l do rf o r ngent!!Oijll rnll ncos t l> 'loridn la mor!l ot a live 11toc k Stot!l than many 1'(!3\ i ze, OnJnn u al"Y 1,1910 therewereSO 'l' ,000 bead orcattlc 98, '" 000 11boop, and 400,000 hogs. T h ese are all fo ragHating animals. To .upply the need s of all thell8 n nima l e we muat provide furage or l!O IIl C kind from N orember to MaN!b J apa11c11e can e la 11'cror thnt 11upp llee a large nJllou n t of r oughage nt the very time of the yea r l\'h c n the n at u ra l pa8turage i a U m ited The wnnt ot un abun1_lo. nt!!Up p ly of foragc is oneof t he hlndr:m ces tothe p r o d n ctlon o f good l h'e 11t0ck in F l ori d a Stockmen hal-"e bttn neglige n t In 11uppl y ing the n eccs~ary food to main tain t.11.eir Jh e .l!tock duri n g the winter ecnso n .l! nnd

H!icbicfva!ue to tbe fal'Jl1er11 of Florida, ii! a1111 forage crop for the feeding or lh .11toc k. It may be uaed as silage, winterpa11turc,ordry forage. Wbcn f i i-11t intro duced to .f' lo rida, Ja1muese ci m e wns 1:row11 for the pro-~ duction of 11yrup. To most 11ectiorn1 of the Sta t e and uudn the usual ooudition11, th(l regular 11ugar.cane11 arc much more sat is faetory :1 11 crops to, syrup production. This is beea u 11 e t L e Japanef!C caue ill harder, aud n,quit"l!S more power iu griutling. It is also more d iffi cult to strip, w hi ch h,crcaf!Cs the 1,-ost of 111rt 1 i~ fog. Uowc cr, ns re wnli! the quality or the ~yrup, the re is but litOe d irfer ence hctwocn the n,gnlar 11ugnrCane n ml Jnpnnese (llllle. Theyiclaotsyrup per ncrefrom Japnucoo cuue will varr from l50to500gallons. The locality be st 11nitcd for the growing of Jo pnut>,.se ctim, will be nil F l orido, south e rn Gwrgi:1, southe rn A l ba ma, southern llissi@l!ippl l, onisin na arul soutl,ern Texn s. Auy !;L~tinn in which (he Vl'Jvet bean 11,il! mat ure J;CCd will be fo un d a f.'OOd place to grow tl,e Jnpanese c ane. ~' hiis will l,e up to ZOO to 2a0 mi!ea north of t h e GulrofMexi{'(l. J111 wnC>j() eane!urn ishesg ood ;1asturage fro m the mid dle of November to March Cnttle waste but little o r it when pa11tured. 'l'hey fil'l1 too t off t he green blntles, theu th(ltender joinls at thetop,a nd continue to e:,t from the top uniil there is nothing left Out the short stubble. It should not be pastured !lite iu ttio spring. H J)astured ,.ftcr grow\b staMs in t he g pring the cattle or h!>b'll wil l cat off the new growth nud soon kill out the plants. JI is 1101 advisable to pasture later tba11 Marth 1 o r nfter uew growth b()giualn tbcspr i ng.


