Front Cover
 To the people of Florida
 Extension yesterday and extension...
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076875/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: Your Florida Agricultural Extension Service annual report
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1963
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1959; ceased with 1969.
General Note: Description based on first issue; title from cover.
General Note: Final issue consulted.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076875
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05162738
lccn - 2007229448
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Annual report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    To the people of Florida
        Page 1
    Extension yesterday and extension today
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
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        Page 54
        Page 55
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        Page 60
    Back Cover
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text

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To the people The Florida Agricultural Extension Service observes
its 50th anniversary of educational work with the people
of this state in 1964.
of Florida: This 1963 Annual Report is dedicated to observance of
this anniversary.
Extension work has grown in all dimensions during
its first 50 years:
It has grown in height; new workers, thousands of
people, mostly volunteers, now dedicate their talents to
carrying out the educational program.
It has grown in breadth; the demands of people, rural
and urban, have constantly increased in Florida's vital
and changing society.
And, it has grown in depth; Extension is still very
much concerned with agricultural production problems and
those problems require trained specialists to solve, but it
is also challenged by demands for help in the vast in-
dustries of processing, handling and retailing of agricul-
tural products, and in the areas of community improve-
ment and resource development.
The record is clear for Extension's first 50 years. The
work has been demanding; the workers have been dedi-
cated; and the progress-the results-have been astound-
ing. There is no truer mark of Extension's success in
carrying out its task of off-campus education than the
improving standard of living enjoyed by so many Flor-
But, this compliment is not directed specifically at Ex-
tension's paid workers. Extension's best work comes
largely as the result of volunteers, community leaders,
and laymen who have been inspired to help themselves
through the resources of the University of Florida.
And, the dedication this Annual Report represents
would be hollow if directed only at the past. Never in
history has the need for Extension's resources been great-
er, nor the challenge more demanding.
The first 50 years has been but a snatch of time, and
before we become too self-satisfied, too complacent, we
must take time to cast this brief period into historical
This report is a good analogy; it represents only a
minute portion of Extension work. It grabs only a few
examples of the type of work being done in every county.
And this year it singles out only one small area for some
"in depth" reporting to you, the people of Florida.
May I take this opportunity to thank the many thou-
sands of volunteers who make our work possible. I invite
your careful attention to this report of some of the work
being done to meet our state's educational needs.

M. O. Watkins




The Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service of today, with its
State wide staff of trained work-
ers, bears little resemblance to
the small group of pioneer work-
ers who started the program
nearly a half a century ago.
Those were the old horse and
buggy days before paved roads
and government payments;
farmers either made it, or went
broke, strictly on their own.
Introducing a new idea in the
counties required time, patience,
understanding and an abiding
faith. Farmers, at first, looked
on the county agent with a de-
gree of suspicion. They felt he
might try to interfere with their
old, time proven, methods and
practices. And they remained,
for a time, on the defensive, and
were, perhaps, overly critical.
Because the program was new,
it received little moral support
from businessmen and the gen-
eraJ public. The new county
agent first had to prove himself
as a helpful, progressive, worthy
and necessary county official. In
those early days this was often
not easy.

BY L. T. NIELAND, retired
former Flagler County Agent
and Extension Forester

Since my experiences as the
first county agent in one of
Florida's smallest counties were
probably similar to many others,
I might record a few of them
here. Having just returned from
service in World War I, I was
happily situated on a little truck
farm. I received.a call on our
farmer's telephone line from the
County Commission, stating that
I had been recommended for the
position of County Agent. And,
it was stated further, that I was
the only qualified man in the
county. That sounded as if they
were really hard up for county
agent material. It did not seem
to occur to the Board that it
might look for someone outside
of the county.
After thinking the mat t e r
over for a few days I decided to
accept the offer. The county
could, conceivably, do even
worse. Besides, I was a little
short of operating capital on my
farm, and a few years service
as county agent might provide
enough cash to give me a better
The State Extension Director,

an old friend during student
days at the University, approved
the County Commission's recom-
mendation. My salary was to
be $120.00 per month, S60.00
from county sources, and $60.00
from the State and Fedetal Gov-
Out of my salary I was to pur-
chase a car and patrol the county
every day, since I was not pro-
vided with an office. The price
of a new Model T Ford of that
day was $475.00. But, my total
cash reserve at the time was
closer to $4.75, and no time pay-
ment system was then in vogue.
However, just at that time, by
a happy coincidence, I happen-
ed to marry a young lady who
had saved up $475.00 and so we
were in business.
My first job was to vaccinate
all hogs against cholera. This I
did, and included some in an ad-
joining county for good measure.

Hog cholera serum was furnish-
ed free to farmers at that time.
The virus was not furnished
free, but cost the farmer only
a few cents per hog. I furnished
the disinfectant, and, of course,
no charge for the service. I
later found that the prime rea-
son for my appointment was the
vaccination of all county hogs*.
Most of the hogs were wild,
long snouted, well tusked, rugged
individuals, capable of survival
in the extensive swamp lands in
competition with bears, "cata-
(Continued on page 4)




The horse and buggy days
have given way to super high-
ways and high speed travel. The
steam locomotive has given way
to diesel power and trucks, the
bi-plane to rockets and space
craft, the visions of speedy
cross-country tours to visions of
rapid trips to the moon.
These facts, coupled with the
American farmers' ability to
feed himself and 28 others, as
compared with his ability to feed
himself and 10 others only a few
years ago, reflects the fast mov-
ing pace of life today in town
and country. County Extension
workers have adjusted to this
change, and are generally ac-
cepted as specialists in subject
matter areas, as accomplished
artisans in community organi-
zation, and for their assistance
in implementing programs and
plans for the community as a
Service to individuals, so im-
portant with early Extension
workers, has largely given way
to service to large groups
through educational devices such
as schools, institutes, clinics, TV,
radio and the press. The tech-
nique today is to assist local
volunteers in developing their
own leadership capabilities, and
encourage them to extend new
methods among their neighbors.
Individual farm visits to meet
serious local problems, or to set
up demonstrations continue to
be a practice of county workers,
while at the same time these
workers explore new methods of
filling the needs of larger groups.
In numerous counties today's
Extension Service educational
programs are aided tremendous-
ly by fine facilities found in Agri-
cultural Centers, with their con-
ference rooms, auditoriums es-
pecially equipped for holding
demonstrations, livestock pavi-
lions, demonstration kitchens
and other aids. In these useful
facilities, planning meetings and

Lake County Agent

educational classes in production
and marketing problems are held
for citrus growers, beef cattle
interests and others. The Agri-
cultural Centers are in constant
use for weekly ornamental clin-
ics, water resource and use clin-
ics, classes in fabrics for con-
sumers, preparation in use of re-
tail cuts of meats, and food prep-
A well-trained staff of special-
ists back and serve county work-
ers from the state office, bring-
ing specialized training to the
people and their volunteer lead-
ers in the county. County Ex-
tension workers themselves are
better trained through intensive
in-training conferences on the
university campuses, and the
ever-increasing requirement that
these agents and specialists ob-
tain advanced degrees.
To better serve even more peo-
ple, Extension agents hold meet-
ings with, for example, citrus
production managers who man-
age thousands of acres of groves.
Information brought to this

group is passed on to members
of their clientele; thus, many
more individuals are reached.
The same technique is used with
garden supply store managers
and others to extend the infor-
mation more rapidly than by the
old procedure of individual con-
Other types of educational
services given organized groups
include farm machinery main-
tenance clinics for farmers, in-
structions in farm and home
safety, first aid, assistance in in-
creasing farm labor efficiency
and other types of information
requested by the advisory com-
mittees representing the people.
Agriculture is no longer con-
sidered simply the art and sci-
ence of growing crops, but in-
cludes the processes involved in
growing, harvesting, processing,
distributing and marketing agri-
cultural commodities-a complex
we refer to as agri-business.
This is Florida's greatest indus-
try, accounting for an annual re-
(Continued on page 5)

Extension Yesterday ..
mounts", and large alligators,
still numerous along streams
and lake margins. Our old time,
self sufficient farmers made a
large part of their living from
wild hogs and cattle on the open
range. The hogs had to be
trapped in the woods in high
walled log pens. To get into the
pen, vaccinate one, and then leap
over the top rail to safety re-
quired considerable know-how,
agility and, sometimes, good

luck. The older tuskers were
especially ferocious.
After all hogs that could be
rounded up were vaccinated I
wrote to state headquarters for
instruction on procedure. It
seemed a county agent should do
something besides vaccinate
hogs. The reply was prompt and
brief. It read "put your finger
on the most important problem
and go to work."
Since this seemed to put me
a little on my own I took a closer
look at the county's agriculture.
National advertising by local real
estate men had recently attract-
ed hundreds of new settlers.
They came all the way from
Maine to California.
Many were people of middle
age seeking "10 acres and in-
dependence" on a Florida truck
farm. Early Irish potatoes had
become the principal cash crop,
for which the land was well

suited. There did not seem to
be a serious production problem,
yet farmers were not coming out
well financially. Some farms
were lost through foreclosures.
What seemed to be the trou-
ble? A quick check pointed to-
ward unfavorable financing and
marketing of the crop. Produc-
tion was usually financed by po-
tato Factors. Fertilizer, seed po-
tatoes, containers, spray materi-
als, and S5.00 cash per acre for
incidentals were furnished the
farmer by the Factors. An in-
terest charge of 8 percent was
made covering the total value
of all cash and materials fur-
But this was not all the farm-
er paid. To each ton of ferti-
lizer, each bag of seed potatoes,
each container and to the spray
material a certain amount above
the market price was added.
This was probably done to pro-
tect the Factor from possible
losses through weather or other
hazards. A little simple arith-
metic brought out that, with in-
terest and time prices, the farm-
er was actually paying up to 40
percent interest on 90 day mon-
ey. But the only cash money he
received was 85.00 per acre for
incidentals. This looked like a
slow way to get rich. When the
crop was made and the farmer
loaded it on board freight cars,
the buyers guessed what the
price might be when the po-
tatoes reached the northern mar-
ket, and paid accordingly.
What could be done about it?
At that time there were no Ex-
tension Economists or Market-
ing Specialists at state head-
quarters for consultation. The
county agent was a kind of Lone
Ranger. Policies covering all
situations had not yet been es-
tablished. In fact we in the coun-
ties were helping to establish
policy. So, the plight of the
small-acreage potato farmer
seemed to be the problem my
finger came to rest on, and what
I was expected to go to work on.
A cooperative Potato Produc-
tion and Marketing Association

for our growers appeared a pos-
sible solution to their problem.
A canvass of all banks within
one day's drive by Model T Ford
brought the same answer. "We
will lend no money for such a
purpose on any kind of farmer's
notes, or other kind of agricul-
tural paper."
That seemed to end, tempor.-
arily, the dream of a Farmer's
Cooperative. But soon after-
wards I heard of a new bank
opening somewhat in competi-
tion with an older bank in an
adjoining county. I think the
little new bank (capitalized on
only 815,000.00) was in need of
business, because, before I left
after my first call the Banker
promised to lend me 88,000.00
cash to start my little 10 mem-
ber co-op. I hurriedly organized
my farmers, chartered them un-
der the laws of Florida, and
proceeded to do business on an
"8 percent only" basis. This
was one case where a county
agent was organizer, secretary,
financial agent, manager, buyer,
bookkeeper, field man and sales-
man for a farmer's organization.
Today such goings on would not
be permitted, and rightly so.
Extension has now grown up.
It has policies. In that far off
day some of us made policy-
the hard way.
But, to be brief, the first year's
operation turned out so well, we
took in additional members,
tripled our acreage, and the
little bank was called upon to in-
crease our loan to 825,000.00.
The farmers liked the co-op be-
cause they were now paying only
8 percent on their bank loans.
By pooling orders, and buying in
car load lots for cash, favorable
prices were obtained by compe-
titive bidding for our orders.
The savings on supplies amount-
ed to as much as 830.00 per acre
less than was charged under the
previous system. Then, by per-
suading the farmers to grade
their potatoes carefully, so as to
achieve a U. S. No. 1 grade, they
received .50, per package above
(Continued next page)

Extension Yesterday . .
the market price. This amount-
ed to $20.00 per acre more than
the regular grades brought.
Adding the $30.00 per acre
savings on supplies to the addi-
tional $20.00 per acre in prices
received, the co-op farmers came
out $50.00 per acre better than
before. Thus, during a year
when potato prices were down,
and the 10-acre, non-co-op farm-
er across the fence did no better
than break even, our 10-acre co-
op farmer pocketed $500.00.
Needless to say, all money bor-
rowed, plus 8 percent interest,
was always repaid before the
notes at the bank became due.
Well, after three years as
manager of the co-op I decided
the farmers were ready to go
on their own. They had elected
a President and Vice-President,
and all members were always
invited to every executive ses-
sion so that all understood co-
operative processes.
A direct membership was ob-
tained for them in a similar, but
larger, co-op in an adjoining
county. In this co-op a service
charge of $2.50 per acre was
made to cover the services I had
been providing free. In view of
the many savings made this
charge could well be afforded.
This short statement covering
the potato co-op might sound as
if the whole operation had been
very simple and easy. And, it
might have been so were it not
for that unpredictable, impon-
derable and often exasperating
thing called human nature. The
difficulties of financing, produc-
tion and marketing can be fore-
seen and mastered, even by the
inexperienced; but, a democratic
set-up such as our co-op, where
each member had the right to
hold and express an opinion on
how the Association should be
carried on, can become compli-
cated almost to the point of
hopelessness. Confidentially, I
lost a lot of sleep, especially dur-
ing the first two years.
After escaping direct involve..
(Continued on page 6)

and Extension Today . .
turn of approximately $2 billion
to Florida interests. Today's Ex-
tension worker is deeply involved
in this process.
Because fewer and fewer peo-
ple are involved in production of
the nation's food and fiber, some
think that agriculture has be-
come progressively less impor-
tant to the American people.
Such a fallacy can do immeasur-
able damage to agriculture and
it's ability to continue producing
food and fiber so economically.
Today's county Extension work-
er has taken on an additional
job-combating this fallacy and
working to improve the image
of agriculture. Many of the
agents' activities are designed to
demonstrate the importance of
agricultural technology tech-
nology which provides the house-
wife with so much healthful,
conveniently prepared food for
less than 20 percent of her dis-
posable income.
4-H Club work has changed,
too, in recent years. More em-
phasis is put on the joint activi-
ties of girls and boys. Teenage
emphasis is on camps, joint pro-
gram planning, investigations
into career activities, on project
and record keeping based on
agricultural sciences as well as
on the art and science of grow-
ing crops and livestock.

Public affairs-those cooper-
ative activities with other public
agencies and with civic groups-
has become an increasingly im-
portant aspect of the county Ex-
tension agents' work. Through
county Extension Service advi-
sory and planning committees,
overall development of a coun-
ty's resources is a prime goal.
This inter-agency, overall com-
munity approach involves many,
many groups, including County
Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Committees, Soil
Conservation Service, Federal
and State Forest Services, Farm-
ers Home Administration, local
chambers of commerce, local
health department, United
States Department of Agricul-
ture Research and Marketing
Services, United States Weather
Bureau, United States Fish and
Wildlife Service, Department of
Defense Rural Civil Defense Pro-
gram, and the State Department
of Agriculture.
County Extension workers are
proud of their ability to adjust
their educational responsibilities
in a dynamic and everchanging
world. The problems of educa-
tional leadership in agriculture
do indeed require "vision, initia-
tive, resourcefulness, dedication
and perseverance" if we are to
adequately fulfill a mission of
continued service to the people.

Extension Yesterday ..
ment with the potato co-op I was
able to devote more time to other
activities which were in danger
of neglect. All hogs, of course,
were kept vaccinated currently.
Scrawny, tick infested, semi-
wild cattle still roamed the open
range surrounding the cultivated
areas. Since good milk cows
were very scarce these scrub
cows were depended on as family

..... .- -

milk cows. To provide an ade-
quate milk supply for the fam-
ily, "bull circles" were organized
in three communities. Twenty
farmers in each community con-
tributed $5.00 each towards pur-
chase of a pure-bred Jersey bull.
The county agent scouted the
State for good bulls, and ar-
ranged for purchase and ship-
ment. The bull was boarded
around from farm to farm, and
many fine grade Jersey family
milk cows resulted.
Another project had to do with
increasing the planting of soil
improving legumes. When the
potato crop was dug the fields
were commonly left to grow up
in grass and weeds until time to
prepare the land for the next
potato crop. By taking the farm-
ers' orders for cowpea seeds after
the potato harvest, while they
were optimistic about next years'
profits, I was able to get them to

order enough seed to plant up
the entire prospective potato
acreage. When the peas were
turned under in preparation for
the next crop the soil was mel-
low, and contained a very bene-
ficial amount of nitrogen.
Organized 4-h club work re-
quired a considerable amount of
the county agent's time, but be-
came one of the most fruitful
means for converting the old-
sters to the need for better live-
stock, improved strains of seed
corn and other high quality
seeds, and the application of bet-
ter farm practices.
Since 4-H was also a comple-
tely new idea at the time, it was
a bit slow in getting started.
But, after a few of the 4-H'ers
paved the way, the parents lent
full support. Both boys and girls
enrolled. Mrs. Nieland helped
out by teaching the regular first
and second year 4-H girls sew-
ing courses. My contribution
was to collect all of the members
that lived within a 10-mile circle
of my home and bring them to
the meeting each Saturday af-
ternoon, and, after their lessons,
get them home again before
dark. In the boy's department
a 4-H calf or pig was often the
first pure bred animal to be found
in a farming community. The
first 4-H Forestry club in the

State was also organized at that
The foregoing are, of course,
only a few of a county agent's
activities. At the time the agent
had to be something of a plant
pathologist, veterinarian, soils
specialist, fertilizer authority,
marketing specialist and ento-
mologist. He was also required
to exhibit the county's agricul-
tural products at the State Fair
and remain with the display 14
hours each day for two weeks.
To cover his expenses he was
allowed S50.00. This was sup-
posed to cover meals and hotel
expenses, pay the farmer top
prices for fruits and vegetables
needed for display, and also de-
fray the cost of lumber and
other material needed to build
and decorate the booth. Yes,
those were the good old days
when dollars were much scarcer
than today, and people had to
"make do". Since the means
were small, the effort towards
accomplishment had to be cor-
respondingly great.
Finally as the depression ap-
proached, tax collections in our
little county dwindled until the
agricultural f u n d became de-
pleted. The county was five
months in arrears with my sal-
ary, and the immediate future
looked none too bright. So, when
the State Forester came down
from Tallahassee to ask me to
join his organization I had little
choice but to accept.
As stated in the beginning,
Extension has progressed tre-
mendously since that distant day
when we early county agents
were groping to find the way. In
manpower, training and experi-
ence the Service is now splendid-
ly equipped. And that is as it
must be. Even though so vastly
better prepared, the problems of
agriculture have, it is feared,
grown proportionately, and are
possibly even more challenging,
Probably never before has the
need for vision, initiative, re-
sourcefulness, dedication and
perseverance been so great as


1 To the People of Florida
2 Extension Yesterday ... and Extension Today
8 Suwannee Bets on a Livestock Boom
10 St. Augustine Primps for 400th Birthday
13 Dade 4-H Girls Help the Handicapped
14 Skippy's Records Tell the Story of an Outstanding Leader
16 Extension Teams with Public Housing Authority
18 Grocerymen Modernize to Attract Customer's Eye
20 Hobby Quickly Turns into Booming Business
22 Marketing Group Helps Stabilize Strawberry Prices
23 4-H Summer Camp Picture Story
27 4-H Club Project Gives 500 Youngsters First Rec Program
28 Po!e Bean Co-op Helps Dade Farmers Sidestep Losses
30 Central Florida Poultry Co-op
32 1963 Statistical Report
37 Family Business Is Big Business for Melbourne Housewife
37 Demonstration Club Stresses Nutrition to Cut Pounds
38 Their Target: Improved Life for Florida Indians
40 Extension Takes Message to People Via Television
42 Florida's Top Young Farmers
44 "Mums" the Word in Martin County
45 Nassau Housewives "Re-cover" $1,000
46 Youngsters Dodge Bombs During Unique Summer Camp
48 Cuban Farmer Makes Rapid Adjustment
49 Her Problem Was $3,000 Big
50 The Accent's on Florida Living
52 Florida's Exclusive Industry: Tupelo Honey Production
53 4-H'ers Visit Washington
54 The Mannequin Who May Save Your Life
56 Merry and Machine Sew Way Through College
57 4-H'ers Put Accent on Nutrition for State Fair
58 Old Citrus Family Expands with New Idea
60 Pinellas Women Join Hands to Provide Nurse Care, Clothes


Bets on

a LivestocI

Can Suwannee double its livestock economy in five years?

