Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department

Material Information

Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title:
Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Alternate title:
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date:
Monthly[ FORMER 1901- Sept. 1905]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
-v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note:
Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note:
Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
28473206 ( OCLC )

Full Text






OCTOBER 1, 1909


Part I--Crops. Part 2--Pecan Culture in Florida.
Part 3--Fertilizers and Feed Stuff.

Entered January 31,1903, at Tallahassee Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900.


State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida.

VOLUME 19 Wm. Hess.






Following are the divisions ties contained in each:

Northern Division.

Franklin, Gadsden,
Hamilton, Jefferson, Fafayette,
Liberty, Madison,

Western Division.

Holmes, Jackson,
Santa Rosa,

of the State, and the counNortheastern Division.

Duval, Nassau, Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.

Lake, Levy,
Marion, Orange,

Southern Division.

Dade, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee,

Manatee, Monroe, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, St. Lucie--l1


B. E. McLIN, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.



NORTHERN DIVISION.-As compared with the same period last year, there is a very considerable loss in both condition and prospective yield of cotton. The seasons for cotton have been very unfavorable, and at this time it look-s as if the crop cannot reach more than half what it pironmised in the first summer months; in addition to the unfavorable climatic conditions, caterpillars have been much in evidence, and also in many localities in the State, in the upland cotton districts in particular, the cotton plant has been very seriously affected by a most destructive fungus disease known as "Anthracnose." With all of these troubles the plant is having a hard time to make, and the crop cannot but be very short, the shortest in years. On the other hand, the season just passing has been the most universally favorable one for all other field aind vegetable crops. In this district the corn, oats and hay crops excel in yield that of any other for fifteen years.

WESTEruN DIvisIoN. There is practically no difference in the condition existingT in this Division and the Northern, the percentage of condition and prospective yeild of cotton differs very little, being low in both instances, and at this late date there can be no possibility of recovery. The cotton crop in the district has also suffered, from the same destructive troubles as in the Northern. Other field crops, such as corn, oats and hay, have ' ielded bountifully, and labor is in better shape than last year. Cattle, horses, hogs and other liv.e stock are probably in better condition than they have been at this time for several years. In !both of the Northern and- Western districts the

farmers fully realize the shortness of the cotton crop and the advantage it offers them to obtain higher prices, and there is a widespread disposition to market the crop gradually that the best values may be maintained'.

NORTHEASTERN DIvISION.-In this Division condition of crops differ little from the preceding districts, except that they are Somewhat better as regards the cotton crop, which has not seemed to have suffered froin the diseases and worms to the extent that the cotton of other portions of the State have. The field and vegetable crops have done unusually well in this district, the seasons apparently being just Suited to their highest development, for the immense yields and profitable returns prove alike the extent of the demand' and the consumption of the products. Labor and wages have been in a more stable condition than for some time, apparently more settled and reliable. Live stock in this district, like the foregoingy districts, is in fine condition and no complaints of serious troubles have been made.

CENTRAL DIVION.-Agricultural opeations in this district are confined principally to the branches of vegetable and fruit growing. The climatic conditions have been more favorable than in those districts previously described, and crops of all kinds, including field crops, have yielded well. The orange and grapefruit crops throughout thme district are making a fine showing, and indicate a large increase over last year in yields. The vegetable crops have becn the largest and most profitable in the history of the industry I. Labor is more plentiful than last year, and better satisfied. Live stock is in fine condition; time pastures were never in better shape or with heavier crops of grass; consequently all stock is fat and in fine condition for market.

SOUTHERN DIVISION.-Few field crops are grown in this district to any extent, the growing of vegetables and fruits


for market being more profitable. Climatic conditions have been very favorable for crops of all kinds in this division ; in fact, the past season has been the most profitable in truck farming in the history of the business, and the citrus fruit crops promise to be the largest ever known; it also bids fair, if expectations of the growers do not miscarry, to be the most profitable citrus fruit crop ever harvested in Florida.

Report of the Condition and Prospective Yield
of Crops, Fruits, and Fruit Trees, and Condition of Live Stock, for Quarter Ending September 30,
1909, as Compared With Same Period Last Year.

Upland Cotton Sea Island Cotton

0 0
Northern Division, UU__Gadsden. . 501.
Hamilton. . 50 .75
Jefferson.60 65 s
Lafayette .85 Leon .50 50 . .
Liberty .75 70 . .
Madison.60 60 40 I 40
Suwannee . Wakulla.8 37 . .~ .
Div. Average per cent. .j_ 55 55 j 7lf ____Western Division.
Calhoun . 60 60 05
Escambia. 50 50.
Jackson .60 60 -100 100
Santa Rosa .90 90 1I . .
Walton .75 50. .
Washington .*.80 60 .
Div. Average per cent.1 69 62 75 1 7
Northeastern Division.
Baker.90 90 80 so
Bradford . .75 80
Clay. Columbia .so 80 90 85
Putnam .
Div. Average er ' - I. 5Central Division.
Citrus.IT. .
Hernando. Levy . .0. 70
Mai-ion . . . . . 80 80
Orange .
Paco. .
Volusia . Div. Average per cent,.s -- 75
Southern Division.--

Brevard. Dade. Leeo. . Lee. . Manatee . Osceola . Polk .I St. Lucie . Div. Average per cent. State Average per cent. 6

77 75

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Corn Sugar Cane

o a)
Northern Division. a, . 7-)
kiad:iden . 1 . 125 125 85 85
Hamilton . 90 90 75 90
Jefferson . 100 100 90 90
Lafayette . 100 100 90 90
Leon . .100 125 90 100
Liberty . . .100 100 80 80
Madison . . . 75 75 40 40
Suwannee . .90 90 o80 0
Wakulla . 100 105 5 90
Div. Average per cent.' 98 101 79 83
Western Division.
Calhoun . . 100 125 100 125
Escambia. . i 80 80 100 100
Jackson . .100 125 85 90
Santa Rosa . .90 90 100 100
Walton . .100 110 100 100
Washington . .100 110 100 100
Div. Average per cent., 90 98 102
Northeastern Division.
Baker . 1 . 100 100 75 75
Bradford . 100 110 85 90
Clay . 100 150 100 100
Columbia . 100 110 95 100
Putnam . 90 100 90 90
Div. Average per cent. . 98 114 89 91
Central Division.
Citrus . 105 110 100 100
Hernando . 80 so 100 100
Levy . . 110 110 90 90
Marion . . 100 100 100 100
Orange . .100 105 100 100
Pasco . . .100 105 95 95
Volusia . . .90 90 100 100
Div. Average ,per cent.I 98 100 98 98
Southern Division.
Brevard . 1 100 100 100 100
Dade . . .
DeSoto . 90 95 100 100
Lee . . .90 90 100 100
Manatee . .100 100 100 100
Osceola . 100 130 100 120
Polk . . 100 110 100 100
St. Lucie . . . 100 100
Div. Average per cent. 97 104 1 00 --_ 1-0State Average per cent. 97 102 93 -95

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Northern Division.
cUadsden. Hamilton. Jefferson. Lafayette . Leon . Liberty . Madison. . ' Suwanniee. Wakulla.
Div. Average per cent.:

Western Division.

Field Peas

0 e 0
0 75 75 75
40 100 75

0 7) 5 0)
50 75

100 75



71 _ _7 1 4 1 -4


Calhoun.87 90 87U
Escambia.5 50 100 100
Jackson .75 75 . .
Santa Rosa .90 90 . .
Walton. Washington. .75 80 . .
Div. Average per cent 75 7T 935
Northeastern Division. -G 60 9
Baker.60 0 900
Bradford. 60 65 . .
Clay. 100 100 . .
Columbia.90 90 . .
Putnam.90 90 . . .
Div. Average per cent.! 80 81 90 90
Central Division.
Citrus.100 75 . .
Hernando.100 100 100 100
Levy .100 100 Marion.01 s8 Orange. .100 100 . .
Pasco. 90 75 100 100
Volusia.e.-e -t.00 100 . . . Div. Averaeprcet. 9 92 93 9
Southern Division. ________Brevard .90 85 Dade .100 100 DeSoto.75 80 95 95
Lee .50 50 90 90
Manatee.100 100 50 50
Osceola.100 140 100 100
Folk.80 85 80 80
St. Lucie . Div. Average per cent 8 83
State Average Per cent 181 8u6

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops--Continued.

Sweet Potatoes Cassava
0 0

Northern Division. 0 0
Gadsden 85._100_85
Hamilton.60 75 .
Jefferson.80 70 .
Lafayette .i 90 90 .
Leon .100 100 . .
Liberty.70 65.
Madison .50 50 .
Suwannee.90 I 90 .
Wakulla.87 90 . .
Div. Ave range per cent.
Western Division.
Calhoun .100 100 0 0
Escambia .100 100 100 100
Jackson.100 100 . .
Santa Rosa.100 100.
Walton.90 90 . .
Washington.100 100 75 75
Div. Average per cnt 981 98 92 9
Northeastern Division.
Baker .100 100 . .
Bradford. 100 100 . .
Clay.90 95,
Columbia. 95 100
Putnam. .o 80 .
Div. Average per cent 93 . .
Central Division.
Citrus.100 90 . .
Hernando.100 125 . .
Levy .80 75 100 100
Marion .70 70 . .
Orange.100 100 100 100
Pasco .80 75 95 100
Volusia.100 100 . .
Div. Average per cent 90 91 98 100
Southern Division.____Brevard .100 10 . .
Dade .100 100 . .
DeSoto.100 100 100 100
Lee.75 80 . .
Manatee .:0 100 .
Ose~a. .10 120 100 100
Polk.95 100 I 100 110
St. Lucie .I 80 80 .
Div. Average per cent.! 94 9 100 103
State Average per centC] 91 92 97 98

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Peanuts P-room Corn

Northern Division. 0
Gadsden. *.100 100 . .
Hamilton .85 90 . .
Jefferson.100 100 . .
Lafayette.90 90 . .
Leon .100 100 . .
Liberty.75 75 . .
Madison.60 60 . .
Suwannee.100 100 20 20
Wakulla .100 100 .
Div. Average per. cent 90 91
Western Division.
Calhoun.100 110
Escaimbia.100 100 75 75
Jackson . 100 100 . .
Santa Rosa. 100 100
Walton.100 100 . .
Washington .100 100 .
Div. Average per cent 100 102 75 75
Northeastern Division.
Baker .5 15
.Aradford . 0 15. .SO8
Clay.100 100 . .
Columbia. . 0 95 . .
Putnam. .I.
Div. Average per cent. 99 . .1.
Central Division.
Citrus.100 100 . .
Hernando .90 90 . .
Levy .100 110 . .
Marion .100 100.
Or-ange . .I. Pasco. 9
\Toleusia.100 100 . .
Div. Average per cent.1 96 1 98 1 . .
Southern Division.
lBrevard . Dade . DeSoto. .
)Laee. Lanate.' Osceola. . Polk.100 100 . .
St. ucie . Div. Average per cent 1 0 10
State Average per cent. 95 96 1 47 47

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Native Hay Grasses Alfalfa
COUNTIES. , _ ._0o
1 0

Northern Division. a
Gadsden . 125 125 .
H am ilton . 80 80 . .
Jefferson . . 0 so
Lafayette . . . .
Leon . 100 100 100 1
L iberty . . . .
Madison . "75 75
Suwannee . .100 100 .
Wakulla . .87 90 .
Div. Average per cent. 92 93 ] lUe I iu
Western Division.
Calhoun . 100 110
Escambia. 100 100 1o0 100
Jackson . . . . . . . . Santa Rosa . so '8 .
W alton . 100 100 . .
Washington . 100 100 .
Div. Average per cent. 96 98 I 100 100
Northeastern Division.
B aker . 90 85 . .
Bradford .90 90.
C lay . 100 110 .
Colum bia . 100 100 .
Putnam . 90 90
Div. Average per cent. 94 TO 95 .
Central Division.
Citrus . I 105 110 . .
Hernando . . . 125 125 . .
Levy . . .100 90 .
M arion . . . 70 70
Orange . 100 100 . .
Pasco . . 100 100.
Volusia . 100 100
Div. Average per cent.1 100 99
Southern Division.
Breevard . . .100 100 .
D ade . I . . .
DeSoto . . 100 I 100 L ee . 90 90 . .
M anatee . . I . . .
Osceola . 100 150 .
Polk . . 100 110 . .
St. Lucie . . . 100 100 . .
Div. Average per cent. 98 108 . .
State, Average per cent. 96 99 I 100 too

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Velvet Beans Pars Bananas

Gadsden~ . 12-25 0 .

Northeron Division. 0 90 90 . .
Gadode. 1250 125 T100 2T
Haiton. 90 8 0 100 .
Jeffeson .0 6 0 90. .I
Luayee.100 100 100 .
Leon. .*.100 100 100 . . .

Clbery.8 [ 8095 10 . .
Madison .o0 75 . ., .
Suannee.a.100 I100 100 . .
Waklton.6 [5 65 100 . .
Div. Average per cent. 7 ___ -!8 -9 -- )TW -estern Division.
Balhoun.95 95 10 . .
Escadfbid.15 1250 100 . .
Jayso.810 750 10 . .
Santma s. 100 100 100 . .
Watnm.9 9 5 0 . . .
Div. Average per cent. 86 1 9 100 . .
Noteatrn Division,
Bakrs.90 90 100 . .
Brado.950 100 100 100 10
Lavy. 100 100 100 . . .
Olumbia. 100 100 100 100 10
Pounam .9 0 100. . .
Div. Average per cent. . j-96 I 94 1f00 1 91 9
Centralr Division.
Cirusr.90 10 10 5 -F
HeDad.10 9 12 100 100. . .
Levy. .100 1110 100 . .
Marion. . . 100 100 0 60
Orangtee.100 100 100 100 100
POsceola.90 950 100 750 00
Voluki.710 700 100 . .

lSt.ce.100 110 100 . 10

St. Lucerage.100 100 100 100 100
State Average per cent. 95 us __ Iv__9__U

Condition and

Prospective Yield of Crops--Continued.

Pineapples Guavas
COUNTIES. __Northern Division. U.) '
G adsden . . . . . . . . . . .
H am ilton . . . . .
Jefferson . . . . .
L afayette . . . . . .
L eo n *. . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . .
liberty . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Suw annee . . . . . . . . . . .
"W akulla . . . . . Div. Average per cent . . . . . .
Western Division.
Calhoun . . . . .
Hsamio . . 1:1:: 1.

Jackson . . . . .
Santa Rosa . . . . .
W alton . . .
W ashington .I I.Div. Average per cent . . .-- Northeastern Division.
C ake . . . . . . . .
Es afford . . . . . , . .
Slay .Rosa. . .
olum bia . . . . .
utnam . . . 60 60
Div. Average per cent.- . . T0 60
Central Division.
citrus . . . . .
ernando . . . . . .
Levy . . . . .
C Marion . . . . .
range . . . ,. . . . .
Pasc . . 80 "85
Volusia . . . . .

Div. Average per cent . . . ** '80 "8,5
Southern Division.
Lrevard . 100 125 100 12
Dade . 100 110 100 105
DeSo o . . . 100 100
ee . 75 75 100 100
Manatee . 100 100 100 100
Dsceola . 100 110 90 60

Polk . . . 100 120
St. Lucie . 80 80 100 75
Div. Average per cent 93 100 99 9
State Average per cent. 93 100 80 SL
2- iul.

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Orange Trees Lemon Trees

Northern Division. I C ___Gadsden. I-lantilton . Jefferson. Lafayette. Leon .100 100 . .
Liberty. Madison . Suwannee .20 20 . .
Waltulla. Div. Average er cent. 60
NWestern Division.
Calhoun.100 75 . .
Escanthia. Jackson . Santa Rosa . Walton .
Washington. Div. Average per cent75100.75
Northeastern Division,
Baker .100 95 100 90
Bradford. Clay. Columbia . . Putnam.100 100 100 10
Div. Average per cet.1 100 97 100 9
-Central Division.____Citrus.105 1 100 . .
Hernando.125 150 . .
Levy .90 100 . .
Marion .60 Go .0.
Orange .100 125 . .
P-asco.100 120 . .
Votisla .0 '0 100 100
Div. Average per cent. 94 1l19 ** ________10
Southern Division.___Brevard . 10 125- 95
Dade.100 110 90 95
DeSoto .100 125 100 120
Lee .100 115 . .
Manatee .100 115 100 100
Osceola.100 150 100 150
Polk.100 100 I 80 70
St. Lucie .10 100 100 100
Div. Average per ce. . 100m 1 118 95 - 0
State Average per cent. 91 94 9 98 o

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops--Continued.

Lime Trees Grapefruit Trees

0 0 )
Northern Division. .Gadsle'n . . . .
H a m ilto n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jefferson . . . . . .
Lafayette . . . . .
L e o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 0 4 1)
L iberty . . . . M adison . . . . . . . .
Suwannee . 2 12o
Wakulla . Div. Average per cent. . I 0 [ -0
Western Division.
Calhoun . 0 .75.100E scam bia . . . . .
Jackson . . . . .
Santa Rosa . .
Walton . . .
Washington . - .
Div. Average per cent. 100 75
Northeastern Division.
Baker . . . . . . 100 90
B rad ford . . . . .
C l y . . . . . . . . f . . . . . . . . { . . . . . . . .
C a}l,,, bia . ."'"0. :6

Putnam . 90 100
Div. Average per cent.1 . . 1 95 -95
Central Division.
Citrus . . . 100 100
Hernando . . 125 250
Levy . . 90 100
Marion . . .80 80
Orange .i . 100 125
Pasco .I 100 100 100 100
Volusia .I. . 80 60
Div. Average per cent. 100 100 I 98 1 lO2
Southern Division.
Brevard .0 100 100
Dade . 100 100 100 110
DeSoto . 100 115 100 120
Lee . . .100 100 100 115
Manatee . .100 100 100 115
Osceola . 100 140 100 125
Polk . 70 60 100 90
St. Lucie . .100 75 I 100 90
Div. Average per cent.1 96 --9---00State Average per cent. 98 1 99 I 85

PAHT 110


Much the greater portion of this article is taken from the Florida Experiment Station Bulletin No. 85, by Prof. H. Hal-old Hume, and also from the written opinions of other well-informed and expert growers of the Pecan.


