Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Commissioner of agriculture
 Personnel of department of...
 Trail blazers
 Meeting requirements
 Agricultural commerce
 Agriculture in old countries
 Land tenure
 Agricultural commerce
 A new agriculture
 Progress and rural education
 The garden
 Fruit and vegetable facts
 Home owning or tenant agricult...

Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00027
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture. State of Florida.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Manufacturer: T. J. Appleyard, Inc.
Publication Date: April 1923
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct., 1921)-v. 39, no. 3 (July 1929).
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Commissioner of agriculture
        Page 4
    Personnel of department of agriculture
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Trail blazers
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Meeting requirements
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Agricultural commerce
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agriculture in old countries
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Land tenure
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Agricultural commerce
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    A new agriculture
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Progress and rural education
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The garden
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Fruit and vegetable facts
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Home owning or tenant agriculture
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text



Department of Agriculture
APRIL, 1929

Commissioner of Agriculture

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, au-
thorized September 11, 1918."





Commissioner of Agriculture .......................... 3
Personnel of Department of Agriculture ................. 4
Transition .......................................... 6
Trail Blazer .......................................... 10
Meeting Requirements ................................. 14
Agricultural Commerce ................................ 17
Agriculture in Old Countries ........................... 21
Land Tenure ................. ........................ 29
Agricultural Commerce ............................... 33
A New Agriculture .................... .............. 39
Progress and Rural Education .......................... 42
The Garden ........................................ 44
Fruit and Vegetable Facts ............................ 49
Home Owning or Tenant Agriculture .................... 53

Commissioners of Agriculture

of Florida

John Beard: January 12, 1847, to May 29, 1849.
David S. Walker: November 23, 1850.
Hugh A. Corley: December 31, 1859, to Dec. 31, 1866.

Oscar E. Austin: August 7, 1868.
J. S. Adams: January 14, 1869, to January 16, 1873.
Dennis Eagan: March 4, 1873, to 1877.
Hugh A. Corley: January 3, 1877, to March 16, 1882.
P. W. White: March 16, 1882, to February 12, 1885.

C. L. Mitchell: January 29, 1885.

L. B. Wombell: December 31, 1888.
B. E. McLin: January 1, 1901, to March 1, 1912.
W. A. McRae: March 1, 1912, to October 31, 1923.
Nathan Mayo: November 1, 1923.

Personnel of the Department

of Agriculture

Miss Anna Belle Wesson, Secretary to the Commissioner.
T. J. Brooks, Chief Clerk and Director, Bureau of
J. M. Burgess, Clerk.
Bennett T. Mayo, Clerk.
Mrs. Inez Hale McDuff, Stenographer.
Mrs. Vera Leverett, Mimeographer.
Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector.
R. J. Mays, Clerk and Cashier.
Bryan Duncan, Clerk.
Miss Leola D. Sauls, Stenographer.
J. B. Wilkerson, Inspector, Pensacola.
J. B. Brinson, Inspector, Madison.
Wm. McCarrel, Inspector, Jacksonville.
Nathan Mayo, Jr., Inspector, Ocala.
A. N. Turnbull, Inspector, Monticello.
J. W. Davis, Inspector, Ocala.
J. B. Taylor, Inspector, Jacksonville.
S. W. Clark, Inspector, Blountstown.
J. W. Crosby, Inspector, Miami.
M. F. McKay, Inspector, Tampa.
E. G. Kilpatrick, Inspector, Starke.
E. D. Rogero, Inspector, Fort Pierce.
G. F. Fletcher, Inspector, Tampa.
0. H. Leifeste, Inspector, Fort Myers.

C. B. Gwynn, Chief Land Clerk.
F. E. Bayless, Jr., Clerk.
Mrs. L. B. Hopkins, Stenographer and Certificate Clerk.
Miss Helen Parks' Stenographer.

Miss Bessie Damon, Clerk.
Wmi. H. Graham, Clerk.

T. E. Andrews, Clerk.

T. R. Hodges, Commissioner.
Mrs. Anna Parker, Clerk.
Miss Elizabeth Rief, Stenographer.
Mrs. Lizzie Lee Leman, Shellfish Clerk and Bookkeeper.

R. E. Rose, State Chemist.
Gordon Hart, Assistant Chemist.
B. Jay Owen, Assistant Chemist.
Nals Berryman, Assistant Chemist.
E. Peck Greene, Assistant Chemist.
J. J. Taylor, Assistant Chemist.
Miss Muriel Rose, Clerk and Stenographer.

L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner.
Moses Folson, Secretary.
Neill Rhodes, Assistant Marketing Commissioner.
R. H. von Glahn, Marketing Agent.
Howard Mueller, Stenographer.
Oscar C. Edrington, Assistant Multigrapher.

By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
E VERY AGE is an age of transition or stagnation. The Dark
Ages was a period of stagnation, but even it held the germs
of the Renaissance and the Reformation. A permanent
stagnation seems to have settled down on the dark races of
Africa, the great mass of the yellow races of Asia and a great
portion of the native race of the Western World. Judged by the
advances made during the last five hundred years these peoples
have not kept step with the European peoples and their descend-
ants in the various parts of the world. These have gone through
the most wonderful changes during this period that have ever
marked the progress of the human race since the earth has been
inhabited. We are the heirs of these changes.
As most people are largely moulded by environment, the
creatures of circumstance, they reflect and interpret this environ-
ment to the extent of their ability to appropriate it to their use.
The changes that have come include every phase of human
life and thought, in arts and crafts, sciences, economics, history,
politics, ethics, culture and religious observances.

Inventions and scientific discoveries, which have been com-
mercialized, have built a new world. This could not have been
accomplished if the masses of the people had not been capable
of appreciating, appropriating and utilizing them. To even name
the inventions that have helped to revolutionize the life of the
nations would make an interminable list. The arts, crafts and
sciences have made our age so complex in its interrelated activi-
ties that it is taxing each oncoming generation to master it arid
carry the load with ease and balance.
The economics of this age are different from any that pre-
ceded. The great authorities on this subject a generation ago do
not speak for our new problems and new issues. One of the great-
est transformations has been in the business life of nations. We
have gone from the privately owned and operated business of
small magnitude to the corporation-owned gigantic business
operating nationally and internationally.
Mass production is more economical than small shop produc-
tion. As a result a new economic principle has been introduced
in our industrial life. The old theory that increased demand in-
creases price has been reversed. Increased demand renders it pos-


sible to have mass production, therefore cheaper production and
lower price. This is exemplified in the manufacture of automo-
Mass distribution in the chain store system also makes for
economy and efficiency. The commercial world is undergoing a
transformation due to innovations of this character that are con-
stantly being introduced. Mining operations are now performed
in a larg6 measure by machinery rather than by individual hand-
wielded tools. Transportation has assumed the task of distribu-
tion on the mass scale.
The only way to get a perspective of the changes that have
transformed the everyday life of nations of people is to picture
life as it was lived four hundred years ago and now. The things
that are in common use now that were unknown then would
make a catalog of equipment that represent billions of invest-
The experiences of those who lived in Europe at the time of
the discovery of America, and even while the foundations of this
republic were being laid, were so different from life of the
present day as to require entirely new texts on economics and
sociology. By virtue of economic and social changes we are not
the same people. We even have different environments in differ-
ent localities of the United States that render life in them so
different as to produce a different social psychology and diver-
gent types of citizenship. It is just here that the great respon-
sibility of government rests in deliberately directing environ-
mental agencies that affect the public thought of the age and
Radical economic changes are fructifying causations and
effect sociological changes. Farm life is no longer what it used
to be, nor that of the city, the mines, the industries. We are fast
becoming a nation of employers and employees. Women has
assumed her place in the general structure of our busy life quite.
different from her participation in the activities of either the
ancient or middle ages.
The great sociological problem which the next generation
must face and solve is how to provide the balance between voca-
tions so as to insure sufficient ability in each to carry it on suc-
cessfully and enable it to hold its own with other vocations. The
greatest misfortune that could overtake rural America would be
for its farmers to become peasant-minded. If we are to have
conditions that are to continue to drain the most capable away
from the farm, leaving only the dependant class to till the soil,
it will be disastrous economically, sociologically and politically.


While the telephone renders communication possible, elec-
triety furnishes light and power to lighten the burdens of domes-
tic drudgery, automobiles and trucks with good roads make
transportation in the country easy the same as in the city, the
radio makes it possible to take from the air the best (and the
worst) that is going on in the way of information and enter-
tainment, and schools, colleges, newspapers and magazines place
in permanent form the accumulated knowledge of all time, yet
all these do not furnish intellect. Constructive thought comes
from the capable. We must have a reserve of CONSTRUCTIVE
THOUGHT interpreting rural ideas and ideals to balance the social
structure of the Republic.
Life is being lengthened and made much easier; drudgery
is being eliminated; comforts are being multiplied; means of in-
struction, recreation and enjoyment are continually added to
the daily life of the masses. The stimulation given to this genera-
tion by the achievements of science should fill us with gratitude
and inspire us to be the torch bearers for coming generations.
Already the magnetic currents pervading space answer to the
call of man. Out from his laboratory go the currents of psychic
light that reflect on the heliograph of the skies.
The ancient astrologer was the forerunner of the astronomer,
and the alchemist was the forerunner of the chemist. Today we
have revelations from the astronomer and the chemist that would
astound those daring dreamers of old. If they could see what
modern science has wrought they would know that reality o'er-
tops the fancied miracles of mythology. No longer do we live in
a world of superstition, spooks, and myths. Marvelous dis-
coveries are announced with perfect sang froid that amaze and
astound. Another hundred years of progress and transition,
such as we have just passed through, will land us in a Utopia
better than ever dreamed by Plato. Molicules, atoms, electrons,
magnetic centers, swirling orbs of space, nebulae, systems, milky-
ways-all balanced and operated in accordance with universal
"One God, one law, one element
And one far-off divine event
To which the whole creation moves."
"For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see,
Saw the vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be;
Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails,
Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales."

So we may look upon all that has been as but the heralds of
a better day-
"Foretaste of glories yet unborn."


Trail Blazers
An Address by T. J. Brooks at St. Augustine, Florida, April 3, 1929

On the occasion of the celebration of the completion of the
Old Spanish Trail from St. Augustine, Florida, to San Bernardino,
California, and the dedication of a marker as a memorial erected
by the Exchange Club.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am asked by Gov-
ernor Carlton to express his profound regrets that he could not
be with you today on this occasion. The Legislature convened
yesterday and it was impossible for him to be away from the
When any people shall lose interest in the great turning-points
of history and the individuals who have left their footprints on
the sands of time it will be a sad day for progress. Our ca-
pacity for progress can be measured by our appreciation of the
great things that have been done by those who have gone be-
fore. Civilization is dependent upon our .appreciation of the
good and great.
We are glad to welcome all visitors on this occasion. We hope
you will not let your journey end here, but will see more of our
commonwealth. When the poet, Kipling said "East is East and
West is West, and never the twain shall meet" he was think-
ing of certain philosophies of life and not of people, commerce,
science or government. California and Florida and all the
states between and many states to the north are shaking hands
here today. Distance and direction have ceased to mean what
they once did. Forever the twain shall meet.
Florida has been under five flags and cost the United States
$5,000,000. The first governor of Florida was Andrew Jackson,
who served two terms as president of the United States.
We are permitted to participate in the celebration of this
natal day of discovery and in the dedication of a marker which
is to be a perpetual memorial to the completion of the most noted
highway in the western hemisphere-the Old Spanish Trail. It
stretches from the Atlantic's storm-beaten waves to the Pacific's
golden strand over 3,000 miles of historic America.
Four hundred and sixteen years ago the first stretch of this
trail was made from an anchored ship up the beach on the coast
of Florida. The four centuries that have followed have been the
most remarkable in all history. The topography of the earth has
been changed by man more during this period than during all
previous time since the first trail was made leading out from the
gate that was guarded by a flaming sword.