Phase one of a drive to boost
Suwannee count y's livestock
production from a gross of $5
million to $10 million a year by
1969 was completed February
18, 1964.
As several hundred people
looked on in surprise, $5,100
worth of top quality cattle and
hogs were paraded past banquet
tables at the Agricultural Coli-
seum in Live Oak and presented
to 23 proud winners of the coun-
ty's Livestock Promotion Pro-
ject. They were the first year
Top winner, and recipient of
$1,500 worth of thoroughbred
cattle, was Manuel Fernandez,
the county's only farmer of
Spanish descent. County agent
Paul Crews describes Fernandez
as a man who "personally tends

to every detail of managing his
Second and third place win-
ners were A. W. Ross, Sr., who
won a $1,000 Hereford bull and
cow; and A. J. Lord, who won a
$750 Angus bull. Nineteen other
winners received purebred hogs
worth $100 each. One winning
farmer added a special highlight
to the evening by gratuitously
declining his prize and asking
that it be passed along to the
first alternate.
"With that one exception,"
said Crews, "all were what you
might call 'small.farmers'. The
man who gave his prize away
was a large-scale rancher who
participated in order to support
the program in its first year."
The Suwannee County Live-
stock Promotion Program start-

ed in 1963 after several months
of careful planning. Initiated by
two or three prominent men in-
terested in the county's agricul-
tural economy, it was sponsored
by the county Chamber of Com-
merce. Merchants and the coun-
ty's "big" farmers are donating
prize money.
One of the prime movers for
the project is Lamar Hancock,
chairman of the Chamber's Agri-
cultural Committee. He proposed
the idea to Chamber officials and
was told if he could get $2,500
in pri z e commitments, the
Chamber would get behind the
"It really only took about 15
minutes to convince them," Han-
cock said. "Mostly it was a mat-
ter of explaining why the project
would be important to the econ-


Hancock is also a member of
the Suwannee County Commis-
sion. He told that group that
the project, which initially will
last five years and award $25,000
in prizes, has generated consider-
able enthusiasm for Suwannee's
livestock potential.
The project is designed to put
some "forward motion" in the
county's agriculture, which has
experienced a leveling off in in-
come during the last few years.
For example, tobacco, the undis-
puted king of Suwannee agricul-
ture, reached a peak in 1962 and
declined sharply in income in
1963. The decline was over one
million dollars from the 84.7
million 1962 figure.
For several years, progressive
individuals in the county-both
farmers and non-farmers-have
been viewing widespread pro-
duction of livestock as a pos-
sible breakthrough in this level-
ing off and decline.
Almost unnoticed, livestock
production became the number
one income producer for Suwan-
nee county farmers in 1963,
something over $5 million. This
added fuel to the idea that the
county's f u t u r e agricultural
prosperity would rest with cattle
and hogs.
The reason for this shift to
livestock is self-evident. The
county has an abundance of pas-
ture, a multi-million bushel corn
output, and progressive farmers.
Hancock said there was very
little trouble selling merchants
and county leaders on pledging
the $25,000 total needed for
prizes. He simply pointed out
that when production was im-
proved, farmers would both have
larger operations and make more
money. This would affect every
business and industry in the

county. Actually, it took only
two or three days to get the nec-
essary pledges for a total of $5,-
000 per year from more than 70
"There was practically no op-
position from the businessmen,"
Hancock relates, "I only had two
refusals from all the people I
contacted. And, I think one of
them is coming around."
The project is designed mainly
for small farmers and ranchers,
according to agent Crews. "We
don't exclude anyone, but many
of our big producers are sup-
porting the project and some
participate just to encourage
other farmers and make it a
success." One hundred seventy-
five or about 15 percent of the
county's farmers, signed up dur-
ing the six weeks that registra-
tion was open (March, 1963).
To participate in the program,
farmers must submit an account-
ing of their livestock on hand
and the value of these livestock.
This entry sheet also includes
a breakdown of how points can
be earned for following recom-
mended practices, such as dis-
ease control,- quality of breeding
stock, use of home-grown feeds,
membership in county livestock
associations, and pasture prac-
The participating farmer esti-
mates how well he qualifies and
submits his score along with the
inventory information. All of
the information is transcribed to
tally sheets which contain no

names. Two or three times dur-
ing the year the farmer submits
a new data sheet. From the tally
sheets, points are totaled and
production increase percentages
are figured. The top 35 records
are then submitted to a three-
man judging committee. This
year's committee was made up
of Don Adams, Florida Power
and Light Co., G. C. Norman
with the Vocational Agriculture
Department, and Gifford Rhodes
of the Florida Department of
The judging committee de-
scended on Suwannee county for
three days late in 1963, working
both night and day, according to
Crews. They personally visited
each of the top 35 farming oper-
ations. Some were visited two or
three times.
The results were 24 winners
who received awards February
Before the judging started,
each participating farmer was
asked to assume he would win
the $1,500 prize and to name
what livestock he would want.
Results of the judging were kept
locked up tight until the night
of the banquet.
Community leaders are highly
pleased with the first year of
this production project. "We
knew the first year might be a
little rough," Crews says, "but
our response has been terrific.
I feel sure we will have 200 or
300 more farmers participating
next year."

SFirst Promotion Project winner Fernandez calls
each of his purebred cattle by name when
it's dinner time.

Even the hometown folks "make like tourists" sometimes. Erl-
joying a leisurely walk along famous Ponce de Leon Circle,
County Agent Paul Dinkins, Mrs. H. E. Wolfe and Mrs. Virginia
White reminisce about public sentiment when they moved the
palms from the circle to the bayfront (in background). At left,
one of St. Augustine's quaint horse-drawn surreys crosses the
crowded boulevard.

I- -

at taKt'

St. Augustine-q u a i n t and
beautiful historical s it e-is
combing her hair for a long
awaited 400th birthday early in
The oldest community in the
United States, visited daily by
hundreds of curious tourists, ex-
pects thousands more to stroll
its narrow streets and ride in
its horse-drawn surrys during
the celebration. And, while the
proud citizens of St. Augustine
protect f r o m destruction the
quaint old Spanish buildings like
mother hens, many of them have
been working zealously for the
past eight years to accent the
scene with modern landscaping.
To a city where a new and
modern department store is
strictly unwelcome, any altera-
tion of "the old" might seem in-
congruous. At first some people
did object.
Take, for example, famed Pon-
ce de Leon Circle, hub of the
historical downtown section. For
decades the majestic statue of
the renowned Spanish explorer
stood nearly hidden by tall, sur-
rounding palms. A group of gar-
den club members, with the
blessing of the "city fathers",
began relandscaping the trian-
gular-shaped site by transplant-
ing its palms across the street
near the Bridge of Lions. The
idea was to substitute shrubs of
various heights to accentuate
the statue.
"It brought cries of protest
from some people," says Mrs. H.
E. Wolfe, one leader of the beau-
tification effort. "Some people
even brought in some shoots of
corn and planted them. They
didn't notice that the palms were
transplanted right across the
The protests didn't last as the
beautification work neared com-
Beautification of P o n c e de
Leon Circle was the first project
in an eight-year plan to make
St. Augustine not only the old-
est city in Florida, but also the
most beautiful.
The movement began within

several of the community's gar-
den clubs. Mrs. Wolfe was named
chairman of an inter-club com-
mittee to develop a beautifica-
tion program. The committee
asked former county agent P. M.
McMullen to serve in an advisory
capacity, and two University of
Florida horticulturists, Dr. E. W.

Cannon and
Ponce de Leon's
sword look
ominous, but
are belied
by beautiful
at city's
north gate.

McElwee and Dr. Jasper Joiner
were called in.
McElwee and Joiner spoke to
the group and made a tour of
the city. They suggested draw-
ing up an overall beautification
plan and offered to provide tech-
nical help.
One great obstacle was to ob-
tain the money that would be
needed to carry out such a pro-
ject. Next in importance was
the problem of cooperation from
city, county and state officials
(since much of the property to
receive treatment was public),
and obtaining manpower.

All three questions were re-
solved by some convincing argu-
ments from the garden club
ladies to local government offi-
cials. The group outlined an
eight-year project aimed at the
1965 celebration. Using this
talking point, both city and coun-
ty governments agreed to budget

funds annually, and pledged sup-
port from their maintenance per-
The decision to grant funds
to garden clubs, made it neces-
sary to form a corporation to
carry out the. project-now
known as the St. Johns County
Beautification Association. It
is made up of members of 13 St.
Augustine -and St. Johns county
garden clubs.
Contributions from local gov-
ernment to this organization
have amounted to between $7,-
000 to $9,000 per year. From
this operating budget, the beau-

^^. w- m

^ ~ r .*^P11"--^- '.* ...-.
.^ A ^r.

Mrs. Wolfe talks about moving palm
to be opened in 1965.

tification association employs a
full time superintendent and
planter, buys equipment, and
buys plants, shrubs and trees.
The county donates the services
of three laborers to C. G. Coch-
ran, the current superintendent.
Landscaping a private home is
one matter; but landscaping an
entire city and the fringe areas,
including all approaching high-
ways, is quite another. Garden
club members, since they started
the movement, didn't need ad-
ditional enthusiasm; but, they
represented only about 300 mem-
bers of the community.
The county agent and Exten-
sion specialists suggested an edu-
cational program not only to give
technical help in horticulture to
garden club members, but to in-
terest and motivate homeowners
in general to take on their own
little projects.
First step of the Extension-
inspired educational program
was an eight-week ornamental
school for which 163 persons reg-
istered. All phases of home
landscaping were covered.
Meanwhile, in order for Ex-
tension to broaden its role in the
city-county beautification pro-
gram, the county program plan-
ning committee decided to place
major emphasis on ornamental
horticulture. County. agents ini-
tiated a column in the Sunday
edition of the St. Augustine Rec-
ord to pass along vital homeown-
er information. The Home Dem-
onstration Council decided to

trees at site of new amphitheater,

sponsor a home grounds im
provement program among mem
bers. Programs included dem
onstrations and lectures b
agents and club chairmen a
local as well as county-wid
The overall landscaping pla
called for beautification of Ponc
de Leon Circle, the approach t
the Bridge of Lions and highway
along the waterfront, several
miles of highway leading to Elk
ton and Hastings, the city'
famed north gate and several
miles of U. S. 1 north of the city
and several public buildings in
eluding the hospital, armory, in
formation Center, high schoc
and museum.
Latest of the projects is a ne
amphitheater which will be
main attraction for Quadricer
tennial visitors celebration nex

fi r
As Mrs. White,
Dinkins look on
Mrs. Wolfe
motions toward
low-growing -
shrubs used on
"Ponce Circle".


year. Located just off U. S. 1
south of the city, the amphi-
theater will allow 1800 people to
watch "the St. Augustine Story"
each night.
Rolling terrain, aided by ex-
cavation for the seats and stage,
has created a real challenge for
the Cherokee Garden Club which
Shas accepted the project. Much
of the native foliage is being left,
but palms and shrubs are being
added to the scene.
Mrs. Wolfe, wife of an influen-
tial St. Johns county rancher,
has heen a hard working, mov-
ing force in the beautification
program. But, so have many
other garden club members who
y have worked endless hours on
,t the many landscaping projects.
e All resource information has
come from Extension-through
n former county agent McMullen
e and present agent Paul Dinkins,
o and University specialists Mc-
y Elwee and Joiner. Two former
al University ornamental special-
- ists, Sylvester Rose and Ralph
s White, also worked with the St.
Il Augustine ladies.
r, "You have seen the results by
driving around the city," Mrs.
i- Wolfe points out. "It just shows
)l you what you can do by work-
ing together. People are becom-
w ing more interested in ornament-
a al horticulture. The Extension
i- office has helped us do more than
:t we ever dreamed could be done."



Jeanette Parkhurst, 1963 "Easter
Seal Girl," is shown with 4-H'ers
Linda Santamaria, Loretta Bus-
siere, Rita Reese and Judy Munc.

/ I

Dade 4-H Girls Help the Handicapped

Dade County 4-H Club girls and
the Dade County Home Demon-
stration Council teamed up this
year to help handicapped children
help themselves.
While serving as a member of
the Junior Volunteer Corps of the
Crippled Children's Society, Rita
Reece, president of the Dade Coun-
ty 4-H Council, realized handi-
capped children have a real prob-
lem with the clothing.
Rita talked with home demon-
stration agent Mrs. Helen MacTav-
ish, and with advisors at the
Crippled Children's Center about
giving 4-H Club girls an oppor-
tunity to put their 4-H skills and
know-how to work. They would
try designing clothes that the
youngsters themselves could easily
put on and take off.
The Center said an enthusiastic
"yes" to the idea. The 4-H Club
Council could hardly wait to get
it underway. And the Dade Coun-
ty Home Demonstration Council
came forward with funds necessary
to launch the project.

Before the girls could start a
"self-help" wardrobe, they had to
make a meticulous, step-by-step
study of design and construction.
Along with Mrs. MacTavish, they
spent some time at the rehabilita-
tion center and became acquainted
with the children for whom the
clothes were being made.
After studying each child's dis-
ability the 4-H Club girls tailored
each garment with a particular
child in mind.
Many children had to wear leg
braces. Others had crippled hands,
arms, and shoulders. One child
was confined with braces over his
whole body and even had to sleep
in them. All of these disabilities
required considerable attention to
every detail, seam, and opening in
the garment.
The girls adapted each pattern
to suit the individual child with
special openings in the garment.
They sought the latest facts and
samples of special zippers, magnetic
tape, and other new-style fasteners.
Girls' clothing got special atten-
tion. The 4-H'ers chose good-

quality, easy-care material for the
girls' garments. Colors were cued
to the individual's personality and
Rita says, "To a child who feels
awkward or different because of
a handicap, attractive detail or
trim is pleasing and may bring the
compliment that puts a twinkle in
her eye."
Rita and the 4-H girls bought
rugged ready-made trousers and
dungarees for the boys and ad-
justed them to fit each child, allow-
ing for his disability. The finished
garments, with inseams opened and
zippers and magnetic tape inserted
in the trousers made it possible for
the child to dress himself without
too much trouble.
The children wear their special-
ly designed clothes with pride.
These specially designed garments
are helping to give them a feeling
of independence and confidence.
From this 4-H experiment in
helping others, mothers of the han-
dicapped are learning how to make
and adapt clothing to fit their chil-
dren's needs.

Certificates for outstanding 4-H and community
work. Below, Skippy and classmate wear char-
acteristic "frosh beanies" as they prepare to go

An Outstanding Leader

A 4-H record book represents endless hours .
of work. Its size may vary from half an inch
to more than three inches thick, depending on
the achievements and enthusiasm of its author.
Right at the beginning of each record book,
however, is a summary sheet into which a boy or
girl is expected to cram all of the significant in-
formation possible. Two of the most important -* 1, .,i l i
entries in that summary are made by the parents b
and by the local club leader. v,
The two statements made about Louis "Skip-
py" Lambert speak eloquently for the somewhat
"Skippy's records speak for themselves. He
believes very strongly in 4-H and the youth of
America. He is always willing a to assume the E
responsibility of leading the 4-H program through
has worked very diligently with his local club,
county council, and district and state councils .
He fits well into any situation where leadership is
"He has received many awards as a result of


outstanding achievements. He is admired and
respected by everyone he comes in contact with.
"Skippy" Lambert is worthy of any merit that
he might receive as a reward for his efforts."
These statements, made by club leader Mrs.
Carl Exner, amplify the more succinct words of
Skippy's father, Louis N. Lambert: ". .He is
always willing to help in community affairs and
seems to enjoy it. I think 4-H has helped him
grow up and develop into a very understanding
person. It has kept him ambitious and always
doing something .."
These, of course, are opinions about 18-year-
old Skippy Lambert from those people closest to
him in his home county. But, the state office
is equally proud of the slender youth who ranks
as one of four of the most outstanding 4-H'ers
in the state. He will join Fred Dieterich of Or-
lando, Sharon Hoffman of Sarasota, and Nancy
Shaw of Manatee county as the state's delegates
to the National 4-H Conference in Washington,
D. C.
Skippy is about to complete his first year at
Pensacola Junior College-just 25 miles down the
road from the family homestead near Cantonment.
Although he has always lived on a farm, he at-
tended city schools, graduating in the upper third
of his class from Tate high school in Pensacola.
It was natural for Skippy to join a 4-H club
when he reached the minimum age-9. Both of
his parents, Louis and Dorothy, are 4-H alumni
and Mrs. Lambert has been a club leader for sev-
eral years despite the heavy load of a family
and a full-time job as a registered nurse.
From the beginning young Lambert did well
in his projects. He began four in 1956 that have
been continued every year to date-dairy, poultry,
corn and forestry. But by his own words, Skippy
didn't understand or even think much about the
phase of 4-H which has become his main interest-
"I was elected to an office in my club in 1956
(reporter), but that didn't mean too much for I
didn't realize how important that was."
Since that first year Lambert has been elected
to an office in his club-which has averaged about
20 members-every year. He served as secretary
for four years, and treasurer, vice president and
president one year each.
As his interest in leadership increased, the
demand for Skippy's talents increased. He was
elected treasurer of the Escambia county council
of 4-H clubs in 1958, secretary in 1959, and has
been either vice president or president each year
In 1961 other 4-H'ers recognized his county
leadership by naming him to both district and
state offices. In 1962 Skippy was elected state
vice president.
Leadership and citizenship have gone hand in

hand for Lambert. His list of community acti-
vities would put most of the older generation to
shame. This work has not, however, been over-
looked by the county's adult community leaders.
In addition to 4-H's "I Dare You" award, Skippy
has received the Pensacola Elks club leadership
award, an Elks club safety award which included
a trip to a safety conference in Little Rock, Ark.,
and numerous other leadership and citizenship
Outstanding in corn production, Lambert was
state winner in the general agriculture project in
1961 and attended the National 4-H Club Con-
gress in Chicago.
Community activities have included work in
the polio, heart and cancer drives, safety work,
and work with the Junior Red Cross-to mention
only a few highlights. Skippy's high school days
were very busy. An all around athlete, theEs-
cambia county youth found time to serve as a
class officer and as a member of the student
council, and to work in the Future Teachers, sci-
ence and math clubs.

