extension meets the challenge of new technology
Florida Agricultural Extension Service
1964 ANNUAL REPORT
This annual report is published by the Editorial Depart-
ment of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Her-
vey Sharpe, Editor. The report was written and edited by
K. B. Meurlott, Assistant Communication Specialist. Art
for the publication was designed and produced by staff
artists Mrs. Elizabeth Ehrbar and Walter Godwin---cover
by Mrs. Ehrbar. Permission for reprinting articles from
this publication is granted without official request.
In many ways, 1964 ill go down as a banner year for the
Florida Agricultural Extension ServiCe. It certainly was a year
of decision affecting future off-campus educational work in
agriculture, agribusiness, and home economics.
Perhaps the most significant single accomplishment during
1964 was the DARE study-an effort which undoubtedly will
affect the course of Extension work for at least the next 10
years. The endings of DARE committees, made up University of
Florida faculty members and representatives from industry,
form a framework for the future of agriculture in each
county of Florida. It is now Extension's job to make DARE
meaningful to the agricultural industry, and it is no small job.
The DARE studies were made only a few weeks after cele-
bration of Extension's 50th anniversary of educational work,
and I feel it was a fitting way to begin
a second half-century of work-a chal-
lenge worthy of our undivided effort.
The problem of producing food and
fiber for our great nation grows in com-
plexity with each day. The challenge to
Extension workers, especially those in the
counties who work with producers, pro-
cessors, distributors, and agricultural
suppliers on a day-to-day basis, is tre-
To meet this challenge, each county
Extension worker must find time in an
already busy schedule to seek that new
and additional knowledge which is the
basis for his or her professional improve-
ment. I am tremendously pleased with
the educational and technical level of
our off-campus faculty members who
form the heart of Extension work.
The date, 44 percent of Florida coun-
ty and assistant county agents have com-
pleted master's degrees. The national average is between 18
and 19 percent. Including those who are working on the ad-
vanced degree, the figure rises to more than 60 percent.
Each year in this annual report, we attempt to select ex-
amples of typical Extension work being carried on throughout
Florida. Because of space limitations it is possible to point out
only a few examples which lend themselves most readily to a
I would like to call your special attention to those stories
presented on pages 28-37 which I believe are significant in dem-
onstrating some of the highly specialized and technical work
being done by county Extension agents.
May I take this opportunity to thank the many thousands
of volunteer workers who have had a part in making Extension's
work more meaningful to all of the people of Florida. And may I
invite your interest to the stories on the following pages which
represent a tremendous number of hours and effort to improve
the lives of Florida's citizens-through better education.
M. O. Watkins
Truly great moments may
come only once in a lifetime.
And for an organization such as
the Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences the Univer-
sity of Florida's newly-named
agricultural complex perhaps
it is fortunate if a single great
moment occurs once in a decade.
After all, the reputation of agri-
cultural research and education
has come from small, but con-
One such great moment for
agricultural education t o o k
place in 1964, marked by the
publication of a 204-page docu-
ment called The DARE Report.
The DARE Report was called
by one national industry figure
the most complete analysis of
agriculture of any state in the
Both the report and the effort
that went into compiling it were
hailed by agricultural and busi-
ness leaders throughout Florida;
newspapers all over the state
carried accounts of it.
Considering all of this "hulla-
baloo", many lay people have
wondered: what, exactly, is
DARE, an abbreviation for
Developing Agricultural Re-
sources Effectively, is more than
just a report, more than just
statistics, and more than just a
12-month effort. It is, and was,
all of these things and more.
In reality, DARE began with
the arrival of E. T. York, the
University's new Provost for
Agriculture. One of the first ad-
ministrative steps for the dyna-
mic former administrator of the
Federal Extension Service was
unification of agriculture's three
arms teaching, research and
extension so that all of the
University's agricultural effort
would be completely coordinat-
THE BIG STORY IN 1964
ed. Thus the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences was
born. It was an administrative
change, but laid the cornerstone
through which the DARE effort
By the end of 1963, York had
outlined the idea of DARE to
his administrative officers and
key department heads and the
first phase was underway. It
called on the total agricultural
staff to begin compiling data
about development of all agri-
cultural resources and products
for the past 30 years.
The scope included not simply
Florida's many and varied agri-
cultural commodities, but the
entire agri-business structure-
the feed, seed and fertilizer in-
dustries, the labor supply, land
use and water resources, use of
capital, processing, packaging
and marketing industries and on
If it supplied, supplemented,
produced, harvested, manufac-
tured for, transported, or mar-
keted any agricultural or forest
product, it was included in the
anlaysis sought by the teachers
researchers and extension men.
Committees were appointed
along commodity lines and the
DARE project moved forward.
Leaders in Florida's agricultural
and agri-business industries
were asked to serve with Uni-
versity faculty members on
The task at hand was not only
to compile statistics on Florida's
agriculture for the past 30
years, but using these figures-
always in conjunction with each
other to predict anticipated
growth of the industry for the
next 10 years.
To do this, University person-
nel had to rely greatly on the
ideas and attitudes of industry
leaders who were, thus, key
members of the DARE commit-
The information gathered was
then presented to a larger seg-
ment of industry leadership in
a series of meetings held at the
University of Florida during
June and July, 1964. At this
time the DARE committees
summarized in verbal form their
findings and predictions for the
future. Every agricultural and
forest crop within the realm of
possibility at the time from
rare subtropical fruits to the
state's supply of wild game -
And, along with the 10-year
projected growth was an analy-
sis of the problems that would
be limiting factors to that
growth, and a program of action
to meet and solve these prob-
If there were one word that
could possibly summarize the
prospects for agriculture in Flo-
rida by 1975, it would be
"bright". In fact, that word
"bright" also is an excellent ad-
jective to describe progress in
the industry for the past 30
years, the study clearly showed.
Florida outstripped all but one
state in nearly every phase of
growth rate during the last two
decades and all this in the
face of near static conditions in
some of the biggest farming
states in the country.
Most persistent and universal
problems facing the industry,
the analysis points out, are (1)
the need for highly skilled per-
sonnel to carry the complex in-
dustry forward, and (2) the
need for more research, and dis-
semination of that research in-
formation, on production and
marketing aspects of the indus-
Extension personnel played
an equal role with teachers and
researchers during phase one -
the formulative phase of the
But the second phase, that of
Dr. E. T. York, Jr.
implementation, is "Extension's
baby". As copies of the compre-
hensive DARE Report rolled off
the press at the end of 1964,
Extension's administrative and
specialist staff was busy prepar-
ing to help county workers make
good use of the information con-
tained in the report.
While the DARE Report trac-
ed the growth of agriculture and
made prognostications on a
state-wide basis, the immediate
job at hand is to interpret the
prospects commodity by com-
modity on an area and county
basis. This must be done before
Extension workers in the coun-
ties can meet with their pro-
ducers and their advisory com-
mittees to make plans for future
Future Extension programs
must be built around meeting
those problems that might im-
pede the industry from reaching
its growth potential by 1975.
As this report goes to press,
County Agents are busy sifting
the figures in an effort to make
this local analysis.
And DARE now becomes
more than just a statistical cat-
alog; it begins to come to life
for the rank and file of Florida's
PAGE 6 First schools for grove
workers held in Indian
River, Polk Counties
PAGE 14 Medical self-help training
makes Mrs. Jenkins
"johnny on the spot"
PAGE 30 The county agent moves
into more technical work,
such as in Gulf County
PAGE 50 Here's a community
project that began
at a cemetery
PAGE 56 New phosphate finds
get Hamilton County
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2 The Big Story in 1964-Operation DARE
6 Indian River Growers Move to Cut Maintenance Costs
7 Same Idea Crops Up in Polk County
8 Ladies Share Their Wealth-Of Knowledge
10 4-H Provides New Life for Homeless Children
12 Corn Cobs Plus Ingenuity: Presto-New Jelly
14 The Day That Tragedy Struck
17 Team Demonstrates 4-H, City Style
18 Amid Asphalt Boom, Agent Works To Retain Green Belt
20 The Four H's Become a Part of Everyday Life for Leonard Blakely
22 Feeder Calf Sales Are Improving Florida Beef Picture
23 Spunk Has Been a Liability As Well As Asset for Ruby
25 On the Road to Hawaii
26 Special Supplement Marks Cooperation with Paper
27 Media Training Makes Agent Time Go Farther
28 Special Section on County Agent Work in Technical Areas
28 Agents Train for Better Management
30 County Agent's Theory, Experiments Pay Off
33 Just a Little Persistence ... And a Well Trained Agent
34 Duval Horticulturists Look to Agent Allen
36 "By-Guess and By-Gosh" Management on Its Way Out
37 New Course Helps Train Managers to Manage
38 Statistical Report
39 Extension State Staff
40 Extension County Staff
44 Community Revitalization Is Not New
46 Junior College 4-H'er Manages Father's Herd
48 A Leader of Leaders-That's Carrie Mae Roberts
49 New Dental Inspection Program Clicks
50 And It All Began At a Cemetery
51 Extension Keeps People Aware of Home Accidents
52 Family Tradition Has Produced Outstanding 4-H'ers
54 Family Credits Extension With Continued Dairy Success
56 Hamilton County Moving
58 They Gave the Gals a Chance-And Look What Happened
Good management begins with
the workers, not the managers.
That's one way to express a
new theory tried this year in
Indian River and Polk counties
- one which is producing sur-
For the first time in Florida,
the Agricultural Extension Ser-
vice-through county agents--
is conducting schools for citrus
grove workers. The workers are
being taught how to manage
Credit for the idea goes to
Ralph Lindsey, production man-
ager for Indian River Exchange
Packers, Inc., one of the largest
grove operations in southeast
Indian River County Agent
Forrest McCullars had been
talking with Lindsey about hold-
ing some kind of county citrus
school. The grove manager sug-
gested that something needed to
be done to train grove workers
how to use their equipment, look
for breakdowns before they hap-
pen, and take care of them-
Why did this seem so impor-
tant to Lindsey?
"We employ from 100 to 130
men on grove maintenance a-
lone," he says, "and use a lot of
heavy machinery. All you have
to do is look at the cost of main-
taining this equipment to see
that we need something to pre-
vent or anticipate breakdowns.
In October alone, our bill -
just for parts was $6,500."
For Lindsey, who manages
4,000 acres of citrus plus 150,-
000 nursery trees, this was just
River County, and to University
of Florida Extension specialists
in engineering and safety.
Meeting at the main barn of
Indian River Exchange Packers,
the six-week school began
March 31 with lectures and
demonstrations on farm safety
and how to prevent accidents.
Tractors were overturned to
illustrate the point vividly.
Three meetings in April and
Indian River Growers Move
To Cut Maintenance Costs
With School for Grove Workers
about 6,500 good reasons to
suggest such a school.
McCullars' program commit-
tee agreed and started making
plans. Requests went out to
dealers for the major kinds of
equipment being used in Indian
Ralph Lindsey (left) and County Agent McCullars discuss the main-
tenance problems of a grove spray machine.
two in May rounded out the
school. Ranging from 90 to 140,
an average of 110 grove work-
ers attended each session.
About one-fourth of Lindsey's
"We paid our men to attend,
and rewarded those who did,
and were able to pass a test,
with a five-cent per hour wage
Other subjects covered by the
school included preventative
maintenance of air carrier
sprayers, high pressure spray-
ers, gasoline tractors, mowers,
disk harrows, tree hoes and tree
Two sessions were devoted to
basic horticultural principles of
citrus growing and a basic
course on sprays and spray ap-
plication. Fred Lawrence, Ex-
tension citrus specialist, and
Jim Brogdon, Extension en-
tomologist, conducted these
"The men were told not only
how to look for impending
Same Idea Crops Up in Polk County
breakdowns, but all of us learn-
ed some little tricks from the
equipment dealers-like taking
a few minutes to check the
radiator water in the tractor
when you go to get a spray tank
"We had been having trouble
with one kind of diesel. It would
start off all right in the morn-
ing, but after running a while
we couldn't get it started again.
The dealer told us right away
it was the fuel injector and how
to modify it. That saved us a
lot of lost time and money."
Lindsey believes his month-
by-month maintenance figures
will show the benefit of the
school. But, he thinks the
school will have to be repeated
"I wish more of my men had
attended. Then, too, you have a
high turnover of men in this
work and we will need to hold
the school again."
Although attendance was
good the first year, McCullars
thinks it will grow for future
schools. "Many of the grove
operators just watched to see
what would happen this first
Good ideas can come from
different people in different
areas at virtually the same time.
Such was the case with the
idea of providing better train-
ing for grove workers.
Only a few weeks after In-
dian River County held its
school, the citrus advisory com-
mittee in citrus-rich Polk
County advised Extension Agent
Jack McCown they saw a need
for grove worker training. Mem-
bers of the committee pointed
out that the costs of labor were
increasing and the industry was
losing vital labor. They felt if
labor costs continued to rise,
then laborers needed better
Polk's county agents worked
up a program with strongest
emphasis on operation of grove
equipment such as tractors,
sprayers, cultivation equipment,
and motors and pumps.
A letter was sent to the
county's citrus producers ex-
plaining the school and the kind
of topics to be covered during
sessions held once a week for
five weeks. The letter asked
these owners to pre-register
their men and indicate the type
and manufacturer of equipment
being used in their operations.
A $2.00 registration fee was
required for each man for certi-
ficates of completion and mis-
Polk County grove workers
First session was set for Sep-
tember 21 in the general meet-
ing room at the Agricultural
Center at Bartow. The pre-
registration system was only
partially successful. More than
200 men showed up and nearly
overflowed the meeting room.
Subsequent sessions were held
in the arena area where such a
large group could be accommo-
The Polk County school differ-
ed slightly from the one in
Indian River County, with al-
most complete emphasis on
equipment operation. The final
meeting included safety instruc-
tion by Extension Specialist A.
Grove workers who attended
at least four out of five of the
sessions were given a certificate
of completion for the school.
They were sent to grove owners
to sign and award to employes.
County Agent McCown said
the school was highly successful
in the eyes of owners and work-
ers alike, and already there are
many requests for a repeat per-
"The owners want more of
this," McCown says, "but frank-
ly we have more interested than
we can possibly take care of. I
think future schools may be
conducted on an area basis since
the county is so large."
school drew overflow crowd, was moved
----- ------ -
Ladies Share Their
The humanitarian idea of
"sharing the wealth" has been
taken in a different light by a
vigorous group of Palm Beach
County women. Their idea is to
share their wealth "of ideas and
For well over a year, these
women have been fighting their
own kind of a "war" against
misfortune, limited income, poor
living conditions and poverty.
Their fight hasn't been with
dollars; instead, it's been with
their own homemaking knowl-
edge plus skills learned through
homemaking and Home Demon-
Actually, these women-along
with some of the county's 4-H
club girls-have been engaged
in several separate, non-related
programs. From the outside
looking in, however, taken to-
gether these programs form an
enviable pattern of people help-
ing people out of the goodness
of their hearts.
Mrs. Ruth McTaggart, a re-
tired home economics teacher,
Mrs. Roberta Chenoweth, and
Mrs. W. R. Brewster are three
key persons in these programs,
according to Palm Beach County
Home Demonstration Agent
Mrs. Chenoweth is president
of the county Extension Home-
makers Council which sponsor-
ed one of the major programs-
lessons on how to prepare sur-
plus foods given to people by
the County Welfare Depart-
To many people who are used
to buying many foods almost
ready to eat from the super-
market, the idea of powdered
eggs and powdered milk pre-
sents a virtual impasse in the
kitchen. Home Demonstration
club members rose to the occa-
sion and developed the best
methods of preparing these
foods and some new, very tasty
recipes. At the same time the
women concentrated on develop-
ing nutritional meals.
Persons qualified received
such government surplus foods
as butter, flour, powdered milk
and eggs, dried beans, corn
meal, peanut butter, lard, can-
ned beef, rice, and cheese.
"Our main problem was teach-
ing them how to use the pow-
dered foods," Mrs. McTaggart
says. "Most of the people had
never used these items and the
powdered milk isn't the same as
you can buy in the supermar-
The program was set up four
days a week during two months
-May and October. Demonstra-
tions were given at a building
on the former air base.
Volunteers from the county's
Home Demonstration clubs pre-
pared the dishes at home and
brought them to the building.
An average of over 50 people
attended each demonstration,
and sometimes as many as 100
were present. At least two mem-
bers from each club took part.
Mrs. McTaggart, whose ca-
reer not only included teaching
home economics but a four-year
tour in the WACS as a mess
sergeant and 30 years as owner
of her own restaurant, first be-
came interested in the surplus
foods program when she read
about it in the newspaper. She
contacted the Junior League
Volunteer Service for more in-
"Letting people know about
surplus food available is one
thing," she says, "but showing
how good food can taste when
prepared with economical prod-
ucts is another."
Mrs. Chenoweth not only led
the County Council in backing
the project, but was on hand to
help with the demonstrations
more than any other club mem-
During the last 30 days the
program helped over 3,000 peo-
ple according to Extension agent
The H o m e Demonstration
members also used the meetings
as a jumping off place to raise
interest in other areas. They
kept copies of homemaking pub-
lications on hand to pass out.
