Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 Part II. Crop acreages and...
 Part III. Fertilizers, feed stuffs,...

Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00036
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Part I
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Cattle tick eradication
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Construction of a dipping vat
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        The Everglades
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 64a
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Drainage in Flordia
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Natal grass
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
        Seasons and dates for planting vegetables and other crops in Florida
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
        The citrus grove, it's location and cultivation
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
        Whitefly control, 1914
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
        Fungicides, insecticides and spray
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
    Part II. Crop acreages and conditions
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 197
        Department of agriculture
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
    Part III. Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
Full Text

Volume 25 Number 2





APRIL 1, 1915.


Part 1-Articles on Cattle Tick Eradication, Everglades of
Florida, Proceedings of Florida DraFiage Association,
Growing Strawberries, Natal Grass, The Citrus Grove
-Its Location and Cultivation, VWhite Fly Control
-1914, Seasons and Dates for "lating, and Other
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditiot
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and r-. Is and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.


T. J. APPLEYARD. State Printer,
Tallahassee. Florida







The State Board of Health is directed by law to look
after the health of our domesticated animals as well as
that of the people. This it has been doing for a num-
ber of years, and has had constantly in its employ the
best veterinary talent it could obtain since 1902.
It is now proposed that Florida get into line with the
other Southern States and start the work of eradicating
the cow tick, which causes a disease of the blood which
prevents that thrifty condition necessary in cattle that
makes the raising of them a paying business. It is claimed
by statisticians that this cow tick causes a loss of from
$40,000,000 to $200,000,000 annually.
So it seems that this fact alone is the best reason tha'
can be given for eradicating the tick. It seems wonderful
that an agricultural interest can thrive under this enor
mous handicap, and also that comparatively so little
has been done to remove it.
It may not be amiss at this time to say something of
the history of tick fever in cattle. Dr. Salmon, chief of
the Bureau of Animal Industry, in his letter of transmit-
tal to the Secretary of Agriculture of the manuscript of
Smith and Kilborne's work on Texas fever said:
"In the whole list of diseases affecting domesticated an-
imals there is none so peculiar in its character or so mys-
terious in its phenomena, as was this one, previous to
these researches. The dissemination of the deadly con-
tagion by apparently healthy cattle, and the harmlessness

in general of the really sick animals, were inexplicable by
any facts which were furnished by the study of other dis-
eases. Veterinarians who had not had an opportunity to
observe this disease were skeptical in regard to the cor-
rectness of such conclusions, and some spoke of them as a
'romance in pathology.' These early observations have
not only been confirmed, but the phenomena have been ex-
plained and our knowledge placed upon a scientific basis.


*'That Southern cattle in a state of health might bring
destruction to Northern cattle was observed as early as
1796 by Dr. Pease, who observed an outbreak of the dis-
ease among cattle, in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, fol-
lowing the passage of a herd of cattle from South Caro-
lina. Dr. Pease made it the subject of an interesting com-
munication in which he pointed out the peculiar fact that
though the Southern cattle themselves seemed healthy.
they scattered a peculiar disease in the northern territory
they crossed. The literature upon the disease was very
meager in those days, and the next important contribu-
tions were from the pens of Dr. R. C. Stiles of the Metro
politan Board of Health, Drs. John Gangee, John S. Bill-
ings and Curtis of the National Government, in 1868. In
that year, Texas cattle shipped up the Mississippi river
to Cairo and thence by rail into Illinois and Indiana early
in June, caused during that summer enormous losses in
cattle in those States. Eastern cattlemen became
alarmed because cattle shipped from those states were
dying of tick fever in the New York stock yards, and else-
where. The cattle commissioners of New York State and
the Board of Health of New York City became alarmed
as to the possible harmful effect of such diseased meat
upon the human health.


"The most important special contributions next made
by Dr. D. E. Salmon, in his annual reports, as chief of
the bureau of animal industry, in the years 1883-1884-85,
in which years he determined the boundary line of the
permanently infected territory.
"While it had long been known that this peculiar fever
did not occur except where the cow tick existed, the rela-
tion of the lick to the disease was not definitely estab-
lished until 1889, when it was observed by Smith and Kil-
borne, of the bureau of animal industry, that when young
ticks are placed on cattle there develops a high fever ac-
companied by extensive loss of the red blood-corpuscles.
These observations were repeated and confirmed in 1891
and 1892. However, Smith, in 1889, made the most im
portant discovery connected with the disease. On Octo-
ber 23, 1889, he read a paper at the Brooklyn meeting of
the American Public Health Association, in which he
stated he had discovered a peculiar micro-organism in the
red blood corpuscles of cattle suffering from tick fever.
that it was the cause of the disease, and that this newly
discovered organism was carried by the cow tick. This
was a most important discovery, as it was the first in
stance in which it was proven, that diseases may be


"Tick fever may be said to be an incurable disease, or
at least treatment is usually unsatisfactory as animals
surviving an attack of acute tick fever generally make a
slow recovery, and during the convalescent period are
more subject to the attack of other diseases, owing to the
resulting anaemia. The old answer for the treatment of
diseases, given by the pert first year medical student-
'remove the cause,' applies with great force here, when

changed to 'remove the tick.' In all sanitary work, how-
ever, it is necessary to have the co-operation of the people
in order to bring about the desired result; and this applies
with special force in the eradication of an insect. There
seems no special difficulty in exterminating the cattle tick,
because of its peculiar life history. What has been and
is being done in other states, can also be done in Florida.
"The latest reports show that about one-fifth of the tick
infested territory has been already cleared of the tick.
This work has been carried on by the co-operation of the
federal, state and county governments, and already the
results have been very pleasant and profitable to those
sections that now enjoy a free and unrestricted cattle bus-
iness with the great Northern markets.


"The idea of tick eradiCation seems to have been origi-
nated by Dr. Cooper Curtice, former zoologist, and now
veterinary inspector in the Bureau of Animal Inductry.
Dr. Curtice was also the first to study the life history and
development of the tick. His researches paved the way
for tick eradication. In 1899, while State Veterinarian
of North Carolina, lie presented a plan of action to the
commissioners of agriculture of that state for improving
the cattle industry, by tick eradication. That plan was
put into operation, and by 1906, or in seven years, twelve
counties in North Carolina had been released from quar-
antine. This practical demonstration of the feasibility of
tick eradication attracted the attention of the federal au-
thorities and also the other Southern states, and congress
was asked for a small appropriation to be applied in as-
sisting those states which had live stock laws, competent
to deal with the subject.
"The federal appropriation was in 1907, $82,500; in
1908, it was increased to $150,000; and since, it has been
$250,000 annually. Congress will be asked for an appro-
priation of $750,000 at the coming session.


"In 1906, there were fifteen States more or less in-
fested with ticks. Nine hundred and twenty-nine counties
in these States were under federal quarantine on account
of ticks. When the work was begun only seven States
had laws that would enable the Bureau of Animal Indus-
try to co-operate with them. Therefore, work could only
be started in Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Ken-
tucky, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and California. Since then,
four other States, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi
and Arkansas have enacted laws which allow of tick erad-

"Up to April 1, 1911, or in five years, Virginia had
cleaned up 24 counties of ticks. North Carolina had, un-
assisted, cleaned up 12 counties, when the work was start-
ed elsewhere in 1906; since 1906, with federal aid, that
State has cleaned up 30 more, making 42 in all.

"In South Carolina, four counties are clean; in Georgia,
3; in Tennessee, 26; Alabama is clearing up 7 counties;
Mississippi has cleaned 3; Arkansas 10; Louisiana 2;
Oklahoma 7; Texas 7; California 31/2; Missouri 4; Flor-
ida none. In all the States mentioned, except Florida, the
work is in progress and, no doubt, many more counties
will soon be released from quarantine.

"To state it another way, there were, originally, 741,515
square miles of tick infested territory in the Untied
States. The cleared area, up to April 1, 1911, was 139,821
square miles, or one-fifth of the mileage area."

The above article on the history of Texas fever was
presented for reading at the first meeting of the Florida
Live Stock Association held at the University of Florida,
December 17-19, by the State Health Officer.



Further study into the history of the cattle tick-the
cause of Texas fever-brings to light the following in-
formation and shows that in all probability the cow tick
was first collected and studied in Florida.
In 1818 Thomas Say, curator of the Philadelphia Aca
demy of Sciences, with three companions, made a scien-
tific survey of Florida. He collected ticks from deer.
and in 1821 published a description of them which shows
his specimens were of the same species as those now in
testing Florida cattle. He named his tick Ixodes annu-
In 1867 C. V. Riley found the same tick infesting cattle
in Missouri and named it Ixodes bovis. In 1S91 Cooper
Curtice changed the name to Boophilus bovis. Later, the
name Boophilus annulatus was applied and now we call
the great fever-producing tick of North America, Mor-
garopus annulatus.


The United States is not the only country that is in
fested with a fever-producing cattle tick; but no other
country has our species.
There are three distinct species of fever-producing
ticks; the North American, the Australian and the South
African. The Australian species produces this cattle
fever in Australia, South America, Cuba and Porto Rico
and therefore has a very wide distribution.
There are eight different kinds of ticks that infest our
cattle in the United States; but only one of these species
can carry the fever. This one species is found resident
only in the South, below the federal quarantine line, and
is the most numerous of all. The body of the full grown
engorged female is oblong-oval in shape and may reach

one half inch in length. The color varies from a dull
yellow to an olive brown and often is streaked with wavy
lines of these colors. There are two longitudinal grooves
on the back, at the front of the body, and three at the
rear. These are more prominent at times, especially after
the tick has dropped from the animal. The head parts
are short and broad and of a chestnut brown color.

From the tick eradicator's standpoint all ticks look
alike. The harmless ones cannot produce Texas fever, but
all species succumb to the arsenical solution, so that the
question of the species cuts no figure in tick eradication
operations. The harmless ticks have a different life cycle
from the fever-producing tick. This tick, the common cow
tick, cannot reach maturity unless it gets upon cattle,
horses or mules, while all the other harmless kinds can
develop independently. When the common cow tick does
get on horses and mules, its progeny cannot produce Texas
fever, but may acquire the germ from Southern cattle,
whose blood always contains the parasite. Their progeny
then become as infectious as those reaching maturity on
Southern cattle.
While it is known that the fever germ is carried from
cow to cow by the tick, no one has ever been able to discov-
er the germ in the tick themselves, nor will extracts made
by grinding the ticks and injecting this material into sus-
Sceptible cattle produce the fever. Yet we can readily pro-
duce the fever by injecting a small quantity of blood from
a Southern cow into a Northern cow by putting a few
of the seed ticks upon a Northern cow. These seed ticks
hatch out from the eggs laid by the old tick when she falls
from the cow.

It, therefore, follows, that the germ of Texas fever is in
some way transmitted through the egg to the young seed

tick. These young ticks are very small and are barely vis-
ible when they first get on cattle. Hence they are at that
stage capable of producing the fever and the susceptible
animal may be very sick and even die without the owner
noticing any ticks.
Other interesting facts are that the germ will live in
the blood of animals removed from the South to the North
for at least thirteen years. Texas fever can be produced
by injecting some of this animal's blood into northern
cattle. Rough handling or bad treatment may induce 'i
fatal attack of the fever in this supposedly immune ani-
mal. This explains why and how it is that Texas fever
has occurred in animals when no ticks could be discov
ered on them.


The mere fact that a cow is Southern born does not
mean that she is immune to Texas fever. In fact it is
claimed today that there is no such thing as immunity to
Texas fever. However, Southern cattle do acquire a re-
sistance when they are attacked by ticks from birth that
the Northern-born cattle do not possess.
On account of the many failures to immunize cattle
against the fever, and in this way improve the Southern
breeds by the importation of finer cattle from the North
and West, those interested in the subject have given up
the idea, which at one time promised so much.
It was found that even though a fine bovine did suc-
cessfully run the tick gauntlet the incessant attacks of
ticks devitalized and impoverished the blood so that suc-
ceeding generations showed plainly a loss of the stamina
possessed by the original stock. The logical thing to do
is, therefore, to get rid of the cause-the tick-by the
methods now in vogue for tick eradication. A result of
this practice will be not only improvement of the scrub


cattle as scrubs, for it can improve them in no other way.
but farmers will be encouraged to improve their cattle
by the introduction of finer animals of the beef and
dairy types.
The following upon the life history of the cattle tick is
copied from an address delivered by Dr. E. M. Nighbert,
at the University of Florida.


Facts on which the campaign for eradicating the pest
is based: An intimate knowledge.of the life history of
the cattle tick is necessary. A knowledge of the man-
ner in which the tick propagates must be had before
eradication can be carried on intelligently and success-
Only a part of the development of the tick takes place
on cattle, the remainder occurs in the pastures and range.
The female tick, which is attached to the skin of cattle,
increases enormously in size as a result of drawing large
quantities of blood, and when fully filled with blood drops
to the ground, where she at once begins to search for a
suitable hiding place that will serve as a protection from
the sun and enemies. These large juicy ticks are some-
times destroyed by ants, and thousands perish as the re-
sult of unfavorable conditions, such as hot weather, dry
weather, or extremely wet conditions in the ranges, pas-
tures, or swampy conditions that exist in the State of
Florida. Thousands and thousands of ticks are destroyed
in this way in the State without having laid any eggs.
This condition accounts for few ticks appearing on cattle
at times, and many more at other times, depending on
climatic conditions.
Egg-laying begins during the spring, summer and fall
months in two to twenty days, and during the winter
months in thirteen to ninety-eight days, depending on

weather conditions. The eggs are small, elliptical shaped
bodies, of a light amber color that later changes to dark
brown, one-fiftieth of an inch in length, coated with a
sticky secretion that causes them to adhere in clusters and
keeps them from drying out. During egg-laying the
mother tick gradually shrinks and dies when all eggs
have been laid. The egg-laying period continues from
four days in warm weather to a hundred days if the
weather is cool or cold, and during this period from sev-
eral hundred to five thousand eggs may be deposited.


