Vol. 29 No. 2
APRIL 1, 1919
W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER O AGRICULTURE
Part 1-Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Convention of
the Florida State Live Stock Association. List of
Publications by the Department for Distribution.
Part 2-Crop Acreage and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-clau
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."
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Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Convention of the
Florida Live Stock Association.
List of Publications by the Department for Distribution.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH ANNUAL CON-
VENTION, FLORIDA STATE LIVE STOCK
Dr. W. F. Blackman, President ...........Jacksonville
Z. C. Chambliss, First Vice-President ..............Ocala
Pat Johnston, Second Vice-President......... Kissimmee
Z. C. Herlong, Third Vice-President........... Micanopy
H. T. Lykes, Fourth Vice-President...............Tampa
Hiram Platt, Treasurer ....................Melbourne
R. W. Storrs, Secretary.............. DeFuniak Springs
A. A. Coult, Assistant Secretary ............Jacksonville
Office of Secretary..P. 0. Box 1181, Jacksonville, Florida
This somewhat condensed report of the Seventh Annual
Convention of the Florida State Live Stock Association,
held in Kissimee, January 14, 15 and 16, 1919, is pub-
lished in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Department of
Agriculture through the courtesy of Hon. W. A. McRae,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 14.
Following a concert by the Kissimmee band, Dr. W. F.
Blackman, President, called the convention to order at
10:30 in the court room at Kissimmee, and every one
joined in singing one verse of America.
Reverend R. F. Hodnett offered the invocation, and
then President Blackman introduced C. A. Carson, Sr.,
of Kissimmee, as the official welcomer. Mr. Carson said
in part: "Jacob, of Biblical times, was an open range
cattleman 'and probably did not know anything about
feeding grain to stock. No doubt he knew all there was
to know at that time about breeds of cattle and the con-
ditions of the different ranges to which he took his herds
at various seasons .of the year.
"Kissimmee corresponds to the land of Goshen, and
we are happy that you have come here to see what we
are doing and advise us on how to improve our methods.
We feel that Kissimmee and Osceola county have been
for years the headquarters for cattle shipments.
"Looking back over the early history of the county to
fifty years ago, there were very few men in the cattle
business. Some of the pioneers whose names have been
imprinted upon the industry are the Morgans, Aldermans,
Johnstons, Basses and Savages. The last census showed
that there are more than 100,000 cattle in Osceola county.
Our people are learning rapidly and in the last few years
have made great progress in breeding up the quality of
our cattle and in eradicating the cattle fever ticks. The
time is now ripe to develop our cattle business along more
scientific lines, and our people have come to this conven-
tion to learn from our visitors who are versed in scientific
"The people of Kissimmiee are happy to have the
members of the Florida State Live Stock Association and
their friends as our guests, and on behalf of the city I
extend to all of you the freedom of the city and hope
you will enjoy your stay with us."
R. W. Dunlap, of Green Cove Springs, responded on
behalf of the Association, saying: "We have been made
to feel at home here by the gracious welcome of Mr.
Carson and by the individual greetings extended to our
members as we arrived for this convention. We are
going into this convention with the spirit of getting out
of the addresses and discussions all that we possibly can
to help us in developing the live stock industry in Flor-
ida, and we hope to make this the best convention in the
history of the Association."
PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS.
By Dr. W. F. Blackman, Jacksonville.
We meet today under happy auspices. When we
gathered a year ago at Jacksonville our hearts were
heavy with the burden of a world war unexampled in
magnitude and ferocity into which we had been plunged;
today this burden is gone, for the war is over, our soldiers
and those of the allied nations have achieved a signal and
complete victory, ahd the cause of justice, freedom and
democracy has been gloriously vindicated. To be sure,
we still face many grave and perplexing problems, as
does the whole world; the twin spectres, famine and
anarchy, are stalking abroad in Europe, and the recon-
struction of the social, economic and industrial fabric of
American life will tax to the utmost the wisdom and
patience of our people. But let us not doubt that we
shall be equal to this task, as we were equal to the task
which the hideous war thrust upon us, all unprepared as
This is our seventh annual meeting, and seven, as you
know, according to the Scriptures, is the perfect and
sacred number, marking the completion of a cycle. For
several years after its organization the Association had
a small membership and its meetings were attended by
comparatively few. The effort put forth by its officers
to impress the farmers and stock raisers of Florida with
the importance and value of organization and co-opera-
tion met with a slow and disheartening response. The
State was so large, its various sections so unacquainted
with one another, the intelligent and progressive stock
men so few and so scattered, the methods followed on the
free and open range so primitive, the traditions of the
industry so fixed, the piney-woods cow and the razor-
back hog so fully in possession of the field, the interest
in pure-bred and high-grade stock and in modern and
scientific farming methods so slight, that the few faithful
prophets of the better day seemed to be as voices crying
in the wilderness. But these seven years have witnessed
a great and gratifying change. The Association has
steadily grown in membership, its meetings have been
more largely attended, and its programs have attracted
increasing attention and exerted an increasing influence.
Also the Association has given birth to two daughter
organizations, the Florida State Swine Growers' Associa-
tion and the Florida State Dairy Association. The record
is a good one, and yet only a beginning has been made.
The present membership of the Association, numbering
some three hundred, ought to be increased at once to at
least a thousand, and its message ought to be heard and
pondered by a very much larger number of the live stock
men of the State. Perhaps it is felicitous that we are to
round out the first epoch of our career in this town of
Kissimmee, long famed as the center of the cattle indus-
try of Florida. Let us pronounce the word, as the In-
dians do, Kiss-immee, accenting the first syllable, and
have what our Methodistbrethren call a "love feast."
Three things, and only three, I want to say and stress,
at the outset:
1. The first point which I wish to emphasize is this:
We need at least three new laws, or amendments to laws
now in force, namely, a State-wide compulsory dipping
law, a better brands and marks law, and a revised chattel
Twenty-eight counties have now voted in favor of the
systematic dipping of cattle, one more than a majority of
all the counties of the State.' Every county but one has
made appropriations, larger or smaller, for the erection
of vats and the beginning of the work. It is a splendid
record, unequalled in any other State. And the people
are now ready, I am persuaded, to retire the local option
feature of the law and make the dipping of cattle for
the eradication of the tick compulsory, uniform and im-
mediate, throughout the entire State. This is by far the
more effective and cheaper way. The State Live Stock
Sanitary Board will ask for such action by the Legisla-
ture, and I hope that a strong resolution to the same
effect will be passed at this meeting, and the committee
will be appointed to press the matter upon the attention
of the Senate and the House. There is no reason why
Florida should not be wholly and forever freed from the
menace and mischief due to the tick within two years,
as are South Carolina and Mississippi, thus opening the
way for the development of a magnificent cattle industry
here. Better feeds, better breeds, better methods will
follow as the day follows the night.
We need good brands and marks and chattel mortgage
laws for the purpose of encouraging cattle-loan companies
and banks to operate extensively and without timidity in
this State, as they cannot now do. The channels of credit
should be broadened and deepened, so that a generous
and fructifying stream of money may flow unhindered
into Florida, for the establishing of farms and ranches,
the purchase of pure-bred stock, and the cultivation and
improvementof our pastures and fields. I need not argue
2. And the second matter which I wish to urge is this:
Florida needs a very, much stronger and more efficient
College of Agriculture and Experiment Station than she
now has. What we want in these institutions'is leader-
ship-a leadership strong, courageous, determined, arous-
ing; a leadership which we can confidently and enthusias-
tically follow. This is what we want and must have, if
the live stock industry is to progress here as it ought.
And let me hasten to say that I do not intend to criticise
in the slightest degree either these institutions them-
selves, as to their organization and methods, or the men
who are at work in them. On the contrary, I have the
highest regards both for the institutions and the men in
charge of them. Perhaps I may be permitted to say, as
for many years a college professor and president, that
the men at Gainesville are as intelligent, as laborious, as
faithful and devoted a company of scholars and teachers
as I have known anywhere. They are doinm excellent
work, in many different directions-in research, in teach-
ing, in short-time courses, in publication, in extension
service, in live stock round-ups, in correspondence courses,
in farm institutes, and in manifold ways besides. But
they are overworked and they are not provided with the
facilities which they need. More farm land is wanted,
more buildings, more laboratory equipment, more imple-
ments, more pure-bred live stock for research and demon-
stration use, and more instructors and assistants. I be-
lieve the time has now fully come when the live stock
men of the State should ask the Legislature to appro-
priate such a sum of money for the equipment and work
in Animal Husbandry and related sciences of the College
of Agriculture and the Experiment Station as will put
these institutions fully on a par with the best institutions
elsewhere of similar character. I am confident that the
Board of Control and the president of the University are
in hearty accord with this view, and I hope that the
Association will pass resolutions to this effect, and that
our members will bring their influence to bear in the
Senate and House in favor of such appropriations. In
this connection I ask your hearty co-operation in the
State-wide campaign for more food, feed, and forage
which will be put on by the Extension Division of the
University during the eleven days following January 20.
3. Now that the cattle tick has been doomed in Florida,
what comes next? Better breeds both of cattle and hogs,
no doubt; but before all things else that which we need,
.that which we all of us at this juncture ought to think
about day and night and work for with all our might, is
the providing of more and better feeds for our live stock,
and in particular the improving of our pastures. "All
flesh is grass," and what we need in Florida most of all-
I say this quite deliberately-most of all, is more grass;
grass greater in quantity, grass richer in nutritive values
and more palatable; summer grass, winter grass, grass
for pasture and grass for hay, two blades, ten blades,
where there was one-grass!
This is the gospel which I wish that the members of
this Association might both preach and practice, in season
and out of season, in the coming years, until some really
adequate sense of its truth and importance shall be kin-
dled in the minds of all our people. "All flesh is grass,"
no flesh without grass, more flesh with more grass, better
flesh with better grass.
Providence has been too good to us. He has given us
fair grazing the year around. When the ground ii the
North is covered with snow and deadened with ice, our
ranges are still yielding food for the beasts of the field.
And we have grown lazy; we have been content with
things as they are; we have forgotten that even in the
garden of Edenf with all its native fruitfulness, man was
set by his Maker to "till the ground," and that in our
Florida paradise, this, the tilling of the ground, is still
the chief and most necessary vocation of the sons of
Adam and Eve.
And how can we secure more and better grass? Well,
in these two ways at least: We in the first place can stop
the insane practice which prevails so widely of burning
off the forests and prairies every year, steadily impairing
in this manner the fertility of the soil and destroying the
seed and discouraging the growth of the better grasses,
besides wasting our wealth of timber resource. It is said.
that burning off the grass in the spring brings on earlier
pasturage,. that it kills the cattle tick, that it diminishes
the growth of black-jack oaks and worthless shrubs. The
arguments are, in my judgment, on the whole, fallacious,
though I cannot pause now to refute them. I am of the
opinion, which is confirmed by all the veterans whom I
have consulted, that grazing in Florida is vastly poorer
now than it was half a century ago, before the practice
of firing the woods and fields became common, and that
it will be vastly poorer still half a century hence unless
this practice can be controlled.
The time has come, I believe, when a systematic, vigor-
ous and untiring campaign of education, like that which
has so greatly and beneficially changed public opinion in
this State regarding the cattle tick during the last three
years, should be organized and prosecuted through the
public press, the public schools, the dissemination of
literature, the holding of public meetings, the Women's
Club, the county demonstration agents, the Department
of Agricultfire, the College of Agriculture, the Chambers
of Commerce, and whatever other agencies can be en-
listed, to enlighten our people regarding this vital matter.
The Legislature should create a Foresrty Commission to
pass reasonable but rigid laws concerning fire prevention
and control, and a State Forestry Association should be
organized for the purpose of furthering this interest.
The second way in which we can improve our grazing
is the systematic encouragement of such fine native
grasses as Bermuda grass, carpet grass, jointgrass, maiden
cane and beggarweed, and the introduction and propaga-
tion of improved species such as Para, Carib, Guinea,
Napier, Merkeri, Dallas, Kikuya and many others, some
of them of established and great feeding value, others of
good but as yet unfulfilled promise. I know, because I
have experienced it, how much time, toil and money this
calls for, how much easier it is to let the cattle graze and
starve on wire grass, switch grass, and saw palmetto
leaves. But what good thing was ever achieved except
by sweat and spent dollars? As I traverse this State and
look out through .he car windows across the illimitable
stretches of flatwoods, cut-over lands and glades, I dream
of the day when the unsightly stumps and the palmetto
and barberry bushes will be gone, when a rich and beauti-
ful and nutritious carpet of Bermuda and other good
grasses will stretch unbroken, except for interspersed
fields of forage as far as the eye can see, supporting vast
herds of pure-bred cattle and swine and flocks of sheep,
and growing ever richer the more it is cropped and trod-
den under foot. Nothing can prevent the fulfillment of
this pleasant dream but the ignorance and indolence of
When my grandfather and his courageous fellows left
Connecticut, a hundred and fifty years ago, and jour-
neyed in their creaking ox carts into central New York,
to build their homes and breed their kind in that un-
broken wilderness, did they expect to make an easy living
by grazing cattle in the maple and hemlock woods, brand-
ing their calves in the spring and marketing a few steers,
and perhaps getting "big money" by shipping a few
luxuries like celery and strawberries to tickle the palates
of prosperous people in towns a thousand miles away?
No. They felled the trees, dug out the difficult stumps,
plowed with slow oxen the stony fields, created the pas-
tures and the meadows by means of plow and harrow and
seed-sowing and unceasing toil, lived off the land, cared
for their cattle and swine and sheep as assiduously as for
their babes, and thus built a great and stable civilization
in that far and lonesome land. I know that times have
changed and am thankful to heaven that it is so, but until
our Florida farmers and stockmen show something of
this resolute and creative spirit, we shall not go far in
the footsteps of our fathers.
Quench the devastating fire in forest and field; plant
and nurture the good grasses-this is my third, and as I
believe, most important suggestion.
The program which the Executive Committee has pre-
pared is before you; I trust that our discussion will prove
in a high degree interesting and instructive and that our,
fellowship together may be pleasant to us all.
The world is hungry, a considerable part of it almost
or actually starving. Shall we not do what we can to
feed our famished and anguished brethren, and at the
same time to promote in our beloved State this industry
which is, after all, the foundation and guarantee of its
FIRST DAY-AFTERNOON SESSION.
HANDLING OF CATTLE ON THE RANGE.
By C. A. Carson, Jr., Kissimmee.
A large subject, inexhaustible if all the details are gone
into, and full of disputed points.
However, no one can make a success of any business
unless he knows the elements with which he has to deal.
In this case those elements are Florida cattle and Florida
ranges. A brief history of each will be helpful.
First, the ranges. It might be supposed that the ranges,
have remained the same, except for the fences which have
been built in recent years. But.this is by no means the
Old-timers say that cattle were better twenty and
twenty-five years ago than they are now, and better fifty
years ago than they were then. Of course, this is partly
due to inbreeding, which I will come to later on, but it
is also partly, you might say largely, due to deterioration
in the range and to methods of handling cattle on the
Lots of the old-timers say it is all due to fences. Their
reason for this statement being that twenty-five to fifty
years ago, when everything was open range and when a
fence was a curiosity, cattle were better than they are
now. In my opinion this is a mere coincidence. Fences
are not the cause; they merely serve to bring out the
deterioration which already exists in spots of the ranges.
The two main causes for this deterioration are found
in excessive burning and in drainage. This last I know
is contrary to popular belief, but it is a fact nevertheless.
Excessive burning. You may wonder at the word ex-
cessive. Why burn at all? Because the wire-grass which
covers a great deal of our higher land is worthless ex-
cept when freshly burnt. At no other time will cattle
eat it at all. When it is old and tough they will eat
palmetto before they will touch it. In fact, I have never
seen a bunch of' old, tough wire-grass that had been
bitten by a cow or any other animal. When it is freshly
burned, however, it comes quicker than any other grass,
and is rich in food value. Hence if you do not burn it
at all you are wasting this food for your cows. It should
be burnt early in the spring, usually in February. In this
way you get it when you most need it. It should never
be burnt later than March in the summer. Some people
believe in fall burning. Sometimes this may help you
through a bad winter, but it is dangerous, as frost may
come early and stop its growth, in which case you will
only have increased your loss. And any burning except
early in the spring injures the range for years to come.
Even in the spring, care should be taken not to burn the
same spot that was burned the year before. I try to
burn about an equal amount every year for three years,
thus always having a two-year-old rough.
If you burn it too often or at the wrong time of year,
you tend to kill the wire-grass and all other grasses.
Wire-grass can stand more burning than any other grass
This unseasonable burning and too frequent burning
has resulted in a harder range. It, however, can be con-
trolled in a pasture and it is remarkable how quickly the
grass will come back and how quickly the wire-grass
range can be restored to its original state.
Now then, drainage, as a detriment to the range. You
know they say a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
So is a little drainage from a cow-range standpoint.
Florida marshes are are our best spots of cow-range.
This is especially true if the marshes be covered with
water all the time-notice that all. In that case water
grasses grow, principal among them maiden-cane, which
has no equal in feeding value among our native grasses.
This grass grows luxuriantly during the spring and sum-
mer. If covered with water it also makes a good winter
pasture. If frost does come it can only kill the grass
back to the surface of the water, and it will put out again
its tender shoots the first warm days.
Now, if this marsh is drained, what happens?. The
maiden-cane dies, and with it all the nutritious water
grasses, and other grasses take their place. These other
grasses, notably among them blanket grass, are in no way
superior to maiden-cane for a spring and summer pasture,
and woefully inferior as a winter grass, when we need
Another and greater injury to the range is found in
the fact that, whereas the more rain we have on a maiden-
cane marsh, the better the grass. These other grasses are
not water grasses, and if, as it does after our usual fall
rains, water stands on it, it sours. In my opinion, sour
grass and ticks, working together, have been the cause
of ninety per cent of our losses in the last ten years.
When the grass sours, cattle either (if kept on it) eat
it or they don't. In either case they are made sick. The
only remedy is to move them to grass that isn't sour.
Older cattle have learned to hunt about and eat grass
that isn't sour or that is less sour, and while they will
draw up after heavy rains they usually recover. But
calves and yearlings eat the sour grass and are more
readily affected by it and are consequently its chief
There are some parts of the State where the grass does
not sour, and they are invariably the best winter pas-
tures, because our heavy fall rains in September, when
they sour the grass, give our cattle a very serious set-
back, from which they have not recovered when winter
hits them. If they are on a range on which the grass does
not sour, they go into the winter fat and sleek and come
This is the reason so many of us have both winter and
summer pastures. Look about and you will find that the
most successful Florida range cow-men have winter
ranges on which the grass does not sour.
Now, then, about the idea of some old-timers that
fences are to blame. When everything was open, cattle
learned where to go for the winter, and went. Fences
simply cut them off from their old winter ranges and hold
them on sour grass, unless somebody watches them mighty
close and moves them to their winter range when the
time comes. Hence the belief on the part of some that
cattle cannot be successfully raised in a pasture.
Now, then, the history of our cattle. Briefly, they have
been left to shift for themselves for years, for generation
after generation. They have developed the instincts and'
characteristics necessary to survival under these condi-
tions. They developed the rambling instinct to a very
marked degree. But they ramble usually with the sea-
sons. For the winter they go to their winter range; in
'the spring they go to their summer range, sometimes
thirty or forty miles apart.
It sounds very foolish to say it, but our cattle get
homesick. When the heavy rains, come in the fall, if
cattle are not pastured you can see them stringing out
for their winter quarters. If they are pastured they will
lie on the fence. In this case somebody had better get
busy or they will die badly.
