YOUR 1961 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE ANNUAL REPORT
University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida
TO THE PEOPLE OF FLORIDA:
Throughout the past vear, your Florida Agricultural Extension Service has worked
hard on many problems that concern you. A few of the highlights of what was done
are included in the pages that follow.
Regardless of your interests and your areas of concern, the activities presented in
these pages benefited you. For as you will see, a strong agriculture is fundamental to the
economy and welfare of our state, as of our nation.
Regardless of your source of livelihood, agriculture contributed to it in some fashion
last year. As a basic industry, the effects of our agriculture can be felt in every business
endeavor in Florida.
Of course, your Agricultural Extension Service is concerned with more than
agricultural commodities. It is interested in working with people to provide them with
the necessary tools of knowledge to solve their problems whether these problems are
on farms, in homes, with our young people, or with industries working with agriculture.
The Agricultural Extension Service exists to serve you and your state. We hope you
will find this report interesting, and descriptive of how we accomplish this objective.
PROGRESS IN FLORIDA'S BASIC INDUSTRY -
AGRICULTURE AND RELATED BUSINESS....... 3
I. Agricultural Production and Management. ........ 4
CITRUS PRODUCTION ................ ......................... 4
Citrus Institutes Aid Industry .............................. 4
Rejuvenating Citrus Trees ..................... ............ 5
Training Citrus Industry Replacements ............ 6
Extension Demonstrations Make Believers ........ 7
V EG ETA B LES ...................................... .................. 8
Maintaining Farm-Fresh Quality ...................... 8
New Seed Treatment Stops Mouse Damage ........ 9
BEEF CATTLE AND HOGS ...................................... 9
Probing for Leaner Cuts .................................... .. 9
Better Land Use Means a Better Business .......... 10
A 4-H Pig Chain ........................... ....................10
Locating the Most Productive Cows .................... 11
DA IRY IN G ........................................ ..... ........ 12
Emergency Power Serves Florida Agriculture ......12
Dairy Heifers Raise, Buy, or Contract? ........13
Good Management Means Profitable Dairying ....13
Florida Dairying Reaches Goal ..........................14
Management Means Decision Making ................15
PO U LTRY ..................................... ...... ....... .....16
Organizing for Unified Action ..........................16
In Poultry: From Production to Use Via 4-H 16
A Bigger and Better Random Sample Test ........17
FIELD CROPS ................................ .............. 18
Corn Yields Are Improving ............................18
Learning to Care for the New Power King ........18
Plastic Covers for Tobacco Seedbeds .....................19
Chem ical W eed Control .......................................19
New Sugar Bowl for the Nation .....................20
ORNAMENTALS .......................... ................21
Controlling Weeds in Nurseries ........................21
Florida Plant Showcases ..................................... 22
Tree Moving on a Giant Scale ........................23
With the Corps of Engineers:
Operation Landscape ...............................23
Gum Farming Shows an Increase ........................24
"Mr. Christmas Tree Grower -
Use Adapted Species" ................................24
"For More Profit, Plant Trees" ...........................25
OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ................25
H andle Pesticides Safely ..................................... 25
Information on Agricultural Chemicals .............25
Exporting High Quality Honey ........................26
Identifying Insects ......................... .................. 26
II. Conservation and Use of Natural Resources... 27
Land Judging is Growing ........................ .....27
Spreading the Word about Forestry ....................28
Planting Tree Seedlings ..................................28
In Land Clearing: Killing Trees .......................28
M multiple Land Use ........................... ..................29
Soil Testing Pays Off ......................... ...............29
III. Agricultural M marketing ........ ......... ..... .30
A Banner Year for Flue-Cured Tobacco ...... ....30
Need: A Stable Syrup Market -
Answer: Group Marketing ..........................31
From Patch to Pot in Minutes ..........................31
Marketing Watermelons ......................................32
More Knowledge Means Better Buying ..............33
Independence through Cooperation ..................33
"New Florida Potatoes Always Chip White" ....34
Looking Ahead with Outlook Information ........34
MOVING AHEAD WITH FLORIDA PEOPLE...............35
I. Fam ily Living ........ .............. ................... ....... 3 6
The Modern Woman's Dilemma ......................36
Extension Clothing Leaders at Work ................37
Help for Young Homemakers ..........................38
Home Businesses Bring Extra Income ................38
Cues for Consumers ..................... ....................39
Health and Recreation Education ......................39
60 Women Speak Their Minds ..........................40
Native Trees for Home Grounds ........................40
II. Forw ard w ith Youth........... ................................................41
Tailored for O lder Teens ....................................41
What 4-H Means to Me ...................................42
Care and Feeding of Automobiles ....................43
Indian 4-H Members Study Electricity ................43
"Stay Young by Working with Youth" ..............44
Activity in the Boys' 4-H Council ......................44
Baby Sitting Service from 4-H Project ................45
Living w ith Parents ............................................ 45
Growing through Junior Leadership ....................46
M oney for College ....................... ...................47
4-H at F .S.U ................................. .................... 47
Seat Belts for Safety ........................................... 47
Youth And Its Responsibility ........................48
Florida Dairy Team Third in Nation ................48
Y yesterday's 4-H 'ers ............................................. 48
III. Developing Better Citizens
and Better Com m unities ..................... ........ 49
Old Fashioned Cooperation Lives On ................49
Cooperation: Key to Rural Florida Development 50
Help for the Helpless at "Sheltered Workshop" 51
Problem Solving Brings Progress ......................51
Rural Development Results ................................52
IV. Extension O perations............................ ................... 53
Agency Cooperation Means Better Rural Homes 53
Informing and Entertaining:
"Gardening in Florida" ............................54
Wanted: More Extension Contacts ..................54
Operation Information 4-H and H. D. Style 55
Extension Forestry Teaching:
Acting as the Middleman .........................55
Extension's Wonderful World of Books ............56
4-H Spokesm an ............................. ....................56
Beware of Cedar Blight .................................56
"Eating Out" in a Fallout Shelter ....................57
V. Negro Extension Operations. .................................58
Extension Helps with Fallout Shelters ................58
Marketing Home Grown Products ....................58
A Successful 4-H Club Member ......................58
More Sewing Skill Means Better Clothes ............59
Fertilizer Use Increases Family Income ..............59
STATISTICS AND PERSONNEL ................ ................ 60
Statistical and Financial Reports ........................61
Extension's People, 1961 .................................... 62
in Florida's Basic Industry,
Agriculture and Related
A. A Business.
Agricultural Production & Management
Florida's huge production of agricultural products is basic to the state's economy. Well over a quarter
of a million people and their families are directly involved in this production of farm, ranch, forest, grove,
and nursery products. The on-farm value of agricultural and forestry products in the 1960-61 season was
The most important areas of agricultural production in Florida are citrus, vegetables, livestock and
poultry, field crops, ornamentals, and forestry.
I Citrus Production
Citrus is Florida's single most important agricultural crop. Over 18,000 producers shared in marketing
5,425,000 tons of citrus of various kinds during 1960-61. This mammoth production came from 604,000
acres of bearing groves, and brought an on-farm price of $335,000,000.
CITRUS INSTITUTES AID INDUSTRY
A unique method of getting information to
growers the citrus institute, developed by Ex-
tension citriculturists has become the mainstay
of the Extension citrus work. Besides, these insti-
tutes have gained a place of real prominence within
Growers, research workers and industry men
alike think of these institutes as the place to give
and receive the latest information on research, good
grower practices and industry current events. In-
terest has grown steadily and attendance has
reached the point that standing room only is the
rule rather than exception at our five annual in-
Although our institutes were originally designed
as grower-research worker meetings, they afford
another very valuable educational by-product. They
also contribute toward training a very large working
force of commercial and industry representatives.
As a result, the Florida citrus grower receives the
same information and recommendations be it
from his fertilizer salesman, insecticide dealer or
county Extension agent.
Citrus growers, research men, and industry people alike benefit
from citrus institutes such as this.
New ideas for Old Groves:
REJUVENATING CITRUS TREES
New life is coming to some old Florida citrus
groves as a result of applying Extension-recom-
mended ideas in pruning them. Growers are find-
ing that using this information pays off in higher
Florida has some 266,000 acres of citrus trees
that are 25 years old and older. The problems of
fluctuating production and increasing costs of pro-
duction are of prime concern in many of these
Management problems in these old groves can
range from the rather simple problems of fertili-
zation, pH control, and insect and disease control
A rejuvenated grapefruit
grove. Topping and hedg-
ing on four sides have
headed this grove back
toward profitable produc-
to complex problems of soil unbalance, drainage,
viruses, declines of various types, crowding, and
finally a state of senility or unproductiveness.
With age, the renewal rate of bearing wood of
citrus decreases and non-productive wood increases
to the point that this non-productive wood competes
with fruiting wood for energy and nutrients. With
this fact as a starting point the Extension Service,
largely through Lake County Agent Bob Norris
and the citriculturist, decided to demonstrate
several methods of pruning to rejuvenate these
Rejuvenation pruning ranges in severity from
hedging to skeletonizing, to buckhorning, to com-
plete removal of every other tree in some groves.
Results of these demonstrations have been re-
markable. The practice of hedging has increased
the percent pack-out of fresh tangerines from an
average of 26 percent to more than 80 percent.
Although skeletonizing has a very beneficial
effect, the cost of the operation makes it a question-
Buckhorning which means cutting bearing
trees off at chest height is giving outstanding
results. This is especially true in blocks of old seed-
ling trees. Some groves have been increased from
an average of 5 boxes per tree to 10 to 15 boxes
per tree in the six years after buckhorning.
Thinning by tree removal has also given phe-
nominal results. For example, a 10-acre block of
27-year old trees spaced 15ft. x 25ft. and
containing 1,170 trees before thinning was
thinned to 598 trees by removing every other tree
on the 15 foot spacing. This changed the grove
spacing to 25ft. x 30ft. no other cultural
practices were altered.
Maximum production of 6,679 boxes of fruit
was obtained from the unthinned grove in 1952.
By 1955, production had declined to 2,886 boxes.
The grove was thinned in January 1955, and by
1961 the yield was back to 6,590 boxes and still
climbing. With this spacing, plus the practices of
hedging, this grove can probably be maintained
with an annual yield near 7,000 boxes of fruit.
Rejuvenation pruning is now an important part
of citrus production management in Florida.
"Boot camp" for the citrus industry is the Junior
Citrus Institute. Conducted each year by the
Extension Service, this institute provides many
replacement workers to fill the need for trained
workers. Also, many of those who attend this week-
long event go on to specialize in citrus in college.
Taught by members of the University of Florida
staff and selected industry leaders, these boys have
the opportunity to experience most of the important
phases of citrus production, management, and
marketing. This opportunity is awarded 4-H Club
boys as a result of their achievements in citrus
Above: Four-H boys and an advisor set a young tree during the
Junior Citrus Institute.
Below: It's class time at the Institute as 4-H boys get a talk on
projects in their respective counties.
During this week of intensive training, boys
"learn by doing" as they carry on the many essential
grove operations in the five-acre demonstration
grove at 4-H Camp Cloverleaf. They are also given
the opportunity to view large commercial citrus
operations by touring the area in the company of
citrus leaders and Extension personnel.
The course of study provided these young men
is divided into five yearly sessions all taught
simultaneously. Therefore, each boy may attend
the Institute for five years, learning new fields of
study each year.
The objective of the Junior Citrus Institute is
twofold. First, it helps boys become better trained
in citrus production and marketing. After complet-
ing five summers in this intensive study and
training, these boys are better qualified to fill the
needs of the industry for trained personnel.
Second, it is the sponsors' hope that the Institute
will inspire many boys to pursue their interests in
citrus while attending the University.
Since the Institute's beginning in 1955, over 500
boys have attended. Many of them are still in high
school, others are attending universities, while still
others have been employed in the citrus industry.
In each case, they value their leadership training
and the knowledge of citrus obtained through their
attendance at the Junior Citrus Institute.
EXTENSION DEMONSTRATIONS MAKE BELIEVERS
Extension is continuing to "make believers out Three years ago Dr. A. H. Krezdorn, then horti-
of doubters" by the use of demonstrations in citrus culturist at the Citrus Experiment Station, started
production work. A successful demonstration is a to work on this problem. The year before, Frank
powerful persuader to those whose motto is, "Show Robinson, entomologist with the main station, was
me." also encouraged to work on the same problem -
Extension fruit crops .workers concentrate both
on result demonstrations and on cooperative demon-
strations with research people, with little emphasis
on method demonstrations.
Few agricultural industries in the world adapt
research findings as rapidly as the Florida citrus
industry. There are many reasons for this; but
among them is the grower's confidence in. the Agri-
cultural Extension Service's demonstrations.
Through well-planned demonstrations, Extension
workers can get research findings into use much
quicker and more effectively than through other ." .
means. All fruit producing counties now have a
minimum of five result demonstrations in progress,
and some counties have as many as one hundred.
Through the use of research demonstrations in
cooperation with Federal and State Experiment
station workers, Extension is helping growers reap
a tremendous benefit. They could not do so if the
research was confined strictly to Experiment Sta-
tion grounds. One of the best examples of this is
fruit setting in the Orlando tangelo.
For years, tangelos have brought outstanding per-
box prices; but the per tree-per acre yield was so
low that most tangelo growers wound up in the
red each year.
Demonstrations like this on herbicide use in groves make believers
of those who view them. Bees pollinate tangelos, and so insure fruiting. This was shown by
Experiment Station results.
using honey bees as pollinators. Both were assisted
by Extension specialists and county agents in lo-
cating grower cooperators with commercial groves,
in which the necessary research demonstrations
could be tried.
In 1960, positive proof was gained that both
girdling of trees and the use of pollinators plants
and bees would improve the size of individual
fruits as well as increase the number of fruits set
S:. by the tree. As a result, all established tangelo
-groves either are being interset with pollinator
AA.trees or are being girdled, and new groves are
being interest with pollinator trees.
being interset with pollinator trees.
Florida is the nation's winter vegetable garden. During last season, over 5,000 vegetable producers
harvested 2,017,800 tons of high-quality vegetables from 358,200 acres of Florida land. This produce had
an on-farm value of $171,643,000.
In Florida Strawberries:
Maintaining Farm-Fresh Quality
Florida-grown strawberries are arriving at dis-
tant markets and on your table in better
condition this season than ever before.
The reason is a new method of treating berries
which is being used by growers and shippers in the
state's $2,805,000 strawberry industry. Treated
berries retain that farm-fresh taste and appearance
over a longer period of time.
The new method of treatment is easy and quite
inexpensive to use. Strawberries are dipped for 30
seconds in water containing one-half percent of
the chemical DHA-S. Approved for use on straw-
berries, DHA-S is absolutely safe for humans.
Development and introduction of the DHA-S
treatment of strawberries is a tribute to team work
of industry and government agencies. It was dis-
covered in a commercial laboratory only a few
years ago. Techniques of the treatment were per-
fected by research personnel of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service first
introduced DHA-S treatment of strawberries last
year. Working with county agricultural agents, Ex-
tension vegetable specialists made actual demon-
strations of the treatment to growers and shippers.
In this way, they were able to see first-hand the
outstanding results in maintaining quality. To see
the results once was to be convinced.
It is not yet possible to fully determine how the
market will react to the better quality strawberries
being shipped from Florida. In the long run, it will
probably mean an increase in demand, with greater
Treated with DHA-S.
net returns to all strawberry growers. And it will
definitely mean better berries on your breakfast
NEW SEED TREATMENT
STOPS MOUSE DAMAGE
About 100,000 acres of the vine-crops water-
melons, cucumbers, squash, and cantaloupes -
were planted this year in Florida. To plant this
vast acreage, growers spent more than one-half
million dollars for seed alone. Including labor,
costs for planting these vine-crops were well over
But just a few years ago, planting costs for the
same acreage of vine-crops might have been 25 to
30 percent higher. Until recently, there was no
effective control against field mice who damaged
many of the valuable seeds shortly after they were
placed in the ground. Now growers are using a
new method of treating seed which practically
eliminates this costly problem.
The new treatment for vine-crop seeds was
developed in Florida by wildlife specialists of the
U. S. Department of Interior. Kits, containing all
of the materials needed for the treatment, were
made available by farm supply companies.
Working with the developers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Scrv introduced the new
seed treatment to Florida growers in 1959. They
demonstrated how easy it was to treat seed and
distributed sample kits for trial use by growers.
Those who planted treated seed on a trial basis
were quickly convinced, and passed the word on to
their neighbors. Now, a large part of the vine-crop
seeds planted are treated by this new method
before planting. No longer is replanting necessary
solely because mice damaged freshly planted seed.
The savings to Florida growers is hard to esti-
mate, but widespread use of the treatment is ample
evidence that it is quite worthwhile.
a Beef Cattle and Hogs
Florida is an important livestock state. In 1961, about 37,000 producers kept close to 2,000,000 cattle
and hogs in the state. About 350,000,000 pounds of beef and 65,000,000 pounds of pork were sold off farms
in Florida. Income from these sales was about $67,100,000 for the beef and $13,000,000 for the hogs.
PROBING FOR LEANER CUTS
Swine producers are doing their bit in cutting
down on excess fat. Fatback on hogs is an inherited
trait, but selection of breeding stock with limited
fat has brought about a trend toward meatier,
Backfat probing is one of our most effective
tools in combating the "fat" problem in swine.
Many Florida swine producers are using this meth-
od to increase meatiness and quality, and to
improve pork products.
Consumer demand has dictated this course of
action. Today, no one wants fat pork chops and
hams. Consequently, Florida swine producers are
probing for leaner cuts and better consumer
BETTER LAND USE MEANS
Choosing the best use for their land has meant
more income and a better outlook for the future
for the Pearce family of Highlands County.
The Pearces father Wilson, mother Kathryn,
and daughter Glenda live in Venus. Pearce
is in the logging business. This has provided his
family a good living. But logging is not a very
stable business in south Florida; therefore, Pearce
has been looking for some business with a future.
About two years ago, he inherited from his
father's estate 1,000 acres of native flatwoods land.
This land, in its native state, would provide graz-
ing for about 60 cows. If these cattle produced
a 60 percent calf crop, there would be about 36
to 40 calves to sell a year under excellent condi-
A BETTER BUSINESS
from the Farmer's Home Administration suited
his needs best. A loan for $25,000 was approved.
Pearce's original plan called for establishing
about 280 acres of pasture. But, through the wise
use of his loan and the assistance of the ASCS,
he has established 320 acres of pasture.
Pearce had inherited about 80 head of cross-
bred Brahmans. But when his pasture began to
produce, he needed to increase his cattle herd.
The county agent advised him of the services of
the local Production Credit Association. He secured
a loan for the purchase of 75 Angus cows. These
two groups of cattle will provide a good herd to
build his future ranch.
The Extension Service is providing Pearce with
information from which he can develop his herd
management program and a pasture management
Under good management, the Pearce family
ranch could carry as much as five to six hundred
head of cattle when fully improved. This would
provide the family with enough income for a high
standard of living.