Within a few days in summer to several days in fall or
winter after the eggs have been deposited they begin to
hatch. From each one issues a small six legged seed
tick, amber colored, later changing to a rich brown. It
is very active in warm weather, but does not travel any
distance. Its instinct is to ascend the nearest bit of veg-
etation, such as grass, herbs or shrubs, and wait for cat-
tle. If cattle do not come its way it dies of starvation.
During its life in the pastures and ranges, the seed tick
takes no food and does not increase in size. It must reach
cattle or die of starvation. This fact is significant and
is taken advantage of in the work of eradication of ticks.
Their endurance, however, is very great, and under cer-
tain conditions they may live without nourishment from
four and a half to six or eight months, especially during
the colder part of the year.
The length of the period from the time females drop
to the ground until all the seed ticks hatching from the
eggs laid by them are dead, or in other words, the time re-
quired for pastures and ranges to become free of ticks
after all cattle, horses and mules have been excluded or
treated regularly every two weeks by dipping or spraying
with the standard arsenic solution, varies with the season
of the year, being shortest during the warm season and

longest during the cold season. For example, all the seed
ticks resulting from females dropped June 15th will be
dead by November 1, a period of four and a half months;
but some of those resulting from females dropped Sep-
tember 1, may survive for seven or eight months.


Further development begins when the tick reaches cat-
tle, horses or mules. It at once begins to draw blood
and increases in size. In about seven days it sheds its
skin and the color changes from brown to white, the new
form having eight instead of six legs, and known as a
Nymph. In another seven days the Nymph tick sheds its
skin. It is now sexually matured, and it is at this stage
that males and females are conspicuous for the first time.
The male tick is about one-tenth of an inch in length, it
never becomes larger and displays great activity in mov-
ing about on the animal. The female is slightly larger
but shows much less activity, seldom moving from her
point of attachment previous to molting. After mating
with the male, she rapidly engorges with blood, and in
eighteen to twenty-one days, after first attaching as a
seed tick, she drops to the ground to repeat the cycle of
development. You see, then, by treating cattle regularly
every fourteen days, the chain of life is broken, never to
be again mended. The tick is completely exterminated.
To accomplish this, all cattle, horses or mules using the
ranges, pastures or cow lots that are infested must be


On January 3 and 4, duly appointed delegates from
ten of the tick infested States had hearings before the
house and senate committee on agriculture at the capitol
in Washington.

On January 2, the delegates held a preliminary meeting
at the Hotel Raleigh in Washington, for the purpose of
deciding upon a line of action. At this meeting it was
decided to divide the time allowed so as to give each del-
egate five minutes to explain the needs of his State.

ASK FOR $750,000.00 A YEAR.

It was also decided to ask for an annual appropriatioli
of $750,000, instead of $400,000, as originally intended.
This increase was advised by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture, who gave as his reason that it would be economy to
increase the number of veterinary inspectors by 150, on
account of the great progress already made in the work,
the number of counties in the various States now await-
ing federal inspection, the number of counties that would
apply during the year for federal inspection, and because
the work can now go on the year round, owing to the
fact that much of it is being done in the southern parts
of the States where it is warm enough to dip cattle.


These inspectors are appointed upon civil service ex-
amination. They must be veterinary graduates and pass
a satisfactory examination in veterinary science. Each
man costs the government about $2,500 a year, hence the
increased amount asked for by the committee. The work
of these inspectors is to supervise the building of dipping
vats and show how the dipping is done. Then, when a
county is said to be free of ticks, the inspector must visit
every farm and satisfy the government that the repre-
sentations made by the State officials are correct. Upon
his favorable report that county is released from quaran-
tine. When a farm, or a county, is declared freed from
ticks, it will be illegal for anyone to bring upon that
farm, or into that county, any cattle from a quarantined
-r ticky county.

Obviously, this means co-operation upon the part of
county officials and even individuals. This co-operation
is easily obtained when the beneficial results of tick erad
ication are perceived.


It has been claimed that tick-bitten hides depreciate 10
per cent in value because they do not make good leather,
and that this loss alone would pay for tick eradication.
At the hearing before the Senate committee the state-
ment was made that the loss on hides alone was estimated
at 10 per cent.
At this statement a Northern Senator said: "I deal in
calf hides, and I never pay more than half as much for
Southern calf hides as I do for Western and Northera
hides. They don't make good leather." Here is a loss
of fifty per cent, instead of ten per cent, and the depart-
ment officials were surprised when we told them what
this business Senator had said.
We went before the Senate committee with more misgiv-
ings than we did before the House committee; but events
made us reverse our opinion of the United States Sena-
tors. We were most kindly received. We were not hur
ried to the same extent as before that of the House. We
all came away from the hearings encouraged. Each dele-
gate made it his business to visit the members from his
own State. We, of course, did not believe it possible
that any representative of a Southern State would fail
to vote favorably upon this important subject, but we
wanted them fortified by a more intimate knowledge of
the vast importance of tick eradication.


After all, tick eradication is not strictly a Southern
problem, it is a national problem. What affects fourteen

States, affects the whole United States, and is, therefore
a national problem, and we were deterred from asking for
millions instead of thousands, because it takes time to
train men in the work. Tick eradication is merely a ques
tion of men and money. It is not an experiment. A State
could be free of ticks in six months. We know what can
be done, how long it takes to do it, and what the results
will be. When once eradicated, the ticks are gone for-


The 1910 agricultural census for Florida gives the fol-
lowing facts:
First. Cattle represent 45 per cent of the value of
all live stock combined.
Second. In 1900 the cattle industry amounted to 56.8
per cent of the value of all live stock combined, showing
a decrease of 11.8 per cent.
Third. There are 845,188 head of cattle in the state,
valued at $9,262,262. The average price is less than $11
per head.
Statistics show that three per cent of our cattle die
from exposure every year in this mild climate. Many
know these 2,500 head of cattle do not actually die from
exposure, as that term is generally understood; but that
the cause of death is the cow tick and lack of care.
Under our present conditions, Florida cattle have no
market except in other quarantined areas of the South,
and in the foreign tick-infested countries to the south
of us.
As long as this condition exists, Florida cattle, no mat-
ter how high their breeding or quality, must be sold under
quarantine or as quarantined animals. This means they
are always sold for less than they would bring if sold as
coming from a tick-free state.


Cattle, irrespective of breeding or condition, shipped
to Chicago from Florida, must be shipped for immediate
slaughter, and are held, pending slaughter, in special pens,
by the national quarantine officers. The cars they are
shipped in must be disinfected of the ticks that drop off,
in transit. They must be sold for immediate slaughter.
They cannot be held and fed for a few days awaiting a
favorable market.
This extra trouble and expense attending the market-
ing of Florida cattle, of all breeds, and conditions, is paid
for from the proceeds of their sale, and for this reason
Florida cattle would bring from 11-2 to 2 1-2 cents less
per pound on the Chicago market, or any Northern mar-
ket, than similar cattle shipped from a tick-free state.


Even the hides of the Florida cattle are worth less per
pound because a hide that is full of tick bites does not
make good leather.
Therefore it is easily seen that cattle ticks exact
heavy toll from this branch of our agriculture, by caus-
ing a large increase of the death rate, by causing a sick-
ness which brings about shrinkage in size; by keeping
people out of the cattle business, which could be made a
paying one; by loss of the land fertilizing value of the
animals that could be raised; by the loss in prices of meat
products, in the price of hides, and many depressing in-
fluences upon farm life.


It is now recognized by all observing people that the
cow tick is the principal cause of depression in the cattle
industry of the South.

There is no other reason that is so apparent. The best
cattle feeds that the world produces can be and are being
grown right here in Florida. If our feeds were not of
the best, other sections would not buy them.


All classes of animals, except cattle, do as well in Flor-
ida as in any other part of the United States. The dif-
ference is most marked when we consider the matter. In
fact, there are fewer animal plagues in Florida than in
most sections. There are very important diseases, which
at times decimate the animal population in other sections.
that do not occur at all in Florida. When, however, we
compare our cattle with those in the North and West,
and even now in those sections of the South where the
tick has been exterminated, it does not require the ex-
pert's eye to see the difference.


The eastward march of the cotton-boll weevil has forced
the farmers in one state to grow other crops because they
can no longer borrow money on a crop so uncertain as a
weevil-infested cotton crop. The surplus of the crop is
fed through cattle, and as these bring rich returns, the
farmer has demonstrated to himself that cattle are a
money crop and that the raising of cattle is worthy of
his most serious attention. He soon realizes that he can-
not produce the best cattle in the presence of the tick.
because successful cattle production and marketing de-
mand the eradication of the tick.


The great overflow of the Mississippi River last year
was not entirely without a useful object-lesson in

tick-eradication in the State of Mississippi. Cow ticks
cannot survive being submerged in water any more than
can other air-breathing animals. Several counties were
entirely submerged and the cattle were either drowned
or removed to other sections. Here was an excellent
chance to secure an immense tick-free territory without
further trouble or expense. Through co-operation and
the enforcement of local quarantine, the flooded counties
were not allowed to restock with any cattle that had not
been cleaned of ticks by the dipping vat. The people of
that section will now raise good cattle, and these may be
sent to Northern markets to compete, on equal terms, with
cattle from any other section.


When the cotton-boll weevil arrives in Florida, our
farmers will be forced into raising other crops. Some of
these will be for cattle feed. The fertilizing value of
these feeds will be returned to the soil by the cattle, as
a by-product of the cattle business, and the commercial
fertilizer bill will be materially reduced. It has been ob-
served that fields upon which cattle have grazed show the
effect of this manuring for twenty-five years.
This improved farming cannot reach its highest develop-
ment if the cattle are forced to give up their blood to ticks
instead of converting it into flesh and milk.


The dairyman's loss from ticks is from two direct
sources, viz.: shrinkage in the milk output and deaths
from Texas or tick fever.
When an animal has fever from any cause, milk pro-
duction is either lessened or entirely suspended, accord-
ing to the nature of the disease.
In acute Texas fever, the temperature runs very high,

and the milk secretion is suspended. In chronic Texas
fever, the kind we see most of, milk secretion is diminished.
The shrinkage in milk production of cattle heavily in-
fested with ticks will, according to a government report,
average one quart a day. A dairyman can, therefore,
easily figure out his loss in a year. Even if he lose one
pint a day, he could figure up a bad case against the tick.
Government experts figure up a loss in milk alone of
nearly $800,000 a year, in the whole South.

ANNUAL LOSS OF ABOUT $8,500,000.00.

When a dairyman tries to improve his herd by the intro-
duction of better milkers, he loses ten per cent of these
imported cattle, even if they be immunized against Texas
fever, and sixty per cent if they are so immunized. Then
you must take into consideration these cattle are usually
high-priced, and, in some instances, a valuable strain of
animal that cannot be replaced, dies, and this loss is also
to be charged up to the tick. About 4,600 such cattle are
brought South each year. If ten per cent die, and they
cost anywhere from one hundred to one thousand per head.
the loss is from 546,000 to $460,000. The losses from
deaths and shrinkage in milk production, therefore, cost
the Southern dairyman about $8,500,000.00 annually, a
sum that would probably pay for the entire cost of tick
eradication in the South, if the co-operation of those most
affected could be quickly obtained.


The extermination of this insect pest is one of the eas-
iest things imaginable, if we go about it in the right way.
This insect, as well as all others, develops according to
a natural law; hence, if we take advantage of our knowl-
edge of the life-history of the cow tick nothing is simpler
or easier than its extermination, by interrupting its life

cycle. It is so easy and simple that a five-year-old child
can eradicate the ticks, from the family cow, and the
small-fenced pasture she grazes on, by daily picking off
and killing every large tick for a period of six months.
The explanation of this is, that it is only the big ticks that
lay eggs, and as they do not lay them until they volun-
tarily drop off the cow, picking them off by hand and de-
stroying them by placing them in a can of kerosene or
any oil, will end their career. In other words, if no big
ticks lay eggs, there will be no young ticks to crawl upon
'he cattle. If there are no young ticks, there can cer-
tainly be no old ones. This method, known as the hand-
picking method, is, of course, only applicable where there
are a few head, from one to a half dozen.

This method is applicable to herds of half a dozen or
more. The standard arsenical solution is sprayed on the
cattle by means of a coarse nozzle, one that will force the
spray through the hair and on to the skin. A fine spray
that merely leaves a sort of dew upon the hair, such as
those required in spraying plants, will not do. The liquid
must penetrate to the skin, and to accomplish this the
spray must be directed against the hair. The animals
must be thoroughly gone over so that every tick will be
hit. Particular effort must be made to wet the under
surface of the body, and especially the tail, as it is this
member which affords ticks easy access to the body when
the cow passes through vegetation harboring the young
The animal must be sprayed every two weeks, fourteen
or fifteen times. A half-and-half mixture of cotton seed
oil and kerosene makes an efficient spray. The arsenical
solution is the cleanest to handle, but the fact that it is
poisonous must not be lost sight of. However, there is no
more danger attending its use than in the case other ar-
senical sprays used on plants.

The arsenical spray is made on a small scale by dis-
solving four ounces of washing soda and one and one
third ounces of white arsenic in five gallons of water by
boiling fifteen minutes. Cool to 140 degrees (or to a
point just a little too hot to bear) and add, in a fine
stream, an ounce of pine tar, stirring so it will mix.
Gould's barrel and bucket spray pump with 12 to 15
feet of high pressure hose fitted with a simplex nozzle.
using the largest size dies, is recommended as a suitable
apparatus for spraying cattle.


This is the method par excellence for destroying ticks
as well as other vermin that may infest live stock, and
is the method that the federal government recommends
most highly, because it admits of a thoroughness that is
impossible by any other method.
A dipping vat consists essentially of a 1500 gallon ce-
ment tank built into the ground and filled with an ar-
senical solution composed of white arsenic, eight pounds;
washing soda, twenty-four pounds; pine tar, one gallon;
to every five hundred gallons of water. The arsenic and
soda are dissolved in thirty or forty gallons of water by
boiling. The syrup-boiling kettle so commonly in use in
Florida would be excellent for the purpose; but it should
be carefully washed out after using for this purpose.
After the solution has cooled to a point that is just too
hot to bear, the tar is added in a fine stream and stirred
thoroughly. Now put the solution into the tank and add
enough water to make five hundred gallons. Repeat two
time more, and you have 1500 gallons in the tank.
These vats and other necessary arrangements for hand-
ling the cattle cost from thirty-five to one hundred dollars.
according to cost of labor and materials. Plans and speci-
fications will be gladly furnished. The arsenic, soda and
tar are also inexpensive materials. The infested animals

are made to jump into the vat one at a time, and as the
vat is too narrow for them to turn around, they are forced
to swim out at the other end where their feet strike an
incline and they walk out into a dripping pen to dry off.
This is repeated every two weeks fourteen times. After
each dipping the animals are again placed upon the pas-
tures, where they, of course, become reinfested.
As the life of the seed-tick is limited to four months,
unless it gets on a cow, horse or mule, it is readily seen
that those seed-ticks which failed in this have starved to
death; while those that did get on cattle and develop have
been destroyed in the dipping before the females could
mature, drop off, and lay eggs. Hence, the farm and cat-
tle so treated are ever after free of cow ticks, unless ticky
cattle are introduced. In this case, the whole process
would have to be repeated.