They are very wild. Even yet, when we go to turn out
a bunch of cattle, after having marked their calves, we
have to hold them up and let the calf follow his mother
out of the bunch and go off with her. If we didn't do
this, lots of the cows would run off, leave their calves
and never come back to them, and the calves would die.
Our cattle have developed very strong constitutions.
They had to in order to survive. And, also, they have
largely lost their domestic instinct. They are very inde-
pendent, so much so that they instinctively refuse to eat
any feed except grass.
And on account of the stunting they have received for
generations from ticks, from sour grass and from in-
breeding, they are small, wiry, tough creatures. The
wonder is that they are as good as they are.
So much now for the history of the range and of the
cattle. Rapidly disappearing are the old open range and
the old scrub cow. Our land being privately owned, is
rapidly being fenced into large pastures. Our scrubs are
being bred out. Soon the open range with its hundreds
of thousands of scrawny scrub cattle will be but a
memory; soon the romance of the old round-up will be
forgotten by all save those who have followed the ox-
wagons on these long trips.
A new era is dawning. We are in the midst of a great
transition period. We are entering the era of big pas-
tures. We are entering the era in which men are lending
their best efforts to help and improve our cattle. No
longer are the cattle having to do it all. Men are trying
to help them, because they have to in order to pay taxes
and interests on land as well as cattle.
We are paying closer attention to the condition of our
ranges. Sour grass claims fewer victims every year. We
have less crowding of the ranges. We are going to get
rid of the tick in nearly all South Florida next year. He
can claim very few victims after 1919.
And we are trying to improve our cattle while we are
preventing losses. We are importing good bulls by the
thousands and cows by the carload. As for me, I believe
the proper way is to keep our native cows and breed
them to good bulls. It is surprising to see the results
obtained in this way.
I don't know a great deal about any of the breeds ex-
cept Angus. I know a little about the Devon; they are
good cattle. I know less about the Shorthorn and Here-
ford, but from my observation of other people's experi-
ences with them, I don't want to know much about them
here. In South Florida they won't do for range cattle.
They run down, go to pieces, and play out. But the
Angus-he is the boy for me. It is conservative to say
that at two years old the half-Angus will outweigh the
scrub 125 pounds on the average, ticks and all. What
will he do when we get rid of ticks?
And the Angus bulls will hold up on the range better
than the scrubs. I have bought and shipped in 78 Angus
bulls and have lost two in five years. And this winter I
have not fed a one a pound of anything, nor have I lost
one, nor have I found a one that needs feed.
Nearly all my neighbors and friends are improving
their cattle also. In fifteen years there ought to be as
much difference between our cattle then and now as there
is between black and white.
Fences are in themselves a big help to the cowman.
He can control his bulls, he can improve his cattle, he
can keep separate the various classes of his cattle. Breed-
ing cows in one pasture, yearlings in another, cows and
calves in another, heifers in another, beef cattle in an-
other. In this way he can control the age of his cows at
breeding, he can cut off his yearlings from their mothers
when he pleases, and he doesn't have to handle all his
cattle in order to get any class he desires. The less we
handle our cattle the better they do. So this is in itself
a big item.
We are all doing more or less experimenting with im-
proved grasses. So far, the Bermuda, Carib and Para
grasses give more promise than any of the others, but I
confess that I am not yet satisfied with the results of my
experiments nor of those of my friends. This is still ex-
perimental. Joint grass also shows some promise and is
in fact established in certain localities. However, I think
it best to go slow on planting grass extensively until
more experiments have been made, especially where we
have good native grasses.
As I said before, our native, strictly scrub cattle won't
eat until taught how. This makes the problem of supple-
mentary winter feed very difficult. My way of handling
this has been to move our cattle to a winter range, where
the grass does not sour and we have not needed any
winter feed. However, where it is needed the only prac-
ticable way to feed scrub cattle is to plant a crop that
they can harvest themselves. Japanese cane and velvet
beans planted together make the best crop I know of for
this purpose. They will eat this, whereas if you under-
take to feed them in troughs you have to starve them to
it, and lots of them will starve to death before they will
In this connection, it is an interesting fact that a half-
breed Angus calf will eat the first time he gets a chance.
I have seen this tried several times and never saw one
fail. His scrub mother will stand around and starve
while her calf eats in the same pen.
Good blood and feed go together. It is possible, and I
believe we can have good blood and good cattle without
the feed, but we cannot profitably feed without good
I want to take the liberty of making a prophecy and
of asking your co-operation in working towards its ful-
fillment. The greatest success and money for us is going
to be in raising and selling calves at eight and ten
months old. We can raise more and cheaper calves than
they can anywhere in the United States. We can raise
them so that they will weigh 300 to 400 pounds at nine
months old on the grass, on native grass.
The cotton farmers of North and West Florida, Geor-
gia, Alabama, Mississippi and the Carolinas are being
forced to diversify by the boll-weevil. They are planting
feedstuffs. They want the cattle' to fatten. Let's raise
good, high-grade Angus and other calves and sell to them
at eight to ten months old, let them finish them as baby
beef the following spring and both we and they make
They are ready for it. They want them. All we have
to do is to get rid of the quarantine and raise the calves.
We will make a quicker turnover, do away almost en-
tirely with our winter losses, and raise more calves from
the same number of cows.
We will have a range country for years to come. For
us to try to compete with Iowa and Illinois in feeding
cattle would be very presumptuous and very foolish. It
would be throwing away our advantages of open climate,
native and luxurious grasses, and entering into competi-
tion with the best feed-producing section of the world.
In our climate and year-around cheap pastures we have
no rival in the United States.
Let's make the most of our natural advantages.
DISCUSSION OF MR. CARSON'S ADDRESS.
J. L. Bartholomew, Galloway: "I believe in the pos-
sibility of fattening both cattle and hogs on Japanese
cane which contains 67 per cent of shelled corn. We can
raise 40 tons of Japanese cane per acre, equal in feeding
value to 400 bushels of corn. Nowhere in the North can
anyone make as much feed as we can on Japanese cane.
I have found it better to feed the cane whole than cut
into short lengths or shredded, either of which conditions
makes the cattle have sore mouths."
Hiram Platt, Melbourne: "'I agree with Mr. Carson
that the range country is not adapted to the cattle feed-
ing business, but we should sell our young stock to cattle
feeders in the grain-growing country."
F. N. Burt, DeLeon Springs: "I have had unfortunate
experiences feeding Japanese cane. Last year I had a
large silo filled with cane silage. The cattle were losing
flesh while eating large quantities of it, so I stopped
feeding and had 100 tons of the silage hauled out to the
fields and plowed under for fertilizer.
"This past season I was told the cane should be pas-
tured, and having 20 acres that was fenced off, weighed
in 56 head of cattle and let them clean up the field, taking
them out at the end of 28 days, just as they had about
finished gathering the succulent forage.
"They went right to work on the crop as soon as turned
through the gate, and looked like they were getting fat,
so I was somewhat encouraged to believe that was the
proper method, until I weighed them out of the field and
found the 56 cattle had sustained a loss of 600 pounds
Weight during the 28 days."
R. W. Dunlap reported that his experiences in feeding
Japanese cane had not been satisfactory.
R. W. Storrs, DeFuniak Springs: "I think that one of
the troubles some have had in feeding Japanese cane was
in not balancing the ration with protein concentrates,
such as peanut meal, velvet bean meal, cotton seed meal
or beggarweed hay. I consider the latter one of the most
valuable feeds produced in Florida, and have had very
satisfactory results feeding Japanese cane with some sup-
The discussion then turned to effects of burning the
ranges, some of the speakers contending that on certain
types of lands wild oats would come in and make good
pasturage if not killed out by fire, while other types of
lands might produce nutritious grasses among the wire-
grass, if not killed out.
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES:
PERSONAL EXPERIENCES AND EXPERIMENTS.
By J. L. Bartholomew.
I am greatly impressed with the possibilities of Napier
Grass. Have made several trips of eighty miles to see
this forage crop growing at various seasons of the year,
and know that it will produce from 50 to 60 tons of green
feed per year, while 35 tons per acre is a fair average.
It also will stand pasturing and rough treatment, al-
though Napier Grass should not be pastured too close.
Dry land is preferable to low muck land for growing the
crop. Being free from saccharine matter it is better for
silage than Japanese cane, and makes good feed for dairy
as well as beef cattle. One eye to the hill is plenty for
planting, but seed should always be put in with top end
of stalk" up, corresponding to natural growth.
By Irwin J. Brenner, Buyer for Armour & Company,
The increase in receipts of cattle have been 87 per cent
and of hogs 85 per cent over last year at the Jacksonville
market, which was surprising to the agencies buying live
stock. The quality has not improved very much, but
there has been improvement in some herds.
The cattle owners can make much larger profits by
grading up their stock, as it is imperative to use good
grade cattle to make money feeding them out for market.
We took a three-year-old first-cross Hereford steer out
of a shipment coming into the yards, and also took a
scrub steer to use in a 41-day feeding test. The grade
steer made a weight gain of 160 pounds, but the scrub
steer, having same attention and feed, gained only 20
pounds. You have a good foundation in your Florida
cows, but must mate them to pure-bred bulls to get the
best improvement in offspring.
The hogs are largely of the "soft" type, which makes
an inferior product for marketing. But the farmers are
learning that there is more profit in producing the kind
of hog that makes the best marketable product.
A PLEA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF STOCK FOODS
AND PRODUCTS IN FLORIDA.
By L. P. Dickie, Secretary Board of Trade, Tampa.
My idea of the Florida State Live Stock Association
was that it was a body composed of men who knew the
live stock industry as well as anyone in the State and
were brought together to exchange their own ideas. I
received a surprise in being asked by your president, Dr.
Blackman, to prepare a paper of five or six minutes'
duration concerning the amount of money spent in Flor-
ida for condensed milk, butter, cheese, hay and other
feedstuffs, and by giving this information make a plea
for the production of these products within our own
It was impossible for me to gather statistics of this kind
concerning the entire State, and I have taken what is
known as Tampa's territory as the nucleus for gathering
the information. What is claimed as Tampa's Trade Ter-
ritory embraces seventeen counties of the peninsular part
of Florida, with an aggregate population of 335,000 peo-
ple, or about one-third of the population of the State.
The figures secured are amazing in the tremendous ex-
penditures made for products which should be produced
by the user himself; and even with these figures, in all
probability at least ten percent-and probably fifteen per
cent-could be added, which would cover that business
passing through other jobbing centers than Tampa,, al-
though Tampa claims to get all of the business worth
while in this territory which she can handle.
There is a monthly consumption of more than ten
thousand cases of condensed milk and evaporated cream
in this territory, or a total of 120,000 cases per annum,
valued at approximately $500,000.
In butter fats there are used in Hillsborough county
alone 1,250,000 pounds annually, valued at $500,000, and
in the territory about 3,750,000 pounds, valued at ap-
As a jobbing center for hay, the Tampa jobbers have
experienced a very great shrinkage in the past two or
three years. It is estimated that the amount of hay dis-
tributed now is less by fifty per cent than it was three
years ago in the same territory. The sales now aggregate
$750,000 per annum.
From this statement it can be seen that in hay and
forage South Florida has made remarkable progress in
recent years, but even this amount should be materially
cat down, and every farmer and stockman should at
least produce all of the hay and forage, his butter fats
and meats, on his own farm ,and there should be some
left over for consumption by his neighbors. It would be
worth twice its value in dollars and cents than what you
figure as actually saved in counting the market price, for
not only would the grower be supplying his own stock
and his family needs, but would be supplying fertilizer,
enriching his soil, saving his money and having ready
cash. One has but to call to mind the tremendous pro-
gress made in the State of Wisconsin in a few short years,
when they were wondering what would be done with the
so-called "waste" cut-over timber lands. In a few years
they have brought about wonderful development, and
today the dairy farms produce $100,000,000 worth of
products annually on what was termed as worthless land.
It must be remembered, of course, that until the farmers
produce at least all of the roughage at home it would not
be a profitable business to market butter fat products in
competition with the northern products, which are
shipped in; but there is no reason why the Florida farmer
should not grow Bermuda, pea-vine, Natal, Para grass
and beggar-weed for his stock, and when properly cured
they are as good feeds as can be found. Every one knows
that concentrates or high protein feed must be supplied.
This at the present time is almost entirely shipped in, and
although that might not be eliminated entirely, they
could at least grow their own velvet beans and peanuts
and leave only cotton seed meal to be shipped in for
The farmers have not yet realized the great advantage
of the silo, for even though there has been a great in-
crease in the number of silos the past few years the in-
crease has not been what it should be; and for food value
and for keeping stock in good condition there is nothing
better than ensilage of Japanese cane, corn or beggar-
In this territory which I have taken for the nucleus,
there is shipped in and then consumed'a total of $3,250,000
worth of feed and food products which should be grown
and produced within the territory, and with the proper
foresight, education and enthusiasm the South Florida
territory all Florida, for that matter should pay
greater attention to the live stock and dairy production
Sand feeding problems, so that within a few years there
will be a milk can at the door each morning, from the
farmer to the city, and a cream check each month from
the city to the farmer, with innumerable creameries es-
tablished throughout the State, such as are seen through
the foothills of the Catskill Mountains in the great dairy-
By J. J. Logan, Jacksonville.
I have had twenty years' experience in Florida, and
the question of cheap production of live stock everywhere
is a question of pasturage. The greatest profit is made
from feeding grass. The big problem in Florida is to
find a nutritious winter grass, preferably one that will
Through the influence of this Association, properly
applied, I hope we can get the government to carry on
extensive experiments. It is too big a problem for indi-
vidual effort to solve for the varying types of Fjorida,
land. If our Agricultural Experiment Station would dis-
cover such a grass it would justify its existence forever.
Discussion by F. N. Burt: I have tried a number of
grasses on my farm in Volusia county, but have not found
any other as good as Bermuda for sandy lands. Natal
grass shows good results for quick growth, and I believe
that a combination of Natal and Bermuda will help solve
our problem for pasturage. The Natal will furnish most
of the pasturage "the first year, while the Bermuda is
making a good set, and then the Natal can be forgotten.
BETTER PAY FOR GOVERNMENT VETERIN-
By W. M. Traer, Editor, Farmer and Stockman,
The live stock industry must be protected from dis-
ease, so far as possible, and the government has been very
efficacious in handling this prevention work in a large
way. The educational requirements for veterinarians
seeking this field of endeavor include a college course,
supplemented by several years of specialized work.
While the salaries for this class of government men
never have been as large as they should have been, the
force was held together reasonably well. However, when
cost of living advanced by leaps and bounds, requiring
a larger income to meet the actual necessities of life, a
great many of the long-experienced veterinarians had to
get into better paying lines of endeavor, and the entire
foundation of nation wide supervision against animal'
contagious diseases is jeopardized by impossibility.of the
government to advance salaries until Congress authorizes
This is a matter of vital concern to the live stock in-
dustry in Florida. The prosecution of tick eradication
work has been retarded by the loss of several experienced
veterinarians, while hog cholera control work likewise
has suffered for lack of sufficient trained veterinarians.
I urge upon this Association the importance of endorsing
an increase in salaries for government veterinarians, and
then get behind our representatives in Congress and see
that they act favorably on this matter.
RAISING CATTLE IN TEXAS.
By J. C. Paul, Panhandle, Texas.
I have been spending a few weeks in Florida looking
into the cattle production business a little, and came to
this meeting to learn more about your methods. With
two sons as partners, we own a ranch up in the Pan-
handle of Texas. So far this winter we have had four
heavy snowstorms, totaling a depth of four feet, and at
the present time our land lies under several inches of
snow. We own some 1,500 breeding cattle and have to
feed them $65 per ton cotton seed cake to carry them
through until they can get grass. The drought in some
sections of Texas has continued for three years.
A year ago we began feeding our cattle on "cake" on
the first of November and had to continue them on feed
until June 1, 1918. This last winter we did not begin
feeding quite so early, and I hope we will be able to dis-
continue the heavy expense a month earlier than last
spring. But we have to figure on at least five months'
feeding in the winter.
One winter we lost 50 cows out of the herd of 1,000,
from having their feet frozen off. It gets tremendously
cold in our country at times.
I have been in the cattle business in Texas for thirty
years. We do not mature all our cattle, but send those
we do not keep for breeders out as yearlings or two-year-
olds. Our grass is low-growing, largely Buffalo grass.
In olden times we did not do any feeding in winter. That
was before the ranges were fenced up, and the stock
drifted into the sheltered places when the big snows
came, often having to paw the snow off the grass to get a
living. However, we have found out that winter feeding
pays to keep up the vitality of our stock. My belief is
that you cattle men in Florida are going to pay as much
attention to winter feeds as you now do to summer feeds.
There is too much loss in taking three months every
spring to get live stock back into condition they were at
beginning of winter.
I was very much impressed with Mr. Carson's experi-
ences. It is quite probable that I may decide to cast my
lot with the cattle men of Florida and bring over at least
a part of the Texas herd to see what can be done with
good cattle in this State.
The regular afternoon program having been completed,
J. J. Logan asked if any one could inform him why the
Jacksonville packing house buyers will not pay within
two cents per pound for same quality stock as offered on
Irwin J. Brenner said that the Food Administration
made the prices, allowing a differential east of Chicago
Mr. Logan then asked if the packing houses do not add;
the freight differential on packing house products pre-
pared in Jacksonville and sold in local territory, thereby
discriminating against both Florida producers and con-
Mr. Brenner admitted that might be true, but went
into detail on the poor quality of live stock offered the
Jacksonville packing houses. He said that the "soft"
hogs make such oily meat that there is not much left to
the hams but bone, and the sausage meat has to be mixed
with that from hogs killed at Chicago to keep the sausage
from driving out of the casings.
The meeting then adjourned until evening.
The women attending the convention were entertained
by the committee of Kissimmee women during the after-
noon. They started in automobiles from the Graystone
hotel at twd o'clock, and after riding over miles of good
roads returned to the Country Club at four, where tea
Other entertainment for all the members, including a
reception at the Chapter House on Tuesday night and a
dance at the Graystone hotel on Wednesday night, was
cancelled by officers of the Association in order to get
through the regular program of addresses. The evening
sessions were held in the Dixie theater.
FIRST DAY-EVENING SESSION.
By W. R. Goodwin, Managing Editor, The Breeders'
Every one of the speakers so far seems to have picked
out the subject of grass as their particular theme, al-
though talking to other subjects. This shows that the
question of grass is very important. Any man who raises
live stock should understand the full meaning of the text,
"All flesh is grass."
I have been very anxious to have Buffalo grass intro-
duced into at least some parts of Florida. There are
thousands of acres of land in Florida that God Almighty
never intended for a plow to touch.
I would like to have Luther Burbank or some one else
try hybridizing wire-grass with some other grass that will
give a good pasture grass. There is no telling what pos-
sibilities there are for developing a first-class range grass
out of one of the rankest growing but poorest quality
grasses, if it can be made more tender at maturity and
nutritious at all-stages of growth.
If Florida can get a good year-around grass it will
have the tail hold on the cattle production business over
all other States.
The fable of the frog in the well, which jumped up one
foot and slipped back two, makes a fair comparison of
progress that is being made in handling ticky cattle. You
manage to get them into pretty fair condition when the
grass is at its best in the summer, and then let the cattle
ticks suck out large quantities of their blood when the
range is poor, and by spring those cattle which have not
died are as poor as they were the preceding spring. Get
rid of the cattle fever ticks and stop this great waste of
"I Will" and "Do It Now" are two mottoes that have
been kept before the people of Chicago. Perhaps Florida
needs a little more tribulation to bring out the latent
powers of the people. Living is so easy down here that'
the people do not become as aggressive as they should be
against the evils which beset the live stock industry. We
must now go forward. Cattle do not graze very com-
fortably or profitably on snow. Neither do they graze
very comfortably when infested with cattle ticks.