Skippy and
mother, Mrs. "
Dorothy Lambert,
Look over
4-H Magazine.

Skippy's outstanding 4-H work has brought
many rewards. He has learned that hard work
has brought honors and trips that otherwise he
could never have experienced. He honestly ad-
mits these have been enjoyable, and that they have
provided him an extra impetus for continuing in
4-H as long as he has. In writing a summary of
his work Lambert recently said:
"My biggest aim this year is helping other
boys and girls to have the great experiences I
have enjoyed. Club work teaches us to be good
hard working citizens . I wish every boy and
girl could have the opportunities that I have had
to belong to such a worthwhile organization."
Lambert hasn't decided about his future. He
is certain he wants the next stop to be the Uni-
versity of Florida. The goal may be a degree in
one of the laboratory sciences, but Skippy is still
testing the academic waters. Mom, dad and 15-
year-old sister Brenda are none too anxious to see
him leave home.




Public Housing Authority
To Help People

Adapting Extension educational programs to the needs of
people in Jacksonville's public housing areas involved coordi-
nation between two state agencies. Shown above are Mrs.
Bernice Jackson, secretary to PHA director Ed Lorimer (stand-
ing). Mrs. Bessie Canty (center), Assistant Home Demonstration
Agent for special programs, and Duval Home Demonstration
Agent Mrs. Nellie Mills look over map of one development.

One of the great struggles in an
affluent society is helping all seg-
ments of the society improve their
standards of living.
The challenge of helping low-
income families live better within
their means and improve their liv-
ing standards is being met more
and more by cooperation among
federal and state agencies.
One excellent example of this
cooperation is found in Duval coun-
ty where the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service is working with the
Public Housing Administration to
better conditions among low-in-
come families.
"One of the first things you must
understand about the term 'low in-
come', is that all types of people
are involved," says Mrs. Nellie
Mills, Duval Home Demonstration
Agent. "One of the big low-income
groups is made up of retired people
who must learn to live on limited
Social Security payments."
Mrs. Mills points out that illness,
with accompanying financial re-
verses because the bread-winner
is incapacitated, is another contri-
butor to the low income problem.
In many cases, people must com-
pletely change their way of living
and learn new methods of using
the money available.
Early in 1963 the Federal Hous-
ing Authority contacted the Hous-
ing Authority of Jacksonville and
encouraged that non-profit, muni-
cipally administered organization
to ask for help from Duval coun-
ty's Extension office. (Similar con-
tacts were made in several other
Florida counties.)
Ed Lorimer, director of the Jack-
sonville PHA was well acquainted
with Mrs. Mills and her work, and
telephoned her almost immediate-
ly. Soon after this call Lorimer and
members of his staff met with Mrs.
Mills and with Mrs. Bessie Canty,
Duval assistant agent in charge of
special programs.
Lorimer told the home econom-
ics specialists there was a great op-
portunity for Extension to help a
large number of people in three
Jacksonville public housing projects
involving several hundred units.

Since people living in the public
housing units were of limited in-
comes (applicants for h o u s i n g
must meet certain maximum in-
come requirements), instruction in
homemaking, use of household ap-
pliances (many of which were
completely unknown to some of the
residents), and meal planning to
fit a tight budget were given high-
est priority. Extension had the re-
sources to set up educational pro-
grams along these lines.
Mrs. Mills and Mrs. Canty admit
the extreme need for help probably
overshadowed all other considera-
tions-such as taking several months
to plan an approach. They accepted
the challenge to move ahead imme-
diately relying on the housing
authority's ability to contact peo-
"We weren't entirely satisfied
with the average age of the people
who attended the special interests
schools set up in the next few
weeks," Mrs. Mills says. "Of
course we wanted more young
homemakers. But we expect more
young people in future meetings
by having more time to raise inter-
est in advance."
Mrs. Canty's meetings in two of
the housing projects, Blodgett and
Durkeville, were more successful
in attracting young homemakers.
The first series of "special inter-
est" meetings lasted six weeks.
(Special interest groups is the term
applied to educational programs
not carried out through regularly
organized Home Demonstration
clubs. )
The subjects covered in the 1963
six-week series were designed for
two purposes in many cases. Since
public housing is a long-term inves-
ment for Jacksonville, the author-
ity's management is always inter-
ested in having units well cared
for by tenants. Lessons on making
housework easier stressed a good
attitude toward housework, meth-
ods of improving skills, and how to
save time, money and energy. By
making housework easier, both the
people and the housing develop-
ment benefited.

Since housewives attending the
training sessions were interested in
ways they could make their food
dollars go further, the Duval home
economists found a receptive au-
dience for some ideas on good
nutrition as a way of maintaining
better health.
Some of the people were totally
unfamiliar with many household
appliances. All homes in the de-
velopment p r o j e cts have fully
equipped kitchens, (furniture for
the rest of the house must be sup-
plied by the tenant) but not all of
the tenants knew how to use this
equipment and it was either being
misused or not used at all. Some
tenants thought they could save
money, for example, by turning off
the hotwater heater at night. This
is one of the examples that Lorimer
discussed with Mrs. Mills and Mrs.
Other programs in the six-week
series covered control of pests in-
side and outside the home, and
safety in and around the home.
Both subjects were popular.
When the home economics speci-
alists first met with their groups,
they discussed some of the subjects
to be covered, but opened the door
for members of the groups to ex-
press their needs and problems.
This has given the Extension agents
a better insight for planning future
programs within the housing de-
This is not the first example of
work with low-income groups in
Duval county. The Home Dem-
onstration staff has several "speci-
al interest" groups in connection
with churches, schools, and the
Welfare Department, and often
reaches into this area through an
active 4-H club program.
Mrs. Louise Lewis and Mrs. Inez
Walden, assistants to Lorimer in
management of the three public
housing projects involved, worked
closely with Mrs. Mills and Mrs.
Canty in carrying out the pro-
Work with public housing au-
thorities is in progress in other
counties including Dade, Pinellas,
Volusia, Walton, and Hillsborough.

Grocerymen Modernize t(

Produce Lane Was Often Crowded

q 3

A housewife is similar to a fish in a lake when
it comes to shopping for fresh produce at her
favorite market.
Like a bass lurking under a patch of water
hyacinths, the housewife will be drawn to an
appealing lure she sees-such as crisp vegetables
or succulent fruits. A wise grocreyman knows
that she'll at least buy a head of lettuce while
on produce lane, but chances are good she'll buy
more if the produce is attractively packaged and

Generally speaking, fresh foods bring higher
returns to the grocer and the farmer. It natural-
ly follows that these two groups are interested
in food merchandizing practices and consumer
acceptance of fresh produce.
Florida's retail grocers are quick to realize
that using the latest methods in selling and oper-
ating efficiency mean greater sales at lower oper-
ating expenses. They know the "whys" and are
eager to learn the howss" of better merchandiz-
ing. Annually, many Florida grocers improve their
store operations by attending training sessions
taught by Dr. Stanley E. Rosenberger, associate
marketing specialist.
Rosenberger conducts sales, handling and oper-
ational efficiency improvement classes periodically
around the state, teaching store produce man-
agers how to beef up sales through modern pack-
aging, displays, pricing, and quality maintenance
procedures. He shows ways by which grocery-
men can cut working time while increasing per-
sonnel productivity.
In essence, applying improved sales methods
is like the fisherman who tosses in his most deli-
cious-looking lure to the cautious bass in the
water below.
Grocers sometimes drive 300 miles roundtrip
to attend one of Rosenberger's schools, which
usually consists of four weekly meetings. These
night classes cover the latest findings from con-
sumer habits to display building. Movies are
often shown to illustrate improved techniques.
To prove his merchandizing principles, Rosen-
berger will offer to revamp a grocery store's entire
produce department. He will implement new sell-
ing methods and arrange the produce area to take
advantage of maximum efficiency. Then records
are kept before and after the demonstration to
show how the changes influenced the store's sales
and operations.
A prime example of a successful demonstra-
tion was held at Earl's Market in Dade County
in 1958, where he and other specialists pooled
their ideas.
This was a cooperative effort with federal and
state Extension specialists contributing methods
developed through research. Earl's Market was
selected to put these theories into commercial
Owner Earl Bussey agreed to go along with
this merchandizing acid test. Within a year, he
was utilizing most of the specialists' recom-

attract Customer's Eye

mendations in his produce department with the
exception of display refrigerators and a rear-
ranged sales area. These improvements were too
expensive for immediate installation, but were
completed in 1962.
The "before" and "after" comparisons were
remarkable. The fresh fruit and vegetable sales
zoomed to S170,000 per year, up from 8140,000
prior to the demonstration. This increase oc-
curred when the produce sales of many nearby
markets were slipping.
Rosenberger can cite more statistics which
attest to the effectiveness of the changes. "Pro-
duce sales now comprise 9 percent of total sales
in Earl's Market as compared to 6 percent before.
The number of sales per man hour doubled, while
the working time was nearly cut in half."
The improvements not only gave Earl's prod-
uce sales a shot in the arm, but also increased
labor and space efficiency.
What exactly caused this amazing spurt in
We can get an indication by noting the prac-
tices of the produce department that were altered.
First, the specialists built bright, attractive
displays to catch the customer's eye and whet
her tastebuds. Then the sales area where the
produce counters were located was rearranged in a
more accessible manner. A produce work table
was put in an ordinarily congested area which
helped cut time in preparation and packaging.
At the rear entrance of the store a new time
and labor-saving device was used. Instead of
transferring produce deliveries from the truck
to the store one container at a time, packages
were loaded onto portable floats and moved into
the store in larger quantities.
Rosenberger noted that personnel morale ac-
counted partially for the success of the demonstra-
tion. Personnel wanted to work "smarter not
harder" and responded to the cleaner more or-
ganized work area.
Now sales are up, employees are happier and
the management has a deep sense of satisfaction.
In May of 1963, Rosenberger held a training
school for the Certified Grocers of Florida. The
theme of the session was "Sell More and Waste
Less". After the school was completed, stores
that had personnel attending reported produce
sales increases of 25 percent over previous sales
levels. To further underscore the effectiveness
of the newly-acquired techniques, the grocers

Until Specialist Revamped Display Area

pointed out that sales per man-hour jumped 48
Rosenberger's emphasis on selling and oper-
ational efficiency help to keep the lid on rising
food costs. By making fresh foods more appeal-
ing, the consumer buys more. By reducing costs
and increasing sales per man-hour, the grocer
earns a larger return on investment. And direct-
ly benefiting from the work of marketing special-
ists is the farmer who can grow and sell more
fresh produce.

Mrs. Sarah King, youthful Marion county grand-
mother of 11, has a thriving little florist shop in
Dunnellon, thanks to a lot of initiative and a helping
hand from the Agricultural Extension Service.
What started as a hobby for Mrs. King, native
Alabaman who has always loved flowers, quickly
mushroomed into something much larger than she
ever dreamed for the quiet little community of 1,500
The hobby was started when Mrs. King decided
she could help friends and neighbors with flower ar-
rangements since Dunnellon did not have a florist
shop. Setting aside a spare bedroom as a work room,
she began making arrangements for clubs and parties
from flowers the customers brought in. Since it was
a hobby, she did the work for'fun.
The business was started after Mrs. King shared
a flower arranging correspondence course with her
sister. After completing the course she decided
flower arranging was not only fun, but could be
Some of her interest was generated after she
helped organize Dunnellon's only Home Demonstra-
tion club. Mrs. King had met Elsie Garrett, Marion
county's home demonstration agent, when Mrs. Gar-
rett judged a Dunnellon sewing contest. Soon, Sarah
asked the home agent if she could organize a Home
Demonstration club.
This was not Mrs. King's first contact with Agri-
cultural Extension work. She had been a 4-H club
member and knew the kind of work carried on by
Expanding a hobby into a paying business re-
quired many hours of work. Mr. King encouraged
his wife, but since he already had a full time job
with Dixie Lime his blessing was somewhat reserved:
"If you want to do that, you do that; but I don't want
to mess with it."
Sarah wasn't discouraged since she expected the
business to be her project. Soon, however, Lee King
was giving suggestions.
The first problem was space. The spare bedroom
was fine for a hobby, but woefully inadequate for
even a little business. The first addition to the house
was made allowing for plenty of storage, access to
the outside for the public, and lots of light.
Mrs. King enrolled in another correspondence
course from a well-known Texas flower arranger,
and attended shortcourses and workshops given
through Extension.
"The correspondence courses were fine, of course,"
Mrs. King says, "but, something in writing on this
subject can.never substitute for seeing a demonstra-
Former Extension horticulturist Sylvester Rose
conducted one workshop attended by Mrs. King. "It
was there that I learned to achieve depth."
Since flowers are highly perishable, the business
had not grown much before Mrs. King realized she
needed refrigeration equipment. Again she contacted

Hobby Quickly Turns

Into Booming Business


. ^...; -.. / -- ; ,:". .^ l ----

Mrs. King makes no secret of the business which is
in her home. The house is surrounded by plants and
flowers. Mr. King has taken a real interest.


One recent addition to Mrs. King's business is walk-
in refrigerator-very necessary to the rapidly expand-
ing business. Sliding glass doors allow customers to
see finished arrangements in the cooler.

Mrs. Garrett who, in turn, wrote University of Florida
Extension specialists for technical help.
Mrs. King caters to parties, weddings, and school
activities in addition to providing flowers for funerals.
Advertising is confined pretty much to the local area,
but since the business is listed in a national florist pub-
lication, she often gets business from Georgia and
Alabama. She also draws business from several small
surrounding communities.
In addition to flower sales and arrangements, Sara
sells potted plants, vases and artificial arrangements.
There isn't enough time to remain active in Home
Demonstration work in the club that she organized
and served as president for two years, but Mrs. King
still follows the club's activities and attends as many
horticultural shortcourses and meetings as time allows.
And, just as her hobby outgrew the spare bed-
room, now the business has outgrown the addition to
the house. Next on the agenda is construction of a
greenhouse behind the shop. Fortunately, the King's
lot Is large enough for lots of expansion.
When completed, the greenhouse will be used to
expand the stock of potted plants and flowers.
Extension assistant horticulturist Charles Conover
is advising the ambitious Dunnellon businesswoman
in this latest venture.
Mr. King's reaction? Not quite so reserved this
"In fact," Sarah relates, "he's become real inter-
ested and has taken over our bookkeeping. He also
makes some of the deliveries and says there is some-
thing very satisfying about the business."

Mrs. King shows
arrangement to
Home Demonstration
Agent Elsie Garrett.

Marketing Group Helps

Stabilize Strawberry Prices

Strawberry shortcake is a pretty fine way to
top off a good roast beef or turkey dinner. And,
although strawberries make some people break
out in a rash, they are still one of America's
favorite dessert fruits.
Plant City in Hillsborough county is one of
Florida's major strawberry producing areas of
the state. Until three years ago, strawberry
producers ran a daily race with the clock to get
berries to market before noon. That was when
the price would fall, and that three or four cents-
per-pint break in price was often the margin of
profit for some producers.
This was only one of many problems faced by
those producing strawberries for residents in
Florida and some other southern states. And,
since strawberry production is a S3 or S4-million
business in Hillsborough county, this one prob-
lem was enough to cause concern among some
of the county's business and agricultural leaders.
Of course, there were other problems, includ-
ing how to control quality of the berries from the
time they left the producer until the time they
reached the consumer.
Although many of the producers did not need
their problems pointed out to them-they were
fully aware-a marketing school conducted by
Extension specialists Kenneth Gilbraith and Dr.
Ned Cake, pointed out not only the problems, but
many possible solutions.
Producers, themselves, were not the only peo-
ple interested in the future of the strawberry
industry. Don Storms, chairman of the Hills-
borough County Chamber of Commerce's Agri-
cultural Committee, was impressed not only by
the problems but by the possible solutions.
Storms and his committee were instrumental
in bringing some of the producers together for a
discussion. From this meeting came organiza-
tion of the Hillsborough County Marketing Com-
mission, Inc. Veteran grower Osburn Griffin was

Marketing Commission president Osburn Griffin
shows quality of Hillsborough berries to Assistant
County Agent Donald Downs.

elected president the first year and has continued
in that capacity.
"Cake and Gilbraith helped with our by-laws
and helped us to get our organization incorpor-
ated," Griffin says, "and then we sold stock to get
$500 so we could get a charter."
An amazing 95 percent of the growers became
members the first year. They represented near-
ly 500 acres of strawberry production. Although
two or three growers dropped out of the com-
mission during the second year, for 1963 the com-
mission boasted 100 percent of area growers
and nearly 900 acres of berries. Growers have
an opportunity to sign a new contract each year.
Three directors are elected and charged with
management of the commission's business.
Before the days of this organization, much of
the price fluctuation or drop that occurred about
noon each day was caused by strawberry peddlers
-those individuals who purchase berries and sell
them from store to store throughout the state.
These peddlers have built up a tremendous busi-
ness and their early arrival each day at the straw-
berry market would cause a premium price. As
soon as they had purchased their berries and
gone on the road, the price would fall.
Organization of a marketing commission acted
to stabilize the market. The berries remained
property of the grower until sold, but a good all-
day supply of high-quality berries was assured.
The two major strawberry handlers themselves
became members of the commission. One of the
first improvements was that each installed refri-
geratioh equipment; thus, berries were placed un-
der refrigeration upon receipt and better quality
was maintained to the point of sale.
Griffin believes this stabilization of the market
and the addition of pre-cooling equipment by the
handlers have been the commission's two major
accomplishments to date.
"Before we had the organization, everybody
tried to get to market by noon," Griffin relates,
"but now there is no rush about picking. We
encourage at least three trips a day. We encour-
age the growers to get the berries in the cooler."
There have been other advantages to the com-
mission. Griffin, who started in the strawberry
business in Hillsborough County in 1934, believes
such an organization has helped assured quicker
adoption of new production methods. He cites
the use of Captan spray and plastic mulch as two
production improvements which were adopted
more quickly and more widely because growers
were banded together.
"Most of our people-probably 90%-like the
commission," Griffin says. "Of course, three or
four big growers were reluctant at first, but they
have gone along and seem satisfied."

h... summer. And
hool's out for thousands
f boys and girls, among
em some 6,000 who
spend a week in one
f five Florida 4-H camps.
camping is fun ... it puts
ids outdoors where they
re free to roam and
eek adventure and enjoy
ysteries in a way their
olks have forgotten long ago.

nd 4-H camping channels
hat love of nature,
hat natural curiosity
nto learning ... hopefully
without spoiling the

The pages that follow
provide only a few glimpses
of camp life, starting with
one of the best fun-times
.... when buddies
enjoy snacktime together.

w.s..u u.
;~ ::~I. j)I
ir.z.i~ Cl:
.: .. ~c.

