Front Cover
 Director's letter: To the people...
 Table of Contents
 Extension program areas
 Agricultural production
 Marketing farm products
 Conservation and use of natural...
 Farm and home management
 Family living
 Youth development
 Leadership development
 Community development and public...
 Extension in action
 Statistical and personnel
 Back Cover

Title: Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076875/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: Your Florida Agricultural Extension Service annual report
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 19591969
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1959; ceased with 1969.
General Note: Description based on first issue; title from cover.
General Note: Final issue consulted.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076875
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05162738
lccn - 2007229448
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Annual report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Director's letter: To the people of Florida
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Extension program areas
        Page 3
    Agricultural production
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Marketing farm products
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Conservation and use of natural resources
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Farm and home management
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Family living
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Youth development
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Leadership development
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Community development and public affairs
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Extension in action
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Statistical and personnel
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

3-.- S B
__ q..


*OS 60


0 0 0 0 0 00 0 *0 0 0 a 00* 0

Cooperation on three levels-County, State
and Federal-makes possible Agricultural Exten-
sion's educational activities. The result of this co-
operation is accurate agricultural and home mak-
ing information-readily available to all the peo-
S* * ple of Florida.


Director's Letter:

To The People of Florida

This is your report on some of the 1959 activi-
ties carried out by your Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service. You will find in the pages that
follow a brief description of a few of the pro-
grams carried out last year. You played a part
in making this work possible.
County agricultural agents and home demon-
stration agents in the counties are the local rep-
resentatives of the Extension Service. With the
help of the people, they carry out the many Ex-
tension activities. Boards of County Commission-
ers in each county provided a large share of the
financial support for this work. The agents were
assisted by a state staff of highly trained special-
The agents and specialists are staff members
of the University of Florida and receive part of
their salaries from the state. The federal gov-
ernment also helps to support this work through
grants to the University. The University has a
Memorandum of Understanding with the Secre-
tary of Agriculture on how the work will be
organized and carried out. Agricultural Exten-
sion work is thus a joint undertaking of the

three levels of government-federal, state and
county, as indicated on the page opposite this
If you are interested in facts and figures
showing Agricultural Extension Service accom-
plishments, you will find these listed in a sec-
tion near the back of the report. Facts such as
the number of 4-H members and how many clubs
there are in Florida can be found there.
Stories on Extension Service work are listed
under eight major headings-Production, Market-
ing, Resources, Management, Leadership, Youth,
Family and Community. However, you will find
that all activities are interrelated, and each com-
plements the others.
As you read this report, I know you will
share some of the pride that we in Extension
have in these accomplishments and the part they
played in Florida's growth and development. If
you would like additional information, just call
one of your local Extension agents. They share
with you an intense desire to make Florida an
even better and more prosperous state in which
to live and work.




County and Home Demonstration Agents now
display signs like this at their offices. This sign
symbolizes the three-way cooperative Extension
program between the county, the University of
Florida, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Dr. J. Wayne Reitz, University of Florida presi-
dent (left), and Dr. M. O. Watkins, Agricultural

Extension Service director, inspect one of the new
signs in this picture.
Agents, as off-campus professors, conduct edu-
cational programs with 43,000 4-H boys and girls
and with thousands of men and women in Florida.
They are aided by University specialists in agri-
culture and home making.



1. Agricultural Production

New Crops for Vegetable Growers
New Varieties Boost Watermelon Yields
Reviving Strawberry Production in North
F lorid a .. . . ..... .... .....



. .... 5

C itru s: . ...... .. ... ................ .. 6... ... . ... ... ... .... 6
Citrus Industry "Togetherness" ... ... ................. 6
Citrus Producers Call "SOS" .... ..6............... 6
"S h ow M e" . ........... ................. ....................... 6
Mr. Dealer, "How Does Your Sprayer Spray?" .. 7
Heavy Rains Damage Citrus ........... ........ 7

Livestock and Poultry: ............................ ... 8
Improvement on Dixie Farm-Dairying ............ 8
Producing More and Better Beef Calves ............ 9
Florida Poultrymen Now Use Florida Chicks ....10
Random Testing Pays Off ...................................... 10
Whistling Pines-A Modern Poultry Farm ..........11
Better Chicks and Better Management Mean
M ore E ggs ............................ .................................... 11
Producing Meat-Type Hogs .......................... ..... 12
Needed: More Meat-Type Hogs ...........................13
Concrete on the Farm ........................................ 13

F ield C rops: ............ ................................... .. .....14
B better Feed Crops .................. ............ ...... ..........14
Quality in Flue Cured Tobacco ........................ 15
Better Fertility for Better Crops ......................... 15

Other Agricultural Production Areas: ....................16
Planting Trees for Tupelo Honey Making ............16
Chemical Residue Problems .............................17
Insect Eradication .............................. .......... 17
A New Extension Facility: The Soil Testing
L ab ...................... ................. ................. ........ .. 18
Pest Problems Prompt Questions ............................18
A Promising New Weed Killer .............................18
Growing Better Turf ....................... .......... ....... 18

2. Marketing Farm Products _--_ --- _19

"Doing Something" about Marketing ....................19
Feeder Calf Sales ............................................. ..... 19
More Effective Merchandising of Vegetables ....20
Quality Dairy Products ..............................................21
Marketing Florida Vegetables .............................22
Bees are Busy in Florida .................................... 23

3. Conservation and Use of Natural Resources _... 24
Florida Landowners Look at Hardwoods ..........24
Better Land Management Makes Sense ..........24
M3re Public Interest: Wildlife Management ...... 25
Woman's Role in Conservation ..... ...................25
Laying a Good Foundation: Site Preparation
for Pine Seedings ... ...... .......... ...... ...... 26

4. Farm and Home Management -- ------_.- 27
A New Approach: Farm Business Analysis ...... 27
Looking Ahead Pays for Manatee Dairymen .... 28
Better Records Mean Better Grove Management 28
Management: Key to Swine Profits .......29
Change and Citrus Grove Management ..........30
A Food Bargain .......... ...... .. .. 30
Y ours to Spend ...... .. ..... .... .. .. .....31
"What Can I Do When My Pump Stops?" 31
A Growing Extension Area: Homeowners'
Problem s ......... .. .. ..... .. 32
"More Money Not Always the Answer," says
Management Specialist .... 32

5. Family Living ----.. - -

Food Fads and Food Facts ........
Refinishing Old Furniture
C ...thine. A Problem in Family Living ...
What Concerns Our Teenagers? .. ........
Health Education ...... .. ....... .....
Home Industries Are Profitable ..................
Operation Information at Cape Canaveral

.... ...... 33
.......... 33
......... 34
.......... 35
......... 35
........ 36

-- 37

6. Youth Development

Paul Hendrick: A 4-H Ambassador to India .. 37
Representative Government in 4-H ...... ....... ...38
Finding the Right Career ................. .................. 38
Florida 4-H Fun ............. .. ....... ....... ... ....... 39
Florida 4-H in Action ............... .......... ..... .. .. 39
4-H C am ping ........... ...... ........... ............. ...... 40
Young Floridians Learn About Cooperatives .....42
L ook in g A h ead ...................................... ................. 43
4-H Poultry Projects Teach More Than
Poultry Production .......... ........................ .......... 43
Young People And Their World ..................... 43
Land Appreciation Schools and Judging Con-
tests: Young People Learn Land Values .........44
4-H Shows, Exhibits, and Contests ..........................46
Learning about Forestry and Wildlife in the
W o o d s .... .......................................... ........ ........ 4 7
Judging, Grading and Identifying Vegetables ....47
Boys' 4-H Short Course .................................... ... 48
4-H is N ew s ............................. ........... ........48
Electricity and 4-H ......................................49

7. Leadership Development --......

._--- _---- --. 50

Florida Home Demonstration Clubs: A Grass-
R oots O organization ................................................ 50
For Family Living: Training Adult Leaders .... 51
Local Leaders Forward 4-H ............................. 51
4-H Leaders at W ork .................................... . 52
Changing Agriculture in Florida .................. ........53
Agriculture Can Be Safer .......................................53
A Tribal Leader ........ ...... ............. ................. 54

8. Community Development & Public Affairs ----- 55
The Need to Know: Developing Home Grounds 55
Better Landscaping on FHA Homes ......... ............55
On Borrowed Tim e ....................................... .. 56
Better Rural Housing ......................... ....... ... .. 57
Cooperation For Better Homes ....................... 57
To Seminoles and Migratory Workers:
Extension Lends a Helping Hand ... ... 58


Your Extension Service at Work .
Better Homes for Florida ..........
Telling the News About Homemaking ......
Classrooms Unlimited .........
Mechanization Requires Engineering
Better Writing For Easier Reading
Extension Moves Ahead in Marketing .......
Snapshots of Your Agricultural Extension
Service at Work
Negro Extension Activities

.. 62



Statistical Summary of 1959 Extension Activities
Financial Statement
Statistical Material
Agricultural Extension's People: 1959






\I r
'Si;1~8. 1ILPmrwuce



New Crops For Vegetable Growers

Florida's progressive vegetable growers are be-
coming more and more interested in new crops.
Such new crops are necessary for expansion in
the vegetable industry.
Take, for example, Frank Johnson of Hastings.
Less than a year after starting into production of
onions, he is pleased with the progress he has
made. He became interested when new crop pos-
sibilities were discussed at a vegetable growers'
meeting sponsored by the Agricultural Extension
At first, Johnson was primarily interested in
growing dry onions. Extension vegetable special-
ists advised him to try growing green-bunching
onions also. These would give him a day-to-day
source of income.
Johnson is eager to accept new and approved
practices. He plants only sized onion sets for
evenness of maturity. He -also uses chemicals for
weed control.

The experience of this Hastings grower is
being repeated through county agents in many
counties in Florida. Several crops-being pro-
duced in limited quantities-dffer promise to
Florida growers. Some are cantaloupes, onions,
pickling cucumbers, carrots and sweet potatoes.
Extension specialists and agents are telling grow-
ers that sweet potatoes might find a ready mar-
ket during June and July each year. New sweet
potatoes are in demand during June and July be-
cause the main storage crop lacks both quality
and supply at this time.
Encouraging and advising growers to produce
new crops is only a part of this new crop work.
Specialists also work with agricultural experi-
ment station workers in setting up research on
these crops. Their findings are often responsible
for the quick acceptance of a new crop by

Onion field of Frank Johnson,
.2 Hastings, who now grows green-
bunching onions-a new crop
which pives him a day-to-day
income. Extension helped him get


BY VARIETIES (Assume Melon Wt= 25 1bs. each)


1947-50 1951-54 1955-58

New Varieties Boost

Ask a grower in Florida what has helped
watermelon production most in recent years and
He will probably say "new varieties!"
.New pesticides, improved fertilization and
other cultural practices have increased yields.
But the newest variety of watermelon, the Char-
leston Gray, is resistant to wilt, anthracnose and
sunburn. Besides, it produces good yields of high
quality melons which will remain on the vine
long after they are ready for harvest.
Watermelon growers in Florida have changed
varieties twice in the past eight to ten years. This,
in large part, came about through the efforts of
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Vege-
table specialists and county agents, realizing the
shortcomings of the varieties being grown, were
on the lookout for new and better varieties.
When the USDA Vegetable Breeding Labora-
tory at Charleston made advanced breeding lines
available for field testing, growers in Florida
were among the first to receive them. County
agents received seed from specialists for distribu-
tion to selected growers in all major watermelon
producing areas in Florida
With each new va- STRAWBERRY
riety, yields were sub-
stantly increased, as
shown by the accom- 600
paying graph. From
1947 thru 1950, "Cannon- 500
ball" types were usually
planted. In 1951, Can-
nonball was displaced by 300
Congo-which in turn
was replaced by Charles- 200
ton Gray in 1955. Inn


Strawberry Production

In North Florida
Strawberry growers in Bradford County are
once again talking about strawberries with a
gleam in their eyes.
The reason a brighter outlook. Their straw-
berry fields are producing good yields of high
quality berries which sell at good prices. This is
the formula that makes any grower happy.
Happy also, are the county agent, station re-
search workers, and the extension vegetable spe-
cialists. These people worked together for several
years to help improve strawberry production in
north Florida. They visited most of the straw-
berry fields and talked with the growers about
their cultural practices and the problems involved.
The group outlined a plan of attack. The
county agent took soil samples from all straw-
berry fields; after analysis, he made liming and
fertilizer recommendations. Also, he advised
growers on the best methods to use in controlling
diseases and insects.
The extension vegetable specialists helped the
county agent in setting out demonstrations on
virus-free strains and varieties, soil fumigation
and mulching. Most of the growers are quick to
accept these new and proven practices. For ex-
ample, few, if any, growers now fail to fumigate
the soil before planting. All of them spray or
dust for pest control according to recommended
The end is not yet in sight. Everyone is eagerly
watching for the results of demonstration plots
with plastic mulch. The added cost for plastic
mulch might well be overshadowed by the need
for less hand labor in weeding, less loss of fertil-
izer to heavy rain and less fruit rots than by the
old methods of culture.