You can quickly improve the quality of your cattle
and send your calves to northern feed lots for finishing.
You can also make prime beef in Florida. There are
hundreds of your farmers who should give more attention
to finishing cattle into prime beef, at a profit to them-
Florida offers great opportunities for live stock pro-
LIVE STOCK CONDITIONS IN EUROPE.
Impressions of an Agricultural Commissioner During
September and October, 1918.
By George M. Rommel, Chief, Animal Husbandry Divi-
sion, U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry.
There are five main points which I wish to emphasize
in order to give a categorical outline of the live stock
conditions in Europe as we found them:
I. How well have European farmers maintained their
In the United Kingdom there are about as many cattle
and horses on farms as before the war. The horse supply,
however, is relatively short on account of the increased
acreage of land-under cultivation as compared with that
before the war. Sheep have declined in Great Britain
since the war about 946,000 head, which is nearly 4 per
cent of the number before the war. We have no figures
for Ireland for 1918. The decline in sheep in Great
Britain is due to the shortage of labor competent to care
for them, to the high prices for fat ewes (as much as for
prime wethers of equal weight), and to the storm of
April 17, 1917. Pigs have declined in Great Britain
809,000, which is 33 per cent of the number on hand be-
foie the war. This decline is entirely due to the shortage
of concentrates. Pigs are not raised on grass in England
and the industry is more dependent on concentrates than
in the United States.
So far as sales and careful observations indicate, there
has been no decimation of breeding stock in the United
In France cattle fell off 2,000,000 head (from 14,000,000
to 12,000,000) in the first year of the war. Since the first
shock of the invasion in 1914 the decline in numbers has
been less than 2 per cent. There are today more young
cattle in France than before the war, and in some parts
of the country cattle have actually increased in numbers.
Horses on farms in France have declined about 1,000,000
head (from 3,250,000 to 2,250,000). This decline has to
a considerable extent been made good by the substitution
of oxen. Although we traveled a great many hundred
miles throughout France, I do not recall ever having seen
cows being used for work purposes.
Sheep have suffered most of all in France, declining
from 16,00,00 in 1913 to 10,500,000 in 1917, by the latest
report. The invasion, the shortage of labor competent to
handle them, and the extremely high prices are respon-
sible. The sheep situation seems to be giving every one
a great deal of concern.
Pigs in France have declined from 7,000,00 to 4,000,000
on account of the scarcity of concentrates, but no one is
worrying in the least. They feel confident that the in-
dustry wil soon re-establish itself as soon as conditions
Conditions in other countries are not so clear. Dr.
Pearson reports that the cattle situation in Italy is much
the same as in France, but that sheep have not declined
so much. Belgium is probably almost or quite cleaned
out of everything. German farmers, judging from the
report of supplies of human food, have kept their breed-
ing stock intact. They have probably been keeping their
attention on the main chance and have conserved their
breeding stock with a view to participating in the trade
in breeding animals in Europe after the war. Horses
have probably declined in Germany and Austria-Hungary
as much as in France, judging from statements from
soldiers in the Allied Army concerning horses in the Ger-
man army during the last month of' the war.
It is probably true that the sections of Europe which
have suffered the only serious decimation of breeding
herds are those which have actually been devastated by
the war. Herds in those sections which have escaped
such devastation have been kept at normal size or better
in order that their owners can furnish animals to restock
the war-swept farms, even though they have had to incur
unduly heavy expenses to accomplish this purpose.
II. What are the greatest live stock problems of the
1. To get through the winter on reduced feed sup-
plies. England never went into a winter season with
such a small quantity of cottonseed cake on hand as tlis
year; and other feeds, such as milling offals, are also
short. While the armistice has materially relieved the
situation, there is still too little feed available. Large
numbers of beef cattle were being marketed in both
England and France last October which would ordinarily
have been held over, and a shortage of native beef was
regarded as certain after January 1.
The shortage of concentrates affects dairy cows, work
horses ,young animals and breeding stock particularly,
and in the rationing which was found necessary in Eng-
land preference Vas given these classes in the order in-
dicated. The mIilk supply has been seriously cut on
account of the shortage of concentrates, particularly in
France. Hay is short, and in England there was last
year a reduced acreage of roots and a poor crop.
2. To bridge over the shortage of native beef during
the winter and spring without sacrificing any young
stock fit for breeding purposes. This is especially im-
portant in France, where the people have not to .any
great extent been accustomed to the use of refrigerated
beef. A hopeful fact is the great use of this food product
among the French army, which will probably make it
more easy to induce civilians to use refrigerated beef.
3. To repair the losses in normal numbers of animals
as far as possible with stocks already on hand. This is
a corollary of the preceding problem and interlocks
III. Wht is America's share in these problems?
1. To supply meat and dairy products in sufficient
quantities to enable European farmers to keep alive every
animal needed for breeding purposes. The more that
America can furnish these food products the more readily
and the sooner will Europe be able to restock the de-
2. To furnish horses both for agricultural purposes
and city use. The difference in prices of horses between
Europe and America is very great. The prices in Europe
are from two to four times what they are in America.
The trade in horses will probably develop as soon as it
is known how many horses will be demobilized from the
armies, as soon as shipping facilities will permit the
transportation of horses across the ocean, and as soon as
there are sufficient feed supplies in Europe to support a
larger number of animals than they now have.
3. If America had sheep to spare we would be called
upon to furnish them. *
4. America may be called upon to furnish dairy cows
to restock in Europe, but this is a matter that will have
to be determined in the future.
IV. Except horses, the export of live animals from
the United States is doubtful, for the following reasons:
1. Farmers prefer to buy stock which is near by,
accessible, of known characteristics and acclimated.
2. European breeders have conserved their herds for
the purpose of meeting this demand and will naturally
be better able to compete for it than farmers across the
3. The risk of loss in shipping and on account of
acclimation will naturally be heavy on animals trans-
4. The expense of shipment will be very heavy and
there should be a considerable margin between the cost
of animals in the United States and their value in Europe
in order to render such a risk worth taking.
V. If, after the above considerations are duly tried
out and the means indicated above drawn upon to the
fullest possible extent, Europe is still found to be short
of the necessary animals, the United States will be drawn
upon. Until that time our best efforts should be put
forth to supply animal products in the most concentrated
form, namely, meat and dairy products.
LIVE STOCK IN THE UNITED KINGDOM-MEAT ANIMALS.
UNITED KINGDOM- 1909 1914 1917 1918 -
Cows and heifers................................... 4,360,982 4,595,128 4,514,803 *........
All cattle ......................................... 11,761,830 12,184,505 12,382,236 *.......
Sheep ............................................ 31,839,799 27,963,977 27,867,244 *........
Pigs ........................................ ... 3,543,331 3,952,615 3,007,916 *........
SCOTLAND- 1909 1914 1917 1918
Cows and heifers .................................... 436,110 453,703 441,802 "451,949
All cattle ...................................... 1,176,165 1,214,974 1,209,859 1,208,696
Sheep ................. .... ................... .. 7,328,265 7,025,820 6,873,234 6,863,168
Pigs ............................................. 129,819 152,768 132,945 127,615
IRELAND- 1909 1914 1917 1918
Cows and heifers................................... 1,566,806 1,657,205 1,608,207 *........
All cattle ......................................... 4,740,848 5,091,587 4,945,229 ........
Sheep ............................................. 4,221,380 3,678,463 3,824,153 *........
Pigs ............................................... 1,162,444 1,318,366 b56,430 ........
ENGLAND AND WALES- 1909 1914 1917 1918
Cows and heifers................................... 2,359,066 2,484,220 2,464,794 2,577,970
All cattle .......................................... 5,844,817 5,877,944 6,227,148 6,200,490
Sheep ............................................. 20,290,154 17,259,694 17,169,857 16,475,180
Pigs .............................................. 2,251,068 2,481,481 1,918,541 1,697,070
HORSES ON FARMS- 1909 1914 1917 1918
United Kingdom.................................... 2,091,743 2,237,783 2,190,318 .......
Scotland .......................................... 204,490 209,360 210,048 209,883
Ireland ............................................. 528,806 619,028 597,692 *........
England and Wales.............................. 1,348,503 1,399,547 1,372,822 1,375,830
Figures for Ireland not available,
THE CONDITION OF FRENCH HERDS DURING THE WAR (Numbers).
1913 1914 1915 1916 1917
CATTLE- Dec. 31 Dec. 31 June 30 June 30 June 30
Bulls ............................... 284,190 231,653 211,343 221,300 214,764
Steers .............................. 1,843,160 1,394,384 1,262,315 1,321,887 1,295,120
Cows .............................. 7,794,270 6,663,355 6,346,496 6,337,799 6,238,690
"Breeders" (over 1 -year)............ 2,853,650 2,549,417 2,581,870 2,678,837 2,677,870
"Breeders" (under 1 year)........... 2,012,440 1,829,434 1,884,825 2,032,102 2,016,860
Total cattle ................. 14,787,710 12,668,243 12,286,849 12,723,946 12,443,304
Rams (over 1 year)................. 293,640 258,447 239,832 209,760 188,204
Ewes (over 1 year).................. 9,288,460 8,390,863 8,033,886 7,143,685 6,463,720
Wethers (over 1 year)............... 2,580,810 1,881,295 1,572,236 1,188,250 1,139,320
Lambs ............................. 3,968,480 3,507,756 3,637,235 2,654,630 2,795,350
Total sheep .............. 16,131,390 14,038,361 13,483,189 11,296,325 10,586,594
Boars ............................... 38,560 36,179 31,501 27,631 26,090
Sows ............................... 906,790 802,858 785,989 660,631 628,040
Pigs (for fattening)................. 2,800,760 2,226,456 1,632,252 1,317,432 1,300,840
Pigs (under 6 months) .............. 3,289,740 2,859,994 3,041,054 2,442,404 2,245,310
Total pigs ................... 7,035,850 5,925,487 5,490,796 4,448,098 4,200,280
HORSES ...................... 3,231,000 -2,105,000 *2,156,000 *2,246,000 2,283,000
* For December 31.
Following delivery of address, Mr. Rommel showed
sixty stereopticon views of live stock and agricultural
conditions in England and France, as seen by the visit-
ing commissioners. Some of the slides were used for the
first time in America, at this meeting.
SECOND DAY-MORNING SESSION.
SHEEP AND GOAT RAISING IN FLORIDA.
By W. J. Clarke, Tallahassee, Former Editor Shepherd's
No doubt most of you know as well as I that there are
in this vast Southland millions of acres of wild pastures
that are today bringing practically no revenue to their
owners, and, therefore, are not conferring those blessings
on mankind which the Great Creator intended that they
I unhesitatingly say that from the common "piney-
woods" ewes of Florida can be evolved, or bred up, with
the use of pure-bred rams, a class of sheep that will not
only merit the attention of our best markets, but will be
a very great surprise to those who have not thoroughly
studied the South from a sheep breeder's standpoint, I
have seen common "piney-woods" ewes in the South that
are truly wonderful if only for their deep-milking quali-
ties, which is one of the prime essentials where the rais-
ing of high-class lambs is considered. No matter if a
lamb is sired by the best bred ram in the world, without
a good mother it can never amount to much. But, then,
these ewes have other good qualities, among them being
their great power of endurance under natural and some-
times highly unfavorable conditions. Crossed with the
proper kind of ram, such ewes will make- history for the
South and the United States.
You no doubt know there is one great reason for the
South being practically sheepless, and that is the menace
of the prowling cur dog. This menace must be removed.
It may be that this evil may be somewhat mitigated by
inviting the co-operation of dog-owners, by asking them
to be neighborly to the extent of seeing that their dogs
are kept under such control as will prevent their destroy-
ing their neighbor's sheep. Then, again, it may be that
we must have legislation that will, protect the flock-
master's property from this truly serious menace.
With the prowling cur under control, the hills, plains
and valleys of this vast Southland will soon be dotted
with thousands of flocks of sheep, but without this great
menace in control many of our wild lands will remain
wild, and those fine pastures that would support millions
of sheep, which would produce tens of millions of dollars'
worth of wool and mutton, will remain unutilized and a
glaring and lasting monument to man's neglect.
Not only is the prowling cur a menace to the sheep-
man, but to the hog raiser, and even to the human family.
The Florida legislator who brings into existence a just
law that will protect sheepmen and dogmen alike will be
a benefactor to his State.
I have recently traveled extensively among the sheep-
men, have-been sheepmen,* and would-be sheepmen of.
Georgia, 'nd just over the borders of North Carolina. I
found that Kentucky buyers were scouring northern
Georgia and southern North Carolina for ewes, for which
they were paying as high as ten dollars per head. If
they are worth that much to Kentuckians they are worth
that much to the farmers of Florida.
I don't believe that the prices of wool or" mutton will
go down very much until the devastated areas of Europe
have been reclaimed and restocked. The wool specu-
lators, naturally, make a good deal of capital out of 'the
fact that the United States government controls or did
control something like 300,000,000 pounds of wool. To
the layman that seems a vast amount of wool, but in
reality that is little more than a pair of socks each for our
one hundred and ten millions of people. You must not
take for granted everything that the wool speculators
That the war has greatly reduced the sheep stocks of
Europe there can be no question. Professor Rommel told
us in his interesting lecture last night that the flocks of
France have decreased from sixteen million to ten and
one-half million. In Turkey, sheep and goats have 'been
destroyed by the million. Serbia's flocks have no doubt
been practically wiped out by the most criminal invader
cf all times. Under the pressure of war the flocks of
Russia, the greatest of all European sheep-raising coun-
tries, have been greatly reduced. Australia and Argen-
tina are enlarging their flocks but very little, for, as with
our western ranges, the ranges of those countries are be-
ing cut up into farms and fenced. Before the war Eng-
land's wool clip was 130,000,000 pounds; today it is put
at less than 103,000,000 pounds. Great Britain, a country
no larger than the State of .Michigan, has a sheep popu-
lation of nearly 29,000,000 head. Just think of it! This
great United States hasn't twice as many sheep as those
little islands which compose Great Britain. Do you know
that the United States raises but one ounce of wool per
acre as against one and three-fourths ounces for South
America, five and one-third ounces for Europe, and five
and one-half ounces for Australia? Do you know that
the armies on the European battlefields consumed over
two billion pounds of wool annually, leaving only eight
hundred million pounds for the use of the civilian popu-
In 1900 Florida had 124,120 head of sheep; today she
has but 119,000. 'But let me tell you, if I had my way
with her sheep industry, Florida inside of two years
would have at least a million sheep cropping her wild
Sad as it is to report, it is not only our southern states
that show a marked decrease in their flocks, but our great
sheep-breeding states of the West-such states as Texas
and Wyoming, for instance. The former-mentioned State
had, in 1883, no less than 8,000,000 head of sheep; today
she has scarcely half that number. Even Wyoming, which
has the proud distinction of being the first sheep-raising
state of the Union, has only about 4,338,000 head, while
in 1900 she had 5,099,613 head. Is it any wonder that
sheep and wool are selling at such high prices?
Going into the sheep business in Florida, or any other
section of the south suitable for sheep-raising, can
scarcely be called a speculation, because the sheep she
ha sdo well. The' common sheep of the country, inbred,
nondescript, uncared for as they are, roaming the wild
"piney woods" winter and summer, with no such a. thing
as supplementary feeding, are ample and convincing
proof that good sheep can be raised in the South. The
fact that Florida has already over one hundred thousand
head of sheep, small number as that really is, is incentive
enough for her to have a million, or even double that
The few flocks of improved breeds of sheep that I have
seen south seem to be doing well, in fact as well as any
that I have seen north ,and some of them much better
than some of those I have seen north. Where they are
taken care of, they show that care, and where they are
neglected, they show that neglect in greater contrast.
I cannot think other than that what sheep have done
for the agriculturists of England they can do for the
agriculturists of Florida and other southern states, since
such crops as rape, cabbage, kale, turnips, vetches, rye,
and many other such suitable auxiliaries for fall and
winter feeding flourish as they do here, not to mention
the cowpea and velvet bean, which are so generous to our
soils. Let us not forget that the first mentioned group of
crops are the mainstay, and even were the foundation of
the sheep-breeding industry of Great Britain ,the country
with the densest sheep population in the world and the
home of something like forty-two distinct breeds of
sheep, each being especially adapted for certain locali-
ties of that country. Many poor farms in England, farms
that were not so long ago nothing more than waste lands,
have been civilized and made extremely fertile by the
system of feeding sheep known as "folding." "Folding"
means hurdling, or penning the sheep with wire fence
and even old used fish netting on such' crops as I have
mentioned, and feeding them a small, quantity of linseed
cake, cottonseed cake or grain, as a supplementary fat-
tening ration. The sheep are penned on patches of such
crops of an extent which they can clean up in a day or
so when they are moved on to new patches. By this
system of folding, little feed is hurt and a tremendous
amount of fertility is added to the soil.
Some of you, my friends, may say that it will not pay
you to keep sheep on high-priced improved farms, as they
are nothing but scavengers and fit only for clearing wild
lands. True, they are in a measure scavengers and splen-
didly adapted for subduing wild lands, but I must an-
swer you by saying that if sheep can be raised profitably
in England on land costing from $500 to $2,000 per acre,
we can raise them profitably on oui very highest priced
lands. England is at present the richest agricultural
nation of its size in the world, and sheep have made her
so. What is trueof sheep in England is true in a measure
of our eastern states. Ohio is one of the richest farming
States in the Union, and to her system of sheep farming
is due, in a large measure, her wonderful high state of
fertility. As sheep have enriched the State of Ohio, so
will they enrich the State of Florida if given an oppor-
tunity to do so.
It may not be generally known to the agriculturists of
Florida 'that sheep manure is by far the most valuable
of all manures given by our domestic animals, with the
one exception, perhaps, of that from poultry. It rates,
per ton value, at $4.74, as against $3.30 for horse manure,
$2.74 for cow manure, and $2.52 for hog manure. If our
cotton planters and tobacco growers only realized the
benefits of sheep to the soil they would soon be turning
their attention to that very important branch of agricul-
ture-sheep raising. With sheep and wool at their pres-
ent prices, not only would they make a handsome profit
directly on their investment in the sheep, but would soon
have their farms in such a high state of cultivation and
fertility that they would wonder why they had not dis-
covered the value of sheep long ,before.
The editor of the American Sheep Breeder, of Chicago,
once said about the farmers of the South: "The southern
farmer is poverty poor and mortgaged to the dealer in
commercial fertilizer. Soon it will take one billion dol-
lars annually to fertilize American farms. Give the South
thirty million sheep, which she can easily take care of,
and the fertilizer question will be solved."
The cool nights of summer, and the unlimited supply
of pure, fresh water which her springs and rivulets afford
are .among the many features in favor of sheep-raising
that Florida can boast of. Our Northern brethren seem
to cherish the mistaken idea that the summers of Florida
are extremely hot, but I can assure them that I have never
felt the heat so badly here in Northern Florida as I have
in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and many other
northern and eastern states.
As I have intimated before, the one great drawback to
entering the sheep business at'the present moment is the
scarcity of ewes and their consequent high price. But
that should be no very serious hindrance. Sheepmen last
year bought ewes at very high prices, "but still they made
good money on the investments. A friend of mine, last
year, purchased two hundred head of western ewes,
which he bred to good, pure-bred rams. He sold the
lambs at $17 per hundred pounds, live weight, and the
ewes at $10 per hundred pounds. He made $2,500 on his
investment. He has bought another band of ewes at $13
per hundred pounds, and I will venture that he will do
even better this year than last year.