At the time of the early explorations of America, Spain was
the most influential nation in the world, and was the master
trail blazer. First and last, Spain claimed sovereignty over
more than half the New World.
Highways were built by Rome more than 2,000 years ago,
and they are good roads today. I rode along the Appian Way
leading out from the city of Rome, and it is as passable as when
Saint Paul approached the city in chains. Along it on either
side are the ruins of tombs of masonry where notables had been
buried. These tombs were originally veneered with marble, but
they have long since been stripped of it by vandals, who sold
it for profit. The great highways of the ancient world were
built by slaves for the use of armies bent on conquest. Our high-
ways are built for the victories of peace, for business, for time-
saving, for pleasure and comfort.
Napoleon the Great had his engineers to ascertain the horse-
power it takes to haul a given weight on a given vehicle over
every character of road. That was before steam, electricity or
gas was used as a motive power. We are building roads today
that require the least horsepower to transport both passengers
and freight. The wonderful network of hard-surfaced high-
ways in this country of "magnificent distances" is one of the
wonders of modern progress. When the first traces of what is
now designated as the Old Spanish Trail were made in the track-
less wilderness, there were not as many white people in the
Western Hemisphere as there are now in St. Augustine. And
to a great extent the explorers followed the old Indian trails.
"Lo, the poor Indian
Whose untutored mind was never taught to stray
So far as solar walk or milky way."
had his trails, which in some instances are today the streets of
The bells of the little chapels of the Spanish missions broke
the silence and called to religious service in many a lonesome
settlement of Indians before European civilization was perma-
nently planted west of the Atlantic. A hundred years before
the Pilgrims set foot on Plymouth Rock the Spanish were pene-
trating the country along the route now designated as the Old
Spanish Trail.
Trail blazers have led the human race from the morning of
the world to the present in the conquest of the continents. Ours
has been a nation of trail blazers. From a howling wilderness
inhabited by dark-skinned savages, America has been trans-
formed into a country of the most spectacular, remarkable and
complex civilization of all time. In four centuries we of the


United States have come up from a few thousand pioneers to a
nation of 120,000,000 people.
The Indians had no highways-only paths. Today we have a
mileage of surfaced highways equal to six times around the
earth at the equator and also 2,700,000 miles of local roads.
For the purchase and maintenance we have $15,000,000,000
invested in vehicles to use on these roads. We have 250,000
miles of railroads capitalized at $23,000,000,000.
Our merchant marine vessel tonnage is 14,000,000 and the port
tonnage $74,00,000. Our manufacturing output is $63,000,-
000,000 annually. The mines yield $5,500,000,000 a year. Agri-
culture has $57,000,000,000 invested; 360,000,000 acres in culti-
vation produce $10,000,000,000 in values annually.
The educational budget of the United States is approximately
$2,500,000,000. We have 25,000,000 children enrolled in the
public schools, and $4,600,000,000 invested in school property.
There are 2,000,000 students in private schools and 820,000 in
colleges and universities.
Columbus was the world's greatest ocean trail blazer, Lind-
bergh the greatest air trail blazer, Copernicus the greatest trail
blazer of the siderial heavens-a veritable Columbus.of the skies.
We can hardly designate the greatest in modern science.
We have blazed trails to forests, to farms, to mines, to fac-
tories, to cities, to schools, to studios, to laboratories, to temples
of worship. Trails indicate the standard of civilization of the
people who make and use them.
We think that this nation has been the greatest trail blazer in
government. It set the example for the first time of treating
newly acquired territory with the same consideration that is
given the original states of the 'Union. No other government,
ancient, mediaeval or modern, has ever pursued that policy.
Whenever the people of a newly acquired country comply with
the regular requirements for statehood they are accepted with
all the prerogatives, rights and privileges of the older states.
Another instance of an innovation in governmental policy may
be cited in the attitude in the World War in the matter of ad-
vantages to accrue to the victors. The only diplomats gathered
around the council table at Versailles that represented a nation
that refused to participate in the division of spoils, that wanted
not a foot of land, a cent of indemnity nor concession of sover-
eignty were those representing the United States.
To a large degree, all the nations of the earth are neighbors.
Methods of transportation and communication have been so per-
fected that they have broken down the barriers of space and
topographical hindrances. The airship defies mountains and
seas, adverse temperatures and the red tape of governmental


passports. The radio blazes a new trail in the domain of mag-
netic space. A medium is used to convey words in all direc-
tions for thousands of miles, going in straight lines through all
manner of obstacles. In Goldsmith's Traveler he observes that
the most dreary wastes of mountain recesses are not without
their compensation:
"Yet still, even here, content can spread a charm,
Redress the clime, and all its rage disarm."
Man was given dominion over the handiwork of the Creator
in this world. He has gained that mastery by dint of hard work
and patient perseverance until now the elements answer to his
call from atom to globe. He looks out and beyond to the swirling
orbs of space, measures their magnitude, determines their com-
position and tracks their orbits through the skies. The trail of
the comet is calculated and its return is dated with accuracy.
May our purposes be as lofty as our visions, our nobility as
high as our far-flung dares and our hopes as sublime as the mes-
sage delivered to man by Him who blazed for us the path to
supernal glory. It is only when man forgets self for a noble
purpose that he measures up to the full stature of his supreme
powers. Count yourself blessed if you feel the impulse to do
and dare in those lines of work which inspire and exalt the most
worthwhile of mankind.


Meeting Requirements
*Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture
T HE PHYSICAL universe has its laws of cause and effect;
the organic division has its laws of cause and effect; the
psychological world has its laws of cause and effect, and
the effect of the operation of physical and psychological forces
each upon the other determines the course of history.
Each individual thing has a message, and consciously or un-
consciously, is all the while delivering that message. Each person
in the world has a message of his own. The life one lives is his
message to the world. The composite result of all messages of
all peoples constitutes the message of mankind to all ages and
to eternity.
As to what your message shall be is left partly with choice
and partly with conditions not under your control. Insofar as
choice is permitted you are responsible for results. Education
should help to prepare us for making our message worth while.
We must know how to meet the requirements of success and how
to avoid the requirements of failure. To fail requires certain
things the same as to succeed requires certain things. Unless
society in its organized capacity is convinced that you have filled
the requirements you are not allowed to have an apartment in a
penitentiary. Unless it is convinced that you have met the con-
ditions you are not allowed to swing from a gallows. It takes
considerable effort and sense to make some kinds of failure. Other
kinds of failure can be made by doing nothing.
The kind of message that the world delivers to you depends
on the kind of a receiving station you have. There are messages
flying all the while which you do not get because your receiver
is not "tuned" to the transmitter. Opportunity is playing an
anvil chorus on the door of the nations and individuals but the
response that comes depends on the preparation and willingness
to pay the price.
One man fully equipped with modern instruments of warfare
could destroy a whole regiment of soldiers fighting with the
crude weapons of the savage.
In the struggle for position, wealth and power at the present
time there is as great a difference in the equipment for the fray
possessed by different peoples and different individuals as the
best equipped modern army differs in efficiency from the primi-
tive army of the tribe.


That difference does not consist of money. It does not consist
of education. It does not consist of industry. It does not consist
of ambition. It does not consist of ideals. It does consist of-
? Can you supply the blank? These are agencies
It consists of the ability to handle one's self and others
How are you to exercise the ability to perform and have
others perform efficiently, so as to command the desired results?
Herein lies the work of wisdom, the secret of success, the end
of preparation, the source of productive endeavor.
We work under pressure or from inspiration-the pressure
of environment, dynamic energy or economic necessity, the in-
spiration of ambition, approbation or the calls of an ideal. What-
ever adjustment is made to these forces determines the career.
To be indifferent to them all is to be hopeless. One should culti-
vate that which stimulates to endeavor. Equipments for life's
battles are won and not handed on a platter. The greatest
pleasures of life come of the use we make of our equipment to
forge ahead. There is no happiness in mere existence, but there
is in worthy performance.
The requirements you meet is an interpretation of self and a
message to others. You help to determine the character of your
country and its message to the nations of the world. The actions
of today is a message to coming generations. The message of
each individual either raises or lowers the standard of civiliza-
tion. We may either sound a trumpet blast of inspiration for
the day in which we live or we may be easy-going lookers-on
without an achieving purpose.
The legitimate end of life is to experience happiness and to
bring it to others. Whatever one's purpose in life may be the
one utilimate aim is- to achieve that which gives comfort, gratifi-
cation, exaltation-happiness.
Happiness implies capacity for mental states and experiences
graded from the simplest sensation to the profoundest concepts,
from simple nerve-consciousness to the sublimest flights of the
dreamer. Capacity for happiness is measured by the kind and
degree of intellectual development. Each new thing understood
widens the horizon of the mind. I do not wish to convey the idea
that the most intelligent and best educated are necessarily the
happiest. What I mean to say is that the capacity for happiness
is gauged by the power and grasp of the mind. The capacity
for misery is increased at the same ratio that the capacity for
happiness is increased. There are conditions under which the
ignorant are happier than the intelligent. The ignorant might
be unmindful of an impending danger which the intelligent


would foresee. Deprived of certain means of intellectual enjoy-
ment the cultured would fret and rasp under the deprivation.
The ignorant denied these same things would be all oblivious to
the absence of the pleasures demanded by the intelligent. One
of the effects of education is to create new desires that urge us
on to more difficult tasks in order to satisfy the mental craving.
And this is the main-spring of progress. The ignorant can be
happy only in a limited degree-the more ignorant the more
limited. Animal exuberance is often referred to as evidence of
happiness. A common angleworm in rich earth mold has this
kind of happiness. Stick a hook into it and its contortions will
show all the pain that a human body could under the same treat-
ment. Does that mean that the pain and pleasure of the worm
with a nerve is the same as the pain and pleasure of the person
with a mind? Surely not. Is the mind of an infant capable of
the happiness of an adult? Surely not. The man who imagines
that he is happy because he is not miserable has a very crude
conception of what constitutes well rounded human happiness.
The man who imagines that he is miserable because he is denied
something that he wants is equally shortsighted in his estimate
of human life.
Not every one is capable of supreme heights of exaltation.
Sublime emotions, impulses and visions abide not with every
one. They inspire the martyr who walks to his doom with a
smile. They lead pioneers in thought to blaze the way in govern-
ment, science, religion, reformation and prompt the philan-
thropist to his work of benevolence; joined with pure intellect
they make civilization possible.
The noble passions play a large part in the drama of life.
Without them history would be a prosaic tale. Love's sublime
touch gives the soul's interpretation to living. The halos crown-
ing the mountain peaks of the past are the tinsled visions of
love's sweet dream.

When wisdom lights the way
And Cupid has his play-

happiness covers the earth as the waters cover the sea. What
happiness.can compare with that felt by two who experience the
free, full flow of the tender passion in all its virgin purity; who
know of a verity the blissful exuberance of love's Promethian
fire; who bask in its light, led by Cupid through gardens of roses
perfumed from the nodding censers of budding beauty?


Agricultural Commerce


THE METHODS pursued by the individual farmer in dis-
posing of his products, and those of his colleague--the
manufacturer-indeed present a sharp contrast. In the first
place the manufacturer has deliberately studied and tried out
methods of distribution, and after elimination of inefficient
methods and agencies, has adopted those which have proven most
safe, rational, remunerative, and effiicient. Has the farmed done
this ? Well, no, hardly. Take the distribution of farm machinery,
which is especially different from the farmer's method. The In-
ternational Harvester Company found that the best method of
distributing farm machinery was through the local agent (mer-
chant) to the consumer. Now this company owns its product
until the consumer pays for it. The latter buys from the com-
pany and if he obtains it on credit he makes out a note payable
to the International Harvester Company. The local merchant
gets his commission on sales, holds stock machinery on hand for
the company, and takes no risk himself so far as the sale of same
Sis concerned. The important point to be noted is that the pro-
ducer owns his product-controls the machinery of distribu-
tion-until sold to the consumer.
It is common knowledge that the farmer receives an average
of 50 percent of the amount paid by the consumer for his pro-
ducts. Of course in a great many cases the percent is patheti-
cally low. For instance the Oklahoma farmer receives $52.00 for
a carload of watermelons, whereas the consumer of St. Paul pays
$560.00 for them. That the farmer does not receive his just pro-
portion of the price paid by the consumer for the product of his
toil, is frankly admitted on all sides. The solution to the problem
then is for the farmer, as in the case with the manufacturer, to
control the machinery of. distribution. The average farmer's
business is too small for this to be done, hence the necessity arises
for the co-operation and organization of a number of farmers
who pool their produce and act as a unit in the distribution of
it. That this does solve this otherwise hopeless situation, is
proven by the multitude of such organizations in Europe and
the United States, where all have succeeded when operated on
sound business principles.


In producing and distributing any product, be it manu-
factured or agricultural, the first step towards efficiency is
standardization. In manufactured products it not only works
for the good of the manufacturer, but is also demanded by the
consumer. The former is enabled to turn out the product cheaper,
by this uniformity; and clock-work machinery and methods re-
duce costs considerably. If it were not for this, even he would
still produce the absolutely uniform product because consumers
create a reasonable demand for it. They demand the product,
which having proved its merit, must continue without variation.
Else they will necessarily have to see, examine, or test every pro-
duct and cannot safely write for or depend on sample as truly
representing the article in question. Besides there are different
grades or classes of the same article in demand, and standardiza-
tion and grading thus makes these available. Absolute uniform-
ity is one of the first merits advanced for a manufactured article,
and justly so, for that being true the consumer knows exactly
what to expect, with all that this means. And, too, the manu-
facturers in general have recognized the importance of this de-
mand and have bent every effort towards this end.
But there is one class of manufacturers, namely, the farmer,
who does not yet see the vast importance of this. No doubt in
most cases standardization and grading of his products involves
additional expense and labor but he will invariably receive the
better price for his products. Aside from this, there is a very
urgent demand for standarized agricultural products of uniform
quality from the consumer. This within itself should be enough
to cause him to systematize and classify his produce. In fact
this is just one.reason-and a very important one-why he does
not get the good market and fancy price for same. To be sure
there is a big demand for sufficiently large quantities of such
products-provided they are classified and of uniform quality
-as eggs, chickens, dairy products, potatoes, syrup, live stock,
etc. The method of the farmer then, to compare favorably with
those of the manufacturer, must be radically changed from the
present piddling and slipshod ones to those more efficient and
remunerative. Co-operative pooling of products for volume and
organization handling of the business as a unit with its attendant
merits of uniformity,- has proven the only practical solution.