And, some women said they
were interested in learning more
about clothing and were enrolled
in a clothing workshop.
Miss Todd indicates the sur-
plus foods program was a part
of "this year's emphasis on
management". Florida Power
and Light Company and Florida
Public Utilities home economists
cooperated by helping train the
Extension homemaker leaders.
County Welfare Director Mrs.
Vivian Caudill helped by pro-
viding surplus foods for use in
While many of the county's
Home Demonstration club mem-
bers were busy with the food
project, the Northwood Center
club took on still another. Under
the leadership of President Vi-
ola Brewster, the club took a
hard look at a situation which,
for many years, was not men-
tioned in polite circles some
Above, Mrs. W. R. Brewster is
shown with children modeling
clothes made for migrant young-
sters. Below, Mrs. Ruth McTag-
gart (left) talks with Home
Demonstration Agent Mary Todd.
20,000 adult migratory workers
who come to Palm Beach County
each year to gather in the im-
portant vegetable crops.
"That 20,000 figure doesn't
include the children," Mrs.
Brewster says, "but all of them,
because of the work they do and
circumstances under which they
work, have many problems and
"Instead of so much sewing
for ourselves, our members de-
cided to get busy and make
shirts, dresses, pants and baby
outfits for these children."
So far all of the material for
the clothing has been donated
by club members or their
friends and neighbors. The
women sew between meetings.
To give the project more
meaning, club members took a
field trip to the Glades to visit
two migrant camps, two pack-
ing houses, and some of the
"One reason this project has
been so successful is that it has
helped each of us, as individ-
uals, satisfy a need to be of help
to others," Mrs. Brewster says.
The club leader believes the
project is also helping open the
door for other work. Several of
the women in the migrant camps
expressed interest in a clothing
workshop to learn how to make
clothes for their own children.
Other workshops may be started
if the women show interest in
food economy and good health
Clothing made by the club is
turned over to an organization
known as the Florida Christian
Migrant Ministry which is
backed by the United Church
Women of Florida.
This organization carries on
a special Christmas project for
migrant children. Object of the
project, which, last year reached
6,500 children, is to provide each
child with one toy and one ar-
tide of clothing. Mrs. Brewster
is a leader in this project.
Still a third phase of the Ex-
tension-helped program in Palm
Beach County has been carried
on by the Belle Glade Pixies, a
10-11-year-old group of 4-H
With the help of adult leader
Mrs. Clarence Lee, these girls
helped form a 4-H club in one
of the camps. The P.E.O. ladies
of Belle Glade agreed to serve
as sponsors to supply fabric and
sewing tools for the new club.
The Pixies decorated shoe boxes
and furnished each member of
the migrant club with the sew-
Since there were only two
sewing machines in the camp,
and these were not always avail-
able, the Pixies were joined by
the Gator and Blue Jay 4-H
clubs in sharing the cost of buy-
ing and repairing a used sewing
Assistant Home Demonstra-
tion Agent June Street trained
two girls serving with the Flor-
ida Mission to Migrant Volun-
teers, who in turn taught the
little girls of the new club to
Before the project was com-
pleted, the Pixies had also con-
ducted a drive to collect toys,
records and books for the mi-
grant children, and one which
netted 20 boxes of used cloth-
Although many of Palm Beach
County's Home Demonstration
members took part in more than
one of these activities, the proj-
ects were more spontaneous
than a part of the overall
program. Most important, they
originated with the homemakers
themselves who felt a need in
the county. Extension simply
formed the organization through
which such work could be car-
ried out, and provided the ap-
4-H Provides New Life
For Homeless Children
Richard was a quiet, unsmiling, sullen boy
when he arrived at the campus of the Advent
Christian Home on the peaceful banks of the
At age 11, he had spent six years in a home
for children, away from the loving care of real
parents-a love for which there is no real sub-
In the beginning, the beautiful rural setting
seemed to make little difference to the slightly-
built youngster who at age 5 had been taken away
from his mother and made a ward of the court.
Perhaps he thought an orphanage was an or-
phanage, any way you spelled it out.
Greetings from other youngsters or from
workers at the Advent Christian Home were met
with cold response or were ignored altogether.
"You never knew if he would say hello or not
when you passed him on the campus," according
to Pomeroy Carter, director of the home.
Richard's older brother arrived at the same
time, but was more outgoing. He began par-
ticipating in activities. Among them was a
contest in which the older brother won a calf
as first prize. But, since the brother was inter-
ested in other things, Richard inherited the calf.
"That was the beginning of Richard's change,"
Carter says. "From the moment he got the calf,
all of the love and affection that had been stored
up so long spilled out."
Richard and his calf became almost insepar-
able. He babied and combed and cared for the
animal constantly. Soon he began entering in
county fair competition and winning awards,
praise and recognition.
Later, Richard adopted a beef project and
showed a grand champion. These experiences
brought Richard into direct competition with
other youngsters, and through hard work he was
able to gain recognition and self confidence. The
shy and unfriendly boy began to find a place in
society among other boys and girls. He became
president of his church Youth Fellowship and
of the District Youth Fellowship. He was elected
to the highest office in his high school class and
participated in athletics.
And thus a tiny calf accomplished what all
the other children and the well-trained workers
at Advent Christian Home could not-bringing
a boy to grips with a society that had treated
All of the boys and girls who live at the Ad-
vent Christian Home, located on 610 acres a few
miles west of Live Oak, have different person-
alities. But they do have one thing in common.
They have been kicked around by life, and for
all intents and purposes, they have no real par-
ents to take care of them.
Children are accepted at the home when
there are vacancies-on the recommendation of a
pastor of the Advent Christian Church. Often
court judges who have been forced to remove a
child from its natural home, call these ministers
for a recommendation.
They come from homes racked with immor-
ality, torn asunder by poverty or alcoholism, or
destroyed by accident or illness.
Richard is one of about 30 children who live
at one of the most unusual homes in the country
-a combination foster home for children and
retirement home for senior citizens.
There is practically no mixing of the two
groups. In a way, they have common problems;
the rest of the world has gone off and left them
and they have banded together to cut out a new
life. But there is one major difference. Whereas
the senior members seldom leave the campus, the
children only use Advent Christian Home as a
substitute for a real home and family. They go
to regular public schools and churches, and take
part in community activities.
In marked contrast from some institutions for
children, the boys and girls are challenged to
make a place for themselves in the community.
This is where the 4-H Club system has come
to play a major role. It is a part of the com-
munity activity encouraged by the leaders of Ad-
vent Christian Home.
"About 95 percent of our children become
associated with 4-H," Carter indicates. "We, and
they, consider this the most popular activity -
especially among the boys.
"Since we have 610 acres and this is a farm
setting, it is a natural activity. So many of the
projects couldn't be better suited if they had
been designed specifically for us.
The campus has 25 acres and lends itself to
home beautification projects. Since girls must
help carry the load in the kitchen, cooking and
home improvement are natural activities.
The wooded area is ideal for soil and wildlife
conservation and entomology projects. Youngsters
get practical experience in electric and safety
projects through the home's maintenance crew.
Pomeroy Carter, director of the Advent Christian
Home, points to excavation area for new dispensary
in picture taken early in 1964. With Carter are
John Moxley and Assistant County Agent Fred
Carter believes that 4-H has been a big help
in getting the children to take an active part in
The young and personable chief administra-
tor, who has degrees in sociology, theology and
social work (the latter from Florida State Uni-
versity), says every effort is made to provide a
life just like it should have been at home.
The children live in cottages-there are three
on the campus-which hold a maximum of 12
boys or girls plus house parents. Meals are pre-
pared in a central kitchen, but are catered to
the cottages where the housemother puts them on
The comfortable rooms are designed for two,
affording as much privacy as possible.
The children range in age from the second
grade to a sophomore in college who still main-
tains residence at the home. The college student
managed to save $500 while working at the home,
and then received a scholarship to attend college
at Aurora, Illinois.
All children are given an allowance. Those
over 12 years old must work for this allowance.
The youngsters receive only small compensation
for their chores outside of the cottages, but there
is no pay for work within the cottages-such as
dish washing and cleaning details.
Some of the money the teenagers manage to
save comes from 4-H animal projects. Richard
has managed to save $500 from his beef cattle
There is one car available to those old enough
to drive. It must be shared. The teenagers may
double date at age 15 and date alone when they
are 16. The date of each girl at the home must
Carter has been superintendent at the Advent
Christian Home for three years, but has been in-
directly connected for seven years. His father
was superintendent and business manager before
Carter has taken to heart the philosophy that
youngsters at the home should not be "placed in
ivory towers", but should become a part of the
Live Oak community. He has served as chairman
of the Suwannee County Rural Areas Develop-
ment Council, and chairman of various subcom-
mittees on affairs of the aged.
John Moxley, farm superintendent and
Carter's right hand man, is an ordained minister
and has a small rural church in addition to his
full time duties at the home. He is also a local
4H club leader.
Financial support for the Advent Christian
Home comes largely by donation from the
parent church-and from interested individuals.
"We have very fine local support coming from
this county," Carter says.
Newest project underway is a $100,000 cafe-
teria and service center-the gift of an anony-
mous donor. The service center will include a
post office, refreshment stand, beauty parlor and
barber shop, laundromat, library, meeting rooms
and kitchenette along with the cafeteria and main
dining room. The facility will be one of those
points on campus where the young and old will
rub shoulders daily.
The Advent Christian Home is, in many ways,
an altogether unique facility-one dedicated to
providing a place under Florida's sun and a place
in life. Extension's 4-H club system, as well as
Extension home economists, are an integral part
of this new life.
Think you've seen everything?
We all know that the citrus
industry has spent many dol-
lars to find new uses of citrus
products. Aside from fresh
fruit and juice, the peel is used
to manufacture feed and ferti-
lizer, and wines. Seeds can be
converted to oil.
Well, a group of Hamilton
County women members of
the White Springs Home Dem-
onstration club-look as though
they are trying to find every
use for corn.
Shelled corn helps produce
fine steak and ham for the
table, and many uses have been
found for corn stalks. Dried
corn silks have been used by
some young sprouts for a little
smoking behind the barn. Cobs
can be used to make pipes.
But the ladies of the White
Springs club and especially
Mrs. Nancy Morgan have
come up with a couple of new
ones: corn cob jelly and syrup,
and corn husk hats.
It all got started early last
year when Mrs. Morgan started
looking for something new to
display and sell at the annual
Stephen Foster Memorial Folk
Festival. She wondered if you
could use corn cobs to flavor
The Folk Festival provides
one time each year when country
folks can get together to per-
petuate the cherished traditions
of their ancestors, and the city
folks get a chance to peek at a
way of life they have only read
about in books.
Mrs. Morgan gathered the red
corn cobs from the barn and
boiled them in water. By ex-
perimenting she developed a
recipe for just the right amount
of sugar and pectin to produce
"It tastes like something be-
tween apple and plum," Mrs.
Morgan explains with a broad
smile. "But the young'uns seem
to enjoy the corn cob syrup even
better ... on pancakes."
Initial sales at the Folk Festi-
val and publicity generated by
the unusual jelly have now led
Mrs. Morgan into business. She
has six or seven regular outlets
along the tourist-traveled north
Florida highways, including one
"Guess I sell about a case a
week now," she says, "but the
buyer from a chain has been
here to see about getting the
jelly for all his stores. It's easy
to make-I can whip out a case
in a couple of hours."
The jelly is put in empty
babyfood jars which neighbors
and friends contribute. The
White Springs homemaker
paints the advertising off the
lids and packs 24 five-ounce jars
to the case.
Mrs. Morgan admits sugar is
the most expensive part of the
ingredients-since the cobs are
mostly free. Her husband farms
about 200 acres, and a good
part of that is planted in corn.
Members of the club have
been experimenting with mak-
ing various items from dried
corn shucks including wreaths,
purses and purse decorations,
and ladies' hats.
Actually, activities of the
White Springs club are some-
what typical of other clubs in
Hamilton County. Under the
Mrs. Nancy Morgan holding key
product in the other.
direction of Home Demonstra-
tion Agent Wilma White, there
is a movement to create an
original handicrafts industry in
New ideas and new products
dreamed up by the ladies will
be tested each year at the Folk
Festival for their public ac-
ceptance. Those which sell
easily will be pursued commer-
"We plan to concentrate on
using local products and natural
things such as corn shucks, pine
cones, and so on," Mrs. White
says. "One of the ladies is ex-
perimenting with broom sage
to make fireplace brooms."
Mrs. Morgan also had a hot
item in homemade corn cob
pipes at the Festival last year.
"Gosh, we sold over 100 the
first day, so we came home and
the whole family spent the even-
ing making corn cob pipes." The
family includes a son, two
daughters, and four grandsons.
Another White Springs wom-
an and a neighbor of the
Morgans-who has a successful
home industry is Mrs. D. F.
ingredients in one hand, finished
Mrs. Norris hasn't gone in for
the unusual; she has simply
built an excellent reputation for
fine homemade pickles, relishes
and produce. She has establish-
ed her special label, and her
products may be purchased in
many stores in Hamilton, Col-
umbia and Suwannee counties.
She got the idea at a special
Home Demonstration Club meet-
ing when the ladies were listing
the resources of the county.
Home Agent White is encour-
aging other women to join the
effort to form this new industry.
Aside from native products,
many of the ladies are taking
lessons in ceramics.
Aubrey Fowler, North Florida
Credit and Production Associa-
tion, is working with the women
on the possibility of forming a
cooperative to sell the products.
The co-op would include women
from Hamilton and surrounding
The ladies are off to a good
start. Knowing the resourceful-
ness of these fine rural people,
they are sure to produce some
unusual, interesting and valu-
When Tragedy Struck
It Was Just a
Matter of Luck That
Brought Mrs. Jenkins
To the Scene
Trooper James Harden of the
Florida Highway Patrol smiled
broadly as he entered the of-
fice of Escambia County Home
Demonstration Agent Mrs. Ed-
wena Robertson. He walked to
the center of the room and
greeted Mrs. Thomas Jenkins,
Pensacola grandmother, as
warmly as if they had known
each other for years.
In truth it was scarcely the
second meeting of the patrol-
man and Mrs. Jenkins. But
Harden knew the lady well by
"You know, I've covered
many accidents," Harden said
as he took a seat, "but never will
get used to them. One thing that
always strikes me is that as
soon as you arrive at the scene,
cars stop in every direction to
see what is happening. Have
you ever looked at pictures tak-
en at an accident? If you'll
notice, you never see anyone's
hands. They are always in
pockets or folded under arms
or behind backs or anywhere
but in sight. Notice that some-
Trooper Harden was using
this monolog to give background
to the scene of an accident April
23, 1964. He covered the acci-
dent-a bad single-car smashup
at the edge of Pensacola.
It was different than most
accidents he covers-as Harden
was recounting. Mrs. Jenkins
was there too, but she used her
hands and saved a life.
Events leading up to the cru-
cial moment last year covered
several years for the long-time
Pensacola resident. Mrs. Jen-
kins has always been active in
community affairs, especially
Home Demonstration and Red
Cross work. She has been help-
ing with the Red Cross in Es-
cambia County for five years.
But three specific events pre-
pared Mrs. Jenkins for that im-
V Representatives of the Es-
cambia County Health Depart-
ment visited a Home Demon-
stration club meeting as part of
the medical self-help program,
teaching safety and first aid.
V Last year Mrs. Jenkins at-
tended a special Home Demon-
stration short course at Camp
Timpoochee during which Re-
susci-Anne was used for demon-
strations of mouth to mouth
resuscitation and external heart
V And, finally, E. E. McGovern
of the Escambia County Search
and Rescue Unit a volunteer
organization presented a
safety program at a Home Dem-
onstration Council meeting.
It was late afternoon on April
23 and R. M. Morgan Jr., a sales
representative for Union Circu-
lation Company of Atlanta, was
heading home on a 4-laned high-
Trooper James Harden
way at the edge of Pensacola.
Just before reaching a small
concrete bridge he apparently
"blacked out" he doesn't re-
member but this seems to be the
only explanation. At any rate,
Morgan's convertible plowed di-
rectly into the concrete abut-
ment without slowing.
First highway patrolman on
the scene was Sgt. Phil Farrior
who, at the time, was Pensacola
supervisor. He was joined a
little later by Trooper Harden.
Within a few minutes, Mr.
and Mrs. Jenkins came driving
along on their way home from
a fishing trip. She asked her
husband to slow down and then
stop as she saw Morgan sprawl-
ed along the side of the road.
The patrolmen had pulled the
unconscious man from his
"I got out of our car," Mrs.
Jenkins recounted, "and went
over to the patrolman nearby.
I can't even remember whether
it was Trooper Harden or Sgt.
Farrior. Anyway, I asked if
there was anything I could do
and told him I had had some ex-
perience in emergency rooms as
a Gray Lady.