The average morning in camp be-
gins as it would at home...

... generally followed
by a practical lesson
in citizenship. ..


S. .. and on even more practical les-
son in personal responsibility, with
"special privileges" for the best cab-

The "crafts" instruction is both
practical and ornamental. .



i i~SrC

*i~ t
s I

. . and for both
young members
and teenagers

And, the food is great, as is obvious



~ ~1


-4" ~..n
""-.4... 4,.

Swimming instruction is not only
recreation, but a vital part of
safety education program of


1, ^4


L2tjL. I

I.3. 4'.

Of course, no day would be com-
plete without a scrape or two, or a
bruise; adult leaders Ivolunteers)
often get this kind of job

The campers
n along


find it easy to gel
without TV. . b)
providing their
own entertain,
ment. Junior lead,
ers help plar
these evening

r111~ !rr




Oakland is a tiny community a
few miles outside the city limits
of Orlando.
"To drive through the communi-
ty you would never believe there
could be 200 children," says Mrs.
Leala Collins, assistant Orange
county Home Demonstration agent
in charge of special programs.
But each year when school dis-
missed for the summer months,
there they were-and without any
organized summer recreational pro-
gram or facilities.
Members of the all-girls Ever
Ready 4-H club of Oakland rec-
ognized this need in the spring of
1963, and as a new club looking for
a good community project, they de-
cided to do something about the
Adult leaders Miss Eunice Reed
and Mrs. Francine Postell discussed
the idea of sponsoring some type of
recreational activities with club
president Bettie Wade. Then the
idea was presented to the 23-mem-
ber club, and was accepted enthus-
Two problems existed for the
club-providing equipment for the
children to use, and providing lead-
ership and supervision to an organ-
ized program.
The latter of these two was com-
paratively easy since the girls were
willing to spend time helping with
such a program. But, since the
club had no money in its treas-
ury, members knew they had to
conduct some sort of drive in order
to buy equipment.
Finally, someone arrived at an
idea: Club members could canvass
the community asking residents to
donate trading stamps books.
These could then be used to buy
games and equipment.
The drive was carried out suc-
cessfully and the club purchased
softballs and bats, volleyball, bad-
minton, and croquet sets, a basket-
ball, and some games and toys for
small children. Stamp books were
also traded for a first aid kit.
A local landowner came to the
club's rescue and loaned the coin-
munity a five-acre plot as a rec-
reation area.

4-H Club Projec

Youngsters First

t Gives 500

Rec. Program

?'~? '




Mrs. Leala Collins (seated)
her part-time secretary.

The entire community was made
aware of the drive through the can-
vass for stamp book donations and
through appeals made through P-
TA and church groups.
The Ever Ready club was or-
ganized just six months before its
members took on the project.
When Mrs. Collins came to Orange
county, she became the first as-
sistant agent in charge of special
programs. She had nine years of
experience in Putnam county.
The first year twelve 4-H clubs
were organized involving more than
250 girls. Several Home Demon-
stration clubs have been formed.
All 4-H clubs have carried out at
least one community project, from

discusses 4-H program with

seeding lawn grass at local schools
to helping organize a summer rec-
reation program such as the Ever
Ready club did. This all adds up
to a pretty heavy schedule for Mrs.
Collins; but, the schedule would
be even heavier without the help
of two adult leaders for each club
except one in Orlando.
The Ever Ready summer pro-
gram began June 24 with club girls
working in teams as leaders after
learning rules of all of the games.
The successful effort was climaxed
with a community picnic on Au-
gust 19.
More than 150 boys and girls-
not members of 4-H-took part and
benefited in the program.


'^ 1- '~

Pole Bea

Helps D


Dr. H. G. Hamilton, Extension Economist, talk-
ing to Dade producers.

In simplest economic terms, supply and de-
mand are supposed to have something to do with
determining price.
According to Eric Schmidt, Dade county pole-
bean producer, that theory simply wasn't work-
ing for him and his fellow pole bean producer-.
"Year after year," Schmidt says, "the price would
fall during our harvest, and keep right on falling.
Yet, every day there weren't enough pole beans
harvested to meet the demands of buyers."
It was a pretty drastic situation. Bean
prices would drop as low as $1.50 a bushel. It co(.t
that much just to harvest-let alone pay the cot~t-
of producing a crop.
Dade county, which is second only to Pahlm
Beach' county in Florida vegetable production, ha -
about 7,000 acres of land devoted to producing
about 2 million bushels of pole beans each yea r.
During 1962, 26 farmers grew and market-dW
about 90 percent of this crop.
In the spring of 1962, Dade county's assistant
marketing agent Aaron Hutcheson let his vege-
table growers know that the University of Flor-
ida's agricultural marketing specialists were av ail-
able for a series of schools. Most of the important
farmers didn't have to be told that their prob-
lems only began with producing a crop.
Dr. H. G. Hamilton, head of agricultural eco-
nomics, started the series. He was followed by
many Extension specialists during the eight
Schmidt was one of many vegetable farmers
to attend the schools (he missed only one out of
eight). After the first session, he saw he was
the only pole bean grower present, and started
"dragging" others to the meetings.
Eric recognized many of the problems dis-
cussed during the school, and along with a few
other growers had tried some of the ideas of ex-
changes suggested on an informal basis. One
night he couldn't hold his silence any more. He

got up and addre-.-ed Kenneth Gill:i'-rith, ve
tal-le marketing --,peciali-t with:
"'W-ell. xve'vi I:.een agreeing arn rin oursel
to -* t ;I minimum pir-le 'for or b' ani- for a cou
rf vear'ti B lElc iX that pri'ie. ,v' jui.t won't s
Thisi ex lch'iia ge thiil] ing 't new to i.i."
Gilbraiith hitd an an wet'. "That's tine, sir; b
do Vou kinoiw y,:.'re i-leaking the law."'
"\\'llen he aid that." Schlmidit recalls, "I j
-at donl anId k-ept quiet. It 'wa enough to co
vince me that marketing -r school i az exactly wh
w,_ rneded."
\ ith H uitch i:e n' l help. Sch inid t and fellow
grrmver Harry \\'right der'i:led to' get the po
.t-an lprod'eter- tog their to talk ai,,:,ut formir
a vegetalble exchangL-. Those who ir attended tl
tilr't nimeting were in favor of the ileia, and the
elected-l an inclorporiating I:,oard Io directors 1
idri iw up artkiile of incorporation and by-laws
The pole be'an exchange would operate as fo
lw.-: all growers joining would sign agreement
to co'll-n.in iht ir crop to the exchange. The e.
change wouIld then sell the crop to one of four c
riv- maior "'handler-"*. iwho in turn sell the crop t
Iiit.vers all o:ver the ULnited States.
The exchange wo uld agree to sell the beans t
Response to formation of the marketing ex-
change was good as producers signed their
first year contracts.
:a-e- II I il




any handler designated by the grower so the nor-
mal flow of produce would not be interrupted.
The only difference was that a minimum of $2.50
per bushel was set, and no beans would be sold
for less than that figure. The $2.50 minimum
arrived at was the "break-even" point for growers.
If the exchange was unable to sell the beans
for the minimum price, the grower was to pick
up his produce and dump it in a hole.
Schmidt and Wright served on the commit-
tee that drafted the articles of incorporation, by-
laws, and grower agrieements. Another meeting
wis held ti, organize the gro'werxo. All 25 of the
nil-le I';ani gr;ow;r and the four handlers present
iin.-. tlhi- L.xchange and : ignF il. agreements.
Th-e tir-t yVtar wasn't Lxactlv easy.
"Thi. main rI:orlem \'v.e ihal was overcoming
mi-trii-t amoirng the 'it-:,\.r-," Schmidt says.
-"H',i do I knov. that <-. anud '- luLmped his beans,
tht-ey wo\\ul..l ak. Andi thi-er- \'.: r lots of rumors-
,ometiimesr- iirng troi r t\:i I:or three different
people. It wa% hard noit t.i believe some of the
"TI I:\t-'coni:'m this we decided to have the
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association police
the exchange. They could do this without being
recognized in a man's field, and so everybody feels
safer this way."
Two cents from every package handled by the
exchange goes into a $36,000 operating budget.
From this budget the "policing" work is paid, and
$15,000 is allocated for an advertising program to
help boost the market for pole beans.
"You know, people talk about oversupply and
having acreage quotas," Schmidt says, "and they
say we ought to cut back our acreage. I'm against
that. I think we ought to expand our market,
not cut our acreage.
"A lot of people don't know what pole beans
are. We've got a selling job to do. New York
city, for instance, consumes about 12 percent of
the vegetables produced in the country, but not
one pole bean. I think we could boost our sales
from the 1.3 million bushels we had last year to 4
million if we could break into New York alone."
The exchange recently hired a retired super-


Two years later, exchange primemovers Wright (left) and Schmidt
(right) are encouraged by results, but say it is still too early to
know the effect on grower profits. Assistant county agent Aaron
Hutcheson (center) keeps close tab on the organization.

market buyer to promote pole beans with the big
chain stores. "If we can get one big chain to
go our way," he points out, "the rest will have
to follow."
How well has the exchange worked? Both
Wright and Schmidt think it is too soon to deter-
mine the effect on grower profits. But during
the first year there were only 17 days in which
the bean price stayed at the minimum.
"We were told the buyers would probably try
and test the exchange and maybe break it," ac-
cording to Wright. "I think they did and found
out we were solidly together. Then they went
100 percent with us."
There have been several side benefits to the
exchange. Although it was designed to make sure
a grower would be able to break even on his crop,
the minimum price has bolstered confidence on the
part of handlers.
"Now they don't wait until tomorrow to see
if the price will fall. They know in advance it
will only go so low, and they can safely buy,"
Wright points out.
Schmidt sees still another benefit. In effect,
the minimum price has established a kind of grade
structure. The better beans generally bring more
than the minimum.
"Other farmers have been watching our ex-
change," Schmidt says. "This is the first time
in south Florida that farmers have been able to
get together and stay together. I think maybe
the strawberry growers may be next to move in
this direction.
"Mainly, this is a voluntary program. No
one is forced to join and nobody tells us how
many acres we can plant. We don't want any
marketing orders or government control. We
think we've solved our own problem with help
from your marketing people and Aaron, here."

A poultry co-operative that
was all but broke just seven
years ago celebrated its 14th
birthday last year enjoying a po-
sition as one of the largest mar-
keting outlets for eggs in the
According to manager Wilfred
D. Hedges, the Central Florida
Poultry Cooperative of Orlando
almost went broke despite excel-
lent business because the organi-
zation didn't assess members
enough to provide a comfortable
operating fund and fund for ca-
pital expansion. In other words,
the goose that laid the golden
egg was about to be killed.
It was painfully obvious to
the co-op's management, which
consisted of a board of directors
elected from the membership as
well as the full time manager,
that major re-organization was
in order. Florida Agricultural
Extension Service, which had
helped a handful of producers or-
ganize the marketing group in
1949, was a natural place for the
organization to turn for help.
Marketing specialist Dr. Ned
Cake studied the situation with
members. It was apparent that
the tremendous expansion and
excellent business the co-op had
created for its producers had
overtaxed the original by-laws.
In reorganizing, new by-laws
were written to eliminate a pre-
ferred stock method of financ-
ing. It was decided to pay off
preferred stock owned by the
original producers from future
surpluses. To replace the pre-
ferred stock method of financ-
ing, a revolving patrons' reserve
was established. Money for this
reserve now comes from an as-

sessment for each carton of eggs
sold for the producer. Part of
the assessment on each carton
sold, therefore, goes for the cost
of operating the co-op's process-
ing plant; part goes into the
revolving reserve fund.
1963 was a banner year for
the Central Florida Poultry Co-
operative. The annual meeting
left producers with comfortable
information: Sales totaled $1,-
288,015 for the previous year
and business was excellent. Net
earnings for the organization, af-
ter paying all operating costs,
stood at $17,968 and this money
was transferred to the pa-
trons' reserve account and cred-
ited to members in proportion to
the number of eggs produced by
each. If a producer decides to
leave the co-op, his equity in the
reserve account is paid back
over two or three years. New
members then help build the
reserve back up over the same
two or three years.
Former Orange County Agent
F. E. Baetzman was instrument-
al in helping organize the origin-
al group of poultrymen to im-
prove egg marketing. These
men were convinced an organi-
zation would also improve the
quality and uniformity of pro-
ducts sold.
The co-op operated for about
a year from a rented building in
downtown Orlando before ac-
quiring an acre of land and con-
structing a "pole-type" building
just north of the city limits.
Members donated the labor for
this building.
In 1952 an insulated cooler
for egg storage was installed.
Additions to the original build-



*. succes
Extension I

and ending

Egg handling is fast and
plant. Manager Wilfred
county agent Bruce Christ

ing were made in 1954 and 1955,
and a concrete block dressing
plant was constructed on the
back of the property in 1956.
The poultry dressing operation
did not prove satisfactory, but
this new block building was a
starting point for the modern
building now housing the co-
op's plant. Additions to the
block structure were made in
1959, 1961, and 1962. These
rapid improvements give an idea
how business was improving.
The current plant covers 9,-
650 square feet (including of-
fices and sales room). Over
2,000 square feet are devoted to
cooling area, maintained by
equipment with 14 tons of cool-
ing capacity.
Central Florida Poultry Co-
operative now packs and mar-
kets eggs for about 15 retailers,
from grocery store chain to ma-
jor dairies. Eggs are cleaned by
producers, but candled and
graded on automatic equipment
at the processing plant.
The plant has freezing facili-
ties within the cooling area to
handle surpluses and keep sup
ply and demand in balance.
Frozen eggs are used largely in
the bakery and pastry industry.
The co-op remains open to
new producers at all times. And,
there are no restrictions on
members increasing the size of
their operations. Producers may
also leave the organization at
any time they please, but most
of those leaving the co-op do so
because they retire from the
egg-producing business. Only
one current producer is a char-
ter member of the co-op. With
the exception of about two years,

:in the co-op's modern
(center) and assistant
or themselves.



y with anl


he has been with the organiza-
tion for all of its 14 years. Ear-
ly in 1963 he received the largest
check when the co-op retired its
preferred stock obligations to
Hedges has been manager for
the marketing organization only
a few months, but has been as-
sociated with it for several
"The Extension Service is al-
ways ready to help with special
problems that arise," Hedges
says, "and Dr. Eastwood and Dr.
Cake show a continuing interest
in our organization. Eastwood
attends the annual banquet just
about every year.
"As a recent example," the
manager points out, "when leg-
islation was passed that affected
our paying taxes on net earn-
ings, we had our attorneys, the
auditor and Extension people
study what course of action we
should take. Three different sug-
gestions were made, and it so
happens we decided to follow the
Extension recommendation. This
will give you some idea how
highly we think of your market-
ing people."
In a time when a constant
cost-price squeeze faces the small
producer, cooperative marketing
often has proven to be the an-
swer. The Central Florida Poul-
try Cooperative is a good exam-
ple of how well this type of mar-
keting can work to the benefit
of both producer and consumer.
This particular co-op offers an-
other example-the important
role played by Extension in of-
fering leadership, encourage-
ment, and advice to help a farm
organization prosper and grow.


Steiner C. Kierce, B.S.A.
Hilton T. Meadows, M.Ed.
Miss Fern Nix, B.S.H.E.

. Norbert Stephen' B A.
ames H. Walkei M.S.A.
. Lowell Loadholtz, B.S.
irs. Edwena J. Robertson, B S H E
Aiss Joy Coffey, B.S.
Ars. Mary J Castello, B S

John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.

Mrs, Marjorie B. Gregory, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Shirley T. Clark, B.S.H.E.
Russell H. Stephens, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H Wiliams. B.S.

Jack D. Patten, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.

J. Lloyd Rhoden, M Ag
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Cynthia McCutcheon, B.S.

Richard A. Hartsfield B.S.A.
Mrs. Irie Mao Clark. B.S.H.E.

Lawrence D. Taylor, M.Ag

Cleveland U. Storey, M.Ag.

Claude L. Dorminey, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers B S

H Oscar Harrison, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.H.E.

Woodrow W. Glenn, M Ag
James C. McCall, M.S.A.

William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Charles F. Blair, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Wm. L. Robinson, Jr., B.S.A.
Mrs. Pearl G. Long, B.S.H.E.

Albert H. Odom, M.S.A
Miss Mary E. Crews, B
Robert Bryant, Jr., B.S.

Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.Ag.
Miss Sue Elmore, B.S.

Horace M. Carr, B.S.A.
Miss Eliza J. Moxley, B.S.H.E. Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Harold A. Taylor, B.S.A.


J. Edsel Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Mary W. Crocker, M.A.

Extension Staff,

By Counties

Cubie R. Laird, B.S.A.

0 Color denotes county agent and home demonstration agent.

William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Miss Carolyn Tew, B.S.

Filorida Agricultural Extension Service Financial Repol


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense



Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended 767,578.00
Agricultural Marketing 20,750.00
Bureau of Indian Affairs 24,200.00
Rural Civil Defense 10,400.00

State Appropriation:
State Trust Fund:
Incidental (actual)
County Appropriations:






State Appropriation:
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (estimated)
County Appropriations:


1,518,326.00 1,518,326.00

21,200.00 21,200.00
1,033,913.00 1,033,913.00





Ronce A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.H.E.
Hamrick, Jr., M.Ag. Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
st R. Wheaton, B.S.A.