The pecan tree is indigenous in the United States in the rich, alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi, and also thought to be in some of the rich bottom lands of northeast Texas. Its northern limit is supposed to be about Davenport, Iowa. In the Mississippi valley proper it extends wilhin a few miles of the Gulf Coast, further west it extends into Mexico.
The area in which it may be grown is said to embrace within its four extremities the cities of Davenport, Iowa, Chattanooga, Tenn., Laredo, Texas, the region of the head waters of the Colorado River in Texas, and even at the present day as far west as Arizona. It extends furthest from the center of the area along the streams and rivers. It is at present grown in all of the Southern States in greater or less degree. From the foregoing it will be seen that the pecan tree is a native in parts of the following States, viz.: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Outside of this area it has been planted in a large number of States. Its cultivated area corresponds rather closely with that of the cotton plant, though its extension beyond this area is constantly increasing.
The Pecan belongs to tlbe family Juglandaceae (Walnut family), its near relatives being the other species of hickory, the walnut and butternut. For many years the scientific name commonly applied to it was Carya Olivae form is Nutt, but in deference to the rules of priority this name has largely given place to the name Hicoria pecan (Marsh) Britton. This name Biicoria pecan is peculiarly significant, since it is truly American, being

derived from powcohicora and pecan, two words used by the Indians for hickory nuts.
It is a large, stately tree, 75 to 170 feet in height, with wide-spreading branches and symmetrical top. The bark is rough, broken and grayish black in color. The bark of the young twigs is quite smooth, liberally dotted with lenticles, and during their early life, together with the leaves and flowers of the tree, they are covered with a liberal coating of rather rust-colored hairs. The leaves are oval, compound, composed of from seven to fifteen falcate, oblong-lanceolate, sharp-pointed serrated leaflets, green and quite bright above, lighter colored below, and when mature, nearly or quite smooth. The flowers are of two kin ds-pistilIlate and staminate. The former are produced upon the young shoots, while the latter come from buds upon twigs one year old. The staminate catkins are usually produced in two groups of three each, from a single bud, and have very short stalks. The stamens are three to five in number in each flower, and borne beneath a three-parted bract. The pistillate flowers have a four-valved involucre (known in the mature form as the husk) and a two-parted stigma. The nuts are quite variable in size, shape, color and quality. Some are long and pointed, others are nearly spherical. In Texas the spherical, or nearly spherical, nuts appear to be more common than elsewhere. Selected nuts of some varieties will weigh an ounce or more each, while of many other kinds it takes a hundred, more or less, to make a pound.
As a general rule, the husks of most varieties open at maturity. In some, however, they remain closed, or nearly so. These latter varieties are objectionable on account of the increased difficulty 6f gathering the crop.
PorLENATION.-The pecan is wind pollenated. In consequence there is a great waste of pollen, to compensate for which it is produced in large quantities. Wet, windy weather at the time the trees are in bloom, frequently interferes with pollenation to such an extent that the crop is reduced very considerably.
With some species of hickory, notably H. minima and H. gflabra, cross-pollenation and consequent cross-fertilization with the pecan have resulted in several wellmarked hybrids. None of these found thus far, with perhaps one or two exceptions, have been worthy of propagation.


The pecan may be, and practically is, grown in all sections of the State wherever the soil conditions are found to be satisfactory. Its culture, however, should not be attempted in the southern portion of the State much, if any, below 28 degrees latitude; success would, at best, be questionable; it eight succeed in the elevated portions of Polk and Hlillsborough Counties, but it is uncertain.
The statement is frequently made and quite generally believed, that, the pecan will succeed wherever the larger species of hickory are found in the State. This is largely true, as the pecan belongs to the same family and genus of trees, but it should not be relied on implicitly. In no case must soil conditions be overlooked or disregarded.


The pecan may be propagated from seed or by budding and grafting.
Formerly they were grown almost entirely from seed and seedling trees were planted. But now seedlings have given place to budded and grafted trees. Why so? It was announced as a fact not so many years ago, and there are some who may still maintain it, that fifty per cent. or some other per cent, of pecans would come true to seed. But it must be stated as a fact that neither fifty nor any other per cent. will come true to seed. We have yet to find a single instance where the nut of a seedling tree was identical with that borne by its parent plant. Occasionally they are better, but the rule is that they generally are vastly inferior to the fruit produced by the parent tree. Hence if an orchard of trees of the Same habit of growth, prolificness, regularity in bearing, uniform throughout, trees which will produce a crop of nuts, uniform in size, shape, color and quality, is desired, do not plant seedling trees. Scores of these seedling trees produce nuts but little larger than chinquapins, and it is a fact which cannot be gainsaid that the seedling pecan up to the time of fruiting is ain -unknown quantity, after which it is too frequently a. disappointment.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown the stocks -upon which to work desirable varieties. From seeds may be originated new and desirable varieties, for

it sometimes happens that the seedling is better than the parent. Seedling trees may be grown and set out in orchard form to be top-worked afterwards. This plan has something to recommend it. It is less expensive, provided time is not an object, for it takes a longer time to get bearing trees by this plan, and it is open to the further objection that it is more dillicult to secure uniformity in size and shape of thetree than it is by setting out budded or grafted trees at first. The objection in the way of expense, if that be an objection, is L est overcome b) planting nuts in nursery rows, grafting the trees there, and then setting them in the field. By no means should the nuts be planted where the trees are to remain. It is too diflicult to give them the necessary care. Besides, they are likely to be destroyed by squirrels or other animals, or the seedlings injured through carelessness in cultivation.
SELECTING AND PLANTING NUTS.-NTtS to be used in growing stocks should be fully inatured before gathering. Some care should be taxen in their selection. They should be of good size for the variety, and should be gathered only from healthy, vigorous trees. Frequently the only object held in view is to get as many nuts as possible in a pound without regard to the tree on which they grew. We believe that this is in a large degree responsible for the unsatisfactory growth made by many grafted trees. Those nuts which mature first are best for planting.
The nuts may be planted in Florida as soon as they are taken from the trees, placing them in drills three and a half feet apart and covering them two and a half or three inches deep. In many cases it may be necessary and more convenient to stratify the nuts in damp sand in boxes, first an inch laver of sand, Ihen a layer of nuts, until the boxes are filled. These boxes should be placed in a cool, shady place, under a building, in a cellar, or buried in the earth. It is a good plan to cover them with wire net to prevent mice, rats or squirrels from attacking them. In early spring the boxes should be emptied out and the nuts planted as directed above.
The seed-bed should be thoroughly prepared, plowed ,deeply or subsoiled, well supplied with organic matter, either from stable manure or from beggarweed, velvet beans, cowpeas or some other leguminous crop on the soil, and turned under.
During the growing season the seed-bed should be kept

well cultivated and free from weeds and grass. *A fertilizer rich in nitrogen should be used. Its composition will have to be governed very largely by the character of the soil and the care and cultivation given it previously; but for good nursery soils a fertilizer analyzing three per cent. nitrogen will give good results. In a favorable season the tops of the young trees will be a foot or somewhat more in height with a tap-root two feet and a halt or so in length. The following spring and summer many of the young trees can be worked by grafting or budding.
PROPAGATING TooLs.-The tools necessary for propagating pecans-nursery work and top-working-are a common budding knife, a budding tool, a grafting iron, a grafting mallet and a fine-toothed saw.
The budding knife should have a thin blade of good steel. capable of retaining a keen sharp edge. The whetstone must be used frequently to keep the blade sharp to insure the making of smooth, clean cuts.
At least three budding tools have been invented. These are known as White's, Galbreath's and Nelson's budding tools respectively. The principle in each one is that two sharp cutting blades are fixed parallel to each other to insure uniformity in cutting annular and veneer-shield or patch buds. White's budding implement is especially re('ommendcd for use in top-working. The holes along the sides are used as a gauge for measuring the stock and bud stick. In tile writer's opinion the one best adapted for veneer-shield budding, but the blades are just a little too close together. A very satisfactory knife for this work may be made from two ordinary budding knives and a piece of wood three-quarters of an inch square and four inches long. To opposite sides of this the blades can be firmly attached with rivets and by binding with ,fine wire and twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting. These can be purchased at small cost, or a blacksmith can make an excellent one from an old fiat file. Three or four inches of the file should be flattened and sharpened for a blade. In the remainder drill two holes and attach two pieces of wood to form a handle.
A small-sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely for a grafting-mallet, or a very good one can be made from a piece of tough wood or a piece of an old wagon spoke. A leather thong should be attached to the handle through


which the wrist can be slipped to carry it Wh~Vt working.4
The best saw for use in top-working is a car " OL
back saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth, and lea~ smooth, clean cut.
WAXES, CLOTH AND TwiNE,.-Good grafting wax may be made according to either of the following formulas:
1. Resin 6 pounds, 'beeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil 1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1 p~ound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow fire, stirring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When melted pour out into a bucket of cold water. Grease the hands, remove the wax from the.Water as soon as it can be handled and pull until it is l 'ight yellow in color. Wax not needed for immediate use may be rolled up in balls, wrappled in oiled, stiff biown paper and put away for future use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax in a kettle and dropping into sheets or wide strips of old calico or cotton cloth. As soon as saturated with the wax, remove them from the kettle and stretch on a board. For use tear into strips, one-quarter or one-half of an inch wide.
Waxed twine is prepared by dropping balls of -No. 18 Knitting cotton into the melted wax and stirring them about for four or five minutes or until the wax has penetrated them.
SELECTING CIONS AND BUns.-Cions and bud sticks should be taken from healthy, vigorous trees. Select the cions from well-matured wood of one year's growth, though a piece of two-year-old wood at the base will not matter. The wood is angular, small and the internodes long, and the pith large in proportion to the diameter. Either terminal portions of twigs may be used or portions back of thme tip, but the buds should always be well developed, full and plump. For this reason grafts should not be cut from wood far back from the tip of the branch. As stated already, twigs of the previous season's growth are generally used, provided the growth is not too large. Grafts are generally cut about five or six inches long an-d should be from one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch iu thickness.
It is best that thme grafts be cut while still in a dormant state, and inserted in the stock just before growth starts. The cions may be kept for a considerable length of time


ing them loosely packed, in damp moss or sawdust ox. The box should be covered over with earth S tbe cions kept sufficiently moist to prevent drying
The difference in the condition of the stock and 'Vhn, it should be understood, is not absolutely necessary, as good results are frequently obtained without these precautions, but in grafting the pecan a difference in dormancy is extremely desirable, and it is an important factor in securing good results.
For bud-sticks, well-developed one-year-old branches, one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter and on which the buds are well formed, or older wood with plump, full buds are selected. Such sticks frequently show three buds at a node, and if some misfortune should overtake one or two of these, there is still a chance of success, though the upper one, being the strongest, is generally the one which starts, provided, it is uninjured and the bud takes. The degree of maturity of the bud is important, and care should be exercised that only those which are plump, full and well developed, are used. It is easy to distinguish between desirable and undesirable buds.

Top-working by grafting or the grafting of nursery stock above ground should be done in spring just before growth starts. The preference is for the latter part of the season, provided, there is not too much work to be done. as the cions have less time to dry out before the process of uniting with the stock begins. The work of whip-grafting nursery stock under ground just at the crown roots of the seedlings can be started in the latter part of December and continued until February. For this work the earth is thrown back from the seedlings, leaving them standing in a narrow trench. After the cions are inserted, the ground is placed back about them, covering them up, leaving only the top bud exposed. The seedling trees cannot be dug up and bench-grafted satisfactorilv in winter, as is the practice with apples, pears and other fruits. It can be done, but the percentage of unions secured is too small to make it an economical method to follow. The only satisfactory plan is to graft the seedlings in the nursery row, as described above.
Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting for

top-working and whip-grafting for working both nursery seedlings and old trees.
CLEFrT-RGRAFTN.-Having selected the place on the branch or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be inserted, the part should be sawed off with a smooth, clean cut. The end of the stub can then be cut squarely off at the point desired.
The trunk or branch is then split with the grafting iron. The cleft should be carefully made and should be about one and a half inches in length. In preparing the 'ion, a sloping cut is made at the lower end about one and a half inches long, cutting into the pith from a point onehalf way up the cut, dOwL to the lower end. On the opposite side, the second cut should not touch the pith, but should be made through the wood throughout. The cion should be left wider on the outer side than on the inner to make a tight fit when inserted. Start the cuts on each side of and just at a bud.
Having made the cleft, open it with the wedge end of the grafting iron and place the cion in position in the cleft stock. The cambium layers should be in contact and the (.ion should be shoved well down u.til the whole of the wedge is within the stock. In large stocks two cions may be inserted, the weaker of which should he removed if both live. Large stocks will exert sufficient pressure against the cions to render tieing unnecessary, but if the stocks are small the union should be firmly tied with waxed twine or cloth, and in any case the ends of the cut stock and the union should be covered smoothly with gr-afting wax. Should there be danger of the stock exerting too much pressure (as in the case of large stocks), the cleft should he made well out to one side of the center.
1A'H P-GRIAP'rING.-Sto('ks, whether seedling trees or branches in the tops of old trees, should be less than an inch in diameter, one-half or five-eighths inch being a nice size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long, is made at the end of the cion, a corresponding cut is made on the stock, a small tongue of wood is raised on each by making a cut with a knife blade parallel to rte grain of the wood. The tongue is raised a little on both stovk and cion and the two are then shoved together, with the carnbium layers on one or both sides in contact. They must then be firmly bound either with twine or cloth, the

whole of the cut surfaces being covered over to the exclusion of water, air and the germs of decay.
The cion and stock are preferably chosen of nearly the same size, but a cion somewhat smaller than the stock may be used, in which case the cambium layers along one side of the suifaces in contact must be placed opposite as already indicated. In working nursery seedlings by whi i-grafling the (ions should be inserted so that the I)oint of union will be under the surface of the ground. The earth should be placed back around the union as soon as the work is completed. Thib plan of projogation will not give satisfactory results except on well-drained lands.

Budding is preferred to grafting by some propagators, as they are able to secure a larger percentage of unions than by grafting. MAlih, however, depends upoin the loa lity, soil aid drainage. IBY either method from fifty to seventy-five Tper cent. of successful unions must be cons -dered salisfaclory. The amateur may well be satisfied with ten per cent.
The season for .budding is when the bark will slip well during tihe months of .July and Aiugust. The season is, however, often extended into September. .Many of the buds inserted late in the season remain dormant until the following spring.
)uring the season, from the first of July until September, the atmosphere is moist, the buds are in good condition, the sap flows freely, and better results are secured than at anv other tine. The buds conimonlv used are those whici have been formed just previously. They should be carefullY selected aind only those fully matured should he used. Oliver (Bulletin 30, Bureau Plant Industry, U. S. 1). A.) recommends the use of dormant buds of last season, hut the method has not met with favor because of the large amount of wood which must be sacrificed to secure a few buds.
ANNUIAII lR Ummlc,.-lh' this method branches or seedling trees three-quarters of an inch or less in diameter may' be worked. It is preferable that the stock and bud stick be of the same size, though the stock may he somewhat smaller. From the stovk remove a ring of h'rk an inch or so in length. On the bud stick select a good bud and remove it by taking out a ring of bark the same in


size as the one removed from the stock. Place this ring in the place on the stock prepared for it and bandage securely in place, using a piece of waxed cloth. The wrapper should be brought around the stock so as to cover the cut ends. The bud may be covered over or left exposed.
In ten days or two weeks, remove the bandage, and examine the bud. A plump full bud at this time is an indication that union has taken place.
VENEER-SHIELD OR PATCH BUDDING.-If this method is used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be of the same size, and so far as size alone goes, almost any stock may be used. A rectangular or triangular piece of bark is removed from the side of the stock. From the bud stick cut a similar piece of bark with a bud in its center. Place the bud in place on the stock and wrap as in annular budding. If the stock is considerably larger than the b-uid stick, the piece of bark with bud attached will have to be flattened out somewhat before inserting.
LoPPING.-Frequently buds, particularly those inserted late in the season, act as dormant buds and do not begin growth until the following spring. The top of stocks budded during June, July and August; should be lopped up to September first. It is always well to start the buds out before growth ceases for the season, but stocks budded after the first of September should not be lopped until the following spring, just before growth begins.
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to within five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later, after the bud has grown to some size, it should be cut right back to the bud and painted over to prevent rotting. Lopping may also be performed by cutting the stock half off two or three inches above the bud and bending it over. After growth starts in the bud it should be removed entirely, thus throwing the full flow of sap into the bud.


The best soil for the pecan nursery is a well-drained, loamy soil with a clay or sandy clay sub-soil. The land should be put in good condition before the trees or nuts are planted in it. Crops of beggarweed, velvet bean's plowed under, or a good dressing of well-rotted stable manure will go a long way toward putting the ground

in good shape. The ground should be plowed deeply and put in the very best tilth.
Throughout the growing season the ground should be cultivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to conserve moisture and destroy weeds is all that is necessary. It is not possible to grow good trees without thorough, frequent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should be used at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre. One analyzing 3 per cent. phosphoric acid, 3) per cent. potash and 6 per cent, nitrogen, is about right for nurseries on most Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed it is an excellent plan to sow the ground in one of the leguniinous crops mentioned above, to help it to recuperate. The frequent cultivations, so necessary for the growth of the trees, wear out the humus in the soil. The legumes will replace this if grown, and plowed back into the soil, after they are dead and dry.