Citrus Industry


"A major speaker for the Citrus Institute has
been taken suddenly ill! Car one of you fellows
fill in?"
The furor soon subsides because planning and
speaking at any or all of the five yearly citrus
institutes is part of the specialists' "stock in
trade." Through these county agent-grower Ex-
tension-conducted events, Florida growers keep
well posted on current events.
More than 1,800 growers attended these in-
stitutes in 1959. Varying in length from one to
five days, they offer information on subjects
ranging from selecting a grove site to production
management, through marketing and final con-
sumption of the fruit.
Specialists and county agents have also estab-
lished three types of grower schools.
One such school, for established growers and
production managers, supplies data on over-all
production management. Held one night each
week, it varies in length from six to 14 weeks.
School number two is similar but is conducted
on a beginning level. School number three is con-
tinuous-it is held once a month throughout the
Ten of these schools were held in 1959. Ap-
proximately 1,500 growers attended.

"Show Me"
The "men from Missouri" among citrus grow-
ers keep increasing in number. "Don't tell me-
show me! Show me the results of research and
experimentation in the field."
Result demonstrations followed by tours are a
natural answer to their request. Extension Fruit
Crops specialists working with county agents and
others assisted with 61 such demonstrations and
15 tours last year. Besides, 11 growers' tours
visited Federal and State Experiment Stations.
Many cooperative Extension and Research
demonstrations have been established.

Send out someone! We need help. This plain-
tive call is reaching Extension in ever-increasing
No wonder. The mammoth 600,000 acre citrus
industry expanded by 37,630 acres during 1959.
It is experiencing PAINS-growing pains.
Many of the more than 200,000 new people
coming to Florida each year go into the citrus
growing field. Besides, many of the 15,000 estab-
lished growers are expanding. Result: rapidly
diminishing good citrus growing soil and increas-
ing use of marginal and submarginal soils-and
an ever-growing number of calls for help to Ex-
tension Service personnel.
Extension has moved to fill the need. First
problem: to train and keep up to date county
agents in affected areas.
A citrus Advisory Committee-made up of
county agents and citrus specialists-helps county
agents become more thoroughly trained in pro-
duction management, and promotes a dynamic
Extension program in the industry. During 1959,
this committee completed and placed in the hands
of all county agents the Florida Extension Citrus
Program Guide.

Currently, four major types are being carried
out. One is on citrus fertilization on mucks and
other organic soils. Another tests the use of
herbicides to control or destroy harmful weeds,
grasses and vines in established groves, as well
as in soils to be planted to citrus. A third con-
cerns draining flatwoods soils to make them
adaptable to citrus. The fourth attempts to over-
come shy-bearing in certain varieties of tangelos
and naval oranges.
Extension has also used TV, radio, magazines
and newspapers to help with this information

Ilr~~ ---~----LI~---UI

Mr. Dealer:

"How Does

Your Sprayer Spray?"

Not all sprayers are alike. For this reason,
citrus growers often have doubts about the opera-
tion of the sprayers they buy. They want to
know which will be more effective. And they
want to know the best ways of using this equip-
ment. Extension has tried to provide an answer
to these problems.
The county agent in Orange County-in co-
operation with the Extension agricultural engi-
neers and dealers in spray machinery-sponsored
a clinic last year in performance of air carrier
sprayers on citrus groves.
At the clinic, the dealers pointed out such
things as: "This is how my machine performs,"
"Look at the pattern," "My power unit has these
advantages," "Fuel consumption on my sprayer is

In 1959, record rainfall hit practically every
section of the state. Water tables rose to a dam-
aging point in Florida citrus groves on flat-land
The result-citrus growers are asking, "At
what level should I keep my water table?" "Is
my increase in fungus and bacterial disease in-
cidence due to too much water?" or "How much'
drainage should I provide for my grove?"
Citrus trees damaged by high water table. Part'
of grove in drainage demonstration in Brevard

Citrus sprayer in action at demonstration held
Orange County.

Hundreds of grower questions were answered
at this clinic. Equipment dealers were given an
opportunity to display their sprayers. In a panel
discussion later, growers heard dealers explain
the advantages of their machines.
New techniques in spraying were also ex-
plained by the Extension agricultural engineers.
Then, the growers were given another opportun-
ity to ask questions about these methods. These
were answered by equipment dealers and Exten-
sion agricultural engineering specialists.

To help answer these questions, a team of
county agents and Extension specialists, experi-
ment station workers, citrus growers and industry
people have set up a result demonstration project
on Citrus Grove Drainage in Brevard County.
This demonstration consists of a 12 acre grove
divided by two soil types, split in half. One six-
acre block is designed for adequate drainage witl
an automatic low-lift pump and ditches. The othel
six-acre block is undisturbed and represents com-
mon practices in low, wet lands in citrus areas.
Root samples, tree size and canopy size have
been determined on both blocks. This same in-
formation will be checked annually or periodi-
Results will come over a long period of time.
But these results help citrus growers on the wet
lands of Florida. With high ground running short,
new growers on low lands will also get much
needed information as a result of this team result
demonstration project.




'Tve got the best cows, and I feed better than
any other dairyman in the Tampa Bay area; but
I'm losing money. Why don't my cows produce?"
A commercial dairyman, Melvin Vernon, who
is trying to become a breeder, asked the assistant
county agent in Hillsborough County this ques-
tion. The agent suggested that they consult a
dairy specialist from the State Extension Service.
This was done.
The herd owner, the assistant county agent,
and the assistant extension dairyman went over
the entire dairy operation.
After gathering as much information as possi-
ble, they examined the herd production records.
Then they studied the operation. Feed records
indicated that he was feeding too much for the
amount of milk being produced. This indication
later proved to be correct. The ration was not
in proper balance.



Melvin Vernon milks some of his high-producing
Ayrshire cows. Changes meant better production.

They went to the milking barn and used a
weight tape on about 10 percent of the herd. They
then determined the milk production and fat
percentage of these cows for a 24 hour period,
weighed and recorded the amount of feed for each
of these cows during this period. Feeding proce-
dure as well as the feed analysis was recorded
With this information, the specialist made a
comparison of the nutrients needed by the cows
and the amount received.
Mr. Vernon and the specialist went over these
comparisons and studied the production on a few
individual cows, noting that the lactation curve
was practically the same on each cow. The dairy-
man was surprised to find he had underestimated
+he weight of each animal.
The study showed that the ration on all but
one of the cows checked was deficient in diges-
tible protein. The dairyman was convinced that
his method of feeding should be changed.
The specialist explained what each feed in-
gredient does for the cow and why she should
have a balanced ration. He also suggested mak-
ing the following changes in this operation:
1. Adjust the feed formula, leaving out un-
desirable feeds.
2. Arrange the cows in herds of 50 accord-
ing to production.
3. Feed according to production.
4. Change the method of putting the feed
before the cows.
5. Check with the assistant county agent
before making other changes for at least
one year.
The dairyman agreed to all the suggestions
A year has now passed. His production has
stabilized and increased. This dairy operation
is being used by the county agent as a demon-
stration of what better feeding methods can do.
Mr. Vernon is now telling other dairymen about
'the changes that have put dollars in his pocket.

L i vnsto

r *


Florida is a beef cattle state. Riding along our
highways, you can see beef cattle of all kinds-
animals as fine as any in the country, and others
not so fine. This state ranks high in total num-
bers of beef cattle among the United States.
But Florida ranks only 29th in liveweight pro-
duction of beef cattle. Besides, it has one of the
lowest calf crop percentages of any state.
Progressive Florida cattlemen are concerned.
Some of their concern is shown by questions often
asked Extension, including:
How can I improve my calf crop percentage?
How can I improve the weaning weight of my
calves? How can I be sure that the best heifers
produced in my herd are being saved for herd
replacements? How can I identify my most pro-
ductive cows? Where can I get better commercial
bulls than I have used in the past?
To assist cattlemen with these problems, the
Agricultural Extension Service has initiated a
Production Testing Program. It is handled
through county agricultural agents. Here's how
it works.
Calves at weaning time are weighed and
graded. This information is compiled so as to
help the cattlemen identify their most productive
and profitable cows. Cows that are poor pro-
ducers, late breeders and shy breeders go to

The Extension Service helps both commercial
and purebred producers get weaning information
on their calves. Besides, it assists purebred pro-
ducers to get post-weaning information on pros-
pective herd sires, thus, better bulls become avail-
able to commercial cattlemen.
The Agricultural Extension Service also helps
cattlemen with other problems. For example, in-
formation on better feeding methods, marketing
and management is constantly being made avail-
able. For help with your beef cattle problems, see
your county agent.



pE~ 1

Florida Poultrymen Use Florida Chicks

A few years ago, many of the baby chicks used
in Florida were shipped into the state. Some
came from as far away as Missouri, Indiana, Ken-
tucky or Kansas. Today, Florida broiler and egg
producers are using Florida hatched baby chicks.
Why the change to using home hatched chicks?
Three factors are responsible.
1. Improvement in quality of Florida hatched
2. Better breeding for growth or egg produc-
3. Results secured with these chicks on the
farm or in the Florida Random Test.

Florida poultrymen no w use healthy Florida
chicks like these.

Practically all hatcherymen and breeders have
cooperated in the National Poultry Improvement
Plan in Florida, by testing their flocks for pul-
lorum and fowl typhoid. The blood testing pro-
gram in Florida is under the supervision of the
Florida Livestock Board. The poultry Extension
workers have worked and cooperated with this
The rules and regulations of the National Poul-
try Improvement Plan require that flocks must
have one clean test pullorumm typhoid passed).
But Florida's requirements are that when reac-
tors are found, the flock must have subsequent
tests without reactors-that is, they must be pul-
lorum typhoid clean.