Not only does Pearce work with the county
agent, his wife is a member of the Venus Home
Demonstration Club, and Glenda, their daughter,
is a member of the Venus 4-H Club.
A 4-H PIG CHAIN
One can quickly figure that this is not enough
to. provide income for a family, even as small
as the Pearce family.
After consulting the county agent, Pearce de-
cided he had three alternatives. These were, first,
to keep the property as it is and graze what cattle
it would support as a sideline to his logging opera-
tion with very little income; second, to sell the
property and invest in something else; third, to
borrow long-term capital and improve some of
the pasture and increase its grazing capacity.
Pearce chose to borrow long-term capital. The
county agent discussed the sources of credit with
Pearce, and he decided that a conservation loan
Libeirt\ C:ount\ 4- biu, are getting into the
breeding-stoik swine business .1 a rIsult of a pig
>hain which h started last sear. ProspeFts are for
bioger and better things in this area nx\t \ear
In 1959. Lount\ Exltensiin wor(kel's purlhlased
three D)uroL gilts and one boar to begin the ch.iin.
The inmne\ came from 4-H sjles ot hruit trees.
These animals were placed with 4-H members,
with the understanding that they would take good
care of them and supply one of their offspring
next year to continue the chain.
Proof of the success of the project came in
October 1961, when a 4-H Club day was held. The
lucky owners of the pigs exhibited their animals,
and other 4-H boys and girls got to see the fruits
of their fruit-tree sales.
' MO T
All ranchers realize that cows within a herd
differ in their ability to produce.
There is usually a wide variation in the calves
produced within a herd with regard to weaning
weights, gains, ability to grade, and type. Differ-
ences among cows such as reproductive efficiency
and ability to produce under natural conditions
are often astounding.
Ranchers in Florida have used "eyeball calibra-
tion" for years as the sole means of selecting herd
replacements. This method has resulted in con-
siderable improvement. However, there is a limit
to making improvement within a herd when only
one procedure is used. Wide differences still exist
among cows within most herds in their ability to
produce calves with traits of economic importance.
County agents in Florida now offer cattlemen
a tool production testing which will easily
show them the most productive cows in their herds.
Cows vary in their ability to produce. The cow above although
she lacks condition and eye appeal has consistently produced
heavier and higher grading calves than the cow at right.
More than 100 people provided a delighted
audience as these young Americans performed as
*,,id Americans competing with their neighbors
for top honors. The ribbons and walking sticks
provided as prizes by local businessmen seemed
to be more inmpirtant thln the generous number of
silver dollars provided by others.
The 4-H'ers were happy to be able to go to the
State Swine Show they were even happier that
their county showed the Junior Champion, Senior
Champion, and Grand Champion Duroc sows, and
the Junior and Grand Champion Duroc boar.
Before this show these young swine men had
trouble selling any of their hogs for breeding stock.
In fact, some were sold for very low feeder prices.
Now, all the pigs are sold and orders are placed
for pigs before they arrive.
From these known high-producing cows, cattlemen
can now select their herd replacements with more
By using production testing as an aid to herd
improvement, cattlemen can now make more rapid
improvement in their herds in traits of economic
importance than they have been able to do here-
During the last year, county agents assisted in
weighing, grading, and compiling information on
over 5,000 commercial calves. Also, a number
of purebred producers were assisted in getting
postweaning information on bulls offered for sale.
Commercial cattlemen can now purchase, from
Florida purebred producers, bulls that have a
known production history behind them.
During 1961, over 850 commercial dairymen were producing milk in Florida. On the average during the
year, 192,000 cows were kept for milk production. These animals produced 1,286,000,000 pounds of milk,
which brought about $88,500,000 at the farm.
Florida's $873,000,000 agricultural production
industry is a major user of electricity in the state.
About 96 percent of Florida's farms are electrified.
Many agricultural production operations depend
But what happens when electricity fails as it
may do in a hurricane or during a severe thunder-
storm? In such cases, some agricultural enterprises
face serious financial loss. How much they lose is
determined by the length of time the electricity is
off and the kind of business involved.
Dairies are among the farm operations most
dependent on continuous electric power. Hurricane
Donna, in 1960, caused disruption of the power
supply in many cases, and brought serious losses
to many dairies in the state. Without proper cool-
ing, milk is lost. If milking is delayed six hours
beyond the regular time, dairy animals may be
Standby generator on the Judge dairy farm near Orlando.
Another type of standby power plant, with its own engine.
The Agricultural Extension Service investigated
this problem so as to help dairies avoid costly loss
of power in the future. All rural power suppliers
were urged to give special consideration to restoring
power to dairies in power failure emergencies.
Power suppliers agreed to restore power to dairies
following main lines and hospitals. Some suppliers
are lessening the chances of power loss to dairies
through changes in the design of the electric
However, in extreme emergencies, such as hur-
ricanes, power suppliers will likely be unable to
maintain or restore service to all dairies within the
necessary time. The only solution is emergency
standby power units for all dairies. Extension has
given information to help them obtain economical
standby power equipment of sufficient capacity.
The correct installation and proper maintenance
and operation of the standby unit are equally
As a result, many dairies are better prepared to
cope with power failure emergencies in the future.
Dollar losses, represented by the loss of the dairy
product, waste of human food, and injury to dairy
animals, will be. prevented or reduced because of
this Extension effort.
ya^, ,a-. 'i';.i.^ rf | *pw ij^-".
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DAIRY HEIFERS -
lriiu i of Florida dairy farms replace cows
in their milking herd about every 3/2 years. They
consider this fast turnover, observe the good heifers
they are raising, and ponder the question, "Does
it pay me to produce these heifers or should I buy
them or have them raised on contract?"
They know what heifers cost if bought or raised
under contract. The unknown factor is "Howx
much does it cost me to raise a heifer?"
Six Orange County dairymen cooperated with \Al
Cribbett, associate county agent, in seeking an
answer to this unknown. They were surprised at
the size of the S mark they had to place by each
The smallest S mark was a huskv S260 its
big brother, a strapping S463. The average size
$ mark for a calf was $330.
The dollar recipe for producing a heifer was
formulated like this:
Interest on Investment 15
Death Loss 8
Buildings and Machinery 11
Other Expenses 14
a result of considering these cost figures,
Florida dairymen are now doing the follow-
* Keeping better records on cost of
Seeking ways and means of reducing
cost of producing heifers.
ll.iiWi; more intelligent decisions when
writing contracts with contractors.
Reaching sounder decisions on whether
to raise, buy, or contract for heifers.
Looking for ways of increasing the life
of cows in their herds.
Good Management Means Profitable Dairying
From 400 acres of raw, unimproved land to
a highly improved dairy farm from 125 milk-
ing cows to 275 and from an average of 7,500
pounds of milk per cow to an average of over
10,000 pounds per cow that is the success
story of Cecil Reagan, a dairy farmer of Manatee
Reagan bought his 400-acre farm in 1956, and
moved his dairy operation there from Pinellas
County. He has worked closely with Extension on
both county and state levels during this time. His
farm is now outstanding in a number of ways.
Based on accurate records available, Reagan's
labor income is more than twice that of the average
dairy of comparable size. To illustrate, most dairies
in Manatee County return an average labor income
per cow of S35.45. Reagan's labor income per cow
In the field of record keeping, Reagan has an
organized system using every type of record valu-
able in efficiently managing his farm. These in-
elude production records (D.H.I.A. and W.A.D.),
calf records, breeding records, cost accounts (kept
by a hired bookkeeper), and pasture.
The Reagan farm is laid out so as to make
possible the best pasture and forage production.
He makes excellent use of pasture and forage crops
in terms of high quality grazing, silage, and hay.
The farm has been using an artificial breeding
service since its beginning. Reagan is now proudly
milking 3rd and 4th generation artificially bred
cows as a result of artificial breeding from proven
This herd is using all programs designed to im-
prove health and quality of milk, and particular
attention is given to the best milking practices.
Reagan has constructed sufficient feed and hay
storage to take full advantage of buying in volume
and buying when the price is lowest.
"We like to think of the Reagan farm as a part
of the county Extension program," says County
Agent W. H. Kendrick.
FLORIDA DAIRYING REACHES GOAL
Florida dairymen with help and educational
advice from the Agricultural Extension Service -
have reached a long-range goal they set for them-
selves over 10 years ago. They have increased
average milk production in the state by 52 percent
since 1950. Total milk production is up by 118
In 1949, the Extension dairy office secured the
cooperation of the State Dairy Association in setting
up a Long-Range Dairy Committee. This state
Dairy Committee set goals in 1950. These were
higher production per cow, better herd replace-
ments, more and better forage and pasture, better
feeding, and adjustment of production to seasonal
demand. The Extension dairyman was named sec-
retary of the committee.
NE PW ^"". ,MMOi sC) d
Specifically, the Committee decided on a 10-
year goal of a 50 percent increase in production
per cow, with an intermediate goal of reaching
the national average. Florida's 1950 average was
only 4,400 pounds milk per cow.
The Agricultural Extension Service developed
and carried out programs in the dairy counties
aimed at helping dairymen make progress on all
goals set by the Committee. The Dairy Herd Im-
provement Association program was greatly ex-
panded i stepped-up results in these demonstra-
tion herds. Organized .i-,! i breeding was started
in '..0'I 11 i. 1948. This was expanded i 17
local ,il, !i d ..':,- associations were 1 :.
service to most of the better dairy counties in the
state in 1951. C (.i-, .'-. was begun by many
dairymen for the first time. '. used adequate
methods with good results.
Extension held feeding schools at which pro-
duction of forage and pasture was stressed. Three
new improved grasses had been released by the
Agricultural Experiment Station in the late 1940's.
These aided the program.
A Better Pasture and Forage Contest was devel-
oped in 1953 cooperatively between the Extension
dairyman and the Extension agronomist. This con-
test was sponsored by the Florida Dairy Association.
It ran successfully for five years and provided
successful demonstrations of better dairy pasture
and forage enterprises on farms.
Mechanization, bunker silos, and fence-line man-
gers helped to quadruple the amount of silage
stored and helped encourage considerable fresh,
field-chopped forage feeding. Supplemental sum-
mer millet and winter small grain pastures were
All these efforts gave a constantly increasing
production per cow. By 1955 the average produc-
tion had climbed from 4,400 pounds to 5,050.
But the national average was climbing rapidly also;
Florida had to make more rapid increase to reach it.
The number of cows on the Dairy Herd Im-
provement program reached 20,000 in 1957 and
25,000 in 1960, including those enrolled in the
new Florida Dairy Record Service Milk Recording
Program. The number of cows bred artificially had
increased to 70,324 in 1958, and to 91,960 in
1960. This was 43 percent of the state's dairy cows.
There was a period in which it appeared the goal
of 50 percent increase would not be reached. How-
ever, the milk production per cow was 5,880
pounds in 1957. It climbed to 5,910 pounds in
1958 and 6,460 in 1959. In 1960, the average was
6,700 pounds milk, 4.05 percent test, and 271
pounds butterfat. This was 52 percent above 1950
milk production. The U. S. Agricultural Marketing
Service reports ,r idW1J the ,,i!W i! evidence. The
long range goal I .1 -* p, i...it increase had been
met and ... i..,.
'. greater efficienc- a d higher production
, I cow has ed dairrmen meet higher cests
with ..i.. change innil pr ce.
The same early record ,...' .: the national
.. cow average the .. time when both are
expressed on ri ifat-corrccted .. basis. '' t. total
picture : the decade was a p3c percent increase
in cows, :2 percent increase in average production,
and 18 increase in 's total milk
Dairying and poultry production in Florida have
become businesses in every sense of the word. The
men who manage these businesses are not "hay-
seeds", but efficient, practical businessmen, who
must consider profits, efficiency, labor saving, and
the like as carefully as the man who operates a
To such managers, the words "logic", "partial",
and "budget" assumed very special meanings during
1961, because of stress by the Extension farm
To managers, the word logic does not mean: do
as Dad did, keep up with the Joneses, or rely on
dreams in making decisions. \l,..ing logical deci-
sions does mean:
Getting all the facts.
Exploring alternative courses of action.
Deciding on a course of action.
Hard to do? yes but it pays!
The tool used in applying logic to decision
making was the partial budget this means
taking a look at what will happen to old man $ if
certain changes are made in resource use. Some
of these changes might prompt such questions as:
Will it pay me to buy a milk base? Should I raise
or buy heifers? Should I add more cows to my
ranch? Are my production rates too high or too
Snapshots of Using the Tool
Let's take a look at some of the effects of using
this tool of the partial budget.
Two Manatee County dairymen bought a milk
base. This gave them a better balance of land,
buildings, machinery, and labor. A Sarasota Coun-
ty dairyman is also trying to buy a milk base so
as to get a better balance of his resources.
Another Manatee County dairyman found he
was forcing more production from his cows by
stepped-up feeding than was actually economical.
Now he has bought more cows and reduced the
rate of feed per cow.
On the other hand, a Polk County dairyman is
culling about one fourth of his dairy cows, and
feeding the remainder better.
A Marion County dairyman decided it would
pay him to continue buying rather than raising
A rancher in Indian River County is doubling
the number of cows on his ranch to increase
production of beef per acre. He found that fertilizer
cost alone was 12 cents per pound of beef at
present production rates.
A Holmes County dairy farmer found he did
not have enough acreage of silage to pay for using
his silage equipment. He is selling the equipment.
A poultry farmer in Manatee County did not
have enough resources for a profitable-size opera-
tion. He is selling his farm.
A rancher in Sarasota County is reducing the
amount of fertilizer applied to his pasture because
his has been producing excess grass part of the
A Palm Beach County dairyman is planning to
sell his poor quality cows and get better ones.
These will produce more efficiently and so reduce
A Pasco County poultry farmer is increasing the
number of layers he keeps for commercial egg
production and dropping his breeder flock.
An Orange County dairyman is reducing produc-
tion per cow and increasing cow numbers because
feed inputs had exceeded the maximum profit
All the farmers and ranchers making these big
decisions had one thing in common they were
all participating in the program of business analy-
sis conducted by the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service. Thus, each manager had accurate and up-
to-date information of size, production rates, re-
source combination, efficiency factors, costs, and
returns. They had the facts to make a decision on
the basis of logic.
An estimated 3,800 producers grew poultry in Florida during 1961 including 859 commercial egg
farms and 180 commercial broiler producers. Commercial egg flocks included 4,578,000 hens. Over 11,500,000
broilers were sold. Producers marketed 205,000 turkeys during the year. Production amounted to 1,141,000,000
eggs, 48,679,000 pounds of chicken meat, and 23,370,000 pounds of turkey meat. On-farm value of this
marketing was about $43,245,000.
ORGANIZING FOR UNIFIED ACTION
A new organization formed with Extension
help will speak with one voice in behalf of
Florida's poultry industry. In reality, it is a fede-
ration of organizations.
For years there have been county poultry as-
sociations, a State Poultry Producers Association,
a Florida Hatchery and Breeder Association, a
Florida Feed Dealers' Association, and more recently
a Florida Processors' Association each concerned
with their phase of the industry. But now, as
From Production to Use Via 4-H
For years, producing top-quality poultry meat
and eggs was one of the goals of 4-H poultry
Now that quality poultry meat and eggs are
abundant and economical, 4-H is emphasizing pre-
paring and eating these delicious products.
What would be finer than to have a poultry
barbecue -or chicken-cue if you please at
some 4-H Club meetings or outings? Washington
County 4-H Club members, under the supervision
of the associate county agent tried this idea with
success during 1961.
Club members practiced barbecuing chickens at
4-H Club meetings and outings, and for their fam-
ilies at home.
During the Annual Achievement Day in October,
4-H members competed in a 4-H Bar-B-Q contest
that was conducted along with the many other
activities. The chicken Bar-B-Q added much in-
terest and aroma to the day's activities.
Club members who participated are now aware
of one of the more interesting and varied ways
of utilizing one of our finest foods the chicken
Florida's poultry industry becomes big business,
these separate units have formed an overall as-
sociation known as the Florida Poultry Industry
This organization was set up to speak for the
entire poultry industry in Florida, and present a
united front. An additional objective was to work
closely with state and federal agencies for the ben-
efit of the industry.
The idea of the federation was developed for the
first time at the annual Extension Poultry Institute
at Camp AkLQuarrie in August 1960. Fred Coates
of Gainesville became the temporary chairman. Late
in December 1960, representatives from the four
founding groups and the University of Florida got
together in Gainesville, formally adopted the char-
ter for the group, and named officers and a board
A. Z. Mazourek of Brookesville became chair-
man; George Painter of Jacksonville, vice-chairman;
and Barton Ahlstrom of Tampa, secretary-treasurer.
Each of the four federating groups named two
directors. These are: For the State Poultry Pro-
ducers Association, Mazourek and Ted Harvey of
Land 'O Lakes; for the Florida Hatchery and
Breeders Association, John Wallace of St. Peters-
burg, and W. A. Belote, Jacksonville; for the
Florida Feed Dealers' Association, Ahlstrom and
Keith \lhi in of Tampa; and for the Florida Pro-
cessors' Association, George Painter and W. E.
Draper, both of J.i,! nill% I,
Florida's poultry industry should grow and de-
velop more efficiently with the help of this new
New Facilities Mean
A BIGGER AND BETTER RANDOM SAMPLE TEST
New buildings and equipment added during
1961 to the Florida National Egg Laying Test
area will mean that twice as many chicks may
be used in each random entry in the Extension-
operated Florida Random Sample Test. This will
increase the reliability of the test.
Two new buildings, a 30' x 170' brooder house
and a 30' x 300' laying house were completed
last spring. These buildings, and the purchase of
badly needed equipment, allowed about twice as
many birds to be housed than in previous years.
Even though the facilities are known as the
Florida National Egg Laying Test, all efforts are
now directed to the operation of the Florida Ran-
dom Sample Test. The new facilities allowed the
Test management to increase the size of each
Inside the layer house while the Random Sample Test is in progress.
random entry from 50 chicks to 100 chicks. This
increase in the size of the entry was in line with
requests from Florida hatcherymen. It allows hous-
ing the birds during the laying period in replicate
The Tenth Random Sample Test which
started on March 25, 1961 was made up of
24 entries of 110 chicks each, representing 20
Florida hatcheries (three hatcheries had two entries
each), and one control entry from Cornell Uni-
Building New Facilities
The Poultry Department at the University of
Florida, the supervisor of the test, the Agricultural
One of the new housing units being used in the Random Sample
Extension Service, and the poultry industry of the
state had long recognized the inadequacy and ob-
solescence of existing Test facilities. As far back
as 1955, plans were prepared. But it was not
until 1959 that money was appropriated by the
legislature for the new construction.
Plans were developed for the buildings by the
architect of the Board of Control, with assistance
from the Extension poultryman and Extension en-
gineer in respect to functional requirements and
type of construction desired.
When plans were completed, it was apparent
that it would be difficult if not impossible -
to contract construction of the buildings and keep
within appropriated funds.