Almon S. Zipperer, B.S.H.E.
es C. Miller, B.S. J. Paul Crews, B.S.A.
Deloris M. Jones, B.S. W. Howard Smith, M.Ag.
Willie E. Maughan, B.S.A.
Joe F. DeVane, B.S.

Miss Bernice G. Shuler, B.S.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, B.S.

Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.A. Gordo
Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman, B.S. Mrs. h
McKinley Jeffers, B.S.A.
Miss Ellelene Redd, B.S.

A. Luther Harrell, M.Ag.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, A.B.

n B. Ellis
lary N. Harrison, M S

James N Watson B S.A.
Edward Allen, M S A.
James F Cummings B.S.A.
Thomas H Braddock Jr., B.S./
Mrs. Nellie D Mills B S.
Miss Mary L Gallagher B.S.H.

Davis, B.S.A.
C. Smit, Jr..A. Edward J. Cowen, B.S.A.
Ce. Smith, Jr., MB.. Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.
iel P. Thompson, B.S.

William J. Cowen, B.S.A.

Ben H. Floyd, B.S.A.
Donald F. Jordan, B.S.A.

James R. Yel.ingion M.Ag.

G. T. Hugg.ns B.S.A.
Bobby L. Taylor, B.S.A.

Miss Dorothy P. Ross, B.S.H.E.

Wilburn C. Farrell, M.A.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
Mrs. Josephine McSwine, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.H.E.

English M. Greene, B.S.A.
Miss Leontine Williams, B.S.

Miss Sarah E Anderson B.S.M.
Miss Virginia R Wood B.S.H.E
Mrs Bessie J Canty B S

Emmett D. McCall B S A E
George M. Owens Jr. M Ag.
Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson, B S.H.E.

Miss Sandra L. Reese, B S H E
Paul L Dinkins, Jr M Ag
John A Eubanks, M Ag
Miss Nettle R. Brown. B S
Hubert E. Maltby
Ralph T. Clay, Jr., B.S.A.
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B S H E

Miss Sylvia E. Smith, B S H E
Miss Claudine Tubbs, B S H E

Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
James B. Estes, M.Ag.

Howard Taylor Jr., B.

Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
Roger A. Parker, B.S.A.
W. H. Fletcher, B.S.A.
Miss Elsie M. Garrett, B.S.
Miss Rose Howard, B.S.

Mrs. Patricia B. Feiler, B.S.H.E.
Eugene P. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.

lorida Agricultural Extension Service Financial Repor


Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports


Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
New articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Bulletins distributed
Adult result demonstrations conducted

118,246 Training meetings held for local leaders:



Total attendance

All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Total attendance

Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
Total attendance




Quentin Medlin B.S A
Royce C. Williams, B S.A "
Mrs Ray C. Baxter, B.S.-

Ch*rles R. Smith, B.S.A.
Mrs. armell B. Dixon, B.S.H.E.

Albert F. Cribbet, B.S.A.
Luther L. Rozar, B.S.A.

Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Miss Mary F. McMahan, B.S.H E.

Harry J Brinkley M S A
G. M. Whitton, Jr., M Ag
Ars. Charlotte Lattimer B S H E
Ars. Dorothy E. Droves, B.S.H.E.
Ars. Lynnette B. Anderson, B.S.H E
Ars Virginia D. Gardner, B S.H E.

Donald A George B.5 A
Rollin H. McNutt, Jr., B S A.
Mrs. Elizabeth Storbird. B S H E
Richard L. Bradley, B S.A.

Roben E Norris, B S A
William M. Nixon. M.S.A.
Glenn L Loveless, Jr., B S
Mrs Manan Valentine B S H.E
Miss Mary E. Davis, B S.H.E.
Miss Mahalah Harrison, M.S.


Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag. L

Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
Clarence F. O'Ouinn, B.S.A.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
R. Donald Downs, B.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mamie C. Bassett, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Mrs. Edia S. Little, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B S.H.E.
Miss Sudella J. Ford, B.S.

lack T McCown M Ag
lacksoh Haddox, M.Ag
Robert L. Hall, Jr., B S.A Ja,
lames D. Pierce, B.S.A. Mis
)avid M. Solger, B.S.A.
arry J. Jackson, M.S A.
Ars. Ruth M. Elkins. B 5 H F
Ars. Josephine Cameron, B.S.H.E.
Ars. Mary H. Padgett, B.S.H.E.

T R Townsend. M Ag
Larry L. Loadholtz. B.S.A.
Mrs. Edna S. Eby, B.S.H.E.
Miss Joan Stewart, B.S.
Mrs Dorothy B. Echols, M.E.

Cecil A Tucker, ii MS
Ernest C Lundberg. B.S.A
Miss Myrtie C Wilson B S M E

Henry F Swanson, M S.A.
Kenneth L. Rauth, M.Ed.
R. Bruce Christmas, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.

Mrs Mhrorose Kniqht. B S H E
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, B.S.Ed
Miss Janet Davidson, B.S.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.

nes B. Smith, B.S.A.
s Marilyn Dietrich, B.S.

Janes T Oxford B.: A
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
Earl E. LoRoe, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sue B Young. E.S.
Mrs. Glenda Newsom,
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S

Forrest N. McCullars,

Florida Agricultural Extension Service Financial Repc

Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting
Extension agents with organization, planning and con-
ducting of Extension work in counties:

Older club boys
Older club girls



Number of 4-H Clubs

Number of 4-H members enrolled in projects:
Boys 18,452, Girls 28,057, Total



895 4-H Membership:
1,002 Farm-13,016, rural non-farm-15,884, urban-17,609

Florida Agricultural Extension Service State Staff

Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Director
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Administration
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent

William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Ag., District Agent
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Acting Assistant Training Specialist
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist

Clifford R Boyles

H..,h C J,-.lh.. Jr B A
MA f Marq-r. P Bro- L B S.H I

SHarp-r Kendr.ck B S A
arl M. Kelly, M.Ag.
homas C. Greenawalt. B S.A
rie A. Powell, M.S.

Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Elva S. Farrell, B.S.H.E.

Kenneth A. Clark, B S A
Edward E. Russell, B.S
Edwin S. Pastorius, B S
Mrs. Cathte-r.e H. Lo,., M.A

J 0. C H,.nmor. PA.
M- Nor,, B -h-qh'1M b H E

Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S A.
William Kozicki, Jr., B.S.A
Mrs. Patricia G. Hurley, B (, H E

L-.P M John on B rA
PA.,: Maorlh C Brd-n. PA N H E

W. Lester Hatcher, B.S.A
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey, B.S.H.E.

B. O. Bass, M.S.A
Fred Montsdeoca
Mrs May 0 Fulton B S H'E

N. H. McQuen B S A E

Robert G. Curt.: B S A
Wallace R. Ortiz, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.

Th-odor. Gollo III M Aq
Robert J. Flint

Florida Agricultural Extension Service State Staff

K. B. Meurlott, A.B., Assistant Communication Specialist
E. A. Moffett, B.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairy Technologist
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Ag., Citriculturist
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag., Interim Assistant Horticulturist
Jay D. Martsolf, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
John F. Cabler, B.S.A., Acting Assistant in Ornamental Horticulture
Charles A. Conover, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Assistant Extension Poultryman
Henry G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Management
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Roger P. Hill, M.S.A.E., Assistant Economist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, M.S.A., Assistant Agronomist

Florida Extension Staff,

By Counties

Donald W. Lander, M.A.
Joseph H. Whitesell, B.S. R
Charles L. Anderson, B.S.A. Li

Marvin U. Mounts
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
Norman C. Bezona, B.S.A.
R. Kent Price, B.S.A.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
Miss Mary L. Todd, B.S.H.E.
Miss Alma J. Street, B.S.

obert S Pryor, B.S
ewis E. Watson. M Ag
rank J. Jasa B S A
liss Louise Taylor B S.
Irs. Dorothy Y Gifford. B S H E

John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Nolan L. Durre, M.S.
Aaron A. Hutcheson, B.S.A.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Ralph E. Huffaker, B.S.A.
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish, B.S.A.
Mrs. Ann Seay Peck, B.5 H E
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette B S H E
Mrs. Ruth H. Reece, B S H E
Mrs Patricia H Williams, B.S.H.E.
Miss Victoria M Simpson B.S.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service State Staff

Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Farm Forester
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Elwyn S. Holmes, M.E., Rural Civil Defense Coordinator
John D. Haynie, Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Associate Marketing Spec. in Veg. Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Howard C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Marketing Specialist
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Fla. Nat'l. Egg-Laying Test
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
Clyde R. Madsen, Rodent Control Specialist, Seagle Annex
V. L. Elkins, M.Ag., District Agent, Special Programs

Miss Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., Asst. Director, Home Economics Programs

Miss Eunice Grady, M.S., Home Economist, Training
Miss Ann E. Thompson, M.Ed., Asst. Home Economist, Programs
Miss Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Lora A. Kiser, B.S.H.E., District Home Demonstration Agent, Home
Management and Family Economics Specialist
Mrs. Susan C. Camp, M.S., Nutritionist
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Assistant Nutritionist
Miss Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Miss Emily E. King, Ph.D., State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Betty Sue Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Miss Pauline N. Brimhall, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Famiy Life Specialist
Miss Flay Britt, B.S.H.E., District Home Demonstration Agent, Special

Family Business Is Big Business for Melbourne Housewife

Eileen Drew of Melbourne Beach
Home Demonstration Club says,
"My family is better fed and on less
money than at any time before."
Family business is big business to
Eileen, and improving efficiency in
management of money, time and
energy has paid big dividends to
her and her family.
Eileen took the job as foods lead-

Demonstration Clul

er for her club, since she felt this
was one area where she needed
help. But, in a way she must have
been satisfied with her methods
since she questioned the Extension
agents on many points at the first
leader training meetings. She was
almost a "heckler". She stuck it
out by attending all three leader
training meetings on "your grocery

b Stresses

Nutrition to Cut Pounds

So you really want to lose
You can. Take a tip from a de-
termined group of home demon-
stration club members in Madison
County who used will power and
common sense to shed more than
200 pounds.
Let Mrs. Rob L. Crafton, presi-
dent of the Madison County Home
Demonstration Council, tell you
how they did it.
Three years ago her club-the
Oak Hill Home Demonstration
Club-decided to make their extra
pounds vanish. Their first step in
the right direction was to serve
only low calorie food and bever-
age at their club meetings. No rich
pies and cakes, tempting though
they might be.
Instead they offered citrus, to-
mato and vegetable juice, coffee
and tea as refreshments. If a host-
ess prepared sandwiches, she made
them bite-size. Low calorie gelatin
desserts and tomato aspic became
The members learned their nutri-
tion lessons well. They carried over
the low calorie idea into their own
kitchens. Their husbands approved.
Oak Hill became so interested in
food and nutrition and its relation
to weight control that they arrang-

ed a special program on the subject
for other clubs. They prepared and
served a low calorie luncheon.
Recipes were exchanged.
Oak Hill members "weighed in"
when they arrived at their month-
ly meetings. Woe unto any mem-
ber who had gained an ounce. If
someone had lost pounds, it called
for a celebration-a low calorie
one,' though.
Thanks to Oak Hill's weight
watching program, Mrs. Crafton
lost 80 pounds. She has gained 40
pounds back. But she is working
now to lose 20 more pounds. Mrs.
Don Gregol lost 27 pounds in the
last three months on the advice of
her doctor.
Mrs. Crafton and a committee
put out a lively monthly home dem-
onstration newsletter, "Madison
Minutes from Your Home Dem-
onstration Council". It includes
presidential patter, editorials, club
meeting dates, information from the
home demonstration agent, Mrs.
Almon Zipperer, and recipes. If
the recipes are fattening, weight
watchers are advised to beware.
Mrs. Crafton says that the weight
watching is just one of the many
worthwhile programs the Oak Hill
Club studies, but this constant
quest to lose weight adds zest to
every meeting.

bill workshop" put on by Exten-
sion home economics specialists.
These meetings covered low, mod-
erate, and liberal cost food plans.
Almost to prove the teachers wrong,
she was determined to live on the
low cost plan one month.
Extension agents attend local
club meetings only about once a
year; however, since it was time
to plan a 1964 program, Brevard
agent Mrs. Sue Young attended this
meeting, almost afraid of what Ei-
leen would say in presenting the
Much to her surprise, Eileen did
a wonderful job of presenting nutri-
tional facts and then confessed to
the group, "I didn't think we could
be well fed or satisfied on this plan,
but after trying it for one month,
my family and I felt better than
usual, never were hungry between
meals, and I lost four pounds,
which I wanted to do very badly.
And I saved somewhere between
$25.00 and $30.00 that month on
Eileen now goes between low
and moderate cost plans for variety,
but has the satisfaction of know-
ing she is feeding her family a
nutritionally sound diet.
Other consumer information pro-
grams that have helped her to
manage family finances and bring
satisfaction to her family have been
selection and care of all floor cov-
erings, care of metals, buying
equipment, clothing selection and
care, landscaping, efficiency in
housekeeping, the decision-making
process, time management and fam-
ily spending plan. Eileen feels she
contributes much to the family in
savings and efficiency in home man-
As a result of people like Eileen,
23 young homemakers requested
that Mrs. Young hold a series of
meetings on developing the family
spending plan, along with work-
shops on how to carry out this plan

To many tourists, the quaint
little Indian chickees on the re-
servations near Lake Okeecho-
bee are just another "attraction"
to be seen in Florida.
But to many of the proud,
colorful Seminole Indians, and
to Fred Montsdeoca-who has
spent the better part of his life
working in this area-they rep-
resent a sign of where the In-
dians have been, and a contrast
to where they are going.
Montsdeoca is the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service's
agent for Indian work. He be-
gan his career near the Brighton
Reservation as an Indian Agent
for the federal government's
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Later,
when the Cooperative Extension

Paul Bowers gets practice in
archery as part of his P.E.
course at school.

Service was given responsibility
for working with the Indian
tribes of America, Montsdeoca
an others like him were assigned
to state Extension offices. All
funds for this work still come
from the federal government.
Montsdeoca measures progress
in benchmarks that seem un-
usual to us.
"We now have electricity to
all but two of the camps (the
Seminoles live in small camps
rather than villages). Thus far
these two have been too far
Admittedly, progress has been
slow with the shy and often
none too sociable Indians. The
Seminoles have clung to their
ways longer, perhaps, than any
other tribe of American Indians.
It has only been in the last few
years that the Christian religion
has gained acceptance among
these people, and only five or six
years since their children began
attending public schools in Okee-
chobee and Moore Haven.
These o u t s i d e influences-
churchs and schools-have has-
tened the change in attitude and
a resultant desire to improve
standards of living. But Exten-
sion agents Montsdeoca and May
Ola Fulton have had a tremen-
dous influence.
Key to the change is economic.
For decades the Seminoles lived
from the forest and Florida's
abundant waters. Their agri-
culture consisted of small vege-
table gardens (as it does today).
In 1936, amid the tremendous
drought that struck America's
rich middle and southwest, the
federal government purchased
500 head of high grade drought-
relief Hereford cattle and ship-
ped them by railroad cars to the
Seminole Indian Agency. Many
of the cattle died during the trip.
The rest arrived in poor condi-
tion. To add to the agents' dis-
couragement, they were told by
old-time area stockmen that the
Hereford breed would never sur-
vive the South Florida country.
Despite these obstacles, about
400 of the herd did survive, and

in 1938 the cattle were t
over to the two reservati
Brighton and Big Cypress.
enterprises were formed a
rectors appointed to manage
"It used to take all day to
directors," Montsdeoca rel
"They didn't understand
process of elections and
always is a language ba
For many years the main re
a man was elected a director
because he owned a horse."
Very few of the Seminoles
any experience with cattle,
they were natural woodsmen
loved livestock, so the tas
teaching them was not too
cult, according to the Exten
With the small herd well es
lished and the Bureau of In
Affairs satisfied the Semin
could handle cattle, the gov
ment purchased some good
year-old Hereford heifers
1940. This brought to $80,
the amount spent on the Se
nole herds. The deal was set
as a loan to be paid back
head of cattle each year, or
prevailing market price in ca
These enterprises were succe
ful enough that the loan
paid back a year and a half
During the next 14 years, t
Seminole tribe's cattle operati
grew slowly, but was on a sou
financial basis. In 1954, the t
bal herds were dispersed into i
dividual ownership. At t h
time, 55 individuals at t
Brighton Reservation were i
sued 50 head of cattle each
a loan contract from the Se
nole tribe to Indians wishing
own cattle. At the Big Cypre
Reservation, 33 individuals r
ceived 35 head of cattle eac
At the time the cattle were di
tribute, approximately $261,00
worth of livestock was sold t
individual Indians on contract
at 3 percent interest for 8 year
Old cows and the steer herd wer
sold for approximately S25,00(
in cash to establish operating

ith the change from tribal
erprises to individual owner-
p, it was soon necessary to
m cattlemen's cooperative as-
iations so that the Indians
ght continue to act as a group
such matters as pastureland
d marketing. Two cooperative
ociations were formed, one
Brighton and one for Big
Today, 85 percent of the indi-
dual owners have paid for their
ttle. One of these men is Dick
wers of the Brighton Reserva-
on. Agent Montsdeoca con-
ders Bowers one of his most
ogressive Seminole ranchers.
owners, the father of four chil-
ren, recently moved into a mod-
rn new concrete block struc-
ure on the reservation. Oldest
f the Bowers children is Dan,
first year student at the In-
ian School at Haskill, Kansas.
an was graduated from Okee-
hobee High School. Paul, Bow-
rs' second son, is a sophomore
t Moore Haven high school. All
f the Bowers children have been
n 4-H work, according to Monts-
deoca, but Paul has been one of
the most active. He recently
was elected vice-president of one
of the senior Okeechobee coun-
ty mixed clubs. He is described
as one of the most popular stu-
dents in Moore Haven High
School and is described as a very
good student-above average-

by his teachers. Paul also par-
ticipates in athletics and is ex-
pected to be an outstanding
member of the Moore Haven
football team next fall.
Many of the Seminoles are
shy but Bowers points proudly
to his new home and then to
the thatched roof chickee where
the family once lived. He fore-

During Easter season, many Seminole women add to the family income
In photo at right, Paul Bowers (tallest) is shown with one of his first
younger brother and a neighbor girl are also shown.