Is there any appreciable variation in price through the year,
of, say steel, oil, and many other products of manufacturers?
No. Why? Well, the manufacturer stores his product and feeds
the market where and when it calls for his output. Is it any
wonder then that, when the farmer dumps his entire crop on the
market at harvest time, the host of middlemen seize their oppor-
tunity and buy their capacity of produce at existing low prices
to wait and feed the market at off-season time when higher prices
prevail? If the farmer will not do this there is some one else who
will-and incidently they get paid well for their services. It is
almost ridiculous to think of the great difference in price during
the year of the universal and staple farm products such as cotton
and yet see the stability of price of perhaps less universal pro-
dicts as mentioned above.
We get a note of optimism, however, from the numerous suc-
cessful combinations of farmers who are getting together, storing
their produce, and feeding the market as there is a demand.
This is another way of saving the producer a part, at least, of
the unreasonably large percent that the present middlemen are
getting. Notable examples of this system are the producers of
citrus fruit in California and Florida, apples of the Northwest,
and eggs in the eastern and middle-western states. Probably of
the latter, none have the degree of efficiency in storing their pro-
duce and later feeding the market where and when there is a
demand, as the citrus fruit growers of California, whose organi-
zation and methods are parallel with those of the manufacturer
mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

Farmers exchanges are institutions through which farm pro-
ducts are legitimately sold. There is nothing unfair about their
dealings and, in fact they perform an economic function in sup-
plying products when and where they are needed. The Califor-
nia and Florida citrus fruit exchanges are leading examples. A
cotton exchange is supposed to furnish a place and means where
buyers and sellers may come together and carry on their busi-
ness. As a matter of fact the only reasonable function of these
exchanges, as operated now, is to furnish a place to hedge and
establish uniform quotations. Insofar as they do this they are,
under present conditions, an economic necessity. But the facts
of the case are, that there are large numbers of gamblers who
so manipulate these institutions that they are a menace to the


producers of cotton. Until the farmers can get together and
furnish the cotton directly to the spinners as they need it, the
producer must sacrifice a goodly part of the worth of his cotton
for the upkeep of these parasites. The same may be said of the
grain growers. The only merit of the grain exchanges, as the
cotton exchanges, is to furnish uniform quotations and a place
to hedge. This service is certainly dearly paid for. But if the
farmer persists in dumping his crops on the market as soon as
he harvests them, the exchanges will likely stay.
A stock exchange is a place where means is furnished for the
buying and selling of stocks, bonds, and other securities. It dif-
fers from other exchanges, in the commodity handled. "The
value of shares in the great corporations of the country is af-
fected by the stock exchanges and only incidently and indirectly
do they affect the common necessities of life." As with the other
exchanges it is the gambler who reaps a rich harvest and about
whom Andrew Carnegie has said: "The common stock gambler
is one of the worst citizens that a country can have. They are
parasites feeding on values and creating none." Condemnation
from all sides is forthcoming, but the evil has remained these
many years. A scheme of governmental regulation is now on
foot in the United States and at least it is a step in the right
direction if the experience of Europe can be relied upon. In fact
the evils of all of the exchanges can be mitigated by government
regulation and control.

Tariff enactments are sometimes known as revenue, protec-
tive, or retalitory, according as they are enacted to raise revenue,
to protect home industries, or to compel reciprocity privileges
by discriminating against certain nations. Bounties are grants
or allowances from a State for the encouragement of a trade or
industry, as a sugar bounty. A subvention is a grant of money
or special favor to encourage some industry-a subsidy in fact.
Valorization is fiscal government support, with regulation for
its sale, of a commodity to insure its continued production. All
of these increase the price of the commodities involved, accord-
ing as they are high or low. This last in turn is affected by
foreign competition, need of revenue, or policies of other nations.


History of Agriculture in Egypt
By E. F. WHITE, M.A.
WE naturally look to the earliest civilization for the begin-
ning of the history of agriculture, for agriculture is the
foundation of all civilization. Egypt was the cradle of
perhaps the earliest civilization of which we have reliable
record. We may go still further and say that Egypt was the
gift of the Nile river. The secret of early development in civil-
ization in Egypt, as in all other original developments which
must necessarily come from agriculture, rested on the ability of
the rich Nile valley to support a great civilization. Egypt de-
pended on the seasonal overflows of the Nile and the ability of
her people to use this natural visitation to their benefit A record
of the early agriculture of Egypt is almost identical to that of
The early Egyptian agriculturists were of two classes-the
pastoral class which herded sheep in the mountains around the
Nile valley, and those who cultivated the rich Nile valley. It is
this latter class and their occupation upon which the life of
Egypt depends, and which therefore is of most import to us.
The Egyptian fields have never been divided with hedges like
those of most ancient people; the stone which marked corners
alone was known. These people understood geometry so well
that they had no trouble in locating their lands from these land-
marks. This sort of division was necessary owing to the seasonal
overflow of the Nile. The river begins to rise in July and does
not fully recede until November. Since historic times the in-
habitants of Egypt have known how to distribute the overflow
by a network of reservoirs and canals. This system was so com-
plete that in ancient times the peasantry cultivated more soil
and produced more wealth than the modern inhabitants, until
the English took control late in the nineteenth century.
As the water recedes, the rich dressing of loam soils washed
down from the mountains is spread over the fields, while the
long soaking supplies moisture to the soil for months The subse-
quent cultivation has always been a very light process. At first
the ground was opened with sticks; then a kind of hoe was used.
Soon the plow came into use. At first it was little more than
a stout branch of a tree, from which projected another limb,
shortened and pointed, which made the furrow. To the former
branch was fastened a transverse yoke to which the oxen were
harnessed. Afterwards a handle for guiding was added, and the
plow thus consisted of a pole, the point or share, the handle,


and the yoke. The oxen were urged on with a staff bearing on
one end a flat piece of metal used in clearing the plow. Some-
times men followed the plow with hoes, breaking up the clods,
but today this operation is performed by a heavy drag pulled
by oxen.
The ground having been plowed was ready to be sown. This
operation usually took place in December or January, according
to the grain planted. Wheat, barley, and the dourrahs has for
centuries been the chief grains of Egypt. Today cotton is
cultivated very largely. The seed appears to have been sown
and harrowed at the same time. The ancient paintings indi-
cate that sowing was done broadcast. Little other care was
taken of the crop until harvest time.
In harvesting the grain was and still is pulled up by the
roots. The stalks are bound and carried to the threshing floor.
a level circular plot of ground about 50 feet in diameter. The
sheaves are spread out over them and the grain is trodden out by
oxen, cows, and young cattle driven over it. There are, however,
some kinds of threshing flails in use in Egypt. One of them is
composed of two thick planks, fastened together side by side,
and bent upward at the front; sharp stones are fitted into holes
bored into the bottom. This machine is drawn over the grain
by oxen; the driver sits upon it to give the benefit of his extra
weight. The Noreg is also used today in Egypt. It is a wooden
frame in which three wooden rollers provided with spikes are
inserted; it has a seat in which the driver sits to increase the
weight; it is drawn over the grain by two oxen, separating the
grain and cutting the straw more effectually than the former
method. In all these processes the grain is turned so threshing
will be thorough, and then it is thrown up into the air to separate
the grain from the straw. The grain is rid of other impurities
by casting it up into the wind.
Granaries are numerous all over Egypt. Here most of the
grain is stored and portioned out to the inhabitants. To illus-
trate the condition of the laboring class, we find that in 3000
B. C. these unfortunates often had to go on strikes to obtain
sufficient grain from these storehouses.

What was true of the slight change in agriculture in Egypt
from early times down to the present is even more evident in
the agriculture of Greece. Greek agriculture has progressed
very, very slowly. Greece, like Egypt, has always been essen-
tially an agricultural country. The land in *the plains and
valleys is exceedingly rich, and with plenty of water produces


abundance of crops. Unfortunately, this land has not been put
to a test of its real agricultural value, since Greek agriculture
of today, with few exceptions, was the agriculture of the time
of Homer, of proud Sparta, and of intellectual Athens, for,
while those people were giving much attention to war, art, and
science, the condition of the rural population has received very
inadequate attention from succeeding governments. The wooden
plow of Egypt is still in use. The employment of manure and
the rotation of crops has never been known; the rule has long
been to allow the land to lie fallow in successive years.
During all her agricultural history the products of her soil
have been so numerous that sudden fluctuations in prosperity
because of high or low yield in one crop has not materially affect-
ed Greece. Among the crops now grown and indigenous in
Greece for centuries the following in the order named are of
importance: Currants, rice, wheat, olives, maize, oats, rye, figs,
vegetables, carobs, vines, sultanina, and tobacco. Currants have
figured largely in Greek agriculture since the early days.
Among the great causes which have hitherto retarded agri-
cultural progress are the ignorance and conservatism of the
peasantry, antiquated methods of cultivation, want of capital,
absentee landlordism, sparse population, bad roads, the preva-
lence of usury, the uncertainty of boundaries and the land tax,
which, in the absence of a survey is levied on ploughing oxen.
About one-third of Greece has been in the hands of religious
orders, and is for the most part farmed out annually. Since the
fall of Athens, usury has been a greater scourge to Greece than
any natural visitation; the institution of agricultural banks
lending money at a fair rate of interest would go a long way
toward rescuing Greece from the hands of the Shylock and
open the doors of Grecian agriculture to modern methods.
Most of the cultivable lands of Greece have always been in
pastures. Sheep and goats have been plentiful since early days;
and formerly the gallant war horse was a product of Greece.
Oxen, buffaloes, and small horses have comprised the larger part
of the remaining livestock. These animals were used for the
same purpose that they were in Egypt. In the days of Grecian
intellectual supremacy the flocks of long-horn sheep and goats
lent an air of picturesqueness to Greek rural life.
The agriculture of Japan and Korea has been much the same
in ancient days, except for the fact that in Japan farming was
done more intensively than in Korea, owing to the larger relative
population she had to sustain. Early Japanese agriculture par-


took of the crude and unskillful methods common to all opera-
tions. The soils are light sandy loam, disintegrated lava, and
,rich alluvium. Rainfall has always been abundant for rice
culture, which has long been the staple article of diet in the
East. The implements used in the early days and much in use
today are very crude. There are two makes of iron-shod wooden
plows, a large shovel, worked by three to five men, one work-
ing the handle, the others working the blade by jerking ropes
attached to it, a short sharp-pointed hoe, a bamboo rake, and a
wooden barrow-all of crude construction. Rice was and is
threshed by the Egyptian method of beating the ears over a log
(used largely in Korea) or beating the grain out with flails
on the threshing floor. Winnowing is done on windy days by
casting the grain into the wind and separating the chaff from
it. Rice is hulled and grains are coarsely ground in stone
querns or by water pestles. The other articles always grown in
Korea and Japan are the cereals, some cotton, the Rhea plant,
potatoes, and oil-bearing seeds. The population of Korea is
more generally occupied in agriculture than that of Japan
today, but in former times most of the people of both countries
were engaged in primitive agricultural pursuits.