"As I remember," she went
on "he just looked at me and
said, 'Yes, but as far as I'm con-
cerned, he's out'. I guess he
meant the man was dead.
"I could see Mr. Morgan had
chest injuries as I went over
there. His shirt was torn. And
he had lacerations on the head
and a hole in his cheek. I put
my head down to his chest to
see if I could hear anything, and
heard a little air . as if it
were trapped. He wasn't breath-
"This man's not dead, I said,
somebody call an ambulance. By
this time another man was bend-
ing over beside me and said he
was a friend of Mr. Morgan. He
asked me what I was going to
"Well, I said, God gave me
two hands and I'm going to use
With this dramatic statement
Mrs. Jenkins pried open the
man's mouth and thrust a hand
down Morgan's throat to re-
move whatever obstruction was
preventing the breathing.
"He had swallowed his tongue
and I pulled it out and along
with it some blood clots. As soon
as I had done this he gave a
gasp and clamped his teeth
down biting my thumb."*
It was another 15 minutes be-
fore the ambulance arrived to
take Morgan to the hospital.
Mrs. Jenkins stayed around to
see if she could be of any fur-
One of the ironical things
about the scene was that only
moments after the ambulance
pulled away, the stricken man's
wife came on the scene while
driving home with the baby -
one of two Morgan children. She
recognized the car and almost
went into shock when she learn-
ed her husband was on his way
to the hospital.
Trooper Harden insisted that
Mrs. Jenkins also go to the hos-
pital to have her hand taken
care of. In the hospital emerg-
ency room doctors worked over
Morgan, patching cuts and tap-
ing bruises. They bandaged
Mrs. Jenkin's hand and gave
her a shot for protection, and
together Mrs. Jenkins and Mrs.
Morgan waited for word from
the emergency room.
"She actually sat there with
that bandaged hand and con-
soled me," Mrs. Morgan said, re-
membering the panic of the mo-
ment. "But doctors said she
The Morgan family shown in a recent photo.
The Morgan family shown in a recent photo.
saved my husband's life ... that
he couldn't have lived much
longer and any other delay could
have resulted in brain damage
at the least."
Mrs. Morgan (left) is a favorite around the Morgan household, a
trailer located only about a half mile from the scene of the accident.
The Morgans and the Jenkins
have kept in touch over the
months since the accident.
"For a long time," Mrs. Jen-
kins said, "every time I would
see Mrs. Morgan she would just
break down and cry."
Morgan was in the hospital
nine days and then spent several
weeks recovering at home.
Mrs. Jenkins will never be
forgotten in the household, and
she is thankful that she had the
training to be able to help when
the time came that it was needed
And Escambia County's Ex-
tension agents have one more
solid reason to promote the type
of training that saved the life of
a young father.
*This expression is a layman's de-
scription of a medical phenomenon in
which an area at the rear of the
tongue relaxes and slips back to block
the air passage. The tongue is not
Most people are a little sur-
prised to find that more than
half of the 4-H club members in
Florida live in urban or subur-
ban areas. In effect, they are
This is possible for two rea-
sons. Many 4-H projects deal
with subjects other than raising
animals or planting corn. Lead-
ership and citizenship training,
safety projects and entomology
are just a few of the many ac-
tivities for city teenagers.
The second reason is that even
city kids often are able to own
and groom animals such as in
Ft. Lauderdale where a former
county agent and the present
assistant agent have produced
rolled in the club with Assistant
Agent Frank Jasa helping.
It was a matter of starting
from scratch with most of the
boys. Only four 4-H club mem-
bers in the entire county ac-
tually live on farms. Meeting
once each month on Saturday
- the boys were shown how to
raise a calf and fit and show it.
Strong emphasis was placed on
judging. During the winter
months, the emphasis shifted to
a study of pasture management
and care of equipment.
The first year, and in subse-
quent years, the program was
rounded out in June with a cook-
out for all members, parents
and others who helped the club
Proud Broward County dairy judging team members show their
trophies and ribbons. From left are Robert Bateman, Richard Griffin,
Larry Poole (member of the Florida judging team), and Byron Brown.
an outstanding dairy judging
Four years ago former agent
Henry Child, now manager of a
local dairy, offered to help or-
ganize a county dairy club for
boys. Ten boys originally en-
in some way. Aside from the
social side of the barbecue, the
agents made an effort to interest
parents in the dairy club.
First county dairy show was
held in December 1961 when six
boys entered eight animals. Five
of these cows were taken to the
district show in West Palm
Beach and to the state show in
Members progressed quickly,
and in 1962 there were 18 cows
entered in the county show, 15
in the district meet, and 12 at
the state show. A four-man
judging team placed first in the
According to Jasa, club mem-
bers, parents and advisors were
well rewarded for their efforts.
In 1964, 16 club members enter-
ed 25 animals in the county
show. From this group, 22 were
selected to go to district, and 17
"In addition to having the
Grand Champion Jersey and
Grand Champion Brown Swiss
at the state show," Jasa says,
"the county group of cows plac-
ed third and the judging team
Larry Poole, one member of
the Broward County team, went
on to earn a place on the State
4-H Dairy Judging Team that
competed in the national con-
test. Larry placed 11th high in-
Other members of the Brow-
ard team included Robert Bate-
man, Richard Griffin, and Byron
"One of the things that has
contributed most to this pro-
gram has been the enthusiasm of
the boys' parents. Almost all of
them went to Orlando for the
fair," according to Jasa.
"If I were looking into a crys-
tal ball," Jasa goes on, "I'd say
we should continue to have a
good dairy program consider-
ing the enthusiasm of the par-
ents, members and leaders."
He forgot to add even with
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That job has grown more difficult during the
past few years. The space industry explosion in
the neighboring Cape Kennedy area has affected
all of east-central Florida. And, since Orlando is
the only major city in the area, it is a natural
center for new business and industry.
Admittedly it is difficult to compete with the
attraction of a different kind of "green" that
which buys people baubles and bangles. Swanson
uses two or three fronts of attack. As one, he
argues that money is also used to buy necessities,
such as food, and somebody must produce this
food. He further argues that the farm industry
in Orange County is a substantial economic force
itself, and that force includes much more than
just producers of farm products. And finally, he
argues that if the entire county becomes smoke-
stacks and concrete, where will the bludgeoning
population find places for hunting, fishing, pic-
nicking, and hiking?
To complicate the problem even more, there is
the problem of the grove owner or rancher who
sees his land rise in value to the point that it is
worth more "planted" in houses than in orange
trees. Pressures of higher taxes on land do not
help Swanson in his argument with agricultural
The map ominously projects that the entire
county will be an industrial and population com-
plex by 1975. And those prognosticators who
originally drew it knew nothing about the new
space university now about to become a reality.
Swanson knows there is a worthwhile story
to be told about the importance of agriculture
to Orange County, and he has developed a num-
ber of ways to get the story into the hands of the
One of the most important of these is a highly
successful farm-city week program each year.
The sixth-annual Farm-City week observation
in Orange County was held November 20 through
25 in the Agricultural Center Pavilion. Well over
100 exhibits were placed in the pavilion by citrus
processors, seed companies, cooperatives, ship-
pers, agricultural suppliers and agencies support-
ing agricultural production such as the State De-
partment of Agriculture.
Before the six-day show ended, more than
6,000 people had paraded by the exhibits, stop-
ping to talk with exhibitors and reading the in-
formation delivered by the exhibits.
About 4,000 of those who attended during the
week were school children of all ages. In fact, the
two schools with the largest number of pupils
attending the show received cash prizes. Empha-
sis is placed on getting youngsters to the show
because of its educational nature. The idea is
not only to teach all youngsters something about
agriculture in Orange County, but to allow them
to gain an appreciation of its importance.
The Extension staff planned special events
during the week that brought in many leaders
of the city.
On opening day, the Orlando Kiwanis clubs
held their weekly luncheon meeting at the exhibit
building with about 200 attending.
Three days later, on Monday, Extension Spe-
cialist Dr. Bob Reddish was on hand to hold a
consumer meats school. Monday night, the Or-
lando Jaycees held a supper to honor Bill Long,
Florida's Outstanding Young Farmer for 1964.
Long has developed a major vegetable production
business on the mucklands of Orange County,
and will represent the state in national competi-
tion in April, 1965.
Winding up the special events for the week,
Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle Conner was
on hand as guest speaker Tuesday night when
the Orange County Farm Bureau held an agri-
cultural appreciation dinner.
Farm-City week is not only a local but a na-
tional observance. At one time, about 90 percent
of the people in the United States earned their
living by producing farm products. Today that
number has fallen to less than 10 percent na-
tionally through great advances in technology.
These days, you often run into youngsters who
have never been on a farm, and the Farm-City
week observance is an appropriate way to foster
understanding and appreciation among farm and
Orange County has one of the most outstand-
ing Farm-City week observances in the South -
if not the entire nation. And, Orange County's
Extension agents have done a bang-up job to
make it all possible with a lot of encourage-
ment from that 30 by 40 map.
Youngsters stop at State Department of Agriculture
display during week-long celebration.
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At a time when school drop-
outs are far too common, and
indecision on the part of young
people is even more common,
Leonard Blakely stands out in
During the last five years
Blakely, who is a freshman at
Florida A and M University,
has progressed from a timid
youth who "really wanted to
volunteer for things" but was
afraid, to a young man in posi-
tion of state leadership. He has
goals in mind, and is ambitious-
ly working toward them.
The Gadsden County youth
gives the credit for this change
to participation in 4-H Club
work, and it has been through
4-H that Blakely has assumed
the role of leader. This leader-
ship role has spilled over into
his other activities at school.
Always a top scholar in high
school at Chattahoochee, Leo-
nard became its first president
when an honor society was
"At least I knew parliamen-
tary procedure. I knew what to
do and this gave me the con-
fidence to be president of the
group." Blakely smiles with
amusement when he talks about
this prep school triumph. Things
"are a little tougher" now that
he is trying to get the swing of
college study habits.
Most of Blakely's projects
have been for personal improve-
ment since he has never lived
on a farm. He did have projects
in cattle and swine which were
carried out on a 15-acre vege-
table farm at Mt. Pleasant own-
ed by his uncle, Tommy Davis.
But Leonard admits projects
in health, safety, home improve-
ment and achievement have been
most important to him.
at entrance to Florida A and M
The safety and home improve-
ment projects started at home,
and then spread into the neigh-
borhood and to school. He con-
ducted a complete safety inspec-
tion of his home, locating un-
safe stairs and electrical haz-
ards. These were repaired and,
in the course of doing the work,
Leonard explained the safety
measures to the rest of the fam-
More safety measures were
taken as part of his home im-
provement projects, as closets
and attic were cleared and gar-
den tools were secured in a safe
place. With the help of his par-
ents, Blakely made sure that the
family car had seat belts and
that a first aid kit was kept in
the car at all times.
Soon the Chattahoochee youth
was using his power mower to
improve the homes of neighbors
and friends. He carried his
safety projects into school
where he took a leading role in
fire protection activities. The
campaign kept him making post-
ers and presenting films to
As Blakely's interest in 4-H
work developed, he was thrust
into the role of leadership, first
becoming president of his local
club, an officer of the county
council, and then, in 1964, presi-
dent of the Florida State 4-H
He helped organize a commu-
nity clean-up campaign and par-
ticipated in the Junior Red
Cross fund drive.
The leadership learned in 4-H
carried into Leonard's church
life. He became assistant Sun-
day School superintendent,
president of the youth depart-
ment, secretary of the choir and
reporter for the church.
In 1963, Leonard was one of
six Florida youths to attend the
National 4-H Club Citizenship
Short Course in Washington,
D. C. a trip that, naturally,
has been the highlight of his
"That week was wonderful,"
he says, "meeting all of those
new people and seeing all of the
famous places we have read
about. I would never have had
such an opportunity except
"You know, if I had to sum-
marize what 4-H work has
meant to me, I'd have to say
that now I know how to meet
a stranger; it has taught me to
meet people and know what to
His air of confidence is apt
testimony. Blakely has attacked
Blakely looks over specimens in
his studies at Florida A and M
in a way that gives new mean-
ing to the old cliche, "the old
"It is hard to get into the
swing of new study habits here,
but my work's beginning to
come around now and I know I
can do much better next tri-
Blakely has cut himself a
"long row to hoe". He got so
interested in his health projects
that he has decided he wants
to become a doctor.
If he achieves this goal, will
he return to Chattahoochee?
"Well, my minister has talked
to me and says I will be needed;
I like Chattahoochee and know
many people there. I guess only
time will tell."
If past records are any indi-
cation, one day Leonard Blakely
will be able to add to his name
the initials, "M.D."; and, wheth-
er or not he returns to his
home town, Leonard will still
be helping his friends and
neighbors in a new dimen-
sion, but with the same old
Physical education class keeps Blakely and classmates fit and offers
a break in the classroom routine.
S i4WkO9ai&1Kzb~ L, '.W -'' It .;iUau :wf9 '. ."
Most of the people who come
from Illinois to Florida do so for
a vacation. Not so with Mark
Burtell of the Armo Cattle Co.,
Sycamore. Burtell has traveled
to Wauchula for the last three
years to buy feeder calves for
fattening back in his home
For the present, the Illinois
cattleman is the only distant
buyer at the annual Highlands
County Feeder Calf sale (held at
the Livestock market in Hardee
County). But at least this illus-
trates the quality of calves
Ridge ranchers are developing.
The Highlands Feeder sale
was one of the first Extension
sponsored sales in the state. Ac-
cording to County Agent Burt
Harris, the sale was initiated in
1960 as a direct result of pro-
gram projection of the late
1950s. The Highland County
Beef Cattle Committee decided
to try and halt the trend of
simply marketing slaughter
calves mostly light weight.
"This sale has really served a
two-fold purpose," Harris points
out. "We wanted to attract feed-
lot buyers into this area to prove
we can produce a good, uniform
feeder. And, we wanted to en-
courage our cattlemen to use
the management techniques
needed to produce such calves -
you know, good bulls, good pas-
tures, and high producing brood
Of course in the beginning not
all ranchers were prepared for
the change in marketing. The
first year 515 head were put up
for auction to feedlot buyers.
Although this certainly was a
good start, the sale has grown
each year until over 1,000
calves were sold in 1964.
Even the 1,000 calves is not a
true picture of the growth of
feeder marketing in the Ridge
area. The 1964 sale mainly in-
volved small producers. The
larger producers liked the idea
of producing for the feeder mar-
.* .' r .. *' -
. : .*:e. *. .". .- -
Some Alachua County feeder calves. Similar sales are being held in
several Florida counties.
Feeder Calf Sales Are
Improving Florida Beef Picture
ket, but felt hauling large lots
of cattle and the shrinkage in-
volved cost too much to partici-
pate in a central auction sale.
For these larger producers
another idea germinated a
tour sale in which buyers were
taken to larger ranches to bid
on lots of calves.
"1964 was the second year for
our tour sale," Harris notes. "It
has been very successful too
since we can get eight to 10 buy-
ers to bid on a man's cattle
where no single rancher could
attract that many buyers at one
time. We organize a tour by
car to these ranches, and man-
age to stop somewhere during
the day for a barbecue."
Last year, 710 calves consign-
ed to the tour sale brought $83,-
147.20 or an average price of
$17.76 per hundred-weight. Only
steers and steer calves were sold
with an average weight of 659
Burtell's purchase record at
the Highlands sale indicates his
satisfaction with the Florida
feeders. The first year he bought
42 head, the second 72 head, and
in 1964 he bought 225 head.
In discussions, Harris encour-
aged the Illinois buyer to sell
his finished cattle on the rail
rather than at a livestock mar-
ket. It appeared certain colors
of cattle were not bringing as
high a price despite their grade.
Two years ago Burtell sold on
the rail for the first time and
furnished Harris with a record
of the carcass grades. Six of the
72 cattle graded prime, 63 grad-
ed choice, and three graded U.S.
"This buyer was purchasing
cattle to feed to choice," says
the Highlands agent. "Consider-
ing the information he gave us,
and his increased purchase in
1964, we're sure we have a satis-
The sale committee has fol-
lowed cattle sold in the High-
lands County auction to see how
well they perform for the feed-
Despite the progress of this
sale, the county Beef Cattle
Committee is setting even high-
er goals. Members have plans to
secure experimental r e s u t s
from their cattle being fed in
the Midwest. If this information
is not available, they plan to
finance a load of cattle to be
fed out by some Midwest uni-
"I feel the future for market-
ing feeders is very bright in
Florida," Harris says. "Con-
sidering our resources, it is logi-
cal that we can produce really
top quality calves. Of course we
need more feedlots in the state,
but this will depend on many
other factors, for instance the
state's ability to produce econo-
Most experts agree Florida's
livestock industry, already a
major economic force, is still in
a state of infancy. The facts
show that the state still imports
about 75 percent of its table
beef. Some of those same High-
lands County calves, fattened in
Illinois, may be shipped right
back to Florida in the form of
steak or roast.