Riding mile after mile, day after day, through the vast
expanse of idle "piney woods" lands of Florida, and to
come upon a small flock of very common but well-condi-
tioned ewes with unusually fat lambs trailing at their
heels, ewes which have had no care from their owners
and no fare other than that which these same "piney
woods" afford them, spring and fall, winter and summer,
causes me to wonder if we are not guilty of criminal
neglect. We may rest assured that He did not give us
these vast expanses of well-watered lands simply as a
feast for our eyes. It is not for me to tell my readers
just how many sheep and how many pounds of wool
could be raised on our neglected lands, but it is safe to
say that they would go a very long way in helping to
meet the great wool shortage and to feed and clothe the
millions of half-clad men, women and children of Europe.
It is not only food conservation that demands our imme-
diate attention, but food production as well. It is not
only our duty at the present time to make two blades of
grass grow where one blade has grown before, but it
would be very commendable for us to grow one blade of
(rass where none has grown before.
In considering the question of breeding pure-bred sheep
in Florida, I Would say that there are many breeds to
choose from, as we have among the prominent fine wool
breeds the Merino, a Spanish breed, much improved by
American breeders; the Rambouillet, a French breed, and
the Delaine, an American production. Among the Mid-
dlewool mutton breeds we have the Hampshire, the Ox-
ford, the Shropshire, the Southdown, the Dorset, the
Cheviot, etc., and among the Longwools the Lincoln, the
Leicester, the Cotswold, the Romney, etc., all having more
or less merit and special recommendations.
I believe the Romney is destined, if tried, to make his-
tory in Florida, especially on the low wet lands.
Not long ago sheep breeding was classed under three
heads: breeding almost exclusively for wool, breeding
almost exclusively for mutton, and breeding almost exclu-
sively for early lambs. Today such a classification hardly
holds good, since champions of the mutton breeds are
giving their attention to breeding animals that will give
as much' wool as possible on a mutton carcass. At one
time wool seemed to be of little importance to the cham-
pions of the mutton breeds; at least, they gave it but'
meagre secondary consideration. Today it is the aim of
most sheep breeders to produce as much wool and mutton
as possible from the same animal. By judicious crossing
and grading up the common stock of many states has been
brought up to a very respectable standard. While the
mutton breeds have been largely used for'promoting size
and mutton qualities to the common stock of the country,
the different families of the Merinos have been largely
used with the view of improving and holding the heavy
shearing and good herding qualities of the fine-wool
-breeds. For some reason the mutton breeds do not seem to
herd as well as the fine-wools. That is, they do not keep so
closely together in bands as do the Merinos, thus making
it harder for the herder to round them up, especially
when "bedding" time comes at night. But, of course,
this is of little moment where the sheep ranges are under
If wool were the chief consideration for which I kept
my flock I would use rams of the fine-wool breeds; if for
mutton, then rams of one of the mutton breeds. I have
a very good opinion of the Romney for this country, as
he seems to do well in similar climates to ours. My aim
would be to have a rape patch so that I could put my
lambs on it about the end of November or early in De-
cember, feed them a little grain in connection with the
'rape, and market them as early in the spring as possible,
when lambs are scarce, and, consequently, selling at top
figures. I would make it a point to keep all my ewe
lambs and breed them to another ram of the same breed
they were sired by, but not the same ram, as this would
'be inbreeding, and inbreeding by unskilled-hands leads
to degeneracy of the flock instead of what we are looking
All lambs should' be docked and emasculated at an
early age. I have always made it a rule to perform these
operations when my lambs were from a week to two
weeks old. If performed at this age the operations are
not nearly so severe for the lambs as when they have
attained more age. Long tails are a means of accumu-
lating filth which attracts the blowfly, causing maggots,
which sometimes destroy the lamb unless it be relieved
soon after the maggots come to life. Uneastrated or
buckyy". lambs are always discounted on the market;
moreover, they do not feed nearly as well as castrated or
Sheep should be shorn as soon as danger of cold
weather is past. In the day of the old hand shears, shear-
ing was quite a task, and only those who took keen in-
terest in this work could make a good job of it. In this
day of 'the shearing machine, shearing is pleasure rather
than drudgery, as it does not take one of ordinary in-
telligence long to become an expert with the machine.
We have here in Florida a wide field for diversified
sheep farming and it is not wholly necessary for us to
adopt western methods of management, nor middle-
western, nor eastern methods. Our methods should par-
.take of all, or mixed methods. Our extensive wild lands
would permit of our running sheep in large flocks after
the range system of the West, while our farmers can run
small flocks after the farmers in the middle-western and
Coming to the question of early lamb raising, I cannot
but think that Florida is destined some day to figure very
prominently in this important branch of our sheep int
dustry.' Her mild winter climate, her adaptability, for
the raising of such winter crops as sheep thrive so well
on, and the disposition of our common ewes to accept the
overtures of the ram at almost any season of the year,
are a few of the many factors that make me think as I
do. Early lamb raising in Kentucky, Tennessee and Vir-
ginia is very popular and a great deal of money has been
made, and is still being made, by the sheep raisers of
those states from this branch of sheep husbandry, and
even in New York State, where the winters are long and
severe, and expensive housing has to be reckoned with,
early lamb raising has proved very profitable. I cannot
imagine that there can be a more favorable spot in Amer-
ica for this branch of the sheep business than we have
here in Florida.
Sheep, as a rule; even in the colder regions of the North,
do not require such expensive shelters as do most other
classes of live stock, and in our genial climate they would
do very well without any shelter other than that provided
by nature. In England, sheep are provided with no
shelter except 'during the lambing season ,which com-
mences and ends during the most trying period of the
winter season, and even then the shelters are of the most
primitive and insignificant kind, consisting as they do of
a few simple hurdles, made similar to rough gates, formed
ihto small pens, with a little straw thrown over the top
hurdle, which acts as a roof or covering. And we must
remember that the winter climate of Florida is far and
away more moderate than that of any section of the
While there is considerable skill required in the man-
agement of a pure-bred, pedigreed flock of sheep, any
farmer who can profitably manage an ordinary herd of
cattle or hogs can most surely make a success in the man-
agement of a flock of sheep-that is, in raising ordinary
sheep for their meat and wool.
Up to a short time ago Florida farmers had very little
to encourage them towards live stock raising. They
really had no desirable market for what they produced,
and in consequence they had no encouragement, or in-
centive, to produce but very little more live stock than
they needed for domestic use. But today this is all
changed. At Jacksonville and other points packing
houses have been established that are capable of taking
care of all the live stock that Florida can produce under
the most intensive methods of live stock production, and
good prices are assured for her productions.
While I am extremely anxious that Florida shall take
a prominent position as a sheep-raising State, I would
not advise our cattle raisers and hog raisers to close out
their entire holdings of cattle and hogs to make way for
sheep. I would, however, like to see every cattleman and
hog-raiser try a small flock of sheep, as I am sure they
would find that they would give them returns that they
little dream of. Money can be made from 15-cent wool
and 12-cent lamb in Florida.
If the people of Florida will .only take advantage of
the present opportunity for developing the dormant agri-
cultural resources of their State I can assure them that
it will be but a very short time before Florida will rank
among the foremost high-class live sto6k breeding states
of the Union. I wish it were within my power to incite
our people to bestir themselves at this very moment when
the live stock breeders of the West are so anxiously seek-
ing new fields for their enterprise. If we dlo not do some-
thing soon in trying-to get our western brethren inter-
ested in our State we are surely going to regret our indo-
lence. Free range in the West is practically a thing of
the past. The homesteader and small farmer are taking
possession of such lands as are suitable for general farm-
ing, and all the large areas unsuitable for general farm-
ing, but making good sheep range, will be under fence in
the very near future. The 640-acre Homestead Law is
going to curtail the operations of the big western sheep-.
men, and they are already seeking other locations where
they can carry on their business. Florida should wel-
come such men of great enterprises. She must have them
if she desires to keep pace with the growth of other states
4hat are rising to the opportunities that now present
I must close by saying that Florida is undoubtedly as
well adapted for goat raising as for sheep raising. The
common goats of the country are very large and robust,
and the Angoras I have seen here seem to be doing won-
derfully well. There is no question about the milch goat
not thriving here, but let it be remembered that while it
'has its mission in Florida it is not to supplement the
DISCUSSION ON MR. CLARKE'S ADDRESS.
S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh: I used to count on one and
one-half lambs average per ewe in Kentucky. Have
averaged about one lamb per ewe in Florida.
The dogs have been blamed for killing sheep, but I
have lost more lambs to buzzards than to dogs. The
sheep sometimes get ear-ticks in their ears, but that con-
dition is not serious. Razor-back hogs kill large numbers
of lambs on the range. Angora goats do well, but on
account of sand-spurs getting into the mohair, it is poor
Seth Woodruff, Orlando: I have only a small flock of
15 to 20 ewes to raise some lambs for my own consump-
tion. The average last year was one lamb per ewe.
W. F. Ward, Kicco: Out of about 2,000 sheep we
bought recently from Mr. Carson there were 50 which
have foot-rot to some extent, but it is not serious, and
the sheep seem to be getting well without any attention.
The question of fecundity has been raised, and the report
from Mr. Goodno at Labelle shows that there has been
no loss in his pure-bred sheep stock in three years.
C. A. Carson, Jr.: R station of pastures every few weeks
reduces trouble from stomach worms, getting the sheep
back tJ first pasture about once in three months. There
is more.money in sheep than in cattle. In several years'
experience handling sheep on the range I have not had
any cases of grub in the head.
R. W. Storrs: The sheep business has been profitable
in Walton and Holmes counties, where large flocks of
sheep run on the open ranges, the owners seldom seeing
their flocks except at shearing time.
WORK OF THE VARIOUS CO-OPERATIVE
STATE LIVE STOCK. SANITARY BOARD.
By R, W. Storrs, DeFuniak Springs.
When the bill creating this Board was pending in the
Legislature, it was more or less facetiously termed the
"tick bill," because the then general impression obtained
that the sole purpose of the measure was to create a
Board to eradicate the cattle tick. Such a measure lacked
much of being popular, as was evidenced by the fact, that
the bill passed the House with only one vote to spare.
- The change in sentiment in that matter is shown by the
fact that of the counties which have voted on this'matter,
only four have returned a negative decision, and. it re-
quired considerable effort to keep the recent special ses-
sion from passing a state-wide tick-eradication law be-
fore it was known just what form of law would get the
This, however, is but one phase of the work of the
Board. Not the least important by any means, but only
one. Another important matter is the control of hog
cholera, and as to results attained I am glad to say that
we have less hog cholera in the State now than there has
'been for years. Our report on this condition would even
be better had it not been so difficult to secure competent
veterinarians for this work. The demands of the govern-
ment for men in this line of work has taken many of our
best men ahd made it difficult to get others to fill their
The control of bovine tuberculosis attracted little or
no attention at the tine this Board was created, but now
we find it one of the most important tasks we have to do,
particularly so in the diary sections of the State.
In all these departments we have been co-operating
with the Federal forces assigned to work in this State,
and it is a real pleasure to say that in this there has been
real co-operation in the broadest sense of the word,
We are fortunate in having such men as Dr. E. M.
Nighbert, Federal Inspector in charge of tick eradica-
tion; Dr. L. E. Lyons, in charge of hog cholera control
on the regulatory side of the work, and Dr. J. G. Fish,
in charge of tuberculosis work. I may say here that the
hog cholera control work' is divided between regulatory
and educational work, Dr. A. H. Logan being in charge
of the latter. Counting the county agents who are co-
operating in this branch, there are 65 men engaged, who
are doing splendid work. In tick eradication there are
85, counting Federal, State and county inspectors. There
are eight men engaged in the tuberculosis work.
FLORIDA CATTLE TICK ERADICATION
By A. A. Coult, Educational Director, Jacksonville.
This committee was organized some thirty months ago
for the purpose of crystalizing sentiment of the people
in favor of something that would greatly benefit them
and the State at large.
The leaders in business affairs in Florida recognized
the necessity for laying a foundation for developing the
beef and dairy cattle industries, by eradication of the
cattle-fever ticks as the fundamental necessity.
One of the first efforts was to get sentiment aroused to
the importance of having a State Board, authorized to
administer live stock sanitation laws, rules and regula-
tions. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board was created
by Act of the Legislature in June, 1917.
With an authoritative State agency, the Federal gov-
ernment had an organization with which to co-operate in
handling live stock sanitation matters. You have heard
the report of Mr. Storrs as to what the Board has accom-
plished during the short time it has been in existence.
The work of the Florida Cattle Tick Eradication Com-
mittee is purely educational. We do not finance vat
construction or have any part in the supervisory work in
the field. We have actively co-operated with the news-
paper editors throughout the State who have recognized
the importance of getting their respective counties freed
of cattle ticks and released from tick-fever quarantine,
by supplying articles of an educational character to help
mould public opinion in favor of wanting the cattle ticks
Elections called to vote on the proposition of compul-,
sory dipping of cattle, which is necessary under the local
option clause of our law, were held in 29 counties last
year, and 25 counties returned verdicts in favor of the
proposition, most of them by overwhelming majorities.
Appropriations by county commissioners for the purpose
of building cattle dipping vats and co-operating in pre-
liminary organization work have been made in all the
Florida counties with exception of Jefferson.
The educational work has stimulated interest in this
movement and contributed to the rapid progress which is
being made toward eradication of the cattle-fever ticks,
according to the government officials who have had years
of experience in tick-eradication work.
STATE EXPERIMENT STATION.
By Director P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville.
The interest in agriculture is growing. rapidly, if at-
tendance at our short course this week is a proper cri-
terion. I left 75 men and women taking the course.
We carry on three lines of work, which should not be
confused. The Agricultural College has six men devot-
ing all of their time to teaching subjects of particular
interest to farming. The Experiment Station had twelve
men before the war, but our forces have been somewhat
depleted to help whip the Huns. We hope to soon have
a full quota at work again. There are numerous prob-
lems which need further investigation. We have intro-
duced more than 1,500 varieties pf forage and grass plants
to try them out on our soil and under our climatic con-
ditions. There is need of more experimenting, especially
with grasses. The ratio of success with introduced
varieties is about one out of 100. A number of years ago
we received five varieties of velvet beans, but the China
was the only one that grew. Out of that has been de-
veloped the great velvet bean crop produced annually
The live stock breeders are always consulted before any
experiments in feeding or breeding are undertaken. The
Florida native cow has qualities which make her a good
basis to build up on if pure-bred beef type bulls are used
It is now generally accepted that velvet beans are not
a desirable ration for pregnant sows, but seem to be satis-
factory for fattening hogs. Some further experiments
will be made along this line.
Our third division of work is the Extension force, num-
bering 50 men and 50 women, located in counties. They
try to keep in touch with the local problems and report
to us on conditions which need specialized attention.
The Agricultural College is your college, and it is up
to the stock growers to make it the best agricultural col-
lege in the United States. At present it is one of the
President Blackman requested that each one present
should observe a moment of silent sympathy for Pro-
fessor and Mrs. C. H. Willoughby in their sorrow. Paul
Willoughby, their only son, who had volunteered his
services to the government and taken the training course,
was stricken with influenza, which was followed by pneu-
monia, and died at his parents' home shortly after being
demobilized from the service.
FLORIDA STATE SWINE GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
By President Z. C. Herlong, Micanopy.
Our Association was organized to handle so far as pos-
sible the problems peculiar to hog men. During the year
of our existence we have held two auction sales of regis-
tered hogs offered by our members, in connection with
meetings of the Association. We did not expect to get
full value for our oferings, but were willing to do some
missionary work to stimulate the breeding of pure-bred
hogs throughout Florida.
At the annual meeting in Orlando last week we con-
sidered the project of hiring a field man to take charge
of ivhat you might call extension work for the Associa-
tion, and are working on plans for financing this under-
We also contemplate establishing a sales bureau for
pure-bred breeding stock, which will help the owners of
small herds to get better sales than they might get, work-
FEDERAL BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.
By Dr. A. H. Logan, Gainesville.
The plan of educational work in hog cholera control is
organization. We are now trying to get school district
organizations, and where those are not possible, township
organizations to take the responsibility of reporting all
outbreaks of sickness, or even symptoms.of swine sick-
ness, promptly, so a diagnosis can be made and precau-
tions taken to prevent spread of disease.
Hogs should be kept away from filthy wallows at all
times. Cleanliness of operator and withholding of feed
to hog for 24 hours previous to inoculation with serum
and for a few hours after inoculation are important in
making for success.
FEDERAL BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.
By Dr. L. E. Lyons, Tallahassee.
The regulatory work in hog cholera control has been
separated from the educational work, which Dr. Logan
supervises, and I want to endorse his plan of organiza-
tion and reports to the regulatory men.
Inoculation with serunm is not a guaranteed cure for
hog cholera, but if used before the disease has developed,
is a preventive agency. Some hog owners wait until a
considerable portion of their herd have died and the rest
are sick, before reporting sickness, and then insist on
giving the serum treatment, which may not save the sick
hogs. Then inoculation is proclaimed throughout that
community as a failure, and the work of controlling hog
cholera gets a setback.
There are many complications to consider in diagnos-
ing swine diseases. The Federal government and your
State Live Stock Sanitary Board are co-operating in this
regulatory work; and we have at the present time a com-
bined force of fifteen experienced veterinarians, who are
at your service to diagnose swine diseases and administer
the single or double treatment to prevent hog cholera.
These veterinarians are located in various towns con-
venient to the swine men in all sections of the State. If
you do not know the name of your nearest Federal or
State veterinarian, advise me or the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board at Tallahassee and a man will be sent to
The hog owner will have to buy the serum and virus,
but the services of the veterinarian will be furnished
There has been some complaint about inoculation caus-
ing abscesses. This condition is not necessarily caused by
infection, although cleanliness is absolutely necessary to
prevent danger of infection. Too large doses in one place
may be the cause. Not more than 30 c. c. should be in-
jected at one point, as the tissues may not be able to
absorb more than the number of white corpuscles con-
tained in that large a dose.
FEDERAL BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.
CO-OPERATIVE ERADICATION OF TUBERCULOSIS
By Dr. J. G. Fish, Tallahassee.
The middle of last May an agreement was entered into
between the Bureau of Animal Industry, of the Federal
Department of Agriculture,' and the Florida State Live
Stock Sanitary Board, for the purpose of co-operative
eradication of tuberculosis in this State. Since that time
there have been ninety-one (91) herds, comprising 3067
cattle that have received the tuberculin test, disclosing
ninety-nine (99) reactors. About 200 hogs and pigs that
had been following tubercular cattle reacted, and all but
one showed well-marked and extensive lesions on post-
mortem. All of these hogs that were killed on the prem-
ises were destroyed, and those that went to the public
abattoirs mostly went to the fertilizer tank. Those ninety-
one (91) herds are distributed from the East to the West
From the observations made to date, the Florida raised
cattle are free from tuberculosis, unless they have come
in contact with cattle from other states. The work here
has not covered enough territory, nor has there been
enough time to make this as a positive statement. But
it is a fact as regards the work done up to date. If this
proves true as the work progresses, Florida should be
among the first states to have its live stock declared
The weeding out of these ninety-nine (99) tubercular
cattle will prove a great saving to the owners of the herds
from which they came, as one tubercular animal in a
herd may prove a source of infection to the rest of the
herd, and to all swine on the place, as well as a menace
to the health of the public.
This work was accomplished by two Federal men, and
one State man, up to December the first. We now have
six Federal men and two State men exclusively engaged
in tuberculosis eradication.
If a proportionate amount of work can be accomplished
and the increase which we expect in our force materialize,
we expect to have the State once covered in twelve
months from date.