Owing to its isolated position, Ireland remained outside the
pale of the ancient Roman world, and a state of society peculiarly
adapted to this isolated spot survived in the island until the
beginning of the sixteenth century. In these ancient times
Strabo held the inhabitants to be mere tribal savages, addicted
to cannibalism, having no fixed habitat, and subsisting on nature.
At a little later date Solinus speaks of the luxuriant grasses of
Ireland and suggesting that it would be a fit habitat for shep-
herds; but says that the climate is unfit for ripening grain.
In the sixteenth century, from which time we have full history
of Irish agriculture, we find Ireland supporting a relatively
large population, giving forth magnificent grasses for pasturing
sheep and other livestock, and growing in considerable quanti-
ties such crops as potatoes, the cereals, etc. The soils of Ireland
are naturally very fertile and easily cultivated. This accounts
for the teeming population found here from 1600 to the middle
of the nineteenth century. The luxuriant grasses, noted by
Strabo in ancient times, cover the 2,000,000 acres of pasture
lands; and even the untillable mountains bear sufficient soil to
raise fairly good grass. From 1600 to 1847 more than 1,300,000
acres were grown to Irish potatoes on farms of generally from


one to five acres in extent. Cultivation was consequently very
intense and done largely by hand and with crude implements.
Before the memorable year 1847 small holdings were very
numerous. For instance, in 1846 there were 310,436 farms of
between one and five acres in extent. But Irish political his-
tory since then has largely affected agriculture. Confiscation
and settlement, unwise laws, the creation for political pur-
poses of large freeholdings, absentee landlordism, and other
factors have combined to disenthrone the small individual
farmer. The failure of the potato crop in 1847 put the small
farmer at the mercy of the landlord and, together with the in-
fluences mentioned above, opened the roads for a gradual but
sure passing of the land into the hands of the few. The failure of
the potato crop forced 1,000,000 acres of land out of cultivation
owing to the enormous emigration that followed, and pasturage
likewise was increased by that much. Since that time the agri-
culture of Ireland has been on the decline, so much so that in
1905 the country supported not nearly so many people as it did
previous to 1847. This increased acreage in pasturage, however,
has been attended by an appreciable increase in live-stock.
In 1851 the number was reported at 2,122,128; and in 1905 as
4,645,215; the increase during the intervening period having
been pretty pradual and general. Since 1847, oats, wheat, and
flax together with potatoes have been the important crops,
though unfortunately the acreage of each of these up to a very
short time ago showed a steady decrease.
Happily, however, today Irish agriculture presents a more
pleasing appearance. The work of the Department of Agricul-
ture and the spread of the principle of co-operation are destined
to lead Ireland to better days. Another important feature has
been the work of the Land Purchase Act in effectively trans-
ferring the land from the landlord to the tenant. With these
three factors working in accord, Ireland faces a new era in agri-
cultural progress; and the districts of Tipperary and Lime-
rick, and the banks of the river Shannon are sure to bloom with
the products of honest Irish home-owners.
In the fifth century A. D. we find the peninsula of Denmark
occupied by savage tribes of Cimbri and Teutons who lived in
tribes and roved the forests for their food, not following agri-
culture for sustenance. Between 500 and 900 A. D. these tribes
were content to explore their own peninsula for foods, but
in the tenth century these tribes from northern Europe began to
spread out and then commenced those famous Viking raids,
thus turning the attention of the people from the land to the


sea. It was largely these raids which fostered the establish-
ment of feudal monarchies in Europe; and during medieval
times Denmark, like the rest of Europe, was in the bonds of
feudalism. Vast estates held by these feudal lords were scantily
cultivated, the common people were merely warriors for their
lord and subsisted on hunting, fishing, and the produce of their
captures from their neighbors. Even down to the sixteenth
century we learn that wild animals, and especially the red deer,
birds, and fishing supplied the greater part of Danish food.
But nature had fitted this land for a stronghold for agri-
culture. The country was pleasingly diversified; rich in beech-
wood and luxuriant grasses, and even the little islands were
green and fertile. Fortunately, after the downfall of feudalism,
most of the land was portioned out and the Danish farmer
flourished. The great number engaged in agriculture and the
variety of produce made competition among these farmers very
severe; so much so that in 1860 their condition was much akin
to that of the Irish peasant. Through dire necessity they began
to co-operate to find outside markets for their added surplus of
dairy and poultry products which had now come to be the staple
products of Denmark owing to favorable conditions. Thus Den-
mark through combination was able to relieve the stress thrown
upon her farming class and today Denmark is one of the most
economically sound nations of Europe. More than one-half
of her population still follows agricultural pursuits but by co-
operation they have found waiting markets for their produce.
Today peasants hold seventy-three percent of the land in Den-
mark, according to its value. And to guard against the loss of
this land to its owners, the small farmer maintains hereditary
attachment to his ancestral holdings.
Formerly most of the land was in meadows or forest pastures,
but cultivation has now enlarged so much that only about
one-twelfth of the land is in pasturage, the other eleven-twelfths
in crops. About one-half of the cultivated lands are under
grains such as oats, barley, rye, and wheat in order of their im-
portance. Beets are grown considerably.
Since 1860 dairy farming has been growing in importance,
and, with the application of scientific methods, machinery, and
co-operation, Denmark today stands with the first of the dairy-
ing states of the world. Co-operation in butter and cheese mak-
ing, in poultry farming and egg selling, and in the rearing of
swine, has been the chief factors enabling the Danish farmer
to successfully enter the world trade along these lines. And
today Copenhagen, Denmark's capital, is the greatest poultry
and dairy produce market in the world. Danish agriculture is


laid on a sound basis and with the characteristic enterprise of
its people is destined to hold its own in the world and against
other industries of that country.
The record of the early agriculture of Ireland, England,
Denmark, or Germany is essentially that of France. Like these
countries, France was under the yoke of feudalistic land tenure
until its overthrow in modern times. With the conflict that
overthrew feudalism, came the parcelling out of the land among
the people. However, those lords who were sagatious enough to
foresee the outcome, joined the mass of the people in this revolu-
tion and thus the estates of such nobles were allowed to remain
Out of the population of more than 40,000,000, about 17,-
000,000 depend upon agriculture for their livelihood. About
ninety-four per cent of the total lands are in cultivation. Over
3,000,000 proprietors own land under twenty-five acres; the re-
maining land being in the hands of 750,000 proprietors, of whom
150,000 own over one-half. About eighty per cent of holdings
are worked by the actual owners.
Wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture;
although there is a notable variety of crops grown to consider-
able extent including rye, buckwheat, oats, barley, maize, mangel-
wurzel, potatoes, vegetables, and various fruits. As a stock rais-
ing country France takes an important place, having to her
credit the originating of such breeds of animals as the French
Coach and Percheron horses, and the Rambouillet sheep. 'These
animals have been carefully bred up for years and are today
among the best of their kind.
In agriculture, as in other industries, France has realized the
value of improved machinery. On the large estates improved
machinery is largely used. However, on the smaller holdings even
today farming is done on a very intensive scale and manual labor
together with the spade and the hoe play very important roles.
These holdings are so very small and their owners so very poor
that horse or machine power is out of the question. The condition
of the laboring class has never been satisfactory in France. But
especially during the last two decades the French government has
done much toward alleviating the distress of its peasant class.
One of the foremost steps in this direction has been government
aid in securing money to its farmers at low rates of interest and
on long time loans. This, and other like moves of the govern-
ment in his behalf, are steadily improving the condition of the
lower agricultural class.


When Arpad, the semi-mythological founder of the Magyar
kingdom, in 895 A. D. led his hordes of followers into the terri-
tory now known as Austria-Hungary, it was occupied by
Slavs. These people were easily overcome and the Magyars set
up government over them. Scarce a country of Europe was free
from the raids of these daring Magyars, who brought in numer-
ous conquered tribes to do their hunting and fishing and tend
their flocks. With their defeat at Lechfield the Magyars dis-
continued their roving pillages and in 1038 Stephens broke off
their tribal system, encouraged private ownership of land, and
made grants on military service.
Thus this mixed people gradually turned more and more to
agricultural pursuits. Hilly Austria naturally became the home
of large flocks of sheep and goats; swine raising came into prom-
inence with the taming of wild boar; the numerous lakes were
utilized for fishing, and the numerous wild animals all came to
supply the food demands of Austria. Hungary, which was level
and more suited to the raising of crops, we find today over
seventy percent of her people engaged in agriculture with wheat,
oats, rye, and barley occupying the places of importance. Thus
the livestock industry, that is, the raising of horses and cattle,
came to be of vital importance to Hungary. Austria was by
nature unsuited for a preeminent agricultural country and so
today about fifty percent of her people are engaged in agricul-
ture with the others engaged in industrial pursuits.
In Hungary, as in Austria, the real history of the develop-
ments in agriculture has largely been the history of government
direction in all agricultural pursuits, owing to the lack of indi-
vidual initiative. The government of these countries has done a
very great work in supervising the breeding and improving of
horses and cattle, and today these animals from the old dual-
monarchy rank with the best in Europe. Today the important
crops of Hungary in the order of their importance are wheat,
oats, barley, rye, tobacco, maize, potatoes and various seeds.
Austria is not nearly so great a cereal country as is Hungary and
her crops in the order of importance are rye, barley, grapes,
maize, wheat, sugar, sugar beets, potatoes, cattle turnips, rape
seed, poppy seed, and flax.
The governments of these two states have also been busy in
aiding the condition of the small individual farmer in getting
money for productive purposes at low rates of interest and on
long-time loans. Since 1870 dairying has taken an important
place among the agricultural pursuits of these states owing to
the spread of the co-operative movement.


Land Tenure
W HEN THE Egyptian civilization crumbled, two percent
of her population owned all of the land. At the time of
the fall of Babylon, three percent of her people owned
every foot of her territory. The fall of the Holy Roman Empire
was the culmination of a policy which had made a nation of land-
lords and tenants. The thousand years of the Middle Ages saw
every existing nation cursed with the ungodly feudalism, with
its accompanying landlordism and serfdom. That progress and
civilization should remain dormant during these ages was inevit-
able. Indeed Sir Isaac Newton might well have added along
with his other universal laws the axiom that no nation of land-
lords and tenants can prosper and endure.
A glance at the history of so important a subject is funda-
mental to the understanding of its present status and future
trend. The history of land begins when men were divided into
tribes, for the division into tribes involves the distinction of ter-
ritory. All tribes or clans held their lands in common to begin
with. As progress ensued the individual members were given an
equal plot of arable land, while the pasture and forest remained
common property. Increase of population with its demand for
additional land led the way later to the individual ownership of
land and also the working of some of the tribe for the others in
trades, etc. A subdivision of the latter stage shows, however, a
source of troubles, the solution of which has baffled many nations.
The democratic holding of land on the one hand and the concen-
tration of land-holding on the other are the two extremes.
The principal influences which shaped the land tenure policy
of the nations existing during the Middle Ages and thereafter was
that of the Romans and the German tribes. That of the former
emphasized individual ownership of land while that of the latter
was equally strong on the predominance of the state in its powers
over the land (communism). At any rate wherever the Romans
extended their influence the right of private property in land
held sway. And likewise wherever these German tribes lived or
conquered, this tendency to communism existed.
The fall of the Roman Empire was preceded by a system of
land tenure which puts the big estates of England and Ireland
to shame. The constant addition of vast tracts of territory by
conquest led to the parcelling out of this newly acquired land
to the favored of the upper classes, who in turn, subjugated the
common citizens, confiscating their small holdings and later even
made slaves of these fathers of the young soldiers fighting at the


front and whose valor and courage in truth was gaining addi-
tional territory. At last came the crisis. The soldiers no longer
representing the wealth of the state but rather the slaves, muti-
nied and demanded reforms. Then followed the agrarian laws
which, notwithstanding their merit, did not solve the situation.
"The time for remedy was however past. The great estates had
already been created; they were respected by the reformers alike,
popular and imperial; and their inevitable growth swallowed up
the small farms of new creation and ultimately destroyed Rome.
Its manhood was gone; the wealth of millionaires could not pur-
chase back honesty or courage; and the defense by mercenaries
failed to form any barrier against the wars of hardy northern
invaders. Pliny's words, 'latifundia perdidere Italiam' (the
great estates destroyed Italy), embrace the truth, yet more fully
made clear in many a generation after he wrote."
Roughly speaking, after the fall of Rome the history of the
world is that of the Germanic tribes. Reverting to the previous
reference of the fact that the ancient German tribes were ex-
ponents of the "community ownership" idea of land tenure, it
might be added that the overwhelming force of subsequent cir-
cumstances almost displaced this inherent conception of land
holding. The enormous increase of power and possession made
it impossible for the original tribal government to survive. Grad-
ually generals and their lieutenants, sometimes at great distances
from the capital, developed into kings, emperors, dukes and
counts and surrounded as they were by the atmosphere of war
which was necessarily concentration of power, it was easy to ap-
ply this latter principle to land holding. It was thus that the
dreaded feudalism sprang up, seemingly a continuation of the
later land holding policy of the Roman Empire. Thus by degrees,
as a consequence of the incessant state of warfare in which man-
kind existed, there arose the feudal doctrine that all lands were
held of the sovereign on condition of suit and service, and that
the immediate holders in turn had the right to subinfendate his
holdings in a similar manner. As time passed on, however, these
feudal-held properties took on the attributes of private property;
the war duty was changed to rent, the right of sale and devise
was later granted and still later, inheritance was in vogue. It
might be said that in general, after the 10th century all of
Europe was under these feudal laws of land tenure. Historians
agree that feudalism, with its nations of peasants, more than
anything else accounts for the stagnant civilization which existed
the ten centuries of the Medieval Ages.
However, several nations remained immune to this system of
land tenure. India, Russia, and the Slavonic people of the Balkan