Florida hatcherymen and breeders also became
interested in better breeding. This led many
Florida hatcherymen and breeders to enter into
agreements with well-known breeders in other
parts of the country to hatch and distribute their
breed or strain. This move developed into what
is now known as franchise hatcheries.
Today Florida broiler or egg producers can buy
most of the better known breeds and strains of
birds from Florida hatcheries. They know they
are getting a quality chick bred for their purpose.
The results of testing these chicks in the Flor-
ida Random Sample Test have also stimulated
sale of Florida chicks. This test is now in its
eighth test year. Chicks from Florida hatcheries
and breeders have made records as good as those
made in tests anywhere in the country.
The Florida poultry Extension specialists and
county agents have had a vital part in doing the
necessary educational work in getting Florida
chicks adopted. They have told Florida poultry-
men that it is not necessary to go to other states
for baby chicks. The best chicks possible are pro-
duced right here in Florida.

Random Testing Pays Off
Florida's Random Testing Program h a s re-
sulted in increased egg production and better
management. This test has completed seven years
of comparing the stock offered the poultry indus-
Poultry Extension and county agents-working
with the hatchery industry of Florida-set up this
testing program with several goals: to compare
the performance of chicks offered; to show the
industry the importance of a sound feeding and
management program; and to analyze records on
cash costs and receipts in growing pullets and pro-
ducing eggs.
Potential chick buyers are using the findings
of these tests in several ways: to determine where
to buy chicks; to find how best to feed and man-
age pullets and layers; and to compare their re-
sults with the test results.
A 6 percent increase in egg production and a
19 percent improvement in feed efficiency came
about over this seven-year period.
]]]] ]]r l

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Whistling Pines:

A Modern Poultry Farm

Roger Williams of Gainesville is a former out-
standing 4-H poultry project member. At the
present time, he is one of the outstanding com-
mercial poultrymen in the State.
Poultrymen from all over Florida visit him to
study his efficient methods of operation.
Williams started his 4-H poultry project with
the Alachua County agents in 1949 with 16 hens.
By 1953, he had expanded this project to several
hundred laying hens. He had earned the position
of high judge and outstanding individual in the
State 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging
Through his 4-H poultry projects, Roger de-
veloped a keen liking and understanding of poul-

try husbandry.
Today Roger-with his wife, and two children
-manages one of the larger poultry farms in the
state. It is complete with his own self-designed
and constructed, push-button feed mill.
The latest undertaking at the Williams poul-
try farm is designing and building automatic egg
gathering devices.
At present time he has about 25,000 layers on
the farm. Egg gathering is quite a chore but he
believes in quality. All eggs are placed in an on-
the-farm egg cooler to maintain high quality.
This former 4-H Club member has become a
leader among the commercial poultrymen of the

Better Chicks and Better Management

Mean More Eggs

The poultry industry of Florida has increased
13.6 percent in egg production per bird since 1953.
Besides, total costs are lower.
Over 86 percent of the 4,172,000 hens and pul-
lets in Florida are on commercial farms. They pro-
duced a total of 4,187 carloads of eggs (400 cases
to the car) in 1959.
Commercial egg production has undergone
many changes during the past few years. Some
of these changes include mechanization of feeders,
waterers and egg coolers; installation of bulk
tanks; mixing of feed on the farm; larger flocks;
and more lots of replacement pullets going in
each year.
Management practices changed include a re-
duction of feed wastage, a lower layer mortality.

the development of higher quality chicks and
better pullets.

The poultry Extension specialist and county
agent program of improved cicy to reduce
labor costs, lower feed cost a n maintain higher
quality eggs has helped gn these changes.
And in this case. change has ea t progress.

With Extension, personnel f ti t e r
ment of Agriculture, Poultry n4' E spe i n'
Bureau, State Marketing Bu ~i, Flo 'da ,)
stock Board and Florida Egg Commission '
worked to promote a sound program fo e de-
velopment of Florida's poultry in us y. have
producer organizations, industry a ions and
groups (feed, equipment, process

"What is this new 'meat-type' hog?"
"Where can I buy-a meat-type boar?"
"You say housewives are demanding 'meaty'
pork. How do I produce this meat-type hog?"
Questions like this have been flooding in to the
swine specialist and county agents. Florida needs
a source of meat-type swine. Let's see what has
been happening.
Packers 4ye paying more for animals having
less fat because the consumer refuses to buy over-
ly fat meat. So commercial and purebred. swine
producers have naturally become interested in
producing "meatier" hogs.
The Extension swine specialist and county
agents have set up demonstrations, schools and
short courses to help explain the reason for grow-
ing meat-type hogs and how they can be produced
and marketed.
The major problem in the state has been a
lack of a source of meat-type breeding stock.
Working through the local county agents and
with the Swine Producers' Association, the spe-
cialist has explained requirements for the certi-
fication of meat-type breeding stock. Certifica-
tion standards are set up by the various breed
The first step a producer takes in this program
is to breed litters that have the required number
(8 or more) of pigs, and which meet the weight
standards in the required time (275 lbs. at 56 days
for gilts and 320 lbs. at 56 days for sows). Several
of the purebred producers entered such litters
early in 1959
The slaughter and test method is the second
half of the certified litter requirement.
Two pigs from litters meeting the production
requirements-litter size and weight for age, etc.
-were slaughtered at 180 days of age, or its
equivalent weight. (Equivalent weight is calcu-

Loin Area Length Backfat Thickness
(minimum) (minimum & (minimum &
Weight (sq. in.) maximum) maximum)
180 to 200 Ibs. 3.5 28.5" to 32.0" 1.0" to 1.6"
201 to 215 lbs. 3.75 29.0" to 32.5" 1.1" to 1.65"
216 to 230 lbs. 4.0 29.5" to 33.0" 1.2" to 1.7"'

lated by adding two pounds for each day over 180
days or reducing two pounds for each day under
180 days.) These two pigs at slaughter had to
meet the carcass standards shown in the accom-
panying table.

Dr. Zane Palmer uses a special instrument to
probe for backfai thickness on a hog.

For a boar to be certified, he must sire five
certified litters.
Purebred swine producers in Florida responded
to this program. They used gilts that have been
probed for backfat thickness. In this method, a
metal rule is inserted through the backfat of the
animal to find the amount of fat the animal car-
ries. Six-month old boars and gilts having less
than 1.4" of backfat-and preferably those having
1" of backfat-were used in the breeding program.
As a result of this breeding program and prob-
ing method, Florida has certified four purebred
boars. From these four certified sires, plus one
certified purebred boar purchased and brought
into the state, breeding stock has been offered at
two public auction sales. Many others have been
purchased at private treaty.
So, Florida swine producers now have avail-
able a source of purebred meat-type hogs to be
used by commercial swine producers.


Needed: More

Meat- Type Hogs

Florida has a big market for fresh, meaty pork
cuts, but still prices are low. What's the answer?
Many hog farmers are not bla rin lagging hog
prices on the consumer. It's the armer's fault,
they say. Swine producers have ailed to raise
lean, meaty pork for the h tife's fry pan.
But this type pork is wha 'onsu rs want today.
John L. Simpson, A chua, orida, is sold on
the Yorkshire as a at-type og, but says other
breeds are also dg The ma n thing, he thinks,
is to produce eat not larq.
"Packer pay the top dolla- for meaty, tender
animals. erefore, I'm prod cing a product that
will sell," pson says. Co mercial hog buyers
agree with impson. The buers are looking for
meaty anima s.
Simpson's anadian York ire hogs are excel-
lent for baco ham and ch s. He is the first
Alachua Coun y swineman t produce certified
meat-type hog Certification or the meat-type
hog is sponso d by the Agri ltural Extension
Service. Vari us swine breed associations set
standards for certification. Test are made at the
University me t lab and at co ercial plants.
Demonstra ions, workshops d swine schools
held with co ty agents since 55 have encour-
aged meatier hog production. wo pork carcass
contests are held annually at he Florida State
Fair in Ta pa and the North Florida Fair in
Tallahassee. Approximately te F o r i d a hog-
slaughtering a ave bee roved as testing
contests are held annually, at the Florida State
stations for certified litters. This past year more
litters were certified in Florida than all the prev-
ious years.

John L. Simspon (left) and Dr. R. L. Reddish in-
spect a swine carcass.


Concrete is one of the most used building ma-
terials on Florida farms. But in many cases it is
Last year, the Extension Agricultural Engi-
neer set out to do something about it. He dis-
cussed the problem with a number of county

Hogs raised on concrete are healthier and grow
off faster.

With the agents in eight counties, he planned
how information and training in the correct use
of concrete could be obtained and effectively
brought to the farmers who need it. The group
agreed that the same approach would not work
in each county.
Programs were worked out for each of the
eight counties, with well-qualified farm concrete
construction authorities and the county agent.
The technique used, varying slightly from county
to county, was to work directly with farmers who
were in the process of building or planning to
build. These personal visits would be reinforced
with radio programs, TV programs and group
In all, over 20 farmers were visited, 3 live TV
programs were presented, 19 radio programs were
given, and 3 group meetings were held.
Reports from the agents in these counties in-
dicate that the effort was a successful one.



Florida farmers are producing more meat and
milk for a surge of new people.
But cattle must eat, too. Florida in the past
has been a feed-deficit state. But besides increas-
ing the size and improving the management of
their herds, Florida farmers are rapidly improving
their forage and pasture production programs.
Let's consider some of the things being done
to boost forage production on Florida farms and
Farmers are growing more permanent pas-
tures and annual grazing crops.
They are preparing better seedbeds and
planting superior varieties of grasses and
More water control systems are being in-
stalled where needed to help grow more and
better clovers and other legumes in grass
Farmers are using more potash on grass-
clover pastures and more nitrogen on grass
pastures result, more grazing.
They are managing the intensity of the
grazing on these pastures and also manag-
ing the harvesting dates to secure better
balance between yield and quality of forage.




By Five-Year Periods
And more farmers are using surplus fW ge
in deferred grazing or as hay and sil
Grain production is also going up. Fa irs
are growing more small grains and grain sor m
and increasing their corn yields. These hi er
corn yields are the result of wider use of such
practices as planting good seed of adapted hybrids;
applying adequate quantities of needed plants; and
spacing plants in accordance with the fertility
and moisture-holding capacity of the soil.
County and state Extension workers are help-
ing with this added feed production. They bring
up-to-date information to Florida farmers and
ranchers on all topics related to improvement of
feed crop production. During the past year, Ex-
tension workers have planned, and conducted
meetings and short courses of various kinds for
dealers, general farmers, cattlemen, dairymen,
and swine producers. They have also distributed
bulletins, circulars, and mime-
ographed publications; written
Magazine and newspaper arti-
cles; and made radio talks.

Better teed crops, like this millet
these cows are grazing, will mean
more meat and milk for Florida's

- --

Better Fertility

For Better Crops

Florida's field crop producers are making re-
markable progress. They are improving both the
yields and quality of their feed crops and their
cash crops. But they are still not using enough
lime and fertilizer to produce best yields and high-
est quality. This is especially true in the general
farming area of northern and western Florida.

Soil Fertility Programs
To help these producers, Extension workers
are promoting b e t t e r soil-fertility programs.
Agents called meetings last fall in 12 counties
in the general farming area. At these meetings,
specialists presented and discussed county figures
on use of, and need for, fertilizers and lime.
Response was gratifying. Farmers have tre-
mendously increased the number of soil samples
tested and also the amount of lime, mixed fertil-
izers, and nitrogen they have used.