Permission was then obtained to allow the Agri-
cultural Extension Service through its agricul-
tural engineer to assemble the necessary mate-
rials and labor and supervise construction of the
buildings. By this means, the buildings were erected
within available funds. In fact, sufficient funds
remained unobligated to completely equip each
building with necessary operating equipment.
A new group of chicks starts the test in the brooder house.
TN= NUNN "..' I
(!5 Field Crops
Field crops make up a vital part of FlOrida's agricultural production. Over 15,000 producers harvested
2,701,400 tons of field crops from 846,100 acres of cropland last year. These crops were worth $84,680,000
on the farm. Yields in this area have been rising steadily in recent years.
CORN YIELDS ARE IMPROVING
Corn is the most important field crop grown in
Approximately one-half million acres of corn
are planted each year. Most of the crop is grown in
the area north and west of Ocala, but some field
corn is grown in almost every Florida county. About
58 percent of the crop is harvested for grain, and
about 40 percent is hogged off. The remainder is
cut for silage.
Most of the field corn acreage is planted on
mineral soils. These vary considerably in their
abilities to retain and supply moisture to the grow-
ing crop. In spite of this variation, good yields of
corn can be produced economically provided
farmers space plants according to the inherent
ability of the soil to retain and supply moisture
during the growing season. The crop must also be
fertilized on the basis of plant population and soil
Proper spacing of plants and application of
adequate quantities of needed plant nutrients are
part of a 10-point program on corn production
1948 49 50 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61
which has been stressed by the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service. This program has helped Florida
farmers increase their average yield from 10
bushels per acre in 1948 to 33 bushels per acre
LEARNING TO CARE FOR THE NEW POWER KING
Once Florida agriculture paced itself by the
plodding rhythm of the farm mule. Now, the
tractor reigns supreme as a source of power on
Florida farms and ranches.
In the state, there are approximately 35,000
wheel tractors on farms. This represents an initial
investment of from $70,000,000 to $105,000,-
000. These same tractors operate from 600 to 2,000
hours annually at a cost of approximately $2.50
per hour per tractor. Thus it costs from $54,000,-
000 to $178,000,000 per year to operate these
Almost anybody could hitch a mule and wield
a hoe, but it takes skill and know-how to handle a
sensitive, valuable piece of equipment like a tractor.
Tractor operators need training.
During 1961, the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service, in cooperation with the Florida Retail
Farm Equipment Dealers Association, held three
tractor maintenance schools for people in approx-
imately 12 counties. The schools were held in
Orlando, Sebring, and Wauchula. Each of the
three schools consisted of six hours instruction in
(1) care and operation of the tractor, (2) preven-
tive maintenance procedure, and (3) trouble
shooting tractor breakdowns. Local dealers' service
managers, familiar with local problems, actually
taught the classes. Three hundred and twenty-five
tractor operators received certificates of satisfactory
completion of the course at the three schools. At
the close of each school, a tractor safety demonstra-
tion was given to emphasize the importance of
safety to the driver and tractor owner. At the
close of the Orlando and Sebring schools, a four-
hour course on sprayers was given.
for Tobacco Seedbeds
Plastic covered seedbeds
like this are paying off on
Florida flue-cured tobacco
The new system of using plastic covers for to-
bacco seedbeds is paying off for Florida tobacco
farmers. Based on the result of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station tests, farmers are finding that
a better crop of tobacco really does begin in a
For example, in Hamilton County farmers
Claude Horne, Pete Cunningham, Thomas Bridges,
and Billy Hill set up excellent demonstrations on
4,000 yards of tobacco plants to be grown fully
under plastic for the first time on a farm allotment
Word spread fast. One farmer from Georgia
inquired about the program, visited the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, and was so in-
terested he put in several thousands square yards
on a commercial basis.
Cold weather set in. Plants in normal beds
failed to grow. Plants under plastic grew with
ease. Other growers in the county watched closely.
They were amazed by the difference in growth
of plants in the plastic covered beds and their
plants grown the old way.
As a result, several hundred beds were trans-
ferred from the old way of growing plants to
growing them under plastic.
Several problems occurred, but these were han-
dled as fast as they arose by the Extension Service
and Experiment Station specialists. End results
were good plants, ready to go to the field 60 days
Growers in many other counties had similar
good results. No doubt the use of plastic covers
on seedbeds contributed to an excellent yield year
for flue-cured tobacco in Florida.
No longer can farmers afford to hand hoe such
crops as corn, peanuts, and cotton. Researchers
have tested and arrived at certain chemicals which
are selective in their herbicidal characteristics.
This science of chemical weed control is still
new to the average grower. He relies on his agri-
cultural county agent to supply him with the de-
tailed instructions necessary for him to achieve
100 percent success in weed control practices.
In the spring of 1961, the Extension engineers
and agronomists assisted five counties in putting
on weed control demonstrations on corn and pea-
nuts. These counties were Wakulla, Lafayette,
Madison, Hamilton, and Nassau.
Commercial companies furnished the herbicides
and spray machinery. A result demonstration was
initiated with growers in attendance. Through this
method the growers were actually able to watch
the application of the herbicide and the most ef-
fective method used. Also, they could compare cost
of chemical control of weeds to that of "hand
This method of result demonstration has proved
most valuable in Extension teaching methods. This
is especially true where equipment unique to a
special problem is not locally available and where
the grower must rely on the three R's of treat-
ment the Right Method, Right Material, and
the Right Machinery or Equipment.
South Florida is becoming a sugar bowl for the
nation with a boom in the expansion of the sugar
industry there. This boom was stimulated by inter-
national developments which brought about a
realignment of the sugar import quotas, and a
suspension of domestic production allotments of
.. k, "
During the period 1955-58, about 30,000 to
40,000 acres of sugarcane were produced in this
area. It is anticipated that in 1962 about 140,000
acres of cane will be grown. Most of this 100,000
acre expansion has taken place on the mucklands
east and south of Lake Okeechobee, and in the
Fellsmere area of Indian River County.
Before 1962, three mills processed all of the
cane in the state. Two additional mills have
started operating, and at least four more mills
should be available for the 1963 crop.
For example, a new sugar mill, to be located
south of Moore Haven in Glades County, will cost
about $2,500,000 to build and will have a
$1,500,000 annual payroll. In Palm Beach County,
near Belle Glade, 57 local growers have formed a
cooperative to build a mill to process their cane.
The mill will cost about $13,500,000 and will have
a daily capacity of 7,500 tons of cane.
In south Florida as a whole, investment in new
processing facilities alone will exceed $50,000,000.
Expense of expanding acreage required to produce
sugarcane for these new facilities will represent an
investment of at least another $50,000,000.
Many new sugarcane growers have joined those
who have been producing sugarcane for many
years. This has created a tremendous need for
information on all phases of cane and sugar pro-
County and state Extension workers are helping
this expansion in all possible ways. They are bring-
ing growers up-to-the minute information on all
phases of the sugarcane business. During the past
year, Extension workers assisted with two schools,
attended and assisted with field days, and worked
with groups and individual growers on problems
in sugarcane production.
*I A -k -. .
Above: One of the new cane mills which
are going up in south Florida.
Left: Harvesting and loading sugar cane
An agricultural production area growing rapidly at present is that of flowers and nursery products. At
present, more than 3,000 producers are using about 10,000 highly productive Florida acres to produce a crop
worth more than $50,000,000 each year.
Just like people who grow cotton or peanuts or
vegetables, nurserymen have to worry about weeds
which grow among their woody ornamental plants.
Whether they are able to control them success-
fully and economically may mean the difference
between profit and loss in their business.
Weed control in nurseries is probably one of the
costliest operations performed. Usual mechanical
cultivation procedures remove only weeds growing
between the rows of nursery stock. Hand cultiva-
tion is then necessary to remove weeds growing
in the row.
Lining-out stock of young plants recently planted
in the field is frequently injured by cultivation
Untreated and unhoed check plot shows two months' weed gro
Two months after pre-emergence application of herbicide, this
nursery row is clean.
and hoeing. But weed control immediately after
planting is quite critical if the young plant is to
S be establish itself and grow off rapidly.
Unfortunately, lining-out stock that has been re-
cently planted is probably more susceptible to in-
jury from chemical weed killers because of the
shallow root system, and because of the difficulty
of directing the spray away from the foliage.
SThe ornamental horticulture specialists initiated
S several demonstrations in north and central Florida
last year to show growers that chemicals could be
S. used successfully to control weeds in woody orna-
S mental plant nurseries, without injury to the plants.
SFifteen pre-emergency chemicals were evaluated
/ for weed control and toxicity to approximately 20
commonly grown woody ornamental plants.
After a year of evaluation it appears that several
chemicals will adequately control grassy and broad-
leaved weeds in woody nursery stock for at least
S two months without injury to the plant species
0"Want to view the lush tropical and semi-tropical
plants of Florida, gathered together in all their
variety? Would you like to find what will grow
best around your new Florida home? Then visit a
plant arboretum, such as the one at the Ringling
Art Museum in Sarasota.
Other arboretums and plant collections where
the visitor to Florida can study ornamental plants
include plantings at the University of Florida in
Gainesville; Sub-Tropical Experiment Station in
Homestead; U. S. Plant Introduction Gardens,
Chapman Field, Coconut Grove, Florida; Fairchild
Tropical Gardens, Coconut Grove; and the Garden
for the Blind developed in the city of Tampa.
The need for arboretums and other plant
collections is probably greater in Florida than in
most other states or areas of the nation. There is a
constant influx into Florida of retired people and
others who are planning to establish new homes
in the state.
These people are not familiar with the wide
variety of ornamental plants available to Florida
home owners. Furthermore, they have few oppor-
tunities to see the plants growing under more or
less uniform or ideal conditions so that they will
know just what they will do. Arboretums offer this
Let's consider the Ringling arboretum more
closely. Counseled and assisted by an assistant
Sarasota county agent, the Museum staff has
enlarged its arboretum from an original collection
of 66 species of ornamental plants to over 245
species and varieties representing 67 plant families.
Museum Director Ken Donahue felt that this
state-owned institution could broaden its interest
to visitors by enlarging and developing the arbo-
retum. Newcomers to Florida are baffled and con-
fused by the "crazy-quilt" pattern of our climate as
well as the broad selection of ornamental plants
available for landscaping in Florida. Donahue felt
the arboretum would provide a place where people
)RIDA PLANT SHOWCASES
could identify and study the growth habits of orna-
mental plants observed on their trip through
Florida. Besides, the new homeowner would' have
a place to study the mature growth habits of plants
he was considering using around his home.
The present goal for the arboretum is to collect
all plants that from experience are known to grow
well in the Sarasota area. This means that when it
is developed the homeowner may go to the gardens,
see different plants, note their growth characteris-
tics, and get their names so that he can ask for
them at the nursery.
The sections in the arboretum which will be
developed first include those sections devoted to
salt-resistant plants, ground covers, shade trees,
small flowering trees, palms, succulents, tropical
fruits, roses, hibiscus, and shrubs.
As the arboretum grows, sections will be devel-
oped for other specialized collections of plants
including bromeliads, hedge plants, native plants,
vines, medicinal plants, perennials, herbs, and
For the most part, plant additions have been
donated. The Department of Ornamental Horticul-
ture of the University of Florida donated a large
number of surplus plants from experimental plant-
ings on the University farm. Most local nurserymen
have contributed plants for the arboretum; besides,
plants have been given by nurserymen outside the
area. One affiliated woman's garden club (Garden-
ia Circle) is sponsoring the gardenia collection in
the shrub section. Private individuals who have
plant growing as a hobby have also contributed
many valuable plants.
The assistant county agent keeps a complete
record of all plant contributions. His records list
family, genus, species, common name, size, date,
and donor. These records also show whether a
plant is a gift or purchase and the price paid for
The growth of the arboretum has been slow
because the agent has to fit it into a busy schedule
of work. Over 100 project labels have been placed
on the plants so that visitors may have the correct
name to make a clear identification of the plants.
Erdman West of the University of Florida has been
the authority on the proper names of the plants in
Was Paul Bunyan Here?
On a Giant Scale
A job of tree moving that would have been
worthy of the legendary Paul Bunyan caught the
fancy of people throughout south Florida this
year. Two huge ficus (fig family) trees, which
attain giant size, were moved to new locations in
Palm Beach County.
It was not their height that was so impressive,
but rather the ground area covered by the sprawl-
ing branches. As these branches grow out, aerial
roots are dropped down to add support for this
Both of these trees were moved by John D. Mac-
Arthur to his new housing development of Palm
Beach Gardens, which covers 15,000 acres of
North Palm Beach County.
The first tree was moved intact from its home in
Lake Park. The tree had a spread of 125 feet and
weighed 75 tons. The move was successfully
completed at a cost of $11,000.
The second tree was much larger in spite of
frequent pruning. It grew in the center of West
Palm Beach and had for years been an attraction
for tourists and visitors. There was much public
furor when the tree's owner insisted it had to go.
Many suggestions were advanced, but all of
these proved unsatisfactory. Then MacArthur
stepped in. All the large limbs were removed one
by one, loaded on lowboy flat-bed trucks and hauled
to Palm Beach Gardens. Here they were planted
upright over a large area, where in time they will
make dozens of new giants.
The massive stump with its many aerial roots was
planted on Lake Park Road and painted with
white wash from top to bottom to prevent sunburn.
It was watched carefully for signs of growth.
After a few weeks, sprouts popped out to reassure
everyone that the king lives on!
"Poems are made by fools like me
But only God can make a tree."
With the Corps of Engineers:
Homeowners are not the only people with land-
scaping problems. Extension ornamental horticul-
ture specialists have found that the military has
Managing the soil so as to grow ornamental
plants successfully in the pumped-in soil and
poorly drained land common on many Florida
military installations is quite difficult. Those con-
cerned felt that some changes in specifications
covering the landscaping of military installations,
homes and businesses on the military reservations
Extension, Experiment Station and Bureau of
Plant Industry personnel cooperated with members
of the district offices of the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers in planning and conducting a seminar
on landscape planting and maintenance held at
Patrick Air Force Base in May 1961. Approximately
40 Corps of Engineers inspectors and Army and
Air Force maintenance personnel attended the
Specialists covered in detail such ornamental
plant subjects as minimum maintenance, salt spray
tolerance, planting and transplanting, pruning and
maintenance, grades and standards, and pest con-
trol. Selecting, establishing and maintaining turf
was discussed, since it is one of the major sources
of maintenance problems on military posts and
The basic information covered in these seminars
should better equip Corps of Engineers inspectors
for determining the quality of landscape work.
Army and Air Force maintenance personnel who
attended will be better able to maintain landscape
plantings after they are accepted by the military.
Nurserymen and landscape contractors will ben-
efit from the improved specifications since they
will be more applicable to Florida conditions and
thus, take some of the guesswork out of bidding
on landscape work.
In terms of number of workers and number of acres used, forestry is by far our biggest agricultural
production enterprise. Over 53,000 workers produce forest products on 19,500,000 acres of woodland. Sales
in the woods were worth $56,000,000 last year. It might be noted that most forest products are used as raw
materials in various manufacturing industries. The wholesale manufactured value of forest products in
Florida during 1961 was $500,000,000.
GUM FARMING SHOWS AN INCREASE
Increased gum farming activity meant an in-
creased income of an estimated $60,000 to $70,000
during 1961 for farmers in Holmes County. How
this came about is a success story of cooperation
between many people.
The idea originated with the county agricultural
council and the county agent. They believed that
gum farming would offer possibilities to many
people in the county.
Since most farms in the county have some tim-
ber on them, it seemed feasible that farmers could
work several hundred trees on each of their farms.
Their gum farming would be in addition to other
farm enterprises, and income from it would add
to the total farm income.
Cooperating in promoting gum farming were
the members of the agricultural council, county
agent's office, county forester, Farm Bureau, gum
haulers, processors, and USDA Forest Service. Per-
sonal contacts, news articles, a county-wide meeting,
and personal letters were used to sell the program.
As a result, there has been a 300 percent in-
crease in the number of trees being worked in the
county. Faces being worked increased from about
55,000 in 1960 to nearly 160,000 during 1961.
So even though gum prices were lower in 1961
than last year, farmers received up to $70,000 in
added income from gum.
Hopes are that gum farming will not only in-
crease in the county, but also in the entire area.
In the future, there should be a market for gum
nearer than 150 miles away.
"Mr. Christmas Tree Grower -
USE ADAPTED SPECIES"
In spite of publicity to the contrary, many people
still believe that such cold climate evergreen species
as Scotch pine, blue spruce, and balsam fir will
grow well in Florida. Sometimes such species will
cling to life for a few years in a Florida garden.
But they will never be profitable to grow in com-
petition with the same species grown in the North.
Red cedar and Arizona cypress are the two
species found best suited for Christmas tree pro-
duction in Florida so far. Many people have prof-
itably raised crops of Christmas trees of these
species for the market.
An example of a good Christmas tree operation
is that of the Parker brothers of Paisley, Florida.
About seven years ago, when the Parker boys were
still in the 4-H Club program, they started raising
red cedar seedlings and planting them in the field.
Today, they have some 40 acres of red cedar
ready for market.
These trees are of different ages. They range
in size from small table-top trees to giants 30 feet
high for churches or town squares. The Parkers
sell most of their trees each Christmas season to
civic organizations; however, individuals are also
invited to come out and select their own tree in
the cedar woods.
As with many agricultural crops, marketing is
a major problem with Christmas trees. The secret
to good Christmas tree marketing appears to be
(1) find markets well ahead of the season, (2)
sell only fresh trees of good form, (3) cut trees
as late as possible before Christmas. Florida grown
trees, not subject to a dormant season, often dry
out in a hurry.
"Mr. Landowner, for More Profit -
If you own a tract of Florida real-estate, and
it's not being put to some other profitable use,
plant trees. This is advice often given by Extension
foresters, conservationists, and county agents. Pines
and other native trees will produce a nice cash
return quicker than you may think.
This past year showed that many Florida land-
owners still bought or were holding on to their
land only in hopes of a quick turnover at a big
Time flies. If trees are planted on the land, in
many cases a crop of pulpwood could be harvested
before a rich speculator swooped down with an
itch for Florida acreage and a gold filled pocket.
In many cases, where the timber land lies near
the edge of a rapidly expanding city, trees on the
land would be a distinct selling advantage. A
housing project placed in a properly thinned stand
of trees is much more attractive than the same
project on bare flatwoods.
The mission of the Extension foresters in this
area is to show landowners how idle acres mean
lost money in almost all cases.
Other Agricultural Production
Hundreds of other agricultural enterprises are being carried on in Florida today. Examples are production
of such things as avocadoes, mangoes, pecans, and honey. Over 10,000 people are estimated to be engaged
in production of these important agricultural goods. These products were worth $7,416,000 last year.
An estimated $300,000,000 worth of pesticides
was sold in the United States during 1961. A large
percentage of this total was used in Florida.
The Agricultural Extension Service has encour-
aged proper and safe handling of pesticides in the
past and plans added emphasis this year, in cooper-
ation with industry and other agencies and
Extension specialists urge use of four keys to
1. Read the label follow instructions for
application, and heed all directions, cautions, and
2. Store materials in original labeled contain-
ers. Keep them out of reach of children, pets, and
3. Apply pesticides only to the crops specified,
in the amounts specified, and at the time specified
in label instructions.