By far the greater number of seedling trees in the State have not fulfilled the expectations of their Iplanters. The trees are not prolific or the fruit which they bear is small and inferior. Such trees if in good health and vigor mlay be top-worked to advantage. Seedlings may be planted with the expectation of top-working them, but this is not recommended.
If the trunks are small, an inch or an inch and a half in diameter, thle whole top may be removed at once. If the trees are of medium size, the main branches may be worked close to the trunk, anA if large, grafts may be inserted farther up from the trunk. Buds may be inserted in vigorous branches. The growth of such branches may be induced by cutting back the original branch of the tree in late winter. Lateral buds will then be forced into growth and by midsummer the branches formed from them will ize large enough to bud. The att~mpt should not be made to bud or graft over the ivhoe top of a large tree in one season. Only a few branches should be worked each year, and in the course of two, three or four years, depending upon the size of the tree,

the old top can be entirely removed and replaced by a new one of a good variety.
Both cleft and whip-grafts may be used, but the latter can, of course, only be used on small stocks. The objection to working very large branches is that they do not heal readily; two and a half inches is about the maximum in size. Large wounds should be painted over with white lead paint to prevent decay.
For several months after the new top has commenced to grow the cions or buds have but a slight hold upon the stock, and as the growth is usually very vigorous and the leaf surface great, considerable damage is frequently done by strong winds, or by wind and rain together. To prevent this the young shoots may be tied together or fastened to other portions of the stock. If this be done, care should be taken that the twine used does not do injury by cutting into the wood. To obviate this a piece of burlap should be placed around the branch beneath the twine, and the twine should be removed as soon as it has served its purpose. In some cases the top may be supported by lashing a pole against the side of the trunk and fastening the grafts to the upper part of this, or a pole may be driven into the ground at some distance from the trunk, fastened against a branch or stub of a branch above and used in the same way. After the top has grown sufficiently to take care of itself these posts can, of course, be removed. Sometins, after the top has made considerable growth, and particularly if large branches are allowed to develop opposite each other, they are split apart and the whole top ruined. If this undesirable conformation exists it is best to take steps to prevent splitting. A bolt having a stout washer against the head should be played through two branches, a second washer placed on and the nut screwed up. This bolt will, in the course of a few years, be entirely covered. By this means the tree trunks are held firmly together. This same plan may be used to save branches which have partially split apart. Sometimes a branch may be inarched from one large branch to another to serve as a living brace.
Necessarily a considerable number of wounds are made in top-working. Branches are removed entirely, others are cut back to within a foot or so of the trunk and grafted'. Often these fail to unite. Such stubs should not

be left. If branches are formed on them they should be cut back to the point where these buds start; if no branches come out from them they should be cut back to the trunk or large branch on which they are borne. I left they prevent the healing of the wound, rot back, and the rot is carried into and down the trunk of the tree, resulting in a hollow and weakening the trunk. Smooth cuts should be made, and these should be covered wiith white Icead paint to prevent decay. A little lampblack mai be added, if desired, to make the paint nearly the color of pecan bark.


The peculiar conditions of soil and moisture surrounding the pecan in its native home might be regarded as an indication that it cannot be grown except on deep, ricii soil, in proximity to rivers, ponds or streams. Such. however, would be a wrong inference, for it succeeds admirably and bears good crops on a wide range of soils. Hence we find it today in localities far removed from th. regions to which it is indigenous, and thriving under coilditions differing greatly from those obtaining in its ntive home. In Florida trees may be found growing oi soils ranging from the black hammock to the less fertiho high pine lands. On hammock soils, however, the treeare often inclined to develop wood at the expense of fruit. while on less fertile soils the trees make less wood an4' bear more fruit proportionately. Pecans thrive well oi flat woods; the grove of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Height,, Fla., is planted on this type of land. Moisture in sufficient quantity must be present, but it will not do to plan' the pecan on land that is continually wet and soggy The presence of a hard, impenetrable subsoil doubtles,; has a great influence upon the welfare of the tree, and it would be better to select other ground, or when this i. impossible, lo blast out tihe hard pan. A quicksand subsoil is equally objectionable. If close to the surface, it should not be used. The roots cannot penetrate it. A'I things considered, the best soil is probably one which h'!s previously supported a growth of holly, willow-leaveJl oak, dog-wood, hickory and those other trees usually found associated with them. A sandy loam with a clay or sandy clay subsoil is difficult to surpass.

A land intended for young trees should be well prepared. This preparation will depend largely upon the care and treatment which the soil has received previously. Land on which the forest still stands should preferably be thoroughly cleared and put in cultivation for a year or two before planting. Leguminous crops are excellent to precede the setting of the trees. Plow the ground thoroughly, break deeply, harrow it level and it is ready for the trees.

BUYING TREES.-Florida has suffered as much from fraudulent pecan tree agents as any other State. Seeding trees have been "doctored" and sold to planters, and varieties have been sold which were untrue to name. Unfortunately, too few people are acquainted with the characteristics of a budded or grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the wood, twigs and branches of pecan trees are able to tell the differeut varieties at a glance. The color of the bark, the shape, size and arrangement of the lenticles, the size and s ape of the buds are always characteristic, and by these marks varieties can be distinguished. Every ilanter should acquaint himself with the wood characteristics of the varieties. But after all, the safest, by far the safest plan is to deal directly with honest nurserymen, men of unquestionable integrity, men who give their business careful thought and attention.
The best trees for general planting are well-grown oneyear-old trees, from three to five feet high.
Too often but slight attention is given to the planting of the trees. There is too frequently a disposition on the part of the person setting trees of any kind to do the work as rapidly as possible without consideration for the future welfare of the plants. Few realize that time spent in careful, intelligent preparation of the soil and in setting the trees is time well spent, and well paid for in the after development of trunk and branch. Better a month spent in preparing the future home of the young tree than years of its life spent in an unequal struggle for existence. More than that, the tree may die outright and a year must elapse before it can be replaced. It is generally stated that the pecan is a slow grower, and yet trees from twelve to fourteen years old will sometimes measure from thirty-five to fifty-seven inches in circum-

ference at the base, while under less favorable circumstances others will stand still for a period of six or seven years, or until they have accumulated sufficient energy to overcome the untoward conditions of their environment.
DIsTANCEs.-The .distance apart at which the tree should be set will depend in a measure upon the charac-ter of the soil. If rich and moist the trees should be set farther apart than on higher, drier soils. Forty feet is generally believed to be about right for most Florida lands. Two methods of setting may be followed, rectangular and hexagonal. The number of trees which may be set per acre by the rectangular system are as follows:

40x4O . 27 trees 40x45 . 24 trees 4Ox)0 . 21 trees 40x(;t . 18 trees 45x45 . 21 trees 50x50 . 17 trees 50x(l) . 14 trees 5Ox75 . 11 trees 60x(;() . 12 trees (;0x75 . 9 trees 70x7O . 8 trees 70x75 . 8 trees 75x75 . 7 trees

To find ihe number of trees for any distances not givn in the above table, multiply the distances together and divide 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre, by the product. The result will give the number of trees.
By the hexagonal system about fifteen per cent. more trees may be set per acre than by the rectangular system. If a double planting is contemplated, as pecans and peaches, the rectangular system should be used, and one or more peaches set out in each rectangle formed by the pecans.
STAKING THE GROUND.-If a good plowman can be secured, the rows can be run off with a plow, running both lengthwise and crosswise of the field. Ordinarily, however, a true corner may be established with a carpenter's square, the field staked out around the outside. For th, rectangular system, the stakes can then be set up in the

center of the field by measuring or by sighting, or by both. Ordinary building laths make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method, commence on one side of the field and plant stakes at the desired distance apart where the trees are to stand. Using two chains or two pieces of wire with rings at the ends (their length being the same as the tree distance), the positions for the second row of trees may be easily ascertained. Drop the rings over two adjoining stakes and stretch them out until they form an equilateral triangle with the base line. Plant a stake at the apex to indicate where the tree is to stand. Set up all the stakes for this .econd row in the same manner, then use it as a base line and so on across the field.
PLANTrING.-Having set a stake where each tree is to stand, the planting board should then be brought into use. This is simply a light board, five or six inches wide and six feet long, with a notch cut in the center of one ide and an inch hole bored in each end. In digging the ,holes for the trees this board is laid down on the ground with the notch against the tree stake. Two small wooden stakes are then shoved into the ground through the holes ia the ends and the board and tree stake both taken away.
In preparing the tree for planI ing, all broken or bruised roots should he cut off immediately behind the injuries. This is usually done before packing for shipment if trees are pur('hased from a nurseryman, but possibly may be neglected or the ends of roots become rubbed or jagged in transit. The cuts should be made with a sharp knife from the underside of the roots and outwards, leaving a
-ooth, sloping 'cut. To trim the roots to the best advanrage the tree should be held upside down while trimming.
In setting out a pecan tree, a hole 24 inches in diameter 'nd thirty inches deep is usually large enough, although wider holes may be dug with advantage, thereby enabling more pulverized' and richer soil to be put around the ioots, which is beneficial to the new feeding roots as they form. When setting out the trees carefully fill in among ihe roots with pulverized top soil or woods earth. Welliotted manure or not exceeding one and one-half pounds of commercial fertilizer, may be put in outer sides of ole, as far as practicable beyond outer ends of lateral roots, while hole is being filled, but by no means to come in contact with the roots or trunk of tree. No fertilizer

should be put at bottom of hole. Work and firmly press the dirt among the roots, laying each root in a natural position. No holes or cavities in the soil should be left and soil must be in close contact with all roots, especially the tap-root. The bottom of the hole should be firm, to avoid further settling of the tree. The tree should be set at such a depth that after a copious watering and the permanent settling of the earth, it will be, perhaps, a little deeper than it stood in the nursery row. It is very important that no part of the crown or root be left uncovered when planted or afterwards, and if at any time it is found that the earth has settled and left any brownishred part of the crown or root exposed, it must again be covered with soil
The point where the root and crown leave off and the trunk begins is a very vital portion of the newly-set tree and must always be underground. Trees should be carefully examined after the first heavy rain after planting, and earth thrown to tree if soil has settled. It is better to plant them an inch or two deeper than they stood in the nursery row than to run any risk of having the crown of root exposed. If tap-roots are inconveniently long, say over thirty inches, they may be cut off by a sloping cut with a sharp knife. In the larger size trees it is better to sink a hole deep enough to receive the root without cutting slorter than is done before packing. The foolish theory about a pecan tree not bearing if its tap-root has been cut has been so thoroughly disproved that it is not worth discussion. If the tap-root is cut when the tree is dug, as is often necessary, the cut quickly heals and a new tap-root (sometimes several) will form. After planting is completed, loose soil should be lightly thrown around the tree to lessen evaporation, or it may be mulched with leaves, straw, etc., in lawns and other places where no crops are to be planted. The mulching of newly-set trees is highly recommended. The ground is thereby kept moist, a slow decaying supply of natural plant food is provided and grass and weeds are not so troublesome, thus avoiding the necessity of so frequently stirring the soil immediately around the trees. The trees. The ground around fruit or nut trees should never be allowed to bake or crust, and it is the more important with newly-set trees, particularly the first season.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become dried out. It is best that the necessary root pruning be done in

the shed and the trees carried to the field wrapped in a damp blanket, from which they are removed one by one as required for planting. The tops should be pruned back slightly to restore the balance between the roots and the tops which has been disturbed in the process of transplanting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere between the first of December or the latter part of November and the first of February. Preference must be given to the earlier part of this period, as the ground will have a chance to become firmly packed and the root wounds will have partially callused over before the growing season begins. Besides, the early spring season in Florida is usually dry and recently planted trees do not stand nearly so good a show as those planted in December and Janu ary.

Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some parts of the country, many p~eop~le suppose that it can be left without care aind cultivation, left as any other tree in the fields and woods is left to shift for itself. But if fruit is requlired froin the tree, no matter whether planted in the garden or the orchard, it should be given good care. Too many of our practices are based upon ideas taken from the native trees of the woods and fields. But all these trees do from year to year is bear a few fruits, manny of which are imperfect, in the attempt to reproduce themselves. If that is all that is desired of the pecan tree, well and good ; a system of neglect will secure the result and the insects and fungi will be the chief beneficiaries of the practice.
One lesson can he learned from the woods. The ideal soil conditions for the pecan grove is that found in the forest. The soil there is filled with vegetable matter, and humus; it bolds water and plant food. The aim in tbe cultivation of the trees should be to provide and maintain a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anYone would 1Iuive the temerity to advocate the cultivamtion of a pecan orchard along the lines applied to peach orchards and citrus groves is seriously doubted. A pecan plantation will begin to bear in from six to eight years after planting and should produce a very fair crop at ten years, after which it rapidly increases in productivity. But during the period when the trees are growing

and no fruit is being produced, cultivation must be given.
This is best done by planting the land between the tree rows in cotton, peanuts or other field crops, in vegetables, cowpeas, beggarweed or velvet beans. The last mentioned crops may be used in making hay. These are the ideal crops for the pecan orchard. It would be best to follow a systematic rotation of these crops. As, for instance, first year peanuts, second year cotton, or first year crabgrass and beggarweed, second year cotton, third year velvet beans, or cowpeas.
The area grown in these crops should by no means equal the total area of the field. The tree rows for a width of four or five feet on each side should not be planted in crops during the first year. This strip should, however, be cultivated during the first part of the season and about the beginning of the rainy season sowed to beggarweed. The cultivated area will necessarily become more restricted each year, and eventually the ground will have to be given up to the trees.
Then the plan frequently advised is to put the land in grass and use it for a pasture. But grass is generally an important item in the cultivation of neglected pecan orchards. It is synonymous with neglect antd bad treatment. It interferes with the growth, development and fruiting of the trees, and this plan is no longer advised by growers.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in spring, continuing the cultivation well up to the rainy season. Later, in August, a crop of crabgrass and beggarweed namv be removed for hay. By autumn a considerable additional growth will be formed to cover the ground in winter and turned back into the soil to restore and maintain the necessary humus content of the soil.


On nearly all Florida soils, pecan trees are benefited by the application of fertilizers in some form or other. Large quantities of food materials are taken from the soil in the growth of the tree and the development of the crop.
The greatest demand made on the soil by the tree is for nitrogen, and this can be met by applying stable manure, or by growing leguminous crops and turning them under as already directed. In the fertilizing of the pecan

this is by all means the best policy. The potash in the form of sulphate or muriate of potash and the phosphoric acid in the form of acid phosphate can be supplied separately.
FORMULAS.-The requirements of the trees will differ at different stages of their growth. The needs of the young trees differ from those of fruiting ones. For young trees, nitrogen in considerable amounts is required, while for bearing trees, more potash and phosphoric acid and less nitrogen relatively, are required. If complete fertilizers are used, those given the young trees should analyze about five per cent. phosphoric acid, six per cent. potash and four per cent. nitrogen; while one containing six per cent. phosphoric acid, eight per cent. potash and four per cent. nitrogen is about right for bearing trees.
If we assume that acid phosphate analyzes 14 per cent. phosphoric acid, hig-h grade sulphate of potash 50 per cent. potash, cottonseed meal 6.5 per cent. nitrogen, and drio4 blood 14 per cent. nitrogen, the following amounts of these materials which may be mixed at home will give approximately the above analysis:

Fon YOUNG TIuisAcid Phosphate (14 per cent. goods) . 700 pounds H. G. Sulphate Potash . 225 pounds Cotton Seed Meal . 1,150 pounds

If dried blood is used in place of cotton seed meal onehalf of the amount, or 575 pounds, will give as much, or slightly more, nitrogen than the 1,150 pounds of cotton seed meal.

FoR OLD TREESAcid Phosphate (14 per cent.) . 850 pounds H. G. Sulphate Potash . 300 pounds Dried Blood . 250 pounds Cotton Seed Meal . 600 pounds

2,000 pounds

APPLYING TIE FERTILIZE.-The whole of the fertilizer may be applied in spring just before the growth starts. On the whole this is one of the best times to apply it. In some cases it may be advisable to apply only half the

material at that time, leaving the other half for application about the first of June. So far as the nitrogen part of the fertilizer is concerned, this would be good practice, but the potash and phosphoric acid may as well be applied at the beginning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should be put on in a circular band about the tree (closer or farther away, depending on the size of the tree), and spreading it around on a strip four or five feet wide. As the trees increase in size, the fertilizer should be applied over a larger area until, in the case of old trees, the whole surface should receive an application.


For such pruning as is necessary for pecan trees a few tools should be pro vided. These will consist of a pair of gYood pruning shears, German solid steel pruning shears being the best, a pmair of Walter's tree prunes for cutting back long branches, an-d a good pruning saw. One of the best prunig saws is what is known as a Climax pruning saw, or a Pacific Coast pruning saw is equally as good.
It is not advisable to prune the trees during the time when growth has just started in spring, andl the sap is hi active motion. At this time it will be well-nigh impossible to properly' protect the wounds. The necessary coat of paint will not stick to the wound when wet with sap from the tree.
While pruning may be done during the summer months when the tree is in full leaf, all things considered, the best time to prune is in early spring before growth starts. There is usually less to be done on the farm at this season, and more time is available for the work. Wounds made at this time usually heal quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held parallel to time part which is to remain, and the branch should be cut off' smoothly close up to the trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound should be painted to protect it from decay. For a protective covering nothing is better than white lead p~aint. A small amount of coloring matter may be added to it, if desired.
As a. general rule the pecan requires comparatively little pruning. At thme time of planting the young trees should be cut back some distance, particularly if they are very tall. It is well to have the main branches form

within four or five feet of the ground. After this about all the pruning necessary is to remove dead or injured branches and cut back those which have a tendency to run up beyond their neighbors. For this work, as well as in procuring grafts or bud-wood from the top of the tree, the tree-pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable pruning to get them started so that they will develop into symmetrical trees.