But progress such as that
made with the Highlands
County Feeder sale-and impor-
tant sales in Alachua, Leon and
other counties demonstrates
how well Extension and cattle-
men are working together to
build the cattle industry in Flo-
Spunk Has Been
As Asset for Ruby
There was almost complete
silence in the banquet room as
the dark-haired girl struggled
toward the speaker's table. It
was taking every ounce of her
strength, and you could almost
feel people straining to help the
girl slowly make her way, hold-
ing to chairs, to receive the
Ruby Ball, crippled with spas-
tic paralysis from birth, was de-
termined to accept the Arthur
Nichols award without her crut-
The award, given annually, is
for outstanding overall work in
4-H in Putnam County. Ruby
Ball's fight to keep pace with her
4-H friends was rewarded Feb-
ruary 6, 1964, at the county
It has not simply been a mat-
ter of overcoming a handicapped
body for Ruby although that
in itself has made many typical
4-H club projects nearly impos-
sible. The daughter of Mr. and
Mrs. Perry Ball has had to con-
trol her desire to be independent,
and that has been even more
difficult at times.
According to Home Demon-
stration Agent Mrs. Essie
Thompson, Ruby was not able to
accept help or advice from any-
one when she started in 4-H. In
her own words, she was "so
Ruby receives the Arthur Nichols award, presented by the man for
which it is named. Nichols is Clerk of the Circuit Court. At right is
Putnam County Agent R. T. Clay.
afraid the other 4-H girls would
not accept me, that I would not
accept help from anyone. I want-
ed to show them I could do any-
thing they could do. So I made
things much harder for myself
and for the agents.
"Gradually I began to realize
that it was not from pity that
the girls were trying to help
me," Ruby admitted, "but that
I had something to give as well.
But this did not come easily."
Ruby says it was a happy day
when former Putnam Agent
Mary Sue Gann told her she
could go with the other 4-H
girls to Hope Haven Hospital for
crippled children in Jacksonville.
They were going to help the
children celebrate Christmas.
"But in the excitement," the
St. Johns River Junior College
freshman says, "again I would
not accept help and fell, almost
making myself a patient instead
of a visitor. I came back from
that trip determined to control
Ruby receives her high school diploma from Dr. Roy Campbell of the
Putnam County School Board. Bouquet of roses is pinned to her gown.
my eagerness to show everybody
I could stand alone."
The first trip to 4-H summer
camp was also filled with dis-
appointment for Ruby.
"When Mrs. Gann and Mrs.
Thompson told me I could go to
camp that first time I accepted
all their limitations and agreed
to do anything. But, when I got
to camp and all the boys and
girls accepted me so freely, I
forgot all my promises and be-
came a show-off again. You see,
it's hard to accept my disabili-
ties, but with the help of all my
fellow 4-H members and the
agents, gradually I am learn-
The determined youngster
gives much credit to her friend
Barbara Hunsaker, an outstand-
ing 4-H girl who "was most pa-
tient with me and, even though
she is out of school now, still
gives me encouragement."
But, on the other hand, this
same spirit that has been a
handicap at times, helped Ruby
win the Arthur Nichols award
in February, and led to a second
honor in May. Ruby walked with
the aid of crutches to receive
her high school diploma along
with 230 other seniors. Along
with the diploma she was chosen
as the student with the "best
school spirit" an honor based
on activities with the Girls
Athletic Association and the
While Ruby often views her
enthusiasm as a handicap, her
mother says she still prides her-
self on being able to do almost
anything anyone else can do.
"She rarely becomes discour-
aged and she loves school," Mrs.
It is difficult for most of us
to imagine the hardships im-
posed by such physical limita-
tions, but we can all appreciate
the courage and determination
it requires to excell in competi-
tion with other boys and girls
by a youngster like Ruby Ball.
"It's a long way from Syca-
more to Hawaii," said one of
Gadsden County's business lead-
ers recently about Mrs. O. F.
Shepard when she was elected
President of the State Home-
makers Council and asked to
represent Florida at the Na-
tional meeting in Hawaii. The
distance, Mrs. Shepard says, is
better measured in her own
growth and development than
It all began in Sycamore, a
small rural community near the
Apalachicola River, when the
joined one of the early Home
Demonstration Clubs of Gads-
den County as a shy young
homemaker. In fact she was too
afraid to say a word until she
gained some confidence from her
association with the group.
Mrs. Shepard recalls her
first words in public were at the
Leon High School in Tallahassee
where she issued an invitation
to the Quadra-County Council
to meet in her county, and the
amazement of her friends and
herself for being able to do it.
Through participation in Ex-
tension work many doors were
opened for her. She never failed
to take advantage of any oppor-
tunity to learn and develop. Her
favorite saying is "When you
are green you are growing."
Mrs. Shepard felt she was so
"green" that she needed and
wanted to learn the skills of
better homemaking; farm life
was never easy in Sycamore.
This enthusiasm for learning
spread to neighbors as she shar-
ed the new knowledge and
know how with them. Mrs.
Whittle, a close neighbor, says
of Mrs. Shepard, "Next to her
church, Home Demonstration
has meant most in her life. And
she's helping others to learn."
During Mrs. Shepard's jour-
ney from Sycamore to Hawaii,
there were opportunities to
serve as a community leader, a
4-H leader, president of her
club, then a County Council
officer, Extension planning com-
mittee member, council presi-
dent, state second vice-president,
publicity chairman, first vice-
president and this year presi-
dent of the State Extension
Homemakers Council. Along the
way she attended eight State
Council meetings and four na-
tional meetings (participating
in many workshops at these
meetings), and represented Flor-
ida at a National Citizenship
workshop in 1963.
She has shared all these ex-
periences with those in her club
and county. As she learned bet-
ter homemaking methods her
family and neighbors profited.
As she learned parliamentary
procedure she trained club offi-
cers in her county. And, as she
worked on international affairs
Mrs. Shepard originated ways
Gadsden women could share
with women of other lands.
Under her leadership fruit jars
filled with buttons, needles,
thread, pins, snaps and other
useful things were sent on a
good will ship to Jordan from
Home Demonstration members
in her county.
Through council fund-raising
projects all County Council offi-
cers attended national meetings
each year. Like Mrs. Shepard,
they have gained an apprecia-
tion, and a much better idea, of
rural women throughout the
Mrs. Shepard will continue to
grow as she represents Florida
homemakers, not only in Hawaii,
but at many other meetings
throughout the year.
Gadsden County is proud of
how well Mrs. Shepard's leader-
ship has developed. The County
Commission, the County Home
Demonstration Council, and her
own Sycamore Home Demon-
stration Club helped the State
Council finance her three-week
trip to Hawaii.
Mrs. Shepard enjoys luau in Ha-
waii as beach boy poses for photo.
This success story is typical
in many ways of how Extension
work helps train community
leaders. Not all reach the
heights attained by Mrs. Shep-
ard. But Extension's training
programs offer the opportunity
Cml. Im....UL -
Special Supplement Marks Cooperation with Paper
A special supplement in the
Holmes County Advertiser hon-
oring 4-H Club work in that
west Florida county focused at-
tention in 1964 on one of the
closest working relationships
between Extension and mass
media in the state.
Many weekly and daily news-
papers, television and radio sta-
tions cooperate with the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service
in providing vital educational
information to Florida citizens.
But not quite as many view this
news as an integral and irre-
placable part of their local cov-
If Extension agents in Holmes
County fail to get information
to their local weekly, co-publish-
ers Devone and Tom Williams
are just as apt to be on the
phone wondering why as if the
agents were regular reporters.
This excellent working rela-
tionship was brought to light by
the special four-page supple-
ment published September 24
honoring local youngsters dur-
ing 4-H Club Week.
The special section was chock
full of pictures and stories about
local youths and their parents,
and the importance of 4-H to
developing the county's young
people. In all, 36 pictures were
printed in the offset-produced
According to Home Demon-
stration Agent Mrs. Sally Child-
ers and Assistant County Agent
Claude Dorminey, who are re-
sponsible for 4-H work in
Holmes County, it took about
three weeks to gather all of the
material for the section. All of
the pictures and stories were
supplied by the agents or by 4-H
club leaders. The extra effort to
provide news coverage of 4-H
activities was sandwiched be-
tween the regular working
schedule of these agents. Pic-
tures for the section were taken
with two inexpensive cameras
owned by the Extension Office
-a Brownie and a Polaroid.
"We would like very much to
get a larger Polaroid," Mrs.
Childers says, "so we can get
larger and better pictures."
"We are very pleased with
the help we get from our county
agents in covering agricultural
news," Devone Williams states.
"I know that we have increased
our circulation because of this
WEou T TO H lm es Coun _' I OWES COUNTY D ERTI
** pak * * vM
Will Enter * *+
State Conter wards ark Interest For 4H Menmbers
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1 H 1 k 1. -1 e;
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-1-. r_~_ - H Nws `''''' ~mI
coverage since this is largely an
agricultural county and so many
people participate in these ac-
"Fortunately," Tom Williams
adds, "we are able to use many
more pictures now that we pro-
duce our paper by offset than
before when we had to pay
separately for engraved plates."
The Williams brothers helped
Dorminey and Mrs. Childers
plan the special section, and
then put it together after the
material was turned over.
Just to prove the special sec-
tion wasn't a complete depar-
ture from the Advertiser's
policy, the Holmes County paper
prints stories and columns regu-
larly and each month carries a
feature built around an out-
standing 4-H Club boy and an
outstanding 4-H Club girl.
"They (the Williams) have
been very helpful and of course
we are grateful for this," Mrs.
Childers says. "For example,
when the paper came out with
this special section, they pro-
vided us with hundreds of re-
prints for special distribution."
Dorminey points out that the
people of the county not only
recognize this news coverage,
but are beginning to take an
active part. "Some of our com-
munity club leaders actually
send pictures and stories direct-
ly to the newspaper, and we
know nothing about it until we
see them in print."
News coverage goes well be-
yond just 4-H Club work to all
areas of Extension programs in
the county. Regular weekly col-
umns prepared by County Agent
C. U. Storey, Mrs. Childers and
Dorminey also appear in the
The Holmes County Adver-
tiser has over 2,500 regular sub-
scribers one of the highest
percentages (compared to total
county population) of any week-
ly in the state.
Looking over copy of the special 4-H section of Holmes County Ad-
vertiser are (from left) Tom Williams, Home Demonstration Agent
Mrs. Sally Childers, Devone Williams and Assistant County Agent
Media Training Makes Agent Time Go Farther
Extension's agents in Florida
counties face one of the most
perplexing problems ever in the
face of the state's exploding
Traditionally, Extension work
has been on a person-to-person
basis because many of the prob-
lems of agricultural production
had to be handled individually.
Home economists on the staff
have generally found themselves
working with small groups of
women in teaching homemaking
Many agents, as is shown in
the accompanying story on
Holmes County, are turning
more and more to the mass
media the newspapers, and
radio and television stations -
to provide the educational mes-
sage to more people.
Through the mass media,
these agents are finding they
can reach more people with
basic information, and supple-
ment this with printed publica-
tions to provide, detail.
Extension's Editorial Depart-
ment at the University of Flori-
da has launched an ambitious
program to help prepare agents
to use their mass media better.
During 1964, communication
specialists conducted workshop
training in six areas, reaching
many county agents with tech-
nical training in newswriting,
news and feature photography,
and radio and television per-
One major step in this pro-
fessional improvement program
was taken during the summer
when the Editorial Department
collaborated with Extension
training specialists to teach a
three week graduate-level
course in newswriting, broad-
cast and photographic methods.
Emphasis was placed on using
journalistic skills to produce ed-
ucational information for broad-
cast or publication.
Learning is a never-ending process. And
knowledge and discovery wait for no man.
The role of a teacher, whether it be on a uni-
versity campus or out in the field, is a difficult
one. The teacher often walks a. tightrope be-
tween those who need new information and
those who develop it.
Every Extension worker must keep studying in
order to meet the demands of a better educated,
faster moving agricultural and agribusiness
clientel. Extension, to meet these demands for
more sophisticated, more highly technical in-
formation, is moving toward greater specializa-
tion in the field. County Extension workers are
beginning to be more specialized and more and
more to cross county lines when necessary to
serve the demand of agricultural businessmen
The pages that follow contain accounts of some
of this specialized work, and of how Extension
workers are preparing themselves to meet the
demands for more technical information. Flor-
ida's Extension Service has an excellent record,
and it is improving every day.
Watch the pennies and th
dollars will take care of them
That old adage has paid of
for 11 Florida ranchers who
worked on two major factors af
fecting costs-use of improved
production technology, and in-
creased efficiency in using pro-
For the 11 ranchers, it meant
a 3.26 cents per pound reduction
in production cost in two years,
and added up to $14,892 per
ranch or $163,812 for the total
Controlling these production
costs is the secret of profit or
loss. In a study of 15 "low cost"
dairies compared to 15 "high
cost" dairies, there was a differ-
ence in milk production cost of
12.51 cents per gallon. That's a
It all boils down to good man-
agement, according to Clifford
Alston, Extension economist
who specializes in management
problems. And this is an area
receiving strong emphasis in
these days of the cost-price
Unlike much of Extension
work, management is a highly
theoretical area. Certain prin-
ciples must be understood and
applied to practical situations.
For most farmers and ranchers,
this means more education.
Extension county agents who,
for many years, have pushed
farm records keeping, are now
gearing to meet more sophisti-
cated demands on the part of
producers. These businessmen
want to know why certain rec-
ords are kept, and what to do
ain for Better Management
vith the information to make
operations more efficient.
"We feel this called for giving
ur county agents more training
in management theory," Alston
relates, "So, we organized a two-
week school to teach this theory.
"You know, it isn't enough to
know how to produce 12,000
pounds of milk per cow, pro-
duce 500 pounds of beef per
acre, or how to operate modern
machinery. The big question al-
ways is, 'Am I using my produc-
tion goods and capital efficient-
"This is the problem we tack-
led last December during the
Instruction for the manage-
ment school was provided by
Alston, other members of the
Department of Agricultural Ec-
onomics, Extension administra-
tors and supervisors, and during
the second week, seven of the
Five major areas were cover-
ed during the school. The first
of these, according to Alston,
was discussing the role of a
"Many farmers and ranchers
have spent all of their lives pro-
ducing, almost as a laborer. One
of the first steps is to establish
an attitude in each farmer. He
must take pride in making man-
agement decisions and this is en-
tirely apart from his previous
experience as strictly a laborer.
"He must realize," Alston
goes on, "that although he can-
not control the weather, or
prices his products will bring,
he does control his production
goods and these determine his
profit. In other words, he de-
cides what he will plant or what
feed to use or whether to buy a
The second major area cover-
ed in the school was use of
sound economic principles in
making decisions. In this area
a farmer must decide what rates
of production to strive for, when
it is profitable to use one pro-
duction good instead of another,
whether limited resources -
such as land and capital are
being used so they will pay off
best, and whether he has the
right combination of enter-
"We spent a major part of
our time showing the agents
how to assemble facts in order
to make good management de-
cisions," Alston explains. "Pri-
mary emphasis was how to an-
alyze farm records to locate the
weak and strong points of an
Since employing new manage-
ment ideas generally means a
farmer or rancher will make
some changes in use of his re-
sources, time was spent discuss-
ing how to make the right de-
cision. As a starting point, the
agents learned how to take a
"budgetary approach" in evalu-
ating any possible change.
"In other words, if a dairy
farmer is trying to decide wheth-
er to buy better cows," Alston
points out, "he needs to figure
whether this additional cost will
be less than the added returns.
If it will not, then he can prob-
ably spend his money better -
such as to improve pastures. A
good decision is impossible with-
out some figuring such as this,
or what I call 'budgeting'."
The last important topic dis-
cussed during the school was
how to evaluate a management
decision once it has been made,
or how to check it out to see the
"Two types of analysis were
used," Alston continues, "what
we call comparative analysis and
In comparative analysis, Al-
ston explains, the farmer or
rancher makes a comparison of
his results with the results from
a group of like farms or from
Agricultural Experiment Sta-
Trend analysis takes longer
and involves recording pertinent
data from a farmer's record
over a period of months or even
So popular was the manage-
ment school with the group of
county agents who were on hand
for two weeks in December, that
word has spread and already a
dozen agents have requested a
course for graduate credit. Al-
ston reports the course will be
given during the summer session
Meanwhile, those who took
the course are busy back in their
counties utilizing their new
knowledge in working with both
small and large farming opera-
Hopefully, the end result will
be more ranches saving $14,892
in two years, or trimming valu-
able pennies for the cost of pro-
ducing milk for the highly com-
Making the right decision at
the right time does make the
County Agent's Thec
Gulf County has two agricultural products--
honey and timber. It covers an area of Florida
that, aside from the Everglades, is probably as
near in its native state as a person can find.
Today, Gulf County has one other distinction;
it has a piece of interesting research that was
initiated and has been carried on largely by the
Extension county agent-Cubie Laird.
Unlike some agricultural research-in which
results can be measured in two or three years,
and sometimes in the same year begun-timber
research requires years for even the simplest re-
sult. In that sense it is fortunate that Laird has
found a permanent home in Gulf County where
he has spent 20 years.