Ordinances have been passed requiring that a tuber-
culin test be applied to all cows supplying dairy products
to the following cities: Jacksonville, Tampa, Tallahassee,
Orlando, Kissimmee, Mt. Dora, Pensacola and Ft. Pierce,
and there are several other places that are about to pass
I want to read the following report of the British Royal
The Second Interim Report of the Royal Commission on
human and animal tuberculosis was issued in January,
1907. It presents the conclusions of the Commission after
thorough and extensive investigation covering more than
The report is signed by Sir Michael Foster, Prof. G.
Sims Woodhead, Prof. Sidney Martin, Sir John McFad-
yean and Prof. Rubert Boyce.
"We may briefly sum up the bearings of the results at
which we have already arrived as follows:
"There can be no doubt but that in a certain number
of cases the tuberculosis occurring in the human subject,
especially in children, is the direct result of the introduc-
tion into the human body of the bacillus of bovine tuber-
culosis; and there also can be no doubt that in the
majority at least of these cases the bacillus is introduced
through cow's milk. Cow's milk containing bovine
tubercle baccilli is clearly a cause of tuberculosis and of
fatal tuberculosis in man.
"Of the sixty cases of human tuberculosis investigated
by us, fourteen of the viruses belonged to Group 1; that
is to say, contained the bovine bacillus. If, instead of
taking all these sixty cases, we confine ourselves to cases
of tuberculosis in which the bacilli were apparently intro-
duced into the body by way of the alimentary canal, the
proportion of Group 1 becomes very much larger. Of the
total sixty cases investigated by us, twenty-eight pos-
sessed clinical histories indicating that in them the bacil-
lus was introduced through the alimentary canal. Of
these, thirteen belonged to Group 1. Of the nine cases in
which cervical glands were studied by us, three, and of
the nineteen cases in which the lesions of abdominal
tuberculosis were studied by us, ten belong to Group 1.
"These facts indicate that a very large proportion of
tuberculosis contracted by ingestion is due, to tubercule
bacilli of bovine source.
"A very considerable amount of disease and loss of
,life, especially among the young, must be attributed to
the consumption of cows' milk containing tubercle bacilli.
The presence of tubercle bacilli in cows' milk cab be de-
tected, though with some difficulty, if the proper means
be adopted, and such ought never to be used as food.
There is far less difficulty in recognizing clinically that
a cow is distinctly suffering from tuberculosis, in which
case she may be yielding tuberculosis milk. The milk
coming from such a cow ought to form no part of human
food, and indeed ought not to be used as food at all.
"Our results clearly point to the necessity of measures
more stringent than those at present enforced being taken
to prevent the sale or the consumption of such milk."
SECOND DAY-AFTERNOON SESSION.
SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF
THE CATTLE INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA.
By George M. -Rommel, Chief, Animal Husbandry Divi-
sion, United States Bureau of Animal Industry.
There is a temptation on the part of a guest of such a
gathering as this to sing the praises of the State, to praise
her natural resources, to dwell at length on the hospitality
of her people, the excellence of her business institutions,
her lines of communication, and her wonderful climate.
The temptation on me today is very great indeed, for
Florida is a subject which I enjoy discussing, and what
more pleasant thing to do than to discuss Florida in terms
'of praise with those who know and love her best-the
people who make their home within her boundaries?
Great things have been done during the past three years
in Florida. No state -has taken such a long stride forward
in the cattle industry. Three years ago no one but a few
far-sighted men-dreamers, you called them then-would
have believed that a State-wide public sentiment in favor
of tick eradication was possible. Florida literally was
the last place in the United States where people who knew
the game expected anything really worth while to be done
in eradicating this pest of the Southern cattle business.
Your little body of far-sighted men, your dreamers, if you
please, your men right here in Florida, are doing now
what five years ago even you did not dream of and what
three years ago few people thought possible. In spite of
a heavier infestation of ticks than is found elsewhere, in
spite of a natural environmeI which requires for the
problems of tick eradication unique methods of solution,
you are making history in the American cattle industry
of which you may well be proud. Six of your counties
are novw entirely free from quarantine; at the election in
November, 19 out of 23 counties voted for compulsory
dipping, and only one county in the State failed to make
an appropriation for tick eradication in 1918. We may,
therefore, regard tick eradication in Florida as an ac-
cepted fact. It will not be accomplished in its entirety
next year, nor perhaps the year after that, but we may
expect the entire State to be white territory long before
some other sections of the infected area which are much
nearer the original quarantine line.
Again I say my temptation is great to dwell upon such
themes for your pleasure and gratification. A speaker al-
ways wants to make a good impression in the hope of.
being asked to come again. At the risk of producing the
opposite effect, I will make bold to discuss two subjects
in which a certain amount of criticism of Florida will be
necessary. I do this in the firm confidence that the men
of Florida are anxious to see the State progress forward,
that they wish to lay the foundations of a substantial and
enduring cattle industry, and that they are willing to re-
ceive constructive criticism even from an outsider, pro-
vided they are offered in a friendly and helpful spirit.
With this attitude of mind I crave your indulgence for
a discussion of the chattel mortgage laws of Florida and
the essentials of a marks and brands law. These sugges-
tions will be made not as a lawyer, but as a live stock
man interested in legal reforms which will benefit the
CHATTEL MORTGAGE LAWS IN THEIR RELATION
TO THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY.
In taking up the subject of chattel mortgage laws and
their relationship to the development of the animal in-
dustry it should be said, in fairness to Florida, that the
State has been criticized during the past two years rather
more severely than the facts warranted. It must be con-
fessed that the chattel mortgage laws of Florida are not
ideal, but they are probably little if any less desirable as
stimulants for the cattle business than the laws of many
other States. Florida has come into prominence and her
chattel mortgage laws have been criticised by cattle loan
experts in direct proportion to the amount of interest
created during the past two years in the possibilities of
the State as a cattle country. If no one had been inter-
ested in the development of the live stock industry of
Florida no cattle men would have been interested in your
chattel mortgage laws.
At the outset it must be said that the chattel mortgage
laws of a good many states seem to have been drawn
more in the interest of the borrower than fairly to make
it possible for both the borrower and the lender to strike
a fair bargain. Shylock is not a happy figure in litera-
ture, and the professional loan shark is a contemptible
creature, but the man who makes sources of credit avail-
able on just terms is a public benefactor, whether he
uses his own funds or by his skill as a baker, makes
accessible the resources of others. Credit, rightly used,
is an indispensable adjunct of business, and without it
the development of American industry would have been
impossible. The legislation in the various states which
has to do with the proper use of credit, banking, real
estate laws, mortgage laws, etc., has had a profound effect
on their industrial and agricultural developments. In
framing this legislation, the rights of both the lender and
the borrower must be respected. It is true that borrowers
have often been the victims of exploitations which cannot
be too strongly condemned, but justice does not require
that legislation be carried to the point where business
channels are completely closed. Legislation should stimu-
late commerce, not throttle it.
It is worthy of note that the Florida chattel mortgage
laws seem to have been enacted, at least in many im-
portant details, long before the cattle industry of the West
was thought of or the West as an integral part of the
nation was more than a name. The foreclosure provision
of your code was enacted in.1824, years before any trans-
Mississippi cattle states except Missouri had more than a
nebulous territorial entity. Considering the fact that the
cattle business of the South did not begin to expand until
the, 20th century was well along its way, it is not remark-
able that credit legislation affecting the cattle industry
should not have received adequate attention from State
Possibly a good way to get at the difficulties in the
Florida law would be to cite a few provisions which tend
to make difficult the extension of the use of cattle paper
in Florida and compare these features with the laws in
other cattle states. First let me say that the promissory
note and the chattel mortgage are among the most fre-
quently used tools of the Western cattlemen, particularly
for the man who ships finished cattle to market. Cattle
paper is a most acceptable form of security, especially
when it is six months paper which is 'quickly liquidated
and turned into cash with only a few days' run to market
at the most. Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of
such paper are held in Philadelphia, Boston and New York
banks, and market experts say that at least 75 per cent
of the steers which go to the great Western markets are
mortgaged. By far the largest amount of this paper
originates north of the Qhio and west of the Mississippi
rivers. This is the great cattle country of the past forty
years and today. It has become great in cattle production
not only because of natural advantages of grass, grain,
water, transportation and market facilities, but also on
account of a close working co-operation between cattle-
men and bankers. Cattle were among the earliest sources
of income in most of the country between the Mississippi
River and the Rocky Mountains. In fact, for many years
they were, with horses and sheep, practically the only
form of realizable wealth in all that great region. Natur-
ally, loans on cattle soon became common and eventually
assumed importance as a leading feature of banking. The
use of cattle credit in the Western cattle country de-
veloped as the cattle industry grew, and legislation pro-
gressed with the progress of the industry. There was at
first little or nothing to go on except the common law,
chattel mortgage usage, an dthe fund of common honesty
present in everyone to a greater or less degree.
It is important to observe that the chattel mortgage
laws of the western states, so far as they apply to the
cattle business, are used more as protective appliances
mutually between the borrower and the lender than as
weapons of offense in the hands of the lender. The fore-
closure terms are much more direct and less complicated
than in the case of the Florida statutes, but they are very
seldom used. Most people who lend or borrow money in
that country heartily dislike foreclosure proceedings.
Loan companies and banks do not foreclose if they can
help it, because they know that borrowers do not care to
deal with firms which have a reputation of foreclosing;
neither do the companies care to deal with men who do
not pay their debts. In Iowa, in many sections, the chat-
tel mortgage has been used so little in financing live stock
operations during recent years that farmers now regard
it as a reflection on their credit and integrity to be asked
to execute a chattel mortgage. Personal notes, based on
individual reputations for honesty and ability, are the
usual forms of a country bank's cattle paper in Iowa. A
Texas banker expressed the thought when he 'said: "I
regard the brand on the man as important as the one on
It is only the occasional borrower in the western states
who tries to default his note and must be made the sub-
ject of legal proceedings, just as it is only the occasional
cattle owner in Florida who tries to beat his creditors,
but credit for the development of the cattle business in
the West is not difficult to obtain, while in Florida the
owners of credit are afraid to enter. Excellent judges
have borne testimony to the natural advantages of your
State as a cattle country. You are making remarkable
headway in the eradication of the cattle tick; your mar-
keting conditions are steadily improving. Why is it
difficult to get capital for the development of the indus-
try? Bankers say the trouble is in your chattel mort-
gage laws. Capital is always timid. Let us see what it
is afraid of in this case.
Under the Florida statutes (Section 2102-1638), 1914
Code, a creditor may have an attachment whenever the
debtor (1) is actually removing the collateral from the
State; (2) is fraudulently disposing of the property in
order to avoid payment of debt; (3) is fraudulently
secreting it for such purposes. In order to foreclose on
a chattel mortgage, the creditor must make affidavit that
he has reason to believe or does believe (1) that the
property will be concealed or disposed of; or (2) that it
will be removed beyond the jurisdiction of the court; or
(3) that it is so perishable that it will be consumed by
the debtor or other parties. (Section 2104-1640.) The
affidavit shall describe specifically the property upon
which the mortgage exists, etc. (2109-1645.(
Consider now the Oklahoma chattel mortgage law,
under which millions of dollars of gilt-edged cattle paper
have been issued and to which Oklahoma cattlemen at-
tribute much of the prosperity of the industry in that
young State. The debtor may foreclose and-sell the chat-
tel after ten days notice posted in five public places in
the county where the property is to be sold. The secur-
ity is then a lien in good faith for the amount of the loan.
Now observe that this is only the procedure in case of a
mishap. The usual course is for the cattle to be duly con-
signed to market with the full knowledge and consent of
the mortgagee, the sale price realized, the note paid, the
mortgage cancelled, and the mortgagor goes home with
a nice profit or another and larger lot of cattle and a
larger mortgage. In any event, if all goes well, the cattle
industry gets a forward impetus. Foreclosure seldom if
ever comes. If it comes very often the business could not
exist. Simply as a protection to the lender, however, in
the few cases when foreclosure is necessary, the procedure
should be as simple as possible consistent with-justice to
the borrower. But this is not all that an unfortunate
Florida creditor niust do. He must file an attachment
bond in the debtor's favor in at least double the amount
of the debt, which must be supported by two good and
sufficient sureties for the same. (Section 2116 .)
Another section (1639) provides that an officer selling the
equity of redemption in personal property shall require
the purchaser to give bond, with two securities, in a sum
double the amount of the value of the property, payable
to the mortgagee, conditioned that the property shall not
be removed from the State, but shall be forthcoming to
answer any judgment or decree of foreclosure made
against it. The effect of this provision with that of the
foregoing one would certainly be to warn off any creditor
from foreclosing a mortgage and any other person from
purchasing cattle covered by a mortgage which was fore-
closed. The net effect is to prevent a worthy and honest
owner of cattle from getting credit. The foreclosure pro-
vision in a well-formulated chattel mortgage law is like
a fire-proof and burglar-proof vault. There may never
be a fire or a burglar, and you may never expect one, but
you feel safer if you put your money and securities in a
banking house which is amply protected.
This, however, is not all the fault I find with the Florida
law. Section 3357 (2477) of the 1914 code provides for
protection of the mortgagee against the removal of mort-
gaged property from the county without his knowledge.
The language of the statute is broad enough until we
come to the penalty clause, which is a fine not exceeding
$500 or one year's imprisonment. A real crook, if clever
enough, could negotiate a loan of $5,000 on a lot of cattle,
send them into another state to market, pocket the pro-
ceeds and laugh at his creditor, depending on a friendly
jury or court to let him off with the fine. I am not saying
that this would be the usual procedure of a Florida cattle-
man, because I do not believe it would be, but the banker
in Chicago, or New York, or Boston, with money to loan
on cattle, would prefer to send his capital to Iowa, where
the laws provide that persons committing such an offense
"shall be guilty of larceny and punished accordingly."
(Section 4352, Iowa Code.) Iowa lawyers familiar with
the cattle business consider this a necessary provision of
any chattel mortgage law and believe that a penitentiary
sentence should be the punishment for offenses of this
character. Other states have similar provisions. Where
such provisions are enforced, cattle loans are practically
safe. Again it is a case of the fire and burglar-proof
vault. Capital does not expect that it will find its funds
destroyed or stolen, but it wants to know beyond a reason-
able doubt that when it goes to the vault to find its securi-
ties they will be safe and sound, ready to be used in
further financial ventures.
Now for some constructive suggestions as to the feat-
ures needed in a chattel mortgage law so far as live stock
are concerned. In the first place, horses, mules, asses and
other work stock, cattle, sheep, hogs and goats, should be
acceptable collateral to secure loans. The mortgage should
cover all increases from the live stock offered as security,
and the mortgagor should make good all losses due to
deaths, strays or thefts. The form of mortgage may or
may not be described in the statute (in Texas this is the
case). The Iowa laws simply requires that the mortgage
be signed arid acknowledged. Other laws require that it
be acknowledged before a notary public in the presence
of two disinterested witnesses.
The mortgage should be recorded or filed with the
county in which the stock is to be located. If the stock
mortgaged is in more than one county, additional records
are necessary. Some states require an elaborate system
of recording mortgages, which is unnecessarily expen-
sive. Others, such as Nebraska, South Dakota and Texas,
simply require the filing of the mortgage, for which a fee
of 25 cents is charged, certified copies being furnished for
75 cents. Nebraska makes no charges for releases. The
filing system should no doubt be described in the law.
This will give ample opportunity to obtain accurate in-
formation concerning the borrowing power of any live
stock owner in the State. Foreclosure proceedings should
be provided for in detail and they should be clear and
specific. At the same time ample provision should be
made for the protection and maintenance of the equity of
the mortgagor. The rights of the mortgagor should be
protected by requiring any surplus above the face value
of the mortgage to be returned to the mortgagor, less
costs, interest charges and attorney's fees. The amount
chargeable as attorney's fees is usually definitely set
forth in the'statutes.
The two primary difficulties with Florida chattel mort-
gage laws so far as they effect live stock loans are, first,
the elaborate and cumbersome procedure necessary in
case of foreclosure, and, second, the light punishment for
removing chattels from the,county without the consent
of the mortgagee. The first frightens capital, because it
is not likely to take a chance, however remote, which de-
lays in court might make fatal. The second makes out-
side owners of capital feel that a man who was disposed
to be a criminal could escape lightly. Nothing makes for
righteous conduct like fear of punishment. Therefore,
we find the emphasis placed by western authorities on
severe penalties for this offense.
There are several incidental matters which should be
considered in drafting a model chattel mortgage law to
protect cattle loans. The mortgage should apply from the
moment the note is signed, and the animals should be
accepted as security whether they are already in the State
or county or in another state or county to be brought into
their final location. Failure to provide for this point has
caused loss in attachment suits to secure debts other than
Placing a chattel mortgage on live stock should of
course exempt the animals from attachment for claims
arising subsequent to the execution of the mortgage. It
is also important that mortgages should have a definite
period to run independent of the duration of the notes
which they secure. Most cattle loans are for six months
and are usually renewable. In states where the mortgage
expires with the note this necessitates the renewal of the
mortgage as well as the note, if for any reason the mort-
gagor desires to continue the loan. The best practice is
for mortgages to have a term of three or four years. Pay-
ment of the note and cancellation of the mortgage of
course terminate the life of the mortgage. Any mortgage
should be valid when drawn by persons competent to
execute a contract.
Now, what advantage is it to the cattleman to have
mortgage laws in his State drawn to protect in every way
the interest of the lender? Does protection for the lender
imply that the borrower is at the lender's mercy? Not
at all. If the laws are drawn in a spirit of fairness, if the
rights of the borrower are clearly recognized, and if every
safeguard is thrown around the lender, capital will be
much more readily obtained, and it will be cheaper. It
is a fair rule that the safer the loan the lower the rate of
interest, and where the risk increases the interest rate
also increases. For example, the simple failure of laws to
provide for the extention of the mortgage beyond the life
of the note causes a higher interest rate on cattle in states
which have such defects in their statutes. Given a law
which observes the items outlined above, with a public
sentiment among cattlemen which prosecutes and pun-
ishes heavily those guilty of cattle stealing, and, finally,
a clear and well-enforced marks and brands law, and
capital will seek investment in the state which has it.
MARKS AND BRANDS.
Brand laws are peculiar to a range cattle country and
as you all know in a locality of extensive cattle ranges,
brands and their proper use are vital to the successful
operation of the' business. It is therefore obvious that
the best chattel mortgage law in a ranching country will
fall short of its possibilities of encouraging the growth
of the live stock industry unless it is supplemented by
an efficient marks and brands law. The first essential in
a model marks and brands law is to assert the right of
any live 'stock owner to have a mark and brand. This
brand or mark should be prima facie evidence of owner-
ship and should establish the identity of the animals
whenever title in them is involved or is to be proved. A
minor should be allowed to have a mark or brand when
his parent or guardian assumes responsibility for its use.
The title to any given mark or brand should be saleable
as any other piece of personal property. The Colorado
law, and similar ones, provide that when a bill of sale for
a brand is recorded with the State authorities it has the
same effect as to third parties as instruments recording
the sale of real estate. The Texas law specifically pro-
vides that cattle must be branded or marked before 12
months of age and hogs and sheep before six months of
Brands should be recorded by a central State authority.
In nearly all range states this authority is the board of
live stock commissioners or similar board intrusted with
the welfare of the animal industry of the State. This
authority should at regular intervals publish the brands
and marks in effect and keep its publication up-to-date.
In Colorado the State Board not only publishes its regular
brand book, but issues supplements at intervals, and in
addition designates a stock yards paper as its official
organ in 'which are published monthly all brands and
tansfers of brands recorded during the preceding month.
The brand book and the official periodical publications
show facsimiles of all brands and marks, with the names
and addresses of owners.