Suwannee County
For instance, farmers in Suwannee County
used 13 percent more nitrogen, 30 percent more
phosphorus, and 63 percent more potash in mixed
fertilizers during the fiscal year July 1, 1958 to
June 30, 1959 than they did during the fiscal year
1954-1955. They used more than five times as
much supplemental nitrogen and more than ten
times as much limestone during 1958-1959 as they
did during 1954-1955.
The results of soil fertility education in the 12
pilot counties were so good that the program has
been extended to include all 30 counties in the
general farming area.
More County Meetings
This fall, meetings for both dealers and farm-
ers were held throughout the area. Already, re-
markable results have been noted in some of the
recently-added counties. For instance, in Taylor
County-where a single county-wide meeting was
held in late September of 1959-more limestone
was applied in the following two months than in
the preceding six-year period.


To successfully produce a crop of tobacco, a
farmer must correctly blend varieties, soils, fertil-
izers, pest control irrigation and favorable
Quality in flue-cured tobacco is an elusive and
changing thing. It is defined differently by to-
bacco companies and individuals, and it may vary
from year to year. Some think of quality as a
physical thing-such as color, grain, elasticity, etc.
-while others think of quality on a chemical
But the old adage, "The proof of the pudding
is in the eating" still holds. Florida farmers must
be producing quality flue-cured tobacco; they
have consistently placed smaller percentages in
the Stabilization Loan Program than any other
In 1959, less than 0.5 percent of Florida's crop
went into the loan, while 4.67 percent of the total
U. S. crop was placed in the loan. Price-wise,
Florida farmers were at the top-they averaged
$58.77 per 100 pounds for untied tobacco, against
an average of less than $58.00 for North Carolina's
tied tobacco.
Flue-cured tobacco growers are faced with
one crisis or emergency after another as they at-
tempt to produce their crop. With yields 135 per-
cent above yields of 10 years ago, however, and
prices equaling and exceeding prices received in
other states, quality tobacco is being produced.
Extension specialists and agents are doing all
they can to help farmers do so.



Z 750

_J 500

1944 1950 ( 1

By Five-Year Perio

Planting Trees


Florida is the only state east of the Mississippi
River that produces tupelo honey in commercial
quantities. It is also the only state east of the
Mississippi River that produces a surplus of all
Enough tupelo trees for honey production grow
in West Florida. Beekeepers there produce less
than 500,000 pounds of tupelo honey each year
compared with about 1,500,000 pounds of citrus
honey produced in Central Florida.
Tupelo honey is the only non-granulating
honey produced east of the Mississippi River. It
needs no processing. Tupelo honey is in con-
siderable demand.
Tupelo honey brings the highest price of any
honey in Florida. In 1959, it sold for 18 to 23c per
pound, while citrus honey brought about 15c per
pound. Even though Florida produces a surplus
of all honey, the tupelo crop is sold out each year.
To help extend the area of tupelo honey pro-
duction, a project of planting tupelo seeds and
seedlings has been sponsored by the Agricultural
Extension Service. We have cooperated with the
Tupelo Beekeepers Association and the Jim Wood-
ruff Reservoir (pictured below), Army Corp of
Engineers, Chattahoochee, Florida. Extension has

u.rectly assisted the project of extending tupelo
trees in different counties such as Washington,
Taylor, Volusia, Leon and Madison.
Building of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir in
Gadsden and Jackson Counties has created a natu-
ral, moist habitat for the growing of tupelo gum
trees and other nectar producing plants. Some of
the other nectar producing plants are black gum,
tulip poplar, basswood, etc. A number of bushels
of tupelo seed have been planted on the 37,000
acre reservoir in Jackson County.
By repeated efforts, the Florida Forest Service
has finally been able to grow and furnish suf-
ficient numbers of tupelo plants for this project.
The Tupelo Beekeepers Association has ordered
5,000 seedlings from this source to be planted on
the reservoir. Beekeepers in Washington, Taylor,
Leon, Madison and Volusia Counties ordered a
total of 5,800 seedlings from the Florida Forest
Service to be planted in their respective counties.
This makes a total of 10,800 tupelo trees ordered
in 1959 to be planted in 1960.
Extension has publicized tupelo honey produc-
tion through various methods.




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Insect Eradication

A costly pest, the screwworm, has just been
wiped out in Florida and the Southeast. Previ-
ously, this insect cost cattlemen literally millions
of dollars each year.
The Screwworm Eradication Program is under
the direction of the Florida Livestock Board and
USDA. It has an excellent Information Center.
The Agricultural Extension Service served as an
educational arm in supplementing their work.
Part of our work at the state level was to
send out letters periodically to county Extension
workers. These letters encouraged them to use
every means available to urge livestock owners
to use recommended practices. Information was
presented over TV, at cattleman's meetings, and
in other ways. The Extension Entomologist made
several visits to the Screwworm Eradication
Headquarters in Sebring to keep abreast of the
situation and discuss Extension's role in the pro-
Educational work at the county level included
talks to cattlemen, the use of radio and TV, and
newspaper releases. Agents made numerous trips


~ .?r

Members of a d ying race-male a nd female
screwworm flies. Radiation treatment is destroy-
ing them.
to farms to investigate reported screwworm cases.
A program was initiated using 4-H Club mem-
bers as junior livestock inspectors. Those partici-
pating received a certificate from the program
listing them as "an active associate in co-operative
screwworm inspection in the State of Florida."

Chemical Residue Problems

Florida is one of the leading states in the pro-
duction of vegetables and other raw agricultural
commodities that are shipped into other states.
Besides, many new pesticides are coming on
the market and new uses for old pest control
chemicals are being developed.

This situation means many questions like the
following are being asked of Extension workers:
"What insecticides are cleared by the Food and
Drug Administration for use on tomatoes, celery,
sweet corn, watermelons, etc.?" "How long do I
have to wait after application before the crop can
be harvested and not present a pesticide residue
problem?" It is not difficult to see why.
Not only are pesticides regulated by the Food
and Drug Administration-defoliants, desiccants,
food additives and the like are regulated as well.

Information Needed
Growers and others need information on how
to produce vegetables, citrus, milk, eggs, meat,
etc., which do not contain excessive pesticide resi-

dues. To give them needed help, the Agricultural
Extension Service has set up an Information Cen-
ter with the Extension Entomologist as chairman
of the special committee.

The purpose of this center is to keep a rapid
and steady flow of information on various chemi-
cals used on raw agricultural commodities moving
out to users and other interested individuals and
agencies. To do this, various Extension specialists
maintain close liaison with the Food and Drug
Administration, USDA, industry and other agen-
cies to keep abreast of the latest developments.
They will then send out educational material by
all possible means.
The result should be better informed producers
and safer consumers.



Soil Testing Laboratory

A new facility-acquired last year by the
Extension Service-promises to improve and
strengthen Extension programs throughout the
On July 1, 1969, the Agricultural Experiment
Station transferred its Soil Testing Laboratory
facilities to the Extension Service. This places
the valuable tool of soil testing in the hands of
Florida's county agents and their co-workers.
The administrative work necessary to insure
the best possible soil testing program for the
state was considerable. Meetings were held with
industry, the Experiment Station and within Ex-
tension to develop a program.
Results to date indicate the planning that went
into the program paid off handsomely. Of course,
in time changes and revisions will be necessary
to meet the changing needs of the people. These
changes will be made as indicated.



A flood of requests for information on pest
control problems poured into county and state
Extension offices last year over 200,000 of
It's easy to see why. People are moving into
Florida in increasing numbers. This means new
lawns, more shrubs and more flowers. In turn,
these attract insects and other pests-and people
need to know how to control them. Add to this
the fact that much of our state provides practi-
cally ideal year-round conditions for insects to
live and reproduce.
To help answer these many questions, Exten-
sion agents and specialists used all educational
channels to teach identification, type of injury,
and control of pests at 10 ornamental schools, 4
commercial meetings and 9 other ornamental
clinics and meetings.
They also used the means of mass information
giving-radio, TV, newspapers, magazines and
publications-to tell people how to control pests.
Finally, they discussed insects and their con-
trol at meetings for seed and garden supply deal-
ers and other commercial people. These industry
people contact thousands of people and so have
the opportunity of extending information to them.

A Promising New

Weed Killer

Weeds are a problem to the commercial sod
producer-and to homeowners trying to grow a
good lawn. County agents get many requests to
recommend a material to kill weeds in sod.
Many new weed killers have been tested on
the turf plots at the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station to find one that would kill the
weeds without harming the grasses. A new weed
killer, simazin, is showing promise as a control
for many weed pests of Florida lawns. Some
grasses tolerate it with little or no apparent
Ornamental horticulturists and agents used
this chemical in a demonstration on sod fields in
two areas of muck soils in south Florida last
year. They used different concentrations in this
demonstration to show how much simazin was re-
quired to control weeds on heavy soils without
damage to the turf.
Two and four pounds of the active material per
acre gave excellent control. Treated plots were
almost weedless, while untreated area had weeds
up to a foot tall. Heavier dosages damaged or
killed the St. Augustine grass, and smaller
amounts did not kill the weeds.

Getting two blades of superior grass to grow
where only one-or none at all-grew before is
the aim of Florida's many turf growers. This has
its problems.
The turf men ask their questions-hundreds of
them-and get many answers at the annual Turf
Conference held at the University of Florida each
year by the Florida Turf-Grass Association and
the Agricultural Divisions of the University of
Those who attend these conferences are golf
course superintendents, sod growers, lawn main-
tenance men, horticulturists, park managers, fer-
tilizer and equipment representatives, and a
sprinkling of homeowners.
The program is divided into two basic parts;
a session on subjects of general interest such as
soils, pest control, etc.; and separate meetings for
specialized groups covering more specific topics.
The conference has a twofold objective; first,
to give the newcomer basic information, and sec-
ond, to bring the "old-timer" and the newcomer
up to date on research findings of the past year.




"Doing Something" About Marketing

Some people say that marketing is like the
weather-everyone talks about it, but no one
does anything about it. This is not true of Ex-
County agents in 43 counties reported that
they assisted 135 formally organized marketing,
purchasing and service cooperatives last year.
Agents in 39 counties reported that they assisted
an additional 176 informally organized market-
ing, purchasing or farm service groups.
Often county agents called upon Extension
marketing specialists at Gainesville for assistance.
Almost every organization or group has some
special problems. Specialists can draw on their
experience with other groups having similar
problems. They also have access to a store of
published materials and advice from successful
organization leaders.
A good example of Extension assistance dur-
ing 1959 given to a new marketing group is in
Suwannee County. About 50 field corn growers
there are trying to start a new grain drying and
storage plant at Live Oak. They believe this
plant is badly needed; it should enable them to
realize an average of 10 cents more per bushel
for their grain.
The seven directors of this group called about
25 meetings during the last quarter of 1959. The
County Agent and Associate Agent for Rural De-
velopment attended most of these meetings.
Extension specialists met with the directors
and the entire membership on several occasions.
The four Extension marketing specialists as-
sisted county agents in working with about 25
new groups such as the one mentioned above at
Live Oak. During 1959, they also joined with
agents in assisting some 35 existing farmer co-
operatives. In some 200 instances, agents were
able to assist formal or informal grower groups
without calling on specialists.

Besides helping farmers with their organiza-
tions and groups, the Extension Service helps
many individual farmers and handlers with mar-
keting problems. During the past year, county
agents in Florida gave assistance on some phase
of farm marketing in more than 75,000 instances.
Thus county agents-with specialists' assist-
ance-have a long record of effective assistance
to farmers on marketing problems. This assist-
ance must become more effective each year. Ex-
tension will meet this challenge.