"Of course, I've had opportunities to move
to other counties," he says, "but for me this
county offers a constant challenge. We have yet
to find out just what this land will produce. This
is very much a frontier county."
This statement is borne out by a drive through
the county. There is virtually nothing but stands
of timber and non-productive "scrub" land in the
lower half of the county. Because of a high water
table, many thousands of acres will produce noth-
ing but grass and a few scattered and scraggly
It was the problem of this non-productive
land that first lured the county agent to try some
Laird came to Gulf County as agent just after
World War II to replace J. B. White. White
had become interested in research and transferred
to the Agricultural Experiment Stations. The
former county agent was assigned to a mobile
unit to study fertilization of grasses, and set up
some experimental plots on a few acres of the
wetland owned by St. Joe Paper Company.
After White finished his work and moved on,
the company planted pines in the area. This was
in 1949. Three years passed, and Laird suddenly
noticed that the pines on these former experi-
mental plots were showing surprising growth.
"Naturally, I could only attribute this to the
previous fertilization studies," Laird reports. "But
the curious thing was that all of the pines seemed
to grow very well, no matter what plots they
were on. All around the area the few scattered
pines were stunted and wouldn't grow.
"I knew enough about White's grass experi-
ments to know that he was using phosphate and
potash in the studies, and the applications varied
from as little as 250 pounds to 1000 pounds per
acre. What I couldn't figure out was why all the
fertilization in pines
Experiments Pay Off
Signs tell the story of progress from a demonstra-
tion plot to formal experiment.
SUPERPHOSPHATE & ROCK PHOSPHATE '
---lod Agtrcuural Experiment Statioir
StJoet pcrCa A i... a i Aialt ChMcaa Ca ... Count Agent
trees grew well, without regard to how much
fertilizer had been applied."
Laird decided to try a little experimenting to
find the answers. For several years he had worked
with Henry Maige, forester with St. Joe Paper
Company, and so they selected a strip along the
road right next to White's area for some fertiliza-
tion studies. The paper company was glad to
cooperate since it owned about 30,000 acres of the
wet land in this area.
Laird and Maige used complete fertilizers for
the test area, fertilizing several rows of the seed-
ling pines, and then leaving several rows un-
fertilized. This was done in 1952.
It took only a few years to clearly see the
fertilization made a significant difference in
growth of the pines. But, it was not until 1960
that the men asked for help from the Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations in analyzing the soil
and pine needles from these plots. William
Pritchett was the researcher who made the tests.
Although this first test plot was only informal
experimentation, it was obvious that fertiliza-
tion was the key to growing pines on this wet
land. As a further test during the eighth-year
experiment, right across the road from the test
plots the land was ditched to drain off water
before the pines were planted. By 1960 these
pines showed better growth than undrained, un-
fertilized trees, but not near the growth of the
undrained but fertilized land.
Soil and needle analysis revealed high con-
centrations of the soil elements applied as fer-
tilizer back in 1952. There had been very little
loss during the period despite the excellent pine
"We made two or three observations at this
point" Laird says, "based on our fertilizer experi-
ment and what we had observed of White's
original grass-testing area. First, the high con-
centrations of fertilizer remaining after eight
years indicated we didn't need nearly as much as
we applied in the tests. This was substantiated
by my original observation that there was no
discernable difference in growth of the trees on
White's test plots regardless of the amount of
fertilizer that had been applied.
"The second observation was that only phos-
phate and potash had been used in the grass-
fertilization plots, and this indicated we did not
need a complete fertilizer. We theorized that
phosphate was the element responsible for the
From this point, Laird was ready to try and
prove these observations with an officially sanc-
tioned and carefully planned experiment.
St. Joe Paper Company, the American Agri-
cultural Chemical Company and Agricultural
Experiment Stations all agreed to cooperate in
Pritchett, Maige and Laird were given re-
sponsibility for the work, and seven acres of
St. Joe land north of the original test areas was
selected and divided into 30 plots.
They used ten different fertilizer treatments,
varying in applications of from 40 to 80 pounds
per acre of both superphosphate and ground
phosphate. Each treatment was applied on three
"After three years there is marked difference
in the test plots," Laird reports. "But it will
take about 10 years before we can draw definite
conclusions. We believe only a small amount of
fertilizer is needed to get the trees started and get
the roots down below the standing water in these
wet areas. Then it looks as though the trees do
fine and even have a tendency to dry out the
Laird sees his role in this work as one of ob-
servation for problems, and ideas on what to do
about them. He is not a trained forester, but as
he puts it, "I don't need to be since these big
timber producers have their own foresters." He
County Agent Cubie Laird
helps keep these company men working together
on problems common to the industry.
"It's like my work with the beekeepers of
this county," he points out. "They've been pro-
ducing fine honey in this county for decades and
know more than I'll ever know about beekeeping.
But when I came here there were real problems
in marketing. The price of honey had remained
the same for several years-$.121/2 per pound. I
started working on marketing problems through
an idea that originated in Canada minimum
standards. We were able to get a certification
program established, and now Gulf County's
tupelo honey brings about $.23 per pound."
Nearly 90 percent of Gulf County land is
owned by perhaps a dozen big timber producers.
But Laird has found plenty to do during his 20
years there to help the pulp and paper com-
panies solve their problems. The fertilization
studies that may well convert thousands of non-
productive acres into good timberland at very
little cost, is only one example.
Laird looks to the future, now. "We need
more experimentation, for really, we do not know
what this land will grow or support. That's the
challenge I see for the future."
Sometimes it takes an unbelievable amount of
persistence to accomplish even a seemingly simple
goal. This is almost an understatement for George
Kerr of Miami.
Mr. Kerr, a retired navy officer who long ago
decided Miami was the place to live, finally real-
ized that dream in 1960. Mrs. Kerr was very
anxious to grow-in her own yard-a large bed
of hybrid roses.
It didn't take long at $4.50 per bush for Kerr
to decide he must learn to propagate and grow
his own plants. Deciding on R. Fortuniana as a
root stock for his grafts was easy; finding a sup-
ply of this preferred stock was somewhat harder;
but, learning to root these cuttings was impossi-
More than 6,000 cuttings (and 6,000 failures)
later, Kerr turned to the county Extension agent
There seemed to be no good reason for all of
these failures, and the Dade County Extension
office advised the exasperated homeowner and po-
tential rose gardener to write specialists at the
University of Florida for help.
After considerable correspondence, Kerr de-
parted for Gainesville, armed with note pads full
of questions. Dr. S. E. McFadden, rose specialist
with the Agricultural Experiment Stations, dem-
onstrated the grafting and rooting techniques and
answered questions. Kerr went back to Miami.
Mrs. Kerr reminded her husband that $4.50
per plant might still be the cheapest solution
. considering, but the retired officer was de-
Assistant County Agent Dr. J. D. Dalton, a
soils specialist, was called in. His first inclina-
tion, of course, was to take a soil test. Eureka!
The test revealed that the particular batch of
peat-moss used for the rooting medium contained
a high level of chloride salt. The city water used
in the misting system showed a higher level of
chloride salt than the rose can tolerate. The
simple discovery solved Kerr's problem and he
began successfully rooting 475 out of 500 cuttings.
Of course, this wasn't Dalton's first encounter
with the problem of salt intrusion.
Miamians must "take the salt with the sweet"
so to speak; while they bask in balmy ocean
breezes, those rolling tides pound the sandy soils
with salt water, and the tropical storms pound
the land with soluble salts. Even with salt bar-
riers, built to keep sea water from backing into
the canals, there has been salt intrusion into the
Excessive soluble salts have affected straw-
berry, lettuce, potato and bean fields.
Just a Little
Persistence ... And a
Well Trained Agent
One grower called Dalton complaining that
although he used a highly viable lettuce seed,
very few of the seeds were germinating. An
unusual soil test-samples taken at the same spot,
but at quarter-inch, three-inch and six-inch
depths-showed a high concentration of soluble
salts at the surface of the soil. Dalton advised
the grower to plow the field, thus turning up soil
with a lower level of salt. The grower re-seeded
within 24 hours and reported fine germination.
Extension agents in counties along the coast
generally keep a close watch on the salt intrusion
problem, often testing wells miles in from the
The natural intrusion problem is compounded
by the problem of fertilizer salts. Heavy fer-
tilization produces a buildup of soluble salts,
especially when high analysis fertilizers are used,
or plastic mulching is involved. Unusually dry
seasons also contribute to the problem.
Dalton often must face the question of wheth-
er the over-concentration has been caused by salt
water intrusion or by excessive fertilization.
Answers to these questions are important to
the valuable vegetable industry of Dade and other
coastal, south Florida counties. They are im-
portant to the thousands of homeowners who take
pride in their lawns and gardens in an area where
the climate is ideal for horticulture.
Dr. Joe Dalton is just another example of the
highly specialized and modern training required
of a county Extension agent. He has the knowl-
edge. He gains knowledge through formal pro-
fessional improvement, and through study of
local problems. And, of course, he always has
available the wealth of specialized knowledge of
his colleagues on the University of Florida staff.
Agent Allen's desk stays full.
Florida-named by the Span-
ish explorers for its flowering
beauty is a haven for ama-
teur horticulturists. Homeown-
ers, both those who are busy
earning a living and those who
enjoy the leisure of retirement,
love to take advantage of ideal
growing conditions for all sorts
of flowers, ornamental plants
The result is consumer de-
mand, and an industry that
grows steadily with each pass-
But just as there is a demand
from thousands of homeowners
for plants, shrubs, seeds, and
fertilizers, there is an equal de-
mand for information on what
to buy, and what to do with it
once it is bought.
Ed Allen, assistant Duval
county agent, has more than a
full time job because of the vast
"My work is basically with
two groups," Allen indicates,
"industry people who serve the
public, and homeowners."
Allen probably spends the
majority of his time with pro-
fessional people on highly tech-
nical information that better
prepares them to serve the pub-
lic. Basically, it accomplishes
the same end result service
to the public but does it much
The horticultural industry in-
cludes a vast complex of
product and service businesses
- garden supply dealers, nur-
serymen, lawn spraymen, struc-
tural pest control men, and
manufacturers of commodities
for the industry such as fer-
tilizer and chemical manufac-
Chief vehicle used by Allen
and the industry people for this
advanced technical training is
the Florida Nurserymen and
Growers Association the FN-
GA as it is better known.
Allen is typical of many Flor-
ida Extension agents work-
ing in highly populated areas
on highly technical areas of
agriculture. He is an ornamen-
tal horticulturalist with both
bachelor's and master's degrees
from the University of Florida.
The days and nights often
seem as though they are one and
the same for Allen who has
carefully outlined his limited
time into three major work
areas. Allen, who made 187
talks during 1964, conducts a
30-minute television show once
a month directed mainly at
The TV show is designed to
stimulate homeowner interest
in a systematic program and in
good procedures for plant selec-
tion, planting and care. Allen
tries to cover the waterfront -
from basic talk about lawn
grasses, to indoor planting.
Normally the program is air-
ed on Saturday afternoon just
prior to a sports event, such as
a football or baseball game. In
such a spot it commands a large
Local nurserymen and pro-
fessional people are used as
guests on the program, and the
TV station cooperates by shoot-
ing movie film and still photos
for the show about a week be-
fore it is tape recorded. The
show is now two and a half
The second major phase of
Allen's work is the series of two
or three 12-week schools held
each year for both industry
members and homeowners. The
schools allow Duval county's or-
namental specialist to go into
detail on basic horticultural
problems such as the study
of turfgrasses, insects and dis-
eases of lawns, plant propaga-
Allen works with nurserymen and
tion and maintenance, and basic
"We have helped a number
of nurserymen redesign their
property, improving its appear-
ance for the general public and
making a more efficient opera-
tion," Allen points out.
"Generally our schools in-
clude a lecture and discussion
followed by a question and an-
swer period. We have some pri-
vate consultation on an indivi-
"In working with industry
people, it is an effort to make
nurserymen production c o s t
conscious. And, we dwell heavi-
ly on the need to advertise their
With the exception of a full
scale landscaping school con-
ducted by University of Florida
horticulturist Dr. E. W. Mc-
Elwee and members of his staff
several months ag o, Allen's
schools utilize all local talent.
"For example," the Extension
agent says, "when we walk about
landscaping I call on Bobby
Hartwich, a landscape archi-
tect." Other local industry men
often called to help are grower
Otis Christensen and foliage
nurseryman Carl Loop.
"Our nurserymen feel they
have something to offer each
other," Allen explains. "That's
why we use local people as
much as possible."
Agent Allen is a member of
the FNGA, and has been chair-
man of the local program com-
mittee for four years. His com-
mittee dreams up and puts on a
program for the monthly FNGA
meeting. This represents a third
major phase of the Extension
Two new projects are cur-
rently in the offing. One of these
is a series of descriptive mimeo-
graphed cards covering all ma-
jor turf grasses, 150 of the most
popular plants sold in the north-
east Florida area, and 25 to 50
trees. These cards contain a de-
scription of the plant, its habi-
tat, growing conditions, normal
maintenance requirements, and
so on. With 100 percent of the
FNGA members cooperating,
these cards will be placed in all
retail outlets and will go to cus-
tomers as they purchase plants.
The FNGA recently appointed
a committee on education, in-
formation and dissemination to
work with the county agent's
office. The five-man committee
is meeting twice each month to
screen, digest, and work up in-
formation to go out to profes-
If this sounds like a busy
schedule for Ed Allen, it is. But
the demand for help on the part
of industry people and home-
owners alike never ceases. To
meet such demands, Allen must
keep completely abreast of new
technical developments, and
must use the latest and most
efficient methods of disseminat-
ing information. This he has
done admirably well.
homeowners in meeting held at Jacksonville Channel 12.
E ifw I
"By-Guess and By-Gosh"
Management on Its Way Out
With Major Producers
"By-guess and by-gosh" management is on
its way out in the agricultural industry; and
those farmers and ranchers who do not realize
it may well be on their way out.
One of the best examples to illustrate the
point comes from Osceola County where two
brothers O. N. and Robert Lee manage a
large beef cattle and citrus operation the family
has developed through the years.
Citrus is the major product of the Lee family
of St. Cloud. But until about four years ago, beef
cattle had been an unquestioned part of the family
tradition. Then, 0. N., the brother who handles
the major office management load, began to ques-
tion how profitable the cattle operation was.
After reviewing it as best he could, he decided
some new methods must be employed or the opera-
tion disbanded completely.
O. N. has worked closely with the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service for many years -
both with Osceola County Agent James Smith
and state Extension specialists. He inquired about
what improvements he could make in manage-
ment of the herd.
Smith and state specialist James Pace worked
with Lee to put the herd on the Beef Cattle Im-
provement Program and production test. The
object was to increase individual production of
the 150 brood cows, and increase the weaning
weight of calves.
Secret of production testing is an individual
record on each cow and calf. Lee's first problem
was numbering all cows and calves and making
sure the mother of each calf was identified.
Lee brothers discuss ranch operation. 0. N. is seated
. .. -
Breeding dates had to be changed. So did
grazing practices and winter feeding.
As these changes were made, other problems
began to show up on the records. By culling non-
productive cows production increased and new
feeding methods coupled with this selectivity be-
gan to produce better weaning weights.
Lee then had to face another phase-getting
better bulls. Some artificial breeding was attempt-
ed, and evaluated for the family's operation.
"You know, this kind of record keeping is
relatively new in Florida since we are not quite
as far along in the cattle business as some other
states," O. N. pointed out recently. "For that
reason, I started looking in other states for good
bulls. It isn't that we don't produce good bulls
in Florida; it's just that the history and produc-
tion records of bulls in other areas sometimes
date back 20 or 30 years. It gives us something
to go on when we buy a bull."
Lee has sold feeder calves in both Gainesville's
graded sale and the Orlando Feeder sale. He is
highly complimentary of the progress Extension
has made in developing calf sales.
As on many Florida ranches, the Lee herd
is cross bred strains of angus and brahman. But
with the tendency in some areas to pen cattle
by color, 0. N. is moving more toward the angus.
Through his production test records and care-
ful selection, Lee has managed to increase wean-
ing weight of calves over 100 pounds during the
last four years. The calf crop now runs 90 per-
cent or better. But, he still is not completely satis-
fied with the cattle operation. To get a real pic-
ture of how profitable it is now that management
improvements have been made, Lee is working on
new business analysis records that will completely
separate costs of the cattle operation from the
"This is really the only way I can find out
if we should continue in cattle, or rely solely on
citrus," he says.
Dr. Ned Cake, Extension economist now spe-
cializing in management, is helping set up the
records so the 1965 operation can be reviewed.
County Agent Smith has worked with many
of his cattlemen, but notes that not all ranches
can participate in production testing. "I have
only contacted those who have the facilities to
"If the cattle business is to thrive and be a
vital part of Florida agriculture," Smith says,
"such programs as this must be promoted. It is
not envisioned that all cattle operations can be
successful, but many can."