The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and prepare for market as a crop of oranges or peaches, for instance, and yet some care must be taken to put the nuts on the market in inviting shape.
FIELD EQITIrPENT.-The equipment necessary for harvesting consists of an extension ladder, a step-ludder, a number of bamboo fishing poles and picking sacks. The best kind of step-ladder is one having three legs instead of four. Picking sacks may be made from ordinary hemp or jule sacks. The sack should be spread open with a piece of stick, sharp-pointed at both ends, placed in one side of the mouth, thus making the opening triangular. Place a pecan nut in the lower corner of the sack, tie one end of a piece of stout twine about it as it lies in the corner, and then tie the other end of the twine to the center of the mount of the stick opposite the stick. The twine should be short enough to draw the bottom and top of the sack close together, leaving an opening through which the arm may be thrust and the sack slung over the shoulder.
PICKING.-As soon as the greater percentage of the burs have opened, the crop should be gathered. It will not do to wait until all have opened, neither is it advisable to pick the trees over a number of times. Pick them clean at one picking. The burs of those nuts wh-ch are fully matured will open; the burs of immature ones may not. The latter should be discarded.
The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts by hand, using the bamboo poles only for those entirely out of reach. Even this should be done carefully so as not to injure the bearing wood of the trees. Care in picking good nuts by hand will amply pay the grower, because the beating and shaking of the trees will cause a considerable

quantity of fruit to be lost, and a few pounds saved will repay all the time and trouble. Of course, in very high trees, there is frequently nothing to do but shake and thrash the crop off the trees. The plan of covering the ground beneath the trees with a large sheet would work well and assist in reducing losses. As soon as taken from the trees the nuts should be spread out under a shed or in a building to drv. A very convenient plan, and one which will save space, is to provide a sufficient number of trays, three feet by four feet, and three inches deep, with halfinch mesh wire bottoms, and place the nuts in these, two or two and a half inches deep. Racks can be provided around the room in which to place these. In from ten days to two weeks from the time of picking, the nuts should be cured.
GRAD,(.- The variety should be made the basis of the grade. that is, each variety should be picked, packed and marketed by itself. This besides gives an excellent opportunity to coinpare the commercial value of different kinds. When a grower has a large number of different kinds of seedling nuls and a small quantity of each, they may be graded by passing i them through screens.
Pol'IslIN,.-At the present lime practically all of the common market nuts are both polished and colored. Coloring should not be resorted to, and in the case of good varieties of nuts 1)olishing should not be done. In the case of sioill or mixed lois, however, l)olishing is useful in making lihe nuts more uniform. It can be accomplished by putting lte nuts with a little dry sand in a barrel fixed so that it can be rotaled like a revolving churn and turning until the nuts receive the desired )olish. The better nuts, however, should be put on the market just as they come from the trees. The markings, dots and streaks on the outside are their trademark, and should not be interefered with.
PACKAGEs.-For shiping small quantities of pecans by express nothing is better than a box. Barrels are best for larger shipments. For mail shipments stout pasteboard, wooden or tin boxes or tin cans make good packages. Frequently shipments are made in sacks, but the sack does not afford sufficient protection to the contents and should not be used. As a rule the box should be made so that a given weight will fill it, but this difficulty may be overcome, to a certain extent, by putting in a pad of paper or

excelsior-paper being preferable. Fill the packages on a solid floor, shaking them down well and putting in all they will hold, placing the p~ad, if one has to be used, in the bottom.
On the outside of the packages before shipping should be placed the name of the grower, the variety, tbe number of pounds and the shipping directions. Small boxes to be shipped by express for the holiday trade should be wrapped in good quality wrapping paper before shipping.
MTARKETING.-The best plan for marketin g good pecan nuts is to build up a private trade. As a matter of fact, at the present time but very few of the large, full ineated pecans find their way into the general market. They are either taken by seedsmen or consumed by private enstomners. In building up a private trade advertising has its place, of course. Advertisements inserted in inagazines or papers, particularly in those which are published in the tourist towns of the State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private customer a package, bright, neat, attractive. and containing the best quality of nuts. If a certain price per pound is fixed for a given quality, then this should not be varied under any circumstances. Each year the same quality of nuts should be given to each customer. It will not do to give la-re ones one year and smaller ones the next; this tends to create dissatisfaction. In some of the larger cities there are high-class fruit dealers who handle nothing but fruits, nuts, etc., of the very highest quality. Under some circumstances it might be well to enter into negotiations with such firms.


Although the pecan industry is not old, yet a very considerable number of varieties has been brought forward. Nhot all of these are or have been meritorious, and in fact many varieties are now represented by name alone. Other varieties are comparatively new, and no one can speak ant horitatively of what they will do over a wide range of territory. Still other varieties have been propagated by buds or grafts for a number of years with the result that they have been tested fairly well over the country. Some of' the varieties so tried have proved satisfactory, others have not. Of the older varieties, Stuart, Van

Denian and Frotscher have been found satisfactory in nearly all cases, while Centennial and Rome have proved so unsatisfactory that they' have been cut out of the lists of many propagators. It is doubtful whether a more worthless nut has ever been propagated and sold than tbat much named variety, Rome, Columbian, Pride of the Coast, Century, Twentieth Century. etc. For Florida planters the best advice that can be -given is to plant neither Centennial nor Rome. They either do not bear enough fruit or that which they do produce is inferior or poorly filled out. Van IDenan, Stuart and Froischier, on the other hand, have generally borne full crops of nuts of good quality.
A satisfactory commercial pecan nut must be prolific, of good size, 'good quality, must not be spasmodic in its bearin, pu ,wiha bright, presentable exterior and preferably a light-colored kernel. The nuts should, besides, yield sixty per cent, or upwards of kernels. All these things in one variety make a difficult combination to secure. Undue weight must not, however, be given to size, for size and quality are usually antagonistic to each other. In fact, in pecans as in other fruits we must go to the small or medium sized ones for the best quality. -No variety of pecan is superior to San Saba in qualit 'y, yet it is a small nut. Other varieties which may be regarded as standards of quality are Sebley and Curtis. The former is a medium to a large nut and medium prolific variety, while Curtis is of medium size, precocious and pirolific.
Moneymaker is reported as doing well in Louisiana, and being a medium-sized nut, it is likely to succeed in Florida; but the shell is rather thick. Georgia has proved to be a prolific and precocious bearer. Nearly 'y all of the varieties given in the following list have been reported upon favorably by different growers.
In jilan1ting- pecans, no greater mistake than that of planting a large number of varieties can be madle. At most the plantings should be confined to four or five varieties. If the grower desires to experiment, and it is a good thing to do, then a tree or two of a number of other varieties should be included in order to test their merits.
XTAluEMEms RECOMA21ENIIED.-The following list contains the varieties which are worthy the attention of Florida planters. Not all of them have been thoroughly tested as yet, and the reason for inserting them here is to urge

that this be done--not in large numbers, not in ten-acre blocks, but in lots of two or three trees. In the mean time, until our knowledge of the varieties and their adaption is increased, the safest advice that can be given the Florida planter by the writer is to confine himself to Curtis, Frotscher, Schley, Stuart, Van Deman. This list for planting in the western part of the State may be supplemented by Bolton, Sweetmeat and Georgia. Past and Russell are also much in favor with a good many growers. Continued improvements in those we have and equally as val able additions are of course to be expected from time to time.

While we believe pec' n growing to be a fine investment, we advise conservatism; do not plant more than can be properly cared for; the industry has come to stay and with time it will grow to vast proportions. We do not believe that any person living today will ever see the demand wholly supplied let alone a glutted market. The best grade of pecans are bringing about 50 cts. per pound, but if this price is reduced in time as low as ten cents per pound there is more money in growing them than there is in most of the standard crops under good management. So we say to the young or the middle-aged man or woman engaged in or about to engage in either general or special farming, to plant pecans in proportion to their ability to care for them properly-it will pay them.


Feed Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs



Spccial saimles of Fertilizers or (olomercia l Feeding Stuffs sent in by pircliasers, under Section 9 of tie laws, she'll be drawn in the presence of two disinterested witnesses, from one or more packages, thoroughly mixed, and A FAIR SAMPLE OFTHE SAME OF NOT LESS T1AN EIGHT OUNCES (ONE-HALF POUND) SHALL BE PLACED IN A CAN OR BOTTLE, SEALED AND SENT BY A DISINTERESTED PARTY TO TIlE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AT TALLAHASSEE. NOT LESS THAN EIGFIT OUNCES, IN A TIN CAN OR BOTTLE, WILL BE ACCEPTED FOR ANALYSs. This rule is adopted to secure fair samples of sufficient ;ize to make the necessary determinations, and to allow the preservation of a duplicate simple in case of prote-t or appeal. This duplicale samplle will be preserved for two 1o1 us froiil date of certifica te of anal vsis.
The St-rte Ciemist is not the proper officer to receive special sales from the purchaser. The propriety of the method of drawing ;1n( sending the samples as fixed by the law is obvious.
The drawing and sending of special samples in rare cases is in compli;me1(e with law. Samples are frequently sent in pape jpaka tres or paper boxes, bail ly plckvd, and frequently in very small quantity (less than ounce) ; frequently there are n(i inIr'ks, nuIibei's or other means of identificationo; fhe llostuark in sorme instances being absent.
I would call the attention of those who desire to avail themselves oIf this privilege to Sections 9 and 10 of the law, which are clear and explicit.
flereafter strict compliance with above regulations will be required. The sample mlust niot be lcs. thian one-half pollnd. in a can or bottle, sealed and addr-essed to the Commissioner of Agrieittire. Tle sender's. name and address must also be on the package, this rule applying to special samples of fertilizers or commercial feeding stuff.


Each package of Commercial Fertilizer and each pack. t-ge of commercialll Feeding Stiff must ho ve, secorehi tftta(lhed thereto, a tag with the guar:nteed an:1ivsis renilired lv l i\w. and the stamp showing the play went of th, isetor's fee. Thi, proviso ion of the law -Section 3 of both lalw s-vill lie rigidly enforced.
Iann:',(.tirers iand denrlers will be required to properly toig and stamp each pac.k:cge of Corimiercial Fertilizer or Conimercil Feeding Stufff under penalty as fixed in Sec tion 6 of both lawes. Tags shall be attached to the top end of each b'g. or head of each barrel.


Purchasers are cautioned to purchase 1o Commercial Fertilizers or commerciall Feedinig Sttri that does not bear on ewch package an analysis tag with the guarantee required hy law, and the stamp showing the I y1vineit of the inspector's fee. Goods not having the guarantee taIg and stanip aie irregul Inr ;nd fraidulent; the ahsenre of the guarantee and stnimp eing evidence that the imintrfiaturer or den ler has not complied with the law. Without the guar. ;iniee tag a i di stamp slowing what the goods 1re gun ran teed to contain, the pi)ircias(r I s no .o rese iga inst ihe mnufaiNtirer or dealer. Smh goods are sold illegal and frandiently, and ire generally oif little v;iluie. All reputable IMnn ifaCtu rers id de:lers now comply sv strict * xv with the law and reguil:-itions by placing the guarantee tag and stamp on each package.


The attention of Sheriffs of the various counties is called to Section 3 of both laws, defining their duties. This department expects each SherifT to assist in nraintaining the. law and protecting the citizens of the State from the impo. sition of fraudulent, inferior or deficient Commercial Fer tilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuffs.


Nitrate of Soda, 17 per cent. Ammonia . Sulphate of Ammonia 25 per cent Ammonia . Dried Blood 17 per cent. Amm onia . Dried Blood 15 per cent. Amm onia .

Less than 5 to 10 10 tongs 5 tons. tons. & over. $60.00 $59.50 $59.00 74.00 73.50 73.00 60.00 59.50 59.00 54.00 53.50 53.00


High Grade Sulphate Potash 48 per cent. Potash (K20). Low Grade Sulphate Potash 26 per cent. Potash ((20) . Muriate of Potash 50 per cent Potash (KO ) . Carbonate of Potash, 60 per cent. Potash (K20) (90 per cent. Carbonate of Potash) Nitrate Potash, 13 Ares., 42 Potash (K.,O) . Kainit 12 per cent Potash. Canada Hardwood Ashes 4 per cent. (K20) Potash.

50.00 49.50 49.00 30.00 29.50 29.00 46.00 45.50 44.00


84.00 83.50 83.00 13.00 12.50 12.00 17.00 16.50 16.00


High Grade Blood and Bone,
10 per cent. Ammonia . Low Grade Blood and Bone,
6- per cent. Ammonia, 8 per cent. Phosphoric Acid. 'Raw Bone 4 per cent. Ammonia, 22 per cent. Phosphoric Acid .

40.00 39.50 39.00 31.00 29.50 29.00 32.00 31.50 31.00

Less than
Ammoniates. 5 tons.
Ammonia and Phosphoric Acid: Ground Castor Poniace, 6 per cent. Ammonia, 2 per cent I'llospiori� Acid . $25.00 Brihr Cottonseed Meal, 8 per cent. Ammonia, market quotations . 31.00 Dark Cottonseed Meal, 5 per cent. Ammonia, market quotations . 24.00

5 to 10 10 tons tons. & over. $24.50 $24.00 29.50 29.00 23.50 23.00


High (4rade Phosphoric Acid,
16i percent. Available Phosphoric Acid . Acid Phosphate, 14 per cent.
Available Phosphoric Acid. Boneblack, 17 per cent.
Available Phosphoric Acid. Odorless Phosphate .

15.00 14.00 24.00 25.00

14.50 14.50 13.50 13.00 23.50 23.00 24.50 24.00


H. G. Ground Tobacco Stems,
3 per cent. Ammonia, 9 per cent. Potash . Pulverized Ground Tobacco
Stem s . Tobacco Dust, No. 1, 3 per cent. Ammonia, 5 per cent.
(KO) Potash . Tobacco Dust, No. 2, 1 per
cent. Ammonia, 11 per cent. Potash . Dark Tobacco Stems, baled. Land Plaster in sacks .

25.00 16.00 23.00

15.00 10.50

24.50 24.C0 15.50 15.00 22.50 22.00

18.50 14.50 10.25

18.00 14.00 10.00

The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and bagging any special or regular formula are $1.50 per ton in excess of above prices.



Ammonia, sulphaie, foreign, spot, per 100 lbs . . $ 2 .85 ,' futures . 2. S7 @( Ammonia. sulphate, domestic, spot . 2.S7 (i
futures . 2.90 @ Fisih scrop, dried, It p.c. "mmonial and 14
1). c.1)0n, ph osnil "iIte, f o. b). fi'k works,
per unil . . 2.65 & vel, acidulated, 6 p.c. ammonia, 3
p.c. )I1sphi0I acid, f. o. b, fish
works . . 2.40 & Ground fishl iMano, imported, 10 and It
p.c. .1mmonin -in1 01 5-17 p.c. bone !ihospIhote, c. i. f. N. Y., Balto. or Phila. 2.75 & Tankage, 11 p.e. and 15 p.e., L o. b. Chicago . 2.,'0 & Tankage, 9 ind 20 p.c. f.o.b. Chicago. . 2.20 & Tankage. 6and 25 p.c, f.o.b. Chicngo. . 15.00 @ Tankage, concentrated, f. o. 1. Chicago.
14 to 15 per cent f. o. b. Chicago . 2.25 @ Garbage, tankage . 6.00 @ Sheep manure. concentrated, f. o. b.
Chicago, per ton . 7.50 @b HooflueA1. f. o. b. Chi(ago, per unit . 2.30 C Dried blood, 12-13 p. e. ammonia, f. o. b.
New York . 2.00 @ Dried )lood. high grade, f. o. b. Chicago. 2.50 06 Nitrate of soda, 95 p. e. spot, pr 100 lbs 2.15 a
futures, 95 p. c . 2.15 @q

2.871 2.90
. 924





26.65 2.55 2.171 2.17J


Acid phosphate, per unit . 50 @ 55 Bones, raw. per ton . 20.00 @ -ground, steamed, 3 p. c. ammonia and 50 p. c. bone phosphate 24.00 () -ung-round, steamed . 17.50 @ 1.8.00

South Carolina phosphate rock, undried,
per 2.41 lbs., f. o. b. Ashley River. South Carolina phosphate rock, hot air
dried, f. o. b. Ashley River . Florida land p)el ie l(phosphate rock, 68
p. c., f. o. ). itori Tampa, Fla . Fiorida high grade phosphate hard rocks,
77 ). c. f. o. b. Florida or Georgia ports
Georgia ports . Tennessee lph)slhllate rock, f. o. b. Alt.
Please t. (1,m4 stick . &i' ton, 78( a$O p.c.
7 p5 p. c. guaranteed .
08@ 72 p. c .
Muriate potash, basis S0 ). c. per 100 lbs. Manure walt. 201 p. c. actual potash .
double manure salt, 48 p. c. Sullilte lot:lsh (Nbisis 91 p. c.) . Kainit in bulk, 2.240) lbs .

5.50 @ 5.75 7.00 @ 7.75 3.25 @ 3.50 9.25 @ 9.75 9.25 @ 9.75

4.75 4.00

q 5.50 @ 5.00 @ 4.25

1.90 @ 14.75 @
1.16 @
2.18 @ 8.50 @


For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid,, Ammonia
and Potash for the Season of 1909.

Available Phosphoric Acid . 5 cents a pound Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .1 cent a pound Ammonia ( or its equivalent in nitrogen) 161 cents a pound Potash (as actual potash (K,0) . 51 cents apound
If calculated by unitsAvailable Phosphoric Acid .$1.00 per unit Insoluble Phosphoric Acid . .20 c. per unit Armmonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). .($3.30 per unit Potash . 1.10 per unit

With a uniforiri allowance of $1.50) per ton for mixing and bagging.
Unit is twent-y pounds, or 1 per cent, in a ton. We find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calculating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this take for example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows. Available Phosphoric Acid. . 6.22 PeIr ccnt.x$1.00 $ 6.22 Insoluable Phosphoric Acid. .1 .50 per cent.x .20- .30 Ammonia .3.42 per cent.x 3.30- 11.28 Potash .7.23 per cent.x 1.10- 7.95 Mixing and Bagging . - 1.50

Commercial value at seaports. $27.25

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:

Available Phosphoric Acid. . .8 per centx$I.00-$ 8.00 Ammonia .2 per cent.x 3.30- 6.60 Potash . 2 per cent.x 1.10- 2.20 Mixing and Bagging .- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports. $18.30

The above valuations are for cagh for materials delivered at Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one ton lots at these prices at the date of issuing this Bulletin. Where fertilizers are bought at interior points, the additional freight to that point must be added.