J11pan e11e cnne mllkes 11 1,-ood 11il:1ge. rt tce 1 111 well, b r e l is hed bycnttlc,nnd theyicltl t h11t cntl bc.l!ecuretl mnkea itoneorth echeapeHt and mOl!teconomlmlcrop,;tbll.t the Florida rarmer can grov, fo1 11ilage. It 1111 s been ufl(ltl I n f eeding exper\menla wi th the dlliry herd nt the E:1:1 1P. ri me,u STIiiion "itb qui t e 1u ti11fn ctory reiiult11. The cost of 11i l ngefrom1hi1crop1hou1Jnotex~Jl.TT;or'2.00JJC'' t on. AH com 1 )nrcd with sor_lj:hum or o r11 silage the ( O~ t i s nboutone-thlrd l eKsfor Jn11:111e!!e cnne~ilage. ,Jupauc!IB caue will be found ll rnl u nb l e ~1-01) fo1 1fr., v,lntcr forag e. It I~ un ensy Cl'"fl l l to ..urennd 1h e l o.flit in storage ia s m a ll. Jt it iij ~i.ored in 1 ba 111 or s li c: d there will be hardly uny lou. At th e Experiment f.;tntion "e bn,o stored it in a Ollrn In Nornmbcr,ond neceinbcr nu,l 'k er1 i t until the f ollowing Ju n e an d .Jul., S i x monthij : tfter harvCl!ti11g tbce W!IK 1rncl1c11lly 110 loijij; 11ml wheu rurl 1hrougb n feed c 11tter it wa 11 '1lii~lled h y enttlc, horile!I t1nd mules. l(barnorshed room i s notnvnll;1b!c. it c nn be s tore d in l he bnrny.o rd and fed out RH w:rnted. llnt with thi s method t11e Jol!II will l,e conghJcro.ble It 11 00 found profi!nblctoput 111 1n te,upor,H"y shed umler which to gtore the dry f orflb

r !1" ~ thest~1"111m1dendnil yn 1erngeguln per1,000pounds 1!1e weight of G O 1io11nd11, nt a eo'lt or 4 cent~ per pound of g-.1l11 ~0 11 .. .. ~ . ~ ,, J n 1 oaoesecane is n c1 op well ~uited ~on uriety uf ~il':(;ood hammock land will noUou b l 1 1~ h1< -e t h e. hl'll1icst yield!!.. Bu t c1en t h e high pi 1 \e lnuds wlll gile good '.tt, turns nheu properly fertilized . On awnwpy ml!ck ia1'd Japanese cane will rnoke II fair l y gQOd 1,,rowth, On 8_1,1s!t lnnd the growth will be gn,;itl) iucrenH('(l b, v a n nppl/c~ tion ot lim e (ground lhnes t one, or hurnt llm e). Th e 11mountofthi1nblch It isneccssary tu 11 pply will depeud upon the amount of acid in the soil, ond wll1 vary f rom 2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone, o r o ne,1 alf t h e:116 mnoonb! of nlr-slncke..1 lime per DCr'\', An nppl k 11t i on at the rnteof 2,000 poull(]s of gMnnd limestone per acre on high phie lnn,J on the Experiment Station from in c rtasedtbeyleldt ot heedentofJ0.$7tonap e tacre 1l 11ring ihe 11emw 11 or 1909. F.1ery rarwer in l'lorlda should gro" a few acres of Japanese cane, whether he has the clau or ~o ll l:Jellt auited to it or not. Tf i t isnottbeOOl!t110 il JUpttn esecanew ill produ ce as htnvy n yield n wlll any other erojl that can l,e grown o n t h e !Alllte eoil, o r even e heavi er yiel d Hi g h pine land properly ferti!it:ed will give II yield of Hi t o 20 tons per acre. Good hninmock land wlll pro,luce ~iclds beyond thcso flgur~. J apruiese ca ne i s II pcreunial, aud o n e plan ting will hurt: many yeart1 i f J Jt0per l y hand l ed. Th\g in HseU eam;CII quite n .sn..iu g iu the ell'.pense of growing tlte crop. In fac t, it reduCC8 the nnnu~I cost or pro,:luetlon b y a~:i'ut OOpereeut. ,faJ~llle!IC 1'1111e iij pr o pn1t11lel_ by cutti n gs of the c, rn es or