New Course Helps Train Managers to Manage
Modern farming is big business, and the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service began in
1964 a series of programs designed to aid the
top executives of agribusiness cooperatives.
Called the Director Development Course, the
programs are operated by a squad of Extension
economists including Dr. Ralph Eastwood, Dr.
C. C. Moxley, Roger Hill, Kenneth Gilbraith and
Dr. Stanley Rosenberger. L. A. Thomas, execu-
tive secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer's
Cooperatives, also takes part. The courses are
usually sponsored by the Florida Council.
According to Eastwood, similar training pro-
grams have been carried out on a hit-and-miss
basis for the 50 years Extension has been in
existence. "This is the first time it's been organ-
ized," Eastwood says, adding "The old, informal
system is not as effective as one well planned and
"What we are trying to do is to reach all
farmers' cooperatives by teaching their directors
to use the board of directors as a control device.
In other words, we're teaching the directors how
"Not only is this information valuable to
marketing firms, such as cooperatives," East-
wood says. "The techniques are just as applicable
to the Board of Directors of General Motors, the
board of stewards of a church, or a school board."
In the course, directors learn how to formu-
late discerning questions and how to recognize
and use key indicators. They learn the import-
ance of long-range budgeting and marketing
strategies, and how to get the most value from
In commenting on the reception of the meet-
ings, Eastwood said, "We haven't had any un-
favorable reaction so far. Our participants have
been uniformly enthusiastic about the material."
Similar courses are being conducted in a great
many other states; however, Florida's is said to
be among the best organized in the nation.
The course was developed in 1963 as a co-
operative venture between the Federal Extension
Service and Oregon State University in Corvallis.
The material was tested in seven short courses,
from which evolved an instructor's manual and
workbooks. While most applicable to coopera-
tives, the subject matter is also adaptable to
boards in such industries as retail and whole-
sale food distribution, banking and credit institu-
tions serving agricultural businesses, and other
firms in marketing and supply channels.
Eastwood explains this is the basic course.
He indicates hope that intermediate and ad-
vanced courses can be added later, containing
such subject areas as computerization of busi-
At present the course is composed of a solid
14 hours or more of hardcore management facts,
ranging from training new directors to drawing
up codes of ethics for boards of directors.
In addition to these formal classes, the team
of economists has formalized Extension's long-
term program of management audits. First such
DIRECTOR DEVELOPMENT COURSES TO DATE
December, 1963-Gainesville (For top administrative
staff of Extension and invited directors of Florida
Council of Farmer Cooperatives)
February, 1964-Gainesville (For county agricultural
agents and executive secretary of Council)
March, 1964-Orlando (For directors of agricultural
cooperatives, and two representatives of Federal
Extension Service. Guests of Florida Citrus Pro-
duction Credit Association)
November, 1964-Hastings (For cooperative directors,
and Executive Secretary of Georgia Council of
March, 1965-Winter Haven (For Directors of agri-
FUTURE COURSES NOW PLANNED
May, 1965-Belle Glade
audit was performed on a Central Florida Citrus
firm in February, 1964.
Eastwood summarizes the purposes and goals
of the course in one statement-"There's enough
competition in America's industrial system so
that increases of efficiency are passed on, not
only to the stockholders of the organizations, but
to retailers and consumers as well."
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE FINANCIAL REPORT
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1963-1964
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense
State Trust Fund:
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1964-1965
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense
State Trust Funds:
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE FINANCIAL REPORT
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration
GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
New articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Adult result demonstrations
Training meetings held for local leaders:
All other meetings agents held or participated
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE FINANCIAL REPORT
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting
Extension agents with organization, planning and con-
ducting of Extension work in counties:
Older club boys
Older club girls
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs 1,867
Number of 4-H members enrolled in projects:
Boys 17,537 Girls 27,328 Total
7,206 4-H Membership:
0 Farm-11,060 non-farm-17,499 urban-16,306
Florida Agricultural Extension Service State Staff
GAINESVILLE STAFF MEMBERS
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Director
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Administration
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Ag., District Agent
Miss Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Lora A. Kiser, B.S.H.E., District Home Demonstration Agent
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Program Specialist
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist
K. B. Meurlott, A.B., Assistant Communication Specialist
E. A. Moffett, B.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Betty Sue Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairy Technologist
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Ag., Citriculturist
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag., Interim Assistant Horticulturist
Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
John F. Cabler, B.S.A., Assistant in Ornamental Horticulture
Charles A. Conover, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Robert H Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Assistant Extension Poultryman
Henry G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Management
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Roger P. Hill, M.S.A.E., Assistant Economist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Farm Forester
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Elwyn S. Holmes, M.E., Rural Civil Defense Coordinator
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Associate Marketing Spec. in Veg. Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
A. W. O'Steen (Chipley, Fla.), B.S.A., Superv., Fla. Nat'l Egg-Laying Test
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
Clyde R. Madsen, Rodent Control Specialist
V. L. Elkins, M.S., District Agent, Special Programs
TALLAHASSEE STAFF MEMBERS
Miss Emily King, Ph.D., Home Economist, Training
Mrs. Susan C. Camp, M.S., Nutritionist
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
Miss Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Miss Pauline N. Brimhall, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Miss Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life Specialist
Miss Flay Britt, M.S., District Home Demonstration Agent, Special Programs
Effective December 31, 1964
Hilton T Meadows M.Ed.
Miss Fern Nix. B.S H.E.
Miss Irene C. Hurd, B S H.E
E. Norbert Stephens. B.S.A
James H Walker, M.S.A.
J. Lowell Loadholtz; B S.
Mrs. Edwena J Robertson B.S.H E.
Mrs. Joy C. Hughes, M.S.
Mrs. Mary J. Castello, B.S.H.E.
Cleveland U Storey. M.Ag
Claude L. Dorminey, B.S.A. r'
Mrs. Sallie R
Jack D. Patten, B.S A. H. Oscar Harrison, M.Ag.
Jack D. Patten, B.S A. 3
Elder M. Sumner, B S A. Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B S HLE.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S. 5
Miss Elvira L. Brown, B.S. L
. Childers, B S.
lohnnie E. Davis, M
.enzy M. Scott, M.A1
Miss Sue Elmore, B.S
ace M Carr. M.S.A.
SEliza J. Moxley, B.
S Woodror W. Glcnn M.A.
James C. McCall, M.S.A.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Franklin E. Johnson, B.S.A. f
Pat H. Sullivan, B.S.
Mrs. Mary H. Bemnett, B.S.H.E.
Ag. -Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
S Mrs Pearl G Long, B.S.H.E.
S.H E. Harvey T. Paulk, M Ag.
Charles A. Saundet, M.Ed.
Mrs. Virginia G. davis, B.S.H.E.
* Color denotes county agent and home demonstration agent.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Russell H. Stephens, B.S.
Mrs. Marlorii B Grcgorv B S.H.E.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
J. Edsel Thomaston M Ag.
J Lloyd Rhoden, M.Ag
Raymond H Burgess, M.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Richard A. Hartsfield, B.
Mamie C. Doughtry, B S
Irie Mae Clark, B.S.H E.
Carolyn T. Gamble, B.S
wrence D. Taylor, M Ag
Albert H. Odom. M.S.A. RQnce A, Andrews. B S A.
Robert Bryant, Jr., B S. Isaac Chandler, Jr., B S.
: Mrs Wylma B. White, M S H.E.
Miss Mary E. Crews B S H.E.
0. R. Hamrick, Jr., M Ag. Ncal
.S.A. 'James C. Miller, B.S Thoma
Ernest R. Wheaton, B.S.A M
S.A Mrs. H
Mrs Almon S. Zipperer B.58 R.E. Ms
H E. .Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S. J Paul Cie-s B.S.A.
W. Howard Smith, M.Ag.
Joe F. DeVane, B.S.
Willie E. Maughan, B S.A.
Miss Bernice G. Shuler, B.S.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, B.
M Pukes. B S.
is J :Godbold, B..A.
ley Jeffers, B.S.A.
clen R Hardima, B.S.
llelene Redd, B.S.
Henry P Davis, B.S.A.
William C. Smith, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Ethel P Thompson B S.
Edward J Co-.en M Ag
Mrs. Mac M Anderson B.S
Cubic R Laird B S.A
William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
.. .~..,,....i"' ;"T"" ' '- '~ '' '''?"' ~
Godon B Ellis
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison M.S.
A. Luther Har.rIl M.Ag.
Mrs. Roberto C. Hicks, A.B.
', "or.i 1. Co-:n. B S A
G T. Huggins B S A.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.A4
,.mTI.. K I'lc -. ton.P M Ag
Ben H. f'.,e- B >.
Donald F Jordan, B.S.A.
James N Watson B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
James F. Cummings, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ncllie D. Mills. B S.
Miss Mary L. Gallagher, B.S.H.E.
Miss Sarah E. Anderson, B.S.M.E.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, B.S.
Miss Virginia R. Wood, B.S.H.E.
Emm. it D. McCall, B.S A E
George M. Owens, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Sandra R. Hammock, B.S.H.E.
Miss Doioth, P Ross, B.S H E
Wiihurn C Forrell M A.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
English M Greene, B.S.A.
Mr Jo.. .phine McSwine, B.S.H.E. Ralph T. Clay, Jr., B.S.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.H.E. John A. Eubanks, M.Ag.
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr M Ag
James E Ward, B.S.A.
Miss Nettie R Broin. B S.H.E.
Mrs. Clarice J. Robinson, B.S.H.E. Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B S H.E.
Mrs. Claudine T Lee, B.S.H.E
Miss Sylvia E. Smith, B.S.H.E.
Li .:. C, Cn-.bl. b Ag
James B. Estes, M.Ag.
Mr. Patfc a B Filer 8 5S H E.
Edsl W Ro-an BS A
W. H Fletcher, B S.A.
John T. Rankin, B.S.
Eugene P. Smith, B.S.A.
M,ss Elire M Garrctt. B S
Miss Rose Howard, B.S.
Mrs Alice B Shashy, B.S.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.
Howard Taylor, Jr., B.S.A.
T R Townsend M.Ag.
Lorry L. Loadholtz, B.S.A.
Mrs. Edna S. Eby, B.S.H E.
Miss Joan Stewart, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy B. Echols, M.E
Quentin Medlin, B.S A.
Royce C. Williams, B.S.A.
Mrs Paula P Stanley B S.
Donald George, B.S. .
Richarh L. Bradley, B.SA.
Rollip H. McNutt, Jr., B.S.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth Starbir B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Bormell B. Dixon, B.S H E.
Albert F Cribbet B S.A.
Luther L Razar, B S.A.
Miss Clara A Smth R S
Mrs. Elizabeth B Furr, A.B.
Gilbert M. Whitton Jr., M Ag
William A. Allen, M.SA.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Mrs. Charlotte Lattimnr B.S.H.E
Mrs. Dorothy E. Drives, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, B.S.H.E
Mrs. Cora H. Meares, B.S.
Jean Been, M.S.A.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag,
R. Donald Downs, B S.A.
Rob rt E. Norris, B.S.4.
Glenn L. Loveless, Jr., B S.
William M. Nixon, M.S.A
Mrs.I' Marian Valentine, B.S H E
SMiss, Lois E. Stanley, B.S.
Jack T. McCo-n M.Aq.
Jackson Haddox, M.Ag.
Robert L. Hall, Jr, B.S.A.
Larry J. Jackson, M.S.A.
David M. Solger, B S.A.
...Cil A Tucktr; ll, M S'
Errest C Lundberg, B.S.A',
Miss Mvrtue C Wilson B S.H!.
Hbnry. F. wanson. M S.A
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
R. Bruce Christmas, M.S.A.
Kenneth L. Rauth, M Ed
Mrs. Mariorin Knight B S.H.E.
Mrs Mary A. Moore, M.S.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs Deloris Wilkins, B.S.
'om:s B Smith. B.S A.
Miss Marrln Dietrich. B S.
Paul E Glasscock. B.S Mrs Ruth M. Elkins. B S.H E
Clarence F. O'Quinn, B.S.A: Mrs. Josephine Cameron, B.S.H.E.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M S.A. Miss Anne M. St.Amant, B.S.
Wayhe T. Wade, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mamie C. Bassctt, B S.k.E.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B,S.
Miss Sudella J. Ford, B S.
Mrs. Edna S. Little, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P Webb, B S.H.E.
W Harper Kendrick B S.A.
Earl M. Kelly, M.Ag. Jack C. Hayman. M Ag.
Thomas C. Greenawalt, B.S.A. Miss Nancy B Whigham, B.S.H E.
Arlie A. Powell, M S. t.
Mrs. Erhel W. Hanson B S H.E
Mrs. Patricia D. McCord, B.S.
Kenncth A. Clark B 5.A
Edwin S. Pastorius, BiS.
Edward E. Russell, B.S.
Mrs Catherine H Love, M A
James T. Oxford, B S A.
John F. McGuire, B.S.A
Sylvester A. Ros,. M.S.
Mrs. Sue B. Youing, B.S
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Glenda Newsom, B.S.H.E.
Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.A.
Clifford R Boyles Hligh C. Whelchel. Jr B.A
Mrs Marguerite R Brock B S.H E.
:W Lester Hatcher B SA A"
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey, B.S.H E. Bert J. Harris, Jr B.S A
William Kozicki, Jr., B.S A.
Mrs Imogene D Riftnburg M S H.E
Levi M Johnson. B.S A
Miss Martha C Burdine M S.H.E
. 11 ; ,'
N. H. McQueen, B.S.A.E.
B. O. Bass, M.S.A.
Mrs. May O. Fulton, B.S.H.E.
Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Wallace R. Ortiz, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.
Theodore Gallo, III, M.Ag.
Robert J. Flint, B.S.A.
Marvin U. Mounts
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Norman C. Bezona, B.S.A.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
R. Kent Price, B.S.A.
Miss Mary L. Todd, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Marylou Shirar, B.S.
Miss Elizabeth A. Woolfe, B.S.H.E.
Donald W. Lander, M.A.
Joseph H. Whitesell, B.S.
Charles L. Anderson, B.S.A.
Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
Lewis E. Watson, M.Ag.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S A.
Miss Louise Taylor, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.H E.
John D. Campbell, B.S A.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Nolan L Durre, M.S.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Richard M. Hunt, B S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Ralph E. Huffaker, B.S.A.
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish, B.S.A.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B S.H.E.
Mrs. Ann Seay Peck, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Ruth H. Reece, B.S.H.E
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Mrs. Patricia H. Williams, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Virginia Gardner helps
homemaker plan refinishing of a
Revitalizing and improving
areas within our cities is not
a totally new idea. As a matter
of fact, with the encouragement
and help of an organization
known as the Community Serv-
ice Foundation, and the active
cooperation of the Agricultural
Extension Service, it dates back
over two decades.
The spotlight was on two
areas of St. Petersburg during
1964 the Ridgecrest and the
Extension's part of the 1964
effort of helping people help
themselves took the form of a
six-month home improvement
workshop conducted by Assist-
ant Home Demonstration Agent
Mrs. Virginia Gardner.
The story of these two com-
munities did not begin in 1964.
The workshop is only one phase
of work that has been going on
for several years.
Perhaps it began 25 years ago
when a group of "citizens with
philanthropic intent" accord-
ing to the foundation's origina-
tor Willie T. Spivey formed a
non-profit corporation. The or-
ganization was given a substan-
tial endowment from the pro-
ceeds of the Spivey family busi-
ness in Philadelphia.
Idea behind the organization
was to help people get started in
improving themselves and their
surroundings. In a sense, the
organization became a sort of
catalyst, providing leadership
and helping supply money
Before becoming active in the
St. Petersburg area where
Spivey now resides-it operated
in Georgia, Alabama, Mississip-
pi, and the Carolinas.
"We have always worked
closely with the Agricultural
Extension Service," Spivey says.
In fact, it was the Community
Service Foundation which
brought to light the need for an
Assistant Home Demonstration
Agent to work with disadvan-
taged groups, and helped get the
position established. "This was
the twentieth such position we
have helped establish," he re-
It is typical for the Founda-
tion, working in an area where
housing and conditions are sub-
standard, to meet with leaders
of a community and plan for
improvements. This was the
case in both the Ridgecrest and
"We were prepared to secure
the financing for new houses in
these areas ourselves, but be-
fore we could commercial inter-
ests supplied the need for new
This new housing is prob-
ably the first phase of the Foun-
dation's work in any area. From
that point on it has been a
matter of working with commu-
nity leaders to improve other
living conditions and the educa-
tional level of the people in these
According to Spivey, there
are about 10 people now active
in the Community Service Foun-
dation. "We are still operating
on money from the original en-
dowment," he says. "We are not
philanthropists as such just
people of good will who feel
deeply about the problems of the
underprivileged. Of course, the
job is too great, we can only
show the way for others to
Mrs. Gardner taught the
course with emphasis on interior
decoration and beautification of
home grounds. One important
consideration was effective use
of minimum-cost materials.