Brands should not be duplicated in the same state. Be-
fore the enactment of the law requiring brand registra-
tion by the State, in Wyoming, for example, brands were
recorded by counties. Duplication was inevitable, but
the matter was met by recognizing duplicate brands in
use at the time the law was passed and prohibiting the
issuance of duplicates in future. County officials should
be furnished copies of all brand records published by the
State and should be required to keep them open for in-
spection by interested persons at all times. Provisions
should be made for the cancellation, after due advertise-
ment, of brands no longer in use.
Finally, heavy penalties should be provided for alter-
ing brands or for false branding which are usually classed
as felonies and subject to very heavy punishment. The
latter offense is subject to a penitentiary sentence of one
to five years in Colorado and other states, and in addition
damages to the real owner equal to triple the value of the
misbranded animal, and the animal itself must be re-
turned to the owner.
TEXAS 9HATTEL MORTGAGE LAW.
-By J. C. Paul, Panhandle, Texas.
Relative to working of the Texas chattel mortgage and
marks and brands laws, I might say that I have been in
the banking and cattle loan business for more than thirty
years in Panhandle and Amarillo, Texas.
In that time I have handled many millions of dollars
worth of cattle loans. Practically all cattle paper is se-
cured by chattel mortgage on stock. The Texas chattel
Mortgage laws give the greatest security to the mort-
gagee, in that the law is definite and simple in its work-
ings, easily enforced, no doubt as to its meaning, giving
both parties all the privileges needed in the handling of
the stock, either by the borrower or the lender.
The very simplicity of the law makes it easily enforced,
and yet takes no advantage of the borrower.
The marks and brands law is easily understood and
simple in its application to the uses of the chattel mort-
The two laws working together have enabled Texas
stockmen to place their loans in all the northern and east-
ern banks with a minimum of trouble. This is so because
it is known in the money centers that the Texas laws give
the greatest protection to foreign capital seeking cattle
For many years our smaller Texas banks did only com-
mercial and farm business, leaving the cattle loans to big
commission houses centrally located at Kansas City, St.
Louis, Chicago and other money centers. But during the
past ten years or more the country banks have had north-
ern and eastern connections where many cattle loans were
placed. And this, in our case, has become the most profit-
able part of our business. It has enabled us to facilitate
the handling of cattle by our smaller customers; and this
in turn increases the volume of our deposits, so that
profits in the smaller banks have been much better than
they could have become without this agency.
Summing it all up, I think the State of Florida can
render no better assistance, both to the banks and to the
live stock industry, than by enacting such chattel mort-
gage and marks and brands laws as can be easily under-
stood and readily enforced. Then foreign capital will
flow into the State, and the volume of both cattle and
banking business will increase to the satisfaction of both
stockman and banker.
In considering Florida as a field of my future opera-
tions, nothing seems to me of such vital importance as
the enactment of such laws as will guarantee the safe in-
vestment of outside money in the development of your
WOMEN ON THE FARM AND RANCH..
By Mrs. W. F. Blackman, Lake Monroe.
I took up ranch life three years ago and love the phy-
sical out-door work. It is a good plan for people to ex-
change places and find out the pleasures in other lines of
activity from what they have been accustomed to.
It is real emancipation to wear overalls with big, roomy
pockets. I have plowed with four mules, mowed hay,
taking summer showers as they came, operated the horse
rake, helped Dr. Blackman treat sick animals, bossed the
butchering of hogs, cattle and sheep, and helped round
The one thing I enjoy more than anything else is horse-
back riding. I have my saddle mare brought to the resi-
dence every morning.at 7 o'clock and am in the saddle
until noon, riding over' the prairies, looking after the
stock and seeing that all is well on the ranch. I carry a
saddle-bag of corn on my daily rides and enjoy calling
the pigs to get a little grain.
A is very fascinating to watch the young lambs gambol
in the pasture and the calves stand at attention as I ride
close to them on the range, curiously watching every
movement of my mare.
WOMAN ON. THE FARM AND RANCH.
By Mrs. J. D. Randall, Lawtey.
A home in the South has always been the mecca of my
desires, but the tortorous way by which my wish came
true is, as Kipling says, "another story." Ill health
drove me from the northern winters, and in the sunny
land of Florida I decided to have a home for the winter
After spending considerable time looking for a suitable
place, the house near Lawtey, Florida, was an attractive
drawing feature. Every piece of timber in the house-
built by a Michigan lumber man forty years ago-is of
heart pine that age has given the glow of mahogany. At
first the cares surrounding this house did little toward
attracting me to the possibilities of farming, but one can-
not live long in this. climate without finding that quick
returns come from a little attention. A house garden was
my first thought, and the perfectly delicious vegetables
that came from that little patch of ground opened my
eyes and created desire. A larger garden and chickens
were the first venture. Chicken pens were built, brooder
house with incubator installed, and very soon found our
possessions running high in the hundreds. Eggs then, by
the crate, brought 35-cents per dozen, and several crates
were shipped each week. The garden was a great source
of comfort to my neighbors as well as ourselves, as every-
body was too busy in strawberry work to bother with a
I venture the assertion that in our neighborhood every
farmer has a garden now. My heart was turning toward
Jersey cows and pure-bred pigs, but was told Jersey cows
would not live in Florida nor would I be able to make
good butter. Never having made a pound of butter in
my life, the study and help from Gainesville was sought.
After feeling that book learning had given me courage
enough to try, Jersey cows were imported from Tennes-
see-also Golden Boy, the sire of our herd. Twenty cows
gave plenty of milk. A separator and power churn were
installed. A cream tester was used, and any cow not
giving her 3 per cent butter fat was soon sold. Butter
was selling at 25 cents per pound. I put mine on the
market at 40 cents and could not supply the demand.
Repeatedly having been told that yellow butter could not
be made without coloring, we found the correct feed that
will color the cream in a natural way and have never
used a drop of coloring matter.
Pigs were all the time demanding attention, and sales
were made every fall that more than covered expenses.
By this time I felt I was a full-fledged farmer and was
eager for more money ,so made sausage and sold it in
cartoons by the pound-40 cents per pound. This brought
good financial returns, but the physical toll was more
than I was enable to endure-Mr. Randall could never
understand why I wanted to work so hard. But to me
the keen satisfaction of taking up an entirely new thing
and doing it was the elixir of life. When first the seeder
was used for planting oats we were told that "oats
wouldn't grow that way.". But they did, giving us 800
bushels, which we threshed with our machine. A cousin
in northern Ohio gave me a peck of seed wheat, which
was planted, and 16 bushels of beautiful wheat were
threshed out of it. This wheat was all sold at $4.00 per
bushel. From 800 to 1,200 bushels of corn are harvested
every year. A 90-ton silo full has never given us enough
feed. One day I overheard a man ask another what that
was by Randall's barn, and he was told that "it was a
water tank, for Mrs. Randall told him so." When the
use of the silo was explained to them the exclamations of
surprise would have been funny were it not so pitiful.
An orchard of pecan trees have yearly added to the
farm's income, besides being a source of joy to many
friends as well as our own selves. This orchard is the
grazing place for the sheep.
How did I get all of this done? The wage and feed
bill for years was more than $200 per month, and such
help! Think of man being made in the image of God and
becoming something to make one ashamed! From three
to five and seven hoursmwere spent in the saddle, followed
by the big Airdale, the three of us inseparable. Every
morning and night the dairy claimed my time and atten-
tion, and I dared not leave it either, or things would not
be done right. Several years my son was with me, then
cold storage was built and the C VI Market opened in
Jacksonville, where we planned to go "direct from farm
to you." But the action of the packing houses, knowing
nothing of our plans, made shipping to Jacksonville im-
If I was a younger woman nothing would take me from
the farm, but as it is, the farm is no place for me. I
know too well what ought to be done-what can be done.
But the indifferent help that has been available is too
trifling to even attempt the cultivation of patience.
"These are the things I prize
And hold of dearest worth:
Light of the sapphire skies,
Peace of the silent hills,
Shelter of forests, comfort of the grass,
Music of birds, murmur of little rills,
Shadow of clouds that quickly pass.
And after showers
The smell of flowers
And of the good brown earth;
And best of all, along the way, friendship and mirth."
WOMEN ON THE FARM AND RANCH.
By Miss May Morse, Assistant Home Demonstration
We have discussed in this meeting fkeds and forage for
the live stock, and improvement and increase of live stock.
The ultimate object of all this is that the world popula-
tion may be betterfed.
It has been woman's province and privilege since the
beginning of time to minister to the needs of the human
The woman on the farm has a wonderful opportunity
in having a part in food production. Gardening, poultry
raising and dairying are essentially the farm woman's
Of these activities I consider the production and care
of dairy products of first importance. Milk is the only
substance known the sole purpose of which is food. Al-
though it is about seven-eighths water, it contains all the
food elements which our bodies require; it builds tissues
and supplies energy. It also contains certain growth-
promoting and regulatory substances without which the
body cannot maintain a normal condition or sustain
growth in the young. These substances are known as
vitamins; they are more plentiful in milk and its prod-
ucts than in any other food. Some foods are entirely lack-
ing in vitamins. So you see, contrary to the old farmer's
statement that "nothing you can't chew is food," we
feel convinced that milk is our most valuable food.
Many people eat plenty, yet starve to death. They eat
quantities of one or two types or classes of food,-and fail
to supply the others that the body requires, thus lower-
ing their resistance to all diseases, and in many cases de-
veloping diseases which are a result of insufficient food
Pellagra is one of these diseases, which is especially
prevalent in the South. If people ate the proper food or
a "balanced diet" this disease would become unknown.
Also tuberculosis is largely of this class of diseases.
There are twenty-four million school children in the
United States; six million are under-nourished. Florida
has her proportionate share of these children. In some
schools of the State where the children have been weighed
and measured, those having milk in their diet were the
only ones who came up to the normal standard of height
and weight for their ages. In subsequent scoring others
have showed marked improvement where they have com-
menced using milk. Our best authorities on nutrition say
that every growing child should have a quart of milk
daily and that every adult should have a glassful.
Florida will have to improve her dairy conditions be-
fore we can begin to feed even the children properly.
Let the diet lack whatever it may, if milk is used plenti-
fully it will create a balance in the diet.
Some of the chief reasons why the dairy industry has
not developed in Florida are the tick, lack of knowledge
of the value of dairy products as a food, and a tendency
to consider the dairy cow not'worth the care she requires,
to be profitable.
When our people understand that the dairy cow is the
source of our best human food, I think greater effort will
be put forth to supply the state with an adequate amount
of dairy products. The State Live Stock Asociation has
been chiefly interested up to the present time in the beef
animal, but in future I am sure dairy stock will receive
A 1,200-pound steer when slaughtered will yield 360
pounds of food solids; the dairy cow will yield at least
500 pounds of food solids a year for a period of eight to
ten years. We must have beef, but milk first.
The world's greatest necessity at the present time is
fat. The dairy cow is a most wonderful machine for con-
verting roughage into this most precious substance.
Last year 19 per cent of all the food eaten inthis coun-
try came from the dairy cow. Florida has been spending
$16,000,000 annually in the northern markets for dairy
products. If this money were divided among our farmers
of Florida it would be, approximately, $230 annually for
WITH "TICKS ON THE RUN."
Our next problem is more and'better dairy stock. There
is a scarcity of dairy cows throughout the whole country.
Transferring stock from one locality to another is not
increase. The solution is calf conservation. Improved
stock by better breeding. Eliminate the serubb bulls as a
breeding factor. I believe this should be gone about as
systematically and as thoroughly as tick eradication.
With this accomplished, and a plentiful supply of home-
grown feeds, we should be able to feed ourselves and
have a surplus of dairy products for export.
I think it will be largely woman's work to insist on
more dairy products with which to feed her family. This
would reduce the rate of sickness and death. We would
have healthier and better nournished children in our
We must not go about this work for a purely financial
motive. We must consider its effect on the economic,
physical, moral and mental well-being of the human race;
and afte rall, the focus of the vision is the same. What
benefits the race benefits the individual.
ADVANTAGES OF PURE-BRED BULLS AND HOW
TO OBTAIN THEM.
By Joel G. Winkjer, Dairy Division, U. S. Bureau of
Animal Industry, Washington.
Among the 2,300,000 dairy cows in the United States,
less than two per cent are pure-bred. There are now
about fifty co-operative bull associations in the United
States. The ideal plan of organization is to have five
blocks, with a minimum of fifty cows in each block. An
assessment of five dollars per cow gives $250 per block
to buy a bull. He can be used two years in each block,
which gives a service of ten years, if there are five blocks,
being transferred every other year to a new block.
It will be necessary to have some central farm in each
block where the community bull can be kept, and allow-
ance made for feeding and care. Three blocks is the
minimum organization, which may be advantageous in
the majority of cases, and five blocks is about the maxi-
The cattle owners should have meetings at least once
a month, for discussions of subjects of vital interest to
their work, at which leading authorities may be secured
to take part on the programs. Those meetings also pro-
mote the social life of a community, and that feature
should be emphasized.
Our office has no record of any cow-testing association
or co-operative bull association operating in Florida. We
would very much like to see some organized for the bene-
fit which will come to the members taking part in such
Under existing conditions no dairy cow should be used
for a breeder unless she produces at least 400 pounds of
butter fat a year.
SECOND DAY-NIGHT SESSION.
CATTLE TICK ERADICATION IN THE SOUTH.
By Dr. R. A. Ramsay, Chief, Tick Eradication Division,
U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington.
If I wanted to argue with somebody about whether or
not the cattle tick ought to be driven out, I should not
have come to Florida nor to this meeting. We all agree
that this little bloodsucking parasite has stolen more
money from southern live stock men than any other evil,
and we all agree that this pest must be exterminated just
as soon as possible from Florida and from every other
state and county in which it still hangs on.
Doubtless every member of this Association has lost
money, in one way or another, through the cattle tick.
It is only necessary to remind you that a steer or cow
infested with ticks annually loses 200 pounds of blood to
the parasite; that an infested dairy cow shows a decrease
in milk flow of 15 to 40 per cent; that under tick condi-
tions the same well-bred steer will weigh from 200 to 300
pounds less than if frpe from ticks.
You know, also, that the presence of the cattle tick in
any community always retards and often makes impos-
sible the proper development of the cattle industry. That
is illustrated by the red color we use on our quarantine
maps to indicate the sections under Federal quarantine
against the cattle tick. The red, in this case, means the
same thing as a red light on a railroad. It means danger.
It means that cattle in the red areas cannot be shipped
out without peril of transmitting the tick and tick fever
to other animals, and therefore that they can be shipped
out only for immediate slaughter and for sale at the re-
duced prices obtainable under such conditions. The red
also tells the danger of bringing new cattle into the
infested areas, because new cattle, more likely than not,
will prove immediately susceptible to the cattle fever
carried by the tick, and probably will die. And the red
also indicates danger ,and says very distinctly, "Be-
ware," to outside capital, investment and immigration.
It warns all comers that the red area is not a good place
for cattle raising. Therefore, it tends to keep down land
But you all know these evils, and I am only repeating
them as reminders. They are all summed up in the fact
that the average head of cattle under ticky conditions is
worth from nine to ten dollars less than where the evil is
not present. It is very evident that the tick means many
thousands, even millions of dollars, to the cattle industry
And as you all agree that the tick has not the least
claim to being called a blessing, and that it should be
eliminated with the least possible delay as a factor in
live stock raising, it becomes merely a question of what
is the quickest way of doing it.
Other southern states in which conditions were much
the same as they now are in Florida have already reached
this conclusion, that the quickest way of driving out the
tick is the best way. They have acted on this belief, and
to that fact we must credit a large part of the advances
we have made in tick eradication, especially in the last
What has been done recently in tick eradication is
evidence that we have not yet seen the limit of what the
people of the southern states can do in constructive work
of this kind. During the years 1917 and 1918, since the
United States began to fight Germany, cattle ticks have
been eradicated from areas aggregating nearly 150,000
square miles. In those two years more than fifty-nine
millions of dippings of cattle were supervised. The sig-
nificance of these figures is this:
That during 1917 and 1918, when the American people
were centering every effort upon winning the war, the
,accomplishments in tick eradication were equal to that
of the six years immediately preceding 1917.
This magnificent result was attained when the farmers
were sending their sons and hired men to the.training
camps of the army and navy, when men in the employ of
the Federal, State and county governments were being
called upon to quit tick work and don the khaki; when
farmers and all other citizens were buying Liberty Bonds
and donating liberally to the Red Cross and other war
enterprises. While our soldiers were helping to make
the world safe for democracy the tick-eradication forces
in America were making great areas in the Southland
safe for cattle raising.
The area freed from cattle ticks in the past two years
is nearly equivalent to, three states the size of Alabama
made available for the' production of more beef and dairy
products, which not only will add to the agricultural
wealth and resources of the South, but will be a powerful
factor in helping to feed an impoverished world and to
meet the need for live stock recently referred to by the
Secretary of Agriculture as one of the clear-cut needs of
the present time.
Nor was this the limit of the agricultural accomplish-
ments of the southern states. While southern homes in
city and country were sending their boys to the army,
and while tick-eradication forces were driving the cattle
tick from record-breaking areas, the South was greatly
increasing its production of food crops. Corn, wheat,
oats, Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes and other crops
all showed increases that seem to justify the belief that
the South is rapidly reaching the position where it will
not only produce all its own food, but will have some to
spare for the rest of the country. In such a development
live stock raising must be outstanding.
Nor are the tick-eradication forces content to rest on
the accomplishments of the last two years. In 1917 we
broke all records for the amount of territory released in
one year from quarantine. In 1918 we broke the record
of 1917. And in 1919 we expect to dip more cattle, kill
more ticks and release more territory than in 1918.
We expect to do this simply because co-operation by
the state governments has become so strong that the ad-
vance of tick eradication cannot be resisted. Formerly
it was not unusual for local politicians to set themselves
up 'against the knowledge gained by the extensive re-
search work and experiments of the Department of Agri-
culture. In some cases these politicians were able to play
on prejudice so successfully that they gathered a follow-
ing strong enough to retard tick eradication in their im-
mediate localities. But that condition, happily, now is
very much the exception. The necessity for tick eradi-
cation, and the benefits of it, have been so thoroughly
proved and placed so far beyond question that the people
of the southern states seem to favor it overwhelmingly.
The strong state co-operation to which I have referred
is absolutely necessary in tick eradication. The Federal
government can place a quarantine against the interstate
movement of cattle without consulting the state govern-
ment, and in 1906 it placed such a quarantine over the
entire South in order to protect the rest of the country
against tick infestation. But the Federal government
cannot go into a state and help to clean out the ticks
unless an agreement of co-operation is reached with the
state government. It always has been ready and willing
to co-operate with the state governments. All that has
been necessary is the willingness and proper legislative
action on the part of the state.
Until 1916 what is known as the local option system
was followed in nearly all states co-operating in this
work. Under this system the systematic dipping of cattle
every fourteen days-necessary for the proper control of
the parasite-could not be started in a county until an
election was called and a majority of the voters in the
county expressed themselves in favor of driving out the
ticks. This plan was found to work well up to a certain
point. That certain point was when the remaining coun-
ties would not vote for tick eradication, preferring to
remain as a menace to the tick-free counties which were
being stocked with pure-bred cattle not immune to tick
This condition existed in thirty-one counties in the
State of Mississippi. But it existed only until the farmers
and live stock men of the tick-free areas saw the danger
and induced the Legislature to enact a state-wide law
requiring county courts within a certain time to provide
dipping vats, dipping material and men to supervise the
dipping of all cattle every fourteen days from April to
November, inclusive, 1917. The result was that the entire
State of Mississippi was released from quarantine on
December 1 of that year.
Even the breadth of the "Father of Waters" was not
great enough to prevent the people of Louisiana from
observing the effects of the state-wide law in Mississippi.