The present agitation for the eradication of the cattle
tick has a special significance to the medical profession.
Not only does the cow tick convey a blood parasite to the
cattle it bites,.but this parasite has some points in simi-
larity to the malarial organism in man, in that it is car-
ried by an insect, and that it lives in the red blood cor-
puscles, destroying these, reducing, in some cases, the
corpuscle count to 1,500,000.
Of special interest are the facts that this intra-corpus-
cular parasite, the Pyrosoma bigeminum, was discovered
by a medical man, Theobald Smith, M. D. The life his-
tory of the cattle tick, its host, was discovered by a med-
ical man, and the idea of tick eradication was first intro-
duced by the same medical man, Cooper Curtis, M. D.
It is, therefore, to these three discoveries that the final
riddance frcm the cattle industry of the formidable dis-
ease produced by this parasite will be due.
One of the chief glories to be added to those already

enumerated is the fact that the discovery of Dr. Theo-
bald Smith that this Pyrosoma bigeminum, carried by the
cattle tick, the cause of Texas fever, or Southern cattle
fever, or cattle malaria, was the first instance in the his-
tory of medicine, where it was proven by scientific in-
vestigation that a disease can be insect-borne. This was
truly an epoch in medical history.
It is also of special interest that the cow tick can be
eradicated. It is being eradicated. No other disease-
producing insects can be eradicated. They can be con-
Digressing, what a boon to humanity, could mosquitoes
and hookworms be eradicated. Malaria, yellow fever and
uncinariasis would cease for want of carriers, and a

Statement of Dr. C. F. Dawson, Veterinarian of the
State Board of Health of Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.,
Before the Committee on Agriculture and Foresty of
the United States Senate, January 4, 1913.

Dr. Dawson. Gentlemen of the committee, as Dr. Cary
has just said, I come from a State which has not yet
done anything in the line of tick eradication, but we are
very much interested in the subject and expect to take
it up soon. I have no doubt that the State Board of
Health will take from its funds an amount equal to that
of the other States which have started the work. I do
not think it well to ask for too much money from the
State Legislature or from the Board until we get in a
position to use it profitably. We have to know how to
handle the money before we can handle it judiciously.
We have in Florida about 850,000 animals. These at
$12.00 per head are worth $10,200,000. A three per cent.
loss equals $300,000. Most of them are known as scrub
animals, because they have been raised under Florida
conditions, and that means under conditions which the

tick produces. There is no section in Florida which is
not infested with ticks. Some of our Southern States
have sections, as we have already been told, where there
never have been ticks. But I think in our State ticks are
prevalent everywhere. We lose every year, according to
the census-and I believe the report is not as heavy as
it ought to be-3 per cent. That would cause us a loss of
$300,000 worth of cattle every year from what is known
as exposure. It is difficult to understand how an animal
would die from exposure in a climate like Florida, but we
must remember that exposure means tick infestation, and
that is all it does mean. If we could free Florida from
ticks, we would start up practically in that country a
new industry. While there are men there who have made
money in the cattle business, they have made it at ran-
dom, owning cattle by the thousands and not knowing
much about it, and never seeing them except when they
are driven up to be sold. But those people are few and
far between. We want it so that everybody can raise
cattle in that State profitably, but we cannot do it so long
as this tick is there to put a damper on it.
The best way to do is to form in every county cattle
improvement clubs-not bringing the tick to the surface
as being the one object for its existence there-clubs that
are called "cattle improvement clubs," and having tick
eradication as one of the things for which the club would
work. They would meet annually at Jacksonville, or some
other place, having a delegate from each one of the coun-
ties, and in that way we expect to carry on the education-
al side of the work. We are not expecting to jump in and
eradicate in any great amount of territory in Florida sud-
denly. It has got to be an educational campaign. We
have got to provide for this work men who can reach all
the small owners of cattle, because in a country of that
kind they live far away from railroads and are hard to
reach, and we have to pick out a certain class of men
who have influence with that particular kind of person. I

have an idea that our State would claim the distinction of
being the point at which the cattle tick first arrived in
America. St. Augustine being the oldest settlement, it
may be that we are responsible in a way.
The tick can be eradicated or destroyed and the Texas
fever can be stamped out, and it is the only one that can
be stamped out in that way. The peculiar life history of
the tick makes it possible, and if you eradicate the life
principle of the tick you then exterminate it. It is the
only insect in the world that can be exterminated, in my
opinion. It may be interesting to know, with regard to
this cattle tick, that the discovery of the tick carrying
the germ of the Texas fever was the first instance in the
history of medicine, where it was shown that diseases
are insect-borne. Since that time we have discovered
that malaria is carried by mosquitoes, and that yellow
fever is carried by mosquitoes. This particular tick is
the only one that carries this particular parasite that
causes disease in cattle greatly resembling malaria in


Directions for Constructing a Vat and Dipping Cattle to

Destroy Ticks.

(From Circular No. 183, Bureau of Animal Industry. By Graybill and
Ellenberger. Reprinted from Report of Florida State Board of Health on
Cattle Tick Eradication.)


Arsenical dips as agents for destroying cattle ticks
have come into much favor during the past few years.
This has been due to their efficacy, cheapness, the ease
with which they are prepared, and the comparatively
slight injury they cause to cattle when properly prepared
and used. Homemade dips" are the ones most commonly
used and are quite satisfactory in every way when ordi-
nary care is used in their preparation. Recently there
has been placed on the market a proprietary concentrated
arsenical dip which has given gobd results. This dip is
prepared for use by diluting it with cold water in the
proportions of 1 to 100. The only advantage in such a
dip is that comparatively little time is required in pre-
paring the bath, but this advantage is largely counter-
balanced by the fact that it is more expensive than a
homemade dip.


The formula most commonly used in making an arseni-
cal dip is the following:

Sodium carbonate (sal soda)....... pounds 24
Arsenic trioxid (white arsenis)......do 8
Pine tar ........................ gallon 1
Water sufficient to make 500 gallons.

If for any reason a stronger dip is desired, 25 pounds
of sodium carbonate and 10 pounds of arsenic trioxid
may be used i place of the amounts given in the above
formula. The stronger dip is required by the regulations
of the Bureau of Animal Industry in the dipping of cat-
tle which are to enter interstate commerce from quaran-
tined areas, but for ordinary eradication work when im-
mediate removal of the cattle to tick-free areas is not con-
templated it will probably be best to use the weaker solu-
tion, and this is especially true during hot weather and
when the animals are to be treated every two weeks.
In preparing the dip a large caldron or galvanized tank
is'required for heating the water in which to dissolve the
chemicals. Thirty or forty gallons of water should be
placed in the caldron or tank and brought to a boil. The
amount of sodium carbonate indicated in the formula is
then added and dissolved by' stirring. When this is ac-
complished, the required amount of arsenic is added and
dissolved in a similar manner. The fire is then drawn,
and the solution is permitted to cool to 140 degrees F.,
or this process may be hastened by the addition of cold
water. The pine tar is then added slowly in a thin stream
and thoroughly mixed with the solution by constant stir-
ring. This solution is diluted to 500 gallons before using.
If a larger caldron or tank is available for preparing
the dip, a greater quantity of solution may be prepared
at one time, always, of course, in the same proportion as
the above. In this way the time required in preparing
the amount of solution necessary to fill a vat is reduced
considerably. In case it is necessary to use a smaller con-
tainer, say of about the capacity of 25 gallons, only half
the amount of solution indicated should be prepared at

one time, the quantities of ingredients used being half
those in the formula. This will, however, require so much
time in preparing the amount of solution necessary to
fill a vat that when possible it is advisable to provide a
larger vessel for dissolving the chemicals.
The caldron or tank and utensils used in preparing the
dip should be kept free from grease or oil, as small quan-
tities of these may envelope particles of arsenic and pre-
vent or hinder the solution of the arsenic. It should also
be borne in mind that when hard water is used in the
preparation of the dip the dissolving of the sodium car-
bonate (sal soda) in the boiling water results in the for-
mation of a fine white or gray insoluble powder or pre-
cipitate of lime salts which may be taken for undissolved
arsenic, and thus lead to the belief that all the arsenic
has not gone into solution.
The arsenical solution may be poured into the vat as
rapidly as it is prepared until the amount required to fill
the vat, when properly diluted, has been made. The most
convenient way of diluting the solution is to run the water
into the vat through a hose or pipe. The capacity of the
vat at the depth to which it is necessary to fill it for dip-
ping, if not known, should be calculated, and for future
convenience the water line should be plainly marked at
some point on the wall of the vat. After the exact amount
of solution necessary to furnish diluted dip to fill the vat
has been prepared and placed in the vat all that is neces-
sary is to allow water to flow into the vat until the sur-
face of the dip reaches the mark made on the side of the
vat. For example, if the capacity of the vat is 2,000 gal-
lons, then four times the amount of solution necessary to
make 500 gallons of dip should be prepared, placed in the
vat, and the latter filled with water to the 2,000-gallon
mark. In case the vat leaks it will be necessary to modify
the above procedure by placing the concentrated arsenical
solution necessary to fill the vat in barrels and only plac-
ing it in the vat when the latter is nearly filled with water,

being careful to note, however, that there is ample capac-
ity remaining so that when the solution in the barrel is
added the dip surface will not be above the mark to which
the vat is to be filled.
The capacity of the vat planned in this circular at a
depth of 5 feet 3 inches is 1,470 gallons. In order to fill
it to that depth with dip it will be necessary to prepare
two batches of concentrated dip each containing the in-
gredients necessary for making 500 gallons of diluted dip
and a third batch containing 7 pounds 9 ounces of arsenic
and 22 pounds 3 ounces of sodium carbonate in case 8
pounds of arsenic are being used to the 500 gallons, or 9
pounds 7 ounces of arsenic and 22 pounds 8 ounces of
sodium carbonate in case 10 pounds of arsenic are being
used to the 500 gallons.
When for any reason it is not convenient to follow the
above method of diluting the dip, a stock solution may be
prepared in which the quantity of ingredients for 500 gal-
lons of diluted dip are dissolved in 50 gallons of water.
Nine parts of water to 1 part of this stock solution will
then give the proper dilution. The stock solution is found
very convenient for replenishing the dip in a vat when it
has become too low for dipping. A stock solution should
not be made in more concentrated form than that given
(50 gallons of stock for 500 gallons of dip), as the pine
tar does not remain properly mixed when the solution is
too concentrated.
The arsenical dip may be left in the vat and used re-
peatedly, replenishing it with fhe proper quantities of
water and stock solution when necessary. When, however,
the dip becomes filthy through the addition of manure and
dirt carried in by the cattle, the vat should be emptied,
cleaned, and filled with fresh fluid. The frequency with
which this should be done must be left to the owner, as
the condition of the dip at any period after it has been
made depends on a variety of conditions, such as the num-

ber of cattle dipped, the frequency of the dippings, etc.
Even though the dip may not become very filthy, its effi-
ciency decreases somewhat on standing, owing to gradual
oxidation of the arsenic. It is, therefore, advisable to re-
charge the vat if the dip is more than a month or six
weeks old, irrespective of its condition as to cleanliness.
At the conclusion of each dipping it is well to mark
the position of the surface of the dip on the side of the
vat in order to determine at the next dipping whether
there has been a change in the level of the dip. If the
surface of the dip has fallen, and it is known that the vat
does not leak, there has been a loss of water by evapora-
tion and consequently an increase in the strength of the
dip. In order to bring the dip down to its former
strength water should be run into the vat util the dip
surface reaches the mark made at the last dipping. If
the fall has been due to the vat leaking, the strength of
the dip has not been altered and consequently water alone
should not be added. If the dip surface has been raised by
rain the amount of water added in this way should be de-
termined by calculation, and for every nine gallons of
water one gallon of the stock solution previously men-
tioned should be used.
When not in use the vat should be tightly covered with
a waterproof cover to prevent evaporation on the one
hand and further dilution by rain on the other hand. Se-
curely covering the vat when not in use also lessens the
risk of accidental poisoning of stock and human beings.


On account of the fact that arsenic is a dangerous poi-
son, great care must be observed in making and using the
arsenical dip. From the time the arsenic is procured from
the druggist until the last particle of unused residue is
properly disposed of, the most scrupulous care should be
taken in handling it. Guessing at weights or measures or

carelessness in any particular is liable to result in great
damage, and not only may valuable live stock be de-
stroyed, but human beings may lose their lives as well.
Persons using the dip should bear in mind the possi-
bility of absorbing arsenic through cuts, scratches, or
abrasions of the skin and also by inhalations of vapors
from the boiler in which the dip is prepared. It should
be remembered that the absorption of even very small
quantities of arsenic, if repeated from day to day, is liable
ultimately to result in arsenical poisoning.
Cattle should always be watered a short time before
they are dipped. After they emerge from the vat they
should be kept on a draining floor until the dip ceases to
run from their bodies; then they should be placed in a
yard free of vegetation until they are entirely dry. If
the cattle are allowed to drain in places where pools of
dip collect, from which they may drink, or are turned
at once on the pasture, where the dip will run from their
bodies on the grass and other vegetation, serious losses
are liable to result. Crowding the animals before they
are dry should be avoided, and they should not be driven
any considerable distance within a week after dipping,
especially in hot weather. If many repeated treatments
are given the cattle should not be treated oftener than
every two weeks.
In addition to properly protecting vats containing ar-
senical dip when not in use, another precaution must be
observed when vats are to be emptied for cleaning. The
dip should not be poured or allowed to flow on land and
vegetation to which cattle or other animals have access.
The best plan is to run the dip into a pit properly pro-
tected by fences, and the dip should not be deposited
where it may be carried by seepage into wells or springs
which supply water used on the farm.
The above precautions are given to inform persons not
familiar with arsenic of its poisonous nature and the care

that should be observed in its use, and to stimulate a
proper care in those who know its poisonous nature and
yet might be careless or who may not know all the pre-
cautions that should be observed. Unfortunately, how-
ever, the giving and emphasizing of such precautions have
had the effect of arousing unwarranted rear of arsenic
on the part of some stockmen and farmers, and have
caused them, for a time at least, to refuse to undertake
its use in treating for cattle ticks. For the benefit of those
who may unduly fear arsenic, because of what has been
said, it should be stated that where reasonable care is
observed in following the precautions given there is little
danger of losses occurring. The arsenical dip has been
extensively used during the past five years in tick-eradica-
tion work in the tick-infested area, and considering the
number of cattle that have been dipped ihe losses have
been very small. Some of these have been definitely traced
to carelessness, and there is little doubt that if it had been
possible to investigate all losses the majority of them
would have been found to be due to this cause.