In order to stimulate interest
in the shortcourse, the Com-
munity Service Foundation pro-
vided $100 prize money to be
shared by the top three winners
in a contest among those who
Willie T. Spivey
completed the course. Actually,
the money was applied on fur-
niture, drapery materials and
paint according to the expressed
needs of winners. Awards were
presented at a dinner held after
the course was completed late
in May, 1964.
Twenty-seven persons en-
rolled in the six-month work-
shop and 21 received certificates
of completion. Leaflets and pub-
lications on home improvement
were used widely along with
Final judging of homes of
those enrolled in the course took
place May 15. Winners named
at the banquet were Miss Jonnie
M. Henry, first; Mrs. Mandell
Henry, second; and Rev. and
Mrs. Fred D. Allen, Sr., third.
The workshop was designed
for the Danville community, but
actual meetings were held in the
Ridgecrest Community Center.
According to Mrs. Gardner,
the objectives of this workshop
were to "encourage people to
improve their homes and sur-
roundings, to recognize achieve-
ment of individuals, and to let
more people know about the
work being done by the Exten-
sion Service cooperating with
The third objective letting
more people know about Exten-
sion work was admirably ac-
complished when the St. Peters-
burg Times published a full-
page feature in full color on
Mrs. Gardner and her work.
Prior to becoming Assistant
Home Demonstration Agent in
Pinellas three years ago, she
served as an assistant agent in
Columbia for three years and
Jackson for six years.
Since receiving a bachelors
degree from Florida A and M
University, Mrs. Gardner has
pursued graduate study at sev-
eral universities including How-
ard and Cornell.
Lynn Nicely is a young man
who already has his mind pretty
well made up; he wants to be-
come a county agent.
It's easy to understand the
decision of this Lake City Junior
College freshman. He has put
together eight years of out-
standing 4-H Club work and
comes from a family that has
worked closely with agriculture
in several areas of the state.
Lynn is the son of Marlin and
Jeanne Nicely who now own a
120-acre farm near Lake City.
Marlin is a meat inspector for
the State Department of Agri-
culture, and has been active in
the state's growing beef cattle
industry for several years.
Lynn joined 4-H as soon as
he reached the minimum age,
and he has been exhibiting and
showing animals ever since. The
peak of his 4-H career came in
1964 when he was runner-up
in the state beef project. He also
piled up outstanding records in
his tractor project and in
"I'm sure if Lynn had entered
the beef competition a year ear-
lier, he could have won this
year," says Assistant County
Agent Tom Godbold. "There
were several areas in which he
could have improved the rec-
Nicely doesn't seem to mind.
His only regret is that this is
the last year he is eligible to
participate as a club member.
Actually it has been hard for
the Lake City youth to maintain
a continuous 4-H program. He
started in Hillsborough County,
then moved to Palm Beach
County a year later. After four
years on the Atlantic coast his
family moved to the Alachua-
Marion county area and then
on to Lake City. Lynn's parents
then bought a farm and estab-
lished a purebred Angus herd.
Since his father is busy with
his Department of Agriculture
job, full responsibility for man-
aging the Angus herd has fallen
to Lynn. It is no small job while
attending junior college.
One of the chief accomplish-
ments attributed to Mr. Nicely
has been the feeder calf and
feeder pig sales which he helped
set up in several areas of the
After two years at Lake City
Junior College, Lynn plans to
transfer to the University of
Florida to study "either animal
science or agricultural educa-
"I have been able to save
enough money from my 4-H
projects to pay my way through
college," Lynn says.
Nicely is clearly disappointed
that he can no longer be an
active 4-H Club member, but
he has no intention of breaking
off the association. Lynn got
the boys together and was in-
strumental in organizing a new
community club at Mason City
in the High Springs area. The
club now has 21 members, and
Lynn works with the adult lead-
ers in developing a program.
This talent of leadership is a
side of Nicely that is still large-
ly unexplored and undeveloped.
"Lynn is a very valuable asset
to the 4-H program here in Col-
umbia County," Goldbold says.
"I believe he has stayed in 4-H
as long as he has because his
parents are vitally interested
and believe in the program. He
has had a wide variety of ac-
tivities, has been in a commu-
nity club for a long time, and
has been given responsibilities
as soon as he could accept
Columbia County Extension
agents believe the key to keeping
4-H members interested longer
is summed up in these points.
They believe community clubs-
which demand more participa-
tion by parents and other adults
- are one major step in im-
proving the program.
Lynn Nicely displays grand champion steer at the 1964 Columbia
County Fair. With Lynn are Johnny Goff, Henry Ward, and David
Maxwell with Ward Fertilizer Company, buyer of the steer.
She's a dynamo.
And she has found the secret
of the good life and good living.
She was born in the beautiful
rolling ridge country of Pasco
County. One of seven daughters
in a family of nine children, she
learned self-reliance early. In
her big happy family she also
learned the valuable art of get-
ting along with people. Both
these qualities have stood her
in good stead in her life of
service to others.
As a Tomato Club girl back
in 1914, Carrie Mae Roberts
won first prize of $137 for grow-
ing one-tenth of an acre of to-
matoes. An enthusiastic club
girl, she became the first secre-
tary of the State Girls' 4-H Club
From Tomato Club and 4-H
Club work she went on to posi-
tions of leadership in Home
Demonstration and Women's
Club work. Her first presidency
was of the Fort Dade Home
Demonstration Club. Soon she
was elected president of the
County Federation of Women's
Clubs. Later she became vice-
president of section eight of the
For 30 years Mrs. Roberts
has served the American Legion
Auxiliary. Her chief interest
here lies in the field of welfare
Today she has reached the
pinnacle in the American Legion
Auxiliary hierachy. She now is
serving a two-year term as De-
partment President of the State
of Florida for the American
Legion Auxiliary. Already her
work has taken her more than
50,000 miles across the length
and breadth of the United
Mrs. Roberts has become re-
nowned for workshops to train
leaders. She inspires potential
leaders to have confidence in
their abilities. She brings out
A Leader of Leaders-
That's Carrie Mae Roberts
the best in people. How she
achieves this miracle is her
secret. But her sincere interest
in others and her philosophy
that "we must keep educating
new people" all the time account
for a large measure of her suc-
cess in human relations.
A young-looking, gentle lady,
Mrs. Roberts sparkles like a dia-
mond when talking about her
many interests. Her recipe for
staying young? "Take your
mind off yourself and your
troubles. Reach out to help
Although she is constantly on
the go with her Auxiliary re-
sponsibilities, Mrs. Roberts finds
time to run a thriving antique
business. She became interested
in antique collecting after she
and her husband remodeled an
old schoolhouse and barn into
their present home. Their
charming home and antique
shop front a jewel-like lake. The
property is part of the old
Larkin-Mrs. Roberts' maiden
name-family homestead. There
the Roberts enjoy gracious
living surrounded by rare old
glass, furniture, books, and pic-
One of Mrs. Roberts' goals
has always been to make home
life more attractive. This she
has done for her family and for
others through her club work.
Some years ago she won the
Better Homes and Gardens
Award for color in the kitchen.
Mrs. Roberts believes that a
person can only do so much and
shouldn't spread herself too
thin. "You must make decisions
on what you can do," she says.
For nearly fifty years she
has been going strong, reaching
out to others, helping them to
enrich their lives. She has no
thought of stopping. "But I may
slow down and could become
home furnishings chairman in
the County Homemakers' Coun-
cil," she says, with a smile.
Mrs. Roberts discusses delicate antique china with her husband.
New Dental Inspection Program Clicks
Two years ago it was the safety program
featuring Resusci-Anne that made headlines in
Florida's 4-H summer camps.
In 1964 a dental inspection program at Camp
Doe Lake in the Ocala National Forest provided
the excitement as being one of the most promising
Prior to the camping season, Extension agents
scheduled to camp at Doe Lake during a six-week
period were given information for the special
project so they could prepare their 4-H girls
for something new at summer camp. This advance
information was probably a vital part of the
idea's eventual success.
Arrangements were made with the Florida
State Board of Health for visitations by the
mobile dental unit during the six weeks. Fourteen
counties were scheduled in camp during this time.
No sooner did 4-H'ers arrive in camp and
get used to the routine of instruction and educa-
tion, than on the scene would appear Mrs. Rosaria
King, Registered Hygienist, with her portable
"dentist's office". Contained in the neatly packed
box were instruments for inspection and cleaning.
During the period, 508 girls were given dental
inspections and had their teeth cleaned. Each girl
received a card indicating the result of the
examination to take back home. In many cases
the card contained a recommendation to visit the
family dentist for corrective work.
Agents were asked to report to Miss Floy
Britt, supervisor of camping program, following
the camping season so that the program could be
evaluated. Many of these reports were filed before
the end of 1964 with others promised soon after.
It required some time, however, to complete an
analysis of the results in each county since agents
had to measure parent attitudes to the summer
camp service, and see how many youngsters did
visit dentists for corrective work recommended.
"The parents felt that this is a valuable
service rendered at camp," Assistant Home Dem-
onstration Agent Clarice Robinson wrote in an
evaluation. "They expressed wishes that the den-
tal inspection continue."
Assistant Agent Pearl Long of Jackson County
said, "It gave many of the children the oppor-
tunity to have their teeth cleaned for the first
time, and receive information on how to care
for their teeth."
These are typical of the reactions written
With more than half of the agents reporting,
it looks as though the dental inspections were
highly successful. Many of the youngsters did
follow through for additional work; and, two
important factors were pinpointed that prevented
other youngsters from visiting family dentists
- financial inability and apathy or lack of edu-
cation on the importance of dental health.
Plans are underway to establish the dental
program on a permanent basis for all campers
- both boys and girls. This requires continued
cooperation with the Florida State Board of
Analysis of the 1964 dental program indicates
more educational work is needed with parents
both before and after the camping season to
understand the need for good dental hygiene, and
to prompt some action when inspection indicates
corrective work is needed.
Registered Hygienist Mrs. Rosario King cleans and
checks the teeth of summer camper.
YR" :ms Wia; jr*ep-laHn.-.- ~ ~ l
Big projects often evolve from small begin-
So it was in the tiny community of Caryville,
about 25 miles west of Chipley, seat of Washing-
It was the beginning of a new year for Home
Demonstration clubs in the county, and Extension
agent Sue Elmore casually mentioned to new
officers and club chairmen that some groups had
appointed a project chairman to suggest projects
for the women to undertake.
Mrs. Preston Anderson, president of the
Caryville Homemakers, suggested it at a meet-
And It All Began
At a Cemetery
It all started here.
ing, and one of the members responded by saying
she was embarrassed at a recent funeral by the
garbage dumped right at the entrance to the
Members of the club readily agreed the com-
munity needed a new garbage disposal area.
"Evidently before the next meeting," Mrs.
Elmore says, "some of the women got together
and talked about projects they could try to work
on. And they appointed a committee of Mrs.
Franklin Evans, Mrs. Lena Swindle and Mrs.
Myra Barlow to give more thought to the garbage
According to Mrs. Elmore, the women found
a place that would be ideal for a garbage dump,
but there was no road. They approached the
County Commission to ask that a road be built
and were informed that right-of-way would have
to be secured before the commissioners could
The idea of beautifying the cemetery area
then began to spread.
Other women in the club pointed out that it
would be nice for the community to have a way-
side park where residents could go and people
traveling through could stop.
By this time, more members of the community
were becoming interested, and some of the hus-
bands-many of whom had retired to the com-
munity-began to get in the spirit.
People began to talk about the needs of the
Caryville area, and the discussion no longer cen-
tered strictly among Home Demonstration Club
members. A community-wide group was taking
shape and two other improvement ideas were
voiced-incorporation and a central water sys-
tem to replace individual wells.
"Frankly," Miss Elmore admits, "I never ex-
pected this community movement to grow the
way it has. Caryville has been growing rapidly
for a rural community, and many of the new
residents are retirees. We just didn't expect such
community spirit to arise when many of the
people are new residents."
Not one of the projects was completed be-
fore the end of 1964, but several were nearing
the point of reality. For cross reference, this is
where Caryville stood with its community pro-
gram as the year came to an end:
V Forty acres have been purchased for a new
garbage dump area, and most of the right-of-way
for a road to this has been obtained. The County
Commission has sent men to push part of the
unsightly garbage into a swampy area away from
the cemetery entrance.
V John Carver, Rural Renewal Program Leader
with the Farmers Home Administration, pro-
vided information on loans available for develop-
ment of a water system. Members of the
Caryville community group conducted a survey
and signed the names of 175 families and 13
businesses interested in using a water system
(125 were necessary to qualify for the loan).
Palmer Engineering Co. of Tallahassee surveyed
the situation and determined that a pressure tank
system at an estimated cost of $98,000 would be
practical. Application for an FHA loan was sub-
mitted early in 1965.
V After studying several areas, the wayside
park committee decided one along the Chocta-
whatchee River would be best. Two land owners
agreed to provide property, but a paper company
owned a small wedge between the two pieces. It
was arranged to use this wedge. The committee
has asked the State Road Department for con-
sideration in developing the area.
V A committee studied the charter of a number
of small towns and then decided on one that would
fit the needs of Caryville. A description of the
area to be incorporated was drawn and these
have been submitted to the community group
as a whole. It is likely the citizens will request
a bill in the 1965 Legislature authorizing a ref-
erendum on the question of incorporation.
A community center has been discussed by the
group, but since the school is available for meet-
ings and other affairs, this will wait until the
other projects have been completed.
Caryville's community group doesn't even
have a name. It is simply the outgrowth of
personal and community pride that has taken an
organized course. It isn't formally a part of
Washington County's well organized Rural Areas
Development program. Despite the seeming lack
Pictured from left are Mrs. Franklin Evans, Mr.
Evans, Mrs. Preston Anderson, Charlie Barlow and
Cal Walker with Home Demonstration Agent Sue
of structure, the people have worked together
very well-mostly as neighbors trying to better
They have received help from Miss Elmore
and from James McCall, RAD area specialist.
They are simply pleased that it was through an
Extension program that the whole thing got
Extension Keeps People Aware of Home Accidents
Educators will tell you the
first step in solving any problem
is public recognition that a
Extension home economists in
Santa Rosa County used this
principle last year to shed light
on an age-old problem acci-
dents in and around the home.
Home Demonstration Agent
Fern Nix and Assistant Agent
Irene Hawley explain that the
idea for showing the public
localized statistics on accidents
in Santa Rosa County grew out
of a four-year emphasis on
safety and health-a major part
of the Home Demonstration pro-
gram during this period.
Interest in this phase of study
was initiated in 1961 by former
Home Demonstration A g e n t
Anne Hurd Bradley. (She is
now a housewife and president
of the Milton Civinettes.)
Late in 1963, the Santa Rosa
Home Safety Steering Commit-
tee took on a project of compil-
ing the record on home acci-
FALLS 1" a "
FALLS 1 7 9 Is 9 Is I a
POSONS 12 7 11 2 3 3 S
FIRE AR S 3 3 3 C" 3
I/sIE 46 28 56 69 67 88 73 47 16 139 131 95
Sm sRK ris I
OTHERS 7 7 3 4 7 3 3 6 ,
TOTALS 112 97 118 126 125 167 154 59 84 225 221 175
IIIIIIIl l l. . -
Whiting Field, two hospitals,
and all doctors in the county
were contacted and the idea was
explained. All agreed to cooper-
ate by reporting all home acci-
dents that were treated. Miss
Nix was in charge of receiving
the figures and keeping the
A large sign was erected on
the courthouse lawn in Milton
- right in the center of town
where it could be seen by a
majority of residents.
The Civinettes paid for paint-
ing the sign and maintaining it.
At the end of each month new
totals in each of the accident
categories were painted.
"Many people were amazed
by some of the figures," Miss
Nix relates. "The sign caused a
tremendous amount of interest."
The agents know the sign has
increased public awareness of
home accidents, and hope it
helped in some way to prevent
REV MEDICAL AID
HOME ACCIDENTS MEDICAL AID
JAN. FEI MAR APR. MAY JNE.. LY AUG SEPT OCT.NO
7 29 22 31 30 4 Is :
John Prator Lovelace shf itear St. Leo College
atu, -,~- ,-' -4H rn in the
-W-3a0 named state
-i-.-rth meber of
e be awarded a na-
4 is well entrenched
2Ta~Kt^ ttidgenetration of the
,t-- ....:-., J..~i hn's mother,
S0tlle Of four child-
iVe in 4-H hork.
^^a.. _i r-t mem_-.er of
-:_;;.,ttij,:-E_, : :-..'6e a\-al (le-l a- na-
.bi^^ft-_i tleneradition of the
-itMli Thors were shared
W others. Tom and
..~~3-n the mid-1930s.
:.: wpoi^ to the National
7_t e N
i:?i:::::!-:!: !,% ,-
.___- -: ..:;-. ;" --,:_,- : a;:.
Congress in Chicago and Na-
tional 4-H Club camp in Wash-
ington. Tom also was awarded
the Washington trip.