Feeder calf sales usually result in larger net
returns per animal to sellers. Besides, they can
serve to educate sellers.
In many areas, cattlemen's associations and
other agricultural organizations hold special feed-
er calf sales. This is true in Florida.
One such group, The Highlands County Cattle-
men's Association, sponsored a feeder calf sale
during 1959. The sale brought good results.
Animals sold during this sale included steers
and heifers and steer calves and heifer calves
weighing less than 500 pounds. The calves made
up the major part of the sald. Steer calves ac-
counted for 40/% and heifer calves 37% of the total
sold. In all, 527 head were sold. The average
price per 100 pounds was $24.35.
County and state Extension workers noted
that the sale was important to those who sold
their animals there for two reasons: First, of
course, was the money they received for their
animals. But they also saw in operation improved
marketing techniques. Learning about these will
help them become better sellers. These techni-
ques include grading, pen lot selling, large quan-
tities to attract more buyers, and other improved

Does the high cost of food bother you? Do you
feel that farmers are getting rich from high food
costs? Can distribution costs of food from farm
to family be lowered?
People have been asking these and other ques-
tions about foods quite often in recent years.
Fortunately these disturbing questions can .be
answered, and many of the problems they repre-
sent can be solved.
Budget Problems
The high food cost does cause family budget
problems. Between higher prices for food and
larger amounts of food needed as youngsters grow
up, the family budget is often caught in a squeeze.
Farm output increased about 1/5 between 1947
and 1957, but farmers got about the same amount
for the food produced. In the same period, the
amount of food marketed went up 14 per cent, but
the value of retail food sales went up 38 per cent-
or more than two times as much.
ion has put a squeeze on farming. The
rm e ofF ag consumer's food
1 h from 51cJnH4 7 to 40c in 1957.
F pro re ong/the few tems on which
inf tion hi s no u d(priodfcer rices up. Ac-
tual ar r ar s 1 g more od products-
but th pri s e ec ve are 1 er.
M rk tin Costs
/ Le ee y a seeing nd distribution costs
have risen. T ou s y qf p ple work to get all
,ite items fo i ost fd st res and to have
%hem alwa a ajable\for our convenience. This
r uires me, aft tio nd effort.
me bf the itemS e rly available in food
\tore a in e ot r side of the world. But
r s erehe items come from, it is an
expensive process to bring them to you.
First someone must produce or capture the raw
material. Then he must prepare it for trans-
portation, process it into the form you prefer-
sometimes store it, and then transport it again
and again-with many starts and stops-until it
finally comes to your local store. These processes
involve many uncertainties and delays.

Marketing and distribution of food is a very
complicated, specialized and expensive process,
but changes and improvements are being made.
For instance, food stores today are cleaner, better
lighted, more convenient and carry a much larger

variety of items than their counterparts 20 years
ago. Fewer food stores operate today than a few
years ago, but they are a great deal larger. Sales
per store have gone up rather rapidly. Sales per
food store employee have gone up also, but not
as fast as wages.
Mass merchandising and self-service super-
markets have helped prevent food costs from
going even higher. But techniques and methods
used by supermarkets can still be improved.

This is a common method of picking up produce
from the delivery area. Much hand labor is
When the small "papa and mama" type food
store was common, only about one bag of potatoes
were sold in a week. It wasn't expecting too
much of "papa" then to pick up the bag of pota-
toes and bring them in on his back. This was not
only hard work but a slow process. Yet many
supermarkets today still use "papa and mama"
store techniques for handling and mass mer-
chandising methods for selling.
A large supermarket-which adopted Exten-
sion recommended handling practices in 1959-
has cut the time required to bring produce into
the store from 7 man-hours down to 28 minutes.
This is a 61/ hour saving. Produce orders must be
brought in four times each week. Thus 25 hours
of labor are saved in one week, or 1,300 in one
year. At $1.00 per hour wage rate, this is an


-........ ..............

annual saving of $1,300 for one practice in one
store. Many other stores can profit by adopting
the same methods or other improved practices.

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service
has been demonstrating improved merchandising
techniques, efficient handling practices and effec-
tive operating procedures to wholesale-retail pro-
duce management since 1949. Many stores using
Extension recommendations have increased sales,
had less spoilage, better customer satisfaction,
lower labor requirements and a generally more
profitable business.
Modern technology will continue to bring
changes and improvements to the food marketing
field. Research results are beginning to pay off,
and they will be coming faster in the future. As
fast as practical methods are developed from re-
search results, the Extension Service will present
them to the food trade. The results will be lower
costs for people who buy food and better business
for the food stores.

A better method-a portable platform, already
loaded, is pulled inside and parked.

A technician samples milk for quality tests as it
arrives from farm pickup. Florida was first state
to have all its dairy farms install bulk milk cool-
ing tanks.

.,.. r I.' w :.

Quality! Quality! All of us want good qual-
ity in the food products we buy. People who buy
dairy products are no different. Mrs. Housewife
wants uniform high quality in dairy products for
her family.
Dairy plant managers and county agents rec-
ognize this fact. They know that practically every
procedure used in production, processing and dis-
tribution of milk or milk products has a potential
influence on the quality and flavor of the finished
dairy product.
One of the main tasks of the dairy manufac-
turing specialist is to assist dairy plant manage-
ment in maintaining or improving quality in their
products. To do this, he and county agents have
conducted and assisted with a number of schools,
short courses, and group meetings. He made 54
special visits to dairy plants to help plant opera-
tors with quality control techniques, plant opera-
tion procedures, flavor control procedures, and
improved processing methods.
Some typical problems which were corrected
during these visits were the formation of whey
in cultured buttermilk, cream rise on homogen-
ized milk and an off flavor in pasteurized milk
due to excessive bacteria content.
Extension has also used radio, publications,
and special demonstrations to furnish information
on quality dairy products.


Vegetable marketing is a rather sensitive oper-
ation. Market handlers must consider such things
as consumer preferences, seasonal variations.
money available for food purchases, supplies ol
vegetables produced (as well as those available in
central wholesale markets), and prices paid by
consumers in relation to wholesale prices. The
relationships of various marketing conditions are
constantly and perpetually changing.
Here's another complication-when a field ol
cabbage is mature or tomatoes are ripe, they must
be harvested quickly. They can't be held over for
a week or two for later harvesting. Likewise.
they must be marketed swiftly because their
peak of goodness will not last.

Retail stores cooperated in cabbage special fea-
ture promotions with displays like this one.

Often many fields of vegetables are ready for
harvest at the same time. The result may be that
supplies accumulate in the central wholesale mar-
kets faster than consumers will buy them at pre-
vailing retail prices.
When the supplies in central wholesale mar-
kets exceed consumption by a large amount,
wholesale and retail buyers are not willing to
take greater quantities at the same price. So
farm prices fall low enough to stop or retard
further harvesting. This type marketing condition
is called a "glutted market."
The Extension Service is conducting a program
to help relieve "gutted market" conditions.

The marketing specialist studies market situa-
tions each day during the Florida vegetable har-
vesting season. When "gutted markets" appear
to be developing, he organizes a "special feature"
treatment for those items in retail food stores.
As a i.:.-i l feature," the vegetable usually
carries a lower retail price. Thus more people
buy that item. Many times increased consumer
buying can remove a temporary "li.."'' and nor-
mal market movement will be resumed.
In this manner, three goals are achieved; (1)
"finding a home" for the products, (2) broadening
the market for the item, and (3) informing con-
sumers of its value and uses. An example will
show how these goals are accomplished.
For the week ending April 4, 1959, cabbage
supplies were very large at both production areas
and city markets. Farm prices for cabbage has
declined well below the producers' shipping costs.
The Extension marketing specialist requested
"cabbage special feature" promotions early the
following week.
Cooperation of retail food stores was generous
-this is important. It is the key to success in
such a promotion. The retail trade has been re-
sponsive and effective in intensifying merchan-
dising activities when the need arises. Retailers
also carry the major responsibility for farm to
consumer promotions.
The special feature promotion on cabbage was
organized to take place the week of April 13 to
18. Consumer information specialists prepared
newspaper, radio and T.V. informational mate-
rials for release throughout the eastern half of
the United States.
Food stores emphasized selling cabbage and
gave good retail price concessions in many cases.
Consumers were advised to use cabbage as a
"best buy" food item.
Carlot quantities of cabbage shipped increased
from 849 for the first week to 1,218 the second
week-a 44%A increase. These 1,218 carlots made
up the season's largest shipping week. Florida
accounted for 65 percent of all reported cabbage
shipments for both weeks. This means Florida
also had its largest shipping week (771 carlots)
during the week ending April 18.
The highest prices paid farmers for 50 lb. sacks
of cabbage averaged 81c for the week ending

Bees Are Busy In Florida

To bee or not to bee that is no question in
the Sunshine State. Florida's bees and beekeep-
ers produced almost 3 million dollars worth of
honey last year.
With a growing volume of honey being pro-
duced, Florida honey producers and packers have
a growing interest in marketing. Last year they
invited the Extension Dairy Marketing Specialist
to help them with business information for their
industry. The State Apiculturist, State Home
Demonstration Agent and her staff, and seven
home demonstration agents worked with him to
gather and present some useful facts.
The honey and milk industries have more simi-
larities than differences. They are consumer
oriented in their thinking. They have similar
interests in the general price level and in federal
fiscal policies. Producer-distributors are impor-
tant in each industry.
Each has relatively few producers. Neither
has matured distributor cooperatives. Both are
primarily interested in retail uses of their liquid
products rather than in manufacturing. Both
stress quality. Both have important by-products
-queens, bees, beewax and pollination in the case
of the honey industry. Foreign trade is a small
part of each. Both are hard work.
The state's honey industry is larger and grow-
ing faster than most of its competitors. In 1958,
we had more colonies than any other state except
California. We ranked thirteenth in state honey
production per colony. We were exceeded only
by California and Minnesota in total honey pro-
Highlight facts about the honey business in-

April 4 and $1.35 for the week ending April 18.
This is a 67 percent increase in price accompany-
ing a 44 percent increase of shipments into an
already well-supplied market.

The price advance on cabbage amounted to
$28.80 per carlot-1,218 carlots were sold. Price
advances alone, during this promotion, brought
producers an additional $342,014.40, not counting
the increased carlots sold during a "glutted mar-
Cooperation between the retailers, consumer
information specialists and the Extension Service
made this cabbage feature a success.

Florida produced 15.6 million pounds of
honey in 1958.
Florida farmers received 18.9 cents per
pound, or $2,952,000 for their honey that
Florida had 274.000 colonies of bees, each
working hard enough to produce 57 pounds
per colony.
Florida farmers ranked 26th in average
price per pound, they received for their
As the U. S. cost of living rose 95 percent
1942-59, Florida farm honey prices rose only
58 percent, and beewax only 27 percent.
Florida rose steadily from 3.1 percent of
U. S. bee colonies in 1942, to 5.1 percent in
U. S. beekeepers increased industry size
from 4.4 million colonies to 5.4 million,
U. S. honey imports were only 1.5 percent
as large as 1958 domestic production.

Home demonstration agents and state special-
ists in seven Florida honey markets found, by
telephone survey of large institutions, that honey
could be served to thousands of people much more
often. Their results are shown in the table.

Honey Use

Florida honey industry groups cooperating
with Extension are: Florida Honey Packers Asso-
ciation; Florida Honey Cooperative; and Florida
State Beekeepers Association.