by div i ~on a of the atoo_h!. The cl11ia1JC11l n nd most eeonom ical way or pro pagu tin g ith;by cn n e e uttlni;a. T h ere fore care a nd attentiou mU11t lie giv e n to the en1ing or the~. can e/!. Poor sectl -<:n nei! like 1 io or see d resul t iu 1ooor Jrt! md s and 1. 11 1 sa tl sfadory yields Th e seedc1me,i; s hou ld O(! 11e l ec ted nnd cut lie fore thc1'l! i" J11n ger of fro st, llO 1111 to iu&:n re 50 u ndneli11ndnntm oiat ure tbe en nes nre ll tclytorot;lfth oao il : a b,out the beds should beco med r., 1b ecm1e1< m u~ tnk e th e dry ro1,and 11lnrgc 11m ou n totthe&eed be lost. Jtia, theref ore, Important t l u1t we get the J ll"Ope r c ondition u11 to m o istur e In th e bnnk n here we Htore ou r a eed cn n el!. Tt ,. 111 be found betttr to mak e t"'0 or three 111null l)e d w I.ban o ne l arge ou e. Jt would W wd l to bank mor e .-i rne ~ tba ,a yo n uped to uae fo r p l 1111ti11i;. Th ere is : a lways s om e po ssl bility ot \08 8 from vari ou s Cl\D~ot. Sometimes a h e l 0811 may not excee d 10 per t'en t. wh il e nt other tilllCf< it111nybena higha e25 to50J >e rcent. The num lie r ofcnnesre

e ient lo plm, t n n ne re ; and if good l!C(!( ) i 11 11110!d 1uc e nough to ghc nn ei:ee ll <:n t 1 tuod, Sc l l'Ct onl y htnl t b y ca n es, n n d rej ee tnll that are gn,>,: 11 un d unripe. Plant in r-o1ucight fcetnpart. Cu t t hcca n l!ll ln pi eCCII ha v ing t h ree t o fourcy et1 ton p iece,a111ldro 1 )them In a dou b le lin e. Somcfnrincn1dro pt heea 11 e" Jn" l!i n i;, l e lin e f r om 1 2 l o 1 8 Inches n 1 mrt in the ro" B y t his met h od o r planting i t1i i11011 lyrequl r cf ro ml,OOil t ol ,O OOcn nC11 t oplnnt 11n ;u-e. The llhrnd1nn tng e is, llou C\cr, th 1 1t u thin st111i.l will be nl,tnin l! d which ,dll res u lt 111 a !lt> rnll ylcl,l M fol'llgc. 'r lli!i ~mall y i clll of fol"flg e will u ot only be for theliNt y,:: 11 hutthc r c.,dll ~n li ght yie ld forsc..-crnl years. I t l s n en rl y impossi hl e t ofl ll i 11 the mi S11ing 11lace 8 properly. W h en, H C'n" cnnes JU-e 1 li1nteo: I in the mil!Sin g hi l h! it'n ill hcfoundt h nt h cymnlrne i th e r u o g nm1:hor a l"l:,ry mu ,llt i!! fn ctory one, Th e old e11t: 1 b li s hed ennl"ii h 9U(!lt l!U l',X1Cl19 h e N)Of KJK le m nnd dmw SO heavll upon 1l1 e p lll n t. rood nnd ~o il m o i Ht ure, that tbe n ew cn ., es hn1 e li!11e d n n ce to ruak e 11n y g1m11! h It is 1 ery impol'tnn t 1,hnt a good ~ l nu cl of cn n es g hould l.oeo btn i ncd nt the find 1,la n tini:. If 1111 \ ,1 11 hnl f or tn t hirds o f n ~111n d i;;l 1ould 1.,e 1reeutttl, il w ill follow th at o ne-thi rd to one, h n lf o f t he crop wtrl be "''eed>.. F o r 1\'eed8Wil!jl.TO\\ "U J)bel\\'e