If purchased in carload lots for cash, a, reduction of ten per cent. can be made in above valuations, i. e:
Available Phosphoric Acid .90 cents per unit Potash (KO) . 99 cents per unit Ammonia (or equivalent in nitrogen) . $2.9'6 per unit

The valuations and market prices in succeeding illustrations, -are basea, on market prices for one-ton lots.


It is not intended by the "State valuation" to fix the price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State values" are the market prices for the various approved chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufacturing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at the date of issuing a bulletin, or the opening of the "season." They may' , but seldom do, vary from the market prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight advance or decline.
They are comp~iled from price lists and commercial reports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot be answered categoricallY. By analysis, the ammonia, available phosphoric acid, and potash may be determined, and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary material to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's Fruit and Vine" would be. using none but accepted and well known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on bad bills, cost of advertisements, and expenses of collections. The "State value" is simply that price at which the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding a fertilizer, or feed, can be pitrchased for cash in ton lots at Florida sea ports.
These price lists in one, five and ten lots, are published in this report, with the "State values" for 1909 deducted therefrom.



Phosphoric Ammonia Acild


Nitrate of Sodua . i Sulphate of Ammonia . Dried Blood . Concentrated Tankage . I Bone Tankage . Dried Fish Scrap . Cotton Seed Meal . Hoof Meal .

17 to 19 . . 21 to 24.
12 to 17." 12 to 15 1 to 21 . 6 to 9 10 to 15.
8 to ll 6 to 8 .
7to10 2 to 3 1 to 2
13 to 17 1j to 2! .


Ammonia Phos. Acid

W lo r id a P e b b e P h o s p h a t e . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . .
Florida Rock Phosphate.1 . . Florida Super Phosphate. 14 to 19
Ground Bone. . to 6 5 to 8
Steamed Bone . 3 to 4 6 to 9
Dissolved Bone . 2 to 4 13 to 15

Insoluble Phosphoric

26 to 32 33 to 35 I to 35 15 to 17 10 to 20 2 to 3


Actual mm. I Phosphoric
Potash A1mo1 I 1 cid Lime

Muriate of Potash. I 0 . . .
Sulphate of Potash . [48 to 52 . . Carbonate of Potash . 55 to 30 . Nitrate of Potash . 40 to 44 12 to 16 . . Double Sul. of Pot. & Magi26 to 30 . . . Kainit . 12 to 12J . . . Sylvinit . 16 to 20 . Cotton Seed Hull Ashes. 15 to 30 . 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleashed. 2 to 8 . 1 to 2 . Wood Ashes. leached . 1 to 2 . *i to 1j 35 to 40 Tobacco Stems . 5 to 8 2 to 4 . 3,
Cow Manure (fresh). 0.40 0 to 41 0.16 0.31
Horse Manure (fresh). 0.53 0 to 60 0.28 0.31
Sheep Manure (fresh). 0.67 1.00 0.23 0.33
Hog Manure (fresh) . 0.60 0.55 0.19 0.08
Hen Dung (fresh) . 0.85 2.07 1.54 0.24
Mixed Stable Manure .1 0.63 0.76 0.26 0.70


To convert-Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by . 0.824 Ammonia into protein by . 5.15 Nitrogen into amnonia, multil)ly by . 1.214 Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by . 16.47 Nitrogen into protein, by. 6.25 Bone phosplhnte into phosphoric acid, lnultiply by 0.458 Phosphoric acid into bone phospliate, multiply by 2.18 4 Muri'te of potiash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632 Actual pol ash into m'iate of pota,-h. n itiplly by 1.583 Sulphate of potash into actual potash. multiply by 0.541 Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85 Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by . 0.139 Carbonale of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.68t A ctual po '!sh into carbonate of potash,niunlllly by 1.466 Chlorine, in 'kainit," multiply potash (KO) by. . 2.33

For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda and want to know how mch nitrogen is in it. multiply 95 per cent. by 16.47 you will get 15.(5 per cent. nitrogen; you want to know how much aninonia this nitroen is e(luivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and you get 18.99 per (cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of pota.h into actual potash (KO), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29 per cent. actual potash (K0).


Citizens interested in the fertilizer and glock feed laws of the State, and desiring to avail themselves of their protection. can obtain copies free of charge by sending for same to the Commissioner of Agriculture.

Copies of the Pure Food and Drug Law, rules and regulations, standards, blanks, etc., can be obtained from the Commissioner of Agriculture.


It is shown by the number of "Special Samples" (those oent in direct by the purchaser of fertilizers or feeds) that the law is becoming more generally understood by the farmer, fruit and vegetable grower. Purchasers who have any reason to doubt the correctness of the guarantee on the goods furnished them, should not hesitate to send in samplles for an analysis.
This right to have a sample of the goods purchased analyzed by the State Chemist, under Section 9 of the law--without charge--the inspection fees covering the cost of analysis, as well as inspection-has doubtless had a dlirect influence upon the increased quality of the goods sold in the State. When properly drawn, sealed, witnessedl and transmitted, the "'Special Sample" has proved a safeguard to the consumer, legitimate dealer, and manufacturer, and1 a check upon the careless,, ignorant, or fraudulent vendor or manufacturer.
It furnishes the consumer ith the same protection demanded by the manufacturer, who buys his materials only upon. the guarantee, and pays for them. according to analysis.
By far the largest amount of commercial fertilizers used in Florida are manufactured or mixed by factories in the State. Large amounts of fertilizing materials are imported direct by factories and dealers located at our seaport cities; cargoes of potash salts direct from Germany are now frequently received by Florida importers, while large amounts of acid phosphate are manufactured at and exported from the various Gulf and Atlantic ports.
Florida consumers may now purchase their fertilizers and chemicals at Florida seaports as cheaply as at any of the seaports of the country.
Tables of the average composition of feeds and fertilizer materials will be found in this bulletin. The consumer should consult them, compare the guarantee tag therewith, and if doubtful of the truthfulness of the "~guarantee," send a "Special Sample" in a, tin can to the Commissioner of Agriculture for analysis, as directed in regulations governing the taking and sending of special samples-on another page-



Bright Cott'n Seed Meal Dark Cotton Seed Meal Linseed Meal . Wheat Bran . M iddlings . Mixed Feed (wheat). Corn Meal . Corn (grain) . Corn Cobs . Corn and Cob Meal . Corn and Oats, cq'l pts.I W heat . O ats . Soja Beans . Velvet Beans & Hulls. Rice Hulls . Gluten Meal . Gluten Feed . Barley . . Barley and Oats (equal
parts) . . . .I


5.171 7.80

1.64 2.101 30.101

6.601 5.801

1.80 9.50 4.80 9.20t 35.70 1.251




g c

39.70 28.58 22.89 37.141 34.70 35.91 15.491 55.151
1 1
16.821 58.741 16.861 54.44f 8.73 71.321 10.501 69.601

2.40 54.901 8.501 64.801 i1 5 64.651 11.90 71.991 11.801 59.701 34.001 28.00 19.701 51.30 3.601 38.601[ 37.061 46.521 24.17 54.30 14.001 3,.25

12.901 46.621

7.781 5.48 5.34 3.861
4.171 4.79 3.141 5.401 0.50 3.501 5.201

2.10 5.001

16.501 4.50 0.70




5.84 4.99 6.12 5.98 4.50 5.30

1.20 1.50 1.40 1.50

2 30 1.80 3.09 5.40 3.30

13.20 0.68





STFFFS--( Cotinued.)


Homin v Feed . 4.(05 10.491 6:5.27 7.851 2.51 Rye Products (bran). 4.7 1.57 (61.2.q .,021 2.80 i I
Barley Sprouts . 10.941 27.201 42.6(;l 1 0.34 Distillers' Orains . 1 2.901 2.23 .2, 2'!1 12.09 1. Oat Feed . . 20.57! 7.91 54.58 1 ._(, 5.1t Provender . 2.91' 10.621 67.341 4.021 1.83 II I I
Ship Stuff .I 5.8 1-1.61 59.80 4.97! 8.71 Victor Feed . 11.501 8.29! 14.0, 2.011 :8.4 1 XXX Corn & Oat FeedsI 9.941! 9.6(6 61.66! 509! 3.24 Corn & Oats Feeds. 1 12.091 8.78!1 61.73 8.78!1 3.22 I I
Proprietary Horse F'dsj 9.571 12.481 60.54 4.27 2.8 Molasses Feeds . 8.491 16G. '141 51.72 1.79! G.18 Poultry Feeds . 4.CJ 15.89 60.27 5.82 27.63 Beef Scrap . . 44.701 13.28 11.751 29.20 Quaker Dairy Feed . 15.53 14.42 52.12 4.05 5.31 Creamery Feed .I 10.07 20.06 51.00 5.38 3.57 Purina Feed . .8.69 13.21 59.36 3.61 3.60


F,-l. the season of 1909 tile follovilm" "State vahles" e ixed as a guide to pnu'ellhuers.
These values are based on Lhe Current price of corn, hvlii ii een 'iosen a,- a si andard in fixing the colniertial valuess; tl.e tiice of corn, to a ]I'are extent, governing ilte priee of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

Protein, 31- cents per pound . 65 cents per unit St'lich and Sli-ar, 1-! cents per pound. .-31 cents per unit Fats, ', cents per pound . (5 cents per unit
A mit being 2( pcounds (I per cent) of a ton.
I1ndian corn being Ilie slcnuard @ $30.0)0 per ton.
To find the commercial State value, multiply the percentages by the price per unit.


HOMINY FFE1)Protein . 10.49 x 65e, A 6.SI Starch and Sugar . W1.27 x -10c, 19.5' F ats . . 7.85 x 65e, 5.10

State value per ton . $31.49


CORN AND OAT FEEDProtein . 11.15 x 6.5e, $ 7.25 Stareh and Sngar. 64.65 x 20c. 19.40 Fats . 5.20 x 65e, 3.28

State value per ton . $30.03


There are frequent inquiries for formulas for various crops, and there are hundreds of such formulas published; and while there are hundreds of "Brands" the variations in these grades are surprisingly little. Dozens of
"Brands" put up by the same manufacturer are identical goods, the only difference being in the name printed on the tag or sack. A good general Formula for field or garden might be called a 'Vegetable Formula." and would have the following: Ammonia 31%, available
phosphoric acid 61%, and potash 71%. The following formulas will furnish the necessary plant food in about the above proportion. I have purposely avoided the use of any fraction of 100 pounds in these formulas to simplify them. Values are taken from price lists furnished by the trade, which we published in our Report of January 1, 1909.
For Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes, and Vegetables:
Ammonia 3 per cent., available phosphoric acid ql per cent., potash 7 - per cent.


No. 1.
Per Cent.
900 pounds of Cotton Seed Meal (7j-21-1j) . 3.25 Ammonia 800 pounds of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.) . 6.40 Available 300 pounds of Muriate (or Sulphate) (50 per cent) 7.50 Potash
Commercial value mixed and bagged . $28.60
Plant Food per ton . 343 pounds
No. 2.
Per Cent.
1000 lbs of Blood and Bone (6-8) . 3.25 Ammonia 400 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.). . 7.00 Avail Phos. 600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot.(26 per ct.) 7.80 Potash
Commercial value mixed and bagged . $30.20
Plant Food per ton . 360 pounds

No. 3.
Per Cent.
300 lbs of Dried Blood (16 per cent.) . 25 A onia 100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).: 3.00 Avaia 1000 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.). 80 Available 600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 per ct.) 7.80 Potash

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $31.00
Plant Food per ton . 381 pounds


No. 1.

Fruits, Melons, Strawberries, Irish Potatoes: Ammonia 4 per cent., Available Phosphoric Acid 7 per cent., Potash 10 per cent.

1000 lbs of Blood aad Bone (64-8) . . 100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per ecn )I 500 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.) 400 lbs of Muriate of Potash (50 per ct.) .


Per Cent.
4 Ammonia 8 Available 10 Potash

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $34.00
Plant Food per ton . 440 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
500 lbs of Castor Poniace (6-2 per cent.) . 4.00 Ammonia 200 lbs of Sulp. of An. (25 per cent.). 7.70 Available 900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)., 9.60 Ath 400 lbs of Sulp. of Pot. (48 per cent.).J 9.60 Potash

Commercial vale mixed and bagged . $32.25
Plant Food per ton . 426 pounds

No. 3.

Per Cent.
500 lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (74-21-1i) . 100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).| 3.97 Ammonia 100 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.) . 8.30 Available 900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.) . . 8.97 Potash 400 lbs of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.).

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $31.65
Plant Food per ton . 425 pounds


300 400 200 750 300


No. 4.

lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42) . lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-3) . lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)

Per Cent.
4.45 Ammonia 10.00 Available 11.55 Potash

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $39.50 Plant Food per ton . 520 pounds


No. 1.
Per Cent.
lbs of Carb. of Pot. (60 per cent) . lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-5) . 3.05 Ammonia lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (72.-2b-1 ) . 8.95 Available lbs of Bone Meal (4-10) . 10.50 Potash lbs of concentrated Pros. (25 per cent.) lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.) .

Commercial value per ton mixed and bagged.$38.30 Plant Food per ton . 440 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42) . lbs of Carbonate of Potash (60 per ct.). 3.05 Ammonia lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-3) .L 8.95 Available lbs of Bone Meal (3-12) . 10.50 Potash lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $38.30 Plant Food per ton . 440 pounds

No. 3.
Per Cent.
lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42) . lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (7j-2 -1) . 20 Ammonia lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-5) .I 9.45 Available lbs of Bone Meal (3-12) . 1 10.20 Potash lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)

Commercial value mixed and bagged . $37.15 Plant Food per ton . 477 pounds


We frequently have samples of soil sent in for analysis and a request to advise as lo the best methods of fertilizing. Excepting in extreme cases such as 1-eavy Clays, Pure Sand, and Muck Lands, there is but little information to be derived from a soil analysis that would be of benefit to farmers. So much depends on tilth, drainage, culture, and other physical conditions, that an analysis made under laboratory conditions is of little value. In this connection we quote from the Report of the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University, Lafayette. Indiana, as follows:
"SOIL ANALYSIs OF LITTLE VALUE IN SiowING FERTILIZER REUIREMENTs.-The Chemical T)epartment is called upon to answer hundreds of letters of inquiry in relation to agricultural chemical problems from people all over the State. In this connection it might be well to say that there is a widespread idea that the chemist can analyze a sample of soil, and without further knowledge of the conditions, write out a prescription of a fertilizer which will fill the needs of that particular soil.
The Experiment Station does not analyze samples of soil to determine the fertilizer requirements. There is no chemical method known that will show reliably the availability of the plant food elements present in the soil as this is a variable factor, influenced by the kind of crop, the type of soil, the climate and biological conditions; hence we do not recommend this method of testing soil.
The method recommended by the Indiana Station is the field fertilizer test or plot system, in which long narrow strips of the field to be tested are measured off side by side. The crop is planted uniformly over each. Different fertilizers are applied to the different plots, every third or fourth one being left unfertilized. The produce from these plots is harvested separately and weighed. In this manner the farmer can tell what fertilizer is best suited for his needs. As climatic conditions may influence the yield with different fertilizers, it is best to carry on such tests for more than one year before drawing definite conclusions. There is positively no easier or shorter method of testing the soil, that we feel safe in recommending.

Soil can be greatly iql roved by an intelligent rotation of crops, the conservation of stable manure, an.d the use of some kind of commercial fertilizer. Farmers need have no fear that the proper application of commercial fertilizer will injure the land.


We frequently analyse water for public use, city, town and nei ghborhood suppl ies; springs and artesian wells in which the public is interested; and for individuals when a question of health or when some economic question is to be decided, such as the use of water for boilers or similar uses.
We do not make a complete quantitative determination, selparaling each mineral impurity and definitely stating the (qantity thereof. Such an analysis would be costly in time and labor and of no real value to the inquirer. We determine the total amount of minerals in the sample an.] report them as paris per !100.000 of total solids, naming them in the order of their predominance. We find Calcim Carbonate (Lime), followed by Sodium Chloride (Sailt), Magnesium Sulphate (Epsomn Salt), Silieia (Sand), and Aluminum Oxide (Clay) is the general order in which they occur, though on the coast where ihe total of solids amount to 500 parts or more per 100,000 )arts we tind ,4alt is the predominant substance, followed by Limie and then Epsom Salt.
We require two gallons of each sample in a new jug, stopt with a new cork, not sealed with parafine or sealing wax, by 1repli express for analysis. We require also a description of ihe soured of the water, kind and depth of well, location of well or spring by Section, Township and Range.
We do not make bacterial examinations, or examinations for disease gerns. Such examinations or analyses, are made by the State Board of Health at Jacksonville.

F E. ROSE, State Chemist. L. IIEIMBUR(7VE Ass'istant Chemist.
Analyses of Special Sainples under Sec. 9, Act approved May 22, 1901.
(Samples taken by purchaser.)

Phosphoric Acid.