Serve Never Serve
honey serve honey more
occasionally honey frequently
Institution No. No. No.
Hospitals 8 7 2
Hotels 1 4 11
School Systems 0 2 4
Chain Restaurants 4 2 2
Restaurants 6 0 11
Prisons 3 0 0




Florida Landowners
Many Florida landowners are taking a second
look at hardwoods on their forest lands.
Reports of a new pulp mill at Port St. Joe,
using hardwood-along with increased use by
existing mills-may have encouraged this second
Florida's forest industry has been and is still
based primarily on processing pine timber or
other products from pine trees. This is as it
should be; three-fourths of our commercial forest
land is pine type.
But what about the other 5,250,000 acres of
forest land? This is in hardwoods-some good,
some poor-in species composition and quality.
All of it has been grossly mistreated over the
years. The most valuable species and highest
quality trees have been cut out, leaving little for
regeneration of future cuts.
Gradually foresters, trained almost entirely in
pine management, are awakening to the possibili-
ties of hardwood management. For continuous
crops of high-grade hardwood lumber and veneer
-as well as relatively new uses such as pulpwood
-a much more intense stand management is
Several Florida foresters asked what Exten-
sion might do in providing training in this field.
After consulting with the U. S. Forest Service,
the Florida Forest Service and forest industries
in the state, the Extension forester developed a
plan for a hardwood management school.
Final arrangements were made for the instruc-
tors and subject matter material at a conference
with the U. S. Forest Service in Atlanta, Georgia.
Arrangements for a meeting place, timber land
for woods work and a hardwood sawmill for mill
work were made through the assistance of the
Jackson County agent.
This first Hardwood Management School was
held at Marianna, during the week of November
2-6, 1959. Student spaces in the school had to be
strictly controlled in order to avoid having too

Better Land Management
Makes Sense

The way that our soil and water resources
have been used in the past determines pretty
much how they will respond to good land man-
agement today. This is equally true-the way we
treat them today will determine how we can
expect them to serve us in the future. These facts
are important to us all-soil productivity directly
affects the economic and social standards of
Florida has many different kinds of soil, wide
variations in climate and many types of agricul-
tural enterprises. Thus, recommended land man-
agement practices vary over the state. But no
matter what the combination of soils and cli-
mate-good management contributes materially
in increased efficiency and long-time, lowest-per-
unit costs of production.

Extension has always recommended practices
that give maximum returns without depleting the

Some of these practices recommended were:
proper land use, contour strip cropping, terracing,
grassed waterways, water control, use of fertil-
izers and soil amendments, soil-building crops,
crop rotations, and land clearing.
Better land management today will mean bet-
ter soil productivity in the future.

large an attendance. Forty-three forester-stu-
dents-besides the instructors and coordinators-
attended the school. Course work included four
half-day sessions in the classroom and four half-
day sessions in the woods and sawmill.
The students attending included foresters from
three states, eight industrial firms and five public
agencies. Cooperation was the key to this suc-
cessful educational project.

More Public Interest:


We are seeing a "population explosion" here
in Florida as more and more people move to this
state. These population increases have brought
increased hunting pressures. Good hunting will
become scarce in future years unless someone
takes proper measures to provide food and cover
for game animals.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service is
doing its part to help. County Agents assisted
many Florida landowners with food and cover
plantings for game during the past year.
Partridge pea seed were distributed to 4-H
members in many Florida counties as part of a
wildlife conservation project. This seed was made
available through the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission.
Wildlife conservation projects like this have
long been popular with 4-H members. But only
recently have a substantial number of Florida
landowners been concerned with dual manage-
ment of their lands for both game and timber.

Women in Florida are interested in conserva-
tion of our natural resources. They consider this
important because conservation of these resources
now vitally affects the level of living their chil-
dren will enjoy in the future.
The Home Demonstration Club organization
provides an excellent medium through which wo-
men can get information on conservation.
Several accomplishments of Home Demonstra-
tion County Councils in the field of conservation
are outstanding. For example, the Gadsden Coun-
ty Home Demonstration Council owns and main-
tains a park for public use. This park is a living
demonstration of conservation of natural re-
The Palm Beach County Council has coordi-
nated conservation of natural resources with
other phases of their club programs, such as gar-
dening, home management, nutrition and foods.
In St. Lucie County, the County Council spon-
sored an exhibit which was displayed this year at
the annual Senior Home Demonstration Council
meeting. It is now available for use by other
The importance of woman's interest in con-
servation is easy to see. She owns 11 percent of

Many large landowners, such as pulp com-
panies, now employ full time forest managers to
assist foresters in making trees and game a twin
Shooting preserves are a new aspect of wild-
life management in Florida. Those who establish
such preserves often call on county agents to give
advice in what durable cover plants to use. With-
out good cover such a shooting preserve loses cus-
tomers in a short time.
The assistant extension forester assisted sev-
eral operators in selecting trees and shrubs for
shooting preserve cover.

Exhibit prepared by St. Lucie County Home Dem-
onstration Council Conservation Committee. Mrs.
Grace M. Hansen, Co-Chairman, left and Mrs.
Mary Bennett, Home Demonstration Agent, right.

the nation's land. She spends over 85 percent of
the family income and buys 80 percent of the na-
tion's consumer goods. She inherits 68 percent of
all estates and is beneficiary of 80 percent of the
life insurance.
Most people would agree that women are more
interested in health, security and public welfare
than men; there are more women voters than
men; women's effect on public opinion is strongest
when they are organized into groups.
So this Extension-guided activity on the part
of Home Demonstration Club members is im-
portant. Such activities get conservation con-
siderations before many persons who could not
be reached in any other way.

Laying A Good Foundation

Site Pre r n

Young planted pine seedlings-like plantings
of tobacco or corn-need well-prepared land if
they are to make their best growth.
For several years, there has been great activ-
ity on Florida's 2 million or more acres of scrub
oak land. Foresters and landowners have tried
various methods in clearing off the worthless oaks
and planting pines.

Above: A crawler tractor equipped with a cutter
blade clears away brush before preparing land
for pine seedlings.

To demonstrate methods, Extension held two
site preparation demonstrations last year in co-

Below: Heavy crawler pulls offset disk to pre-
pare site.

During the site preparation demonstration at Wee-
wahitcka, Extension Forester Tom Herndon, left;
Mr. Dave Gaskins, local banker and landowner.
center; and County Agent Cubie R. Laird of Gulf
County look over the area.

operation with various equipment companies and
other agencies. Six-acre plots of various sites
were cleared. Demonstrators used such equip-
ment as tree cutting blades, root rakes, stump
pullers, rolling choppers, and disks.
The forester will keep records on growth rate
of pines on the various plots. The location of thpse
demonstrations were Gulf and Escambia counties.
Many landowners attended these meetings and
went away better informed on the types of equip-
ment available to do a good job of land clearing.
Agents in Florida counties report that over
2,100 landowners were assisted with doing timber
stand improvement work last year. This included
site preparation,

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A New Approach:


Once farming was a "way of life." Farmers
took pride in producing all they needed to live on
their own farms. "Business efficiency" was un-
heard of on our farms and ranches.
Today agriculture is different. Farmers, ranch-
ers, and grove operators are businessmen with
large investments in land, equipment, and live-
stock. They cannot afford to be inefficient.
To serve them, the Agricultural Extension
Service developed a new method during 1959.
Called a farm business analysis, it is conducted
by the farm and home development specialist, and
county agricultural agents.
Here are some questions a business analysis
can help you answer:
Am I using my farm records to the best advan-
tage? Do I know my production rates per tree,
per acre, per animal or per bird? What are the
weak points of my farm, ranch, or grove business?
.Extension workers helped people in 17 coun-
ties with farm business analyses in 1959. Sixty-

Mr. Hubert Logue (left) and County Agent Harper
Kendrick look over some of Mr. Logue's herd of
dairy cows.

County Aqent Kendrick (le f t) a n d Dairyman
Logue analyze records of the farm, which showed
labor efficiency could be increased.

five farm and ranch records were secured and
analyzed. The specialist prepared reports for nine
dairy farms in Manatee County and eight dairy
farms in Polk County; he also prepared ranch
analyses on ten ranches in South Florida and
twenty general farms in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa
A business analysis considers the four major
factors affecting profit:
1. Size of business.
2. Production rates.
3. Combination of enterprises.
4. Efficiency factors such as pounds of milk
or beef per man, fertilizer cost per acre,
and equipment cost per animal or acre.
A business analysis report shows averages for:
(a) all farms or ranches analyzed, (b) high income,
and (c) low income farms and ranches. Besides,
the individual farmer or rancher has figures for
his operation listed by the averages. Thus indi-
viduals can locate strong and weak points of their
One dairy farmer, Hubert Logue, found from
an analysis of his dairy farm that he had ineffi-
cient use of labor. He and the county agent de-
vised a system of bonus payment for high labor
efficiency. Logue greatly increased his labor effi-

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lI i i-L Ilg ei
eC.' 'rw*" *" "u"- ^ -

Dairymen in Manatee County are finding that
looking ahead and planning for the future pays.
They are doing this planning through the Dairy
Program Projection process with the Agricultural
Extension Service.
The Manatee County Agent asked five pro-
gressive dairymen to serve on the dairy projec-
tion committee in 1957. Working with the county
agent and Extension Dairyman, the committee
determined the present situation and set up five-
year goals and some ways to work towards these
The county agent worked closely with several
of the county's dairy farmers on planning farm
operations and herd management. He used all
Extension methods available in his county dairy
program. Attendance at the three yearly dairy
schools has averaged 80 percent of the dairymen
in the county.
Fifty-one percent of the county's dairy cows
are enrolled in DHIA or other cooperative record
keeping programs. Dairymen breed well over half
their cows artificially to production-proved bulls.
They raise 75 percent of the normal replacements
in contrast to a very low percent in most commer-
cial dairies in the state.
The county agent has helped many dairymen
in their pasture improvement program by helping
plan the location of access lanes and cross fences
for pasture rotation as well as advice on pasture
varieties, fertilization and irrigation. The Soil
Conservation Service cooperated in getting these
improvements made.
The county agent is working directly with
12 dairymen on a Farm Development plan. A
complete farm business survey of 1958 costs and
returns was made with the cooperation of the
Farm and Home Development Specialist of nine
dairy farms. The analysis of business factors
from this study enabled the county agent to work
more closely with these farmers in, making major
farm business plans.
The analysis also gave him information for use
with the other dairy farmers in the county.
The dairymen have made progress in size of
herds, average production, and profit. They ap-
preciate the program the agent has carried out
because they helped plan it.

If you keep good records of your grove opera-
tion, these records in turn will "keep" you. Citrus
fruit production is a business, and any successful
business requires accurate records kept on it.
Prices paid by the United States farmers have
increased about 21 times since 1935-39. Wage
rates have been increased 4 times and are still
climbing. Prices of power and equipment have
more than doubled. Prices of fertilizer, however,
have leveled off at about 50 percent above those
of 1935-39.
Under these conditions, it is imperative that
citrus growers keep accurate and complete cost
of production records. It is also important that
growers use the information from these accounts.
Good management is the key to profits. "There
is more in the man than in the land"-this is true
in citrus production. Good management today is
even more important than before for these rea-
sons: (1) Citrus growing takes more capital now
than formerly; (2) There has been a rapid increase
in technological development-this development
is continuing; (3) Economic conditions are chang-
ing rapidly; and (4) The earnings gap between
good and poor managers is widening. Good rec-
ords materially assist good management and make
it easier.
It will pay to keep complete records of ex-
penses and receipts on each grove unit. A neces-
sary part of these records is a tree chart, giving
setting dates by variety of each tree, together
with tree condition. Keep records of yields, re-
turns, kind and amount of fertilizer applied
and or used in sprays, and kind, amounts and time
of application of spray and dust for-insect and
disease control. Extension agents and specialists
can help develop such a system of record keeping.
Good business management requires a lot of
pencil and paper work. Profitable decisions are
more likely to result from well conceived planning
on paper-backed up by sound facts and figures-
than from haphazard, "off-the-cuff" methods.
Grove managers who fail to develop an eco-
nomic approach to their grove business problems
will also find it increasingly difficult to gain or
maintain grove profits. This is true regardless of
the size of the grove unit.