States clung to the original idea of community ownership and
their land laws up to the world war based on this system.
To disentangle the very skeleton of their nation from this
clinging feudalism was the modern task of all of the western
nations of Europe. Indeed some of them have yet to complete
the task, notably England.
Despite the fact that the native spirit of communism in Ger-
many survived in spots until modern times, feudalistic estates
and excessive tenancy remained for the reformers of the early
nineteenth century to solve. Laws were speedily passed which
broke up these estates and aided the tenants in buying their
farms and utilimately resulted in a contented and home-owning
peasantry. Land banks, with cheap capital for farmers, played
no small part in this accomplishment. Today eighty-seven per-
cent of her farmers own their land.
The government of France, coerced by the revolution, like-
wise passed laws which made her farmers a home-owning people.
Probably the biggest factor in this accomplishment was the
forced division of the big estates among all of the children of
deceased land-holding proprietors. Another determine factor
was the availability of two percent money for the farmer to buy
his land. Seventy-three percent of the French farmers own their
Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland,. and por-
tions of Italy are similarly owned by the individual farmers. It
may be well to note that without a single exception the govern-
ments of these several nations were the reforming parties of the
tenant evils and the farmers were thus not left to work out the
change themselves, as some are wont to believe they should be
compelled to do.
The significance of this statement becomes apparent when the
question of solving the crying land tenure problems, facing Eng-
land, is raised. These are the same problems caused by feudalism,
despotism and national aristocracy which other nations dealt
with. Indeed no one believes for a moment that the plutocratic
members of parliament do not know a remedy. Their solution
of the critical Irish land question proved this. Appropriating
the sum of two billion dollars to buy up all of the landed estates,
which is to be sold back to the individual farmers, on an average
65-year amortization repayment plan, and allowing a margin of
sixty million dollars to cover discrepancies arising between the
buying and selling price of the lands, was without a doubt an
extreme measure of paternalism which could have been avoided
had they previously adopted evident panaceas. Probably no
nation on earth has a more urgent land problem than England
with eighty-seven percent of her farmers tenants.


With these facts in mind we can now more intelligently ex-
amine the land problems of the United States. The early settlers
of the New England Colonies brought with them the idea of the
village community. They decreed that each household should
have twenty acres and all other village land should be held in
common. The later extension of this idea is the homestead law,
prevailing over the United States and granting each settler 160
acres which, however, he must have in cultivation within five
years. The United States might be said to be a country of small
farms with the exception of some large plantations, particularly
in the South where the presence of slavery caused, as it did in
Rome, the existence of large estates. The percent of tenacy, how-
ever, is steadily increasing and compares unfavorably with
other great countries. From 1880 to 1910 the tenants in-
creased 129.8% while the owners only 34.3%. Stated in an-
other way the precent of tenants increased from 25.6% to
37% in the same time. Compared with Germany and her 13%
of tenants and Denmark with her 11%, this tendency is most
certainly worthy of note. The difference of our conditions is not
so great as to prevent us from using European methods of
remedying this evil, namely governmental action.
Is it any wonder that our rural homes, churches, and schools
are inefficient? What social or economic institutions have ever
been able to withstand the effect of this chasm of distinction,
destroying contentment and prosperity? Verily the history of
the world discloses none.
Other of our land problems are ownership of land by foreign-
ers, spread of bonanza farming and different phases of land
monopoly, all of which are forms of, or worse than, absentee
landlordism, about which Dr. Carver says, "Next to war, pesti-
lence, and famine, the worst thing that can happen to a rural
community is absentee landlordism." The following quotation
gets to the very heart of the situation. "The conclusion to be
drawn from the review of the whole question relating to tenure
of land is that they are best solved by freedom of action, of in-
dividual owners, guided by self interest and family affection and
only restrained by law when the special circumstances of a high
civilization introduce abnormal conditions. Since these motives
operate most fully and healthily when land is held in small
estates, it only remains to...... encourage subdivision!"
To accomplish this end reasonably complete would require
the following: (1) Excessive tax on land held by absentee land-
lords to such an extent that they will either move back to their
land or sell to resident holders. (2) Cheap money for tenants to
buy their farms to be paid back on the amortization plan. (3)
Graduated inheritance land tax.


Agricultural Commerce
By E. F. WHITE, M.A.
T HE exchange of merchandise on a large scale between dif-
ferent places or communities; extended trade or traffic-
is termed commerce. It is at once one of the most important
and far-reaching exigencies in the business life of any nation.
The individual, the public, the state, become powerful in pro-
portion to the opulence and extensive commerce of the indi-
vidual. Agricultural commerce has to do with that portion of
commerce in which agricultural supplies are involved. It is by
far the greatest part of all commerce--this agricultural com-
merce. One realizes this when he remembers that agricultural
commerce has to do with the movement and handling of the
world's food supply, of cotton, wool, and numerous other articles
which rightly come under this division of commerce. Under
our discussion of this subject we shall touch upon the more im-
portant phases such as methods of distribution, standardization,
storing and warehousing, exchanges, agencies regulating prices,
and give the extent of the commerce of the leading nations.

The distribution of farm machinery as compared with the
distributive methods followed by the farmer in distributing his
produce represent two extremes of the subject. The method
followed in distributing farm machinery may be rightly termed
organized or systematized distribution; while that followed by
the farmer in distributing his produce, if indeed we may speak
of the farmer as distributing the products of his labors at all,
may be rightly termed unorganized and unsystematic distribu-
tion. In the former case the manufacturer of farm machinery
owns and operates his own entire system of dispensing his prod-
ucts to the ultimate consumer. The ownership of the machinery
rests with the maker throughout its dispensation. If one pur-
chases an implement from a local firm, he indeed does not pur-
chase it from the local firm; he simply buys from the maker of
the implement through the local agent of the company, who
does not own the machinery but simply sells their goods at the
prices they quote and he receives a stated commission. If one
purchases the implement on credit and gives a note, the note
is made out to the makers of the article, not the local sales-
firm which is no more than the agent of the company. This


sort of systematized distribution makes for uniformity of price
for a given article on any market, and enables the manufacturer
to thoroughly regulate prices of his goods.
But how is it with the farmer? What method or system does
he follow in distributing his produce? The answer, though un-
fortunate, is: No system at all, and in fact very little dis-
tribution. There cannot justly be said that there is very much
organization in distribution generally among farmers. There
are, however, rare intances of highly efficient and systematized
systems followed by farmers engaged in certain special types
of farming. These instances have in many cases shown magnifi-
cent returns for the extra business enterprise displayed in ef-
fectively distributing their produce. Some of the most success-
ful of these farmers' systematized distributing organizations
are the Georgia Produce Company, the California Fruit Ex-
change, the Florida Citrus Fruit Exchange, the East Shore of
Virginia Exchange, and the Hood River Valley Apple Growers'
Association. These organizations do their own distributing and
regulate the price of their articles. Unfortunately though, it is
only too true that the great mass of farmers make no effort to
own their own marketing system. The great volume of dis-
tributing of farm produce is done by those who have had no
hand in its production, and who either wish to or must come to
the farmer, purchase his product, and provide for its distribu-
tion. This enables the middleman to have vastly more influence
in regulating the price of the farmers' produce than the farmer
himself can have as long as he does not own his own system of
distribution and be owner of his produce until it reaches the
Here again we see extremes-manufacturers on the one hand
going to the extreme of fullest exertion to obtain a standard
product, while the farmer very seldom makes any effort toward
standardizing what he and his fellows have produced. It might
almost be said that standardization is the life of the manufac-
turer's trade, while with the farmer it is negligible and with
it the results obtained through standardizing become negligible
since hardly any efforts are made to obtain a standard product.
The value of a standardized product, a product which has
proven by its long usage to be of a recognized quality, cannot
be overlooked by the most casual observer. An output which
is a very criterion of desirable qualities needs no advertisement
and extensive pushing campaign to make it sell. The manufac-.
turer standardizes his products, then, because such goods sell


more easily and for higher prices than materials not of a stand-
ard value. One of the reasons the public is willing to pay more
for a uniform product is the very fact that it is uniform and is
pleasing from that standpoint. Another reason for the in-
creased price for something the quality of which he knows, or
is reasonably sure, than that something the quality of which
he does not know and cannot easily make sure.
Many articles are so prepared that their quality is not obvious
until the package is broken, or with other articles until they
have been tried. For instance, one cannot detect the quality
of canned goods and therefore must be guided by the standard-
ized products, the quality of which he knows and which are
backed by the reputation of the manufacturer that makes the
article. Again, the quality of farm machinery can be told only
by experts when it is varnished and painted over; consequently
the farmer when he goes to purchase his implements naturally
turns to the implement which is made from a certain quality
of materials. In short, standardization to the manufacturer is
akin to a reputation to the man. In order that all articles made
by the manufacturer are of a given quality, systems of inspec-
tion and tests are inaugurated, and coupled with efficiency in
their making, articles emerge from the manufacturing plant
measuring up to the standard set. This is the end sought by all
legitimate makers.
Such should be the end sought by the farmer with all his
products. Is it? No. There is very little effort made by
farmers in general to standardize their output. Of late years,
however, the tendency toward standardization has been noted
with a considerable number of farmers. When it can be shown
them that standardization is financially beneficial, many of
them will commence to standardize their produce. Doubtless
others will not care to take the extra effort. The fellow who sells
products without standardizing them can never hope to obtain
top-notch prices for his wares. Only those articles of known
quality can bring the best prices. And no person can hope to
obtain fancy prices for his materials until the public learns to
realize the value of his materials-and they most certainly never
will arrive at an appreciation of these until these goods are
But both distribution and standardization requires co-opera-
tion. Hardly any one farmer raises sufficient produce to justify
an elaborate system of distribution, nor does he alone raise-suf-
ficient materials to standardize and obtain the benefit that such
.an operation brings to the manufacturer. It requires volume of


business to operate on a successful basis either of these enter-
prises; and a sufficient volume of produce to handle can only be
had by combining the products of many.
Here again we come abreast the same principle of organiza-
tion as against unorganized effort on the other. Storing and
warehousing by the farmer, when done at all, are performed in
a very slipshod manner. By far the greater part of the storing
and warehousing of farm produce is not done by the farmer him-
self but by the commission merchant. This storage is not done
by the commission man because he desires to do so-it is because
he is forced to house the goods which the farmer is usually deter-
mined to sell off his hands just as soon as possible. The farmer
trades or sells his goods, he does not market them. Storing
and warehousing is done by the middleman because the farmer
will not house his own stuff, and the middleman finds it a profit-
able business to house it, not for the farmer usually, but for
himself. In this way the middleman has been able to secure the
legitimate profits from the crop because he has been in a position
to hold the goods and market them at his discretion.
In a so-called farmers' warehouse, there is no ownership in
the house with the farmers, as a rule. These storage plants are
built and operated by outsiders who find it profitable business to
house the farmer's produce. About the only general step taken
by a considerable number of farmers toward storing their own
product and retaining ownership of it until it is finally disposed
of to the consumer, is found in the efforts of the farmers' union
warehouses usually used for storing cotton. This sort of ware-
housing is to be commended. But why has it not obtained
the popularity among the farmers that it should possess ? Simply
because the farmer is not willing to stake his own money and
have the enterprise his own. As long as an outsider will put up
his money and build the warehouses for the farmer without the
latter having to make an investment in the storage plant, just
so long it seems the farmer will be content for him to do so. He
does not realize that the outsider will get the profits that come
from such an investment. If the business of warehousing did
not enable the middleman to make a living at it and to profit
by it, does anyone suppose that he would follow it? No. The
farmer fails to recognize in the warehouse an investment destined
to bring full interest on the money so employed. Nor does he
realize the stupendous advantage that owning his storage plant
and owning his produce through the period of storage, would


give him in setting the price of his article. The railroad sets
its price upon the service it renders, the corporation sets its
price upon the materials it owns and sells; why can not the
farmer set his price 'upon the articles which come from the
sweat of his brow? It is simply this: He fails to recognize
the advantage of combined effort, he falls into the pitfall of let-
the-other-fellow-do-it. The other fellow does it, and does it to
the other fellow's advantage.