Fertilizer No. 1 . 118691 S.:, -.-9 0.- 7 5[ 3 5 1 .5C. -W. SteensThonotosassa, F a
Fertilzer No. 2 . 18701 S. 01; i 7. 251 u. 14 7.39 . 94 12.91 C. -W. Stevens, Thonotosassa, Fla.
M uriate of Potash . 1871 .i . .I. . . . 49.08 Ed. Chasan, W~illis, Fla.
Fertilizer "A-2" . . . 18721 5. -14 6.3 G 0.02 6.308 5.1In 6.22 J. R. Williams, Citra, Fla.
Cotton Seed Meal . 18731 . !. . . 4.84! . Fla. Cotton Oil Co., Jacksonville, Fla. Fertilizer No. I . ]18741 12.8S!{ 11. 30[ 0.411 11.71] 2.061 2.91 S. H. Bass, Milton, Fla.
Cotton Seed Meal No. 3 . .187511 . i. /. .' 4.011 . S. H. Bass, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer . 1876 . 6.95 0.83/ 7.781 4.871 6.85 Frank McCord, Largo, Fla. Fertilizer . 18771 . 1 8.75 0.22 S.971 4. 04; J0.83 Dan W . Roberts, Redland, Fla. Fertilizer "A" . .1.] . 1S8 .6 4.3H 8.51 Wn. J. Kromel, Marahnia
S, 2" 36 -a n Fla

Fertilizer "B . .1 18791 9.89 .9 .16 7.01 4.84 6.71 W . J. Krome, Marathon, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2.1870 8.i 7.25 61 73 3.4 2.18 C.2 .Sees hoooasFa

Friiter o .ot. 1871. . . .4. O E7m. J Kromei, Marathon, Fla. Fertilizer .A-.18S 11 7 6 0.95 0.47 11 42 5. 08 1.99 J. . ilamsCi, Fla.
Fertilizer Geroul.ndone.SS2.1. . 02 1358 19. O 6.151 .F. CTton i Cson , Jlan, F a.
Fertilizer . 1 92 7.,51 1.41 1.76 2.00 21.041 H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
Fertilizer "". 18784 8.2, 5. ! 2.33 7.99 3.74 8.281 W. Hoyt, Clearwater, Fla. Fertilizer No. I . 118851 8.01 9.10 0.17 9.271 3.18) 10.301 . V. McMullen, Seminole, Fla.



Fertilizer No. 2 . 1886 8.931 Fertilizer. 1887 16. 901 Fertilizer . 1888 15.88 Fish Guano (Dried Fish) . 1889 . Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture). 1890 7.17 Fertilizer . 1891 4.56 Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture) 1892 9.11 . Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture) 18931 7.39' Fertilizer (Tankage) . 18941. Fertilizer No. 1 . 18951 . Fertilizer No. 2 . 18961 . Fertilizer . 1897 15.61 Acid Phosphate . 1898[ . I Fertilizer No. 1 . 1899 6.28! Fertilizer No. 2 . 1900 7.57] Cotton Seed Meal . 19011 . 1. Fertilizer No. 1 . 19031 19.441 Fertilizer No. 2 . 1904 26.24 Fertilizer No. 3 . 119051 26.27 Fertilizer . 19061 20.60 Fertilizer (Tankage) .19071 .

Phosphoric Acid.

- a q

9.32 0.12 9.441 10.36 0.41 10.771 8.81 0.11 8.92 . . 5 41
4.20 9.19 13.39 8.47
. ,. 7.80 . .: 7.37
5.02[ 5.80 10.82 5.631 6.'361 11.99' 11.171 0.55 11.72
13.301 0.57 13.87 6.92! 1.94 8.861 7.051' 4.121 11.17]

4.101 Tr. 4.10 4.12! Tr. 4.12 6.50 Tr. 12.43 0.77 13.20! . ! . ! 6 .00 1



3.10 10.241 M. V. McMullen, Seminole, Fla.
1.72 1.80 W. E. Cooley, Berrydale, Fla. 1.881 1.90 Frank Cooley, Berrydale, Fla. 12.34 . C. I. Baird, Gainesville, Fla. 8.80 7.15 John Sorensen, Jensen, Fla. 3.541 13.55 M. 5. Morgan, Arcadia, Fla.
6.681 9.09 J. G. May, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
6.93' 8.76 J. G. May, Ft. Pierce, Fla. 10.70 . D. E. Austin, Jensen, Fla. 3.79 12.82 H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla. 3.77 12.80 ri. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
1.70 2.07 J. E. Thompson, Sullivan, Fla. . J. E. Thompson, Sullivan, Fla.
2.98 10.99 Guss Garrison, Milton, Fla. 3.821 9.95 Guss Garrison, Milton, Fla.
6.93 . Pensacola Oil Mill, Pensacola, Fla.
3.461 8.07 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla. 3.77 7.36 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla. 2.52' 11.69 D. S. Borland, Buckingham. Fla.
1.532 1.43 H. Powell, Campbellton, Fla. 10.50[ .I C. F. Wolf, Jensen, Fla.

Fertz. (Acid Phosphate). 1908 . 1 17.871 0.451 18.32 . . D. G. Gordon, Red Rock, Fla.
Cotton Seed Meal . 1909 . 7.55 . D. G. Gordon, Red Rock, Fla. Fertilizer . 1910) 6.22 1.85 2.11 3.96 6.04 8.26 M. K. Moore, Eldred, Fla. Nitrate of Soda (Sweep- . . .
ings) . 1911 . . . . . 16.04 . I. E. Dubuisson & Bro., Pensacola, Fla.
Tobacco Dust . 1912 . . . . 2.58 7.741 R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla. H. G. Blood and Bone . 1913 . 15.26 11.52 . R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla. Fish Guano . 1914. . 7.73 10.28 . R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla. Fertilizer No. 1 . 1915 12.99. 12.86 0.22, 13.08 . 3.47! Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla. Fertilizer No. 2 (Acid Phos- I I
phate) . 1916 . 1 17.761 0.081 17.84 . Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla. Fertilizer No. 3 (Muriate of I
Potash) . 19171 . . 51.48 Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1 . 19181 14.16 10.09! Tr 10.09 1.61 2.99 E. I. Murphy, Milton, Fla. FertilZerNo. 2.199 .13.86 8.42, 0.501 8.92 1.22 0.95 E. L. Murphy, Milton, Fla
Tobacco Dust .11920. .[ 2.40 9.521 C. I. Baird, Gainesville, Fin.
Fertilizer No. 1 .1921 8.951 8.38 0.05 8.43 5.35 7.77: D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2 . 1922 7.38) 8.16 0.10 8.261 3.37 13.96 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
Fertilizer . 1923 . 3.711 10.351 14.06! 1.82 10.01! Henry W. Smith, Wauchula, Fla. Fertilizer . 1924 6.15[ 6.311 8.111 14.42 5.60 5.20] M. B. Holly, Winter Haven, Fla. No. 2 Tobacco Dust . 1925 . . . 2.45 9.54 C. I. Baird, Gainesvlle, Fla. Kainit . 1926 . 13.15 John H. Blake, Tampa, Fa. Tobacco Dust . 1927. . . . I . .2.60 9.99I John H. Blake, Tampa, Fla.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 1909. L. HEIMBURGER, Assistant Chemist.
Samples Taken by the State Chemist Under Section 1. Act Approved May 22, 1901.

Phosphoric Acid.


Marianna Home Mixture F Guano . 1'350 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 8.00 2.00 . . 2.00 Official Analysis. 13. 1! 8.87 0.95 9.82 2.35

Liberty Bell Guano . 11351 Guarant'd Analysis 10 00 8.00 2. 00 . .2.001 Official Analysis. 19-4 10.55 0.33 10.881 2.031

Alabama Standard Guano. 1352Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 8.00 2.00 . 2.00 / Official Analysis. 10.911 9.791 0.371 10.16 1.90 SF.001 .
Farmer's Fish Guano . !1358!Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 10.001 2. ! . 2.00!

Official Analysis. . 12.471 11.84 0.44 12.28 1.84

Kainit . 11354 Guarant'd Analysis 15.00! . . I.
lOfficial Analysis . . .


2.OOlMarianna Mfg. Co., Ma2.48 rianna, Fla.

2.001Ala. Chem. Co., Mont1.84 gonery, Ala.

2.001Ala. Chem. Co., Mont2.061 gomery, Ala.

2.00 Farmer's Fertilizer Co.,
2.211 Montgomery, Ala.
12.00 Armour Fertz. Works, 12.58 Jacksonville, Fla.



Bone Flour . 1355Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 Official Analysis. . Armour's Corn and Cotton Grower . 1356 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 Official Analysis. 10.201 Armour's Fruit and Root I
Crop Special . 1357 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 I Official Analysis. 12.18
Sweet Potato Special . L358Guarant'd Analysis 8.-1 Official Analysis. 8.2S,

Orange Fruiter .1359 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 Official Analysis. 6.60

Tomato Special . 1360 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001 Official Analysis. 7.191

Melon Special. 1361 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00 Official Analysis. 7.401

Orange Tree Grower . 1362 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001 fOfficial Analysis. 7.941

Vegetable Special . .1363 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 lOfficial Analysis . 7.581

Special Fruit and Vine. .11364 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001 1 Official Analysis. 8.401 Georgia State Ammoniatedl
Superphosphate . 11365!Guarant'd Analysisj 10.001 I JOfficial Analysis.1 8.811

12.001 9. 371

7.00 7.731

6. ,U 7.28

6.00 6.69

5.00 6.371 6.001


6.00 7.45I

6.001 6.761

6.00 7.071

8.00 6.811

14.001 . 16.19 25.56

1. 00 .
1.54 9.27

1.00[ . 0.79: 8.69

2.00 8.00
1.28! 8.56

1.00 7.00 0.10 6.79

1.00 . 0.59 6.961

1.00 7.00 0.701 7.91

1.00 7.001 1.35/ 8.S01

1.00 7.01 1.26 8.02

1.001 7.001 0.071 7.141
1 1
1.00! . 1 3.021 9.831

3.501 . Armour Fertz. Works,
3.15 Jacksonville, Fla.
2.00 2.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
2.18 2.66 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 5.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
1.98 5.74 Jacksonville, Fla.
3.50 5.00uThe Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.85 6.44 Tampa, Fla.

4.00 10.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
4.45 11.741 Tamna, Fla.

4.00 8.00IThe Gulf Fertilizer Co., -4.10 9.07 Tampa, Fla. CZ

3.50 7.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.97 7.41; Tampa, Fla.

5.00 6.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
4.85 6.94! Tampa, Fla.
5.001 5.001The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
5.081 5.291 Tampa, Fla.

3.001 13.00IThe Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.361 13.691 Tampa, Fla.

2.001 2.00 Virginia -Carolina Chem.
2.231 2.221 Co., Savannah, Ga.


Phosphoric Acid.


H. G. V. C. Tip Top Tomato
Trucker . 1366 Guarant'd Analysis S Official Analysis. H. G. V. C. Florida Fruit
Growers' Formula . 1367 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis. DeSoto Brand Orange Treel Grower . 1368 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis. Blood, Bone and Potash. 1369 Guarant'd AnalysisI Official Analysis.

Watermelon Special . 1370 Guarant'd Analysis 1Official Analysis.

Tomato Special . 1371 Guarant'd Analysis I Official Analysis.

Corn Special . 11372 Guarant'd Analysis I IOfficial Analysis.

8.00! 6.73]

8.00 4.58

10.00 4.091

10. 001 10.32



10.00 10.251

.0 .0



6. 00


5.00, 5.38

6.00 6.50

6.00 6.061

1.00[ .

2.481 10.52

O.S71 8.60 1.00 . 0.571 8.77 1.00 .
0.63]l 6.01 1.00 . 1.20 7.70'

1.51 7.57


4.001 2.47 3.501
3.78 5.001
4.14 5.00 4.901 3.00 2.83 5.00
4.43 3.00 2.791


5.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.041 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem. . 3.81 Co., Savannah, Ga. 96.50IVirginia-Carolina Chem.
5.89 Co., Savannah, Ga.

7.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
7.68 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
8.55 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
7.70 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 Armour Fertz. Works, 6171 Jacksonville, Fla.

Sweet Potato Special . Vegetable . Largo Special Fruit and
V ine . Fruit and Vine . Ideal Vegetable Manure. Ideal Fruit and Vine Ma-i
nure . Orange Tree Grower . Tampa Fruiter . Fruit and Vine . Dark Acid Phosphate . Acid Phosphate .

1373 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1374 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1375 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1376 Guaran'td Analysis
Official Analysis.

1377 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1378 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1379 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1380 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1381 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1382 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

1383IGuarant'd Analysis
SOfficial Analysis.

10.00 10.59
10.001 9.38

10.00 8.321

10.00 8.37




5.00 1.81


6.50[ 1.00. 2.50 3.50 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.79 0.94 7.73 2.47 3.96 Jacksonville, Fla.

7.00 2.00 .4.00 6.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
8.01 0.94 8.95 3.63 5.64 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 1.00 .3.00 10.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.40 0.95 7.35 3.06 9.41 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 1.00 .2.50 l1.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.72 0.75 7.47 2.38 9.99 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.0o 1.00 .4.00 8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz. 6.24 1.19 7.43 3.88 8.80 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00. 3.00 10.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz. 5.76 1.33 7.09 3.28 10.26 Co., Jacksonville, Fla. 5.00Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
8.74 5.61 14.35 4.80 6.11 Tampa, Fla.

6.00 5.00 .4.00 12.00 Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
4.18 10.49 14.671 4.241 13.51 Tampa, Fla.

6.00 . . 2.001 12.00 Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
8.09 4.50 12.62 2.30 12.35 Tampa, Fla.

15.00. . . Goulding's Fertz. Co., 16.12 0.32 16 . . Pensacola, Fla.

16.001 . . Goulding's Fertz. Co., 17.161 0.11 17.27 . . Pensacola, Fla.


Phosphoric Acid.

N - , - 0 "[ANUFACTURED.

. . I ] i
Kainit . 13S4 Guarant'd Analysis . . 12.00 . . Painter Fertz. Co., Official Analysis . 13.35 Jacksonville, Ma. Simon Pure Tomato . 1385 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00j 4.00 3.00 . 5 00 9.00'E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
Official Analysis. 11.481 5.371 3.56] 8.93 5.13 9.17 Jacksonville, Fla.

(em Orange Tree . 1386 Guarant'd Analy is 5.001 5.00 3.00 . 4.00 6.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
I Official Analysis. 9.42 4.85i 1.071 5.92 4.80i 6.441 Jaclksonville, Fla. Simon Pure No. 1 . 13S7!Guarant'd Analysis 8.00 6.00 1.00 . 4.00 11.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
Official Analysis. 11.001 6.131 0.311 6.441 4.181 12.12 Jacksonville, Fla.
No. 1 Ground Tobacco Dust 1388 Guarant'd Analysis . .i. 2.0011 2.0E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co., I Official Analysis . . . . 1.55 2.07 Jacksonville, Fla. Ideal Vegetable Manure . J389Guarant'd'Analysis 8.00 6.00 1.00 . 4.00 8.001Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
I IOfficial Analysis- 9.321 5.65 1.151 6.80 4.50 9.77 Co., Jacksonville, Fla. Bradley Florida Vegetablel1390!Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 6.00 1.00 . 4.00 5.00 Am. Agr. Chemical Co., I Official Analysis. 10.171 7.011 0.97i 7.98 4.04 5.,5 Jacksonville, Fla.

Mapes' Vegetable Manure. 11391 Guarant'd Analysis ' IOfficial Analysis. I

Mapes Orange Tree Manure 1292 !uarant'd Analyis, Official Analysis.

Blood and Bone . 1893 iGuarant'd Analvi ,;i S Oflicial Analysi.
H. G. V. C. Old Dominion I
Potato Manure . 1341Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.
H. G. V. C. Tip Top Tomato
Trucker . 12395Guarant'd Analysis I Official Analysi.
H. G. V. C. Fla. Fruit Grow- O i
er's Formula . 11396!Giarant'd Analysis I lOfficial Analysis.

H. G. V. C. Fruit and Vine 1397 Guarant'd Analysis

rus Compound . 11398 Guarant'd Analysis!
I IOfficial Analysis.
I Official Analysis.

Simon Pure No. 1 . 1899 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analy sis. .

Simon Pure Special No. 2. 1400Goarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.

12.001 13.941 1 2.00 i 11.906 10.01

X. 00 6;.14!

8.00! 4.44 8. 00 6.36


10.00 5.29, 8.00
7.61! 8.001 G.86

6.00 5.39 C'. c ,)i
5. 6-1i

7.00 2.9,6r



6.00 7.84

6.00 8.09



2.00 .

5.11 12.071

0.91 10.90 1.0 l . I
0.76 8.25 1 .001 . [ 1.20 10.39 1.o0' 0.11 7.95; 1 . o0! .
Tr. I S.09!

1 . I
Ti r. .181 2 .00 . 1 Tr. 6.241

5.00 4.00 Mapes' For. and Per. 4.69 5.70 Guano Co., New York.

4.001 1.00 Mapes For. and Per. .80 3.80 Guano Co., New York.

6.50 . Armour Fertz. Works,
6.19 . Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00! 8.00Virginia-Carolina Chem.
4.20 8.12 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.001 5.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
4.841 5.511 Co., Savannah, Ga.

0.50! 4.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem. --i
3.21 4.48 Co., Savannah, Ga.

2.50 10.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.18 10.24 Co., Savannah, Ga.

3.00: 14.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.061 14.39 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.001 11.001E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.40 11.401 Jacksonville, Fla.

4.001 6.001E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.48 7.6 Jacksonville, Fla.


Phosphoric Acid.


L. G. Blood and Bone. 1401IGuarant'd Analysis 5.00i.12.001 Official Analysis . . . 12.92 Bright Cotton Seed Meal. 1402 Guarant'd Analysis .I. . .
Official Analysis . . . . . H. G. Dried Blood .11403 Guarant'd Analysi . .
OfiilA ayis. . .1.




(;.0 . E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
6.521 . . Jacksonville, Fla.

8'001 1.001E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
7 . 99 . Jacksonville, Fia. cc

16. 00 .E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co., IG. 04!.Jacksonville, Fla.

ft. R. ROSE, State Chemist.

E. PECK GREENE, Assistant Chemist

Analyses of Special Samples under Sec. 9, act approved May 24, 1905. (Samples taken by purchaser.)


Coffee Weed. 107122.02 18.22 39.12 Bran. 108i 0.95 13.34 54.65 Feed. 109 11.62 10.08 03.50 Wheat Shorts.110 13.39 17.72 60.56 Bran . 111 8.44 17.24 51.84

Shorts . 1121 4.10 17.7215.16

2.22' 11.48
6.32 5.421 1. 1 ( 1.10 4.651 2.901 5.G51 4.'6 3

4 .63 3.44

By Whom Sent.