,Y l

sees that he and many of his
neighbors will own up to 150 or
possibly 200 head of cattle some
day. In the meantime, the Semi-
noles have many problems to
lick. One of these is to increase
the number of acres in improved
pasture for grazing of the larger
The Brighton Reservation, all

by gathering cind selling palm fronds.
4-H projects. Paul's sister (left) and


A, 1^ .




together, contains 36,400 acres.
Only 4,000 of this amount is now
in grasses and clover. Several
plans have been tried. One of
these was to lease land on the
reservation to vegetable farm-
ers who agreed to cultivate the
area for a period of two years
then turn it back to the tribe,
ditched, diked, and seeded to im-
prove grasses.
Another area of Montsdeoca's
work is teaching the Seminoles
improved management practices,
such as increasing the calf crop
and raising herd replacement
heifers, keeping better records
on calf production, and culling
poor producers from the herd.
Only a few years ago, the Se-
minoles were just wandering

about the Everglades, living lar-
gely by fishing and hunting.
Today, more than 125 families
own from 50 to 100 cattle each.
They are self-respecting proper-
ty owners and are taking their
rightful place in the community
where they live. More than 40
have moved into new homes.
The Bowers family is just one
example of progress made with
the help of Extension workers.
Other than raising cattle, the
Seminoles do very little farming.
But, the cattle program has giv-
en many Seminole families an
opportunity to own something,
and through ownership to feel
security, pride and initiative to
better themselves and to accept
their place in the society.

.. .. . .- ,. : ."

^^^^^'*J ^
*^ ^ ^ -.- ~ a

Past and present in vivid contrast. Agent Montsdeoca and Dick
Bowers inspect chickee which provided home for the family before
new house (below) was constructed.

Extension Takes

Message To Peopl

Via Television

Extension's manifold me
sages were carried to the people
of Florida by mass media i
1963 more than ever before.
Newspaper articles wit
agents' bylines were printed
throughout the state's press;
more television cameras focused
on County Extension workers
than ever before; and voices o
county agents became listening
habits from Florida's radio sta-
Television programs such as
Duval County Agent's Jim Wat-
son's "Hi, Neighbor," and the
five-county "Farm and Home
Show", both in Jacksonville, con-
tinued to poll high in popularity
ratings. Assistant Dade County
Agent Lou Daigle surprised the
staff of the Miami educational
station that broadcasts "Tropi-
cal Gardener" when Lou offered
a free bulletin and the station
was showered with several hun-
dred pieces of mail.
But these weren't the only
programs. Others proved just
as successful in Ft. Myers, West
Palm Beach, and other popula-
tion centers. In addition, county
staffs appeared as guests on
scores of shows in other cities.
The year 1963 also saw the
start of a daily "Homeowner's
Newscast" produced by the state
Extension staff and broadcast
over six Florida television sta-
tions. Radio programs produced
by the state staff were heard
over more than 30 stations, in-
cluding some of the state's most
As Florida continued its rapid
population growth, County Ex-
tension staffs met the challenge
by turning to mass media as
tools to reach the public with
vital farm and home informa-


* ,o ^


I 'tD ~I


,,r,; .- : ','



L.Q i~


State JayCee president Cody Bailey presents the
Suwannee farmer. They are flanked by George
Southern Nitrogen of Savannah, Ga.


OYF plaque to Gerald Gamble, 1963 winner and
M. Owens, state OYF chairman and Lee DeYoung,

Florida's Top

A 31-year-old Suwannee county farmer, who
built a farming enterprise from virtually nothing
to a net worth of 860,000 in 10 years, was named
Florida's Outstanding Young Farmer for 1963.
This marks the second straight year that the
county has captured the state-wide honor.
The man is Gerald Gamble of Luraville, who
started farming by sharecropping with his father,
C. A. Gamble, on a small farm in 1953. Gamble,
combining a successful farming and civic life,
helped organize the first cooperative type hail
insurance protection group in the United States
which will save his fellow farmers about $75,000
this year.
Last year's state winner was Eugene McCall,
who also operates a relatively small general farm.
During the past five years, Suwannee has domi-
nated the Florida contest: T. J. Fletcher Jr. placed
third in 1959, Jack Bispham also placed third in
1960, and Lamar Jenkins finished fourth in 1961.
County agent Paul Crews pointed out that
the selection of the Outstanding Young Farmer
is not based on total wealth, but rather on ability
and effort the farmer has applied to make his
farm a successful, profit-making venture.

Gamble received an expense-paid trip to Madi-
son, Wisconsin, where he competed against other
winners for national honors. The trip and the
contest were sponsored by the Florida Junior
Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with South-
ern Nitrogen Company and Dixie Nitrogen of
A major accomplishment of Gamble's efforts
was his part in the formation of Tobacco Serv-
ices, Inc., which provides hail insurance for area
tobacco growers at a lower cost. Prior to the
cooperative, farmers were paying from $80 to $90
per 81,000 worth of coverage. The club saved
Suwannee members $105,000 during the first two
years, and the average cost per member is $11.
Despite the fact that Gamble suffered a stun-
ning 79 percent tobacco loss in 1962, he produced
a yield averaging 2,600 pounds per acre this year
on a 9.22 acre allotment. He likes to compare
this with his 1954 figures, when he harvested
1,500 pounds per acre on 3.21 acres.
The Luraville farmer has diversified his oper-
ation to include corn, small grain, livestock, and
poultry. He grows corn on 80 acres, small grain
on 65, and reserves 8 acres for pasture. Gamble


has a thriving poultry business, turning out 88,000
broilers in 1963.
Gamble's career began in 1953. Gerald married
Helen Scott with a secret $200 loan from his
grandmother while still a sharecropper. With the
help of his father, he borrowed money to buy an
80-acre plot in the Luraville area in 1954. He
added 80 more acres in 1956, and 40 this year.
Over the decade, Gamble has increased his in-
come using modern farming techniques with em-
phasis on soil testing and experimentation with
fertilization. He has designed unloading equip-
ment for two trucks, and owns fertilizer spread-
ers, insecticide applicators, automatic tobacco
curers, livestock and poultry self-feeders, and a
modern tobacco irrigation system.
On the civic side of the ledger, Gerald was
a leading member of his FFA Club in high school,
belongs to the Suwannee county Rural Areas De-
velopment committee, the Livestock Promotion
Project, and the Farmer's Mutual Exchange.
County agent Crews summed up Gamble with
these words: "His neighbors call him a Christian


1962 Outstanding Young Farmer Eugene McCall and
wife Joyce receive annual award from Lee DeYoung
of Southern Nitrogen.

man, a dedicated farmer, a hard worker, and a
neighbor's neighbor."
The Outstanding Young Farmer of 1962, Eu-
gene McCall has an almost parallel story of
success and innovation.
McCall and his wife Joyce own a farm of 645
acres, including 325 acres he recently purchased
to use as pasture for a small beef cattle herd.
During his early farming years, McCall pro-
duced corn yields of 12 and 15 bushels per acre.
He now averages 55 bushels. His tobacco crop
in 1962 made more than 2,000 pounds per acre.
When McCall was selected, judges for the state
contest noted his outstanding achievement in
modifying his farm equipment to suit the needs of
his operation. Along with Gamble, he was a
charter member of tobacco hail insurance co-op.
These remarkable young men, Gamble, McCall
and others, represent a movement in Suwannee
county that is fast becoming the rule rather than
the exception. Their accomplishments are indi-
cative of the spirit of progress in agriculture in

%' V

Gamble needs three chicken
"sideline" poultry business.

houses for his




A. W. "Bill' McKnight (left) and
County Agent Levi Johnson in-
spect mum crop at McKnight
nursery .



A chance statement by coun-
ty Agent Levi Johnson about 15
years ago probably set the stage
for what is now Martin county's
biggest agricultural industry-
cut flowers.
Johnson had a conversation
with northern visitors Harold
Burkey and Cliff Luce, both of
whom were in the nursery busi-
ness. They had taken an option
on some Dade county land with
the prospect of growing cut flow-
ers for shipment to northern
markets in the winter.
The Martin agent mentioned,
in passing, that temperatures in
the immediate area of Stuart
often averaged warmer in the
winter than around Homestead.
This interested the men and con-
versation ran on into the night.
The next day, Luce and Bur-
key cancelled their options in
Dade county and bought land
around Stuart. Early the next
summer they moved into the
county and planted their first
crops of chrysanthemums. When
the mums started hitting the
northern market the following
winter, some greenhouse people
"got scared", according to John-
son, "and that started the boom
in our industry".

"Mutms" the Word

In Martin County

Before Burkey and Luce came
from the north, only one or two
Martin county farmers had ex-
perimented with growing cut
flowers. One man who had not
done well growing vegetables
started with astors, and there
were one or two other persons
growing astors.
From this small start, and in
only 15 years, the cut flower in-
dustry has become a $3.5 to $4
million annual business. In 1963,
Martin county produced 201,000
of Florida's total 444,000 boxes
of chrysanthemums. Agent
Johnson estimates 99 percent of
the county's flower business is
mums, but there are small plant-
ings of Easter lilies, iris and
1963 marked a milestone for
Martin flower growers. Five
years of planning paid off with
formulation of the Martin Coun-
ty Flower Growers Association,
Inc., an organization designed for
joint buying. Although a num-
ber of growers informally had
bought supplies on a joint basis,

the new co-op provided a formal
working organization for buying,
and for handling industry prob-
Through the co-op, growers
will be able to get volume prices
for the many supplies needed to
grow and ship the mums to
northern markets supplies
ranging from boxes and rub-
ber bands to fertilizers and in-
secticides; light bulbs for help-
ing control growth of the flow-
ers, to Saran cloth for covering
The new co-op was chartered
by the end of 1963 but no direc-
tors were elected immediately.
An executive secretary was ap-
pointed to handle work in the
meantime. A. W. "Bill" Mc-
Knight was elected president.
The Martin County Flower
Growers Co-op may eventually
encompass more than just a
means for mass buying of sup-
plies. Growers are faced with
many transportation and mar-
keting problems which will un-
doubtedly receive attention as


y discuss the future of the
t present, independent truck-
companies transport cut flow-
shipments from Stuart to
then markets. Most of the
ck runs are made to major
ies east of the Mississippi.
Id mostly to florists, flowers
Idom are more than two days
the road. Growers let them
ach a stage of growth fully
ady for retailing. Mums may
expected to remain fresh for
o more weeks provided they
-e properly taken care of.
Trucks are either heated or
frigerated as necessary to pro-
ct freshness. Very long stems
re cut to prolong the life of the
owers. Each time the mums are
handled the wholesaler or retail-
r may "smash" about two inches
f the stem, allowing the flower
o absorb water more easily.
McKnight is one of the major
rowers and has worked closely
ith County Agent Johnson to
et the co-op organized.
"Most of our growers have
bachelor's degrees in floricul-
ture from major universities,"
Johnson says, "and many have
their masters degrees. Many of
them have years of experience
in the nursery business."
Martin county's flower indus-
try continues to grow. An even
bigger volume is expected for
1964. And, the overall agricul-
tural picture has brightened dur-
ing the last five years with new
plantings of flatland citrus. Five
years ago there were about 3500
acres of citrus in the county
which borders Lake Okeechobee
on the northeast; Johnson esti-
mates between 20,000, and 30,-
000 additional acres have been
With agricultural growth of
this type, in a county which is
part of Florida's tourist-rich
"Gold Coast", producers con-
stantly face the challenge of low-
ering production costs and im-
proving marketing methods.
The new flower growers associa-
tion should help provide some of
the answers in Martin county.

Nassau Housewives

"Re-cover" $1,000

When most housewives find that their living room sofa or
couch has a hole torn in it, they quickly remove it from the
room and banish the ugly furniture to the garage.
But a number of enterprising Nassau County women were
willing to try to fix their battered furniture themselves, and
maybe save a little household money. Under the direction of
Home Demonstration Agent Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, they up-
holstered 22 pieces of discarded furniture-saving about S1,000
while learning a useful craft.
Mrs. Harrison planned the upholstering workshop for Home
Demonstration Club members in Hilliard and other communities,
inviting them to bring in their old worn furniture for reworking
instead of junking it or sending it to an upholstery shop.
"Mrs. Harrison bought the ma-
terial-cotton, tacks, and cord- Mrs. Hattie Hughes' sofa before . .
for us wholesale," said Mrs. Hattie
Hughes of Yulee, a participant.
"I took the old cover, padding and ..
nails off my couch which had a hole
in the cover. Mrs. Harrison showed
us how to tie the springs, and in-
stall the padding. Next I cut and
put on the cover. Now it looks
like a new couch."
A Hilliard housewife, Mrs. Ma-
ble Mathias, had an old chair col-
lecting cobwebs in her garage.
"I'd planned to throw it away,
and buy another for the living .
room. The chair was a wreck. The
spring cushions were torn to pieces . and after she replaced cover.
and the cover was worn through
in many places."
Mrs. Mathias enrolled in the
class, took her chair with her and
went to work on it.
"I reupholstered my chair and
it is really quite nice. I now have
it back in my living room," she
Women who participated in
classes feel they've benefited from
the instruction. They've even made
a small "profit" by doing the up-
holstering themselves.
A mother of five children, Mrs.
Judy Moore of Hilliard, said she
bought a new living room rug with the money she had saved
upholstering her old furniture. She had planned to spend the
amount on new furniture.
"This workshop has been a wonderful thing for our com-
munity. I had never known what the Home Demonstration
Agent did before I went to the workshop. Now I plan on par-
ticipating in other special interest groups," said Mrs. Moore.

A flight of jet bombers "attacked" 4-H Camp
Timpoochee one overcast day last summer.
Thus began one of the most unique summer
encampments in the history of Florida 4-H work-
unique because the program provided not only
that recreation typical of summer camping, but
instruction in the urgent business of disaster
"Victims" of the mock bombing attack were
140 Santa Rosa county 4-H boys and girls, their
adult leaders and Extension agents. And, al-
though they didn't know exactly when the attack
would occur, every camper expected it and was
instructed how to "survive".
The plan to carry out a civil defense program
during the county's annual encampment was un-
dertaken by the county 4-H Council and local
club leaders. Weeks were spent planning every
detail, involving leaders within the ranks, and city
and county officials who were not so familiar with
4-H work.
Perhaps the greatest challenge faced by the
planners was adapting survival instruction to the
comprehension level of boys and girls between
ages 10 and 15. But the planners did have one
big advantage with this age group: the youngsters
were much more enthusiastic and eager than the
average adult (who tends to be somewhat apath-
etic on the subject of civil defense survival).
Council members wanted to maintain a rec-
reational flavor to the camp, and were sure this
could be done by following the usual practice of
six classes of instruction each morning. Adult
leaders were assigned as class guides so they
would receive benefit of the survival instruction.
From among the ranks of the campers, one
boy and one girl were selected as camp directors.
Other camp jobs included operations, communica-
tions, transportation supply, and emergency med-
ical aid and chaplains, and provost marshall.
One boy and one girl were given each of these
Ben Henry Pooley, county Civil Defense Di-
rector, and Dr. A. E. Harbeson, county Health
Doctor, were asked to help plan two major ob-
jectives of the program.
Pooley supplied identification helmets and arm
bands for the camp leaders, and arranged for the
mock bombing attack with operations officers at
Eglin Air Force Base.

Dr. Harbeson accepted responsibility for teach-
ing first-aid classes. He designed classes along
the same lines as the county's regular medical


Dodge Bombs

During Unique

Summer Camp

Nurse teaching medical self-help course for youngsters.

-help class program, and had junior comple-
certificates made.
Two technicians with the Soil Conservation
vice, Alton Harris and Leonard Finch, agreed
instruct 12 groups about radiation, and how to
the geiger counter, dosimeter and gas mask.
ese classes were highly popular with the camp-

Camp Timpoochee's regular summer staff re-
signed their activities to fit the special camp's
eme, "Learn Today, Survive Tomorrow".

One major problem was providing "idle hours"
tivities to simulate the confined life of a fallout

Cabins were designated as fallout shelters,
t campers were confined to shelters only dur-
g one alert. When the attack occurred, civil
defense officers assembled at headquarters for
briefing of their responsibilities during attack or

As part of the instruction, an "A-type" fallout
shelter was constructed at the camp. Although
called to one-half size, it still would accommodate
ne adult and one child. Primary purpose wasn't
o show size, however; the shelter was heavily
andbagged so instructor could show the dense
mount of cover needed for fallout protection.
Santa Rosa county's civil defense camp wasn't
simply a "new wrinkle" to creating interest in
4-H camping. The entire plans was based on pro-
viding better community education at every op-
portunity. And certainly, that education was
more real and palatable in combination with the
natural attractions of camping.

Community response "was gratifying", accord-
ing to County Agent S. C. Kierce. The camp was
widely covered by the press and magazines. Re-
porters obtained copies of the program and wrote
advanced news stories. Many were on hand to
cover activities including one representative of
a national farm magazine which carried a story
in its September issue.

Assistant county agent Hilton Meadows be-
lieves the camp helped bridge a gap between adults
who had received civil defense training and the
county's youngsters. It provided access into
many homes where adults had not been exposed
to survival training.

Many other people were reached by the Ex-
tension agents. Kierce received excellent cooper-
ation from a local radio station announcer who,
himself, had spent two weeks in a fallout shelter
as a demonstration for his listeners.

Leon Clubs Open Attack on School Dropouts
Through 4-H Career Exploration Project

According to the U. S. Department of Labor,
the number of teenagers in the labor force during
the 1960s will reach 2.5 million.
Finding a job and keeping it is a major prob-
lem for all people in our society today-but is es-
pecially so for teenagers, many of whom are not
highly trained.
4-H club members in Leon county are using
the Career Exploration program to help combat
this growing problem. They hope to generate en-
thusiasm among teenagers to seek some skill or
profession after high school.
Through the Career Exploration program,
Leon county 4-H'ers have been carrying out a
four-pronged promotional program.
First, Extension agents called in their volun-
teer adult leaders, described the problem and gave
these leaders a thorough briefing on how the
Career Exploration project is designed to combat
the problem. Leaders were encouraged to interest
their 4-H club members in the project.
As an additional resource, they contacted
Florida State University's Department of Gui-
dance and Counseling which send details about
the type of services they offer to high school
One of Leon county's finest Extension efforts
over the past few years has been a continuing
series of "Minute Minders" carried by each of
Tallahassee's radio stations. These brief "spot
announcements" offer Extension educational in-
Some of the "Minute Minder" time was turned
over to the Career Exploration effort. Spots giv-
ing information on careers in health, agricultural
science and engineering, forestry, and food sci-
ence and nutrition were aired. Information came
from Extension economics, health, and food speci-
Mrs. Orlis Causseaux, leader of the Busy Bee
club, and her daughter Barbara (the club's pres-
ident) took a special interest in the drive. Several
members of the club began work on the career
One of these, Sandra Gerrell, wanted to at-
tend college to prepare for a career, but was con-
cerned about the costs. Assistant home agent
Mrs. Cynthia McCutcheon and Mrs. Causseaux
contacted the Financial Aids Department at FSU
and got information that was presented to the
entire club.
Through this 4-H project, Leon county Exten-
sion agents are making an open attack on the
school drop-out problem. They know the key
to success is concentrating on careers teenagers
are interested in, and providing good, factual in-
formation on these opportunities.