4. Dispose of empty containers so they pose no
hazard to humans, animals, or valuable plants.
ON AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS
Florida's climate is wonderful, not only for
tourists and for agricultural production, but also
for agricultural pests, including insects, diseases,
nematodes, and weeds.
The abundance of these pests calls for the use of
large quantities of pesticides. Producers must con-
sider possible residues as well as effectiveness of
the chemicals which help produce the high quality,
wholesome, nutritious food needed and demanded
To meet the needs of Florida's highly specialized
fruit and vegetable industry, the Agricultural
Extension Service-through its Agricultural Chem-
icals Information Center and various production
projects-assembles and disseminates timely and
pertinent information on agricultural chemicals.
Information is released periodically, pointing out
Federal Register entries; citing pertinent publica-
tions and releases; pointing up petitions for toler-
ances, newly established tolerances, and exemptions;
passing along recent pesticide label registrations;
and reporting on meetings and conferences.
honey display and sales house
Florida beekeepers are hoping to develop a new
and valuable market in European countries for a
delicacy no other area in the world produces in
commercial quantities tupelo honey. Another
Florida specialty citrus honey may also find
a ready market there.
Florida normally ranks third in the production
of honey in the United States. It is the only state
east of the Mississippi River that produces more
honey than is used within the state. Florida pro-
duces many varieties of honey, but citrus and
tupelo honey are the most important honey crops
packed and sold under their own brand labels.
Belgium, France, Germany, and other European
countries get very low yields from their bee colo-
nies. These countries import a large part of their
honey stocks. They particularly want honey that
needs the least possible amount of processing. Tu-
pelo honey fits the bill.
Most honeys will granulate in time if not pro-
cessed with heat. Tupelo honey has a high percent
of levulose, a simple sugar, and this keeps the
honey in liquid form without heating.
In September 1961, the Extension apiculturist
attended the 18th International Congress of Api-
culturists in Madrid, Spain, to study research find-
ings and the production and marketing of honey.
While there, he distributed samples of citrus and
tupelo honey to European packers. As a result,
the Florida Honey Cooperative has received re-
quests from Belgium for honey samples.
In the United States, producers receive from 18
to 23 cents per pound for tupelo honey. Citrus
honey and other honey varieties bring from 9 to
13 cents per pound. In Europe, however, honey
sells for about twice as much as it does in the
Florida offers a high quality product in tupelo
honey. It is certified by the state Commissioner of
Agriculture. This gives it high standards and as-
sures uniform quality.
I i |
Selling honey in Europe. This is a
in Brussels. "Meli" means honey.
High Quality Honey
The state's bee colonies produce around 500,000
pounds of tupelo honey each year.. Production is
limited somewhat by the fact that only one crop
a year is made. However, sales to countries that
will pay a premium price for top quality honey
should stimulate improved production methods and
stocking of nectar producing plants in forest re-
serves and other suitable areas.
Numerous hives throughout Florida's citrus area
provide ample supplies of citrus honey. Producers
of citrus honey move their bees two or three times
a year and expect to make a honey crop on each
move. Annual production of citrus honey is about
three times that of tupelo honey.
Is it an insect or a disease? If it is an insect,
what kind of an insect is it-and where and how
does it live? Is it a beneficial or injurious insect?
These are common questions-and why not?
After all, there are nearly a million different kinds
of insects in the world which scientists have already
classified. Florida seems to have more than its
share. Correct answers to the above questions are
For example, one homeowner was spraying tea
scales on camellias with copper because he thought
it was a disease. Another dug up his citrus tree and
put it on the trash pile because he could not con-
trol red aschersonia-which is a friendly fungus
that kills immature whiteflies, a pest of citrus and
many ornamental plants. Still another wanted to
know how to kill a predaceous bug which gets its
food by sucking the "blood" out of pest insects.
To help answer these and many other inquiries
by Florida residents and growers, the Extension
entomologist-in cooperation with entomologists of
the College, Experiment Stations, and Division of
Plant Industry identifies hundreds of insects
each year and gives pertinent information on the
development, habits, injury, and controls where
Growth is the big news in Florida's program to
train young people in land judging. More and more
of our future land owners and soil specialists are
learning the problems of soil and water conserva-
tion and use, and what management programs can
do to solve these problems.
In 1961, 4-H and FFA members in 28 Florida
counties received training in land judging. These
counties range from Hardee County in the south
to Washington County in the north. The 1961
number is twice the number of counties using
land judging competitive training in 1960.
The high scoring 4-H and FFA teams from each
of the 28 county contests were eligible for state-
level competition. Florida's second State Land
Judging Contest was held in Gainesville on March
31, 1961. There were 151 contestants, by com-
parison with the 81 who registered in 1960.
Contestants score a field in the 1961 Land Judging Contest.
High scoring individuals in the State Land Judging Contest: Pat
Trujillo, 4-H Club member, left, of Gainesville; and Barry Chastain,
FFA member, Crescent City.
The Florida Association of Soil and Water Con-
servation Districts awarded the state-winning 4-H
and FFA teams expense-paid trips to the Tenth
International Land Judging Contest in Oklahoma.
Enroute to Oklahoma, the boys studied land
judging midwestern style. They also studied agri-
cultural and sociological practices observed along
the way as well as Confederate history at
Vicksburg National Park and Cemetery, where
they collected data for high school term papers.
The Land Judging School and Contest makes
no effort to explore all systems of land classifica-
tion. It does point out that there are management
practices to solve all presently known soil and
water conservation problems. Land judging train-
ing helps young people identify these problems
and choose the right management practices.
This competitive training can be conducted on
a fairly large scale with relative ease. It brings
to contestants information which can be useful in
a variety of different jobs. These are but two of
many reasons for the popularity, continued growth
and outstanding success of land judging.
SPREADING THE WORD ABOUT FORESTRY
Extension foresters are spreading the good word
about forestry in many different ways and to
many different audiences. County agents also
distribute valuable information on forests, forest
products, and trees for use at Christmas and around
the home. Let's consider some of these activities.
A simple eye-catching exhibit showing that it
pays to let trees grow to a larger size before cutting
them for sawlogs was constructed by the Extension
foresters during the past year. It was used in
Above two stacks of rough lumber sawed
from a 10-inch diameter tree and a 12-inch
diameter tree was this sign:
12 IS TWICE AS MUCH AS 10
The 10-inch tree contained about 60 board feet
of lumber, while the 12-inch tree sawed out 130
board feet over twice as much. The lesson was
Such simple, easy-to-read and understand
exhibits are quite valuable in spreading the forestry
Radio and Television
During the past year the Extension foresters
presented a biweekly radio program discussing all
phases of forestry. This was taped and presented
over 12 to 20 stations. The foresters also appeared
on several AgriViews television programs, which
were taped for three educational and two commer-
cial stations. Several television films on forestry
were shown on a number of Florida television
Radio and television both play an important
part in the forestry educational program of the
Extension Service in the counties. During the year,
it is estimated that county agents put on more
than 30 programs about forestry on radio and
television. This method of reaching the public has
largely replaced the old field demonstration.
IN LAND CLEARING:
Most people think of foresters as men who -
like the famous Smokey Bear are always busy
planting trees, preventing or fighting forest fires,
or cutting mature trees carefully so as to realize
their highest value and greatest potential.
Actually, this is a pretty good picture of what
an ideal forester is like.
But there is another side of their job; the little-
known but quite important job of eliminating un-
wanted trees of various kinds.
Each year many requests are received by agents
and Extension forestry specialists for help in getting
rid of undesirable trees or stumps of one sort or
another. Also, site preparation is becoming a stand-
ard forestry recommendation before tree planting
operations, both on scrub oak ridges and flatwoods.
Mist blowers chemically killing the worthless
trees, as well as aerial spraying, are common today.
Mechanical means of preparing a site for planting
are also widely used.
For homeowners, removing a single tree or
stump may prove as difficult to them as for a
pulp company to clear a thousand acres of sand-
hills. Each year countless requests are received
asking the name of a chemical that will rot out
stumps in a hurry. But the truth is no easy, work-
free way to remove a stump exists.
Most chemicals advertised in the Sunday sup-
plement magazines consist of a preparation that
soaks into the tree to make it burn more easily.
Numerous chemicals such as 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
are available that will kill a tree, roots and all,
and keep it from sprouting. But none can be bought
to make it rot faster than it would without any
MULTIPLE LAND USE
Wasteland or wonderland?
This was the question in the minds of many
people concerning a 70,000 acre tract of land
owned by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission in Charlotte County.
Cooperating between this agency and the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service in designing mul-
tiple uses for this land is swinging many people
toward the "wonderland" belief.
Working with representatives of the Game Com-
mission, local Extension workers proposed using
the tract for a number of purposes for example,
field trials, grazing, and such outdoor recreational
activities as picnicking rather than just for a few
days of commercial hunting each year.
A grazing program has now been in effect for
several years. At present, six grazing leases are in
operation on the land.
A field trial program, started 10 years ago, now
has six annual events held in the area. A tract
three by seven miles has been fenced and desig-
nated a no-shooting area for the field trials.
During the past two years, improved facilities
have been constructed by state labor. These in-
clude: Outdoor cooking and eating arrangements
for groups of up to a hundred, a 64 compartment
dog kennel, a 24 stall horse barn, and electric
lighting for the area.
Local Extension people served as program co-
ordinators in getting a 40 x 40 foot club house
completed this year. A local building was donated
and salvaged as a base for construction. Furniture
is being donated.
One of the improvements on this tract is a club house for group
..:- 1 .
2k ..& 7
Entering the Charlotte County tract owned by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission.
A popular part of the program is the two-by-
three mile area designated as a dog training ground.
A fee of one dollar per dog in the field trials keeps
the facilities open for all local and area groups.
Soil testing is proving its importance in the only
area that counts Florida's fields, nurseries, and
For example, soil testing in Columbia County
is on the move. County Agent Neal Dukes saw the
value of soil testing and what it could do for the
people in his county.
But how was the best way to get the people
interested? Everyone, including business and pro-
fessional men, must be involved for best results.
With the cooperation of the Chamber of Com-
merce and civic organizations, a kickoff rally was
A permanent, folding display was prepared, using
cutouts, large photographs, and art work, to sell
soil testing. This was used at the rally and later
in various business establishments in the different
communities in the county.
A follow-up breakfast was held. Teams of
volunteers spent one day going to farms that had
not previously been sampled and introducing farm-
ers to soil testing.
The response to this concerted drive has been
exceptional samples submitted for analysis have
almost doubled and prospects for improved effi-
ciency in Columbia County agriculture are bright.
Similar programs of this type are being initiated
in other areas. The value of soil testing is being
proven every day not by the Experiment Station
or the Extension Service, but by the farmer him-
The story of Florida's basic industry agriculture does not stop at the farm, ranch, or forest.
Millions of dollars of additional income, to thousands of Florida people, are derived each year through
transporting, handling, processing, and distributing the raw products of Florida agricultural production. To see
just how much extra value marketing adds to basic agricultural goods, check the chart below.
This, too, is agriculture.
FARM VALUE AND AGRIBUSINESS VALUE
Florida Agricultural and Forestry Crops, 1960-61 Season
Millions of Dollars
AGRICULTURAL CROPS: FARM VALUE FLORIDA VALUE1 RETAIL2
Citrus 355 510 815
Truck Crops 172 340 500
Livestock Products 216 350 400
Other Products 130 275 450
SUB TOTAL 873 1,475 2,165
FORESTRY PRODUCTS 56 525 1,000
GRAND TOTAL 929 2,000 3,165
SEstimated AgriBusiness value of Florida crops, either as they cross state line in shipping, or their retail value if sold in Florida.
2 Approximate retail sales value of Florida crops wherever sold.
A Banner Year for Flue-Cured Tobacco
All markets in Florida sold an increased tonnage
of tobacco over 1960 at the highest prices in their
history. Total Florida production was 25,877,459
pounds, bringing a gross of $15,614.457.55.
Every county in Florida that grew flue-cured
tobacco in 1961 produced the highest average yield
per acre ever obtained. The state average was 1,866
pounds per acre, compared to the U.S. average
of 1,808 pounds per acre.
The three highest average yields were obtained
in Hamilton, Lafayette, and Suwannee counties,
with 2,196, 1,926, and 1,920 pounds respectively.
Production of a good crop of desirable tobacco
begins in the planted. This was demonstrated
throughout Florida during the 1961 growing sea-
son. A three-week period of 80 degree weather
during February gave farmers an abundant supply
of plants. Favorable weather during March permit-
ted most growers to get a stand of plants established
in the field early. Continued favorable weather -
coupled with good cultural practices produced
the high yields of good quality tobacco.
NEED: A STABLE SYRUP MARKET-
Answer: Group Marketing
Size has been the problem in Washington
County's sugar cane syrup industry during recent
The farmers of Washington County have been
growing sugar cane for syrup for over one hundred
years. For example, Rex and Farrell Nelson are
the third generation of syrup makers in their fam-
ily. The \>l-.]ii, have made syrup continuously
for over 75 years on the same farm.
L I L l I" s t ..11 c a n t1 1' l I i I l' aI. [r h i' I I til- I. e
I l idn .-1 1 .'l l ll 'J i I .i l" 1111' Li i t L 'ii
. i, i .il ari L ii ll- ,,1 I I .... lI-i ,, i i ii t 'lu -l ,, t i' hi.
t, n~.ii I I-.th'up LA d .It tht... ,n ll- i, u. ..
t h c unL, a-g th ls.i J -i 1L', nte.l- \np ro e i ,11 t le .is
,J _LL \\, ,lI \\.1 II \ up m .,kin. in \ \. jin.-
hitn C unl h-!,,,l l nluh d -h ipd l" ,,l - ,.,l lnt"",,
I | 4-It n k Iil Fl 11LIi-l icit il *C O.ii t 111 11'
,h. ....L H I i ,ip ll', ., dlablk+ labor h.,, lhi ,, .>,I
1.1ll l 00-11i 1. C-,ii ..ltn.t n 1st e ]Iu 'I I, .in i il
Bill W.lebb of the Dixie Lily Milling Compan oll
Tampa and Chiplev. These men agreed to buy
10,000 gallons of sru from local producers at
l)u in'n thl ,|11,inn. ,, 1459, th,: Ln--1. ,-o ,_i,
,I \\ .,-h1n;r.tI ._,,I1tv lilit 'nlth the <.unt\ t'elnt
t,. ,lI -,Il l I.i L.ct ,- til It surup lh Ii> p ,I ,udLl t'
j>.l th.tt unhL s th<-\ i,,uld ill nd .< stable ,n.uket.
tl,, \,,u i hl I,,L,.dl t .. .. t (,i bu-in ,-
The county agent took this problem to Cecil and
Bill Webb of the Dixie Lily Milling Company of
Tampa and Chipley. These men agreed to buy
10,000 gallons of syrup from local producers at
the current market price.
This agreement worked fine and was continued
during the spring of 1960.
At the beginning of the marketing season this
vear, the price fell from $1 per gallon, which
producers had been receiving, to 80 cents per
The county agent conferred with the Webbs on
this matter. He told them that at 80 cents the
farmers would barely break even, and would have
nothing for their labor.
______________-- .." I.-- -~-
\I, \\ l1,1
. itli IhI- 1uii.it\ I -l up \1 i hi \\l hl they had been
retl \ 1 in._ Iim til'- i', lnt\. I hi. hi'h quality had
In i I .i thI-id I,\ thl I. I ,t t l I .jl, producers in
I', In t.. t',nddil ii., tli-.1i ii i iluLt to the high
ilu.illt \lL h tli, cnpai n i.-,,',c. Therefore, the
\ V.Il i n.;.I t,, 11 t) l ir 1l r,,it i,.r> S1 per gallon
as they had in previous years. On 10,000 gallons,
this was an additional $2,000 realized by local
Small vegetable growers have sometimes been
called "pea-patch farmers". Most of them cannot
equal the money income of self-styled pea-patcher
Ernie Ford, but Suwannee County growers are on
A producer-operated curb market offers Live
Oak housewives a dependable source of fresh
vegetables, while putting cash in the pockets of
local producers. Before the market opened, surplus
vegetables from small farms often went unused. At
the same time, consumers had to depend on imports
from other areas.
Sponsored by the Suwannee County Rural Areas
Development Committee, this market has operated
successfully each spring and summer since it
opened in May 1959.
Once, making two plants grow where one grew
before was the supreme agricultural accomplish-
ment. American agriculture has succeeded almost
too well in solving its production problems.
Marketing has become the major problem of
agriculture in the '60's. Along with other producer
groups, watermelon growers have become increas-
ingly aware of the need for improved marketing.
Let's take a look at some ways they have gone
about this job of helping to solve marketing
In Jackson County, group planning was the way
chosen to do something about getting better
prices for watermelons.
Four years ago, a committee composed of
members of the rural development program, the
Farm Bureau, and the agricultural center commit-
tee started to work to develop a way to sell water-
melons to the best advantage. The county agent
worked very closely with this committee.
A market shed was built, a sizable area was
paved for trucks to use, and scales were put in.
In 1961, the committee succeeded in getting
buyers to set up headquarters at the market. They
also persuaded a truck broker to make the market
his headquarters. Offices with phone facilities
were set up for both.
Watermelon growers planted and fertilized
melons so as to produce the size and quality which
the market demanded.
The area was fortunate in 1961. There was a
scarcity of melons at the time the melons in this
area were ready for harvest, and additional buyers
came to the market. All marketable melons in the
county were sold at market prices. This was in
contrast to many, many loads of melons which
were left in the fields in previous years.
Watermelon growers, by and large, worked
closely with the buyers in clipping the size and
qu. jrNilth.uit 1.ire nS i rthe-nar
'Trenton Are -
The 'renton Areax-k Groqiers nl. c., a
local wjtL iH'llL- in i 'l -pII -coo
worth at clast 12. 58, in jadlitina e u its
38 members during 1961, its first year of oper-
ation. President Charles D. Lindsey of the cooper-
ative reports that this is the conclusion reached by
the members themselves. County agents and special-
ists of the Extension Service helped growers
organize this marketing co-op. It came about as a
result of a marketing school for growers in the
area which was taught by Extension specialists.
Two hundred and fifty four carlots and trailer-
loads of watermelons weighing 4,286 tons were
marketed through the co-op from the 878 acres
grown by the members of this organization.
After careful consideration of the facts and fig-
ures of its first season's operation the members
agreed that this organization benefited its members
to the tune of 15 cents per hundredweight, speak-
ing conservatively. Also, they believe that the
cooperative association was responsible, to a large
extent, for maintaining a fair market price to all
watermelon growers in the area.
The Trenton Area Melon Growers Cooperative
Association was organized to assure its members,
insofar as possible, of a market for their water-
melons at a fair market price. The members feel
that this goal can be achieved by a number of
growers cooperating together. The cooperative has
obtained one sales agent to handle all sales. By
assuring this sales agent a sufficient volume, the
average marketing cost per carlot of melons sold
has been lower than for melons which did not go
through the cooperative.