The farmers' exchange may be said to be in a class to itself
as compared with cotton, grain, and stock exchanges. These
latter three exchanges differ largely in the kind of commodity
dealt in. The chief cotton exchanges of this country are the
New York Cotton Exchange and the New Orleans Cotton Ex-
change. These exchanges purport to buy and sell cotton for
delivery. What they actually do, however, is largely to furnish
a place for speculation and hedging, and furnish uniform quota-
tions of prices. Each exchange is composed of a group of cotton
factors who make their own rules and do not publish the volume
of business they transact. The same may be said of the grain
and stock exchanges. They elect their members, make their
rules, and do not report the volume of business. This applies
only to exchanges in America. The stock exchanges of Paris,
Amsterdam, Berlin, and London are regulated somewhat by
the government, and on most of them anyone, member or what
not, can trade. The New York Stock Exchange is the chief
stock exchange in this country. It is operated much like the
cotton exchanges, varying only in the commodity dealt in
which, in this case, is stocks and bonds. The chief grain exchange
in this country is the Chicago Board of Trade. Here the various
grains are dealt in by the elected members of the exchange.
The chief difference between the cotton, grain, and stock
exchanges and the farmers' exchange comes from the fact that
the farmers' exchange does a legitimate business, seeks to aid
the farmer in the distribution of the articles dealt with; while
the other exchanges are so operated that no one except members
can trade and they are purposely operated under rules whereby
they do not largely perform legitimate business. The farmers'
exchange is an association for the furtherance of the interests
both of the producer and the consumer, and does not seek to
levy a tribute upon a business which it in no appreciable way


There are numerous agencies which work together to 'set
and regulate prices. .Chief among these are tariffs, bounties,
subventions, valorization, and various other minor agencies.
These may rather vaguely fall under the broad heading of
supply and demand, yet each must be treated separately in
order to determine definitely its influence in the matter of price


Coming: A New Agriculture
By M. C. GAY, Editor Market Department, Athens, Ga.
(Southern Ruralist)
CHANGES are taking place in American Agriculture. It is
impossible to successfully carry on any line of business in
this high pressure, industrialized age without keeping step
to some extent with the spirit of the times. It is true that
changes in agriculture take place much more slowly than in
business or manufacturing, but there are unmistakable signs of
rather decided changes in our agriculture.
This is the season of the year when lots of folks make resolu-
tions, nearly everybody decides to give up one or more bad
habits, and a few decide to make improvements of a constructive
nature by planning better things. While we take little stock in
the "swearing off" business, we have a lot of faith in our ability
to develop along positive lines. The time is here when the farmer
had as well take a broad viewpoint of his profession and try to
see just where he is going. Let us note a few trends in agri-
culture at this time:
1. Agriculture, in keeping with the general trend of the
times, is becoming industrialized. The tendency is toward larger
farms operated somewhat as industrial units.
2. The tendency continues to be away from the farm to the
city or industrial center.
3. Despite the migration from farm to city, production of
farm crops increases, and we have an overproduction of prac-
tically every major farm crop.
4. Specialization is the order of the day in industry, and we
may expect an increasing tendency in this direction on the farm..
5. Whether large or small, the farm unit must become more
of an industrial unit where wealth is produced which is con-
vertible into cash.
6. Agricultural co-operation, while making no very rapid
strides at this time, is getting on a more businesslike basis, and
is destined to play an ever-increasing part in our agricultural
Let us consider in somewhat more detail the points we have
just raised. A few years ago we heard much about cutting up
large estates and dividing them into small farms operated by
small land owners. Now we seldom hear this practice advocated.
We have learned that if the owner of the large estate, who had
the ability to acquire such property, did not have the ability to


operate it successfully, under changed conditions, then we could
scarcely expect the new owner of a small portion of the same
holdings to make a success.
Then there is the matter of competition between producers
of the same or competing commodities under different conditions.
Take, for instance, cotton growers on the western plains and in
the southeast. The one cultivates large acreage with improved
tools and machinery, while the other tills a few acres by hand and
with crude implements. While the western grower makes money
by mass production, the southeastern grower barely makes a
living, and his only chance to make any money is through in-
creased yields per acre.
We see some signs of syndicated farming. Loan companies
are acquiring lands by the process of foreclosure. These lands
decrease in value if left idle. The new owners have the industrial
viewpoint by reason of their city environment. So we have
either operating companies in charge of the lands or superin-
tendents in charge of large units, with hired labor tilling the soil.
Certain types of agriculture, fruit growing, for instance, are
adapted to large-scale production by reason of greater efficiency
in production and marketing. The large unit has an opportunity
to produce on a more economical basis because certain equipment
is needed to produce and pack quality fruit. Much of this equip-
ment is used for only a short while each year. So the overhead
is excessive on the small unit.
Financing for production of fruit and truck crops is now
furnished largely by distributors. The distributor looks with
more favor upon the large unit than upon the small tract.
Financing is done as a means of getting tonnage, and this
naturally comes from the farm or orchard with ability to pro-
duce. Then it is easier to supervise both production and
marketing on the larger unit.
"Back to the farm," was the slogan a few years ago. Even
economists of the past generation predicted food famines because
of the movement from the farm. Now we believe that, "From the
farm to the city," would be a more sensible slogan. A food
famine is next to impossible in this age of efficiency. Quick
maturing crops could be produced in plenty of time to prevent
the anticipated famine.
Farmers have come near putting themselves out of business
by overproduction, despite the appearance of many abandoned
farms. Let the marginal lands go back to timber. More folks
are going from the farm to town and factory, and this is well.
Many a man fails on the farm because of lack of capital, limited
initiative, or for other reasons, and then moves to an industrial
plant and makes good.


Just a few years ago we had a number of slogans denoting
the same thing, namely: making the farm self-supporting.
Among these were, "live at home" and "hog and hominy." Now
we have a somewhat more modernized slogan, "Cow, sow and
hen." They all mean about the same thing and get about the
same place. You decide that; we have our ideas.
The doctrine of making a living at home is all well and good
in so far as the production of the ordinary food and feed crops
is concerned. Taken alone as a means of making a prosperous,
contented, and happy farm people it is inadequate.
Let's come out of the slumber and wake up to the situation
as we find it. This is an age of specialization in all lines, agri-
culture not excepted.
The prosperous farmers of the United States are those who
have specialized and done certain things well. What more argu-
ment is needed?
Another thing: the farm family of today must have cash.
Why? To buy automobiles, gasoline, radios, home conveniences,
and dozens of other things they are going to have if they stay
on the farm. Yes, they have just as much right, and maybe
more, to these things as we folks who chance to live in town.
Their children have just as much right to a college education as
ours. That takes the coin of the realm-speaking from experi-
ence now. Grow the necessary things to sustain the farm, and
then specialize on some line to beat the band. Make your own
choice. That's what other folks are doing and making good.
Agricultural co-operation is growing, not so much in volume
as in business efficiency. As the less efficient farmers move to
town and as the men left on the farm become better educated,
as they are sure to do, it will be much easier to organize and
operate co-operatives.
Looking ahead, we must realize that a new agriculture is on
the way, slowly but surely. Wise will be the farmer who keeps
up with the procession. Consider these things as you plan for
the future.


Progress and Rural Education
(Southern Ruralist)
IF WE are willing to take a general view of the progress of
education in the United States during the past quarter of a
century the figures make a rather extraordinary showing.
Back in 1903, for instance, we were spending some $251,000,000
on public elementary and high schools. That figure has now
climbed to $2,750,000,000. Housed in some $8,000,000,000 worth
of school property some 28,000,000 pupils are receiving instruc-
tion at the hands of almost a million teachers. Like a lot of
figures these are very impressive but they fail to tell the whole
story. Particularly is that true with reference to the country
Where 71.1 percent of the children of the cities of high school
age are enrolled in the high school only 25.7 percent of the rural
children of the same age group are enrolled in high schools. We
have presented figures a number of times that show beyond any
shadow of doubt that each step in education affords advantages
that pay in dollars and cents. Those who drop out in the lower
grades drop to the bottom in income.
In making the foregoing figures available the United States
Commissioner of Education states that "Rural dwellers can not
hope to compete advantageously with urban dwellers so long as
their educational equipment is so generally inferior." There
you are-the old story of hewers of wood and drawers of water
all over again.
Now what are we going to do about it? The first thing we
have got to do is to compel a reworking of taxation that will lift
the burden of state taxation from the farm. Agriculture is carry-
ing and has always carried far more than its share of the tax
load. This is not a mere statement-it is a fact that has been
determined again and again by searching investigation.. Now
this situation must be reversed and those sources of revenues
that are being touched very lightly or not at all made to yield
their just contribution to the support of the government and
public causes. Not a single dime of state tax money should be
collected from the land.. State governments should be run with
income tax revenues, privilege tax monies, and such special taxes
as may be necessary to afford ample operating capital. Real es-
tate taxes should be left for the counties to collect and expend.
When this is done, when our states reach out and make all pay
alike, there will be no lack of funds to build schools in the rural
districts and our country children can then have the same chance
to fit themselves for productive lives as that already afforded


the children of our towns and cities. This is a matter that can
and must be worked out by the states themselves. And there will
be just exactly nothing at all done about it until senators and
representatives from rural districts join hands in a vigorous re-
working of present iniquitous taxation practices.


Miscellany About the Garden
(The Progressive Farmer)

TO STORE vegetables successfully, certain general rules
must be understood and followed, points out the Virginia
Extension Service. There are two chief types of storage,
cellar storage and pit storage. Each of these has certain indivi-
dual requirements which will be discussed separately.
Some vegetables may be stored with equally good results in
either pit or cellar. Among these are Irish potatoes, beets, car-
rots, rutabagas, turnips, salsify, and chicory. If stored in a cel-
lar, the room should be so arranged as to give good ventilation
at all times. This is necessary to keep the roots and tubers dor-
mant. This ventilation is best secured by the use of tile under
the floor, and ventilators in the top insure good air circulation
at all times. This arrangement also makes it possible to lower
the temperature of the storage if necessary. The temperature of
the storage cellar should be kept around 45 to 50 degrees Fahren-
heit. For best results, the cellar should be practically free from
moisture. Cabbage should never be stored with other vegetables
as it gives off odors which are absorbed by other vegetables.
If pit storage is to be used, select a well drained place in the
garden or in some place convenient to the house. Dig out the
soil to a depth of one foot over an area sufficiently large to ac-
commodate the vegetables to be stored. Place about two inches
of straw in the bottom of this pit and put the root crops on this.
The vegetables are generally piled to form a mound about 21/2
feet above the surface of the ground, or a pile of 3 feet high.
This is then covered with another layer of straw 2 inches deep
and over the top of this is spread dirt to the depth of from 4
to 6 inches, according to local conditions. The colder localities
require a deeper covering of soil than those which have a milder
winter temperature.
Salsify and parsnips may be left in the ground over winter
as freezing does not injure them.
An excellent grade of manure can be made from rubbish
about the place.
Weeds, leaves, lawn mowings, straw, cornstalks, tomato
plants, bean vines, or other material of this kind can be very
readily used. There is enough of this waste material about any
place for a liberal amount of manure to be made. Put it in piles


in some out of the way place where water can be added occasion-
ally. Put down a layer of this material and then a layer of ferti-
lizing ingredients. For each ton of this waste material, apply
75 to 100 pounds of sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of soda,
75 to 100 pounds superphosphate, 25 to 50 pounds muriate of
potash, and 100 to 125 pounds of ground limestone. Add one-
fourth this quantity after about 500 pounds of the rubbish has
been applied in a layer. By building up and keeping it moist,
one can produce a large quantity of this material in the course
of a year that will help to make the garden and orchard more pro-
ductive, and thereby more profitable.


A family of five should have the following kinds and quanti-
ties of canned vegetables for use during that portion of the year
when fresh fruits and vegetables are not usually available from
orchard and garden. Variety may be had by substituting mustard
and turnip greens for some of these canned products occasionally.
Tomatoes ........-................... 3 times per week ...................-...... 72 quarts
Carrots ..--............................ 2 times per month ......-.......---........... 12 quarts
Beets .................................... 1 time per week ............................. 24 quarts
Beans, string .................... 2 times per week .............................. 48 quarts
Okra ......................---------................ 2 times per month ....................--- ... 12 quarts
Kraut ..................................- 1 tim e per week ................................ 24 quarts
Soup mixture .................... 1 time per week ................................ 24 quarts
Corn .........--- ......................... 1 time per week ..............................- 24 quarts
English peas .................... 1 time per week ................................ 24 quarts


To grow rhubarb in winter, dig up a few of the old roots and
let them remain out in the open until a freeze or two hits them.
Do not allow them to remain out very long, but dig during
cold weather and let them stay out a night or two and freeze.
Then put them in the cellar or some other dark place that is cool
and plant 5 to 8 inches deep in loose moist soil. If handled this
way, shoots will come out in a comparatively short time and will
be found as delicious and palatable as the shoots that grow in
the open during the spring. These roots will be of no further
use after forcing them this way in the winter.