MANAGEMENT: Key To Swine Profits

Good management is the key to profitable
swine production. For example, consider the oper-
ation of the farm of John L. Simpson and his
son, of Alachua County. The Simpsons are the
first swine producers in the county to produce

John L. Simpson, Jr. lays drainage tile while
building a lagoon-type basin for holding waste
water from the swine pens.

certified meat-type hogs.
"Sound management of good hogs
a profitable enterprise," Simpson
Sanitation is important in hog
production. On the Simpson farm
each litter is housed in concrete
floored pens until after the pigs
are weaned. The pens are flushed
out daily and disinfected when
Vaccination of all animals is
good insurance. "An outbreak of
hog cholera could ruin my opera-
tion," Simpson mentioned.
The 80-acre farm is a father-son
enterprise. The son, John Simp-

Mr. John L. Simpson and his son
John (standing) with two of their
meat-type hoqs.

makes swine

son, takes pride in his new sewage disposal for
the swine units. He got the idea from a swine
magazine. It's an open lagoon, odor-proofed by
bacterial action.
Corn is the main feed crop on the Simpson
farm. Last fall some 40 acres of corn yielded an
average of 65 bushels per acre. The grain is now
stored in metal bins for use throughout the year.
The farm is cross-fenced into a number of one-
acre grazing plots. The Simpson hogs have an
adequate supply of green grazing. They graze
from November until June, then millet serves as
forage during the summer months. The plots are
grazed on a rotation basis to prevent a buildup
of parasites.
Before feeding the corn to hogs, the Simpsons
grind it with other grains, then mix in vitamins
and minerals. This feed mixture-along with
green forage-insures quick, profit-making gains.
Using this combination of feeds, the Simpsons pro-
duce six-months-old hogs weighing up to 225
pounds. These young animals process into tender
cuts of meat. The hams, as an example, are juicy
and have a fine flavor.
Simpson's approach to the hog business is good
breeding stock. His tip to farmers is to purchase
only quality stock that has passed backfat tests,
been certified as a meat-type hog, and is known
to be a prolific breeder.

Sweeping technological changes are taking
place in citrus production-just as in agriculture
generally. Change is the law of progress. The
challenge to citrus producers, Extension and their
other advisors is to direct the change along con-
structive channels.
With proper direction, these changes will result
in: increased production and distribution efficien-
cy, added control of quality, less risk of price and
income variation to the growers, more rapid
adaptation to scientific and technological innova-
tions, and increased profits to those growers who
are able to grow along with these changes.
Adequate grove records, properly kept and
analyzed, will assist very materially in making
the needed changes on the production end. With
intelligent direction in making these changes, our
citrus industry will function even better than
Let's consider some facets of these changes and
adjustments which may be needed.
1. Capital requirements will grow in total and
per grove. Such requirements have grown so
much that it is becoming increasingly difficult
for an individual, during his productive years, to
accumulate a sufficient amount of money to fi-
nance an economically sized operating unit. This
will become increasingly true in the decades
ahead. Business units will get bigger and bigger,
with still larger amounts of capital required.
This trend cannot be stopped. Nor should it
be. We must adjust our institutions and programs
to it, so as to capture such benefits as will flow
from it. Many growers have been taking advan-
tage of larger unit operations and equipment
ownership through cooperative and other care-
taking organizations which do much of the care-
taking work.
2. The trend toward larger and fewer citrus
production units will continue. Machines will dis-
place some of the man-labor in groves. This will
bring higher investments in equipment as well as
in grove. A son who inherits a large grove may
find it wise to enter some kind of financial ar-
rangement with others for some of the necessary
capital for the large operation. Managerial capac-
ity is even more difficult to pass from father to
son than is accumulated capital.
3. Management is now the critical factor in
successful grove operation. And this means a
highly specialized kind of management where rec-
ords are extremely valuable.

4. Negotiated pricing will tend to displace
competitive price-making structure. This has al-
ready taken place in some fruits and vegetables
grown under contract for specialized processing.
We probably will see the development of price
bargaining agencies among growers. Here again,
production under such conditions will require ad-
vanced production techniques and efficient man-
agement that includes adequate records and fi-

A Food Bargain

"One full quart of luscious red home-canned to-
matoes for less than a nickel"-that's an eye-
catching statement that is difficult to believe.
But did you know that you can preserve the
choicest home-grown products for less than 5c-
plus some time and energy in planning, planting,
growing, and putting the fruit into the jars?
It has been estimated that it costs about 25c in
out-of-pocket expense to raise a bushel of toma-
toes in a home garden. Of course, this cost does
not include use of land, water, tools, and labor.
It does include seed and fertilizer.
The average yield for a bushel of tomatoes is
20 quarts or a total cost per quart of only 1Yc.
The cost of jar, lid, screw band and fuel amounts
to about 32c, making a total cost per quart of
about 43/c. And tomatoes are one of the foods
most people like canned.
Canning and freezing are the chief methods
advocated by the Agricultural Extension Service.
The freezing method is being used more and more
for conserving a home supply of meats. Most
people use canning as a method of preserving
fruits and vegetables. Jams, jellies, marmalades
and pickles are some of the items usually canned
at home.
The figures above on the economical storage
of tomatoes by canning are typical of other can-
ned fruits and vegetables. Home canning is a
convenient, sure way to provide highly nutritious
foods for home use.

"I'm always wishing for more time and energy.
My work is never finished and I'm too tired to en-
joy my family. And money worries-we have
them. Our family income is the most we've ever
had, but it just isn't enough. Is there anything
we can do to help us with our problems?" a home-
maker asked her county home demonstration
The Answer
"Yes, there is something you can do," answered
the agent. The way you manage your resources
determines the results you get. Managing a home
requires mental as well as physical effort."
"You must really want to make changes. Then
you and your family should find out how your
time, energy, money and other resources are used
now; next, decide what changes to make after
you consider all alternatives."
"Try out your new plan and change it as
needed. Don't copy what some other family does.
Make a plan for your family and make it work."
Homemakers-young and old-and 4-H Club
girls are feeling the pressures of today's living;
so they often ask for such help with home man-
agement and family economics problems.
Extension Help
Extension agents helped more than 75 thou-
sand people like the homemaker above with bet-
ter home management practices in 1959. These
people improved housekeeping methods and laun-
dry practices; used outlook and consumer infor-
mation when making major family decisions; kept
and analyzed home records; studied cost and use
of consumer credit; and reviewed their insurance
policies, family investments and legal matters.
Older 4-H Club girls are often responsible for
keeping house for and feeding their families while
their mothers are working away from home. The
new 4-H management project, Make Work Fun
and Easier, was popular with such girls. Over
two thousand girls enrolled in this project.
Volunteer leaders helped Extension in assist-
ing many people with their problems last year.

"What Can I Do

When My Pump Stops?"

"I live in the country and it is difficult trying
to get someone to come and fix my water pump.
When my pump quit last year, my farm stopped.
Two hundred head of cattle and a thousand hens,
and not a drop of water from the faucet. What
could I do?"
"My well has iron and my neighbor complains
of sulphur in the water. Can you help us?"
People often ask these and similar questions
of Florida county agents. About 75 percent to 80

This man needs help with his water system.

percent of 'lorida's electrified farms have run-
ning water. Extension workers realize a greater
need exists to help farmers with water system
problems than to convince them that electric
pumps were good things. As a result, clinics on
trouble-shooting water systems have been held
in several areas of the state this year.
These clinics covered simple trouble-shooting,
types of pumps, filters, softeners, testing water for
minerals, and related information.
More than 400 people received training in the
eight clinics held in six counties.
The Associate Extension Agricultural Engineer
made a movie on trouble-shooting water systems
this year.
Families having this information on trouble-
shooting water systems can save many dollars
and much valuable time. There is a saying, "You
never miss the water till the well runs dry"-this
effort is Extension's part to help make sure the
well doesn't run dry.



"What foliage plants will do well in my home?"
"How should I care for them?" "Is it difficult to
arrange flowers in a vase?"
These are a few examples of the many ques-
tions on ornamental horticulture directed to
county workers and state specialists. More than
200,000 new people pour into Florida each year-
most of them want information on Florida's
plants, climate and soil-all new or strange to
,Extension information goes to these people
through the county and home demonstration
agents. To help county workers keep up with
new information, provide additional training, and
pass on new techniques, Extension specialists hold
agent training meetings.

Dr. E. W. McElwee, Extension Ornamental Horti-
culturist, coducts a meeting on plant propagation.
Standing. Left to right: Mrs. L. W. Rosier; Mrs.
R. S. Brannon: Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell, Home De-
monstration Agent; Mrs. O. M. Walker: Mrs. N. W.
Norris, Michael Parsons; Dr. McElwee: Mrs. C. W.
Hill. Mrs. G. L. Pettyjohn. Seated: Mrs. J. L. Par-
sons, Mrs. W. M. Vinson. and Mrs. J. B. Fraser.

At these meetings, agents hold detailed dis-
cussions. Specialists also carry out demonstra-

In turn, county workers usually hold training
meetings for their county and club leaders. These
trained leaders then pass the information on to
their local clubs.
Many other methods of information giving-
such as radio, TV, and newspaper stories-are also
widely used by Extension ornamental horticul-



The popular clamor today is for higher wages
and bigger profits. But Duval County Home
Demonstration leaders were reminded recently
that successful and satisfying living is not meas-
ured by the size of the pay check.
"Money Management" was the theme of a
training school conducted by County Home Dem-
onstration workers. Discussion leader was C. C.
Moxley, Associate Economist of the Agricultural
Extension Service.
"Good money management," Moxley told the
group, "means getting the most satisfaction from
what we have-it is spending our dollars to buy
what the family wants most. The ultimate in dig-
nity belongs to those who live within their in-
Moxley does not discourage ambition or seek-
ing more income. But he reminded the group

that higher incomes very often result in still big-
ger problems of money management. The most
pressing problem with many American families
is the need for better planning and use of avail-
able income.
In approaching the concrete problems of money
management, the group discussed budgeting and
the need for many families to keep a spending
record. As a way to achieve greater satisfactions
in the use of both cash and credit, the economist
recommended family discussions of money prob-
lems. "Both parents and children will be happier,"
he added, "if they have a voice in some of the
Such advice on money management to Florida
families is one of the important tasks carried out
by Extension economists during the past year.