Measure approximately the number of gallons of solu-
tion left in the vat, and for each 100 gallons add six
pounds of slacked lime. Mix the whole thoroughly and al-
low it to stand for a couple of hours. Then, for each 100
gallons in the vat, take six pounds of ordinary commer-
cial copperas (sulphate of iron) and dissolve it in hot
water. Pour the hot copperas solution into the vat, stir
it up well and allow the whole to stand for ten or twelve
hours. The arsenic unites with the copperas (iron) and
will have fallen to the bottom of the vat as an insoluble,
harmless precipitate or sediment. The clear fluid on top
will contain no arsenic, and may be pumped, or syphoned
out on to the ground.

The sediment at the bottom of the vat may be taken
out and buried, if so desired, although it too will be non-


The procedure to be followed in dipping animals on a
farm depends on the end that is sought in undertaking
the treatment. If it is simply desired to reduce and keep
down the infestation of ticks on a farm, it will only be
necessary for the owner to keep his animals under obser-
vation and dip them when, according to his judgment,
.treatment is necessary to keep the ticks under control.
Such a procedure may be followed where the regular tick
eradication is not under way; that is, in instances in
which it is not yet practicable nor expedient to rid farms
completely of ticks.

If, however, it is desired to rid the farm completely of
itcks-and this should be the purpose in every case in
which it is practicable and expedient-it will be neces-
sary to dip all cattle, and also any horses, mules, or asses
that may harbor the cattle tick, at regular intervals until
all ticks have disappeared from the farm. The purpose
of such dipping is to prevent as nearly as possible any
engorged females dropping to the pasture and there lay-
ing eggs which in time may develop into young ticks. In
order to do this it is necessary to dip at intervals short
enough so that no tick after getting on the cattle will
have time to mature and drop off before the next dipping.
An interval between dippings of two weeks is considered
most satisfactory. This interval, however, may be in-
creased somewhat if necessary, but it should never be
greater than three weeks.

In freeing a farm of ticks the dipping should not be
discontinued until it has been determined with certainty
that the cattle and premises are free of ticks. It should

be borne in mind that it is almost impossible to determine
by a few inspections, even if carried out with great care,
that animals are free from ticks. If the treatment is dis-
continued and a few unobserved ticks are still on the
animals, these, on maturing and dropping, are likely to
give rise to a new brood of young ticks. Moreover, even
if the cattle are actually free from ticks, the fact should
not be lost sight of that there may still be engorged fe-
males, eggs and seed ticks on the premises. This is most
likely to be the case during the colder part of the year
when the development of the tick on the ground pro-
gresses slowly and also when any seed ticks that may be
present are likely to be slow in reaching the cattle be-
cause of inactivity resulting from the low temperature.


Measure the water poured in to fill up the vat. Then
figure the amounts of the materials necessary for that
quantity of water. These will be found to be about as
Arsenic Soda Pine Tar.
Ibs. lbs.
For 100 gallons. .... 2 5 3 pints
For 200 gallons. .... 4 10 7 pints
For 300 gallons .... 6 15 9 pints
For 400 gallons ... 8 20 14 pints
For 500 gallons.... 10 25 16 pints or 2 gallons
The concentrated solution for the smaller quantities
should be prepared in the same manner as when filling the
vat the first time, using the proportionate quantities of

Specifications for the Construction of a Concrete
Cattle-Dipping Vat.


The site selected for the location of the vat should be
dry and of sufficient size to admit of the construction of

the chute, the dripping pen, and at least two additional
pens-one for holding the cattle prior to dipping and the
other for retaining them after dipping until sufficiently


The excavation should be made 1 foot wider and 1 foot
longer than the inside dimensions of the vat and should
conform to its shape. The inside dimensions of the vat
are shown on the drawings (fig. I) and are as follows:
Lenth at top of vat, 26 feet; bottom, 12 feet. Width at
top, 3 feet; at bottom, 11/2 feet. Depth, 61/2 feet.
The sides and bottom of the excavation should be firm
and solid, as they are to serve for the outside forms in
casting the concrete. If it is necessary to do any filling
in order to conform to the shape of the vat, the filling
should be puddled and thoroughly rammed until solid,
because the stability of the concrete depends on the


The wooden forms should be constructed of 1-inch
boards and 2 x 4-inch braces, the boards being nailed to
the outside face of the braces as shown in the drawings.
The sides and end walls should be built 8 inches higher
than the surface of the ground, which should be level.


The concrete should be made of 1 part cement, by mea-
sure, 21/2 parts of sand, and 5 parts of broken rock or
gravel. The cement should be of a standard brand of
Portland, the sand clean and coarse, and the broken rock
from about l/-inch pieces to not larger than will pass in
every direction through a 1-inch ring.


Mixing.-The mixing should be done on a tight wooden
platform or in a tight box. The sand and stone should
be measured in a bottomless box, 21/2 feet long by 2 feet
wide by 1 foot deep, having a capacity of 5 cubic feet.
A convenient size of batch to mix is one consisting of 2
bags cement, 1 measure (5 cubic feet) of sand, and 2
measures (10 cubic feet) of stone.

2Etl Btttddtp Ji~r!o, l .o sUT[d{ -I.1 -ll' i

I/V IJ''Ae

1-- -----------T~C~1/N0

/ ~ 7,C ~'-'*

: ~2>_
/-- j
7 ~ ~ /- 'jj~'~

u u u y u uu uu V y
C~a~ic -- --p-r~- -- -----~-- -- -- P-Y -- ~

The sand is measured out first and the cement emptied
on top, after which the two materials are thoroughly
mixed together, dry. In the meantime the stone may be
measured out and thoroughly drenched with water. The
cement-sand mixture is mixed with water and the result-
ing mortar then combined with the stone. The stone
should be shoveled on the mortar, which has been pre-
viously spread out in a thin layer. Mixing should con-
tinue until he stone is thoroughly coated with mortar,
more water being added during the mixing process if
Laying.-Before laying the concrete the molds should
be set and thoroughly braced into place. The side forms
may be suspended in the excavation with their lower
edges 6 inches from the bottom by means of crosspieces
nailed to the uprights and of sufficient length to rest on
supports located several feet from the edges of the exca-
vation. The concrete for the -bottom and incline is de-
posited first, this mixture being of a consistency that
water will flush to the surface on ramming. The mix-
tures for the sides and end should be very wet and should
be thoroughly puddled into place. The consistency of the
concrete for the side walls should be such that it will
run off the shovel unless handled quickly.
The laying of the concrete should be done, if possible,
in one operation, in order that there may be no joints be-
tween the new and old work. If it becomes necessary to
lay the concrete on two or more days the surface on which
the new concrete is to be deposited should be washed
thoroughly clean and coated with grout of pure Portland
cement and water mixed to the consistency of cream. The
new concrete should be placed before the grout has set.
Extreme care should be taken to prevent dirt from fall-
ing in on top of the deposited concrete.
The form should not be removed until the concrete is
set, which in moderate weather will have taken place in
about 24 hours. In damp, cold weather at least 48 hours

should be allowed before removing the forms. It will
be advisable, especially in water-soaked ground, to allow
the forms to remain in place for one week before removal.
Finishing Coat.-Before applying the surface coat
dampen the walls and floor thoroughly. Cover the entire
exposed surface of the floor and walls with a coating one-
half inch thick of cement mortar composed of Portland
cement 1 part, sand 2 parts. Coating to be floated and
troweled to a smooth finish.


If the earth around the vat is thoroughly drained the
vat may be waterproofed by painting the surface coat, but
painting the surface will not give satisfactory results if
there is ground water to seep in. The paint may be good
hot pine tar, or gas-house tar cut with naphtha or gasoline
and applied with a brush, or after the mortar coat has
hardened the inside of the vat may be painted with an
oil-cement paint made as follows:* Mix enough water
with Portland cement to make a fairly stiff paste; add
to this 5 per cent of heavy petroleum residuum oil based
on the weight of the cement, and mix thoroughly until the
oil entirely disappears, then add more water and stir un-
til a paint of the consistency of cream is formed. This
paint should be applied with a brush and should be well
rubbed into the surface. Should the mortar coat be omit-
ted the paint coat should be applied directly to the sur-
face of the concrete.


As the exit incline is to have a false wooden floor, it
will be necessary to embed iron bolts in the concrete, to
which the wooden floor may be fastened. Before the con-

*These directions for the oil-cement paint are furnished by the Office
of Public Roads of the United States Department of Agriculture.

create incline is laid embed in the dirt three pieces of 2
by 4-inch scantling, placed at the top, center, and bot-
tom of the incline. The bolts should extend through these
pieces and should be placed with the head next to the dirt.
The bolts should be long enough to extend through the
concrete and the inch boards of the floor, so that the
wooden floor may be securely fastened.


Cover the slide with a sheet of boiler iron properly fast-
ened to the cement.


The cover of the vat consists of two leaves hinged on
posts set 3 feet in the ground along each side of the vat.
The leaves are two feet 6 inches wide, and when open rest
against the upper part of the posts to which they are
hinged and serve as splash boards. The details of the
hinge* used and the method of setting it are shown in
the drawings. When the leaves are open their lower
edges are just above the top of the side walls, which are
given a slope inward for the purpose of conducting the
dip running from the splash boards back into the vat.
Removable doors should be constructed to close the tri-
angular openings .left at the ends of the vat when the cover
is closed. The hinges may be made by a blacksmith.


Construct a dripping pen about 12 by 15 feet at the
head of the exit incline. The floor should be of concrete
prepared as previously described for the vat and laid in a

*This hinge and the method of setting it for the cover of a dipping
vat have been copied from an article by William Taylor Heslop in the
Agricultural Journal of the Union of South Africa. Pretoria. Vol. 1,
No. 1, 1911, Pp. 38-43.

similar manner. The floor should be pitched toward a
corner of the pen, where a pipe should be laid in the floor
to carry the drippings into a barrel sunk in the ground.
The drippings thus caught may be returned to the vat
after settling. The foor should be roughened to prevent
the cattle from slipping.


The chute leading to the vat should be built 30 inches
wide and 20 feet long, and the receiving and retaining
pens should be of a size to take care of the animals to
be dipped.



8 pieces 1 by 12 inches by 14 feet long.
13 pieces 1 by 12 inches by 12 feet long.
2 pieces 1 by 12 inches by 9 feet long.
2 pieces 1 by 12 inches by 6 feet long.
2 pieces 1 by 12 inches by 4 feet long.

8 pieces 2 by 4 inches by 8 feet long.
2 pieces 2 by 4 inches by 7 feet long.
2 pieces 2 by 4 inches by 6 feet long.
2 ,pieces 2 by 4 inches by 4 feet long.
2 pieces 2 by 4 inches by 2 feet long.
7 pieces 1 by 6 inches by 12 feet long for crosspieces for inside of


7 pieces 6 by 6 inches by 10 feet long for posts.
10 pieces 1 by 8 inches by 16 feet long for rails of pen.
5 pieces 1 by 8 inches by 12 feet long for side rails of pen.
5 pieces 1 by 8 inches by 8 feet long for side rails of pen.

The covers can be made from the lumber used in mak-
ing the forms, and the lumber for the exit incline can be
gotten in the same way.
The 4 x 4-inch posts to which the cover is hinged may
be made from 2 x 4 stuff by spiking together.
End form to be made solid.


6 bolts, % by 10 inches, with nuts and washers, for false floor of
1 sheet of -4inch boiler iron cut to shape of slide; plate bored and
countersunk for four screws.
4 pairs hinges for covers.
3 heavy T hinges and screws for gate of dripping pen.
1 heavy iron bolt to fasten gate.



Cement, 10% barrels (42 bags).
Sand, 3%4 cubic yards.
Stone, 6Y4 cubic yards.


Cement, 51 barrels (22 bags).
Sand, 1% cubic yards.
Stone, 31/ cubic yards.

A 26-foot vat has been used extensively for eradication
purposes with satisfactory results. However, if it is de-
sired to lengthen the body of the vat on account of large
numbers of cattle to be treated, or to make it conform to
the bureau's requirements for the treatment.of cattle for
movement as non-infectious, there should be added to the
amount of concrete material for each lineal or running
foot, cement, 0.37 barrel; sand 0.12 yard; stone, 0.24 yard.

By some a dripping chute is regarded more satisfactory
than a dripping pen. One of the advantages thaf it has is
that the cattle are held in line in the order in which they
have been dipped, thus making it possible to remove one
or more of them at a time as soon as they have drained
sufficiently, in order to make room for others. In using
the dripping pen this is not practicable and it is nec-
essary to wait until the last animal dipped has drained
sufficiently and then remove them all together.

In case it is desired to construct a dripping chute it
should be located at the head of the exit incline in line
with the vat. It should be about 36 inches wide. The

length will depend on the number of cattle it is desired
to accommodate at one time, it being necessary to al.
low 4 to 5 feet for each. A length of from 20 to 40 feet
is considered a convenient size for small herds. The floor
should be made of concrete and sloped toward the vat.
The dip should not be permitted to run directly into the
vat, but should be collected in a barrel to settle, as
shown in the case of the dripping pen. The floor at the
sides should be raised about 2 inches in the form of a
curb to keep the dip from running off.