Rotation of crops is desirable in the garden as well as in
field crops. Following is a suggested plan of rotation for early
and late vegetables in the small home garden:
Followed Apart.
Vegetable by (Inches)
Beets, early ........................................ Celery ........................................ 15
Radishes ............................................ Celery ........................................ 15
Lettuce ............-.....-...............- .......-. Celery ....................................... 15
Early Potatoes .................--... ............ Spinach .....................-................ 24
Onions, plants or sets .......--.........-...-- .................-- ...........--................... 24
Beets, late ....--.-............ .................. Spring Cabbage ..-..--........... 18-24
Peas ..............---.. --..---.. .......... Fall Cabbage ............................ 30
Early Cabbage .................................... Fall Beans ................................ 30
Early Potatoes --................................. Fall Radishes, Lettuce ........ 24
Beans, bush ........................................ Scotch Kale ........... --................- 24
Beans, bush ..........................-..-.......... Siberian Kale ......-..-- ...-... ........ 24
Tomatoes, early ..................-..-- ........... Turnips ..----................................. 36
Tomatoes, medium and late ............ Turnips ......................-............. 36
Tomatoes, late ....----.........--..........-----........----......------............ 36
Egg Plant and Peppers .-... .----------........--.-- ..--...------........... 24
Cucumbers ...... -..........- -.... ........----......-.......-...---- ..-----................ 48
Sweet Corn .......--.....................-- .......... Fall Potatoes .......--................... 36


Where fruits and vegetables are stored in cellars, barns, pits,
or other places, there are certain requirements that must be met
in order to avoid decay.
Only products that are free of diseases should be stored.
Often lack of air causes rotting. Dry heat will cause spoiling
more quickly than any other condition. When these products
are stored in a dry place and begin to shrivel, sprinkle the floor
with water frequently, every day if necessary. When put in
storage pits, lack of ventilation is often the cause of rotting. Pits
should be provided with a flue or chimney in the top so as to
give the proper ventilation. It is during the first month or two
of storage that most ventilation is needed, as that is the time
when the most moisture is given off

In planting the fall garden, it is well to plant a big variety
of vegetables-practically all of those planted in the spring.
It is usually best to make the last plantings so they will mature
just before frost, provided they are kinds that will not withstand


frost. The table herewith lists some of the more common vege-
tables that will not stand frost and the number of days it usually
takes them to mature under average conditions. This informa-
tion will enable us to determine how late we can wait to plant
these vegetables and have them mature before frost:

Vegetables to mature
Bush lima beans .................. -..... ... ........ .. .. ........... 70 to 80
Snapbeans ... .......................... .................. ........ ...... ... 45 to 55
Black-eyed peas ............ ..... ................ -----....-..-....- 65 to 75
Lady peas ............. ......... ............. .......... ........ 60 to 70
Irish potatoes .--... -............ -----.. .... ......... ----......... 75 to 100
Cucumbers ....-... ......- ---........................ ....... --- 55 to 80
Squash ...................... .............................................. .................... 60 to 80
Tomatoes ---------- ------------.............. ................... 100 to 120

Vegetables which will withstand considerable frost, but not
very hard freezes, and the number of days it ordinarily takes
them to mature are listed in the following table:
Vegetables to mature
Mustard ............--............. ..--------- --.-- ...-- .---.. .. 30 to 40
Turnips ......- .............. .................... ..........-......... 60 to 80
Carrots ....... ............. ..................... ........... ......... 65 to 85
Beets .................. ........--------------------.................. .- 65 to 70
Swiss chard ....... ................... ............ ......- ......... 45 to 65
R dishes .................................................... ......................... 20 to 30
Lettuce ... ---.... ---------.............. -........- ..-- ..-- ........ 60 to 75
Onions from seed ......... .................... ------------ ........ 130 to 150
Onion sets for green onions ....... ....... ...... ..... ............ 35 to 40
Kohl-rabi ....................... ... .....-...- ...---- ........----- 65 to 75
English peas ....--...............- --........-------------.... .. 40 to 70
Cabbage ...........----.........---- -------------- -------------. 90 to 120
Cauliflower ....--......---.......--....-..---- -------------- -----. 100 to 125
Chinese cabbage ........---........---....--------- ....-...----. 90 to 110

The following list of vegetables will stand in the open
throughout the winter in most sections of the South, and may be
planted well into the fall:
Vegetables to mature
Spinach ........~-.. .... ...... ............--- ....- -.... 30 to 60
K ale .-..... ~~... ........ --............. -- .... ....... 90 to 120
Rape ................---.........-.-- ----- .......--. -...-.... 90 to 120
Collards ..~......--.-...-.....---- .. : .-- ... ---- ---.. 100 to 130
Salsify .........................--...--.- .........---. .--....... 150
Parsnips ........... ...........--.-.--- .... -- ------. ------.... 150
Rutabagas ............---. ---.... ..... .. 80 to 100



The standard container act of 1928 passed by the Federal
Congress fixes the standard for hampers, round stave baskets,
and splint baskets for fruits and vegetables and for other pur-
This new legislation defines standard hampers and round
stave baskets for fruits and vegetables to be of the following
capacity: 1/8 bushel, 1/4 bushel, 1/2 bushel, 5/8 bushel, 34 bushel,
1 bushel, 114 bushels, 11 bushels, and 2 bushels. For the purpose
of the act a bushel, standard dry measure, has a capacity of
2,150.42 cubic inches.
This act describes standard splint baskets for fruits and vege-
tables to be of 4 quart, 8 quart, 12 quart, 24 quart, and 32 quart
baskets. The standard quart, dry measure, for the purpose of
this act has a capacity of 67.2 cubic inches.
The enforcement of this act is in the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture, and
on and after November 1, 1929, it will be unlawful for any
manufacturer to sell or offer for sale hampers, round-stave bas-
kets, or splint baskets for fruits and vegetables that do not com-
ply with this act. This applies to both intrastate and interstate
This law was brought about because fo the fact that many
containers were made which gave to the untrained eye the
appearance of having a greater capacity than they actually did.
For instance, 7/s-bushel hamper is not readily distinguishable
from a bushel hamper to the untrained eye.
Those wishing complete information concerning regulations
may obtain it by writing to the Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.


Fruit and Vegetable Facts You

Want to Know
(The Progressive Farmer)

Leading Fruit States
Georgia leads all states in the nation in the quantity of
peaches for fresh fruit, producing approximately 10,000,000
bushels per year. California, however, produces the greatest
quantity, the yield being from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 bushels,
but most of these are used for canning and not as fresh fruit.
Second place as a producer of peaches to be used as fresh fruit
belongs some years to Arkansas and other years to North Caro-
lina. It is nip and tuck between these two. New York is close
up in the running for second place, as is Tennessee also.
California is probably the greatest fruit and vegetable pro-
ducing state in the Union. As far as grapes are concerned, it
is practically the whole show. The yield of this fruit in 1928
was 2,605,024 tons, and California produced 2,299,000 tons of
this quantity, or about seven-eighth of the crop. New York is
the second most important state, producing around 80,000 tons.
Michigan comes third with 60,000 to 70,000 tons.
Virginia is the leader of the Southern States in apple pro-
duction, the 1928 yield being a little above 13,000,000 bushels.
The real leader for the whole United States is Washington, this
state producing anywhere-from 25,000,000 to 35,000,000 bushels.
New York is the leader in the East, producing from 13,000,000
to 20,000,000 bushels or above.
California is also the leader in pear production, the yield
running from 6,000,000 to 9,000,000 bushels and slightly above.
Second place in pear production is a scrap between Oregon,
Washington, and New York, all three of these producing 1,500,-
000 to around 3,000,000 bushels.
Leading Potato Growing States
In 1927 Texas led all states in sweet potato production, hav-
ing produced 11,970,000 bushels. Georgia was a close second
with 10,560,000 bushels, and North Carolina was right on her
heels with 10,146,000 bushels. These were the only three states
that went above 10,000,000 bushels in 1927.
In 1928 Georgia led in production, the yield being approxi-
mately 9,260,000 bushels. Texas was second with 8,616,000
bushels, and North Carolina third with just a few thousand
bushels under 8,000,000. Usually it is a scrap between Texas,


Georgia, and North Carolina as to which will produce the most
bushels of this crop.
In Irish potato production, Maine leads all states. In 1927
the yield in this state was 37,288,000 bushels, and in 1928 slightly
above 38,000,000 bushels. Minnesota was second last year with
right close to 37,000,000 bushels; Michigan followed with just
under 36,000,000; New York was next with just a shade under
33,000,000; Wisconsin came along with 32,500,000 bushels,
and Pennsylvania 31,500,000. Idaho produced 20,358,000
bushels. These seven states are the only ones that produced above
20,000,000 bushels last season, although Virginia came very close
to it, the yield being 19,548,000 bushels.
Leading Irish Potato Producing Countries
The United States is fifth of all the countries in the world in
potato production.
Russia leads off by producing 27 percent of the world's Irish
potato crop. Germany follows with 16 percent; Poland, 14.3 per
cent; France, 8.5 percent; United States, 7 percent, and Czecho-
slovakia, 3.5 percent. These figures refer to the 1926 crop, but
are approximately correct for other years. Maiy of the Euro-
pean countries consume a great deal more Irish potatoes per
person than the United States, as. we consume as food only about
2 2/3 bushels per person per year, while Germans consume 7 1/3
Million Carloads Fruit and Vegetables Yearly
The quantity of fruits and vegetables shipped in the United
States per year reaches the astonishing total of 1,000,00 carloads.
Of this quantity, approximately one-fourth, or 250,000 cars,
are Irish potatoes, thus showing that of all fruits and vegetables
the Irish potato is the most important and most largely con-
sumed. This takes into consideration only those products that
are shipped in carlots.
Number Trees or Plants to an Acre
To find the number of plants or trees in an acre at any dis-
tance apart, multiply the one distance in feet by the other to
give the square feet in each space and divide this distance into
43,560. Example: 4 by 4 feet equals 16 square feet. By dividing
this into 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre, we have
2,722, which is the number of plants required to set an acre
when put 4 by 4 feet apart.
The table below gives the number required for most of the
distances ordinarily used:



No. Plants
Per Acre

12 by 1 inch .........-.......
12 by 3 inches ................
18 by 1 inch ...................
18 by 3 inches ................
18 by 12 inches ................
18 by 18 inches ..............
24 by 12 inches ..............
24 by 18 inches ...............-
30 by 1 inch ..................
30 by 6 inches ................
30 by 12 inches ...............
30 by 24 inches ...............
40 by 30 inches ................
36 by 3 inched ..............
36 by 30 inches ................
42 by 24 inches ................
42 by 36 inches ................
42 by 42 inches ...............
48 by 18 inches ......-.......
6 by 6 inches ...............
1 foot by 1 foot ..............
1 foot by 2 feet- .............
1 foot by 3 feet .........-..


Distance No. Plants
Apart Per Acre
foot by 1% feet ............ 19,360
feet by 2 feet .............. 10,890
feet by 3 feet ............. 7,260
feet by 3 feet .............. 4,840
feet by 1 foot ..........-... 10,8-90

feet by 2 feet ..............
feet by 3 feet ..............

4 feet by
5 feet by
6 feet by
7 feet by
8 feet by
9 feet by
10 feet by

4 feet ..............
5 feet ...............
5 feet --.-----
6 feet ............-.
7 feet .....--...-...
8 feet ........-....
9 feet .............
10 feet .......-...

12 feet by 12 feet .........-
20 feet by 20 feet ............
25 feet by 25 feet ......-....
30 feet by 30 feet ....--.....
35 feet by 35 feet .-...-..
40 feet by 40 feet ...........
50 feet by 50 feet ..........
60 feet by 60 feet .....
70 feet by 70 feet .........


A Vegetable Planting Table for Year-round Use

Distance Be
Seed for Plants for Depth of
Vegetable 100 Feet 100. Feet Planting- Days to
of Row of Row Inches Come up For Horse

1. Artichoke (Globe).. 1 ounce ..
2. Asparagus ............... 1 ounce........

3. Beans (Snap)..... 1 pint..............
4. Beans (Pole) .......... i pint.....
5. Beans (Bush Lima) i to 1 pint...
6. Beans (Pole Lima) i pint...........
7. Beet -.... ........- 2 ounces....
8. Brussels Sprouts_ ounce...
9. Cabbage ............. ounce..........
10. Cantaloupe ............ ounce..........

11. Cauliflower --..... ounce....
12. Carrot ............................. 1 ounce..........
13. Celery ............. ounce.
14. Collard .......... ounce.....
15. Chard ......................... 1 ounce.....
16. Corn (Sweet) ... pint..............
17. Corn Salad................. ounce..........
18. Cucumber ......... ounce..........
10. Eggplant ........... .. ounce..........
20. Endive ................ ounce..
21. Kale ........ .............. ounce....
22. Kohl-Rabi ............. ounce..........
23. Leek .................... 1 ounce..........
24. Lettuce ...................- ounce..........
25. Mustard ............ ounce
26. Okra ...................... 2 ounces......
27. Onion (seed) ........ 1 ounce..........
28. Onion (sets) .............1 quart...........
29. Parsley ........................... ounce..........
30. Parsnip ............. ounce.....
31. Peas ..................-- 1 to 2pints.
32. Peppers .......................- ounce..........
33. Potato (Irish) .......... 5 to 6 lbs......
34. Potato (Sweet) ...-3 pounds.......
35. Radish .. ............ 1 ounce.........
36. Rhubarb ........ 33 roots.......
37. Salsify .........- 1 ounce..........
38. Spinach .................... 1 ounce.
39. Spinach (New Z.)... I ounce ....
40. Squash (bush) ---. ounce....--

41. Squash (vine) ......... ounce.__

42. Tomato ......................... ounce.....
43. Turnip ....-. ................. ounce.........
44. Watermelon ......-_ 1 ounce...........