Louisiana immediately dropped the local option plan and
enacted a law similar to that so successful in Mississippi.
The Louisiana law became effective April 1, 1918. Little
opposition was met and splendid work was accomplished
in the fifty-two counties required to eradicate ticks. On
December 1, 1918, twenty-nine of these counties and sev-
eral parts of counties, in all an area of 23,492 square
miles, were released from quarantine, and it is practically
certain that all remaining quarantined areas in Louisiana
will be released before the close of this year.
Texas also has enacted a state-wide law, but because
of the size of the State and the large tick-infested area,
a different plan has been adopted. The law divides the
State into three zones. It became effeteive January 11 of
this year in Zone 1, which includes about sixty-five coun-
ties in the northeasterly part of the State.
In Georgia the State Legislature enacted last year a
state-wide law to become effective in December, 1919.
The Legislatures of Alabama and North Carolina, now in
session, have similar legislation under consideration.
Arkansas and Oklahoma have definite plans and are or-
ganized to complete the extermination of the cattle tick
in these states in 1920.
I did not come to Florida to advise on State legislation.
But I have no hesitancy in stating my belief, founded on
experience and the examples I have cited, that a com-
pulsory state-wide law requiring tick eradication pro-
vides the quickest way of getting rid of ticks. It is not
only the quickest way, but the surest, and it eliminates
local politics and jealousies which are sure to obtrude
themselves under the local option plan.
You have in Florida land of wonderful possibilities for
cattle raising, according to the authoritative testimony of
men who have studied it thoroughly. Undoubtedly, that
land can be made a source of food and wealth of a magni-
tude undreamed of a few years ago. Such men as Mr.
Frank S. Hastings, the ranchman of Jones county, Texas,
have expressed views of this character. But you cannot
get the most out of this land until you get the ticks out
of it. As I said when I started, there is no argument on
that point. And every month or year that you allow the
tick to suck blood from your cattle means dollars and
cents to Florida.
When you have eradicated ticks from Florida the bene-
fits will not be in cattle alone. Wherever ticks are thick
the laws of nature are being violated in that the animal
and vegetable kingdoms are not properly co-ordinated
for the best results. The science of chemistry tells us that
plants feed on animals or animal by-products in much
the same manner that animalss feed on plants. But wher-
ever there are ticks and tick fever it is impossible to de-
velop the animal kingdom properly, and hence it is im-
possible to get the best development from the vegetable
It is highly important now that no step should be
omitted that will tend to increase the food supply of this
country. Not only for our own people, but to help feed
the other countries that are depending upon us to ward
off starvation. Tick eradication is an essential step to-
wards this result, and it will bring permanent good to
Florida, for which the cattle raisers and farmers of cen-
turies to come will have cause to thank all who had a
part in driving out the parasite.
PROGRESS OF TICK ERADICATION AND MOVE-
MENT OF CATTLE IN THE STATE OF
FLORIDA DURING 1918.
By Dr. E. M. Nighbert, Inspector in Charge, Bureau of
Animal Industry, Jacksonville.
During the calendar year 1918 there were 2,303 head
of cattle shipped interstate under provisions of law, re-
quiring inspection, dipping and certification. These cattle
were shipped for stocker and breeding purposes to points
in other states.
It is estimated that 2,000 head of cattle were shipped
out of the State under provisions of law without dipping
to recognized points for immediate slaughter of quaran-
tined cattle. There .were 1,203,722 cattle dipped in con-
nection with systematic tick eradication work and demon-
stration and voluntary dipping of cattle throughout the
State in connection.with tick eradication work. Out of
this. total number handled and dipped there were 26
deaths and 2 injuries, accounted for as follows:
2 injured by blistering.
1 killed by goring.
1 killed by broken leg.
1 killed by broken back.
1 drowned in vat.
22 deaths following dipping, which may be accounted
for in handling under hot weather conditions.
This is such a small fraction of one per cent of the
number of cattle handled and dipped that it is not worthy
of mentioning. These figures compare favorably with
similar results in other states where tick eradication and
dipping cattle is conducted on a large plan.
During 1918 there were only 339 dipping vats estab-
lished. This is a small number, but in order to establish
vats it is necessary to get the co-operation of farmers,
cattlemen and the county commissioners in the way of
procuring funds and labor for this work. Furthermore,
the soil conditions in Florida make the establishment of
vats a difficult problem, as most of the vats must be es-
tablished by means of double forms because of caving and
high water table, which, as is well known, greatly inter-
feres with making this class of concrete structures.
During the year 1918 twenty-five counties voted in
favor of tick eradication by substantial majorities.
Including the area already free of ticks and released
from quarantine, the above territory represents 58 per
cent of the land area and 80 per cent of the population
of the State. It also represents 579,139 cattle. There are
now 911 vats in the State. Every county, with probably
the exception of two, enjoys the distinction of having
vats in which cattle have been dipped to the complete
satisfaction of the owner and benefit of the cattle.
Eradication of the cattle fever tick in Florida is a mat-
ter of fact. It will be completed as early and as promptly
as the people continue their co-operation in the best and
most effective way.
Following Dr. Nighbert's address, two reels of govern-
ment films, showing life cycle of the cattle tick and im-
proved cattle which follow on farms after ticks have been
eradicated, were shown.
Those were followed by one reel of films furnished by
the American Poland China Record Association, showing
some of the prize-winning hogs of that breed.
Professor R. C. Ashby, field secretary for the Associa-
tion, made a short talk on the opportunities for raising
pure-bred hogs, stating that there is no danger of over-
production in the pure-bred swine industry.
THIRD DAY-MORNING SESSION.
FOREST FIRES IN RELATION TO FLORIDA'S RE-
SOURCES AND INDUSTRIES.
By Austin Cary, Logging Engineer, U. S. Forest Service,
The experience of the Forest Service in handling a
large share of the ranges of the West would seem to be
of,consequence to the cattlemen of Florida. Two great
lessons are derived from that experience.
First, the control of grazing in harmony with the re-,
quirements of forage plants has resulted in a great in-
crease in range capacity. The control involves rotation
of grazing on given areas, also deferred grazing, so-called,
which simply means that the plants are given a chance
to start their growth and set seed by not being grazed
too closely during the critical seasons.
Second, this practice of firing the range was in wide
force years ago, but as time passed the stock increased
in numbers and men were obliged to use resources fully.
Therefore they concluded that they lost by burning the
range, and this view was concurred in by scientific men.
They set out to remedy the condition, owners on their
own property and service men on the areas had, in control
under the leasing system.
The conclusion was general, as far as I know, that re-
peated fires killed out valuable grasses, hurt the soil, and
production was less luxuriant in consequence.
The principle, too, was approved in application to a
40,000-acre tract in the neighborhood of Gainesville, ex-
amined with care by Mr. W. C. Clos, of the Forest Service,
There are experienced men in this audience who are
firm on both sides of the question, and I do not mean to
controvert any one. However, the specially luxuriant
growth of grass following immunity from fire, and the
valuation placed on well-located tracts of that nature has
A phenomenon of interest, noted in all stages in certain
flatwoods areas of the State, is the replacement of the
original wire grass by carpet grass, with a range value
several times as great. This process seems to result from
grazing itself-from use of the land-and to be more
satisfactory the more thoroughly within limits the land
is used. When the process is complete, fire risk is minim-
ized, but fire, interfering at various stages, is reported to
have hindered the work.
Within that general region at least there are men in
the stock business who have definitely concluded that fire
is a damage to them, and ask for freedom to pursue their
In line with Professor Tracy's principle there have been
observed at several points wild oats coming back onto
the land, following immunity from fire. Reports from
old settlers show that these were very plentiful and lux-
uriant over a very large area in Florida and furnished
feed through most of the year, serving to keep cattle in
Fire seems to have nearly obliterated them, but in re-
sponse to immunity to fire they have been seen coming
back on different types of land quite abundantly after
second year of protection.
One who has traversed Florida to some extent and seen
the surprising thoroughness with which fire has covered
the country, cannot but realize that the distribution of
useful plants must have been profoundly affected and
limited, and be unwilling to set limits to the results which
might follow a change of policy.
As for the relation between fire and timber, that in
general is well known. Fire destroys some timber of the
most resistent species; young timber it kills more fre-
quently, and it checks the growth of more. For the graz-
ing man, therefore, the elimination or control of fire that
is desirable for his grass crop will promote the ends of
The following resolutions, recommended by the Reso-
lutions Committee, composed of Will M. Traer, F. N.
Burt and R. W. Storrs, were unanimously adopted:
Resolved, That we hereby express our great gratifica-
tion in view of the remarkable progress which has been
made during the past year in the work of tick eradica-
tion, and our appreciation of the services rendered to this
cause by the Florida State Live Stock Association, the
Federal Bureau of Animal Industry, the Florida Cattle
Tick Eradication Committee, the Florida Federation of
Women's Clubs, and the various boards of County Com-
Resolved, further, That we urge upon the members of
the Legislature the passing at the next session of such
amendments to the present law as will make the dipping
of all cattle mandatory in every county in the State, at
the earliest practicable moment.
Resolved, That we have heard with great satisfaction
the reports of the Florida State Live Stock Sanitary
Board and the several agents of the Federal Board of
Animal Industry with regard to the work accomplished
during the past year in the control of hog cholera; and
we urge upon these officials, and equally upon these stock
men and farmers of the State, that this work be carried
on with still greater energy and with still heartier co-
operation on the part of all concerned, during the coming
Whereas, at the convention of foresters held recently
in Jacksonville, it was shown that the people of Florida
are annually wasting untold wealth by the indiscriminate
burning of wood lands and prairies; therefore, be it
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion, in convention assembled at Kissimmee, January 14
to 16, 1919, recommend the creation of a State Forestry
Department by the coming Legislature, for the purpose
of helping to conserve the resources of our State by dis-
couraging uncontrolled fires which jeopardize farm im-
provements as well as burn the humus on top of soil, and
also much of the growing timber.
Resolved, That we ask the Legislature to appropriate
at the next session not less than two hundred thousand
($200,000.00) dollars to the College of Agriculture and
the Experiment Station during the coming biennium, this
sum to be devoted to the Department of Animal Hus-
bandry and to investigations and demonstrations as to
grasses and forage crops in Florida.
Resolved, That we request the Legislature to pass such
laws relating to brands and marks of cattle and chattel
mortgages as applied to live stock as will tend to facili-
tate the borrowing of money by the stock men and farm-
ers of the State, and the safer and more adequate financ-
ing of the live stock industry.
Whereas ,there are a large number of dogs that are
allowed to run at large in the State of Florida with prac-
tically no restraint, and, whereas, such dogs frequently
do great damage to live stock; therefore, be it
Resolved, That this Association request the passage of
a State law fixing a special license for all dogs and re-
quiring that all dogs allowed off their owner's premises
must be muzzled.
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion urge upon the Legislature that an adequate appro-
priation be made to the Florida State Fair and Exposi-
tion for the encouragement and support of live stock and
agricultural exhibits which are a great stimulation to de-
velopment of the State's resources.
Resolved, That it gives us pleasure to tender the appre-
ciation of the visiting members of the Association to the
good people of Kissimmee, especially the local ladies'
committee for their generous hospitality and entertain-
ment during our stay with them.
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion is deeply conscious of the active and valuable support
given the live stock movement of Florida by the news-
papers of our State during the past year, and that we
hereby tender the hearty thanks of this Association for
such support and co-operation, and trust that we may
continue together in this great work for the future.
Whereas, it is the sense of this committee that the an-
nual membership dues of this Association are too low to
provide sufficient funds to properly carry on Association
work at times; therefore, be it
Resolved, That we recommend the amendment of our
constitution at the next regular meeting, providing for
an increase of $1 in membership dues to take effect Janu-
ary 1, 1920.
Whereas, the Florida State Fair and Exposition has
been an important factor in stimulating development of
the live stock industry in this State; 4erefore, be it
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion, in convention assembled at Kissimmee, January 14
to 16, 1919, urgently request the officers and directors of
the Fair to provide classification and offer adequate cash
prizes for car lots of fat cattle at each annual Fair, to
further stimulate the improvement in quality of Florida
Whereas, the sale and distribution of post cards and
illustrations purporting to show Florida razor back hogs,
piney woods rooters, rattlesnakes, piney woods cattle and
alligators lying in wait for pickaninnies or feasting upon
them, are destructive advertising for the live stock de-_
velopment in Florida; therefore, be it
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion in convention assembled at Kissimmee, January 14
to 16, 1919, protest the sale and distribution of such post
cards and illustrations and urge upon all Chambers of
Commerce and other civic organizations in Florida their
hearty co-operation in discouraging such unfavorable rad-
vertising for their respective communities; and be it
Resolved, That we do all in our power to encourage
the sale and distribution of post cards and illustrations
showing pure-bred hogs, cattle, sheep and other live stock,
as a means of constructive advertising of the live stock
opportunities in this State.
Whereas, the live stock sanitary work in the State of
Florida, conducted jointly through co-operation of the
Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the State, is being greatly inter-
fered with as the result of qualified and experienced men
resigning from the government service; and,
Whereas, we are reliably informed this condition pre-
vails throughout the United States; and,
Whereas, it has been brought to our attention that these
trained veterinarians are leaving the service because of
insufficient salary to meet their needs of every-day life;
Whereas, the Florida State Live Stock Association fully
realizes and appreciates the value of the services of these
scientific men in protecting the live stock industry in the
prevention, control and eradication of animal diseases;
therefore, be it
Resolved, That the bill now pending before Congress
providing adequate funds to meet this situation be called
to the attention of our Representatives in Congress, urg-
ing them to support this measure, which is being intro-
duced by Congressman Rainey, who has given the situa-
tion thorough study.
Be it further Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions
be forwarded to each Senator and Congressman from the
State of Florida, with the request they confer with Con-
gressman Rainey and support the measure.
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion hereby expresses its approval ,and urges upon the
'various organizations engaged in advancement of the live
stock industry of Florida, the formation of a State Fed-
eration of Live Stock Associations, and that the president
be authorized to appoint a committee of three to act with
similar committees of other associations in preparing a
suitable constitution for such Federation.
REPORT OF SECRETARY OF THE FLORIDA STATE
LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATION FOR YEAR 1918.
The Secretary has endeavored during the past year to
keep the Florida State Live Stock Association name be-
fore the people and secure their support of the principles
for which we are working.
The paid-up membership numbered 256, for which the
treasurer has made accounting in his annual report.
The first efforts of this office were to get the report of
Sixth Annual Convention published, and through the co-
operation of W. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture,
the greater part of the Quarterly Bulletin of the March
issue was given over to a very complete report of the
addresses and discussions, several thousand copies being
distributed in Florida and other states.
The officers of your Association also secured financial
assistance and published, under copyright of the Asso-
ciation, 5,000 copies of a booklet entitled "Florida, an
Ideal Cattle State," which has been distributed widely
throughout the United States and several foreign coun-
tries. The booklet contained the addresses of several ex-
perienced Texas cattlemen, who helped with our last con-
vention, giving valuable information on the opportunities
Florida offers for live stock development; also the address
of Professor C. V. Piper, agrostologist for the Bureau of
Plant Industry, on "Grasses in Florida."
Co-operating with the Florida State Swine Growers'
Association and with the Florida State Dairy Association,
the Secretary prepared copy for a booklet entitled "Live
Stock in Florida," and had 3,000 copies printed for dis-
tribution at the Farmers' National Congress in Jackson-
ville during the first week in December, in order to give
the farmers from other states some accurate information
on the live stock opportunities here. The three Associa-
tions also maintained a booth in the convention hall
throughout all of their sessions, to give personal informa-
tion to all who wished to know more about the live stock
During the year this office has prepared four special
articles for the Florida press, which have been sent to a
total of 535 papers, and in addition has furnished more
than twenty-five special articles to the leading newspapers
and to the "Farmer and Stockman." The Association
work has been given hearty support and unlimited space
by Mr. Traer, its editor, and we should give him a special
vote of thanks for helping to make our Association so
There have been 5,212 letters sent out to members, pros-
pective members, and in answer to inquiries about the
live stock industry.
(Signed) R. W. STORRS,
REPORT OF TREASURER, FLORIDA STATE LIVE
STOCK ASSOCIATION, FOR THE YEAR 1918.
Gainesville, Fla., January 10, 1919.
Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1918. ................ $156.48
Dues received during year from 256 members ... 256.00
Interest on deposits at Savings Department,
Phifer State Bank ......................... 4.28
Total Receipts for 1918 .................. $416.76
Jan. 15-Seminole Hotel, office room during an-
nual meeting of 1918....................... $ 18.00
Jan. 15-C. L. Willoughby, travel account, tele-
phone, messenger service and petty cash ex-
pense during annual. meeting of 1918........ 17.00
Jan. 22-W. F. Blackman, President, hotel ac-
count during annual meeting, and postage.... 17.00
Jan. 22-Pat Johnston, travel account attending
two meetings of Executive Committee in De-
cem ber .................................. 14.00
Jan. 25-Southern Bell Telephone Co., phone and
telegram s ................................. 3.34
Jan. 29-R. N. Durrance, postage .............. 4.00
Feb. 7-Southern Bell Telephone Co., telegrams. 4.00
Feb. 9-Pepper Printing Co., circular letters.... 5.92
March 9-C. H. Willoughby, travel expense to
Jacksonville for meeting of Executive Com
m ittee .................................... 5.10
March 11-The Breeze Printery, letterheads,
membership cards, envelopes, etc............ 25.43
March 11-Florida Farmer Co., envelopes...... 8.00
March 11-A. A. Coult, postage stamps........ 15.00
April 11-A. A. Coult, postage stamps........ 9.00
April 24-Miss A. Vance, stenographer service. 11.00
May 7--A. A. Coult, postage stamps.......... 54.00
May 22-Florida Farmer Co., printing account. 58.50
Sept. 19-Florida Farmer Co., printing account. 21.00
Oct. 12-C. H. Willoughby, postage stamps..... 2.00
Nov. 25-W. F. Blackman, postage stamps..... 35.00
Dec. 31-Florida Farmer Co., printing account. 21.10
Total Disbursements. .................. $348.49
Balance in Bank Jan. 5, 1919.................. 68.27
Receipted vouchers for above on file.
Balance checked O. K. with bank, Jan. 10, 1919.
(Signed) C. H. WILLOUGHBY,
Invitations to hold the next annual meeting in Jackson-
ville were read from President J. D. Baker of the Cham-
ber f Commerce, and from Mayor John W. Martin.
Orlando extended an invitation through C. E. Howard,
seer :ary of the Sub-Tropical Mid-Winter Fair.
Orlando received the majority of votes on the first
ballot, the time for meeting being left to the Executive
Committee to designate, in conference with the Orlando
Board of Trade.
The nominating committee, composed of C. A. Carson,
Jr., W. F. Ward and S. S. Sadler, nominated the officers
whose names appear at front of this report, and they were
In addition to the committees which reported during
the convention, provision was made, by motions made
and carried during the sessions, for three other commit-
tees to be appointed by the President, as follows: Com-
mittee on Markets; Committee on Transportation; and
Committee on Legislation.
The personnel of those committees to be selected after
The convention adjourned sine die at 11:45 A. M.
Following adjournment, the Kissimmee hosts furnished
automobiles to transport the members to the fair grpunds,
where a band concert, barbecue dinner, exhibit of battle,
hogs and sheep, sale of a pure-bred Shorthorn bull, and
races among cowboys on their ponies entertained several
hundred people until late in the afternoon.
LIST OF BULLETINS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRI-
CULTURE, STATE OF FLORIDA.
Title of Bulletins.
24. 3. Sugar Cane Growing in Florida.
24. 3. Tomato Growing in Florida.