Several problems appeared in the first year of
operation which will be "ironed out" in order for
the association to operate more successfully in the
future. More office help is needed to assure accu-
rate bookkeeping and prompt payment to growers
for their melons. More field personnel is needed
to supervise picking and loading operations.
Other problems, also, need attention. But such
problems are quite normal for a new organization.
They can be minimized or eliminated in future
years' operations by careful planning before the
Means Better Buying
A better educated and informed buying public
means better marketing of agricultural products.
Believing this to be true, Agricultural Extension
Service specialists and Home Demonstration agents
have been holding training schools in many parts
of the state on meats and how to buy and use
The result has benefited both people who buy
and eat meat and those who sell it.
As an illustration of what is being done, let's
consider Hillsborough County.
Young "home executives" there are learning that
they can "stretch their meat dollar" and still have
The meat specialist of the Extension Service
showed how in a program for young married and
engaged couples. This group makes up a class in
home management which the Home Demonstration
agent is teaching at the YWCA.
The specialist explained grades and grade stand-
ards, identification of meat cuts, selection of cuts,
and price range in different cuts.
He also demonstrated how to get "more meals
from meat" by showing how larger, economical
cuts can be made into several meals of delicious
meat. Cuts used included a whole ham, full pork
loin, pork Boston butts, beef arm roast, and leg of
Experts Also Trained
Even the experts need to be brought up-to-date.
To help them with newest procedures, members of
the Hillsborough County Nutrition Committee were
given a short course on some of the newer devel-
opments in meats. The Extension meat specialist
and the nutritionist worked with these home econ-
omists, who represented about 17 different services.
The meats specialist discussed grades, cuts, iden-
tification, and tenderizing of meat both before
the animal is slaughtered and in the cuts. He also
showed how to cut up wholesale cuts of meat in
to meal-sized portions.
The nutritionist prepared oven roasts, pot roasts
and steaks from meat which had been tenderized
on the hoof and that which had not. The group
served as a taste panel to check on the results.
Throughout the training session scientific re-
search on meat freezing, defrosting, proper meat
Dr. R. L Reddish, Extension meats specialist, points out the rib
eye in a steer carcass.
cookery methods, importance of the use of a meat
thermometer, and nutritive value of meats were
Cooperative marketing of their produLts has
allowed a number of bean growers in Gadsden
County to maintain themsnel\cs as independent
The Gadsden County Pole Bean Cooperative was
organized by 25 growers in July l(-] Durnng it,
first fall season of operation over 23,000 busheli
of pole beans were marketed. Growers recei ed an
average price exceeding $3 per butshl
Before the organization of the cooperative, the
bean growers had been dependent upi'an .n auction
sale held at the State Farmers Ml.Irki-t. During
the last several years there had been so few buyers
at the auction sale that competition was limited. As
a result, the growers felt they were not receiving
full market price. The volume of beans handled on
the market decreased from a high of 54,000 bushel,
in 1957 to a low of 12,000 in 19Po0. These were
grown by one large corporation farm and threL
At the request of the rcimainin-. independent
growers, county Extension aaents set up nmettings
for interested growers to explore th-e IpLrations of
a iartketing cooperative. Dr. Edwin Cake, Exten-
sion marketing pecialist, .asisted them in the
organizational plans. Thc- result is a new outlook
for Gadsden bean growers.
The cooperative is .'r,\crned bt a board of five
directors, with the county agent serving as advisor.
"New Florida Potatoes Always Chip White"
Vice President Lyndon Johnson and his wife -
together with other prominent Americans and many
other citizens are discovering the goodness and
high quality of Florida new-crop potatoes. At a
"Florida State Dinner" in Washington, at which
the Vice President and his wife were guests, Hast-
ings new-crop Sebago potatoes were featured.
New-crop Florida potatoes are a new product to
many people. They are used to buying potatoes
which have been stored for long periods.
New-crop Florida potatoes retain their farm-
fresh taste and appearance. They are excellent for
chipping, frying, boiling, and mashing. In fact, 60
percent of the crop is currently used for chipping.
Extension is helping growers market these top-
quality potatoes for best results.
For example, the North Florida Potato Council,
working with the county agents in Putnam County,
decided to push an advertising campaign on "Hast-
ings New Sebago Potatoes".
They placed ads in the New York Packer and
in two potato-chip industry publications. Also, the
Council sent a letter to every potato-chip manufac-
turer in the United States telling about their new-
crop Sebago potatoes. One theme was always
stressed: "They always chip white."
Signs extolling the new-crop potatoes were
attached to trucks hauling potatoes, placed in
railroad cars, and given to retail outlets. Local
shippers got into the act with letters to their
commercial contacts fertilizer and insecticide
manufacturers, machinery manufacturers, bag and
crate dealers telling about the fine crop.
The Palatka Chamber of Commerce assisted by
telling the people in their trade area about the new
potato crop and urging them to buy local potatoes.
The Florida Development Commission prepared
news releases for the state and southeastern area.
A menu featuring "barbecued potatoes", using
Hastings Sebagoes, was prepared by their home
economics department and widely distributed to
Bruce Gray, chairman of the advertising commit-
tee, and the county agent appeared on County
Agent Jim Watson's "Hi Neighbor" television pro-
gram on Jacksonville Channel 12 to promote the
use of "Hastings New Sebago Potatoes". Another
television appearance was made in Orlando. Area
newspapers cooperated with feature stories.
Hastings Sebagoes were used in the Florida
Showcase in Madison Square Garden in New York.
At the "Florida State Dinner" in Washington, they
were featured on the menu. Each guest was given
a five-pound bag of Hastings New Sebagoes.
A meeting with chain store executives of Jack-
sonville was arranged through the Retail Merchants
Division of the Florida State Chamber of Com-
merce. This meeting proved fruitful in aiding sales.
LOOKING AHEAD WITH OUTLOOK INFORMATION
Florida producers have learned to be on the
lookout for outlook information because better
knowledge of the future puts more money in the
Harvey Carroll, Jr., a young Suwannee County
farmer, says that outlook information "was of
tremendous value to me in knowing when to sell
my hogs. The market prices were right when my
animals were ready for market. If I had not received
this information in advance, I most likely would
have had them ready for market when the price
This illustrates a common and valuable use of
short-range outlook information. But the producer
facing decisions on the long-range expansion or
contraction of his business finds good outlook
information even more valuable.
Handlers and processors of agricultural commod-
ities, firms handling agricultural supplies, and the
ultimate consumer as well as the agricultural
producer all find valuable guides in the eco-
nomic analyses called "outlook information". These
guides are prepared by Extension specialists and
quickly distributed to those who need them by the
Newspapers, radio, and television also find out-
look an interesting and lively topic. Without
cooperation from these media, those who use out-
look information most often would receive it too
late or not at all.
THE E Better Family Living
THE MODERN WOMAN'S DILEMMA
"Ho' can we keep from being pulled in so many
diicLtin.m' there are so many mtnetin1s to attend,
so much civic work to be done. W V still want time
to be with our families and for our own gro\ th."
Fhij question came from a Home Demonstration
Club member of Jefferson County. Her concern is
shared by many women.
Because of this member's expressed concern,
the Jefferson County program planning committee
planned a leader-tiaining. meeting on "The Modern
Woman's D)ilcmma". The leaders, in turn, took the
program to individual clubs. This is the sort of
thing included in the program.
Today's woman wife, mother, homemaker,
and part-time bread winner is freer than her
grandmother. And yet she has many more de-
mands on her time.
For L\jTmplc she can drive a car. Thi, means
she may have to drive her husband to work, her
children to school, transport others to meetings,
and do many other errands.
She has many kinds of electrical gadgets to help
with her housework, but she has to keep all these
in working order. And no gadget has been invented
to substitute for the comfort she personally has to
give her little son who struck out in the ninth
inning with two boys on base. Usually, when the
telephone rings, it means she will be forced to
make a decision.
Today's woman is free to shut the door behind
her and go into the world. In fact, she is obligated
to do so because her children's activities are more
scattered and because she is a member of the com-
munity and the world as well as the family.
Her husband expects her to be an all-around
companion someone to talk with, laugh with,
worry with not just someone who puts food on
All of this adds up, for many women, not so
much to hard work as to a constant sense of being
too pressured. What can be done to help solve
Extension's answer comes from women them-
selves, as well as from outstanding authors in the
field of family life education:
Do some self-examination. Are you really obli-
gated to .say "yes" to all the requests made of you?
If you do feel obligated, why? Is it because you
have a sincere desire to help or because all this
much "ado" fills a need in you are you trying
to prove something?
Discuss this with your family. How do they feel
about this? Explain to them your feelings.
Extension Clothing Leaders At Work
Extension clothing leaders women and girls
who volunteer to help teach others are helping
Florida women dress better and more neatly.
Clothing leaders in Florida may be adults or
older 4-H girls, who like clothing and textiles.
These leaders take special training offered by the
Home Demonstration program in their counties.
Home Demonstration agents teach clothing lead-
ers about clothes, but they also teach them how
to work with others in sharing this information.
During 1961, these folks have done excellent
work. For example, 12 adult leaders in Okaloosa
County took two days of training to learn how to
fit mature figures a very common problem. To
do this each of them made a basic muslin and al-
tered it to hang "grainline" perfect. Then each of
them made a dress for herself at home using the
knowledge gained from the workshop. When their
friends and neighbors saw these new dresses, they
wanted to learn how to do this, too.
In three months time, these 12 women gave
11 demonstrations to their club members. They
helped 57 people make their basic muslins. Besides,
they taught others how to make pressing equipment,
such as hams, mitts, sleeve boards, and collar
boards. They helped others make 72 pieces of pres-
Junior Clothing Leader
Cynthia Farina instructs ,i
the Vanater triplets in
sewing. All are from St.
sing equipment during a two-month period.
This year these 12 leaders have requested help
in learning to do more advanced sewing making
coats and suits.
In St. Lucie County, adult leaders have had
similar training during 1961. Then they helped
their neighbors learn how to make basic muslins.
These leaders have been very active, assisting their
Home Demonstration agent in teaching 4-H Club
members. The younger ones have been taught how
to sew on the sewing machine.
Cynthia Farina, senior 4-H Club member in St.
Lucie County, took a two-day course on "Getting
The Most Out Of Your Sewing Machine", taught
by Mrs. Mary Bennett, St. Lucie County Home
Demonstration agent. Cynthia is a sophomore at
Barry College, Miami, Florida, and is majoring
in home economics. While she was at home during
the summer, she assisted the Home Demonstration
agent with a class for 4-H girls. During this class,
each girl made a dress for herself.
The Extension Service is proud of the progress
made by all its clothing leaders. Because of their
willingness to share their knowledge, many more
people have been able to learn more about cloth-
ing and textiles.
Howto itelch the dollar, how l ul
Sskill save time and money, how to prepare
quate nutritious meals at moderate cost, and
how to select and use household supplies and
equipment these are just a few questions young
homemakers and parents want answered today.
Confronted with the complexities of the chang-
ing times, they are seeking educational help as a
means of solving their home and family living
Extension offers this help. Here are some ex-
amples of activities in which young people have
been interested. "Creative Foods in a Hurry" and
"Good Meals for Busy Days" were topics featured
in a series of meetings presented for the YWCA
group in Tampa. Other discussion group topics
included money management, and selection of
china, silver, crystal, and pots and pans.
In Pinellas County, the YWCA group asked for
help on freezer and oven meals. A trained Home
Demonstration Club leader assisted the Home
Demonstration agents with this food program and
*the clothing workshop which followed.
In Sarasota and Nokomis, young practical nurses
received special training in nutrition.
Lake County has three active young homemakers'
groups which meet at night in members' homes in
Leesburg, Eustis, and Mt. Dora. Here, home living
programs are worked out jointly. The senior Home
Demonstration Club sponsors and assists with the
younger group in each community.
In Pasco County, young homemakers in the
Land O' Lakes Community wanted to learn more
about sewing so they could make their own and
their children's clothes. A series of workshops
planned for this purpose was guided by the agents
and trained leaders. Later meetings were held on
household business matters.
Hernando County young folks learned to refinish
furniture for their homes. They learned various
techniques while actually doing the jobs. Now
these trained groups are able to assist their friends
in learning to improve home furnishings.
In Orange, Liberty, Gadsden, Jefferson, and
Putnam counties, clothing construction workshops
have been held to assist young homemakers in this
art. The agents in Brevard and Pinellas counties
assisted a group of young women who had some
previous sewing experience with a tailoring work-
In Palm Beach County, the Home Demonstra-
tion agent met at night with young members of
civic clubs who have an interest in particular areas
of family living.
To meet the needs and interests of young con-
sumers in Marion County, the agent and county
council arranged educational tours to various whole-
sale and retail shops and markets. The business
concerns cooperated with Extension specialists and
agents in presenting the educational information.
The Dade County Extension news sheet
"Sound-Off", for modern homemakers, features
timely tips and educational articles to guide young
parents in wise choices of household and children's
needs. It calls attention to meetings and special
television and radio programs of particular interest
to the young consumer.
BRING EXTRA INCOME
A business she can operate right at home is
providing extra income to a busy Alachua County
Besides managing the farming operations while
her husband is busy bulldozing land for other
people, caring for a family of seven, serving as
an officer of her Home Demonstration Club, and
doing P.T.A. and church work, Mrs. Alvin Mobley
has started a profitable fernery. She grows leather-
leaf ferns and sells -them to florists in the Mid-
west and to local markets.
Working with plants always has been one of
Mrs. Mobley's special hobbies. She decided to make
it pay off. Two and half acres of low, shady, moist
land on the family's 300-acre farm were planted
in leatherleaf fern. Mrs. Mobley's family has helped
with the work during the two years she has grown
ferns. This makes it possible for her to carry on
her other duties. Now she plans to add other kinds
Personal and family incomes of many 4-H Club
girls and Home Demonstration members have been
increased through home industries. They devel-
oped these home industries through their own in-
genuity, using their available resources, and the
information and skills gained from Home Demon-
"We don't have too much money, but I have
learned to manage well for my family," says Mrs.
Dwayne Kruse, a young homemaker in Leon
County. "The 'Cues for Consumers' class at the
State Home Demonstration Short Course has helped
me improve my buying power.
"Cues for Consumers" provided guides for buyers,
with emphasis on foods, textiles, and furnishings.
Some of the guides Mrs. Kruse finds most help-
ful were learning to plan her buying, knowing
what she really needed and wanted, using an
organized shopping list, knowing her specific
requirements, and comparing quality. She learned
it's important to select the products best suited
to her purpose and use.
She has begun to consider price variations, waste,
and "plus" costs, when comparing prices.
"First I made sure I knew the amount I could
spend for each budget group food, clothing,
housing, others. Then I decided on how I would
pay by cash or wise use of credit," she said.
Recognizing standards and understanding values,
reading labels, and shopping at the "right" time
and place are more important to her now.
Much of this same information, as well as buying
HEALTH AND RECREATION
Better health and recreation have occupied
Franklin County Home Demonstration Clubs
during the past year.
All clubs in the county have had programs on
heart disease, the need for physical examination,
and self-understanding. The Extension health
education specialist and the local health department
presented the programs. Local club health leaders
attended leader training meetings.
A special recreation project was carried out by
the East Point Home Demonstration Club during
this emphasis on health and recreation. The group
decided to sponsor a community park.
Mrs. Dwayne Kruse of Leon County shops for groceries. "Cues for
Consumers" helped her buy more wisely.
guides for specific products, is being used by
Florida's Home Demonstration agents for radio and
television programs, news articles, and demonstra-
tions on consumer education. Besides, volunteer
leaders are sharing consumer know-how with
fellow Club members, neighbors, and friends.
Committees appointeTor the pro ct asked the
Extension Service and the F.S.U. Department of
Recreation for advice. Discussions with representa-
tives from these agencies covered type of facilities
to be placed in a playground, way to install, cost,
etc. Committee members followed up with a
questionnaire to all people in communities as to
By working on goals set for themselves, Franklin
Home Demonstration Club members are making
progress in improving health and recreation in their
Would you like to have 60 "bosses"?
You might . .if they really helped you get
your job done.
Sixty women spoke up in helping develop an
educational program that would improve the
nutrition of Florida families and thereby
contribute to their physical, mental, and emotional
well-being. With the Extension nutritionist, they
studied available research about nutrient levels
and about shortcomings of certain of these nut-
rients in family diets. Besides, they considered
trends and predictions and their influence on
family eating habits and patterns.
At this point, the 60 women spoke their minds.
They told Extension specialists what problems they
needed help with. Some of these were:
What foods do the different members of my
family need, and how much?
How can I get my family to eat the foods they
need? My two-year-old? My teen-agers? My over-
What can we do to control creeping overweight
- to get down to normal weight and stay there?
How can we get quick, easy, economical meals
Speak Their Minds
and still have a balanced diet?
How can I efficiently and economically buy food
and prepare balanced meals for two . or for
myself now that I am alone?
How can we best make our food dollar buy the
kinds and amounts of food our family needs?
What are some easy, economical ways to enter-
tain, and what are some foods and dishes to use
that will fit our budget?
How can we use all the new fruits and vege-
tables we find in Florida?
What about all these chemicals we hear about
that get into or are put into our food?
Guided by these and other questions from the
60 participating women, the nutritionist worked
with Home Demonstration agents and county
program planning committees to develop some
solutions of the problems they had identified.
The outcome was an array of study topics,
together with information and illustrations designed
for wide audience appeal. These topics were sent
out via radio, television, and news articles; leader,
club, and special interest workshops.
Spreading the Word About -
Native Trees for Home Grounds
Never underestimate the power of the press.
Sometimes a few lines of a news release can do the
work of many people madly grinding the roads
and beating the bushes for a few persons to en-
lighten about an agricultural practice of one sort
or another or to tell about a new bulletin
they should read.
For example, an old one-page mimeograph,
-%i 1- -, lt!l
"Some Native Trees for Planting on Home
Grounds", became famous overnight after gathering
dust in the files for several years. After a few
lines were written about it in the Ag News Service,
a flood of requests for copies covered several weeks.
This also indicates that Extension is reaching
more and more urban and suburban homeown-
ers whose only interest and practice of forestry
is limited to planting a few trees around a house
in a new housing development.
This increased suburban interest in also noticed
in the requests for information on how to combat
borers and pine bark beetles in trees. More home-
owners are presently requesting insect and disease
information for shade trees than are owners of
Tlr fForward with Youth
Tailored for Older Teens
Designed especially for older teens that de-
scribes many of the new programs of 4-H. These
programs and projects were designed to meet a
Older teen-agers don't want to take projects or
attend camps "too young for them". They want to
graduate from such things, and take up activities
designed to fit their needs alone. Four-H now has
such projects and activities.