Part of the tradition ended
when Tom passed away at an
early age, but Jack passed it
along to his son Tommy Prator
who won statewide honors in
many 4-H projects. He was state
dairy project winner two years
ago, won the Florida public
speaking contest and was state
Tractor project winner.
Cousins Tommy Prator and
John Lovelace have had parallel
careers. Both served as state
officers, holding the same offices
- secretary and reporter.
Both of John's trips, the one
to National Congress and the
one to Washington D. C. early
in 1965, were awarded for out-
standing leadership. He had a
part on the program at the Na-
tional Congress in Chicago.
Lovelace lives on a 15-acre
tract with his parents just out-
side of Dade City. About 13
acres is planted in grove. Al-
though John had some animal
projects-specifically dairy cows
- it has been impossible to keep
a herd for lack of space. But he
has had at least one dairy cow
or calf each of his eight years
John has excelled in other
projects including public speak-
ing. He was winner of the Pasco
County "I Dare You" award and
the Florida Key Award. He was
both county achievement win-
ner and State Fair Achievement
John has either been presi-
dent or vice-president of the
Progressive 4-H Club since 1958
in addition to holding office on
the county council and at the
district level. He was also a
member of the county dairy
Now that Lovelace has reach-
ed 18 his participation in 4-H
will be as a junior leader and
John takes a few minutes between classes to talk with his mother,
Catherine, who works in Business Office at St. Leo College.
adviser to younger club mem-
bers. Time is more limited since
he entered St. Leo College near
Dade City. To help cover college
expenses John works at various
Last summer he went to
South Carolina to work for a
large dairy after a long-time
friend had told him about the
job and made the contact. He
may go back there to work again
"I will probably transfer to
some university after two years
To help pay college expenses,
John works at a downtown filling
station in Dade City during after-
at St. Leo," Lovelace says. "I
may go to the University of
Florida, but I haven't decided
definitely. Maybe I'll study agri-
Extension agents in Pasco
County are pleased with the
progress Lovelace has made.
County Agent A. F. Cribbett
indicates John will serve as ad-
visor to the county council this
"It's really quite a story,"
Cribbett says, "the way this
family has participated in 4-H
and helped the club program.
Mrs. Lovelace is a very active
John has an older brother who
spent only one year in 4-H work,
but his younger brother Steve,
15, and sister Mary, 13, are al-
ready very active. Steve is in-
terested in horticultural proj-
ects and home beautification.
So, despite John's outstanding
record, the people of Pasco
County and the rest of Florida
probably haven't heard the last
of the family yet.
Close-knit Simmons family is shown in front of farm house. From
left are Steve, Jacqueline, Mrs. W. Paul Simmons, Leslie Ann, and
W. Paul. Children in front are Steven Keith and Bonnie Lee.
Family Credits Extension
With Continued Dairy
"Extension has probably
meant more to our family than
to any other family in the
Steve Simmons looked up
from some farm record sheets
he was studying to answer the
question. He was "working in"
an interview while going over
a new records system with Ex-
tension economist Clif Alston
and St. Johns County Agent
"From the time we were kids
and dad started this dairy farm,
we have participated in Exten-
sion activities and benefited
from their information," he
went on, grinning at Dinkins.
Steve's father, W. Paul, owns
the only remaining dairy farm
in St. Johns County. It has been
a growing operation through the
years growing both in size
and efficiency. Considering the
marketing problems faced by
Florida's dairy farmers, it takes
an unusually efficient operation
to stay in business.
The Simmons operation leaves
nothing to chance these days.
The first fully automated dairy
barn in Florida was installed
there a year and a half ago.
A complete record is kept on
each of the 600 cows in the herd.
The chain around the cow's neck
contains a colored small plastic
ring that is the key to the auto-
mated feeding system. This sys-
tem helped Simmons to post one
of the best milk production rec-
ords in the state. The herd's
average production of 9,400
pounds per year is 1,900 pounds
above the state average.
Labor is an expensive item on
large dairy farms which milk
around the clock. Pushing a feed
cart up and down the barn to
feed 600 cows involves miles of
time-consuming w o r k. An d,
since it is heavy work, the feed-
er generally can't be an older,
more experienced man.
The automatic system has
solved this problem and cut the
labor force by two men. Next to
the milking barn is a feed mill
connected to storage silos for
citrus pulp and shell corn.
Grinding and mixing the feed
is push-button-automatic. The
finished feed goes into a storage
hopper from where it is pumped
as necessary into the barn.
On a floor above the milking
stalls is a conveyor belt system
which distributes feed to indi-
vidual tanks located at each
Connected to these individual
tanks is a numbered dial at the
"business end" of the cow. The
man who must do the feeding
simply walks down the barn,
glancing at the color of the ring
attached to the cow, and dials
the exact amount of feed for
each animal. The dial activates
a one-eighth horsepower motor
which pumps the feed into the
Monthly milk production rec-
ords on each cow are used by
Steve and his father to revise
the cow feed list.
Despite the automation, the
Simmons family works about as
hard as during the earlier, lean-
er years. Good management is
Back in 1948 the whole family
often worked around the clock.
But Steve and daughters Merri-
am and Beverly still found time
to produce outstanding 4-H club
The three youngsters secured
registered heifers which they
developed into top 4-H animals,
and all three were members of
state 4-H Dairy Judging teams.
In 1951, Steve's team won the
national dairy judging contest
and represented the United
States on a tour of England and
Europe. Steve enjoyed all of the
trip but was most interested in
the famed dairying islands of
Jersey and Guernsey.
Merriam was on the 1953
state dairy judging team and
Beverly on the 1954 team. Bev-
erly's team won the 4-H contest
at the International Dairy Show
Beverly (Mrs. Jimmy) Griner
lives on a neighboring farm at
Orangedale and Merriam (Mrs.
Bobby) Brooker is living in Ha-
Steve and his pretty wife
Jaqueline have three children-
Bonnie Lee 9, Steven Keither 7,
and Leslie Ann 5. They main-
tain a keen interest in 4-H work
and serve as local leaders in the
Mill Creek Community Club.
Steve helps train the county 4-H
dairy judging team.
With many years of hard work
behind them, Paul and Winifred
Simmons have handed over a
major part of the operation to
son Steve, who, according to his
dad, "eats, sleeps and drinks"
Paul, who came from a farm
family, worked at various jobs
- including dairying up un-
til World War II. There was a
shortage of farmers to meet new
demands for food, and two Jack-
sonville men approached Paul
about going into the dairy busi-
"I told them I didn't have any
money," the elder Simmons said,
"and they asked me if I could
borrow $1000 from my dad. I
said I could if he had it.
"Dad had quit farming and
moved in with my brother in
Jacksonville, so I called him
over. I didn't know it, but these
two men told dad they really
didn't want the money, they just
wanted to make sure I'd be in-
terested in the business."
Simmons entered a three-way
partnership and took over a
dairying operation located on
the Naval Air Station in Jack-
sonville. Later this was abolish-
ed and Simmons started looking
for another farm. This time the
same two men financed him -
but without the partnership.
"Those early years were
rough, and mom worked like a
horse right along side of me.
She always has, but she can't do
it much any more.
"A fellow just can't go into
the dairy business any more -
it takes too much money to start
with competition the way it is
today. The going price for a
milk base alone is $100 per gal-
Since Simmons has the only
dairy in St. Johns County, he
hauls his own milk to markets
in Jacksonville and Orlando. The
family owns a tank truck and
has a milk base in both the
Northeast and the Central Flo-
Counting calves, the Simmons
herd totals 1100 or 1200 cows.
The family owns 600 acres and
rents additional pasture. Sim-
mons' was the first farm to join
the Duval Artificial Breeding
Association, but with close cull-
ing to improve the herd, he
must still buy many of his re-
A dairy equipment company
and a power company represen-
tative helped Paul and Steven
plan and install their feed mill
and automatic feeding opera-
tion. This has resulted in signi-
ficant cost savings.
Extension agents, including
dairy specialist C. W. Reeves
Feeder dials exact amount of feed
for each cow with Simmons auto-
who helped put the dairy on the
DHIA record system, now con-
centrate on helping the Sim-
mons family improve its man-
agement procedures. The coop-
erative spirit has contributed to
the sound financial position of
this dairy operation in the
face of a sharp decline in dairy
farms throughout the state.
a, ZU W'S W
the irf "il
Every community-no matter
how small-has a few leaders
who are progress-minded.
Most of the time these are
dedicated business and profes-
sional men who are determined
not to let the normal industrial
and population growth of this
country pass them by.
It is often a frustrating life
for these men, many of whom
have grown up in a town and
watched it stagnate and lose
population rather than gain
like other areas that have more
natural resources. Some of the
younger men watch their chil-
dren grow and wonder if those
children will be able to come
home to work after college.
Hamilton, like several north-
west Florida counties, has had
to face this problem over the
last 15 years.
Tourists have whizzed by on
their way to the state's fabulous
resorts. New settlers have done
the same seeking subtropical
climates not green pastures.
Hamilton is a rural county, rich
in timber resources.
But, it is also rich in another
resource that has lain hidden
for many, many years-phos-
It wasn't until Occidental
Corporation of Florida, a di-
vision of Occidental Petroleum,
sent in representatives about a
year ago that the people realized
the county's potential phosphate
wealth. Occidental officers met
with representatives of the
county Chamber of Commerce
and announced they had leased
several thousand acres and
planned a $10 million plant.
The event, which stirred both
excitement and caution through-
out the county, represented a
new beginning to the group of
progressive-minded leaders who
had been struggling for so long
to show just a little progress.
At about the same time, Flori-
da Power Corporation's com-
munity development represen-
tative, Mark Wheeler, paid
another visit to the county.
Florida Power carries on a
regular program of helping
communities help themselves in
developing their resources.
Wheeler had visited Jasper, the
county seat, before several
years before-and helped peo-
ple identify their needs. Wheeler
sensed the new challenge and
started meeting regularly with
community leaders and Cham-
ber of Commerce members. As
a result, Florida Power devoted
the winter edition of its quarter-
ly "Community Development"
to Hamilton County.
One of those dedicated local
leaders is Extension agent
Rance Andrews, who has been
a vital member of the commu-
nity for over 10 years.
Andrews finds it impossible
to define when his county agent
work in the rural county ends,
and his public service work as
a citizen begins.
As an Extension worker,
Rance has his own community
development program and plays
an important role in the Rural
Areas Development organiza-
tion which includes all aspects
of county business and social
life. But, as a member of the
Chamber of Commerce and vari-
ous civic clubs, he has addition-
al responsibilities as a citizen,
a public servant, and an expert
on rural affairs.
"One of the difficult problems
we have in such a small town,"
Andrews says, "is separating
where one job ends and another
begins, or where one committee
ends and another begins. We
don't have many people to be
seriously concerned with the
county's development, and
everybody serves on many com-
Andrews feels the county hit
a low ebb in its prospects for
growth before Occidental an-
nounced its plans. "When we
found out 1-75 would by-pass
the town and take away our
tourist traffic, many people
thought it was the end for our
motels and gas stations."
But Occidental's move into
the county reversed what some
felt was the downward spiral.
Then, when 1-75 was open to
traffic, people were pleasantly
surprised to find new businesses
Hamilton County has a small, but
County Agent Rance Andrews discusses model of giant dragline with
Florida Power community development representative Mark Wheeler
built around the county's inter-
changes would probably more
than offset these losses.
"This is a long range type
of development," A n d r e w s
points out. "This company has
rights to thousands of acres,
but they indicate they'll only
mine from 200 to 400 acres per
"But, the changes have al-
ready been great. The plant
is under construction and we
have many new men employed.
The chief engineer says he in-
tends to build a house in Jasper
active Chamber of Commerce.
because he may be here five
"Not too long ago you
couldn't get money anywhere to
finance construction of a new
house. Even if you could go to
another town and find someone
willing to finance a mortgage,
the interest might be seven per-
cent. Now these loan institu-
tions are coming to us."
Occidental's move into Hamil-
ton County has now interested
other fertilizer firms long ac-
tive in Polk County-in investi-
gating the north Florida area.
According to Andrews, some
people have expressed concern
over what the new phosphate
industry will do to farming in
the county, and others about the
scars mining can leave.
"We have been assured," the
county agent states, "that new
mining methods will ease rec-
lamation of the land. Occidental
is purchasing a 30 cubic yard
dragline for this mine at a cost
of about $1.8 million. You can
drive a truck and two cars into
the bucket, it's so big."
When in full operation, the
new plant is expected to employ
about 160 people at an annual
payroll of $800,000.
Location of the mine is about
eight miles from White Springs
in the southern end of the coun-
ty. Events have brought about
a general awakening of the
needs of the small community
to accommodate a broader eco-
nomic base. Town meetings are
held regularly so that citizens
can keep up to date on progress
of the new company, and the
company can help the town.
Among the immediate prob-
lems are planning and zoning,
new housing, educational and
In Jasper, the latest survey
conducted by Wheeler of Florida
Power showed the people felt
street and sidewalk paving and
some recreational facilities were
Extension is working closely
with civic groups on the recrea-
tional aspects of the communi-
It is obvious from visiting
Jasper that the county agricul-
tural agent is more than just
another public official, more
than just an adviser to farmers;
there, and in many other small
towns across Florida, Extension
is a part of the total community,
working with all the people as
With such determination,
progress must follow.
They Gave the C
You've heard the expression, "It's a man's
Well, for many men it isn't, at least, without
For years certain parts of 4-H Club competi-
tion was limited strictly to boys; and, likewise,
certain projects (such as dress-making) were
limited to girls.
One of those areas which the boys seemed to
have tied up was vegetable judging.
Florida was a johnny-come-lately in vegetable
judging, grading and identification competition.
Nine years ago Joe Norton, assistant vegetable
crops specialist, pointed out that such contests
were being held in other states and that such
a program would be beneficial to a vegetable-
producing state like Florida. Eight counties,
including St. Johns, were chosen for a pilot
The first St. Johns County contest was held
in 1956. One of the winners, Wesley Smith, went
on to win the state 4-H Commercial Gardening
Contest and was given a trip to the National
Junior Vegetable Growers Association convention
at Springfield, Illinois.
In 1958 the St. Johns County vegetable judg-
ing team won the district contest and went on to
win the first state vegetable judging contest in
This same team was entered in the national
contest at Biloxi, Mississippi the first national
competition for a Florida vegetable team. The
St. Johns boys placed seventh out of 33 teams.
By 1961, considerable interest had developed
among 4-H girls in the major potato producing
county, and a request was made to allow girls
to enter vegetable judging teams. A separate con-
test for girls was the first concession but it
was still only on a county basis.
Extension agents in St. Johns County per-
sisted in their request, and finally in 1964 girls'
teams were allowed to participate in the general
Mickey Mickler, JoAnn Kovolski, Susan Foster
and Charlene Fridy with coaching by former
Assistant Agent John Eubanks won the county
contest and then proceeded to use their feminine
skills to walk off with state honors in the first
lhance-And Look What Happened
4-H State Events Days at the University of
Coach Eubanks transferred to Putnam County
and new Assistant County Agent Jim Ward took
over preparations for the national contest held
in New Orleans, December 5-12.
Persistence on the part of the girls was bound
to be rewarded. As proud coaches Ward and
Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist Jim Stevens
looked on, the St. Johns County girls walked off
with second place in the national contest.
Mickler placed fourth high individual, Fridy
placed seventh, and Kovolski was eleventh.
"Vegetable judging was a natural for girls,"
according to Coach Agent Paul Dinkins, "After
all, women do most of the grocery shopping, and
they should be able to judge the qualities of good
vegetables. This is more than just another com-
petition for honors; it is real practical training."
The fact that St. Johns Extension agents
place a real emphasis on this area of 4-H work
is obvious. 1964 was the seventh state contest
held in Florida. Teams from the northeast Florida
county have won six of those contests.
"Altogether," Home Demonstration Agent
Nettie Ruth Brown says, "536 4-H club members
have completed the educational program in veg-
etable judging and grading. We feel the training
has been extremely beneficial in our overall leader-
ship development of these youth."
"And, of course, we're mighty proud of our
team even if they are girls," Dinkins adds.
The nation's number two vegetable judging team-and a close second at that-composed of (from left)
Joann Kovolski, Charlene Fridy, Mickey Mickler and Susan Foster.
_j _- -~
Hustle, work, study'", hurry, push, fight', cry . These are but a few of the
by-words of life in today's fleeting, space-mad world Man fights to keep the
"t .or h ,g ,c ...,- These ,re b t a. f w .
income spiral ahead of the outgo spiral, to make for himself and his family
a comfortable place under the sun, and perhaps, a small niche in the memory
of the world. Little remains that is simple and quiet and peaceful, except may-
be, those numbered days of childhood.
And this mad world even respects little of those precious moments of
childhood, moving its off-spring to the crowded city sidewalks, and often
abandoning them to the cruelties of grown-up standards.
So few these days know the blissful peace of the country boy ... know
the soft spiralumber of the hay ..outg. know the proud simplicity of owning a calf.
For those few, 4-H has been a rare gift indeed.
So few these days know the blissful peace of the country boy . know
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director