The following companies quote prices on arsenic, sal-
soda and pine tar, used in the preparation of the stand
ard arsenic solution for dipping and spraying cattle to
destroy ticks; F. O. B. point of shipment:
Gulf Pine Product Company, J. T. Myers, President,
Waycross, Ga., quote:
Pine tar, barrel lots, 45 to 50 gallons in barrel, $5.00
per barrel.
Columbia Drug Company, Savannah, Ga., quote: Ar-
senic, 7 and 8 cents per pound; sal-soda from 1 to 11/-
cents per pound, depending on quality. Pine tar quoted
on application, depending on quantity.
The Groover-Stewart Drug Company, Jacksonville, Fla.,
quote: Arsenic trioxide in 71-lb. lots (enough for three
fillings of vat), 8 cents per pound; sal-soda in 211-lb. lots
(for three vats) at 2 cents per pound.
Following is the quotation from the Tampa Drug Co:
"Arsenic, in kegs, 51/2c; Sal-Soda, per bbl., 114c; Pine Tar,
bbls., per gal., 35c, f. o. b. New York." Pine tar has been
quoted locally (Tampa) at 27c.
Following is the quotation from the Phoenix Supply
Co., of Atlanta, Ga.: "Sal Soda in bbls. at Ic per pound
f. o. b. Atlanta."

By F. C. ELLIOT, Chief Drainage Engineer.

This article is written for those who may be inter-
ested in the drainage of the Everglades of Florida. In
the following pages is briefly set forth some of the most
important facts, conditions and conclusions relative to
the reclamation of Florida's great inundated prairie, des-
tined in the near future to become one of the most produc-
tive agricultural regions in the world.
Much of the information here offered is in answer to
questions which have been selected from hundreds of let-
ters written by parties making inquiries relative to the
Everglades. Other information is added in order to, in
some degree, complete and carry out a logical arrange-
ment and treatment of the subject.
In the caldron which boils eternally over the political
fires every subject, sooner or later, comes to the top, and
so the Everglades Drainage Project did not take shape
purely as an engineering undertaking, but had its origin
in the form of a political plank in a party platform, and
was in that way brought to the notice of the public. In
the campaign of 1905, the successful candidate for Gov-
ernor was elected on a platform pledged to the drainage
of the Everglades. And since that time, notwithstanding
the many obstacles necessary to be overcome, reclamation
by drainage has, on its own merits, gradually become one
of the fixed policies of the State.
It is hoped that these pages may, to those who read'
them, serve to set forth in true light and afford to some
extent, at least, a correct idea of the subject under dis
cussion. From the language used, technical terms have
been eliminated, as far as possible.

The Everglades are situated in the southeastern portion
of the Florida Peninsula, below the 27th parallel. Gen-
erally speaking, they lie south of Lake Okeechobee, have a
width of about forty-five miles and a length of nearly one
hundred miles, with an area of 2,860,00 acres. The Ever-
glades Drainage District includes the Everglades proper
and contiguous lands embraced in the same drainage area
or basin. The District has an area of 4,300,000 acres. The
surface of the Glades is twenty-one feet above sea level,
just south of Lake Okeechobee, and slopes gently toward
the south at the rate of about three inches per mile. West
of Miami the surface of the glades is from six to eight feet
above sea level. The glades are in no way a swamp. They
present the appearance of a broad, level, grass-covered
prairie. They are covered almost uniformly with a growth
of sawgrass. There are practically no trees in the Ever-
glades. Clumps of small bushes are found near the east-
ern edge and in the southern portion. Along the eastern
border, where the Glades merge into the higher land, con-
siderable growth of cypress occurs, usually of small size,
though in some places fine timber is found. On the west-
ern edge of the glades occur fine strips of prairie, now.
utilized as cattle ranges. A heavy growth of custard
apple fringes the southern shores of Lake Okeechobee.
At their southern extremity, the glades merge almost im-
perceptibly into the tide water of the sea.
The soil of the Everglades consists chiefly of muck,
varying in depth from ten to twelve feet just south of the
lake, to three or four feet in the southern portion of the
glades. The muck is reduced to a thin layer at the edge
of the glades, finally giving way to the sand of the sur
rounding country. This muck soil was formed by the
dying, falling and decaying of each successive growth of
vegetation. In their normally inundated condition the
Everglades were covered by from one inch to one and one-
half feet of water.

'; ; r

Lake Okeechobee, Uncontrolled, the Greatest Menace to the Undrained
Glades, But When Brought Under Control Will Become the Most Valuable
Asset Which the Reclaimed Glades Will Possess.

The vegetation in the Upper Glades is much denser, as
a general rule, than in the Lower, or Southern Glades,
and as the muck soil is produced by fallen vegetation, it
would naturally be supposed that the muck would be
deeper over the areas of densest growth. Such is, in fact,
the case, the muck being ten to twelve feet thick near Lake
Okeechobee, where the vegetable growth is heaviest, and
thinner, as a rule, in the Southern Glades, where vegeta-
tion is and has been less dense. Of course there are other
agencies which also affected the thickness of the muck,
but the one above referred to is the one most important
under normal glade conditions.
A log thoroughly and continuously immersed in fresh
water will be preserved for ages. Timbers have been re-
moved from fresh water that are known to have been sub-
merged for hundreds of years and found to be in a fair
state of preservation. And so this accumulation of muck
has been made possible by the preserving action of the
water which covered it continually and prevented, thor-
ough decomposition which would have occurred had the
ground been much exposed to the air.
Soil, generally speaking, is formed by the decomposition
of the rocks of the surrounding country. Often the soil
is transported far from the place where it was originally
formed. As a general rule, soil is the product of the de
structive agencies of nature. Not so with the soil of the
Everglades, which is an exception to the general rule.
Everglade soil is a product of constructive agencies. It
has built itself up by its own growth of vegetation, and
has actually created itself, to a very large extent at least,
by this constructive process.
The soil is underlaid by a bed of limestone, chiefly
oolitic in character, rather soft, but very jagged and un-
even along the eastern edge and in the southern portion
of the glades. This gives place to a hard, smooth slab
limestone further toward the interior of the glades. This
great bed of limestone forms a broad, shallow, flat-bot-

tomed trough or flat basin, slightly turned .up at the
outer edges, these outer edges forming what is commonly
called the rock rim of the Everglades. Down through the
interior of this broad, shallow, flat-bottomed rock trough,
from north to south, the slope or dip which is toward the
south is very slight, so slight that for all practical pur-
poses this great limestone bed inside of the outer edges of
the same may be considered as an immense level floor.
More especially is this the case in the upper half of the
glades. This condition exists from the south shore of
Lake Okeechobee eastward and westward to the edge of
the glades, and southward to a line drawn generally west-
ward from Fort Lauderdale. Westward from Fort Lau-
derdale, the flat slab rock formation, common to the upper
Glades, begins to change and is replaced toward the south
by the softer limestone. The rock floor maintains its
generally level character, but is full of small pot holes,
with sharp, jagged edges, very much like an immense
honey comb. This characteristic extends all the way from
the line west of Ft. Lauderdale to the southern extremity
of the glades, gradually dipping toward the sea until tide-
water is reached in the proximity of the Thousand
Islands and White Water Bay.
On this great limestone floor lies the muck soil of the
Everglades, thicker at Lake Okeechobee, thinner at the
edges of the glades and toward the south. The soil rest-
ing on this level rock floor, being thick at the lake and
thin toward the south, gives to the surface of the glades
that gradual slope which permits the waters overflowing
from Lake Okeechobee and the waters from natural rain-
fall on the glades, to gradually find their way, seeping
through soil and meandering through sawgrass southward
to the sea. But by far the greater portion of the water
on the glades passes into the air by evaporation and is in
that way disposed of. At a few places along the eastern
edge of the Glades, notably at New River and Miami River,
the water broke through the rock rim of the glades and



-. : ~44-L. ~t

made its way directly to the sea. Other portions of this
water from the glades makes its way slowly and tediously
through the entire length of the glades to the sea at the
southern extremity of the peninsula.
Lake Okeechobee, the second largest body of fresh
water wholly within the United States, is nearly circular
in form, about thirty-two miles in diameter, and has an
average depth of about fifteen feet. Its normal elevation is
twenty and one-half feet above the level of the sea, and
through the varying seasons of the year fluctuates through
a vertical range of about two and one-half feet between
high water in the rainy season and low water in the dry
season. The banks of the lake on the west and south are
low and marshy. On the east a low sand bank confines
its waters. This lake is the catch basin receiving the run-
off from a watershed to the northward about seven times
its own size, finding inlet to the lake by numerous creeks
and rivers, the principal of which, and by far the most
important, being the Kissimmee River. During the rainy
season an enormous quantity of water is discharged from
this watershed into the lake, and continues in less amount
during other seasons. Formerly, in its natural condition,
when the lake became filled to overflowing, it discharged
its water over the low shores on the south, inundating the
Everglades, adding its quota of water to that of local pre-
cipitation on the glades, which escaped very slowly on ac-
count of the insignificant slope, lack of channels, and the
obstruction to flow offered by the dense growth of saw
The waters which inundate the Everglades are of two
kinds: First, waters of overflow from Lake Okeechobee;
second, waters of local rainfall on the glades. If Lake
Okeechobee be lowered so that it cannot overflow its banks
one portion of the water which now inundates the Glades
will be removed. If the excess rainfall on the Glades be
carried off, the other portion of the water which floods
this area would be removed.

The plan for drainage proposes two general things:
First, to construct a large canal by the shortest feasible
route from Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic, for the pur-
pose of lowering the lake about four (4) feet and bring-
ing it under control; second, to build drainage canals
through the Glades, connecting with the sea, for the pur-
pose of carrying off the excess local rainfall. The lake
control canal will be approximately 25 miles long, 150 to
200 feet wide, and will have a 10 to 12 feet depth of flow.
The Everglades drainage canals proper will be approxi-
mately sixty feet wide and ten feet deep. The accom-
panying map shows the general arrangement of main
canals and the suggested plan for the major system.
The conditions existing in the Everglades are most
favorable for economical drainage by means of canals
operating under gravity alone. The elevation of the sur-
face above sea level and the distance from the sea are such
that the canals which will be constructed will have a
sufficient grade to give a good current for carrying off the
water, a mile to two miles per hour, without making ex-
cessive cuts. The slope of the land surface to the south-
ward, about three inches per mile, is nearly the slope of
the bottom of the canals which run southward from Lake
Okeechobee, so that the depth of cut for the canals
through the Glades from north to south is almost the same
along the entire length of the canals. This is of great
value in the economical construction of the main canals,
which traverse nearly the entire glades from north to
south. Neither is the slope so steep that currents with
dangerous velocities will result. Also the water stage in
the canals can be controlled by a few simple and economi-
cal locks and dams, which would not be the case if the
Glades had steeper or uneven slopes, making necessary
great lifts in the canal locks and great numbers of dams
and controlling works.
In order to make the drainage of the Everglades thor-
oughly effective, it will be necessary to construct a system

I 7


of lateral canals and farm drainage ditches which will
have for their object the transportation of the excess
rainfall to the main canals. These laterals may also be
used to draw off the water from the main canals if it
should be required for purposes of irrigation. The main
canals have been favorably located for an economical ar-
rangement of lateral drains, and providing these will be
a simple matter when the main canals shall be ready to
receive them. The lands bordering Lake Okeechobee will
be drained into the lake as it is lowered.
Mention has been made of controlling works. These
controlling works are intended primarily to conserve the
waters of the canals and lake for navigation and irriga-
tion, but they will also be advantageous for protective
purposes against overflow, and their location and ar-
rangement for this service is also given due consideration.
It is proposed to build one of these structures, consisting
of a lock and wing dam, with spill-ways or sluice gates,
near the head of each canal, at a distance of six or eight
miles from Lake Okeechobee, and others at proper inter-
vals through the canals. By their use, it will be possible
to control the water stage in the lake and regulate the
flow in the canals. The controlling works, which will be
constructed in the large control canal connecting Lake
Okeechobee directly with the sea, will be located near its
lower end.
When the Everglades drainage canals proper will be
called upon to carry their full capacity of water from
local rainfall on the Glades adjacent to them, they will
be shut off from Lake Okeechobee by means of the con-
trolling works near the upper ends so that they will not
be burdened by water from the lake, and may thus be
permitted to operate to their full efficiency for removing
local rainfall. During the rainy season, when the lake
is receiving large quantities of water, the spillways and
gates in the dam of the large control canal will be opened
wide, so as to permit the maximum flow of water through

the canal, and thus afford relief to the lake. As the rainy
season passes and the water is lowered, the gates and
spillways will be so adjusted as to regulate the flow of
water through them and prevent Lake Okeechobee from
becoming so low or shallow as to impair navigation.