R, E. Rose, Tallahassee, Fla. C. E. Pleas, Chipley, Fla. Geo. W. Ward, DeFuiniak Springs, Fla. C. S. Bushnell, Arcadia, Fla. Peninsular Naval Stores Co., Tampa, Fla.e Peninsular Naval Stores Co., Tampa, Fla.

NOTICE.-The especial attention of consumers and dealers is called to the following paragraph:
Consumers desiring to avail themselves of the provisions of Sec. 9 of the laws providing for "Special Samples" drawn by consumers are requested to read carefully Sec. 9 of the laws and the "Rules and Regulations governing the taking and forwarding Special Samples of Feedstuffs and Fertilizers" found on a preceding page of the report. Also to compare the "official analysis" and the "market value" of various feeds sold in tihe State.
It will be found that in a number of cases the "market value," or price, is no criterion of the actual feeding value of the goods-that in several instances the highest "market value" is placed on the most inferior goods.
Consumers should compare the guarantee tag on the bag with the table of "average composition of feedstuffs." In case of doubt as to the truthfulness of the guarantee, draw a sample, according to law and regulations, and send in a tin box, sealed, to the "Commissioner of Agriculture." Preserve the "guarantee tags" off the packages, to compare with the result of the analysis cf the sample by the State Chemist.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. E. PECK GREENE, Assistant Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist Under Section 2, -Act approved May 24, 1905.


Cotton Seed Meal . Cotton Seed Meal . Medium Grade Cotton Seed M eal . Cotton Seed Meal . U-N-I. Feed, "A" Grade. W heat Shorts . Pure Winter Wheat Middlings .


801 Guarant'd Analysis .
Offilcial Analysis. . 9.83 802 Guarant'd Analysis .
Official Analysis. . 10.891 803 Guorant'd Analysis .
Official Analysis. 10.941 804 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis. 10.40i 805 Guarant'd Analysis 14.40
Official Analysis. 10.43] 806 Guarant'd Analysis 6.00!
Official Analysis. . 4.231 807 Gnarant'd Analysis.
I Official Analysis. 6.08


N Cc C, 1

41. 20 . . . lFarnv r's Cotton Oil and Fertil37.82 30.431 7.99 4.95J izer Co., Toccoa, Ga.

68.2 . Crawford Oil MIills, Crawford, o
3 4. 4 01 8.38jPS 7.42 5.54 Ga.0 N .621. . People's Cotton Oil Mills, Sel-.t791 32.11 5.9fl 5.S7 mia, Ala. 22. 35 .7.001 .Georgia Cotton Oil Company,
2.37S 36.74 5. 81 2.75 Atlanta, Ga. 13.03 53.47 2.15 . United Grocery Company, Jack12.021 60.32 2.08 4.31 sonvilie, Fla.
15. 00 57.00 4.00 . INashville Roller Mills, Nash14.65 G0.65 5.77 3.70 ville, Tenn.

1.00' 5G.00 4.00 . The Runter Bros. Milling Co., 17.24: 57.22; 4.20 4.19 St. Louis, Mo.

Pure Wheat Bran . : Crescent Shorts . Pure Wheat Shorts . Pure Wheat Middlings . Barley and Oats Mixed . Cotton Seed Meal. Cotton Seed FMeal . Cotton Seed Meal. Cotton Seed Meal . Dried Beet Pulp . Corno Chick Feed .

808j Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

809,Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

810 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

811 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

812 Guarant'd Analysis'
Official Analysis.

813 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

814 Guarant'd Analysis
Offcial Analysis.

815 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

816 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

817 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

818 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

7.49 8.09 8 00 6.77 6.00 6.581

5.18 4.98 10.71 9.79J





19.13 3.40 2.03

16.09 14.92

IG.00 18.08



12.06 10.88


32.18 M0.28


38.62 218.74

8.00 10.001

10.00 10.221

53.58 57.61


48.00 59.25 58.18 60.76 49.73 60:77





57.41 70.00 68.751

4.68 . Acme Mills and Elevator Co.,
3.85 4.58 Hopkinsville, Ky.

4.2 -.Kemper Mills and Elevator
4.77 5.50 Co., Kansas City, Mo.

4.00 . Southern Mills, Nashville,
4.26 4.43 Tenn.

4.41 . George P. Plant Milling Co.,
4.13 3.62 St. Louis, Mo.

4.25 . Southern States Grain Co.,
3.17 3.18 Nashville, Tenn.

.Clay County Oil Mills and Fer- 0 6.51 5.16 tilizer Co., Lineville, Ala.

.Florida Cotton Oil Co., Jack5.88 5.01 sonville, Fla.

.Vienna Cotton Oil Company,
6.53 5.61 Vienna, Ga.

. Quitman Oil Company, Quit6.58 5.77 man, Ga.

0.50 . The Larrowe Milling Company,
0.32 1.96 Detroit, Mich.

3.50 . The Corno Mills Company, St.
4.86 1.61 Louis, Mo.



Protena Feed . . Heavy Draught Feed . Grainfalfa Feed . Corno Horse and Mule Feed Stayrite Feed . Victor Feed . Ship Stuff . Pine Leaf Middlings .

819 Guarant'd Analysis 9.70
Official Analysis. 10.081

820 Guarant'd Analysis . I
Official Analysis. . 5.44'

821 Guarant'd Analysis 11.00
,Official Analysis. . 12.021

822 Guarant'd Analysisl 12.00]
Official Analysis. . 1 13.041

823 Guarant'd Analysis! 10.501
Official Analysis. 10. 55

824 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis. . 10.45

S25IGuarant'd Analysis 7. 00!
lOfficial Analysis. 6.53

820 Guarant'd Analysis 6.101
Official Analysis. 3.911


12.00 12.06 10.35 11.11 11.00 11.67 10.00! 11.011

9.751 9.44 7.501 7.811 14.50 15.01! 15.75 16.321


57.00 59.88 64.43 65.96 60.00 57.97 58.501 56.66i 63.00 63.54 62.00 66.56 54.00 56.15 57.95 61.681


3.80 .Ralston Purina Company, St
4.181 2.25 Louis, Mo.

-.421 . United Grocery Company, Jack3.14 2.07 sonville, Fla.

4.00. .The Great Western Cereal Co., 248 3.981 Chicago, Ill.

3.50] . ]The Corno Mills Company, St. .81 3.53 Louis, Mo.

3.50 . The Quaker Oats Company,
2.50 3.30 Chicago, Ill.

3.00 . The Quaker Oats Company,
2.17 3.01 Chicago, Ill.

4.001 . The Dunlop Mills, Richmond,
5.591 4.4S Va.

4.20 4.10 Cairo Milling Company, Cairo,
5.18 3.141 Ill.

Boss Chop Feed . Corno Horse & Mule Feed Barley and Oats Mixed . Ground Corn and Oats . Cotton Seed Meal . Forest City Feed Meal . Fancy White Flour Mid-:
dlings . B ran . Mayzo Feed . Sucrene Horse and Mule
F eed .

827 Guarant'd Analysisl 11.00
Official Analysis. 10.281 82S Guarant'dAnalvsi, 12.001
Official Analysis. 10.29 829 Guarant'd Analysis 9.00
Official Analysis. 9.43 830 Guarant'd Analysis 5.80
Official Analysis. 3.95 S3l1Guarant'd Analysis .
'Official Analysis. . 24.11! 832 Guarant'd Analysis .
Official Analysis. . 18.38 833 Guarant'd Analysis, 3.97
Official Analysis. . 3.65 834 Guarant'd Analysis 9.201
Official Analysis. . 7.07 8351Guarant'd Analysis' 11 00
Official Analysis. . 13.271

836 Guarant'd Analysisl 13.501
lOfficial Analysis. 9.221

8.50] 60.00 8.241 65.16

10.00 58.50' 11.41 60.Q8

11.00 65.00 10.79 62.13

10.751 65.00 10.041 68.88

22.00 '30.00 19.17 39.49

23o.00 30.00 24.351 36.32

17.75 58.58]' 18.111 55.57

13.10 54.50 14.481 56.03

11.00 60.00 10.75 5S.71t

10.001 50.001 9.621 61.38'

3.50 . [The Great Western Cereal Co.,
4.74 3.06 Chicago, Ill.

50 . IThe Corno Mills Company, St.
4.231 3.50 Louis, Mo.

5.00 . Baker & Holmes Company,
3.981 2.90 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.15 . Baker & Holmes Company,
3.78 1.93 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00. Tennessee Fibre Co., Memphis,
3.18 3.59 Tenn.

4.50. The Southern Cotton Oil Co., 0
6.54 4.29 Savannah, Ga. C4
i 3
6.35' 3.55 Hecker - Jones - Jewell Milling
5.68] 3.53 Co., New York City.

4.75 . Charleston Milling Company,
4.15 5.01 Charleston, Mo.

4.001 . 'The Great Western Cereal Co.,
3.101 2.79 Chicago, Ill.

3.001 . American Milling Company,
2.541 5.251 Chicago, Ill.



Cotton Seed Feed Meal. Cotton Seed Feed Meal. Sucrene Horse and Mule Feed . Choice Bran . Sucrene Dairy Feed . Pure Wheat Middlings . Pure Wheat Shorts . Victor Feed .

837 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

838 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

839 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

840 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

841 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

842 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

843 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

844 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.

28.00 22.68


13.50 10.76 9.50i 8.63 12.00 12.57 5.18 4.921 6.00 5.98 12.001 11.571

25.00 17.76

34.50 36.51

10.00 10.76

14.95 15.45

16.50 14.86

17.11 17.72


7.69 S. 69



15.00 42.18

31.40 50.00 58.01 5325
54.42 48.54 46.72 58.18 58.26

48.00 56.61 62.00 64.95


5.00 4.02

9.00 7.38

3.00 2.45

5.35 4.24

3.50 4.31

4.41 5.01

4.00 5.39

3.00 3.81

.J. Lindsay Wells Company,
3.971 Memphis, Tenn.

. Farmers' Oil and Fertilizer Co.,
5.21 Dawson, Ga.

. American Milling Company,
5.48 Chicago, Ill.

. IHecker - Jones - Jewell Milling
5.45 Co., New York City.

. American Milling Company,
8.80 Chicago, Ill.

. George P. Plant Milling Co., St.
3.85 Louis, Mo.

. Liberty Mills, Nashville Tenn.

. The Quaker Oats Company,
2.29 Chicago, Ill.

Barley Mixed Oats.8451Guarant'd Analysis 9.001 9.001 40.00 3. . IL. F. Miller & Sons, PhiladelOfficial Analysis. 5.36! 8.86 68.21 3.26 3.08 phia, Pa.
Pine Leaf Middlings . 846 Guarant'd Analysis 6.10 15.75 57.95 4.20 4.10 Cairo Milling Company, Cairo, Official Analysis. 5.021 15.88 60.10 5.11 3.18& 1ll.
Stafolife Feed.847 Guarant'd Analysis 12.75 11.00 53.00 6.00. Lawrence & Hamilton Feed Co., Official Analysis. 16.87 11.06 55.74 4.34 5.111 New Orleans, La.
Cotton Seed Feed Meal. 1 84SIGuarant'd Analysis 28.00 25.00 15.00 5.00. J. Lindsay Wells Company,
Official Analysis. 21.601 23.78 37.96 3.56 3.60 Memphis, Tenn.
Cotton Seed Meal . 849 Guarant'd Analysis. 38.62. Americus Oil Company, AmeriOfficial Analysis. 9.911 37.29 31.32 7.07 5.69 cus, Ga.
Cotton Seed Meal . 850Guarant'd'Analysis 28.001 25.00 15.00 5.00 . J. Lindsay Wells Company, 0 Official Analysis. 16.77 22.00 44.75 3.07 3.94 Memphis, Tenn. Medium Grade Cotton Seed 5
Meal . 851 Guarant'd Analysis . 38.62 . .People's Cotton Oil Company, Official Analysis. 10.24 37.52 1.67 -6.16 5.56 Selma, Ala.

Hawkeye Chop Feed . 852 Guarant'd Analysis 11.00 8.50 60.00 3.50 . The Great Western Cereal Co., I Official Analysis. 7.341 8.20 67.67 4.10 2.381 Chicago, Ill. II I
Winter Wheat Bran . I 853IGuarant'd Analysis 9 20, 15.001 . . ISrarks Milling Company, Alton, Official Analysis. 8.71! 16.32 52.92 4.60. 5.831 Ill.

Brown Shorts. .854Guarant'd Analysis 16.001 15.00 60.83 4.00 . Atlanta Milling Company, At official Analysis. 6.111 15.221 58.79! 4.691 4.62 lanta, Ga.

Ceralfa Stock Feed . 855 Guarant'd Analysis 11.50' 14.00! 55.001 4.501. J. B. Edgar Grain Company, Official Analysis. 10.291 14.61! 57.321 4.26! 3.34 Memphis, Tenn.


Cd Cd M~
1) 1 W

Pure Wheat Shorts .856 Guarant'd Analysis 1 Official Analysis.
Pure Wheat Bran . 857 Guarant'd Analysis

Pure Winter Wheat Mid-I Official Analysis. dlings . 85S Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.
Durham Chop Feed . 859 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.

Cooked Cow Feed . 860 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.

Shorts . 861 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.

Milo-Falo Feed . 862 Guarant'd Analysis Official Analysis.

6.001 7.16!

9.49 9.81


11.00 10.411 io.o 11.59 9.001 7.57t

14.00 17.65

16. 00

14.60 16.27

16.00, 17. 34

8.50! 7.721

26.00 25.18

5.00 5.06

14.00 13.471

48.00 56.15

57.23 51.89

56. 001

60.00 66.32

44.00 42.88

55.00 53. '0

52.00 52.79


4.00, . Cumberland Mills, Nashville,
5.401 4.87 Tenn.

4.061 . The, Dunlop Milling Company,
3.48 5.931 Clarksville, Tenn.

4.00 . The Hunter Bros. Milling Co.,
4.01 3.49 St. Louis, Mo.

3.50 . The Great Western Cereal Co.,
2.571 2.49 Chicago, Ill.

7.50 . American Steam Feed Com4.48 . pany, Nashville, Tenn.

5.00 5.00 United Mills Flour Company,
4.97 5.06 New York City.

4.00 . Altus Alfalfa Milling Company,
2.50 3.71 Altus, Okla.

SPECIAL NOTICE.-The attention of dealers and consumers is called to the table of "Average Composition of Feedstuffs" on a preceding page. This table shows approximately the composition of the various feedstuffs sold throughout the country. Any material variation from these averages is presumptive evidence of impurity or adulteration. W
A careful examination of the foregoing tables is recommended to both dealers and consumers. The guarantee of the manufacturer should not vary materially from this table of averages, while the "official analysis" should show practically the same composition as the guarantee. Dealers and consumers are requested, in all cases of suspected inferiority or adulteration, to send a sample at once to the Commissioner of Agriculture for analysis.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. Samples Sent in by Citizens.
_______________________ ALCOHOLIC DRINKS.


261 Pure Apple Cider . . 262 Georgia Home Beer . Savannah Brewing Co., Savannah, Ga. 263 Draft Beer-Jesse Hinson . 264 bRed Heart Mead .The Jung Brewing Co., Cincinnati, 0 265 Bevo-A Beverage . Anheuser-Bush, St. Louis, Mo. 266 Cider. . 267 Beer. . 268 Cabinet Beer . Savannah Brewing Co., Savannah, Ga. 299 Budweiser . C. C. & Co . 270 Budweiser Lager Beer .1C. Conrad & Co., St. Louis, Mo. 272 White Top Near Beer . . .

A. M. HENRY, Assistant Chemist



5.71 United Grocery Co., Jacksonville.

3.25 J. A. Durrance, Trenton.

4.00 G. S. Gregory, Quincy, Sheriff of
Gadsden County.
2.30 W. J. Sapp, Lake City. 1.54 W. J. Sapp, Lake City.

8.95 C. F. Prevatt, Kissimmee, Sheriff 4.26 J. W. Nance, Lake, City, Sheriff
of Columbia County.
4.4Y! . W. Nance, Lake City, Sheriff
of Columbia County.
I5.l01G. W. Hinsey, Apalachicola.

I511.W. Hinsey, Apalachicola. I2.111G. W. Hinsey, Apalachicola.

American Beverage Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1 1.00 G. L. Fleetwood, Dade City.

. * . 114.20 J. P. S. Houston, Tallahassee, Sheriff of Leon County.
. 114-251J. P. S. Houston, Tallahassee, Sheriff of Leon County.
The Capital Brewing and Ice Coj 2.50 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor Montgomery, Ala . of Ft. Myers.
The Capitol Brewing and 1, 1.99 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor
Montgomery, Ala. o . of Ft. Myers.
The Florida Brewing Co., F*'Ia. 2.70 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor
of Ft. Myers.
The Florida Brewing Co., Tampa, Fla. 3.001H. H. Solt, Ft. Myers.

The Capitol Brewing and fee Co., 2. 00 R. II. Solt, Montgomery, Ala . Ft. Myers.

Great American Hop Ale . W ine . W ine . B ig Chief . W hite Top . N ear Beer . N ear Beer . W hite Top .

I ' I

271 Honey . W ater (per cent.) . 17.02'J. 0. Hinton, Plant City.
Ash (per cent.) . 0.261 Sucrose by Clerget (per cent.) . 1.21 Glucose (polarizing at 175 V) 274 Coco-Cola, Hygeia Bot. Works, (per cent.) . 4.91

Pensacola, Fla . Saccharin present . jJ. F. Canova, Bagdad.

275 Pepsi-Cola, Escambia Bottling
Works, Pensacola, Fla . Saccharine absent . J. F. Canova, Bagdad.

278 Soda Water, Hygea Bottling
Works, Pensacola, Fla . Saccharine present . .f.F. Faust, Pensacola.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. A. M. HENRY, Assistant Chemist.


55[Hi-Lo Baking Continental Baking The West Gadsden 12.08jSodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
Powder. Powder Co., Nash- Trading Compa- Magnesium Carbonville, Tenn. fny, Greensboro. ate, Alum & Starch.