Career exploration was the first such project
placed on the "launching pad", but was followed
closely by automotive care and safety, and the town
and country business project. Projects such as these,
designed for older 4-H Club members, are proving
Career exploration helps older 4-H members look
into the possibilities of employment in various
areas, and gives them a basis for a choice of a
career. The automotive project has as its object
teaching teen-agers to better understand automo-
biles and to operate them more safely.
The town and country business project is de-
signed to help young people get a better under-
standing of business in firms associated with agri-
culture and home economics. They should get a
better understanding of basic economic facts and
of the problems and structure of agricultural
marketing. Not least important, the project is de-
signed to help young people appreciate the value
of training and education in the business world.
A close look at the 4-H camping program dis-
closed the fact that it was designed for the majority,
which happened to be the 10 to 12 age group:
Four-H is correcting this through using more older
club members as junior leaders in regular camps,
and by planning for special teen-age camps.
County councils have proved to be one of the
most effective tools available in holding the interest
of older youth, while giving leadership training at
the same time. T e .e es and problems of
council work are oi adult level, be se
council members I a an_ e nty
and state pro rams. idWmak* con t tion,
the co teest e plan-
ning p ase o I 'l vor s ro the truth
in the statement, y e 4 4 needs you".
A great nu r o activities now involve older
Club members For example, an age limit bf
14 years is set on all out-of-state trips, such as
N.itiun.il Congress and Conference, as well as on
state short courses and all state judging events.
State award entries must also meet this require-
On the firing line at 4-H Wildlife Camp one of the special camps
for older youth. Tampa Tribune photo.
W B,,, -~- _
"WHAT 4-H MEANS TO ME"
(As told by Laura Higginson, national 4-H
home economics scholarship winner, P a s c o
What does 4-H mean to me? Four-H has always
challenged me to "Make the Best Better" in what-
ever I did whether the task was large or small.
Since I first joined the 4-H Club at the age of 10,
I have had a desire to live up to the 4-H motto
in my project work and other activities.
The new experiences I've had in 10 years as a
4-H Club member and the skills and knowledge
gained from these experiences have been helpful
both to me and to others. Skills developed in such
projects as foods, clothing, and money management
will help me in my future career as a home econo-
mist and as a homemaker. Activities in recreation,
junior leadership, and public speaking have
provided an opportunity for practicing what I have
My whole family has joined me in my Club
work. This helped strengthen my family ties.
Four-H has helped me to grow in a four-fold way
- mentally, physically, socially, and spiritually -
into a better citizen.
Winning a national Home Economics Scholar-
ship given by Sunbeam Corporation is one of the
highlights of my life. I am so thrilled and grateful
for being chosen for this award. This scholarship
will enable me to complete my college work and
major in Home Demonstration education and home
I am grateful to Mrs. Mary R. Stearns, my Home
Demonstration agent, her assistants, my 4-H leaders,
and to my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth M.
Higginson, for all they have done to encourage me.
(As told by Bill Lockhart, St. Johns County
4-H'er, to Florida County Commissioners.)
To me, 4-H Club work has meant challenge,
opportunity, and satisfaction.
Making two blades of grass grow where one
once grew through 4-H learning has been a worth-
while experience. But more important have been my
opportunities for leadership, citizenship, and
personal development through 4-H. Projects, activ-
ities, meetings, and recognition were the tools;
"Learn by Doing" was the way.
Four-H projects have helped me accept respon-
sibility, learn improved practices, and acquire
skills in production and marketing.
Activities have enriched my 4-H experiences
through travel, acquaintances, and interesting
participation. Shows, fairs, contests, achievement
and rally days, camps, and short courses have been
but a few of the challenging activities "To Make
the Best Better".
Club meetings have enabled me to learn about
membership and to experience democracy in
action. Serving on committees, preparing and
presenting reports, giving demonstrations, making
speeches, and most of all, the opportunity to serve
others were values I gained in Club meetings.
Recognition comes for a job well done. To me,
this has come as ribbons, medals, out-of-state trips,
trophies, and scholarships each marking a level
of 4-H achievement.
However, the most rewarding part of my 4-H
work has been the realization that I am growing
up to become a worthwhile American citizen.
Care and Feeding
Modern American boys and girls take to the
automobile as naturally as they take to dating.
Each one dreams of the time he can drive a car
himself, long before he is actually old enough to
take the driver's license test.
About 70,000 young people in Florida attain driv-
ing age each year. Less than half of the high school
students eligible for driver education in high school
enroll in these courses. Yet teen-age drivers were
involved in almost twice as many accidents as the
average for the same number of drivers in a recent
A leader in the 4-H auto project uses driver testing equipment
Something must be done to make more respon-
sible drivers of these young people. Through the
4-H automotive project, something is being done.
Four-H members receive training in rules of the
road, and the why and how of preventive mainte-
nance so that the cars themselves will be safer.
The program directly and indirectly changes teen-
age driver attitudes. It is specially designed for
the older 4-H group those 14 years to 21 years
The success of the automotive program depends
on volunteer adult leaders, most of whom have
never been actively associated with 4-H work be-
fore. Among the organizations cooperating are the
Highway Patrol, Department of Public Safety,
insurance companies, automobile agencies, and
schools with driver education courses.
Seven pilot counties participated in the auto-
motive project last year. Extension found boys and
girls eager to learn more about the automobile and
its safe operation. With an expanding automotive
project reaching many older youth and guided by
new adult leaders, the results should be safer
drivers on the highway, lower accident rates for
teen-agers, and lives saved.
INDIAN 4-H MEMBERS STUDY ELECTRICITY
Indian 4-H boys and girls along with white
4-H members and adult leaders from three coun-
ties recently participated in an area electric
school at Moore Haven.
Such a school is conducted on a planned sched-
ule. Three sessions are held at monthly intervals.
This is the first electric school in Florida involving
as many as four 4-H groups.
Sponsor of this activity was the Glades Electric
Cooperative, Moore Haven, which provided some
instruction, as well as electric materials and re-
Each 4-H member "learns by doing" through
work activities. Visual aids used include slides,
demonstrations, and films. These are used in teach-
ing about basic electricity, good reading lamps, and
"STAY YOUNG BY WORKING WITH YOUTH"
"The way to stay young is by working with
youth," says Mrs. J. L. Slaby, of Titusville. She
should know. She has been a volunteer 4-H Club
leader in Brevard County for the past five years.
Mrs. Slaby began by helping young 4-H girls
learn to give food demonstrations using citrus,
sectioning grapefruit, and using other tropical fruit
Mrs. Slaby instructs some of the 6th grade girls at Riverview
School in Titusville.
in the area. She chuckles over the experience of
hearing for the first time a girl repeating almost
word for word her demonstration.
Last year she worked as an organizational leader
with 151 girls, enrolled in two school clubs. About
80 of these completed up to seven projects each.
Mrs. Slaby inspired them. The girls felt free to
call on her for help in all their projects. She con-
ducted meetings and helped in many other ways.
This year it seemed that her two clubs would
be meeting at different times, one in early morn-
ing, and one in middle afternoon. With this wide
difference in time, she had to make a choice as
to which one she would work with. This was a
painful decision, but she finally decided on the
second year club.
But, after a meeting, it was decided that the
clubs could meet one after the other. Mrs. Slaby
immediately said, "This means I can work with both
clubs, doesn't it?"
Mrs. Slaby's 4-H Club work takes much of her
time; it is sometimes an exhausting job. But she
answers in three words any question as to why
she'd be willing to spend the time and effort needed
to help her 4-H Club members; "I enjoy it."
Democracy in Action:
ACTIVITY IN THE BOYS' 4-H COUNCIL
Excitement ran high as delegates to the 42nd
Annual Boys'.4-H Club Short Course at the Uni-
versity of Florida gathered in Walker Auditorium
on Thursday evening, June 15. It was time for
the big 4-H political rally and election of State
Council officers for 1961-62.
Throughout the week, the State Council had
been in regular sessions committees had met
daily and often at night reports had been pre-
pared and presented discussions and debates
had been held. But, politics had not been permitted
during regular sessions.
Now, the time was right for political action.
The nominating committee had recommended
that all nominations come from the floor. The
president sounded the gavel and called for nomi-
Delegates stood and made nominations. Good
parliamentary practices were used. Nominees had
from three to five minutes to speak for themselves
and/or be represented by others. After this, voting
delegates had two minutes to question the nomi-
nees concerning their qualifications and intent to
Voting by roll call followed. When a candidate
was elected and announced by the president, the
assembly stood and applauded enthusiastically. A
brief installation service and charge to the new
officers was given by Extension Director M. O.
The new president, Jack Strickland, accepted
the gavel saying, "I will serve as pledged. Thank
you." This was youth in response to the 1961
Short Course theme, "Build Youthful Respon-
Baby sitting service: (Left to right) Lisa Arnold, Ronnie Terreck, 4-H
girl Patty Bennett, and Barbie Bennett, all of Davie, Florida.
BABY SITTING SERVICE
FROM 4-H PROJECT
Patty Bennett has used the things she has learned
in her two favorite club projects child develop-
ment and money management to build a neigh-
borhood baby-sitting service.
In the three years she has taken the child de-
velopment project, Patty learned a number of im-
portant things. These included the facts that in
the care of children, one must be dependable,
follow instructions, watch for the safety of the
children, engage them in creative activities, give
them your entire attention, love them, and set a
While earning money for her baby-sitting, she
took the opportunity to study money management.
She kept account of all the money she earned over
a period of six months, and how she spent it. In
this six months period, she earned $110. She used
it to buy clothes, books, and a used typewriter,
and to help with a family vacation.
Patty is a 13-year-old Broward County 4-H Club
girl. She feels that this project makes her more
careful in how she spends her money. It gives her
a better sense of money value.
Living With Parents
"My parents just don't understand me." Teen-
agers today often make this -statement.
A class called "Living with Parents" at the Girls'
4-H Short Course this year tried to help young
people understand themselves better; to know why
their parents may not understand them; and to
help them realize that sometimes parents feel
they're not understood, either. Instructors told the
young people that they need to try to understand,
as well as be understood. This knowledge helps to
bring about better communication between young
people and parents.
During a pictorial discussion on "This Was Your
Life", the youngsters got an idea of how much
parents have invested in their children finan-
cially, physically, and most of all, emotionally. The
family life specialist pointed out how very depend-
ent babies and young children are on their parents
in many ways. But this picture changes almost
overnight. At the onset of puberty, the need for
independence is very great. There is almost a "turn-
ing away" from parents.
Group discussion followed on "How do you
think parents feel when this happens?" The young-
sters showed real insight by the answers they gave.
The youngsters considered some of the character-
istics of the adolescent and then discussed how
these characteristics can cause lack of understand-
ing on the part of parents, particularly if parents
are not aware of these characteristics. Some of
these are conformity, independence, different
ideas, physical maturity, interest in the opposite
sex, and a desire to choose one's own friends.
The class discussed some of the most usual areas
of disagreement between parents and young people,
why these disagreements arise, and how they can
be worked out.
The participation and the comments showed
the class was helpful. Young people need an
opportunity to discuss their concerns, to find out
that others have similar concerns, and to discover
what some of the possible solutions might be.
As a follow-up to this class at Short Course, the
family life specialist has written three discussions
in a series of eight on "You and Your Parents".
These are, "Feelings Toward Your Parents"; "Par-
ents and Youngsters Disagree"; "Parents Are
People Too". These discussions are being used in
county 4-H work.
"When girls are given responsibility for them-
selves and younger 4-H'ers, they grow! They
develop skills, competencies, and worthwhile char-
acter traits which help to fit them for adult life,"
says Mrs. Annie Grab, Home Demonstration agent
in Calhoun County.
Mrs. Mary Morgan, assistant home agent in
Broward County, says, "Leadership is a major
challenge for the older girl."
One of her junior leaders, Sandra MacLeod says,
"The five happy years I have spent in 4-H have
been effective in helping me to appreciate my
home, my family, my community, and my country.
My 4-H activities have provided many opportunities
for working with others, for sharing ideas, helping
others, and being helped in the process. Is is be-
cause I realized how much 4-H had meant to me
that I have became a junior leader."
Mary Frances Rigney, state leadership winner
from Dade County, represents 1,609 4-H'ers par-
ticipating in junior leadership projects. Mary
Frances says of her junior leadership work, "I feel
I have benefited greatly from this leadership ex-
perience. It has been a great satisfaction to know
that I have helped younger girls to live better the
4-H way, in their Club, their community, and our
"This year I have worked with 39 girls-in the
Kenwood Sewing Box and 7 Little Stitches, two
junior 4-H Clubs in the county. Through the op-
portunities given in the 4-H program, I have been
able to look to my future, when I will be able to
say that I have learned many skills through 4-H."
Many Florida counties have county-wide 4-H
junior leadership groups. These youngsters get to-
gether regularly to share experiences and receive
training in leadership to strengthen their local 4-H
Where does junior leadership fit into the
4-H Club program? Junior leadership is carried as
a project. Girls who participate in the junior leader-
ship project serve under the guidance of an adult
leader and the county Home Demonstration agent.
They assist with 4-H Club meetings and work
with the younger 4-H members in teaching skills,
methods, and techniques; in giving demonstrations
and record keeping; and in working with 4-H Clubs
made up of younger members. This project helps
the local adult leader and the county Home
Demonstration agent carry out a successful 4-H
program. Besides, it gives the older members many
varied leadership experiences.
There are 1,609 active junior leaders serving in
40 counties throughout the state.
Junior Leaders at work:
(Left to right) Dale Clarke,
Susie Kunselman, Norma
Lee Kunselman, Carol Pel-
liccia, and Junior Leaders
Sandra MacLeod, Del Ann
Wheeler, and Pat Bollinger.
GROWING THROUGH JUNIOR LEADERSHIP
MONEY FOR COLLEGE
Through the careful planning of her 4-H
marketing project, Sherrie Williams will earn
enough money to send herself through college.
In 1957, Sherrie bought four steers, financed
by a local bank. One steer won Reserve 4-H H.
Champion honors at the 1958 Southeastern Fat
Stock Show and Sale. The other steers she sold to
4-H Club members for their fat steer projects.
With the money received from the sale of these '
four steers, Sherrie paid off her loan, borrowed
more money, and bought more animals. Again, she
sold these as they were fattened. Miss Sherrie Williams shows some of her cattle.
Now her earnings of about S2,000 are invested
in 29 head of Hereford cattle and two thorough-
bred mares. When she sells these, she expects to Sherrie was the 1961 state winner in 4-H
get back her investment, and have more money to Community Relations. She lives with her family
put into her college savings fund. on Leeward Farms, near Ocala.
4-H AT F.S.U.
"- To carry the 4-H Club standards over into
our college life -
To serve others."
These are among the objectives of the Collegiate _"-
4-H Club at F.S.U. These college girls are learning
to accept their responsibilities as leaders and citi-
zens through their many college service projects.
For example, they help make the Girls' 4-H
Short Course a successful event each year. During
this week, they assist with recreational activities,
this week, the' assist with recreational activitis. Two F.S.U. Collegiate 4-H Club members, Nancy Abbott and
with group instruction, with candlelighting, and Shirley Wynn, show the 46th State Girls' 4-H Short Course Program
with the junior-senior reception. to a guest, Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Collegiate 4-H members at F.S.U. assist Home
Demonstration agents in surrounding counties SEAT BELTS FOR SAFETY
throughout the year with judging events, demon-
stration days, and officer training meetings. Safety conscious Florida 4-H members are stres-
In the fall, these girls assist with the home sing "Seat Belts for Safety".
judging event held at the North Florida Fair in Gloria Alrigood, state safety winner, working
Tallahassee. They help to set up the judging cate- with other 'Jefferson County 4-H girls, purchased
gories, serve as group leaders, and help to tabulate seat belts for the county sheriff's official cars.
judging scores. mytt su~' in the hmci
During F.S.U.'s annual Circus Weekend the gicl - _ne
serve at a coffee for visiting parents and guests. t-in ih .-.. lI er
Each spring they meet with the University ol "ti 11s. .iig, 'D.. ;ti o Oth-ll in I il r
Florida Collegiate 4-H Club at 4-H Camp Cherry parents' cars of all club members.
Lake for a weekend of relaxation, inspiration, and A television program and a safety exhibit helped
sharing of experiences. Gloria further tell the safety story in her county.
AND ITS RESPONSIBILITY
From the group of "young 4-H executives" -
the State 4-H Council came the underlying
idea for the 1961 Boys' 4-H Club Short Course.
They wanted this event to spark interest, ignite a
challenge, and fire up determination in young
people to "build youthful responsibility".
This theme was established by the executive
committee. of the State Boys' 4-H Club Council.
For one week it was foremost in the minds of
381 boys, representing 55 different counties in
All of the ingredients of college life were added
to the meeting. The 4-H boys had use of all Univer-
sity of Florida campus facilities. College professors
and guest speakers followed the theme, showing
the delegates the opportunities they have for devel-
oping themselves into responsible citizens.
Special features of the week included a College
of Agriculture presentation designed to guide
4-H'ers who are thinking about going to college.
Sharing equal billing with this program was a
timely presentation entitled "Your Civil Defense".
Civil Defense officials presented the basic "why's",
"where's", and "how's" of protection before, during,
and after a nuclear attack.
As a follow-up to training received at Short
Course, further counselling is being given 4-H
members to help them continue on the path of
"Building Youthful Responsibility".
Third in i- h tit
Florida', 4-I1 1 can lated third in the
1961 Natin.il 4- D- r CA c lud4ing Contest
held at \\atcrloi,, lowa, bin O rt b-r 2. The contest
was held in -n cn tio aith C National Dairy
Cattle (unress. he 1 rida t i placed first on
Ayrshii-I .ind So nd Cuueri i \s.
Thirt\-I ui st.1tes pa ticip.iltc in this Congress.
Florida ti:Ik thi t lth n oerl11 s re of 1,988
out of pIsi, lj 2,250 points, \\Wi h was approxi-
mately s9 peri 'ent rn'land 'pl.t-d first and
Oklahomi eod. r, 'd.
The I' lr-ida.i tcl m wa M as coni osCd of Dorothy
Fish, J.t kloiin iL';t.b. Fouiraklr. C.llahan; Ray
Tamar'.i. Titi j ,'rm nest \'\ li I,. Fallahassee.
C. W. R.\,,I\ FI-L, i JIt.l jv. ua n, coached the
Ray T..l4'aL I ,hIflk h iditJal in the
over-all conttct. lourith ni (tuTlerneu'. seventh on
Avrshires and ninth in ir,,li ji"'4~ ; nsI
Dorothy Fish was third high individual on
Guernseys and ninth on Ayrshires. Melvin Four-
aker was third individual on Ayrshires.
In the contest, the team placed ten classes,
representing five breeds, in the forenoon, and oral
reasons were given at the Dairy Shrine Club in
the afternoon. Ray Tamargo scored 49 and Dorothy
Fish 48 on oral reasons on the difficult Guernsey
cow class (50 was perfect score).
Where are the 4-H'ers of yesterday?
If they happen to be like Mrs. Virginia Dudley
of Largo, Florida, they are continuing in 4-H Club
work by serving as adult volunteer leaders.