'f h e row .11 cnn he \nid o ff by th e lJijCOf n m:,rkcr, w hi ch ill mode of 2 by 6-tuch lumber the run n er.11 being set on edge nt t h eJi~tnueen 1 mrt t hat the rov,.1111~ 1\'RDIL't l 0 11d t h en bmceJ 11urfteicntly to k!!ep them In 1ilnce A t ongue, ~ ntt n c b e d to the croM broce in front. nm! n guid o mnrkcr i .11 ottnche,J nt t h e aide, !It the prop1!.r d\.11tnnee to mnrk thenextro } 'or open in g up 1lu;1 furT0 1\ iu which to Jro 1 1 the seed cn neii th e J l gc cu111,n t or wlll h e fomul n, o~ t 11;1 1i ~ facto1~ -. Tbebt>gi nn cr how erer,111 Jik el)toluH'etrouhleu ntil he lennu1 how l o &et the dial.II J u t h rowi ng out t h e n'.l1\ II they shou ld be set elose to 1,';lt h er, so 11.11 to il-:i1c 11~ nor row a rill:.,oe n~ poAAlble in t h e hottom of 1he turro11 Tiu ; c ultin1to r J!}1ou lcl bel!Ct to run 1111i1 e 1"1 n g t h e cn n (':S it wi ll l, e fo u nd n e<>e&11my to ! t he rnue,, w hich lnslC11 cl of Lielneowire ,l, will be t hrow11 out on t h e top ot 1 he !Jed. The uM! or the dl 1k c n ltiwltor for t his 1\orl, will rcdnoo the L'O$l of 1 1lanti n :: 1,.1 ~:; to ~ O JIC1 1'(' 11 1., U"hfr h menu~ mnch ~11 t h e totnl ('OSt of pmductlon. Jo ~/ wh eu to pl ant t h e-wr l cunci, 1 11 Floi itla d e p e nd ~ on the loc81l t y Some 1,r efer to J>lnnt hi !he fall. n l !l,e 11ml' of 11el,:ct i 11j: lhe C:111~ Th is mt: tl md reclu('('I' the expe n se by the oml!!llion of the co~t of 1~1111.:in i;. 1 '11 plnuUng is J JC l'h R]II! not w ell ~ uited to ul l p11r 1 11 o r t h e !,:. tnte. T n the northern and wCf!teru porti o n~ of the Stnte, where the wlntens fll'fl more 11ei-ere than i n 1he J!O uthr ir n 1 mrt, t h ere ts likely tfl Len ~rente1 \ o;1s of l!leed cn n f'll during t h e 11'i 11t, ,r senMln. n enre if fall pltmti n ~ l!hon ld be prncticed the resnl t m:iy 00 110 nn lilltlsrn<'to r~ ~tnnd If the l!eed CAUCII nre lmnkl't l 1111<\ ke11t tlll spr ing


lO then only fir l!t d ll ijS cane will be 11luui.ed 'l'his w ill lll st1re a gootl stand. Fall plnntlng 11ould be adviwb l e fo r e eritral 1111<1 soulh F l orida, nm spring plnnting fo_r north and west i'loridu. ror fall pluntiug Nonm1l;er 10 t? 20 11il\ pcrhn 1 s be the best 1i1Jle. l'or s11ring plantiu:; the month o t )for<:h wii1 \Jc the nw,;1 satisfnclorr. All territory north of Ga i nc 1w ille shotal d p1actice ;;pr i ug pla11t i ug. AU south of Gaiul'!!l"illc nrny find fall phmtin~ satisfactory under ordinary conditions Theloei;tfornmla touooin!E!ttilizing,Japauei;ecaneis yetnnunaettlecl(Jnest i on ,\ e. kno.w ,!, owe,er, thntJaw n 11 c11C cane ha s n very large root systtJm Uud is a gro!Sll f eeder, and so ne may nse (JOile a mxmd -amonut or fe~ tilizer. A uy t:ro~ that produc~ su~h n tonu age or forag,:: must necesAArilJ draw hea, il,, npon the fertility in th.I! soll. l'be followln,; forrunl,o hn 11 giveu good re~uh ij on the Experiruenl Station f1u,11, and 1,erhnp ~ urny be tnkeu ,is a guide until we get better informat i o u: Awmouia. ... .... 3 rc1 cent. l'hos. 11ci,T. ... .. ..... Ii per c1: nt. Po tas h 7 1~r cent. ( Aflply fod,iliier o.t lhc 1:1t e of 400 lo WO ponn,111 ]l{W acre ) Gronu,J limestone, 2,000 pounds 11.cre It 1111,k<'~ liHle clirrerence whe th c, our so ut''(! of nm mouin i11dricd blood 01 8 1111,hule of am111011ia. l ikewise th11 souN'.e of pi>l11sh rnakCI! no matel'ial diff e renc!l. Since it reqnirc,i n long growing season (fro m M a r ch 1i'i to N01cmber 15 nt Gainesville) for this cro1, to ma tur-0, it will be found fld1is a ble to irive Ute fer t ili~1 iu two a pr lieaiiou s. 'fhe fir11l application ma.' be made i n tb.e latter rnrt of A pdl, and th e ~ecowJ ,luring