Tony Costa was one of the
luckier Cuban farmers. He had
to give up a lot when he up-
rooted his family from Cuba in
1959 and moved to Dade coun-
ty-more than most of us realize
since we've never experienced
such a situation. But Costa had
been selling products in this
country for several years and
had contacts here and a bank
"Of course, this would not
have been possible if I had not
been doing business in the United

Cuban Farmer Makes

Rapid Adjustment

With Help from

Extension, Station


Tony Costa talks with Sub-Tropical
Station tomato breeder James

States," Costa says while mo-
tioning to his farm and packing
"But, with my money here I
was able to buy land and start
farming again."
Costa had farmed Cuban soil
since 1933. His oldest son, Jose
Antonio, was completing a de-
gree in agriculture at the Uni-
versity of Florida at the time the
family left Cuba.
Over the years Costa had
grown oranges, rice and native

crops, and raised cattle. His
last five years in the homeland
were spent concentrating on to-
matoes which were shipped to
northern markets. He had a di-
versified knowledge of farming.
The Costas bought 30 acres of
Dade county rockland in 1960
and started over. It is amazing
what they have accomplished in
three short years.
Dade county Extension agents
and scientists at the Sub-Tropic-
al Experiment Station at Home-
stead might call Costa a "model
farmer". He is one of the main
"co-operators" with the Sub-Tro-
pical station which has estab-
lished a system of field testing
with various Dade county farm-
Not a day goes by that Sta-
tion vegetable specialist Jim
Strobel can't be found walking
up and down rows of trellised
tomato plants planted in Costa's
15-acre plot. About three-fourths
of the plants are experimental
strains being tested by the Sub-
Tropical station. Some of these
strains are nearly ready for re-
lease, according to Strobel. "But,
we can't really make a release
without good field tests," he
says. Costa's farm provides an
excellent proving ground since
he is careful to listen to recom-
mendations from Extension and
Stations advisers.
Or, Costa's farm is a favorite
stopping poi n t for assistant
county agent Seymour Gold-
weber as he makes rounds or
conducts visitors on a tour of
Dade county agriculture.

Costa is concentrating on to-
mato production now. He packs
and ships direct to northern mar-
kets a "vine ripe" tomato to com-
pete with "hothouse" tomatoes
marketed from northern farms
during the winter. These vine-
ripened .tomatoes command a
premium price.
Although tomatoes are Cos-
ta's bread and butter crop, the
wise veteran was quick to diver-
sify his Dade county operation.
1964 will be his third year grow-
ing Calamondins for sale as
house plants to nurseries and
greenhouses throughout the
country. He has an avocado
grove and markets between
5,000 and 6,000 boxes of the ex-
clusive subtropical fruit each
year. And, Costa is experiment-
ing with several Cuban native
vegetable crops including the
yuca, casava, and Cuban sweet
"With all of the people of La-
tin origin in the United States,
I think we will have good mar-
kets if we can learn to grow
these native crops here," Costa
The former Cuban farmer's
goal for his Dade county farm-
which is located only a couple of
miles from the Subtropical sta-
tion-is to have products ready
for market on a year around
basis. He explains that he can
keep his field and packing house
labor on a full time basis by di-
versifying and thus avoiding
labor problems.
Costa undoubtedly gets much
help from son "Joe" who is pre-

tly writing his master's the-
in agricultural economics.
he Costas have three other
Idren. Their only daughter,
uisa, is married to Alberto
ntela. The other two boys are
chelangelo and Roberto Jose.
Tony gives much credit for
q uick adaptation to the
ange soils and growing condi-
ns of Dade county to Exten-
n agents and Stations sci-
"Every man must decide for
myself Costa says, "and I am
)le to make these decisions on
hat is best to do on my farm.
)me farmers will make out and
;hers will not. That is life."
His statements betray a sat-
faction with his new home.

Joe Costa mans a station on the
grading line, also shown below.

Her Problem Was $3,000 Big

Mrs. X. was a homemaker with a problem-$3,000 big.
She had plunged the family into $3,000 worth of debts without
her husband realizing it.
Then her husband found out about the debts. He wanted his wife
to continue to handle this family budget, but expected her to learn
to manage money.
Mrs. X sought help from her county home demonstration agent.
"How can we manage our money better?" she asked.
Lee County Home Agent Dorothy Classon had some answers.
She discussed time and money management with her visitors, as well
as consumer buying, and planning menus. She followed up this dis-
cussion by giving the homemaker bulletins on the subject to read.
Mrs. Classon asked the homemaker to read the bulletins carefully,
then come back for more detailed planning.
Two weeks later Mrs. X was back, bringing a collection of fi-
nancial facts and figures she had tabulated. The figures showed that
Mr. X provided a good income for his family. The problem was
managing that income.
Together, the homemaker and the home agent set up a flexible
money management plan for the family, including allowances for
the children and funds earmarked to pay off the debts.
Recently the homemaker reported that she is still working hard
on her plan and has taken a part-time job to ease the financial situa-
tion. She says it will be at least two years before they will be "on
top" again.
"If I had only known more about spending money when I first was
married, I could have saved all this trouble. I surely want my chil-
dren to learn more about managing money than I did," she says.
This was not the only family in Lee county experiencing severe
financial troubles. Loss of a job or illness in many families would put
them in the same position.
Realizing how acute this problem was, Lee county home dem-
onstration clubs began a long-term program featuring consumer edu-
cation and management. To really do justice to so comprehensive
a program, the group decided to spend the first year absorbing back-
ground information. Money management was the first phase, with
the emphasis on determining the goals and values of the family and
making a money spending plan to attain these goals.
The study of credit buying-learning the types of credit, the ad-
vantages and disadvantages, and how to figure the true rate of inter-
est-came next.
The last aspect studied this year was the general principles of
buying: influence of advertising, trading stamps, use of labels.
These programs were presented to club members, 4-H leaders,
special interest groups of young homemakers, before civic clubs, and
on television.
Further information in consumer education in choosing pots and
pans, household knives, and luggage was given on television.
Home demonstration club leaders are making a study of how to
buy sheets, towels, slips and dresses.
4-H leaders are using this information as they work with 4-H'ers in
each project area where it is applicable. A new project called "Dol-
lars and Sense" is popular with 4-H club girls.
Six classes of 9th graders studied money management. They were
encouraged to use this as a home project.
Since there is always need for help in managing money this pro-
gram will be repeated year after year.

Somebody once said: "If Mohammed can't
come to the mountain, bring the mountain to
The philosophy in this old statement pretty
accurately sums up the efforts of Mrs. Edward
H. Schmidt of Delray Beach. She writes a week-
ly homemaking column for the Delray Beach
News-Journal,.a feature which has grown to be
one of the most popular in this daily paper.
Under the heading of "Mrs. Florida Home-
maker", Mrs. Schmidt sends mountains of recipes,
gardening and household tips to an array of "Mo-
hammeds" in the Palm Beach county area. This
area appears to include New York, New England
and other northern states if one judges by the
mail she receives.
"Mrs. Florida Homemaker" zeros in on one
primary objective: Pass along information on
topics oriented toward tropical living in South
Florida. Mrs. Schmidt puts emphasis on tropical
plants, mildew and citrus, problems which could
only be familiar to homemakers in the Sunshine
However, she's not a native Floridian. In fact,
Mrs. Schmidt is a transplanted "snowbird" who


Al -

was born in New York and lived in various sections
of the country before she settled in Florida in
1957. After arriving in Delray Beach, she joined
its Home Demonstration Club, realizing this
would be an excellent way of discovering the exotic
life of her new state.
Mrs. Schmidt entered the mass media in 1959
when she agreed to produce a radio show on home-
making for station WDBF in Delray Beach. The
first four programs were on a trial basis. Public
reception to the programs was good, so the station
manager asked Mrs. Schmidt to continue the
One of her programs, "Birds, Their Value in
Gardens and How to Provide for and Protect
Them", won the Ana Louise Willis Radio TV
award of the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs
in 1962.
Mrs. Schmidt had to drop her radio work in
1962 for personal reasons. For many Palm Beach
County housewives, this temporary loss was a
blessing in disguise. Another medium had its
eye on Mrs. Schmidt.
The News-Journal told Mrs. Schmidt it was
interested in running a weekly homemaking col-

Accent's on Fl

"Mrs. Florida Homemaker" collect-
ing material for her weekly col-
umn; and results (left).

S :. : -.. : ** ..
: .: '. " *



--7' ff

umn, similar to the radio show she had written.
The paper's women's page editor, Mrs. Dot Frazer,
pointed out that writing a newspaper column
would not be as demanding nor as inflexible as a
radio show.
Mrs. Schmidt pondered the offer. She knew a
newspaper would be a prime chance to reach
more people with home economics information,
since recipes or household tips can be clipped out
and passed around.
The lady from New York said "yes" and
donned the green eyeshade of a working journal-
ist. Mrs. Schmidt then teamed up with Mrs.
Fraser and the two began hammering out the
first Mrs. Florida Homemaker.
That was in 1962. If you were in a drugstore
in Delray Beach today and happened to pick up a
copy of the News-Journal, you'd find Mrs. Flor-
ida Homemaker anchoring down the women's
page. A headline like "Love Apples . Most
Popular Vegetables" might take your eye into
an informative story about the tomato.
Almost a trademark of Mrs. Florida Home-
maker is a rambling account of pertinent history
and little-known facts which the writer uses to

ida Living


give some meat to the bones of her subject. A
typical column may have a "biographical sketch"
of a fruit or plant, some gardening tips, and three
or four recipes to choose from.
Since Mrs. Schmidt isn't a home economics
authority, she must rely on sources such as the
Extension Service and local Home Demonstration
office to supply her with booklets and circulars
for column material. She has compiled a file of
clippings of newspaper articles which she refers to.
So far as Home Agent Mary Todd is concerned,
the advent of Mrs. Florida Homemaker was a
boon to her office.
"Many people aren't aware of the services
which a Home Demonstration office can perform;
they don't know where to turn when they want
to know how to prepare mangos or care for hi-
biscus," said Mrs. Schmidt.
She channels any inquiry for further informa-
tion to the Home Demonstration office where Miss
Todd can hand out expert advice on most home
and garden subjects.
"The most popular articles center around
topics such as control of insects, mildew, citrus
plants, and poisonous plants around the home,"
said Mrs. Schmidt. "These brought requests for
additional information from Miss Todd's office."
Success of Mrs. Florida Homemaker was veri-
fied in a poll which the News-Journal conducted
to determine reader reaction to its columnists.
The public replied that Mrs. Schmidt's column
was one of its favorites-among the top three as
a matter of fact.
Wrote the advertising manager who conduct-
ed the survey: "Top women's columnist (Mrs.
Florida Homemaker) ; In top three of features ap-
pearing throughout the paper (sports, real estate,
editorial features and others of general interest)."
The self-made home economist-journalist has
built a sizeable following over the past two years.
Fans write the News-Journal to tell Mrs. Schmidt
they approve of the weekly dishes she serves. Said
a local housewife: "Please send a free copy of
the handy booklet on treatment of spots and stains
as I find it would be very helpful here in Florida".
Another: "Your recipes and advice have been won-
Others suggest material for future columns:
"Off and on, more on gardening like poinsettia
facts which you gave earlier this year. They
helped me lots."
The Palm Beach County Home Demonstration
Council Chairman feels that her newspaper col-
umn is one way of getting helpful information to
women who are not able to get to the Home Dem-
onstration office. She believes that Mrs. Florida
Homemaker is a community service to Delray
Beach-and many readers of Mrs. Florida Home-
maker will agree.

Travelers along Florida's
fabulous ."Gold Coast" perhaps
find it difficult to visualize a
Florida of quiet rivers and hard-
wood forests virtually un-
touched by man.
Such areas still exist today,
and not nearly so far from the
well-beaten paths of tourists as
most imagine. One of these is
located scarcely 75 miles from
the state capital in the bayou-
type country of Gulf and Frank-
lin counties. And there, where
the Apalachicola river, flows
peacefully to the Gulf of Mexico,
is the source of one of the most
exclusive sweets in the world-
tupelo honey.
The Apalachicola runs from
the Georgia line to the Gulf. Its
southern shores are profuse with
virgin forest-much of it acces-
sible only by boat. The river
winds slowly through the cy-
press, cottonwood, water elm,
sycamore, laurel oak, c e d a r,
hickory, sweet bay, box elder,
and tupelo gum.
But in the spring, as new blos-
soms intensify this beauty, the
forest becomes alive with frantic
activity as millions of honeybees
set out to do a lifetime job in
two or three weeks. The tupelo
gum is in bloom.
Tupelo honey production is a
small industry. It has grown
slowly, even casually, over the
years. Those few hardy prodic-
ers who make their living from
gathering and handling the hon-
ey have, up until a few years ago,
kept their wholesome sweet pret-
ty much to themselves.
Producing white tupelo honey
is an exacting business. The nor-
mal problems of gathering and
handling the smooth, high den-
sity liquid are multiplied by in-
accessibility of apiary s i t e s
along the banks of the river.
Many of the sites can be reached
only by water.
There are two species of tu-
pelo gum trees along the
river-the black and the white.
Honey produced from blossoms
of the black tupelo is amber and
less desirable. Mixing dark with

light honey is carefully avoided.
Aside from a mild, delicious
flavor, tupelo honey has distinct
characteristics which make it
highly desirable. It contains
about one and a half times as
much levulose as dextrose. The
average American honey con-
tains these two sugars in about
equal proportions. White tupelo
honey does not readily granulate
in normal containers, and sam-
ples have been kept as long as
25 years without granulation.

completely cleaned so that white
and dark honey are not mixed.
The amber honey is sold to can-
dy manufacturers.
By this time the white tupelo
flow has reached its height and
the bees are at their best for
the demanding task. They work
so frantically during the flow
that their average life is only
21 days.
Many of the apiary sites are
elevated platforms on the banks
of the Apalachicola. These plat-

Florida's Exclusive Industry:

Tupelo Honey Production

Like most tourists, the bees
go north for the summer and
fall. Many beekeepers screen
and close their hives and take
them to north Florida or south
Georgia where natural pollen is
available for gathering winter
stores. Usually during Decem-
ber and early January the bees
are brought back from their
summer quarters and stationed
on apiary sites to begin feeding
on early blooming plants.
In March when the black tu-
pelo gum and other trees begin
to bloom, the bees begin to work
in earnest. At the efid of the
black tupelo flow, the hives are

forms range from 5 to 25 feet
high, 15 to 25 feet wide, and 300
to 500 feet long.
Many of the tupelo apiary
sites are leased. According to
Florida Agricultural Extension
agent Cubie Laird, who works
closely with t h e s e producers,
most of the beekeepers locate
their colonies two to three miles
Producers h a v e conducted
tests that show single colonies
have produced as much as 20
pounds of honey in a single day.
In one favorable season, an api-
ary containing 90 colonies pro-

uced 38 barrels of honey in
ree weeks-each barrel con-
ining 30 gallons.
Generally hives are robbed
ice during the short, but fe-
erish work period; but, most of
he honey is extracted during
he latter of these two intru-
ions. Combs are taken to two-
tory honey houses-also located
long the river-where they are
capped and the honey removed
y centrifugal force in a whirl-
ng machine. The honey runs
through a pipe into a large,
ightly constructed tank on the
ower level.
Tupelo honey production is
certainly not a simple matter for
the Gulf County producers.
Hauling 55-gallon steel drums
from the apiaries by barge on
the river is difficult, as is hand-
ling colonies to take advantage
of the short tupelo flow period.
And, the rewards are not finan-
cially great although tupelo hon-
ey sells for about twice the price
of other honeys.
Because the gathering period
is so critically short, weather
often plays a role. A single hard
shower during the height of the
tupelo flow can cost producers
one third of their volume-in
dollars about $55,000.
Through working closely with
beekeepers, chemical laborato-
ries of both USDA and State De-
partment of Agriculture, much
of Agent Laird's work the past
19 years has been in establishing
a standard of identity and a hon-
ey crops certification program
for Tupelo honey. This has acted
to improve and maintain honey
quality and improve it's market-
The honey crops are sampled
and analyzed by Florida State
Department of Agriculture, and
honey that meets the iden-
tity standard and quality requi-
rements is certified. .Beekeepers
hold quality high in conjunc-
tion with this program, and
hence receive a premium price
for this kind of honey. Certifi-
cates issued on the honey great-
ly boost Tupelo sales.

Representatives to the 1964 National 4-H Conference in Washington, D. C.
are shown going through the reception line at the White House and being
greeted by Mrs. Lyndon Johnson (center). From left are Fred Dietrich,
Orlando; Nancy Shaw, Bradenton; Sharon Hoffman, Sarasota; and Skippy
Lambert, Cantonment.

Four Florida 4-H'ers also attended the annual citizenship shortcourse in
August, 1963. Representatives from six states attended the shortcourse
which was held at the National 4-H Center in Washington, D. C. From
left are A. S. Bacon, Federal Extension Service Administrative Official;
V. L. Elkins, Florida District Agent, Special Programs; Evelyn Simmons,
Duval County; Marion Hart, Sumter County; and Miss Floy Britt, District
Home Demonstration Agent, Special Programs. Seated on fence are Mona
Bethel, Dade County and Leonard Blakley, Gadsden County.



1 -"-'Agp


The Mannequin

Who May

Save Your Life

Pettis points out Resusci-Anne's human-like features to W. W. Brown, state 4-H
Club leader.