157 Watermel o n The Sea Gull Spe- Douglass & McKin-117.13 Sodium Bicarbonate. Alum Powder. Legal
Baking Pow- cialty Co., Balti- non, DeFuniakl Alum, and Starch.
der. more, Md. i Springs. e

158 Parrott and The Sea Gull Spe- Douglass & McKin- 16.75 Sodium Bicarbonate. Alum Powder. Legal
Monkey Bak-, cialty Co., Balti- non, DeFuniaki Alum, and Starch.
ing Powder.: more, Md. Springs. I

166iSodarine. The Sea Gull Spe- W. P. Sheppard, 14.71 Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
cialty Co., Balti- Lake City. Alum, and Starch.

more, Md. I
239 Campbell's Ba Kenton B a k i n g James McHugh,Pen- 15.871Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
king Powder Powder Co., Cin- sacola. Alum, and Starch.
I ~ cinnati, Ohio.I
252 Cascade BaR- AmericanPure FoodlJ. K. Peters, Chip- 9.75 Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. 'I-legal.
I ing Powder. Co., St. Louis, Mo. ley. I Alum, and Starch.
*Misbranded. No statement of the ingredients on the label.

No. Name, or Brand. 215 Gold Cross Evaporated

217 Blue Cross Condensed

218 A. & P. Brand, Evaporated Milk.

219 Grandmother's Brand A.1
& P. Condensed Milk.1 220 Carnation Brand Evaporated Milk.

222 Globe Evaporated Milk.

247 Meadow Brand Evaporated Milk.

CONDENSED MILKS.-Manufacturer. Retailer.

Mohawk Condensed Milk Co., Ball Grocery Cmay Rochester, N. Y. Tampa.

Mohawk Condensed Milk Co., Hendry & McClelland, TamRochester, N. Y. pa.

The Great Atlantic & Pacific Thomas Cahill, Manager, Tea Co., New York, N. Y. Jacksonville. Northern Condensed Milk Thomas Cahill, Manager,
Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Jacksonville.

Pacific Coast Condensed Milk Haas & Boyer, Jacksonville.
Co., Seattle, Wash. I

National Condensed Milk Co., Wilkinson & Spiller, JacksonChicago, Ill. Iyuile.

Emery Food Co., Chicago, 11ll] D. T. William & Co., Milton.

Total Amt. IRemarks.

8.80 8.80 8.00 9.60 8.00 10.00 10.00

Legal. Legal. Legal. Legal. Legal. Legal. YLegal.


No. Name, or Brand. Manufacturer. Retailer.

223 Burnett's Imitation Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- Wilkinson & Spiller JackPeach Flavoring. ton, Mass. sonville.

224 Burnett's Imitation Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- Wilkinson & Spiller, JackStrawberry Flavor- ton, Mass. sonville.

225 Cannon Brand Artifi- Cannon Bros., Jackson- Jones & DeLoach, Jackcial Extract of ville, Fla. sonville.

226 Extract Banana. IBarrs Drug Co., Jackson- J. J. Patterson & Co., ville, Fla. Jacksonville.

227 Blue Ribbon Flavor- Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jacking Extract Cinna- Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.

228 Blue Ribbon Flavor- Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jacking Extract Pep- Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.

229 Blue Ribbon ExtractGreever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jackof Pure Almond. I Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.

(D 0


29.05 Legal.

46.05 ILegal.

46.57 Illegal--misbranded. No Statement of Imitation.

74.45 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol

78.70 Illegal--misbranded. No Alcohol

49.8CIllegal-miTsbranded. 1,o Alcohol
I statement.

0 . I
No. Name, or Brand. Manufacturer. Retailer. 0 Remarks.

230 Blue Ribbon Extract
of Pure Rose.

231! Blue Ribbon Imitation Flavor Raspberry.
232 Dr. Price's Flavoring
Extract of True

233 Kitchen Queen Or-I

235 Banana Extract.

237 Burnett's Extract Va-!
nilla .

238 Sauer's Pure Extract
Vanilla .

Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'gi P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack- 46.77 legalmisbranded. No Alcohol Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville. statement.

Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack- 50.00 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville. statement.

Price Flavoring Extract!Dignan & O'Brien, Jack-85.33 Orange Oil 6.53%. Illegal-misCo., Chicago, Ill. sonville. i branded. No Alcohol statement 5

Interstate Chemical Co., George Mike, 2.9Orange Oil 2.18%. Illegal-misBaltimore, Md. branded. No Alcohol statement.
Adulterated-below standard
in Orange Oil.

Barrs Drug Co., Jackson- J. Safer, Jacksonville. 129.50JIllegal-misbranded. No stateville, Fla. I meant of imitation.

Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- James McHugh, Pensa- 36.30 Legal. ton, Mass. cola.

The C. F. Sauer Co., Rich- James McHugh, Pensa- 32.50 Legal. mond, Va. cola. i I

241 Hance's Vanilla.

246 Dove Brand Extract

2501S w a n Flavoring
Ethereal Pineapple

253 The Cooks' PrideTerpenless Orange. I

254 The Cooks' Pride Artificial fxtr a c t
255 Vanilla Flavoring
(made from Vanillin and Coumarin.)

256 Eagle Flavoring Extract Orange, 2%i
Orange Oil.

257 Eagle Flavoring Banana Extract, Artificial.

R. A. Hance Co., Philadel- H. Muller, Pensacola.
phia, Pa.

The Frank Tea and Spice Hicks Bros. & Co., MilCo., Cincinnati, Ohio. ton.

Cumberland Manufactur- Hughes Mercantile Co.,
ing Co., Nashville,Tenn. Bonifay.

Edward Westen Tea and McKenzie & Co., Panama
Spice Co., St. Louis, Mo. City.

Edward Westen Tea and McKenzie & Co., Panama
Spice Co., St. Louis, Mo. City.

Mobile Drug Company,'A. F. Thomas, Cottondale.
Mobile, Ala.

Webb Manufacturing Co., The Barrett Mercantile
Nashville, Tenn. Co., Cottondale.

25.00 Legal.

40.62 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol

22.00 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement. No statement of imitation.

32.93 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
29.50 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol

18.25 Illegal-misbranded.

IL. banedO N o A loholS al-miI branded. No Alcohol Statement.

Adulterated-below stated percentage of Orange Oil.

Webb Manufacturing Co., The Barrett Mercantile 34.751Illegal--misbranded. No Alcohol Nashville, Tenn. Co., Cottondale. I statement.
i i






216'Re D'Italia BrandiCants, Curimano & Co., Joseph Caruso, Ybor City. Index of Refraction 1.4692. *Illegal.
Olive Oil and Salad New Orleans, La. Cotton Seed Oil present.
Oil-Olio Finissimu D'Oliva VerginE.
236 Apple Cider. Liberty Fruit Product Liberty Fruit Product Alcohol 6.42 per cent. 7Illegal.
Co., Jacksonville, Fla. Co, Jacksonville, Fla.

* Misbranded and Adulterated. A mixture of olive, or salad oil, and cotton seed oil, and not so stated. t Misbranded. No Alcohol statement.

_____ _____ ____SIRUPS.



,S3 Georgia Cracker Brand Pure

.84 Sweetland Brand Compound of
Cane Syrup and GlucoseCane Syrup . 75% Glucose . 25% 91 Magnolia Farm Pure Cane Syrup 145 Alaga Alabama Georgia Syrup

162 Pure Florida Cane Syrup . 169 Pure Florida Japanese Cane

173 All Pure Brand Louisiana Cane

182 Pure Florida Cane Syrup. 189 Pure Florida Cane Syrup . 209 Karo Corn Syrup with Cane Flavor
Corn Syrup . 85% Refiner's Syrup . 15% 210 Wilder's Uniform Brand SyrupCane Syrup . 85% Corn Syrup . 15% 211 Marigold Brand Corn Refiners'
Cane Syrup.

212 Morning Glory Brand Syrup

213 Car-Wi-Co Brand Georgia Syrup. 214 Peacock Brand Georgia Cane and
Corn Syrup.

221 Buzz About Gayco Georgia-Florida
Cane and Corn Syrup.

234 Ingleside Brand Georgia Cane


New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans, I La.

INew Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,

�. . . . .
Alabama-Georgia Syrup Co., Montgomery, Ala.

Will Watson, TIartanna, Fla. T. C. Cresland & Co., Punta Gorda,

The Globe Coffee & Molasses Co., New
Orleans, La.

Tom Budd, Arcadia, Fla. E. G. Gardner, Galloway, Fla. Corn Products Manufacturing Co.,
Davenport, Iowa.

D. R. Wilder Manufacturing Co., Atlanta, Ga.

Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.

Florida-Georgia Syrup Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

Cargill-Wight Co., Columbus, Ga. Southern Syrup Co., Montgomery, Ala.

C. B. Gay Co., Jacksonville, Fla. Penick & Ford, Columbus, Ga.

Autocrat Brand Corn and Cane The Burkenroad-Goldsmith Co., New
Syrup. Orleans, La.

Revona Brand Syrup Compound- New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
Cane Syrup . 75% La.
Corn Syrup . 25%

LaBelle Brand Table Syrup Com- Gibbs Preserving Co., Baltimore, Md. poundSugar Syrup . 25% Glucose . 75%

Fancy Cane Cerop and Corn Louisiana Molasses Co., New Orleans,
Syrup- i La.
Cane Syrup . 80% Corn Syrup . 20%
"Iwanit" Brand Louisiana Cane Louisiana Molasses Co., New Orleans, Juice . La.

Cane Field Brand Louisiana The, Globe Coffee & Molasses Co., New
Syrup and Corn Syrup Com- Orleans, La.

Everybody's Brand Evaporated New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans, Syrup- La.
- Sugar Cane Syrup . 75%' Corn Syrup . 25%

Cracker Brand Pure Syrup. New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
Koo-Koo Brand Corn and Cane Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.

Sugar Cane and Corn Syrup- Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.
Cane . 40% Corn . 60%

Mallard Brand Table Syrup. A Georgia Cane Product Co., Columbus,
blend of Cane and Corn Syrups. Ga.

Pet Brand Syrup Compound- 1Stringfellow & Doty Co., Jacksonville,
Cane products . 75%f Fla.
Corn Syrup . 25%1


D. T. Williams c Co., Milton. D. T. Williams & Co., Milton.

Sol. Cohn & Co., Pensacola. Will L. Moyer, Pensacola. R. D. Daffin & Co., Marianna. T. C. Crossland & Co., Punta Gorda. Win. E. Roberts, Key West. Arcadia Mercantile Co., Arcadia. W. J. Reddick, Lakeland. J. W. Collins & Co., Tallahassee.

VanBrunt & DeMilly, Tallahassee. Frank R. Blount, Punta Gorda. Frank R. Blount, Punta Gorda. S. J. Drawfy, Tampa. Hillsborough Grocery Co., Tampa. T. H. Sompaynac, Jacksonville. F. M. Dowling & Co., Jacksonville. J. E. Concannon & Co., Pensacola. I E. B. Hoffman & Son, Pensacola. 1E. B. Hoffman & Son, Pensacola.

Angus Nicholson,


Angus Nicholson, Milton. S. J. Stewart & Bros., Milton. Burruss Cawthon, DeFuniak Springs. J. D. Leonard, Bonifay. F. G. Merritt, Marianna. Chas. H. Meinscher, Quincy. E. B. Shelfer Co., Havana. Tillis & Moreland, Havana.

46.7 -17.0 70.0 1.

45.5 -18.8 89.7.

59.9 35.5 51.2 51.8 51.2 153.5


118.1 78.8 48.6 100.01 92.5

48.5 107.0 72.8 119.8


50.0 68.2 84.1


102.1 112.0 113.0 70.1




20.0 147.5

1.6 107.6






89.6 35.6 100.0






0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0


33 -~is,

48.021 2.46

18.6 41.08


40.0 0.8 71.2 68.0 0.0 89.8

43.6 102.4


0.00 0.00 0.99 0.00 0.00


11.41 64.54 24.54 0.00 43.68

41.72 0.00 55.09 26.75


30.0 136.78

18.40 4.30 19.02


1.11132 .]1iLegal.

1.96130.02 Legal.

0.57 24.76 Legal 0.51 29.39 Legal. 0.80 21.06 Legal. 0.96 19.88 Legal. 1.59 27.47 Legal. 0.53 28.14iLegal. 0.71 27.12 Legal. 0.22 25.68 Legal.

0.40 29.40 Legal.

0.30 28.22 Illegal-misbranded and Adulterated. A corn and Cane Syrup.

0.48 28.08 Legal. 0.53 30.04 Legal 0.54 25.34 Legal. 0.36 28.91 Legal. 0.47 33.35 Legal. 0.60 31.69 1Legal.

1.61 30.53ILegal.

26.73 30.83 29.90 31.71

Legal. Legal. Legal. Legal.

36.21 49.2136.11130.771 1.26128.91 Legal.


83.6 93.6


52.54 13.95



29.84 31.34

Legal. Legal.

30.90ILegal. 27.43 Legal. 30.64 Legal.




Numerous letters of inquiry have recently been received by this division of the State Agricultural Department, for information and directions for "syrup-making" on a small scale. It being impractical to answer all these letters individually, and intelligently, a short description of the apparatus required, and the methods most generally used have been compiled.
While these general rules and directions are given, there are many "kinks" and conditions arising that require experience and skill to succeed in making a really good quality of syrup-or sugar. The art of sugar boiling is like all other arts, and requires practice and skill to become an adept. While it is possible to tell "why" certain results should follow certain processes, one can only learn "how" by practice. Numerous failures may be expected-some of the most skillful sugar boilers are unable to tell "why," but they do know "how" to produce the best results. There are numbers of chemists who, while they know "why" certain results are to be expected from given conditions and process, have not the skill required to boil syrup, or sugar successfully. "Syrup boiling" in all sugar-making countries is a distinct art, trade, or profession; skillful sugar boilers frequently being paid as much, or more than either the superintendent, manager, chemist, or engineer of a sugar factory.
MATERIAL.-The cane for sugar-making should be fairly matured; two-thirds or three-fourths of the stalk should have matured, and dropped its leaves; cane is mature up to the last green leaf. Those joints that still have growing leaves, or blades are not mature. In cutting cane for syrup-making, a part of the immature stalk-several joints above the ripe or "red" joints-should be sent to the mill.

These immature joints contain a larger proportion of glucoses" -im mature sugar-than the ripe joints; the ripe joints have but little "glucose" in them; in perfectly matured cane there is practically no "glucose." In syrupmaking it is absolutely necessary to have a considerable quantity of ''glucose'' to prevent the sugar or ''sucrose,"~ from crystallizing, when the material is evaporated to sufficient density to make a desirable syrup.
The "glucose" content varies in cane of different conditions of maturity; it also is largely increased, by fermentation, also by long boiling; hence it is frequently the practice to allow cane of high sugar content-very ripe cane, liable to crystallize in to sugar-to lay after cuffing, for some time in the sun, to induce fermenting, a practice that would ruin a "sugar-maker," but is allowable in "~syrup-making."1 The object of the syrup-maker is to secure a thick, clear material that will not granulate or sugarr off -;" this he can only do by having a quantity of "~glucose" in his solution of " 'sugar."
Quite the opposite practice is required for sugar-making; in this case we want ripe cane with as much "sucrose"~ and as little "glucose" as possible; we want fresh-cut cane and no ferment to secure the largest amount of crystals, and as little molasses as possible.
LIME.-The universal agent used for clarifying or defficating cane juice is quiick lime-unslaked, freshly burned lime, properly watei:-slaked. The lime is best prepared by slaking fifty pounds of such lime in a barrel, gradually adding water till the lime is slaked', and the violent heat has subsided; then add water, making up the solution to fifty gallons. Each gallon of "lime wash" should contain one pound of lime, or four ounces to each quart. This should be strained through a sack to remove coarse particles, and kept in a covered barrel or tub. Before dipping out a portion for use, the whole should be well stirred, as the lime settles and the top layer has not a sufficient quantity of lime (four ounces to the quart), if this stirring is not done each time the necessary quantity is taken out for use.
To each one hundred gallons of raw, strained juice, add one quart of the lime wash, the object being to use about four ounces of lime to each one hundred gallons of normal juice. Experience will soon teach when too much or too little lime is used. Cane juice from the mill is always

acid, frequently very much so, particularly when using frosted or fermented cane. The object of lime is to correct this acidity, but not to destroy it completely. In syrupmaking the juice should remain slightly acid, changing blue litmus paper to a faint pink color. Should the blue litmus remain blue, or be very slightly changed, more raw juice should be added till a decided pink color be shown by the test paper.
The lime should be added to the cold raw juice, either in a tank, or the clarifying compartment of the evaporator. The object of the lime is to correct too much acidlitY, to coagulate albumens and gums, causing the light impurities to float as skum, the heavier ones to sink as mud, in the clarifying or settling tank.
A perforated metal strainer or seive should be used under the mill spout; over the juice barrel a strainer of bagging should be placed; below this one of flannel. Several sets of these strainers should he on hand, that they may be frequently changed and washed. They should be stretched loosely over hoops to fit over the juice barrel.
Saccharometer, or hydrometer-a "Beaume"l saccharometer; also a tall, clear wide mouth bottle, or a tin cylinder with broad base, two inches in diameter and ten inche* deep, should be provided. They are absolutely necessary for uniform work. They can be had or ordered by any druggist.
Juice tanks and settling tanks are necessary for good results. Kerosene, or whisky barrels, burned out with straw and perfectly cleaned, answer very well. They should be sawed in two, making two tubs out of each barrel. Eight or more such tubs should be provided for a small mill, making, say forty gallons per day. Each tub should have a cover, made of cloth, stretched tightly over a hoop to fit snugly over the tub.
A juice barrel, at the mill, with its strainers, and a lime-wash barrel must also be provided. The evaporator, or kettles, should be well set in masonry and covered with a shed. if kettles are used, two at least should be provided, of say, sixty and eighty gallons each; the larger one for the "clarifier," the smaller one for the evaporator and finishing kettle. Properly handled, no apparatus makes a better quality of syrup than does the old-fashioned kettle.