Lake Okeechobee is a navigable body of water, held by
the United States Government to be under its control and
jurisdiction, and so important does it consider the mat-
ter of conserving its water and preserving its navigability
that the War Department is ever watchful of this great
inland waterway. Provision has been made to lower the
level of the lake about four feet, or to an elevation of
sixteen feet above sea level. This will leave an ample
depth for the navigable requirements of the lake, and at
the same time furnish a margin through which the waters
may safely fluctuate and also prove advantageous as a
storage reservoir for holding over water which may be
used during the dry season, and as a catch basin for re-
ceiving and storing temporarily the waters from exces-
sive rainfall, which frequently occurs in that region.
The principal function of the canals is, of course, drain-
age, and their arrangement for this purpose is of first
and dominating importance. Of importance also, and
which has received consideration, is the question of nav-
igability of the canals, in order that they may provide
whatever water transportation is incident upon their di-
mensions. It is expected that the main canals will be nav-
igable at all seasons and afford passage for vessels up to
85 feet in length by 22 feet beam, having a draft of 3 feet.
The size of the lock chamber limits the size of the vessels
to these dimensions.
The Everglades were a great unsurveyed territory. In
the early days the government surveyors detailed for work
in this part of Florida did not penetrate the Glades. They
confined their operations largely to the dry land and did
not contemplate in their work the great, inundated area

reported in their field notes as impracticable and impene-
trable marsh. In connection with the drainage work a
plan of surveys has been inaugurated, to include the Ever-
glades proper. The principal base lines have already been
projected, half a million acres have been surveyed into
townships and sections, and the task of sub-dividing this
vast and hitherto unsurveyed area is now being carried
out as rapidly as is warranted, till in time it will be as
easy to locate an acre of land in the Everglades as any-
where else in the State.
The great tract of land composing the Southern portion
of Florida was, until recently, a valuable but neglected
asset in the State's development. In fact, anything to be
appreciated must first be known and understood. From
the time that these millions of acres of land were granted
to the State by Act of Congress of 1850, until the last few
years, the region south of Lake Okeechobee, marked "Ever-
glades," had no particular identity in the minds of the
public. It had not been penetrated except occasionally by
a stray- scientist, an adventurous hunter, or a traveler
with more curiosity than common, and it had never been
surveyed. It was considered much in the same light as
the African Jungles were before Livingston and Lord
Stanley made their excursions into the interior of those
dangerous and obscure regions. There was little or noth-
ing known of its fauna, its flora, or its soil. It was known
that the Seminole Indians had their home -on the edge
of this vast inundated prairie and subsisted by hunting
and fishing, but even they could not find a resting place
in the interior, owing to inundation and continual over-
flow. So, from 1850 to 1900, a period of fifty years, this
great asset of the State lay almost unexplored, with al-
most nothing accomplished in the way of practical devel-
While thousands swarmed to the Alaskan gold fields
and the Klondyke, and the fame of those regions spread
the world over; while irrigation projects had taken hold

upon the West and theretofore arid lands were made to
blossom and bear rich harvests; while dams and dykes and
levees were confining waters, developing water power and
protecting river valleys from overflow; while splendid
canals were being built for navigation, irrigation and
drainage in other parts of the world, and stupendous en-
gineering problems were being met and solved by the most
scientific minds of the age; Lake Okeechobee, fed by nu-
merous lakes and rivers from the country above and by
heavy tropical rainfall, was gorging itself to overflow and
discharging its waters unmolested eastward, southward
and westward over the millions of acres of muck and saw-
grass known as the Everglades, thus concealing and ren-
dering dormant an area as great in promise and probably
as great in wealth as any other like area in the world.
From an engineering standpoint, the practicability of
draining the Everglades has been amply determined by
careful and thorough investigation of the conditions
which control and govern the situation. Other undertak-
ings of'a similar nature have been successfully accom-
plished elsewhere, which assist us in forecasting the re-
sult. In Louisiana similar lands have been drained which
are thirty to forty miles from the sea, with an elevation
of only six or eight feet above sea level. The Everglades,
thirty or forty miles from the sea, are fifteen to twenty
feet above sea level. In Holland, lands have been re-
claimed from inundation and are in state of successful
cultivation today which are actually below the level of
the sea. The Fens of Eastern England, comprising three-
fourths of a million acres, were formerly inundated by
the high tides of the North Sea. That great area, having
an elevation of only four or five feet above sea level, pre-
sented a far more difficult problem for its successful recla-
mation by drainage than do the Everglades of Florida.
Yet, that formerly almost valueless waste is today a
national asset of great value, dotted with thriving towns
and traversed by canals and railroads. The Everglades

Issued by the Chief' Drainage Engineer
Tal lahasee, Fla Februory 16,1915
Reas 30a 31 32 33 3,4 35 36 37 as 39 40 41 42

t j

40 0


S ST LoCIE CANAL (Contract 1)

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-- WEST PALM BEACH (Undlr cons+ruc.-ion)
o Ci-nla. coi% -rou -tcd
Proposed (4rcmols
















of Florida, generally speaking, south of Lake Okeechobee,
have an elevation of from fifteen to twenty feet above sea
level. It does not necessitate great engineering perception
to discover the advantage which the above comparison of
elevation indicates in favor of the drainage of the Ever-
Five main drainage canals connecting Lake Okeechobee
with tide water and traversing the Glades are under con-
struction. One of these has two branches. Three auxil-
iary canals have been constructed. The Caloosahatchee
Canal is open, connecting Lake Okeechobee with the Gulf,
via the Caloosahatchee River. The North New River Canal
is open from Ft. Lauderdale to Lake Okeechobee. The
Miami Canal and its branch, the South New River Canal,
are open from the lake to the Atlantic. None of the above
canals are, however, fully completed, and are discharging
only a fractional portion of their ultimate capacity. Work
on the West Palm Beach Canal was begun in Januar.",
1914; twelve miles of the same are now open. A water-
way is open from Ft. Lauderdale on the Atlantic tj Ft.
Myers on the Gulf, via the North New River Canal, Lake
Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee Canal and river. Two
or three convenient and comfortable hotels for the accom-
modation of guests are located at and near Ritta, near
the head of the Miami Canal, on the south shore of Lake
Okeechobee. The distance from Ft. Lauderdale to Ritta,
via the canal and lake, is sixty-nine miles; and from
Ritta to Ft. Myers, via the lake, canal and Caloosahatchee
River, is eighty-five miles. Recently the Florida East
Coast Railroad completed its branch to Okeechobee, a
town on Taylor's Creek, about three miles from the north
end of the lake; and a regular train schedule is in opera-
tion. From this place the various points on the shore of
Lake Okeechobee are accessible.
Contract for the construction of the Lake Okeechobee
Control Canal has recently been let to a reliable dredging
company. The excavation of this canal will require the

removal of approximately twenty million cubic yards of
material and will require two and a half years to cut
an opening from the lake to tide water, and four years
in all for its full completion.
The total length of canals now open in the Everglades
is 280 miles. The total excavation amounts to, in round
numbers, 21,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock, at a
total cost to date, including all expenses of whatever na-
ture connected with the drainage work, of $2,550,000.00.
The canals now contracted for, or under construction,
emptying into the sea from the Everglades, if placed side
by side, would be equivalent to a river about five hundred
feet wide, flowing ten feet deep.
There is no question as to the feasibility of draining the
Everglades. This has been passed upon by some of the
best engineers in the country. They are all emphatic in
their statement of this fact. For further information as
to feasibility of drainage, see U. S. Senate Document No.
379, being the report of the Florida Everglades Engineer-
ing Commission, composed of Isham Randolph, M. 0.
Leighton and Edmund T. Perkins. The following is
quoted from the above report:
"Our conclusion, based on our study of ascertained
facts, is that the drainage of the Florida Everglades is
entirely practicable, and can be accomplished at a cost
which the value of the reclaimed land will justify, the cost
per acre being very small."
See also Senate Document No. 89, entitled, "Everglades
of Florida," containing much detailed information on the
Everglade lands are essentially agricultural. Experience
has verified the original belief that the lands of the Ever-
glades would become extremely valuable for agricultural
purposes when drained. Their great natural fertility,
adaptability to large variety of crops, responsiveness te
cultivation, economy of preparation, fertilization, cultiva


tion, etc., and high degree of frost immunity, make these
lands especially valuable. Early vegetables are marketed
before those from any other part of the United States,
and a large number of general farm crops grow well in
the Everglades. A visit to the south shore of Lake Okee-
chobee, or to the truck farms on South New River Canal,
or to the gardens west of Miami, where many varieties of
agricultural products are grown winter and summer, will
demonstrate the fertility of Everglades land beyond any
sort of questions. Some of the crops successfully grown
in reclaimed portions of the Glades are: Tomatoes, po-
tatoes, peppers, beans, egg plants, onions, cabbage, cucum-
bers, strawberries, radish, beets, lettuce, celery and other
vegetables; sugar cane, rice, corn, alfalfa, kafir corn, sor-
ghum, millet, milo maize, many grasses and other staple
crops; banana, guava, avacado, papaya and other fruits.
Land where these products are growing have not been re-
claimed long enough to bring many kinds of fruit trees
into bearing, but young trees of lemon, lime, grape fruit,
oranges and others, are thriving.
The soil of the Everglades being composed chiefly of
decayed vegetable matter is highly nitrogeneous. It is con-
sequently a rich but not well balanced soil, and the appli-
cation of mineral fertilizers, especially phosphoric acid
and potash, have been found to be highly beneficial in
greatly increasing the yield and improving the quality of
the product. The following extract is taken from the
Florida Quarterly Bulletin of the Department of Agri-
culture, January 1, 1915, on the analysis of Florida muck
"A series of analyses of saw grass muck soils, from the
saw grass territory of the upper St. John's valley, in St.
Lucie County, will be found under the proper heading.
It will be noted that these analyses are practically identi-
cal with those of the Everglade muck soils, reported in
1912, analyses by the U. S. Department of Agriculture
and the Florida State Laboratory, samples of Everglade

soils, taken in 1912, in duplicce by the representatives
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the State of
Florida, being practically concordant.

"These analyses, together with many others, made by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, and the Florida State Lab-
oratory, show that the 'saw grass' muck land of all parts
of the State, in their original unreclaimed condition, or
soon after being unwateredd' and previous to cultivation;
those of the upper St. Johns and Oklawaha Rivers (Lake
Apopka saw grass), the Kissimmee Valley, the Ever-
glades, and similar soils in all parts of the State, in large
and small bodies, are of similar chemical composition;
that when properly drained, aerated and oxidized, by
plowing and proper cultivation, become a 'fine soil of
wonderful productiveness,' producing large crops of corn,
cane, rice, potatoes and similar farm crops, without the
addition of commercial fertilizers, when planted in the
proper season and properlycultivated. Also that the in-
telligent use of commercial fertilizers, particularly potash
and phosphoric acid, hastens decomposition, quickens ni-
trification, and hastens the maturity of early truck or
vegetable crops, greatly adding to the market value of
the same."

An average of thirty-four representative muck samples
taken throughout the Everglades shows by chemical an-
alysis the following content of plant food: Ammonia
3.10%, Phosphoric Acid 0.18%, Potash 0.08%.

The drainage will not become thoroughly effective, and
lands in the Glades cannot be cultivated with entire
safety against damage from overflow until the large canal
for controlling Lake Okeechobee shall have been con-
structed, and the main drainage canals traversing the
Everglades are well on toward completion. Conditions
gradually improve as the work progresses.


The health of the men residing and working in the Ever-
glades is good.
The Everglades must be seen and studied to be under-
stood. There is no other body of lands like it in the United
States. Opinions of persons who have never made an ex-
tended examination of the Everglades should not be ac-
cepted until verified.

In the drainage of this great inundated prairie there
is being developed the most valuable natural resource
which the State of Florida possesses. The Everglades
Drainage Project is the greatest work of reclamation be-
ing carried on in the world today.


The total area of the State of Florida amounts to ap-
proximately thirty-seven and a half million acres (37,-
500,000). Of this amount, according to report of the
Department of Agriculture, April 21, 1908, nineteen mil-
lion eight hundred thousand acres (19,800,000) are sub-
ject to inundation at times, but which are reclaimable
permanently for agricultural purposes and for settle-
ment and development.
This wet area is known to be made up in large part of
soils which, when reclaimed, will become among the most
fertile of Florida. It is clear, therefore, that the develop-
ment of this great area is of immense importance to the
State. This development is primarily dependent upon
During the past few years the general subject of drain-
age has begun to be recognized as one of the greatest
forces in the development of the State, of increasing its
agricultural productivity, of enlarging the usable and
valuable area, of improving health and sanitary condi-
tions, and of affording thousands of across of new lands
for settlement and cultivation, which without drainage
would be valueless.
On March 5, 1914, a convention was held at Bar-
tow, Florida, for the purpose of organizing a drainage
association for the furtherance of drainage in Florida.
For the reasons above given, this Department considers
that the subject of drainage is of such great importance
from an agricultural standpoint alone, that the Depart-
ment deems it to be a proper subject for the Agricultural
Quarterly Bulletin and publishes in full herein the pro-
ceedings of the said convention.


Organization Meeting

BARTOW, MARCH 5, 1914-


Whereas, Important problems relative to the public
health and prosperity, involving the eradication of mala-
ria and kindred maladies, the construction and mainten-
ance of good roads, the development of waterways for
transportation purposes, the reclamation of our swamp
and overflowed lands for agricultural and sanitary pur-
poses, the conservation of our agricultural resources
through the restoration and preservation of our soil fer-
tility, and other kindred problems, now confront us and
must be met by the citizens of Florida; and
Whereas, In the opinion of the undersigned, as well
as others who are interested in and who have given much
thought to the questions involved, there is urgent need
for a State Association or congress having for its objects
the study and solution of these problems, and the initia-
tions and prosecution of plans, and the diffusion of
knowledge pertaining thereto; and
Whereas, The Board of Trade of the City of Bartow,
Florida, and the Board of Supervisors of the Peace Creek
Drainage District, have extended an invitation to those
interested, to meet in said City of Bartow for the purpose
of effecting such organization; now,
Therefore, We, the undersigned, do hereby call a meet-
ing, to be convened in the City of Bartow, Florida, on
the 5th day of March, 1914, at 10 A. M., to be composed
of and participated in by all those who are interested in
the solution of the aforesaid problems and the develop-
ment of the various resources of the State of Florida, as
well as the improvement of the public health and welfare
generally, for the purpose of perfecting a statewide or-
ganization having for its objects and purposes the solu-
tion of the aforesaid problems, and the study and dis-
semination of knowledge relative to matters that may
properly be brought before such an organization.