'l'Al!,LE ,X. 11<>1\ :2~~~-!matoue I not ~ulMttfpotuh . Adde pbQopll&t e Gro nnd ll1n eatona .. Total rert per ac r a .. tY leld. ton e, 1809 .. f Yleld. to n e, IH I ..... Sucrose p er<1 l.f not ,:.on l tderf'd Ha r e rtUt..,,, but u a t G n,enmlter1al.


Since the Japanese cane make$ a new l'OOtsystem each J'{!ft r, it is not necessary to gi e the lir~t application of fertnizersoear l yi n the season,11sm11 11yh nw,bee ndoing in the pa11t. U we ex!lmine the roots of the ennes when growthijtnrlain theapring,wewill findthnttbe!enrly the sa n1 e n ~ that of corn or cotto11. fhe importa nt 1 1oi ut t-0 ~member is thethoroub>IJ prepara tion of !he ijeeJbed her01e pl : rni ing th e canes. ln th e su creed h1g years the arly spl'ing eu l t!nttion 11hould be R<>mcwhat u s follows; About the time growth b<'gin@, ghe a thorough cult i mtion, stirring the gro!lnd to a depth of three or fo ur inches. Thi~ may be done with the di~k harrow goiug betw~n the rows, or with tl,e two-horse cultivator. There ill no danger of injuring the roots at this time or the ~ear, :ts the new root>! have not yet made any growth. The flr8t app li ca tion or fertili.z;cr shou ld be npplie,l j ust IMefore the second culti,atlon. The second cultinltion slwul d be thoro>J6~1, but not ns dC'ep as the first. As the crop rontinucs to gro-.., the depth of eu lt hat i on sho uld be lss each tim., Deep cult i v a tion will be found todo much root p run ing. If one will take time to ex,1mine t h e root system w h en the cane is nearly mAtul'W, a mass of fine feeding roots


will lie found ni r y nea r the llnrfuce, many of th em no t morethnnone-hn lfi nchdccp Deepcnlfoation destro ys these root s, reilncing the feeding capacity of the plant!! and so rednciug the growth of t he crop Tiu.:!'() i s a temleucy fo r tile farmer to be i n too much of a hurry to ll1lr 1 cst Japanese cane, To produce the best quality o! feed all forage crops mnst reach n certain st nge of maturi ty. Thi s i s especiully t rue of all sacclm ri n e forage crops. The ch i efva l ucofthiscropnsafcC(] ,~ its h igh s u g111 c ontent. '!'he higher the percc n tnge of sugar, the hi ghc1 it 11 feeding rnlue. The f ormation of the sugnr does n ot take pi nce while the crop ts ma k ing a rapid g r owth. W l ,engrowth eease11,and the crop begins to mature w liid, occul'I! in the fall when coo l weathl.'r comes, Is the time the formation of suga r t akes place mo~t rapi!lly Harn,stin g, thenfore, should be deln yc.t 11nt il near danger o f frost. If itis to be uaed for silage, the s il9ge will kecj) bet te r and wJU lrnl"l.l n higher f eerling 1alue i f the c m,c is allowed to Dlnture befo r e 1mtt i 11g it i nto the silo. U used for dry forage it will a l8(l give better rcsnl ts if not hancsted until "'ell matured H ow ever, th ere is the drrni:,'l:r o f allowiug it to stand in the lid,! m1ti l i11juredby frost. lfiti sl18e dforfeednsbort 1ime after being injured by frost the 10>!& will be b ut s light he fee.d ing value after freezing deteriorates with time At t he prei;eot time w, : ennu ot recomn,l'lld any m a chi n e thul will s11 ece,;1;fu llylrnrvestJnpnncseeane. Thccnncs nre too hard ijtul heavy for n mowing mach i ne. Af t er n eou[l l e of years' grow t h the rows spread o ut too wide l y for a corn harve~ter to w ork suece!!sf u lly A machete coru kn i fe, or hoewiH be fou nd todo K9tisfactory wo rk. Xo duubt aB more farmers grow Japanese cone th ere will hen clema ndcreatedfortlie n eccessarym a cb lncryforluu rei;tingthis cro p.