In 1943, Mrs. Dudley ended seven years of
active Florida 4-H membership. But today she is
one of the Pinellas County's most faithful and
staunch adult supporters.
For the past three years, she has been an active
local 4-H Club leader. She has also assisted with
special activities when called upon, and that's
quite often Tours, achievement days, judging
events, and camps are a few of the activities Mrs.
Dudley helped with.
Though \ rs. Dudley selected nursing as a
career, she gives credit to her --H experiences for
being a successful homemaker today. Her expe-
riences with her 4-H dairy projects enable her
to help her husband, who is a herdsman. Presently
she is in process of building a new home. Her
knowledge gained in 4-H will help her select the
materials used as well as the furnishings. She makes
all of her own clothes and all of her daughters',
with the exception of those which Robin, her 13-
year-old, makes for herself.
Mrs. Dudley was one of two 4-H leaders chosen
to receive the State Alumni Award last year.
Better Citizens and Better Communities
IN SUWANNEE COUNTY -
OLD FASHIONED COOPERATION LIVES ON
Old-fashioned log rolling, house raising, and
peanut shellings have gone the way of the horse
and carriage and the steamboat. But at least one
cooperative venture patterned after America's
past lives on in Live Oak.
The Suwannee County Tobacco Barn Insurance
Club, a non-profit organization of leaf growers,
devotes its entire program to financial aid to
fellow farmers when they lose a tobacco barn by
In curing tobacco, the risk from fire is great,
and a large number of curing facilities go up in
smoke each year. Heat inside the barn often
reaches 240 degrees. The smallest spark will start
a fire that can engulf a barn in minutes. The
partially cured leaf burns rapidly and adds to the
With these facts in mind, Claude Jones, A. W.
Ross, Sr., and the late Fendlev Brinson formed the
club in 1935. It is the only club of its kind known
to be in existence. The county agent's office
handles all the correspondence for the organization.
Directors of the club urge farmers to keep insur-
ance on their barns in force and use the donations
from the club as a supplemental source of revenue
to aid in replacing the burned barn.
The rules of the club are simple. A membership
fee of $2.25 is charged for each barn insured by
the club. This money is held in reserve.
When a grower loses a barn, he is required to
inform the club within 24 hours. Cards notifying
members of the loss are then mailed from the
county agent's office.
A member, after receiving notice of the loss, is
required to make a $2.00 contribution within 10
days for the person losing the barn. The $2.00
donation is in lieu of a day's work, which was the
contributing factor on which the club was estab-
This year 320 barns were insured through the
club. The six people who lost their barns received
$640 each in donations.
Introduction of modern curing equipment during
the past decade has reduced the number of fire
losses. The vast majority of barns are now fired by
oil, gas, or coal instead of wood.
Members of the board of directors besides the
two surviving organizers are H. T. Howell, Leon
Avery, Frank Jenkins, Julian Robinson, Gordon
Raines, and S. C. Hall. The directors meet twice
a year, once before the harvesting and again at the
end of the selling season. The county agent serves
as non-voting chairman of the board, and his
secretary, Mrs. Robert Culbreth, serves as treasurer.
H. T. Howell of O'Brien is proud of his new tobacco barn, rebuilt
after the old one burned.
Many people, many groups, and many agencies
working together to solve problems that is the
story of Rural Area Development in Florida. Co-
operation is the means which will bring about the
ultimate success of the program.
When the U. S. Department of Commerce acted
on the governor's recommendation to assign the
Florida Development Commission to administer the
new Area Redevelopment Act, the stage was set
for an aggressive development program in Florida's
rural counties. When the Secretary of Agriculture
delegated to the Extension Service responsibilities
for organizational and educational assistance in im-
plementing the ARA Act, close interagency co-
operation was assured.
Within eight weeks after the program got under-
way in midsummer of 1961, local groups, firms,
and individuals were submitting plans and projects
to promote economic growth and development in
rural counties. All activities of the ARA program
are based on the needs and desires of local people.
For this reason, resource development committees
were immediately organized. These committees set
about to survey resources, analyze problems, and
explore opportunities for development.
The team formed by the Florida Development
Commission and the Agricultural Extension Service
was staunchly supported by the federal and state
agencies. The Extension Service and the Develop-
ment Commission led in helping seven northwest
Florida counties form the Northwest Florida De-
velopment Association. Representatives from all the
member counties worked together to formulate an
overall economic development program for the area.
This program was approved by the Department of
Agruculture and the Area Redevelopment Admin-
istration. It is serving as a general guide for de-
velopmental projects within the area. All projects
in the area must be in accord with this overall
program to receive assistance from ARA.
Key to Rural Florida Development
One day after the northwest Florida counties
organized, a similar meeting was held by repre-
sentatives from eight counties in the Suwannee
River area. All these counties except Jefferson
border the Suwannee River. The people felt that
many problems in the area could be solved only
through intercounty cooperation. As a result, they
formed the Suwannee River Area Development
Council and prepared an overall economic de-
velopment program for this area.
These two areas have already submitted more
than a dozen projects involving investments of
more than three million dollars. ARA funds have
already been advanced for part of the proposed
development and additional loan requests are being
processed. Additional projects are underway in-
volving the use of capital from several sources.
In addition to ARA assistance, local expansion is
being financed by Small Business Administration,
Farmers Home Administration, the newly formed
Florida Industrial Credit Corporation, and private
All seven counties in the northwest Florida area
are now eligible for ARA assistance. The chairman
of the area association, Arthur G. Preacher
of Bristol, is leading the group in preparing more
comprehensive plans for future development.
Although only three counties in the Suwannee
River Area can receive assistance from ARA, local
committees in the other counties are aggressively
moving forward on their own. They are making
more efficient use of the services available from
Ed Butler, chairman of the Suwannee River
Council, says, "We are not depending on any one
group to supply our needs in this area. Each agency
has tools which we can use to complement our
own efforts. The most important result of this
movement is the aroused interest of local people
and the realization that we ourselves can find the
solutions to most of our problems."
The Florida State Rural Areas Development
Committee is composed of 31 agencies, both public
and private. These groups are pledged to give
maximum support to the developmental efforts of
local, county, and area groups. The State Commit-
tee stands ready to help any county desiring
Education With a Heart -
HELP FOR THE HELPLESS
AT "SHELTERED WORKSHOP"
The county agent's office of Palm Beach County
is proud of its part in making possible The Shel-
tered Workshop, a school for mentally retarded
Mrs. Robert Benedict called the county agent's
office to say she needed help in a new project she
was undertaking. Since there was no school in
Palm Beach County for mentally retarded children,
she was attempting to get a school of this kind
started. She had nothing to start with except the
The Lions Club of Lantana offered the use of
their building. Many people offered their help as
teachers and counsellors.
Mrs. Benedict had explored many crafts suitable
for developing the abilities of her students. Among
these, a promising activity was the propagation
and cultivation of nursery plants.
Nurserymen did not resent this small competi-
tion. They offered soil. Garden supply dealers
offered fertilizer, and friends offered cans and
It was at this point that the Extension Service
was called upon. Mrs. Benedict quickly learned
ways of improving her production methods, choos-
ing better plant material, and improving the
quality of the finished product.
Also at this time, through her untiring efforts,
she acquired a large site south of the Palm Beach
Junior College and the necessary donations to
build a large school with classrooms and work-
shops. A large saran shade house was constructed,
plus a mist propagating system, and nursery area.
A small sales building was added, making this
comparable to the best retail nursery in the county.
Many of the boys working in the nursery have also
attended the Agricultural Center Garden Course
and are now able to work part time in many nurser-
ies in the county.
Solving one problem may bring on another, but
Suwannee County farmers don't mind so long as
it means progress.
When record amounts of dolomite were used
to solve problems of soil fertility in the county,
as recommended by the county agent, the resulting
high corn yields created problems of storage. A
partial answer was construction of a storage plant
made possible bv a loan from the Small Business
Administration. : ;. plant with a 1,000 bushel
hour drver, .1 bushel hour cleaner, and
i. 'r 11- '1 bushels in storage has
1r;.illy solved the problem of 3what to do -i th
the extra corn immediately .,.. l. arrest
iBut Suwonnee County farmers are now look n ing
for extra ( .. ,., beyond the sale of grain. :: ,.
arc underway for expanded i' -. .. and
contractual arrangements whereby 300 farmers will
be given additional opportunities to male more
Train's eye view of the new corn drying and storage plant in
money by converting the corn to beef.
S' latest operation promises millions oi 'f
;..ii- revenue to Suwannee ..._. '. during
the next few years. Assistance in financing this
two million dollar r -'i- is being sought froi
the new Area Redevelopfment administration .
RURAL DEVELOPMENT RESULTS
Rural Development, the forerunner of the present
Rural Areas Development Program, has paid off
handsomely in Suwanee County, as well as in other
Florida counties. Suwannee was one of the original
pilot counties in this program, and has been quite
successful. County and state Extension workers
have been active in this program from the begin-
The following stories illustrate some of the
Lime and dolomite plant at Dowling Park in Suwannee County, an
Better Farming Means More Non-Farm Employment
The dolomite program, spearheaded by the
Suwannee County Rural Development Committee,
has mushroomed to provide a strong market for area
lime producers. In Suwannee County alone, the
use of dolomite increased from an annual average
of 1,200 tons in 1957-58 to nearly 15,000 tons in
the fiscal year 1960-61.
One direct result was the establishment of a
dolomite and lime company plant at Dowling
Park. Local owners of this valuable resource found
a market for their mineral, and local workers found
new jobs in the plant. This agriculture-related
industry is helping boost the economy of the area.
Farmers Also Must Survive
Rural areas development committees in Florida
are leading in civil defense programs. In some
cases, special committees have been formed to
provide information on this important subject.
In one county, the family living sub-committee
of the RAD group selected civil defense as the
major goal for 1961. Special programs were held
and hundreds of bulletins and circulars distributed
at community meetings, at the county fair, and from
the county Extension agent's office.
A Better Deal For Developed Communities
Community development clubs are finding many
ways to make the "more abundant life" a -reality.
These small groups, dedicated to home and
community, do not limit their efforts to activities
related to fuller employment and higher incomes.
They make frontal attacks on problems related
to health, education, recreation, or any other mat-
ters of common interest.
A popular project in many communities has been
building community centers, where both young
and old can meet to work and play and enjoy good
fellowship. In most cases these centers are paid
for and erected by the people within the com-
One of the most popular features of community
clubs is the usual monthly educational meeting.
Easier Days For Older Folk
Older members of farm families no longer have
to live as best they can until their "dying day".
They no longer have to depend upon liquidation
of their homestead or charity from their children.
Social security benefits, along with small earnings,
are helping older people achieve independence.
Extension's efforts in social security education
have helped thousands of Florida farm families
earn adequate retirement income and avoid the
specter of the poor house.
This is only one of Extension's adult education
programs. These provide farm families with varied,
useful information beyond that relating directly to
County Agent Paul Crews (left) of Suwannee County helps Mr. and
Mrs. Groover C. Lee of O'Brien check social security provisions.
Agency Cooperation Means
BETTER RURAL HOMES
Cooperation between the Farmers Home Admin-
istration and the Agricultural Extension Service
is paying off in better homes in Florida's rural '.:
Better rural housing is needed in many parts of
the state, and farm people can borrow money to
build through the FH\.
County personnel of the FHA are required to
make periodic inspections of dwellings being con-
structed with money borrowed through this agency. A new home is started. Better rural housing is needed in many
But many of these people had no special back- areas.
ground or knowledge of good construction practices; ,
they did not feel competent to act in this capacity. .
The FHA asked Extension to help. A series of four .
area training meetings was held. The Extension A
agricultural engineer helped train FH A county n '
people in how to interpret blueprints, what to look (
for when inspecting on the job, and how to rec-
In each training situation, those at the meeting
inspected houses under various stages of construe
Remodeling a country home. The Farmers' Home Administration -
supports such improvements.
S" The house above after the family has moved in. Extension offers
.. "free house plans for building rural homes.
tion. Afterwards they held a critique and each
-person compared his inspection report with that of
the agricultural engineer. The pros and cons of
i each point were discussed.
'4 Besides this training, Extension and FHA are
I. .cooperating in another area. Many of the house
l .plans used in the construction of houses under FHA
loan are obtained through the Florida Agricultural
Extension Plan Service. This is operated by the
" RDENI G N FLORIDA"
"A autiful i s ike the vow for better
r fo rse be flowers also thrive on love
d re .
like babies grow best on a liquid diet.
Become a aquatic gardener? . ."
T fig which was first grown in the Garden
'd 0o e for its fruit rather than
n li, is, are spicing the subject of
ies 'of weekly columns released
y the itorial Department.
ike to be entertained while they are
being informed. The gardening column, featuring
educational information with a light twist, has set
a fast pace in becoming popular with Florida
This double-journalism approach has been on
trial by the Editorial Department for a year.
People and editors seem to like it.
Readers think it dull to be reminded to use
fertilizer-fortified water in transplanting. They
would rather read: "Plants like infants do
best when started on a liquid diet." And readers
usually smile and check the spelling when they
see: "If you don't have ants in your pantry, you
may have them elsewhere including your
It is commonplace to say that it is a hard job
to select the right ground cover. Most readers liked
this approach: "Covering a bald spot of ground
around the home is as perplexing as selecting the
right toupee it's hard to make either look
When to plant is always a lively topic. One
space-age introduction reveals that many gardeners
"know" that planting on a growing moon insures
fast vegetable production. But, a few skeptics say
that until we get a moon shot off the Cape, it's best
to plant seed in the earth.
Comparing plants with people was an approach
that attracted attention.
Instead of saying that it is time to trim hedges,
one article hinted that plants, like people, looked
better with an occasional hair cut. Another column
on changing the color of hydrangeas read:
"Hydrangeas are as fickle as girls who tint their
hair to match the color of their boy friend's car."
More Extension Contacts
As a teacher, Extension's goal is to inform all
the people. And many people can use Extension
For this reason Home Demonstration agents are
always looking for ways to reach more people -
young homemakers, young families, senior citizens,
newcomers, men, older youth, and many others.
Throughout Florida, Extension workers plan
special programs, activities, and events to let more
people know about Extension's teaching programs.
For example Christmas open houses were held
last year in many counties. Exhibits were prepared
by volunteer leaders showing different phases of
Home Economics Extension as a part of these
events. Home Demonstration agents talked to non-
club members and visitors, telling them about the
county Home Demonstration program. Those at-
tending were invited to fill out a questionnaire
showing their interest in home economics areas. Ap-
proximately 1,300 men and women attended open
house in one county. Over 250 women filled out
As a. follow-up of these requests, agents mailed
newsletters of homemaking information to those
requesting assistance. One county newspaper print-
ed a short article telling its readers where such in-
formation could be secured. Many requests to be
placed on mailing lists followed.
Extension reaches more people also through use
of mass media television, radio, and news-
papers and through cooperation with other
agencies and groups. To help their broad clientele
with basic homemaking problems, Home Demon-
stration agents supplement organized Home Dem-
onstration Clubs and other Extension groups with
special-interest meetings, workshops, and individual
work with families.
The first sentence of a column on base plantings
caught the reader's eye with: "Foundation plantings
to the gardener are like some garments they
smooth out features and add a 'dressy' look."
The light approach in presenting timely and
factual gardening information is being used by
some 30 newspapers each week. An additional
40 papers demand to have the column available
each week as a prized filler in case material is
needed. The column is written by the Extension
"EXTRA! EXTRA! Read all about it!"
All about Home Demonstration and 4-H clubs,
News like this is really getting around through
the efforts of Home Demonstration and 4-H Club
Trained at state and county workshops, these
reporters write weekly columns, put together
county newsletters, cover meetings, interview visit-
ing celebrities, give radio talks, present television
shows, set up exhibits, and speak before civic
CHIT-CHAT, ORBIT, SPOTLIGHT, SOUND
OFF, ROUND-UP, DA-CO NEWS are some of
the titles for the county newsletters that are circul-
ated to members, county officials, and friends of
Home Demonstration and 4-H.
In a "Ways with Words" workshop at this year's
State Home Demonstration Council \Il.,ting and
Short Course, 200 reporters learned how to
present news of Home Demonstration to the public.
In a "4-H Is News" class at the State Girls' 4-H
Club Short Course, a like number of girls learned
the ABC's of writing for newspapers, radio, and
These reporters are putting their skills to work
4-H AND H.D. STYLE
all over the state from Pensacola to Homestead.
Home Demonstration agents, too, are success-
fully stretching their mileage with columns slanted
toward better living through Home Demonstration.
In several counties, agents report that these columns
have increased their club membership. Their
telephones ring constantly for more information
on ideas they have introduced in a column.
Prof. Hugh Cunningham, associate professor of journalism and
communications, University of Florida, explains the keys of better
reporting to Home Demonstration reporters.
Extension Forestry Teaching:
ACTING AS THE MIDDLEMAN
Although Extension foresters as teachers often
prepare written, oral, and visual information to
present to the public, one of their activities in
this area is simply that of middleman.
Each year, the Extension foresters and agents
hand out hundreds of bulletins published by both
public and private forestry organizations, as well
as Extension forstery publications. Such folks as
scoutmasters and school teachers pass on this ma-
terial to their groups.
An excellent example of this united effort at
forestry education is the "Busy Acres" bulletin,
one of the best publications on Florida forestry
ever printed. The publisher in this case is the
American Forest Products Industries Committee -
sponsor of the Tree Farm Program.
Hundreds of copies of this publication have been
distributed by Extension to interested landowners,
4-H members, and others. In such programs, all
agencies involved can take out some credit for its
If Extension distributed only what it prints,
it would be lacking in a great many areas of
forestry. By using all materials available from both
public and private forestry, Extension foresters
have much good information for free distribution.
The wealth of sound advice and colorful, well-
presented forestry information on why and how
to grow trees is truly astounding.
Wonderful World of Books
Home Demonstration libraries are coming of age.
For the past 12 years in cooperation with the
Florida State Library Home Demonstration
Clubs from the Panhandle to the Gold Coast have
beat the drums for libraries. These libraries have
been started in club houses, crossroads country
stores, member's homes even in the trunks of
Home Demonstration agents' cars.
Today many of these libraries have blossomed
into community, county, and regional libraries.
For example, look behind the scenes of the phe-
nomenal growth of the Suwannee Valley Regional
Library, embracing eight counties Columbia,
Suwannee, Taylor, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Madison,
Eleven years ago the Suwannee County Home
Demonstration Council asked for a program on
rural libraries. The Extension home economics
editor working with the extension librarian
from the State Library presented a program and
secured books for six neighborhood libraries. Each
year new libraries were added.
The library idea grew. The county Home Demon-
stration council asked the county commissioners to
promote a county library. Soon the county voted to
raise its tax millage to support the library. Other
counties asked to come into the program, so the
Suwannee Valley Regional Library was born, prov-
ing that from tiny acorns mighty oaks grow.
Home Demonstration councils have sponsored
similar movements in Clay County, which opened
National 4-H Club Week in 1961 received a
big assist from a Florida 4-H'er. William J. Platt,
III, of Alachua County, Florida, was chosen as
one of four Club members to present to the presi-
dent of the United States the annual "4-H Report
to the Nation".