At the said meeting it is desired that an organization
be perfected and a constitution adopted, and such other
steps taken in the premises as may be deemed proper and
expedient. All persons who are interested are invited
and urgently requested to attend said meeting.
A short, but interesting, program will be prepared and
given to the press in due time, and persons of national
reputation, and who are recognized authority on ques-
tions enumerated, will be present.
This February 3, 1914.
Member Executive Committee, National Drainage Con-
gress, for Florida.
Mayor of the City of Bartow, and Honorary Vice Presi-
dent, National Drainage Congress.
President Board of Trade, Bartow.
Secretary Board of Supervisors, Peace Creek Drainage


Pursuant to the foregoing call some sixty persons, rep-
resenting about fifteen counties in Florida, met at the
Court House in Bartow, March 5, 1914.
The meeting was called to order by Geo. W. Oliver, the
Executive Committeeman for Florida, of the National
Drainage Congress. On motion of Secretary Mears, of
the Bartow Boarl of Trade, Hon. F. C. Bowyer, President
of the Tampa Board of Trade, was unanimously chosen
Chairman of the meeting, and Mr. S. F. Sherman, Secre-
tary of the Apalachicola Chamber of Commerce, was
elected Secretary.
T. T. Hatton, representing his father, Hon. R. C. Hat-
ton, Mayor of the City of Bartow, in a few well chosen
words welcomed the delegates in his usual happy and
pleasing manner; to which Secretary Sherman responded
on behalf of those in attendance.
Mr. Geo. W. Oliver was called to address the meeting
briefly on "Some of the objects of the meeting and why
it was called." He stated that he had discovered some two
years ago, after careful investigation, that Florida did
not have a modern drainage law, and that the old drain-
age laws were entirely inadequate, tending to retard in-
stead of facilitate the drainage of wet and overflowed
lands; that, together with some others in Polk County
who were interested, he had attended the National Drain-
age Congress at New Orleans in 1912; that they had pro-
cured copies of the drainage laws of many different States
wherein reclamation of lands by drainage had been suc-
cessfully accomplished by the organization of drainage
districts; that he.had attended the session of the Nation
Drainage Congress at St. Louis in 1913; that upon his re-
turn from St. Louis the Florida Legislature was in ses-
sion, and that he and others interested determined to ask

the Legislature to enact a modern drainage law, under
which those owning lands requiring reclamation by drain-
age might organize drainage districts under supervision
of the courts, and reclaim their lands.
Mr. Oliver stated that, pursuant to the aforesaid deter-
mination an Act was prepared, modeled after the Mis-
souri Circuit Court Drainage Law, and the Model Drain-
age Law prepared by a committee of the National Drain-
age Congress; that he had gone to Tallahassee and pre-
sented this proposed drainage law to the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund, composing the Board of
Drainage Commissioners of the State of Florida, and
after having their approval, with such modifications as
was thought proper, it was submitted to the Chief Engi-
neer for said Board of Drainage Commissioners, and to
the Attorney for said Board, and that after obtaining
suggestions from them, as well as others interested, the
proposed law was rewritten and made to conform to the
Constitution and Laws of the State of Florida, and that it
was then introduced in the State Senate by the President
of the Senate, Hon. H. J. Drane; that with some minor
amendments proposed by those who had been interested in
the preparation and perfecting thereof, the same was fi-
nally passed by both houses without a dissenting vote,
and received the approval of the Governor on June 9,
1913, becoming Chapter 6458 of the Laws of Florida,
known as the "Drane Drainage Law." That the matter
of the organization of a State Drainage Association was
discussed by those interested, who were of the opinion
that such an organization was essential in order to create
a sentiment in favor of drainage in the State, to the end
that the wet and overflowed lands, which exceed those of
any State in the Union, might be reclaimed and made
valuable additions to the rich agricultural lands of the
State; and that for the purpose of beginning this impor-
tant work this meeting was called. He stated that the
reason the meeting was called for this time and place was

because it was ascertained that prominent men of National
reputation who were authority on drainage matters, would
be at Bartow at this time, and for the further reason that
Bartow is one of the best cities, in the best county in
Florida, and no good reason could be found why the meet-
ing should not be held here.


Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Association:-
When the gentlemen who were active in promoting this
meeting were kind enough to invite me here to address
you, as they expressed it, upon the "Drane Drainage
Law," 1 was rather amused by the euphony of the title,
but I beg that you be not deceived into the idea that I
am solely resp-onsible for it. Your chairman has, by his
kindly words of introduction, made me keenly ambi-
tious to measure up to the high standard of usefulness in
behalf of my State, which he ascribes to me. I must as-
sure you that whatever of good may come from the pass-
ing of this law must be credited more to a gentleman
who is with us loday, I refer to Mr. George W. Oliver, of
this city, than to myself. My duties as President of the
Senate were such as to consume practically all of my
time, and I have often thought that but for Mr. Oliver's
loyalty to the cause and his constant, untiring activity
in its behalf, the "Drane Drainage Law" would never
have been a part of our statutes today.

As to the authorship of the bill, one may well ascribe
it to "many men of many minds." It was conceived in
the brain of no one individual, but was first taken from
what seemed to be the best portions of the Drainage
Laws of several States, where said laws lave not only
been proven as to their usefulness and practicability-
where they have been a blessing to mankind-but where

they have been tested through the highest courts to prove
their constitutionality.

With this as a foundation the bill was then brought to
the attention of the distinguished Board of Drainage
Commissioners or Board of Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund of the State of Florida, and the ap-
proval of that distinguished body obtained. It was then
submitted to the eminent counsel of the Drainage Com-
missioners and suggestions or modifications suggested by
that gentleman adopted. The object of this procedure be-
ing to avoid any possible conflict with the larger drain-
age operations in the Everglades.

The utmost publicity was given the proposed law while
the bill was pending, as, because of its vast importance
to the public, it was desired that the public should not
only be informed, but that it should lend its aid to the
perfecting of the measure. The bill was printed at pri-
vate expense, and a synopsis of each section was also
printed and scattered throughout the State. It was, also,
at the request of the introducer, printed as an official
document of the Senate. It was held upon the calendar
for several weeks before its passage. The intimation made
in certain quarters, therefore, to the effect that the bill
was "slipped through," is not only absolutely untrue but
is a reflection upon the intelligence of the people.
No one can reasonably doubt the wisdom of the great
drainage operations in the Everglades, next to the Pan-
ama Canal one of the most stupendous enterprises ever
undertaken in the Western Iemisphere-a work which
will give an empire to the thrifty husbandman of the
East Coast, but not an acre of land or a dollar of money
to his equally industrious brother in the central portion
or Gulf Coast. In the latter places there are lands
equally rich and at present more accessible, in smaller
areas, belonging to small corporations and individuals,
which, by reason of conditions, can be reclaimed more

readily and more easily than through the great enter-
prise referred to, which affects us not at all.
This county has, even within a few miles of this beau-
tiful little City of Bartow, as rich an area as the sun
shines upon. Its prosperous and happy farmers have oc-
cupied its broad acres wherever available, and have al-
ways made good. Now they desire to occupy more acres
and to invite others, less fortunate, to join them in their
prosperity, and the Peace Creek Drainage District, now
being organized under this beneficent law, makes this
If the law is to be amended (and perfection is not
claimed for it) let the amendments come from the hands
of its friends, not its enemies.


Address of Hon. C. G. Elliott, Consulting Drainage Engi-
neer, Washington, D. C., Formerly Chief of Bureau of
Drainage Investigations, U. S. Department of Agricul-

That drainage is destined to be an important factor in
the agricultural and commercial development of Florida,
no one who is familiar with the topograph of this great
State, and conversant with the results achieved by drain-
age- in other parts of the country can question.

Its cultivated and productive lands will no longer be
limited to the sand and rock covered districts, but will
include many of those swamp acres which have hitherto
been regarded with distrust by transient visitor and pros-
pective settler and which are a constant menace to the
health of its people. Not only will those waste regions be
cultivated, after proper drainage, but it is possible and

even probable that they will become the most important
and productive sections of the State.
While it is not reasonable to expect that the possibili-
or value of vorious tracts of wet land can be definitely
known until they have been drained, we believe that re-
sults which have been obtained in this and other coun-
ties or value of various tracts of wet land can be definitely
sion that the future productiveness of these lands will
well repay the outlay necessary to reclaim them.
The importance and value to the State of Florida of the
reclamation and cultivation of the waste land within its
borders are beyond estimate. Such reclamation will
mean the utilization of millions of acres of uninhabit-
able areas which have long been regarded as an unattrac-
tive feature of the State, and afford opportunity for thou-
sands of families attracted by Florida's delightful clim-
ate to become permanent residents. It will mean a
tremendous increase in the revenues of the State, and
advance Florida to a prominent place among the agri-
cultural States of the Union.
It should be noted, however, that drainage is a process
which carries with it problems of economics, design, con-
struction and finance, that will present themselves
throughout the different stages of the work and which
must be solved in an intelligent, practical and business-
like manner. Failure to handle these matters wisely has
been responsible in a majority of cases for the disap-
pointing results which have occasionally been reported.
Preliminary to undertaking a work of such importance
and magnitude as the reclamation of Florida's wet lands,
and to aid and hasten its successful accomplishment,
there should be inculcated in the minds of her citizens the
agricultural possibilities of the State, together with the
essential principles and methods of work which will be
required in the various stages of development. They
should have an intelligent understanding of the sanitary

and industrial conditions surrounding them, and the ben-
efits to be derived from proposed improvements. To this
end information pertaining to such matters should not
only be accessible to those desiring it, but should be dis-
seminated among those not yet interested. This should
include, in addition to a presentation of the principles,
theories and methods of work which will -e required, a
discussion of the successes and mistakes of those who
have been engaged in similar undertakings, in order that
the experience of others may be taken advantage of.

This is a day of social and industrial organizations for
the interchange of thought and opinions, and for the pro-
motion of all forms of intellectual and material activity.
That no movement in the way of organization will re-
spond more generously, and with more beneficent results
than a State Drainage Association has been demon-
strated in those States which have organized such bodies.
Its field of effort, however, should be carefully and wisely
defined at the outset, clearly understood and faithfully
adhered to. It should under no circumstances be a poli-
tical organization, nor subserve political interests. Its
aim should be to educate the people of the State in drain-
age principles, methods, benefits and laws; to create con-
fidence in the value of drainage; to stimulate the pur-
pose of her citizens to reclaim the waste lands of the
State; to foster and encourage public sentiment in drain-
age matters; and to investigate the methods and prac-
tices of drainage best suited to the soils of the State.
It should see to ii that the State Drainage law is so
framed as to meet 11w( rieqirements of the various condi-
tions that may aris'e, and stand the tests to which it may
be subjected in the courts. An adequate and satisfactory
drainage law is of the first importance.

Such an organization should lend encouragement to all
worthy drainage enterprises, both public and private, and
sound a warning against unreliable exploitations, advis-

ing a careful examination of all drainage projects. The
fact that Florida has suffered in the past in this direc-
tion, suggests that a State Drainage Association may
very properly include these matters among its legitimate
While but few of the States have organized Drainage
Associations the work which has been accomplished by
them has been very gratifying and has contribu ed largely
to the growth of their respective States. Iowa is the
pioneer in'such organizations, and one of the important
results accomplished in that State was the passage of a
satisfactory drainage law. In 1906 the State was con-
fronted with a fatal defect in her drainage law. After
large contracts had been let and others were under way,
it was discovered that the law providing for co-operative
drainage and the collection of assessments was invalid.
The State Drainage Association took up the matter,
through a committee, and as a result a new law was
drawn and piloted through the Legislature, and after its
enactment, friendly suits were instituted and entertained
by the courts to test its validity.
Annual meetings of this association are held at differ-
ent points in the State for the discussion of all matters
relating to land drainage, and the proceedings are printed
at the expense of the association in pamphlet form for
general distribution. These meetings are attended by
land-owners, drainage commissioners and engineers. The
association has been most helpful in elevating the stand-
ard of drainage design and construction, and in perfect-
ing methods of making special assessments, besides creat-
ing a general favorable sentiment upon the subject. Iowa
has obtained greater benefits from public and private
drainage within the past ten years than any other State,
and much of the credit for this belongs to the State
Drainage Association.
The Drainage Association of North Carolina was or-
ganized in 1908, and like the Iowa association was largely

instrumental in securing the passage of a much needed
drainage law, under which a large'amount of drainage
has already been accomplished. The annual meetings,
which are well attended, are characterized by the pre-
sentation of able papers upon practical drainage topics
and the free discussion of matters relating to land re-
clamation, including reports upon the progress of work
in different parts of the State. The proceedings are re-
garded of sufficient importance to be printed annually
by the State Geological and Economic Survey as serial
economic papers, and copies can be obtained in the same
manner as other bulletins issued by that Survey. As a
result of the efforts of this association and of its mem-
bers, who have obtained their inspiration from it, drain-
age methods in the State are more or less correlated, the
defects of the law are detected, and means taken at once
to correct them. A standard of thoroughness is thus de-
veloped, which has been of increasing value since the or-
ganization was started.
New York's Drainage Association was formed in 1910.
Iii this State a peculiar-condition of the land reclama-
tion movement is worthy of notice. As is generally
known, land drainage in this country began in Western
New York, in 1835. Its value was apparently fully de-
monstrated, and for a time attracted widespread atten-
tion among the prominent agriculturists of the State.
The movement seemed well established in New York, and
from there spread westward, but was later checked by
the Civil War, and finally, strange as it may seem, farm
drainage was nearly lost sight of in the State where it
originated. Land conditions, particularly of the orchard
lands in the western part of the State, became such that
an investigation was undertaken by the State College of
Agriculture. It was then ascertained that 8 per cent.
of the orchard required complete drainage, and 30 per
cent. partial drainage, while swamps which were a menace
lo health were reported in plain view of the spires

of large cities. Not the least among the advantages that
should be attributed to the drainage association that was
later formed, is the teaching to the younger land-owners
of the State the correct principles and methods of drain-
ing land, and the re-establishment of the practice of
drainage as a factor in good agriculture inaugrated in
the State by John Johnston 75 years ago. The meetings
of the association have been held annually since its or-
ganization, and the principles, methods and benefits of
drainage have there been discussed and made public in
print. Prizes have been given for papers describing ac-
tual work, and efforts have been made to correct defects
in the drainage law. Swamps as well as farm lands are
now being drained, and there is a general revival of in-
terest in drainage.
Georgia has a well organized State Drainage Congress,
and as a result of the three annual meetings which it has
held, attention has been attracted to the possibilities of
the swamp lands of the State, and interest awakened in
their reclamation.
While Missouri has been engaged for many years in
reclaiming her wet lands, and according to the report of
the State Commissioner of Land Reclamation had in 1912
one hundred and ninety-one drainage districts under or-
ganization, ranging in size from 500 to 560,000 acres, with
a combined area of 3,800,000 acres, the total estimated cost
of the work being $16,000,000, still the desirability of a
State Drainage Association was so strongly felt that one
was organized last year to promote more thorough work
in drainage.