Can we be "immunized"
against death by drowning or
electrical shock?
Possibly through a "mass im-
munization" which would re-
quire that we be "inoculated"
not only to protect ourselves
from others, but to protect
others from us.
Lifesaving training is a form
of mass immunization. If peo-
ple are "vaccinated" with the

proper techniques in lifesaving,
the chance of someone dying due
to an accident is reduced. And
we get a "booster shot" as more
and more of our fellow citizens
learn lifesaving practices.
Like the polio vaccines, life-
saving vaccination must be ad-
ministered to nearly everyone
before it can be effective. This
is the philosophy behind A. M.
(Ray) Pettis' state-wide cam-

paign to educate and train Flor-
idians in basic lifesaving meth-
ods. Pettis is Extension Safety
Leader, and is responsible for
teaching more than 13,000 Flor-
idians how to save lives.
Pettis' instruction in two arti-
ficial respiration techniques-
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
and external heart compression
-has paid off. He can proudly
cite specific cases over the past

His breaths
of air
her lungs.

year where this training has
aided in reviving three young-
sters from almost certain asphy-
xiation. No one knows how
many lives have been indirectly
saved through his efforts or how
many unreported cases there
One of Pettis' projects is pro-
viding this vital training at the
4-H Summer Camps, where his
efforts reach 6,000 youngsters a
year. Although Pettis doesn't
actually train each child, prior
to the camping season he gives
classes for the lifeguards who
teach at the camps.
"Florida is probably the first
state to incorporate such train-
ing in its 4-H program," said
Pettis, who started the activity
last summer.
He related a pertinent story
of how on-the-spot lifesaving
averted a near tragedy at 4-H
Summer Camp Timpoochee in
Walton County last June. As-
sistant Santa Rosa County Agent
Hilton Meadows, a recipient of
Pettis' instruction, was helping
conduct visitor's night. Many
families were visiting sons and
daughters at the camp.
Suddenly, a freak accident oc-
curred. A 31/-year-old boy was
struck in the stomach by a shuf-
fleboard stick which knocked the
wind out of him and stopped his
Meadows alertly took the
child from his mother and ad-
ministered artificial respiration.
He tilted the boy's head back,
pinched his nose shut and puffed
two or three breaths of air into
the victim's deflated lungs.
Shortly, the child began breath-
ing again.
Pettis travels over the state

giving mouth-to-mouth resusci-
tation demonstrations to school
and civic groups, police and fire
departments. (He also teaches
via television shows.) To illus-
trate lifesaving procedure, Pet-
tis usually shows a movie and
carries with him a unique train-
ing device, a life-like mannequin
named Resusci-Anne.
"Resusci-Anne was modeled
after a 14-year-old girl who
drowned in Norway. She's made
out of plastic," explained Pettis.
"Anne has a movable jaw, teeth
and tongue, and it requires the
same amount of pressure to in-
flate her lungs as human lungs."
The rest of the mannequin's
limp body collapses so that she
can be carried in a suitcase.
In January, 1963, just after
Pettis and Resusci-Anne had giv-
en a demonstration on mouth-to-
mouth resuscitation to a group
of Panama City firemen, a dra-
matic incident occurred. A
clanging fire alarm called them
to a burning house. Inside the
smoldering structure was Willie
James Jr., age nine months and
overcome by smoke.
Willie was rushed outside im-

mediately by one of the firemen.
Department Captain W. R. Petty
quickly applied his freshly ac-
quired training, giving mouth-
to-mouth resuscitation to the as-
phyxiated boy and blowing life
back into his small body.
Besides teaching mouth-to-
mouth resuscitation, Pettis is
engaged in a pilot study con-
cerning use of the "heart com-
pression" or external heart mas-
sage methods by laymen. In
cooperation with Dr. James R.
Jude of Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity, the study is designed to
determine effectiveness of the
new lifesaving method.
"Heart compression consists
of applying pressure with the
heal of the hand on the chest of
a person whose heart has stop-
ped beating. The heart is mas-
saged until it starts its natural
pumping, or until a physician
arrives," says Pettis.
However, Pettis emphasized
that he does not teach heart com-
pression to everyone who receiv-
es artificial respiration training.
Since misuse of the technique
could be very dangerous, instruc-
tion is limited to qualified adults
and older youths.
This Extension Service life-
saving project has been in prac-
tice since July 1962. Pettis and
others estimate they have reach-
ed half the counties in Florida
during the year and a half, teach-
ing 13,000 people in the process
and making the lives of thous-
ands of others much safer.

Boys at a 4-H summer camp learn
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation by direct
contact with Resusci-Anne.

Merry and Machine

Sew Way Through College

Her name is Merry, Merry
Merry is a petite blonde with
classic features, a real Patrician
type, and has a gift for design-
ing clothes.
Merry's nimble fingers, crea-
tive mind, and her flair for fash-
ion have turned her childhood
hobby of making doll dresses in-
to a lucrative business before
she has even finished college.
Merry's story began when she
was 10-ten years ago. It was
then she joined a 4-H club and
found her first love-sewing. As
a child she had picked up a few
sewing techniques from her
mother, Mrs. William McKenna.
4-H whetted her appetite for
more knowledge about the won-
derful world of fashion. In no
time at all Merry had graduated
from making a simple tea towel
and apron, required in first year
sewing projects, to designing
sophisticated ball gowns.
She likes to design clothes
from pictures she sees in fashion
magazines or smart shops. She
can't remember ever buying a
dress. "It's not that I wouldn't
like to, but every time I take a
look at the price tag and realize
I can make three for the price of
one, I go back to my cutting
table and sewing machine."
This talented young designer
is an honor student at Florida
State University, where she is
majoring in-you guessed it-
design and fashion merchandis-
ing. She was recently tapped
for senior membership in the
campus honorary, Fashion, Inc.
When Merry was graduated
from high school in Fort Pierce,
she received a sewing machine
as a gift. Last summer between
her sophomore and junior years
in college she put the machine to
good use. She concentrated on
clothing construction as well as
alterations, even working with
fur and other difficult fabrics.

From her profits she paid cash
for a foreign compact car to use
at school, bought car insurance,
paid her school expenses and
bought books for the current tri-
And now while maintaining
an A and B average for a class
load of 18 hours, Merry is com-
pletely self-supporting. She has
been broadening her skill and
increasing her income by work-
ing several afternoons a week
with Kristen Skagsfield, one of
Florida's top designers. She also
finds time to sew for college
One unexpected expense con-
fronted Merry during the year-
an $80 dental bill that wrecked
her budget. Fortune smiled. On
a visit to the dentist's office,
Merry was wearing an Italian
mohair cashmere coat she had
made to wear to Chicago, when
she represented Florida as state

clothing winner at the National
4-H Club Congress in 1961. The
dentist admired her beautiful
coat. When he learned that she
had made it, he asked her to
make one like it for his wife's
Christmas present in payment
for the dental bill.
Merry continues to receive
honors. In recognition of her
achievements in a well-rounded,
well-balanced program of club
activities, she was awarded the
coveted Florida Key Award
which entitles her to life mem-
bership in the 4-H Key Club.
The key signifies outstanding
contributions to 4-H club work
through development of citizen-
ship, leadership, and community
Merry is now designing a very
special dress for her forthcom-
ing wedding, to take place when
she graduates from FSU next

Merry McKenna and one of the most important machines in the world.


t~ C1CladEa


4-H'ers Put


On Nutrition For State Fair

The accent was on good nutri-
tion-in simplest terms, eating
the right foods in the right
amounts-for 58 4-H club girls
this last year.
The 58 participated in two
separate food and nutrition pro-
grams, the latter attracting
wide attention at the Florida
State Fair in February, 1964.
Phase one of the nutrition
project-a i m e d primarily at
teenagers-started at the North
Florida Fair when 10 girls from
five counties set up poster exhi-
bits on teenage nutrition. The
exhibits pointed out graphically
that while many teenagers are
well nourished because they have
been provided with good diets
and practiced good eating habits,
many others are under-fed be-
cause of their desire for good
figures. Some girls skip meals
and choose food unwisely which
can result in shortages of cal-
cium, and vitamins C and A.
Overall purpose of the exhibit
was to show that the freedom
to eat the foods a person likes
also carries a health responsi-
bility to make sure basic good
nutrition is maintained.
These "team exhibits" (so
called because two or more people
work together in making a pre-
sentation) were so well done
that the 10 girls were encouraged
to go back to their counties and
put them on for home folks.
Some of the teams have
crossed county lines in special
exchange programs.
While exhibits at the North
Florida Fair centered on teen-
age nutrition, team demonstra-
tions set up for the State Fair
involving 58 4-H club girls cen-
tered around food science for
the entire family.
For 11 days, teams from 14
counties spent three and a half
hours each performing demon-
strations centered around the
science of foods.



pi M, FOOD .) W.A. ..

-- u,,

Overall State Fair booth (above), and Dade County demonstration team,
one of 14 teams who presented scientific food demonstrations during
the 11-day fair.

F 1

I %I1

The girls each had a topic for
which to set up a simple experi-
ment. For example, topics in-
cluded: Speed of reaction of bak-
ing powders; Action of baking
soda with acids; Water changes
in fruit; Acid, alkali and chloro-
phyll; Acid, alkali and antho-
cyanins in vegetables; Oxidation
of lean beef; Acid, alkali and
anthocyanins in fruit; Cooking
time and chlorophyll; Water
changes in vegetables; Effect of
light on cured meat; Acid, alkali
and green vegetables; Porosity
of the eggshell; Syrup impregna-


tion of fruit preserves; and Per-
oxides and color in cured meat.
Coordinated by Miss Floy
Britt, district Home Demonstra-
tion agent for special programs,
plans for the State Fair exhibits
were made during the 1963 an-
nual conference. Miss Britt
worked with food and nutrition
state specialists to develop tech-
nical material.
Hundreds of people were
reached through the fair exhi-
bits and subsequent follow-up
work in the counties.

CI ec, ~ ~P

Old Citrus Family

Expands with


Their object isn't two cars in
every garage and a nickel cup
of coffee, but it could well be a
citrus tree for every home in
The Robert Pitman Jr. family
of Apopka probably wouldn't ad-
mit this seemingly impossible
aim, but if you judged solely on
production capability the idea
wouldn't seem so far fetched.
How could families in often
snow-bound Gouverneur or Min-
neapolis or Seattle enjoy a live
and bearing citrus tree? Why as
a potted ornamental plant, of
It isn't a new idea, but it is a
brand new industry for Florida
-dating back on a small scale
no more than four or five years.
Now, one of the citrus industry's
oldest and most prosperous
names-Florida Ponkan Corpo-
ration-is in the potted plant
business up to its neck. And
the Pitman family-owners of
the corporation-thought for a
while they might be in a little
deeper than even that.
The Pitman family is putting
its money on the Calamondin
Orange, a dwarf variety that
bears fruit about an inch in
diameter. The high acid fruit
is a good substitute for lemons
and limes in making drinks,
punches, jellies and preserves.
It is one of the hardiest of the
edible citrus species grown in
This plant can be grown in
the average home with only an
ordinary amount of care. And
since it thrives as an ornament-
al house plant, naturally it isn't
restricted to the south or any
other part of the country. It
can be expected to bloom and
bear fruit nine or 10 months out

Robert Pitman, Jr.


of the year, and the usual plant,
will have blooms, green fruit
and ripe fruit all at the same
time. As a side benefit, the fruit
and blooms emit that delicious
orange blossom odor that is so
familiar to Floridians-natives
and visitors alike.
The Pitman family has been
in the grove and nursery busi-
ness for more than 40 years in
Orange county. Robert Sr. be-
gan as a school principal and
planted citrus on the side in an
area which is now nearly sur-
rounded by the community of
Apopka about 13 miles from Or-
lando. Son Robert Jr. attended
the University of Florida, where
he starred in baseball and bas-
ketball, with the intention of
teaching school.
For several years Robert Jr.
coached and taught, and he re-
turned to Florida where he
coached football and baseball
while getting a master's degree.
But the elder Mr. Pitman talked
his son into coming home and
entering into the family's rapid-
ly increasing grove business.
The business is still a family
affair. The elder Mr. Pitman's
widow remained very active in


it until a few months ago. Rob-
ert Jr.'s wife, his two sons, Rob-
ert III and Ben, and his married
daughter Pamela all take part.
They handle the reins of Flor-
ida Ponkan, Mini-Orange of Flor-
ida, Inc., and the unincorporated
R. J. Pitman and Sons.
The grove and nursery busi-
ness remains the bread and but-
ter operation. Ben is in charge
of field crews and production.
Mini-Orange, the outlet for the
new potted plant business, is
Robert III's baby.
And, infant the business is.
Although the Pitmans had the
idea 10 years ago, it wasn't un-
til three years ago that they de-
cided to see what could be done.
F r e d Lawrence, citriculturist
with the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service and an old
school chum, encouraged the
Pitmans to give potted citrus
a try.
Naturally, production was the
problem the first year. But Rob-
ert III received a degree in ci-
trus at the University of Flor-
ida, and with his father's experi-
ence and advice from specialist
Lawrence, these problems were
ironed out smoothly.


1 ,
;i ::~:F

Calamondin's a r e nurtured
from cuttings, and for this pur-
pose the family has about two
acres climate controlled under
plastic. Mini-Orange produces
three basic sizes of potted plants
-the 21/-inch pot, the 5-inch
pot and the gallon container.
Since that first year, market-
ing has been the major problem.
As in many types of businesses,
the Pitmans didn't aim for any
one market but began by explor-
ing several. They looked for
nursery and greenhouse outlets,
mail-order houses, and retail out-
lets such as chain stores.
Everyone who heard the idea
of potted citrus and saw the in-
teresting and attractive plants
thought the idea was great. It
appeared there would be great
demand and those who came and
saw had sales schemes galore.
To meet the demand that was
presenting itself, the Pitmans
geared up to handle tremendous
production-up to a million
plants a year. But some of the
schemes the buyers had fell
through. One major juice firm
planned to offer plants for two
labels from juice cans, but when

the freeze hit the citrus industry
everybody cut back advertising.
Eight months ago the picture
looked a little dim. Mini-Orange
had a beautiful, tremendous sup-
ply of Calamondins in all sizes,
from a few inches high to four
feet high.
Fortunately the setback was
temporary. New i d eas were
brought forward and more buy-
ers appeared as is the case with
any basically good idea.
Mini-Orange is in the process
of re-evaluating its marketing
aim. The Pitmans are still in-
terested in bulk selling and mail-
order, but production will be con-
trolled at a given level and sup-
plies will be held at that level.
Although the mail order busi-
ness requires the most work, it
holds great promise if the story
can reach a nation of home own-
ers. Most of the mail order de-
mand is for small inexpensive
plants, some of which are bear-
ing a small number of fruit.
They will grow into larger plants
in time and with proper care.
But the Pitmans believe their
best buy is the gallon-size plant
-even for the mail order cus-
tomer. What they find difficult

to tell customers by mail is that
this size plant will arrive full of
fruit and well established; that
it is mailed in a double card-
board box so rugged a man can
stand on it and that the fruit
will stay on the tree in transit.
"We sell this plant for S6 deli-
vered anywhere east of the Mis-
sissippi," Robert III says, "and
about S3 of that is pot, carton
and mailing expense. That's a
real buy once people realize what
they are getting. But, of course,
sight-unseen, it is a lot of money
to put out not knowing what you
will get."
Mini-Orange has gotten only
about a half of one percent com-
plaints from their mail-order
customers. "We don't argue,"
Robert III says, "we just send
another plant and investigate
Business is pretty good now
and getting better. The Pitmans
believe the basic idea is good and
that demand will increase. In
the meantime, they lean on the
reliable 120-acre nursery busi-
ness-a business that is boom-
ing in the wake of 1962's disas-
trous freeze.

In photo panel at left, Robert, Jr. and son Robert, III inspect gallon-size Calamondin plant in heavy-duty
shipping box designed to easily support the weight of a man; center, Extension Citriculturist Fred Lawrence
looks over packing operation; at right, wives get into the act by typing labels and sorting orders.

.. ........

Pinellas Women Join Hands

To Provide Nurse Care, Clothes

Two Home Demonstration Clubs
in north Pinellas County h a v e
launched their own two-pronged
attack on perennial enemies of
man-illness and destitution.
The clubs-Tarpon Springs and
Crystal Beach-planned and shaped
a visiting nurse service and a fam-
ily service center to aid the less
fortunate residents of the Suncoast
area. After the two operations got
rolling, the county and city gov-
ernments came in and picked up
the tab for the services, although
they are still directed by the
The visiting nurse service began
about five years ago through the
collaboration of the Tarpon Springs
and Crystal Beach clubs. The idea
was born in the Gerontology com-
mittee of the Program Projection
Committee. Through combined
leadership of Mrs. Gladys Kennard
and Miss Carrie Lee of Tarpon
Springs, and Mrs. Michael Tomey
of Crystal Beach, the plan was set
into motion.
Outgrowth of the idea is a full-
time nurse service available to all
residents of the northern end of
the county in need of home nurs-
ing care.
Briefly, the visiting nurse service
consists of a graduate registered
nurse specializing in public health
nursing and rehabilitation tech-
niques. When requested by an ail-
ing patient, she will go to his home
and provide the professional care
he needs. She will give injections,
change dressings and furnish in-
formation on infant care.
Nobody is denied the service of
a nurse, but a fee is charged for
her services. In case the patient
or his family cannot afford the en-
tire amount, charges are adjusted
according to the patient's ability
to pay. Contributions from the
United Fund also help defray the
Since the visiting nurse service
helps perform a public function,
both the city of Tarpon Springs

and Pinellas County foot part of
the bill each year. At present one
nurse serves the area, but more are
available if they are needed.
Three years ago, not content
with one major accomplishment,
Tarpon Springs c lub members
brought up the fact that emergen-
cies often arise where people have
a dire need for clothing-and don't
have the time or money to buy a
new wardrobe. Members of a fam-
ily burned out of their home had
nowhere to turn for immediate
relief. The club decided that some-
thing should be done, and wasted
no time effecting an organization
to set up an outlet center for clothes
and household appliances.
The name agreed upon was the
Family Service Center. Qualifica-
tions were laid down in order to

screen out transients from needy
local residents. To be eligible for
clothing from the center, a person
must be approved by a committee
comprised of a pastor, a represen-
tative from the county Health Cen-
ter, and the Home Demonstration
There is no charge for articles
of clothing handed out. Clothes
are donated by civic-minded local
individuals or bought by an occasi-
onal cash donation. Cash is used
mostly for shoes, since it is difficult
to pass out old shoes. Children's
clothes are in highest demand, club
members point out, as well as baby
crib s, layettes, dungarees and
As word of the center spread
through the community, other civic
groups began pitching in to help
the cause by donating articles and
picking up the tab for operating
expenses. The United Council of
Church Women now pays the cen-
ter's monthly light bill and aids in
truc k ing household appliances
around town. The city of Tarpon
Springs furnishes rent and water
Sponsorship of the Family Serv-
ice Center has now passed on to
the United Church Women, who
supply workers, make contacts to
secure clothing, and keep the serv-
ice available seven days a week.
The center has made a definite
and positive impact upon the
needy in upper Pinellas. Those
who find it necessary to come to
the center, come back again and
again. Last year, more than 70
different families were helped, and
most of them were large families
with five to seven children.
Under the direction of Mrs. Ken-
nard, a nurse, and Miss Lee, a re-
tired school principal, the Family
Service Center has had three years
of successful service to the com-
munity. Through the efforts of
these clubs, hard times have been
cushioned for many Pinellas fam-

Art for this publication by the Editorial Department
Art Staff, Elizabeth Ehrbar and Walter Godwin
Nieland-Norris stories illustrated by Don Addis

This annual report is published by the Editorial Department of
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, M. Hervey Sharpe,
Editor. The report was written and edited by Assistant Com-
munication Specialist K. B. Meurlott and Editorial Assistant Jack
Horan. Some stories were taken from county narrative reports.
Additional assistance was given by Assistant Editors E. A.
Moffett, Roberts C. Smith, Alma Warren, Mel Sharpe and Mary

(Acts of May 8 and Jne 30. 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service. University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. 0. Watkins. Director

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