5U ......................
60 to 80.........

to 90.........
65 to 90.........

60 to 75.....
Sto 250...
65 to 100....

S0 to 75..-...

O0 .....-.............
.200 to 250

125 to 200....

75 slips......


35 to 50.........
................. ......

S to i.................
I to l, roots
10 to 12......
1i to 2 ........
11 to 2.
1I to 2............
Ii to 2 .
1 to 1i -
.. ..............
1 to ...........


...to. ...........

.. ....... ...
Sto I...............
.... ................
i ...
i . .. -

1 to 2...............

1 to 2.-.---

1 ...................
2 to 3.......

3 to 5......
2 to 2......-
1 to 2..................
I to 1...........

1 to ..................
3 to 1..................
i to 1..........
Ilto 2..................

1 to 2 ........ ____





to 28...... 3 to 4 ft.....
to 10...... 3 to 4 ft.-...
to 10...... 21 to 3 ft.....
to 10...... 4 ft....................
to 10..-. 3 ft.................
to 10.-_.. 4 ft............ ..
to 10...... 2 to 21 ft.....
to 10-... 21 to 3 ft.....
to 10...... 21 to 3 ft....
to 10......5 to 6 ft.......

to 15... 21 to 3 ft...
to 20... 2 to 21 ft..
to 10....... 3 to 4 ft.......
to 10....... 2 to 21 ft.....
to 10_- 2 ft...-.........
to 12..- 3 to 31 ft-..
to 8.. 2 to 21 ft..
to 14... 4 to 5 ft ......
to 10 ...3 ft...................
to 10 ......2 to 21 ft.....
to 8....... 21 to 3 ft....
to 12 2... to 3 ft.....
to 10. 2 ft....................
to 5 .. 2 to 2 ft....
to 20..- 2 ft....-.......
to 12 .. 4 ft ...............
to 8..- 2 ft.................
to 24... 2. ft....................
to 18.. 2 ft....-...........
to 10.. 2 to 2% ft....
to 14- 3 to 4 ft......
to 25... 2 to 3 ft.....
...........-. 2i to 3 ft.....
to 6.-- 3 to 4 ft........
to 14.- 2 ft.2.......
to 12-- 3 to 5 ft.-.
to 12-. 2 ft..........
to 16..- 2 ft..............
to 10-- 3 to 4 ft......
to 10.- 3 to 4 ft.....

---.........-- .- 1 to 2 ........ 6 to 10-...17 to 10 ft.....

i to 1 ........ 4
I to ....... .... 8
1............ -.......-... -.....

to 7......3 to 4 ft.....
to 12.-. 2 ft.........-..
.................. 8 to 10 ft..

A eeal lntn al o Ya-on s

between Rows

Plants in the
For Hand Row

3 ft................... 2 ft ..........................

3 ft ................ 15 in........ ........
2 to 2j ft.... 3 to 4 in...............
3 ft ................ 2 to 3 ft............
2 to 21 ft.-.. 6 to 10 in.......--..
2i to 3 ft... 2 to 3 ft.........
15 to 18 in.. 4 to in...............
2 to 21 ft.._ 14 to 18 in..........-
2 to 2 ft..... 14 to 18 in...........
5 to 6 ft.--. Drills 18 in.,
hills 5 ft.....
2 to 21 ft..- 15 to 18 in.....-
15 to 18 in.. 3 to 4 in............-
18 to 24 in.. 4 to 6 in........-..--
18 to 24 in.. 12 to 18 in.......
18 to 24 in.. 5 to 6 in..........
21 to 3 ft... 30 to 36 in..-
15 to 18 in. 8 to 10 in...........
4 to 5 ft....... 15 in.................--
2 to 21 ft.. 18 to 24 in..-
15 to 18 in 8 to 10 in.....
18 to 24 in. 8 to 10 in........
18 to 24 in.. 4 to 6 in..............
18 to 24 in.. 4 to 6 in....... -
15 to 18 in.. 3 to 10 in..........-
15 to 18 in.. 3 to 4 in......--
3 ft ........... 2 ft .........
15 in............ 3 to 4 in............
15 in............... 3 to 4 in......
15 in.......... 3 to 4 in......... ....
15 to 18 in... 3 to 4 in................
21 to 3 ft.-. 1 in...-... .
24 in............ 15 to 18 in...............
2 to 21 ft.-.. 12 to 18 in......--
3 ft .......... 14 to 18 in......
12 to 15 in.. 1 in. ....-... -
3 to 4 ft....- 3 to 4 ft..........
15 to 18 in.. 1 in.............-
15 to 18 in.. 1 to 2 in. ..... -
3 to 4 ft.-- 18 in..........
3 to 4 ft.- 15 to 18 in.,
drill; 4 ft., hills
7 to 10 ft..- 2 to 3 ft., drill;
8 ft., hills...--
2 to 3 ft..- 2 to 3 ft......----
15 to 18 in.. 2 to 3 in................
8 to 10 ft..- Drills. 2 to 3 ft.;

Mature or
Ready for
Use in-

8 to 12 mos.

3 to 4 yrs.
40 to 65 days
50 to 80 days
60 to 90 days
60 to 80 days
60 to 80 days
90 to 120 days
90 to 130 days

120 to 150 days
100 to 130 days
75 to 110 days
120 to 150 days
100 to 120 days
40 to 60 days
60 to 100 days
60 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
90 to 180 days
90 to 120 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 115 days
60 to 90 days
70 days
98 to 140 days
130 to 150 days
90 to 120 days
90 to 120 days
125 to 160 days
40 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
80 to 140 days
140 to 160 days
20 to 40 days
1 to 3 yrs.
120 to 180 days
30 to 60 days
80 to 90 days

60 to 80 days

120 to 160 days
100 to 140 days
60 to 80 days


A Home Owning or a Tenant

By E. E. Miller, in Southern Agriculturist

A Question That Must Be Faced
The question of whether the agriculture of United States
is to become more of a tenant agriculture, or whether a deter-
mined effort is to be made to check the increase of tenancy and to
make easier the acquisition of lands and homes by the men who
expect to make their living by tilling the land, is a question this
country must face and answer. Judging by the letters I have
had about the recent article on this page, it is a question, too,
in which there in an increasing interest. Some of these letters are
so full of meat that I must quote briefly from them.

Before quoting these letters, however, I must say in justice
to the Department of Agriculture that the Monograph on farm
tenancy with which I found fault was really issued by the De-
partment of Commerce and not by the Department of Agricul-
ture, as I stated. For this error I must apologize to the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, as it was in no wise responsible for the
bulletin in question. The position of the Department of Agri-
culture is set out in Separate No. 897, from the 1923 Yearbook.
The following from the "Conclusions" of this pamphlet (which
any reader can get by writing the Bureau of Agriculture Econo-
mics, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.) will make
clear, I think, the viewpoint of the Department:
The preceding discussion (meaning the pamphlet as a whole) has
not been directed to the purpose of indicating that tenacy is a su-
perior form of tenure. If this should appear to be the case, it is
owing to the necessity of submitting facts to disprove the all too gen-
eral assumption that tenacy is always, in itself, an inferior and
undesirable form, and to attribute to it a great many evil conditions
which are really due to other causes. These conditions include unequal
distribution of wealth, habits of land exploitation and instability of
occupancy largely the outgrowth of the comparative abundance of land
resources in our recent past, the persistence in certain sections of a
one-crop system of farming, and the personal illiteracy, inexperience,
thriftlessness, and inertia of certain individuals. To assume that some
artificial plan for converting tenants into landowning farmers would
remove all of these conditions is to follow an illusion.
Farm tenancy, considered as a method of acquiring the use of
land, is adapted to the special circumstances of a large proportion of
farmers, because of their lack of experience and available capital.


However, this 'point of view does not imply that all existing forms of
tenancy in this country are ideal, or that a do-nothing policy is justified.
In fact, there is need for the development of a positive and con-
structive policy with respect to American land tenure.
It would be unfortunate to make the road to farm ownership so
easy that farm ownership could be achieved by those who are unready.
However, it is widely recognized that it would be a good public policy
to remove unnecessary obstacles to the achievement of ownership.
The measures suggested for removing the unnecessary ob-
stacles to the achievement of ownership include, "credit facili-
ties for tenants," "a policy of land settlement," "standardiza-
tion of land titles," improved methods of land valuations," and
"modifying the speculative element in farm land valuations."
All of these are good as far as they go, but none of them, in
my opinion, is at all adequate to the problem in hand. The view-
point of the Department of Agriculture is not identical, eviden-
tly, with that of the Department of Commerce, but it is not
nearly so different as might be wished.


Interesting along with this summing up of the situation, are
some of the letters I have had from men who have studied the
subject. Prof. C. A. Keffer, of the Tennessee Extension Service,
for example, writes:
It is absurd to compare the landowner and tenancy conditions in
England to those in this country, and equally absurd to expect even
approximate results from tenancy under our land system as compared
with the results obtained in England. It seems to me we should make
a consistent fight for ownership as against tenancy, even though we
must all recognize the increasing need of capital in order to farm

Prof. E. C. Branson, of the University of North Carolina,
The trouble with the cold-blooded economist is that he sees farm
tenancy as an economic problem-that and that alone. It is not im-
possible to justify farm tenancy on the basis of farm business alone.
But why attempt to justify it? It needs no argument in its favor,
it grows and spreads like a blight anyway without such argument.
On the score of social implications and almost unavoidable social con-
sequences, it is possible to condemn it, and nothing but condemna-
tion follows an argument along the lines of social expediency.
Dean Thomas Cooper, of the Kentucky College of Agricul-
ture, thus expresses himself:
While I feel that we shall not at any time get rid of tenancy in this
country, yet I believe that every effort should be made to induce land
ownership under.good conditions rather than the best forms of tenacy.
I say this in spite of the fact that I realize that frequently capital may
be better used than in an investment in land, and that frequently it



will give better results from the standpoint of tenancy than from
land ownership. I think you have summarized the situation correctly
when you indicate that either the road to ownership for actual farming
must be made easy or we may expect the development of a permanent
tenancy class, the latter alternative being much less advisable than the
The same fear of a permanent tenant class is voiced by Prof.
Harry Gunnison Brown, of the University of Missouri:
I very much fear we are going to have the tenant peasantry you
warn against in the United States; for the only effective way to
starve off its coming will be fought, blindly and bitterly, even by some
of those whose own children or grandchildren will be found among
that peasantry.
From Florida, Mr. T. J: Brooks speaks up with emphasis:
This easing the public mind on the passing of the independent
farmer and the coming of the peasant farmer is criminally un-American.
While crossing the Irish sea in 1913, as a member of the American
Commission, I had a heated argument with a noted English writer
on this very subject He was defending the English system of tenantry.
My position was then, and is yet, that if we are to drift to European
methods and standards we have nothing to boast of as distinctively
American in our economic system.
And Mr. Brooks might well have added that even in Europe
the trend is all away from tenancy and toward operator owner-
ship in every country that is giving attention to the future of its
agriculture, with the sole exception of England. One of the
"burning questions of the hour" when I was in Northern Ire-
land was that of compulsory land sale and purchase to get the
land into the hands of the men who till it; and in the Free State
the thing had already been done-in fact, the old estates had in
many cases been broken up into units too small for economic
operation, so strong was the desire of the farming population to
own its land, and so strong the conviction of the whole country
that home ownership for the farmer is desirable.
Dr. David C. Barrow, Chancellor Emeritus of the University
of Georgia, has as fine a philosophy of life as any one I've ever
known. One day when he was talking to a group of young people
about success he gave them eleven questions by which they might
judge themselves and determine whether they had the qualities
requisite for success. They were as follows:
1. Can you make yourself useful?
2. Are you liked by your acquaintances?
3. Can you control your temper?
4. Can you control your tongue?
5. Can you keep your money?
6. Do you keep accounts?



7. Do you have a system for your life? A place for every-
thing and everything in its place ?
8. Can you do one thing at a time? That is, can you con-
9. Can you do without, without those things that will make
Syou ashamed of yourself in the future?
10. Can you plan the use of your money and stick to the
11. Can you plan the use of your time?
I believe that any one who will study these questions will de-
cide in order to truthfully answer them in the affirmative a per-
son must acquire a degree of self-control that is unusual. And
self-control is the basis of success.

L I- -~-lx-~-^.- i

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