24. 3. Irish Potato Growing in Florida.
24. 3. Celery Growing in Florida.
24. 3.. Lettuce Growing in Florida.
24. 3. Pecan Growing in Florida.
24. 4. Sorghum for Silage and Forage in Florida.
24. 4. Dwarf Essex Rape for Winter Forage in
24. 4. Japanese Cane Growing in Florida.
24. 4. Native and Grade Cattle Breeding in
24. 4. The Home Dairy in Florida.
24. 4. Live Stock Growing in Florida.
24. 4. Wood Using Industries of Florida.
24. 4. Quarterly Bulletin, October, 1914.
25. 2. Natal Grass.
25. 2. White-fly Control.
25. 2. Seasons and Dates for Planting.
25. 2. Strawberries. (Fragaria).
25. 2. Everglades of Florida.
25. 2. Cattle Tick Eradication.
25. 3. Cotton.
25. 3. Corn.
25. 3. Uses and Purposes of Ground Limestone.
25. 3. Quarterly Bulletin, July, 1915.
25. 4. Cow Peas for Hay and Soil Building.
25. 4. The Sweet Potato Crop.
25. 4. Fig Growing in Florida.
25. 4. What Farmers' Co-operative Work Stands
26. 2. The Cultivation of Melons (also Cucum-
26. 2. Considering the Cattle Tick. Some Sen-
timental as Well as Practical Phases of
26. 2. An Inventory of Florida's Forests, and the
Outlook for the Future.
26. 2. Avocado Production, Avocado Cultivation.
26. 3. Canning and Preserving of Vegetables
26. 3. Farm Loan Act.
26. 4. Velvet Bean Growing in Florida.
26. 4. Curing of Meat.
26. 4. Proceedings of Florida Drainage Ass'n.
26. 4. Quarterly Bulletin, October, 1916.
27. 1. Quarterly Bulletin, January, 1917, Chem-
27. 2. Why Florida Should Lead the Eastern
United States in the Growing of Live
27. 2. Sheep Growing on Farm and Range in
27. 3. Peanut Growing in Florida.
27. 3. Beans, Eggplants, Peppers, Okra.
27. 4. The Citrus Grove, Its Location and Culti-
27. 4. Growing.Onions in Florida.
27. 4. Wheat in Florida. Growing Rye in Florida,
28. 2. Growing Broom Corn in Florida.
28. 2. Milch Goats.
'28. 2. Rice Growing in Florida.
28. 2. Home Cured Beef.
28. 2. Value of Dairy Cattle, etc. Weights of
Dairy Products, Weights of Fat Cattle.
28. 3. Quarterly Bulletin. July, 1918.
28. 4. Angora Goats and Sheep in Florida. Why
28. 4. Quarterly Bulletin, October, 1918.
28. 4. Growing Cassava in Florida.
LIST OF BULLETINS, REPORTS' AND LEAFLETS.
Thirteenth Biennial Report, Part 2, Manufacturing,
Fourteenth Biennial Report, Part 1, Introductory,
Fourteenth Biennial Report, Part 2, Crop Estimates and
Live Stock, 1915-16.
Fourteenth Biennial Report, Part 3, Manufacturing,
Fourteenth Census of the State of Florida, 1915.
Instructions With Reference to Securing State Lands.
Fourteenth Biennial Report of State Land Division,
Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida During
Raw Phosphate, "Fleats" Ground, Hard Rock Phos-
Acid Phosphate vs. Raw Ground Phosphate.
Analysis of Florida Muck Soils.
General Drainage Laws of Florida.
Single copies of these can be had on application, while
they last, with the Department of Agriculture.
Crop Acreage and Conditions.
DIVISIONS OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES
Following are the subdivisions of the State, and the
counties contained in each:
Santa R sa,
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk
CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.
Western Division: There is little difference between
existing conditions in this Division and those of last year.
The weather is still unfavorable and has retarded the
growth of the cotton crop that was just coming up. This
occurred mainly because of the necessity of early plant-
ing in the effort to get ahead of the boll weevil; also be-
cause of the cold temperature. In many localities damage
was severe enough to warrant the plowing up of consid-
erable areas of cotton, and to necessitate replanting.
The shortage of cotton seed created to a considerable
extent by too close selling, prevented farmers in large
numbers of cases from planting entirely. A good deal of
cotton was plowed up because of cold, and was later plant-
ed to other crops-principally corn. This condition nat-
urally brings about a shortness in the acreage of the cot-
ton crop not originally intended, but, nevertheless, it can-
not be helped. These conditions reduce the acreage in cot-
ton to practically the same as last year and probably less.
Otherwise crop conditions in this district are good; corn
and small crops not having been seriously affected by cold
are in excellent condition, and the acreage planted to
these crops is the largest in the farming history of this
All the standard field crops in this district are largely
increased in acreage, except oats, which is less, and their
condition at this time has never been better. This applies
with equal force to vegetables, truck, and also to live stock
-the latter being in much better condition than usual at
this season of the year.
Northern Division: The same climatic conditions exist
throughout this district, as in the first named, and the
same effects of these conditions have been felt through-
out the season in this division. Crops of all kinds have
been increased in acreage, and are in good condition, the
only exception to this being a reduction in acreage and
considerable damage done to cotton by the same favor-
able climatic conditions referred to in the foregoing divi-
sion. About the& same amount bf injury has been done the
cotton crop in this district as in the Western Division,
and the reduction in acreage will probably be greater, pro-
portionately than in the former district. Less cotton
probably had to be plowed up than in the foamer-but
similar proportion of replanting has been done-plant-
ing to corn taking the place of cotton. The same condi-
tions of live stock exist in this as in the other district,
and, as a matter of fact, live stock on the range has not
for years been quite so good at this season of the year.
All crops are in usually fine condition, with the exceptions
noted. Tobacco is exceptionally good.
Northeastern Division: In this division of the State
the acreage planted to cotton is considerably increased
from last year-the variety of cotton being Sea Island,
and more out of the reach of the boll weevil. The indica-
tions are better for a large crop proportionately than in
the northern and western portions of the State.
It is reported, however, that the boll weevil has made
its appearance in several counties of this District, which
means that only where the cotton is planted early will
the growers meet with good success, as it seems that
nothing but early planting will save the crop from this in-
The acreage of other crops in this division is generally
increased over that of last year, and the indications are
that the corn and other crops (but especially the forage
crops) will be largely increased over those of last year.
If the favorable indications continue this means that the
corn and other field crops will show a' much larger yield
than the crop of 1918. It is noticeable also that in this
and the first two districts discussed wheat has been plant-
ed to a considerable extent again this season.
Probably for the first time in many years rice and rye
both show increase. Acreages are in good condition
throughout the counties for growing these grains. This
is worthy of note for the reason that it will go a long
way toward conserving and preventing the use of im-
ported foodstuffs-such as wheat and rye flours. It is
Wtter to grow these crops than to buy them from out-
side. In this, as in the other districts the vegetable
products and live stock are in good condition.
Central Division: In this division, both the vegetable
and standard crops are largely increased in acreage, and
are also in good condition; if nothing happens in the way
of climatic difficulties, yields will be larger than ever
In this district acreages planted to field crops are, of
course, not so large in proportion to those planted to
other crops, and in this district also, the bulk of the soil
products, consists of a larger proportion of fruit and
It 'is also noticeable in this, and other districts of the
State, that there are new and special crops that have not
been planted to any great degree heretofore, that are now
commanding attention. Dasheens are grown in twenty-
three counties and are in demand as a commercial crop,
and shoy prominently in this connection. There is nota-
ble improvement in the condition of citrus fruit groves in
this division, as in former ones. Live stock is reported
from all parts as in good condition and the business of
growing livestock is growing rapidly. Good rains have
covered this entire section ofthe State.
Southern Division: In this division, which is chiefly
given up to fruit and vegetable production, the increase'
in acreage has been large and in about the same propor-
tion to crops in other sections of the State. The climatic
conditions have been good, and crops have suffered very
little for lack of rainfall. In fact, nothing is reported
adverse to crop conditions in this division.
The largely increased acreage to all crops grown in
this division is in keeping with similar conditions in
other sections of the 'State. If nothing happens to pre-
vent undoubtedly this district as well as the others will
produce by far the largest crops in the history of the
State, and it would not be surprising under the circum-
stances to see seventeen to eighteen millions of bushels
of corn grow in Florida this year and other food crops
increased in proportion as indicated in the tables to
which attention is directed. We trust that this will be
so, as it is to the interest of the whole State to effectually
combat the oft-repeated assertion proclaimed by so many
who know nothing of the facts, that Florida cannot, and
does not live within herself. This statement is continu-
ally being made use of by unfriendly persons and it ap-
pears that we are forced to explain it on all occasions.
The proof of this slander of the State lies in the results
of the crop yields that are shown in the statistics of crop .
production, published by the Department of Agriculture
in its Fifteenth Biennial Report.
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION OF CROPS BY PERCENT-
AGES, PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED, AND CONDITION OF
FRUIT TREES FOR THE QUARTER ENDING MARCH 31,. 1919,
AS COMPARED WITH SAME PERIOD FOR 1918.
COUNTY. Upland Island Corn Millet
I\'etern Division- [. Acreage I Acreage [ Acreage | Acreage
Bay ................. 100 ..... .. ... 120 .
Calhoun ...... ........ 75 50 125 100
Escambia ............. 65 ... .. .. 125 100
Holmes ............... 65 .. .. 125 100
Jackson .............. 40 .. .. .. 8
Okaloosa ............. 55 .... ..... 125 90
Santa Rosa ........... 60 .. ... 120 ....
W alton ............... 50 ..15 . 40
Washington ........... 60 ..... .. 120 50
I----I ---I I--
Div. Av., pr cent ..... | 63 50 118 80
Gadsden .............. 85 .. .. 105 ..........
Hamilton ............. 90 80 100
Jefferson ..............I 100 .......... 110 .
Leon ................. 65 .... 125
Liberty ....... ... 100 .......... 120
Madison ............ 65 70 I 125
Wakulla .............. 55 ......... 120
I- --- II
Div. Av., per cent .. 80 I 75 115 .........
Alachua ................. T115 25 150 100
Baker ............... 100 50 125 ........
Bradford ................... ... 25 110 ...
Clay ...... ..... ...... 5 100 100
Columbia ............. 200 40 120 150
Duval ... ......................... 50 100 100
St. Johns .............. ......... . ........ 120 .......
Suwannee ............... 102 75 105 100
I ---- I I-----
Div. Av.. per cent ... 129 39 116 I 111
B revard ............... .......... I ........ 50 .........
Citrus ................ .......... 50 100 .
Flagler ............... ...... ... .......... 100
Hernando ............. 55 30 I 150 125
HIllsborough ......... .......... 12 110 100
Lake ............ ..... .50 50 100 ......
Levy ................ 50 40 100 50
M arion ...... ...... ... ....... .......... .... .. ....
Orange ................. I ....... . 100 I.......
Pasco ................ 10 20 120 ..........
P olk ................. ....... ..... 100 ..........
Seminole ............. 100 100 100 ..........
Volusia ................ .......... .. ..... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent .... 53 43 | 103 93
Broward ..............I 50 I 50 1O0 I'
D ade ................. .......... ....... I 100 .......
Lee .................. ..... .. ............ 80 85
oMonroe .............. .. .. .. .. . .... i .. ..
Okeechobee ............. 50 50 I 100 90
Palm Beach .................. ...... .I 850 ..........
StW Lucie .......... ..1 ....... 100 100...
Div. Av., per cent .... 50 100 1 138 75
State Average ....... 75 1 61 118 90
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION OF CROPS BY PERCENT-
AGES, PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED, AND CONDITION OF
FRUIT TREES FOR THE QUARTER ENDING MARCH 31 1919,
AS COMPARED WITH SAME PERIOD FOR 1918.-(Continued.)
Milo Sugar Japanese
COUNTY. Oats Maize Cane Cane
Western Division- Acreage | Acreage | Acreage I Acreage
Ba .................. 100 ......... 125
Calhoun .............. 110 ..120 100
Escambia ............. 100 .. ... 115 100
Holmes ................ 110 .. 110 90
Jackson .............. 100 100 90 80
Okaloosa .............. 110 .......... 110 100
Santa Rosa ........... 100 .......... 100 .
W alton ............... 75 ...... . 100 60
Washington ........... 90 .......... 100 75
Div. Av., per cent ... I 99 100 108 86
Gadsden ..... ........ .-
Hamilton ............. 100 ........ 120 100
Jefferson .............. 90 125 ..
SLeon .. ....... .. 115 ... 120 100
Liberty... ... .. ... 100 ... 120 100
Madison ............ 0 100 ..... 120 90
Wakulla .................. 110 115 110
Div. Av., per cent 102 .......... 120 100
Alachua .............. 1 S105 11.......... 15 o10
Baker ................ 100 200
Bradford .............. 110 . 120
Clay ...... ........ 100 100 100
Columbia ........... 200 .... 115 150
Duval ................ 100 125 100
St. Johns ............. 100 100
Swannee .............. 105 ..... 102 105
Div. AV. per cent. ... 115 .......... 122 111
Brevard .............. .......... -. o 50
Citrus..... 25 ......... o0 100
Flagler ............. .. ... ... .. ......... t .......
Hernando .............. 105 ....... .. 105 150
Marion .............. 75 .. .0 90
Orange ................ :.........: : .......... ....:. 200
Pasco ............... ................... 150 140
Polk ........ ........ 100 .......100 .......
Seminole ........... I ........................
Volusia ............... 110 I 110o 0 120
1 1--- -------
Div. Av., per cent ... I 89 105 126 119
Broward ..... ........ 10 .......... .......
Dade ................. ... .. .......... .....* ...*....
Lee ............................. 100 90
Okeechobee .......... 90 ..... .. 12 125
Palm Beach . . . . . . 400 150
Palm Beach .......... .......... ........ 25400 150
St. Lucde . . . 250
St. Lucie .............. .......... ........ 1
Div. Av., per cent.... 90 .......... 197 121
State Average ........ 99 102 I 135 107
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION OF CROPS BY PERCENT-
AGES, PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED, AND CONDITION OF
FRUIT TREES FOR THE QUARTER ENDING MARCH 31, 1919,
AS COMPARED WITH SAME PERIOD FOR 1918.-(Continued.)
Broom Kaffir Tobacco
COUNTY. Corn Sorghum Corn Open
Western Division- | Acreage ] Acreage I Acreage I Acreage
Bay ........ .......... I . 120
Calhoun .............. 100 110
Escambia ... ......... I 100 100 100 80
Holmes .............. ... ::9 110 ...
Jackson ............... . ...... 100
Okaloosa ........... ... ... .... I 110
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 . . .
W alton ............... ....... .. I 70. ..
Washington ........... ... .. 80 ......
Div. AV., per cent .... 100 100 100 80
Gadsden ................ .. .......... ............ 100
Hamilton ............... ..|I 125 .........
Jefferson .............. ............ .. ................
Leon .......... ..... ... .. I 90 ....... 100
Liberty ............ I ..........I 90 1 .......... ..........
Madison ........ I . . . 80 .. .. .
Wakulla .............. ..... ..... 50 ...... 100
Div. Av., per cent ......... ... 87 ........I 100
Alachua .............. ......... I 100 o .......... i..........
Baker ................ .......... .. 90 .......... 500
Bradford ............... .. ....... ....... ... ..........
Clay .................. ........... 100 T 100 ..
Columbia .... ...... 100 100 .......... .........
Duval ................ .......... 110 I......... .....
St. Johns ............ ..... .. .. .......
Suwannee ............. .......... 105 125
Div. Av., per cent ... I 100 101 100 312
Brevard ............ ........ .......... .......... ......
Citrus ............... ...... .. . ... 25 .
Flagler .... ... I ......... ....... ..
Hernando ........... ......... | 100 . ... .
Hillsborough ........... 100 150 100 ...
Lake .............. .. ........ ..........I ...
Levy ............ ............ 40 I ...... .....
Marion ................ I......... 100 I. ..
Orange .............. .. ........ .......... ..
Pasco ................. 50 ....... ..90 [ 50 I 100
Polk ................. .. .... .......... .......
Seminole .............. ..............* *" ....
Volusia ............... ............ 100 00 ..
Div. Av.. per cent. ... I 80 81 100 100
D ade ................. ........ ......... ..........*..... ....
Lee .................. .... ...... 95 ........... .........
M onroe ............... .. ........ .......... .......... ..........
Okeechobee ........... ...... 90 0 ..........
Palm Beach ........... 125 ...... ..... ..... .
St. Lucie ........... ....I........ .... .......
Div. Av., per cent ... l 87 111 65 50
State Average ........I 92 96 l 128
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION OF CROPS BY PERCENT-
AGES, PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED, AND CONDITION OF
FRUIT TREES FOR THE QUARTER ENDING MARCH 31, 1919,
AS COMPARED WITH SAME PERIOD FOR 1918.-(Continued.)
COUNTY. Under Rye Wheat Rice Potatoes
Shade I I
West'n Div. Acreage [ Acreage | Acreage | Acreage Acreage
Bay ...... ...................[.......... 120 120
Calhoun .. 125 ...... .. ..... 125
Escambia . 75 80 |......... 100 150
Holmes ............. 100 [ 110 15 110
Jackson ....]..........| 100 | 110 100 125
Okaloosa ... .......... 100 100 90 125
Santa Rosa .......... 100 I.......... 10 115
Walton .... ......... ........... 100 75 120
Washington ........... ...... .......... 90 125
Div. Av. pet 75 100 105 99 124
Gadsden ...I 105 I 100 I.......... 100 110
Hamilton ............I 100 .......... 100 100
Jefferson ... .......... 100 105 90 125
Leon ....... 100 110 110 100 125
Liberty .... .... ...... ..... .......... 110 120
Madison .. 110 100 100 80 125
Wakulla .................... ... 120 100
I---- --I i I I
Div. Av. oct 105 102 105 I 100 I 115
Northeastern Division- L
Alachua .............. .... .......... 100 150
Baker .... I........ . ........ I.......... 100 250
Bradford .. .......... 115 100 .......... 125
Clay ....... .......... 100 ...... 100 125
Columbia .. .......... 110 I .... ... ....... 110
Dual ....... .......... 100 .......... 110 100
St. Johns .. .... .... ... ... ...... 120
Suwannee .......... 105 ......... 95 105
I I I* ---____ -
Div. Av. pet |.......... 1 105 100 101 132
Brevard .... ..........[.......... .......... ..... ... 00
Citrus ..... . .. ..... I ....... ........ ........ 100
Flagler .... ........... ......... .......... 100 100
Hernando . ........ .......... ........ .. 100 120
Hillsboro'gh .......... 150 .......... 100 200
Lake ........ ......... .....:..... ... .... ..........
L evy ...... .......... .......... ........
Marion ..... ....... 100 .......... .. ........ 125
Orange .... .......... .... ...... ..... 100
Pasco ...... 150 1 110 .......... 100 150
Polk ....... ....... ......... .......... 100 125
Seminole ... ......... ......... .. ... ..... .. 100
Volusla .... .......... .......... .......... 70 110
Div. Av. pet 150 I 120 .......... 92 136
Broward ............ 50 |.......... 100 150
Dade ...... ...................... ........... 100
Lee ........ .... .............. .. ...... 80 85
Monroe ............ ... .............. ..... .....
Okeechobee .......... .......... .......... ...... .. 125
Palm Beach 200
Palm Beach .......... ....... .. ......... . ......... 200
St. Lucie .. .......... .......... .......... .......... 100
I I I -
Div. Av. pet 1.......... 50 ........... 90 127
State A 110 95 103 86 130
State Av. .. I 110 9 95 103 I 86 130