Three things are essential to the success of a State
Drainage Association: First, that at least one of the
officials, whether President or Secretary is immaterial,
shall have the time, ability, desire and enthusiasm neces-
sary to so work up the annual meetings that they shall
be "live wires" each year, not failing in the meantime to

keep the subject of drainage constantly before the public
in some attractive form or other. Second, sufficient in-
terest and loyalty on the part of the membership to
respond heartily to the calls which the leading officer may
make upon them, and to assist him in all laudable efforts
for the advancement of the cause. Third, some method of
financing the organization which shall insure sufficient
funds to provide programs of interest and value, to handle
properly the publicity part of the work, to disseminate the
information presented at the meetings and to mee what-
ever needs may arise in the prosecution of the work.
There should also be funds enough to provide for the com-
pensation of the active officer who must devote much time
and personal effort to the work of the association if it is
to accomplish what should reasonably be expected of it.
It may not be out of place to call attention to methods
of financing that are in use in similar organizations.
Some of the State Drainage Assocations, perhaps all, have
a dollar membership fee, but unless the membership is
very large this does not provide sufficient funds to enable
the association to carry on the work which it ought. The
State Societies of Engineers and Surveyors, of which there
are several, and which are organized for the mutual im-
provement of their members, are sustained by annual dues
of from $3 to $5 per member. The proceedings of the an-
nual meetings are published largely by funds received
from advertisements solicited each year for insertion in
the publication by the Secretary, this method of supple-
menting the amount received from dues being found nec-
essary and satisfactory. Other societies have in addition
to the membership which pays the regular fee, a body of
patron members whose dues are ten, twenty or twenty-
five dollars a year. Such membership in a drainage as-
sociation should be drawn from those well-to-do individ-
uals or corporations who will be especially benefited by
drainage or are deeply interested in such improvement,
as large owners of land subject to reclamation, trans-

portation companies, Chambers of Commerce, etc. In
this connection we may note the action of State Legisla-
tures which make appropriations for the maintenance of
State )airy, Horticultural and other societies. This is
true of Illinois, and if I am correctly informed, of other
States. The Legislature of Florida could well afford to
appropriate a modest sum to assist a State Drainage Asso-
ciation in its work of promoting public welfare. The fore-
going methods of financing associations which have for
their object the furtherance of industrial interests in a
rational and beneficial manner, are offered as possibly fur-
nishing some helpful suggestions for the present under-
A review of the various forces and influences which
have contributed to the development of farm lands dur-
ing the last 25 years, discloses the fact that associations
of those who were engaged in agricultural pursuits have
proven most helpful factors in arousing and directing pub-
lic sentiment along lines which have led to sound progress.
Such organizations have multiplied rapidly in all fields
of activity, and have undoubtedly had much to do with
the advancement of our country of which we are so justly
The people of this State may very appropriately con-
sider all of the legitimate agencies that can be used to ad-
vantage in developing its resources, and in view of the vast
areas of unreclaimed land in the State, a drainage asso-
ciation will be of especial benefit. It will form a center
from which shall emanate helpful information, judicious
advice and merited encouragement to every sound enter-
prise looking to the reclamation of Florida's waste lands.


Capt. R. E. Rose, State Chemist of Florida, who is an
enthusiastic advocate of the reclamation of our wet and

overflowed lands by drainage, was called, and gave some
of the benefits to be derived from drainage in Florida,
which he was enabled to give from his own actual expe
rience as well as observation. He also gave some of the
results derived by other States from the adoption of
modern drainage laws authorizing the organization of
drainage districts by owners of the lands needing drain-
age, showing that Florida has not taken the advanced
position in the matter of reclamation of her wet lands, as
she ought, when it is considered that there is more lands
in Florida needing drainage than any other State in the
Union, and which are the best lands in Florida.

Fellsmere, on the Indian River, con.ic.ting of some
118,000 acres of formerly wet and overflowed lands, but
which is now almost completely reclaimed by drainage,
being one of the greatest and best projects of its kind in
the State, Mr. E. Nelson Fell was called and gave an in-
teresting account of the progress and results of the work
being carried to a successful termination by the Fellsmere
Farms Company. His remarks were greatly appreciated.

Hon. Joseph H. Humphrey, formerly State Senator, of
Manitee County, was called and gave an interesting ac-
count of drainage operations in his county, which was one
of the first to begin drainage operations under the old


On motion, the Chair appointed the following commit-

Resolutions:-Hon. H. J. Drane, Senator F. M. Cooper,
S. F. Sherman.

Constitution :-Geo. W. Oliver, F. C. Elliot, E. Nelson

The meeting adjourned to 1:30 p. m.



By Hon. W. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture of
the State of Florida.

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen:-
I am glad to be present here today and to be numbered
among those who are interested in the subject of drainage
and reclamation in our great State. I am glad to have
the pleasure of meeting such a representative body of our
citizens and discuss with them a subject that is of such
vital interest to our people. I am glad to meet also with
the good people of Bartow.
It,was a happy choice to have this beautiful City of
Bartow selected as the place for the organization of a
State Drainage Association, located as it is in one of the
best counties of Florida, and in a section where there are
thousands of acres of our best land that need to be re-
claimed and can be reclaimed at a small cost per acre;
it is indeed the ideal place for such a meeting as this.
Before discussing the question, "What Drainage and
Reclamation mean to Florida," I think the following
statement of facts will be of some interest:
1. Florida is the second largest State East of the Mis-
sissippi River.
2. Florida has more sea coast than all of the other
Atlantic States combined.
3. Florida has more sea coast than all of the other
Gulf States combined.
4. Florida has thirty-seven million acres of land.

5. Florida has more than eighteen million acres of wet
and overflowed land that cannot be used for agricultural
purposes without drainage and reclamation.
6. The greater per cent of the wet and overflowed land
can be drained by means of large ditches, and at a small
cost per acre.

7. The wet and overflowed land in most of the coun-
ties would, if drained, be the best land in those counties.
8. Florida has more wet and overflowed lands to be
reclaimed or drained than any State in the Union.
9. Florida's wet and overflowed lands can be re-
claimed at as small or even smaller cost per acre than
the same class of land in any other State.

What Drainage and Reclamation Would Mean to Florida:

1. Through drainage and reclamation 18,000,000 acres
of our best land would be made ready for the farmer and
stock raiser.
2. 18,000,000 acres of land now of questionable value
would be reclaimed and would represent a real value of
many millions of dollars.
3. Thousands of good settlers would find homes on
these reclaimed lands, and millions of dollars would soon
be represented in the improved farms.
4. Drainage would add beauty to the sections now
known as our wet, marsh and overflowed lands.
5.. Drainage would add to our already healthful clim-
ate, by giving us in some instances a drier atmosphere,
and also in ridding the State of millions of mosquitoes.
6. When our wet and overflowed lands are reclaimed,
which can be done by some system of drainage, Florida
will have more acres of good tillable land than any State
in the Union except Texas.

7. Possessing the best climate of any State in the
Union, and with good soil and sufficient rainfall to grow
crops without irrigation, our claim that Florida is a land
of the greatest opportunities does not need argument to
prove our statement.
My friends, in conclusion, let me urge on all present
that we do all in our power to show to our people the need
of drainage and reclamation in Florida, and let us do all
we can to assist in making our State Drainage Law a
model law.

A telegram from Mr. W. G. Brorein, Manager of the
Peninsular Telephone Co., of Tampa, who was compelled
to be absent in Cincinnati, was read, in which he expressed
his regret at not being able to attend the meeting.


By W. M. Written, Drainage Engineer, Puita Gorda,

About three years ago the viewers who had been ap-
pointed under the provisions of Chapter XV of the Re-
vised Statutes of Florida to act upon a petition for a
public drain, employed me to make the necessary surveys
for the proposed work.
On examining that chapter I recognized it as almost an
exact copy of an old Indiana Drainage Law, enacted by
the Legislature of that State in 1867. It was under that
law, about forty years ago, that I served my apprentice-
ship as a drainage engineer.
Familiarity with that old law led me to note the omis-
sion from Chapter XV of the clause of the Indiana law
which makes provision for payment to the contractor

for the work. This seemed to me to be very much like
a play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out, and I called the
attention of the viewers to this omission. They instructed
me to consult with the County Attorney, who had drafted
the petition, and call his attention to the omission, which
I did. After an examination of the matter he assured me
that Chapter XV was all right and that other counties
were successfully working thereunder.
The viewers then proceeded with their duties and re-
ported to the County Commissioners, who then estab-
lished the drain and called for bids for its construction.
Then came a halt in the proceedings, for bidders and
contractors, with one accord, demanded that they be
shown when, where and by whom they were to be paid for
doing the work. But the County Attorney was unable to
satisfy contractors on that point, and so Chapter XV
proved to be a failure as a drainage law. The petitioners
then decided to drop proceedings thereunder and try to
work under Chapter XVI.
Here they met an almost insurmountable obstacle in
the requirement that the petition be signed by a ma-
jority of land owners. These owners were scattered
through many different States of the Union. A large ma-
jority of the resident owners favored the petition, but
non-residents were so numerous that the proceedings
must have failed had not the Board of Trade of Punta
Gorda taken the matter up, instituted a diligent search
through half the States of the Union to locate the land-
owners, and, after protracted correspondence with such
owners as could be located, finally secured the requisite
number of signatures to the petition.
Now that we have succeeded in starting under Chapter
XVI, it may be asked, "What more do you want?" In
reply I will say that some of the provisions of that chap-
ter ought to be clarified. That this is only one drain
of at least a dozen drains that must be constructed be-
fore the agricultural resources of this one road district

can be developed, and before a large percentage of the
lands can be made habitable during the rainy season, and
before the roads, for which bonds to the extent of two
hundred thousand dollars have been authorized, can be
maintained. Some of these districts may be able to or-
ganize under existing law, but a majority of them cannot.
The difficulty encountered in securing signatures and
organizing lth is disric, greatly discourages efforts to or-
ganize other districts.

In political matters it is proper that the majority should
rule, and to the average politician majority rule, provided
in present law, may seem to be good politics. But is it
either good politics or good sense to permit residents of
other States, without regard to age, sex, race or color, to
vote upon the question of whether or not white citizens
of the Slate of Florida shall be permitted to drain their
lands? Is such a course consistent with the time-honored
Democratic doctrine of States Rights and local self-
government? Furthermore, it is a well established fact
that mosquitoes scatter malaria for miles around the
swamp in which they breed. Every person residing in the
community has a greater interest in the drainage of the
swamp and overflowed lands than a non-resident owner
thereof. The non-resident owner has a vote (generally a
negative vote) on the question of drainage, while the resi-
dent, whose health is at stake, has no vote on the question.
The fact is, however, that this question of drainage or no
drainage is not, or at least it should not be, a question of
majority or of politics. It is, or should be, a question of
State policy.

Is it the policy of the State to encourage or to discour-
age drainage?. If it be the policy to discourage drainage
then the law as it stands is satisfactory. It is generally
conceded, however, that the State should encourage ef-
forts in this direction by every legitimate means.
Individual effort toward drainage can accomplish lit-

tie or nothing. Concerted action is as absolutely neces-
sary to efficient drainage as it is to efficient highways.
In this respect it would seem to me that we are getting
the "cart before the horse" when, in our enthusiasm for
good roads we forget that good drainage is the very first
requisite for a good road. In this district good roads
may be built during the dry season, but they cannot be
maintained throughout the rainy season without drain-
age. It follows, then, that works designed to improve
drainage are necessarily "Public Works." Every Statute
governing the subject bases the grant of power of taxa-
tion, which is necessarily conferred in all such statutes,
upon the grounds that the works are public works.

The Legislature, therefore, may provide that the public,
through its properly constituted authorities, shall have
power to institute proceedings for the construction of
public works without asking the assent, and even against
the active opposition, of property owners. Examples of
such extreme power are seen in abatement of nuisances,
and frequently in sewer and street improvements in cit-
ies. On the other hand, the Legislature may go to the
other extreme and adopt a policy requiring the assent of
a majority of the landowners, as does the present law.

But it is to be hoped that this Convention, and the pro-
posed Drainage Association, will not permit the interest
which naturally attaches to immense undertakings, such
as the Everglades drainage operations, and districts
counting their acreage by the tens and hundreds of thou-
sands, which have been or may be organized under the
Drane Drainage Law, to overshadow the interests of
smaller but more numerous drainage projects, the aggre-
gate of the acreage and importance of which is certainly
large, if not equal to the larger districts. I sincerely
hope that before the next Legislature convenes, a practical
Act for the encouragement of drainage in these districts
may be drafted by its legislative committee and receive

the support of the proposed Drainage Association for its
enactment into law.
Such an act need not and should not in any way anta-
gonize the Drane Drainage Law, but be supplemental
thereto; leaving that law to work all the good possible
in districts to which it is adapted.
Since 1881 Indiana, my native State, has had two ef-
fective Drainage Laws working side by side and sup-
plementing each other. There is no good reason why
Florida should not be as well provided in this respect,
thus giving to petitioners an option to choose the law
best suited to the needs of their districts. Nor is there
danger that drainage work will be overdone, even though
the State in its laws adopts a more liberal policy and
encourages rather than discourages the reclamation of
wet and overflowed lands.
Without intending to encroach upon the subject to be
treated by the distinguished engineer whose address
comes next on the program, I venture to mention one
requisite which ought to be embodied in any act for the
purpose above described, to-wit: It ought to be made
possible for owners of land in these districts to initiate
proceedings regardless of a majority either of owners
or acres, whenever such owners shall give bonds for the
cost, necessarily incurred, in determining, to the satis-
faction of a competent tribunal, the question as to
whether or not the work petitioned for will be conducive
to public health, convenience or welfare.
This policy is a reasonable compromise between the
policy which, on the one extreme, would ignore the prop-
erty owners, but it does not go to the other extreme and
ignore the public, the interests of both being taken into
account and subserved. It has been in operation since
1867 in the act known as the County Commissioners Law
of Indiana; and in the act known as the Circuit Court
Law of that State since 1881. Both of these laws are

still in successful operation. And I venture to predict,
that if a law were enacted in which this policy is recog-
nized, and otherwise embodying the seeming intent (but
more clearly expressed, of Chapter XVI as amended in
1913, with jurisdiction somewhat enlarged, and perhaps
vested in the Circiut Court, there would be at least two
petitions for drainage under such an act for every one
under the illiberal and undemocratic policy of the pres-
ent laws.


It is hardly necessary for me to say that this is a very
happy occasion for me. For the past several years all of
my thought, time, attention and efforts have been ex-
pended in the cause of drainage. My reading and study
have been along this line. My association has been very
largely with men who are interested in it, and whatever
I have accomplished has been accomplished in this cause.
Therefore, to me, the organization of a Drainage Asso-
ciation in this State is of great interest. It means that
drainage is growing in the minds of the public; that the
necessity for it is becoming more apparent and important;
that the people at large are beginning to appreciate what
we-by we I mean those who are engaged in the actual
work of drainage-have long known, viz., that so long as
the soil remains the principal source of wealth, and so
long as so much of the best and richest of the soil remains
covered or partly covered with water, so long will drain-
age be one of the greatest problems of the age, the solv-
ing of which will mean as much or more to the Common-
wealth than the solving of almost any other one problem.
This is a great general problem, which the National Gov-
ernment has recognized, and which through its faithful
employees, the former Chief of whom we have the pleas-
ure of numbering among us today, it has been struggling

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