As spokesman for the group in presenting this
report, he represented over two million other 4-H'ers
from throughout the 50 states.
Continued interest in basic 4-H projects along
with leadership activities propelled Bill to a na-
tional winner's spot in the 1960 achievement pro-
gram. From this came the climaxing crown to his
illustrious 4-H career . the opportunity of speak-
ing for 2,200,000 4-H'ers.
Editorial workers Miss Alma Warren (left) and Mrs. Mary Williams
check children's books at a Home Demonstration sponsored library.
its county library this year; and Alachua County
which now has taken in Bradford County, creating
another regional library.
Nassau and Baker counties are laying the
groundwork for a regional library
A state council workshop this year on "The
Wonderful World of Books" sparked great interest
over the state in books and reading. Several coun-
ties are sponsoring Great Books discussions and
regular book reviews.
Born 12 years ago, the Home Demonstration
library idea is growing up rapidly.
OF CEDAR BLIGHT
"Mr. Christmas Tree Grower, watch out for
cedar blight on your trees," say Extension foresters.
Cedar blight is a serious menace to both red
cedar and Arizona cypress Christmas tree plantings.
Either blight, Phomopsis or Exosporium, can cause
a plantation to be a complete failure.
During the past year, the forester visited a num-
ber of Christmas tree growers to check the progress
of their plantations, and to give them advice on
prunings, spraying for blight, or other trouble.
Stressing the unfavorable aspects of a project
is an important Extension duty, though not always
a pleasant one.
In a Fallout Shelter
Usually, Al Watkins comes home from work
and sits down to a dinner planned and prepared
by his wife.
But for two weeks last year, Al was eating out -
out of cans, that is during a trial stay in a fallout
The Santa Rosa County agricultural agent and
Home Demonstration agent assembled all food,
water, and survival items for the trial.
Al said he felt a little lost when it came time to
prepare his first meal in the shelter. But during
the two weeks, he decided the Extension workers
had done a good job of planning. His log shows
the repeated entry, "everything ok".
The Santa Rosa County Extension agents have
assisted with local Civil Defense programs for
several years. They helped present the first Civil
Defense classes in the county, in cooperation with
Civil Defense officials and other interested groups.
County USDA workers were organized into a
Civil Defense group in August 1961. In Florida,
as in the whole country, Extension workers have
been given the specific task of leading Civil
Defense education in rural areas. So the county
staff in Santa Rosa accepted this duty.
One of their first promotional plans included
an exhibit of non-perishable, ready-to-eat foods -
enough for a family of four for a two-week
period. The foods were arranged according to the
basic four food groups, to show required amounts
of milk, meats, fruits and vegetables, and cereals.
The agents also prepared a leaflet, explaining
individual daily requirements, and providing a
workspace for families to figure their specific needs.
Radio programs and newspaper articles helped
spread the word.
At this point, a local radio station decided to
sponsor a Civil Defense promotional activity.
Announcer Al Watkins was selected to spend two
weeks in a fallout shelter. He would broadcast
from the shelter by remote control equipment,
giving Civil Defense information along with
regularly scheduled programs for about six hours
The county agent and home agent agreed to
secure recommended supplies for the shelter.
Many of the items were donated by local merchants
to support the project.
Al kept a daily log as requested by the Extension
agents. This was to show his reactions and reflect
his decisions while going through the survival test.
The experience gained in this demonstration is
helping answer many of the questions that arise
in Civil Defense planning. The Extension workers
need to answer questions such as: How does the
recommended food guide compare with the actual
eating habits of an individual? What are the best
methods to use in waste disposal? Will the stay for
a two-week period in a fallout shelter have any
bad effects on an individual? What improvements
can be made in recommendations?
Al made suggestions for improved ventilation,
lighting, and waste disposal. Of the food supply,
he liked canned fruits and juices and canned
meats best. He had facilities to heat foods, but
preferred to eat most of them from the can. He
found he had to budget his 10-gallon water supply,
but fruit juices kept him from getting thirsty.
The announcer was tired of being shut in and a
little nervous when first coming out of the shelter.
He had difficulty for several hours adjusting his
eves to focus to distance. And he had lost two
pounds in weight. But he said it was a rewarding
Both Al and the Extension agents were pleased
with interest in the project, and believe the demon-
stration accomplished something worthwhile.
Negro Extension Operations
';)/,''. ",'", Ii4-,; I' ltl/1i//l/flM#^I/##' ,lWlff /d* iW Nl
EXTENSION HELPS WITH
Since we are confronted with the possibility of
another war, many people are concerned about
fallout shelters. This concern is shared by people
in Madison County.
In June 1961, a group of men and women visited
the office of the Negro Home Demonstration agent
to secure information about the fallout shelters.
She had just completed a six-week course in Civil
Defense and was prepared to give them informa-
Eight groups were organized with both men and
women in each group to work on the problem.
From these groups, others are being formed in
various communities which are concerned about
fallout shelters. Some of the people in the city have
located different shelters in the community to use
in case of an attack.
The farmers are busy ceiling their homes and
buildings and building better barns to protect their
animals, since they have learned that ordinary
shelters give some protection to people and
A SUCCESSFUL 4-H CLUB MEMBER
This is the story of a successful 4-H Club
member. It is the record of growth and achieve-
ment of Odessa Snow of Marion County.
Odessa was a member of Belleview Santos High
School 4-H Club for five years. She has carried
projects in food preparation, health, garden, cloth-
ing, dress revue, and poultry.
For the past two years, she has devoted most of
her spare time to sewing. This activity grew out of
a need. With five younger sisters and brothers in
the family there was not too much money to spend
For this reason, Odessa became interested in
sewing. It was quite a task for her because she was
impatient. When she made a mistake, she did not
Home Grown Products
Mrs. Ruby Debose, of the Jonesville Community
of Alachua County, has been quite successful with
the marketing of her home-grown products for
more than 10 years. She plants cucumbers, canta-
loupes, and watermelons and keeps a flock of 35
The cucumbers and cantaloupes are sold at the
local Farmers' Market. She gets top prices for her
products, because she usually plants early, uses
proven Extension methods and works closely with
the local Extension agents and other staff members.
Mrs. Debose is receptive to new practices, methods,
and trends in farm management and in the home,
for greater efficiency and higher productivity.
Mrs. Debose sells her eggs from door to door.
These sales supplement the family income. She
uses the barnyard compost and oak leaves on her
garden and feeds her hens scraps from the kitchen.
From the sale of her products, she has been able
to build an addition to her three-room house,
having it treated against termites as it was con-
want to correct it. Her hardest lesson was to learn
how to use a pattern. She finally accomplished
Odessa needed a new dress for the senior class
social which was held at the school in May. Being
rushed with other activities, she cut the dress one
night at home without reading the guide sheet.
When she tried to put the dress together, she
found that she had cut the dress with two front
skirts and no back, because the pattern contained
two different skirt patterns.
Through trials she finally was able to cut a back
skirt by using a different pattern. She said one
should never wait until the last minute to make a
garment. Through such trials, Odessa has learned
to sew well.
MORE SEWING SKILL
MEANS BETTER CLOTHES
Many Negro homemakers are dressing better
than ever before as a result of Home Demonstration
help in teaching them to sew better.
In this area, Home Demonstration has several
goals. Some of these are: to improve clothing
construction skills; to develop new skills in clothing
construction; to develop skills in the selection of
fabrics; to develop an interest in wardrobe
planning; to develop good taste in dress; and to
make more of the family clothing.
The work is carried on in regular club meetings,
special interest meetings, and through method
demonstrations, letters, exhibits, workshops, home
visits, and office visits. Visits are often made to
local store fabric counters to assist homemakers
with the identification of fabrics and their selection.
An example of the success of the program comes
from Putnam County, where many homemakers
are sewing more than they did in the past. They
have also learned more about identifying and
selecting fabrics, as well as caring for them.
As a result of this program, a new Home Demon-
stration Club was organized. Three other previously
organized clubs had more members participating
in sewing projects. Some learned to use the
machine for the first time and made garments.
Many improved their sewing skills and knowledge
of garment finishes.
These homemakers made 2,053 articles of cloth-
ing and household textiles during the year. This
included garments, bedspreads, draperies, curtains,
aprons, sheets, pillow cases, comforts, scarves, dish
towels, table cloths, and furniture covers.
A typical example of the progress in the county
can be seen among homemakers of the Oak Grove
Home Demonstration Club. This club has 19 new
members. They were interested in learning to
use commercial patterns, improving sewing skills,
and making buttonholes. Some were sewing for the
This is a community of low family incomes.
Homemakers are anxious to learn to sew well in
order to make school clothes for the children. The
Negro home agent gave demonstrations on the use
and care of the sewing machine, how to select
patterns and fabrics, and how to use a commercial
INCREASES FAMILY INCOME
Seth Peterson, a Negro farmer in Hamilton
County, has proved to himself that it pays to follow
Extension Service recommendations.
Six years ago, Peterson did not believe in using
fertilizer on his corn. He said, "It wouldn't pay."
Hoping to change the farmer's mind, the Negro
county agent suggested a demonstration on the
farm. Peterson was willing, and he agreed to do
The county agent secured fertilizer and seed to
plant an acre of corn. Peterson followed instruc-
tions on how to plant, fertilize, and cultivate it.
This one acre produced 52 bushels of corn on the
same type of soil which had been producing from
15 to 20 bushels without fertilizer.
The demonstration did not fully convince Peter-
son that it would pay him to go all the way on
the use of fertilizer. He did agree to try a little
fertilizer on his next crop.
The county agent did not push Peterson to make
changes any faster than he wanted to. Each year,
the farmer tried using more and more fertilizer
on his corn, and each time he was satisfied that
the additional fertilizer was well worth its cost.
Last year, Peterson decided to follow Extension
recommendations down the line. He used an
Extension-recommended hybrid seed corn and fol-
lowed recommended planting and cultivating prac-
Peterson planted his corn 20 inches apart in
52-inch rows. He used 250 pounds of 4-12-12
fertilizer at planting and side-dressed with 150
pounds of amonium nitrate.
According to sales records, he averaged 35 bu-
shels per acre. His previous average had been
Peterson states that he is well pleased with the
results he has achieved. He also says he is thor-
oughly convinced that it pays to use fertilizer.
Some of the club members have already made
complete garments. They meet twice monthly. The
agent assists with one meeting, and the local leader
and clothing chairman hold the second meeting.
The club president, Mrs. Fannie Monroe,
speaks for her club members in saying, "We should
have been organized five years ago."
EXTENSION'S STATISTICAL REPORT
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1960-61
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1961-62
5i rl-, T.ver Amended
Bureau of Indian Affairs
State Trust Funds:
Bureau of Indian Affairs
State Trust Funds:
41 1'* ] 111
1,-I "676.00:' 1 -I '. ll r
1 -'. I' III 1 11 I Il I I' I i II.I
930,676.00 i ,.".' on
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
News articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Adult result demonstrations conducted
104.610 Training meetings held for local leaders:
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension
agents with organization, planning and conducting of Extension
work in counties:
Older club boys
Older club girls
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs
Number of 4-H members enrolled in projects:
Boys 16,990, Girls -25,658, Total
- -h 1iii
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PEOPLE: 1961
BOARD OF CONTROL
Baya M. Harrison, Jr., Chairman
Frank M. Buchanan
John C. Pace
Ralph L. Miller
S. Kendrick Guernsey
Charles R. Forman
Gert H. W. Schmidt
Dr. I. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director
Williard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant Director
AGRICULTURAL WORK GAINESVILLE
Frank S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Head of Editorial
William G. Mitchell, M.A., Associate Agricultural Editor
Roberts C. Smith, B.A., Assistant Agricultural Editor
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Agr., State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Goodwin, M.Agr., Associate State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Alien, M.A., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Thomas W. Sparks. M.Agr., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist and Headi
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Agr., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Headl
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, M.Agr., Assistant Citriculturist
Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist and Head1
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and Headl
James L. Taylor, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Allen W. Wilson, M.S., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Norman R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Headi
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Agr., Assistant Poultryman
Henry G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Headt
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Farm and Home Development Specialist
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist, Farm Management
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Shelby L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, B.S., Assistant Farm Forester
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Associate Marketing Specialist in
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Howard C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Marketing Specialist
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Managert
Clyde R. Madsen, B.S., Rodent Control Specialist2
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent
in Trainee Work
ICooperative, Other Divisions, U. of F.
21n cooperation with U.S.
Ann Elizabeth Thompson, M.Ed., Assistant to State Home Demon-
Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration Agent
Susan C. Camp, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Catherine A. Knarr, M.S., Home Management and Family
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Emily E. King, Ph.D., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Betty S. Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Alma Warren, M.A. in L.S., Assistant Editor and Visual Aids
Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life Specialist
NEGRO WORK, TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, M.S., Negro District Home Demonstration Agent
Virgil L. Elkins, M.Agr., Negro District Agent
Dade (Asst. Mktg. Agt.)
A. T. Andrews
A. Luther Harrell
Horace M. Carr
G. T. Huggins
James T. Oxford
H. W. Cunningham
Sylvester A. Rose
Robert S. Pryor
Frank J. Jasa
Lewis E. Watson
Harvey T. Paulk
Charles A. Saunders
N. H. McQueen
Royce C. Williams
Emmett D. McCall
George M. Owens
Donald W. Lander
Joseph H. Whitesell
Neal M. Dukes
Donald F. Jordan
John D. Campbell
Aaron A. Hutchison
Nolan L. Durre
Joseph D. Dalton
Louis J. Daigle
Roy J. Champagne
Ralph E. Huffaker
William L. Hatcher
Ben H. Floyd
Charles E. Rowan
James N. Watson
Thomas F. Braddock, Jr.
James F. Cummings
E. Norbert Stephens
James H. Walker
Calvin A. Winter
J. Lowell Loadholtz
Howard Taylor, Jr.
William C. Zorn
John C. Russell
Bernard H. Clark
Green Cove Springs
Green Cove Springs
Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks
Mrs. Emma S. Benton
Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Mrs. Sue B. Young
Mrs. Florence T. Eaton
Mrs. Glenda R. Newsom
Miss Louise Taylor
Mrs. Mary L. Morgan
Mrs. Annie F. Grab
Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Mrs. Margaret Nelson
Miss Sandra L. Reese
Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman
Miss Olga M. Kent
Mrs. Erma L. Butcher
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette
Mrs. Marjory B. McDonald
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey
Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Miss Mary L. Gallagher
Mrs. Dorcas L. Payne
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson
Miss Joy Coffey
Miss Paula Jo Shoemake
Miss Carolyn Tew
Mrs. Marjory Gregory
Miss Shirley A. Trawick
Glades (Indian Work)
Palm Beach (Assoc.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
James R. Yelvington
B. O. Bass
Cubie R. Laird
Rance A. Andrews
Jack C. Hayman
Frank L. Polhill
Charles R. Smith
Bert J. Harris, Jr.
Jay D. Martsolf, Jr.
Paul E. Glasscock
Clarence F. O'Quinn
Robert M. Davis
Robert D. Downs
Wayne T. Wade
M. C. Jorgensen
C. U. Storey
Forrest N. McCullars
Woodrow W. Glenn
James C. McCall
Russell R. Rudd
N. Ray Huddleston
Albert H. Odom
Edward J. Cowen
Robert E. Norris
William M. Nixon
Glenn L. Loveless, Jr.
Johnnie F. Barco
J. Lloyd Rhoden
Ernest R. Wheaton
Bobby R. Durden
Leonard C. Cobb
James B. Estes
J. Edsel Thomaston
O. R. Hamrick, Jr.
Harvey T. Paulk
W. Harper Kendrick
Earl M. Kelly
Robert G. Curtis
T. E. Whitmore
Edsel W. Rowan
Alto A. Straughn
Everette H. Fischer
L. M. Johnson
Gordon B. Ellis
Jack D. Patten
Clifford R. Boyles
Henry F. Swanson
Albert F. Cribbett
R. Bruce Christmas
Bruce A. Barmby
James B. Smith
M. U. Mounts
John H. Causey
Charles S. Tucker
Rayburn K. Price
Raleigh S. Griffis
James F. Higgins
Luther L. Rozar
Harry J. Brinkley
Theodore Gallo, III
G. M. Whitton, Jr
W. Paul Hayman
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
Mrs. May O. Fulton
Mrs. Wylma B. White
Miss Annie Sue Elmore
Mrs. Dot V. Rooks
Miss Betty J. Duckett
Miss Lora Kiser
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett
Miss Mary E. Carter
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Miss Fern S. Nix
Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Mrs. Marian V. Valentine
Miss Mary E. Davis
Miss Mary J. Hodges
Mrs. Dorothy J'. Classon
Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley
Mrs. Earlece Greenawalt
Mrs. Rebeca S. Cook
Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer
Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Miss Elva L. Sears
Elsie M. Garrett
Elisabeth B. Furr
M. Rose Howard
Martha C. Burdine
Evelyn I. Sabbarese
Ann P. Jeter
Mrs. Mary A.
Miss Janet G.
Miss Marilyn Dietrich
Miss Mary L. Todd
Mrs. Laura B. Burgard
Miss Miriam I. LoPinto
Mary R. Stearns
Joanne C. Herring
Jo Ann Tilley
Cora H. Meares
Ruth M. Elkins
St. Johns (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
John W. Hunt
James D. Pierce
H. E. Maltby
Ralph T. Clay, Jr.
P. R. McMullen
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr.
Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr.
S. C. Kierce
Hilton T. Meadows
Kenneth A. Clark
Hal C. Hopson
Edwin S. Pastorious
Cecil A. Tucker, II
Ernest C. Lundberg
Donald A. George
Rollin A. McNutt, Jr.
J. Paul Crews
W. Howard Smith
Merle E. Palmer
Henry P. Davis
William C. Smith, Jr.
William J. Cowen
T. R. Townsend
James N. Luttrell
Lawrence D. Taylor
H. O. Harrison
Johnnie E. Davis
Lenzy M. Scott
Mrs. Rita G. Hilton
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron
Mrs. Mary Sue Gann
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson
Miss Nettie R. Brown
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Mrs. Barbara D. Payne
Miss V. Anne Hurd
Mrs. Catherine H. Love
Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Miss Bernice G. Shuler
Mrs. Ethel P. Thompson
Mrs. Edna S. Eby
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark
NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
English M. Greene
Russell H. Stephens
Isaac Chandler, Jr.
William L. Robinson, Jr.
Robert Bryant, Jr.
James C. Miller
Eugene P. Smith
Richard L. Bradley
Miss Leontine Williams
Mrs. Virginia Gardner
Miss Victoria Simpson
Mrs. Ethel M. Powell
Mrs. Ursula Williams
Miss Sudella J. Ford
Mrs. Pearl G. Long
Mrs. Irie Mae Clark
Miss Deloris M. Jones
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas
Mrs. Leala R. Collins
Miss Ida T. Pemberton
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