14 Thcfeed in gva l ueof Jap anese e anepasturorn ay b,:, iu cn!nsed lty planting 1 lve t beans between the TO\\'S. I f ~-~~r:;\\~ao!s J :~:.n:e ;:~:::i~:;~:e:i~/~: .~ :n~o:ti~ lemc roolll to cul tiva te 00th cane antl beans. P inn t till' v{.' l v et bcn n s as soon a i. th e c ane stam no" gr-0wth in the sp ring D rop thebeam11 about two or thr1.-e feet apart in the row. Git!, both c ane and beans good c ultivation until t ho bea n s throw out lon g runnera. lf the beans arc n ot pl anted early i n the season, the Jap a n es!' em u : will get th o stnrt an d wm almost eompfotely !\ mother the ,e h ctbcans ANA LYSIS Water .. . .. ...... 6.75per=t. Proteh1 . .......... 1. 37 1;er ce n t. Fats .. ........ . ............... 1 .8!.I per cent. F ibe r ..................... . .. . 20.60 pP.r cent Ash . ... ... .. 2.04 p er C'C n t. Nitrogen -f ree edraet (sugars, etc.) .6 7 .31'.i per cen t. Analysis-from un publi l!l.tecl datn of the Chem i c:rl Departm ent of th e Florida Agricul t urul Experiment S tati on.) Jnpnnei;ecane is rich [ n c arbohtdrnt es, b 11 tpool' in pro tein. This shou ld be remembered whc11 fttdlug i t. \Ve sl.tOUld not cxpe:<:t i t to t ake the place o f nil t he co ncen irn t es in the ration. JJowc,er ~iucc it i s rich in ca1 bo liydratei, lt ls only necessary t o supp l y fet>d rich i n pro tein .ill combinatio n with Japall< ~SC can~ to o b ta i n !lie best re su lt s. If this point be kept in mi nd we w il i" 110 1


Ue 1li!1appol11tcd in th \!' resul~ we obt'Rin f;"Q !II reedi11g tbistoourl ivl!Eltock. TABLE XJ. OidRalWu. 111 .Tapan eec cnne hRrd on l and! This is n l]net!tion usJ.:ed q11itefroq11en1ly. NodoubtJnpane~cnnc i s h01\l nu land. Any crop that produ ct'tl 11 11<:h :m nbundnJJ t ::ro,.th o f fo n'lg c mn s tn eec.s aril y draw \'Cty hcnvilyu1 o0n tl\e plant food lnth cgoil. Jfth cn the plant f ood l1< 11o t ~n1ip l i ed by 1 il;e ral Rpplicatlon or fertilizer th e soil will" l!OOJJ 00comcci:hanstcd nnd th e yicl'ft i11 tl u, so i l ,100 ~ not l!

1. '1.'he~nt nC()(\ of Flo!'idastockmen is nnabun lnesc cane pr oduces go,:wi yields of forage on n rnrictyofaoils. 7. JRJmllClle c:n,c has an imwensc root system nud is n hcnvyfced er; hencuit should be given u lilM!ral applh,a tionoffrtiliwr. 8. Japa11el!e caueaho uldnotbe 1 msturl!dintheapri11g nftcrnewgrow 1 h begins 9. Jn1m111 ~ Ctille ijhou l,J be well malur(!d bllforc it i~ lmn"t'l!ted.