Food Fads And Facts

"Do I get needed nutrients in family meals, or
should I buy a supplement?"
"If I cook in aluminum will I give my family
These and similar questions are asked daily by
Floridians. Did you know that 10,000,000 people
in the United States spend over $500,000,000 year-
ly on nutrition nonsense?
Some food faddists and some unethical sales-
men use misleading statements to sell their prod-
ucts to the public.
Home Demonstration workers this year devel-
oped and presented educational programs to give
the facts on food fallacies and faddism.
One approach was to provide information on
Pure Food and Drug Laws, and to point out
how these protect the consumer. This protection
covers food additives, false advertising and im-
pure foods. Other approaches used by the nutri-
tionists included films for TV and radio, and
press releases.
Materials that were written included "You Are
What You Eat," and "Food Nix and Food Facts,"
with leaders guides. Sixty leaders were trained
in July at the Annual Adult Short Course at the
University of Florida.
The nutritionists also helped agents plan spe-
cial interest meetings to extend this training to
groups oher than Extension. For example, nutri-
tionists taught the facts about food faddism to
school lunch supervisors, state homemaking teach-
ers, to the Pinellas County Welfare Council, and
to the Hillsborough County Nutrition Committee
at open meetings.
The Rural Health Committee of Florida ap-
pointed a subcommittee to study and draw up a
proposed program for a united attack on the food
faddism problem. The nutritionists served as con-
sultants to this subcommittee. A pilot program
was initiated, sponsored by the health subcom-
mittee of the Rural Development Committee.
State-wide coverage is planned.

Miss Bonnie McDonald, economist in food con-
servation, tells a around of Home Demonstration
women about the Daily Food Guide.

Refinishing Old Furniture
Many women would like to make their homes
more attractive, but have limited funds to work
with. They often find one solution is to refinish
old pieces of furniture.
In Madison County, an epidemic of furniture
refinishing developed last year from a Home
Demonstration Workshop held in the county.
One homemaker decided that her dining room
chairs did not look good enough for a large coffee;
she was having for a bride. All of the family
worked to refinish the chairs.
Before this, the chairs had been used in the
breakfast room. But after the refinishing process
the chairs looked so good that the husband said
they should stay in the dining room.
In such furniture refinishing workshops, wo-
men learn the best ways of removing old finishes,
how to prepare wood surfaces for new finishes,
different finishes recommended for use in our
Florida climate, and how to apply these finishes
for best results.
This year Extension conducted 104 workshops
on furniture refinishing, with a total attendance
of 1,398. Ninety-four workshops were held in
which women learned to reupholster chairs or


"Ready-mades cost too much." "I can't dress
all my family as I'd like on the money we have
"I need to know how to sew."
"I'd sew more if I knew how to alter a pattern
and fit myself."
"I can't keep up with all the new things I find
in the store. I wish I knew more about buying
fabrics and selecting ready-mades."
These are some of the things Florida women
tell home demonstration agents and the clothing
and textiles specialist.
The Agricultural Extension Service is helping
with these problems. Groups have met with
agents in their counties to discuss clothing prob-
lems. After listing their major needs, the people
selected the ones they wished help on during the
With this information home demonstration
agents and clothing specialist planned demonstra-
tions, workshops, special interest meetings, and
news articles to help solve problems.
Adults who had never learned to sew have
learned in county and community groups. 4-H
Club girls as young as ten years of age have
learned to use a sewing machine. After this, they
got help in making skirts and blouses for them-
selves. Each year 4-H members have learned to




Jeannette Bussiere and Phyllis Singleton, Miami,
and Cynthis Farina, Fort Pierce, look smarter
when they make their clothes and alter patterns
to fit their figures-
make some clothing and household articles which
were more difficult than the year before.
Women have learned to fit mature figures.
They received this help during two or three day
workshops. Those who came altered a paper pat-
tern, cut and made a dress or muslin pattern to

Norma Ann Fuller of Largo and
Nancy Nancy Elaine Kelly of In-
verness save money for their
families by making their own


4: 1:
.: r

fit themselves. After such a meeting in Suwan-
nee county, women made remarks like this:
"I've always had trouble with sleeves pulling
across. the back. When I see the increased allow-
ances put into the muslin pattern, I know how to
remedy it."
The clothing specialist has passed on research
information to homemakers on fabrics and fin-
ishes. She has also taught care and laundering of
wash and wear fabrics. With help on fabrics and
knowledge of the fabric labeling law, which be-
came effective in March, 1960, people can select
fabrics to suit their needs.
The agents and specialist have not done this
job alone. Many have helped. As women and
girls receive information, they have gladly shared
it. Thus, in many sections of Florida, adult and
junior leaders have taught others what they have
learned. These leaders say they have gained sat-
isfaction as well as developed themselves as they
helped Florida families become better dressed.


What do boys like most in girls? What do girls
like most in boys?
Here are some answers that were given at a
teenage 4-H camp held last year.
Girls like most in boys: good grooming, good
personality, good manners, ambition in life, danc-
ing ability, respect, good attitude, no conceit, com-
mon sense.
Boys like most in girls: good personality; smil-
ing, happy manners; conservative and appropriate
dress; humor; good manners; and wit.
"Personality" was mentioned very often and
a number of traits were listed to describe it.
This is one of the major concerns of our teen-
agers today-"How to have a good personality."
The family life specialist has done two things
to help our Florida 4-H boys and girls develop this
desired "good personality":
At the two teenage camps, 4-H club members
discussed personality traits and how these traits
are developed.
Two pamphlets directly concerned with per-
sonality development have been written-"Which

Health Education

- Never before has Man been more aware of
science than today. We are increasingly con-
cerned with our own health.
The general welfare of each individual is of
concern in a democratic society. So health educa-
tion becomes important to any organization de-
voted to serving the needs of individuals. This
has led the Agricultural Extension Service to try
to help people solve their individual, family, and
community health problems.
This year the number of health programs al-
most doubled those of 1958. These educational
programs were on topics such as mental health,

Mrs. Howard Goody of Madison County uses
large models to impress the importance of dental
care on two 4-H members.

diabetes, weight control, foot care, heart disease,
polio, cancer, tuberculosis, child health, health
insurance, misuse of patent medicine, sanitation,
dental health, need of physical examinations, and
how to choose and use a doctor.
About a fourth of these health meetings were
conducted by trained health leaders. Getting this
information to people is important; but perhaps
the growth of the individual leader while doing
so is even more important.

Am I?" and "The Real You." These are being
used by agricultural agents and home demonstra-
tion agents.
Good manners are also a desirable trait. Two
leaflets have been prepared for use in the coun-
ties on this subject: "Evervday Manners" and "It's
a Date?"

Home industries can provide satisfying and
practical means of increasing personal income
for Florida people. Let's look at two case studies:
A 4-H Member's Story:
A 13-year old girl, in need of quite a bit
of dental work and with no money to pay a
dentist for this work, lives with her grandparents.
Her grandfather, before a stroke incapacitated
him, raised flowers in seedbeds and sold them to
seed, grocery, and variety stores throughout the
She decided to draw on his knowledge and
experience, and started her venture in sprouting
seeds and growing young, tender plants. She
started her seed-beds and kept her grandfather's
old customers supplied with plants throughout all
the planting seasons.
Her horticulture project won her a blue ribbon

on Achievement Day, a trip to Camp Cherry Lake,
and gave her the money she needed for the dental
work, as well as giving her e x t r a money for
clothess and savings.
A Home Demonstration Member's Story:
A club home industries and marketing chair-
man puts her club training and experience to
good personal use.
Her seagrape jelly was a treat for her friends.
The word spread. The owner of a local fruit ship-
ping house engaged her to make seagrape jelly
for him at her home. She made 500 one-pound
jars of seagrape jelly for their fancy gift packages
of fruit which are shipped throughout the United
This enterprise in her own kitchen provides a
tidy sum to supplement her family income and
to purchase gardening and handicraft supplies.


How does a home demonstration agent in a
county whose population has sky-rocketed by 304
percent-to become the fastest-growing county in
Florida-handle her many requests for informa-
tion about homemaking?
Brevard County-home of Cape Canaveral-
now has a population of 125,000. The Air Force
conservatively predicts 163,000 by 1963.
Homemakers in Brevard County are anxious
to know how to stop mildew, how to air-layer
plants, how to use sub-tropical fruits, how to
manage their time, energy, and money more
wisely, what to do when the soup is too salty.

To answer these questions, the Brevard County
home demonstration agent has stepped up her
information program, preparing weekly columns
for the county newspapers, taping radio spots,
and giving a weekly television show.
She has delegated some of this information
coverage to her publicity chairman. These chair-
men confer with the agent about ideas for news,
radio, television. Annually they prepare hundreds
of articles, radio programs, and television pro-
This is a realistic example of how home dem-
onstration is multiplying its efforts and expanding
its reach in this fast-moving Space Age.



A h ome vegetable garden
like this means better
Florida living for this re-
tiree at Melbourne Village.
Gardens furnish nutritious
f6od and a chance to enjoy
the out-of-doors.

~ ~C~I~I~ ~~ L ~ ~ ~ ~

,-IomC A-ICIU45-trila A r, r- 1, o.,lal



"The thrill of a lifetime-the outstanding high-
light of my 4-H career"-that's how Paul Hen-
drick, Jr., of Jasper described his selection to rep-
resent the United States at the first World Agri-
cultural Fair in New Dehli, India. Paul is an 18
year old student of the University of Florida.
Hendrick and seven other 4-H Club boys and
girls have acted as guides in the United Statts
exhibit. They also demonstrated rural American
dancing and folk dancing.
Other 4-H Club members selected are Kenneth
Kehrer, Connecticut; Nancy Nesbit, New York;
Rebecca Passmore, Tennessee; Ferdinand Thar,
Michigan; Patricia Bottomley, Minnesota; Stanley
Stewart, California; and Kay Mihata, Hawaii.
The 4-H group attended the fair from Decem-
ber, 1959 until February, 1960. They then took a
two months' tour through India, and returned
home by way of Europe.
Paul is the son of Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Hendrick,
Jasper. He first joined the Jasper 4-H Club in
1952. During his 4-H career, Paul has won many
awards and honors.
In 1957 and 1958, he was elected president of
both his local club and the Hamilton County 4-H
Council. In those two years he also placed first
in county, district and bi-district public speaking
contests and was a finalistic in state competition.
He was selected the outstanding 4-H member in
the county for 1957 and 1958.
At the 1958 Boys' 4-H Club Short Course, Hen-
drick was elected state secretary of the State
Boys' 4-H Council. He was a member of the
state 4-H livestock judging team which went to
the International Livestock Exposition in Chicago
that year.
In 1957, he represented Florida at the National
4-H Club Congress in Chicago. In 1959 Hendrick


represented the state at the National 4-H Club
Conference in Washington, D. C.
During his 4-H career, Hendrick has received
scholarships totalling nearly $3,000 for his college
education. He is presently studying agriculture
and political science at the University of Florida.
His 4-H Club projects have included garden-
ing, corn, poultry, home improvements, tobacco,
swine production, beef cattle, planting pines,
planting improved pasture, clearing land, truck
crops, dairy cattle, and sheep.

Paul Hendrick, third from left, explains to na-
tive visitors at 1he First World Agricultural Fair
in New Delhi, India, the importance of keeping
milking utensils clean. He was one of eight 4-H
Club boys az3 girls selected to work in the
American Pavilion.

Representative Government In 4-H

Florida's 4-H clubs-like the parliamentary
democratic governments of the United States and
Great Britain-are representative democracies.
The parliament or congress of 4-H is the ,C: :
Council, and the equivalent of our state legisla-
tures can be found in the District 4-IH Councils.
County councils are like Boards of County Com-
County work fosters leadership, citizenship,
and personal development. These 4-H councils
are made up of members elected by local club
members to serve at county, district and state

Members of the Stale 4-H Club Council meet at
the annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course. This
council is the congress of Boys' 4-H work.

i.l-. ii. meet to discuss, plan, and carry out
4-H programs and activities of interest to them-
selves. Extension agents are on hand to give ad-
vice and assistance as need ed. Councils are
bridges of two-way communication between in-
dividual members and the overall 4-H (',. pro-
At Council mm' i-l, '.. members present ;.:..!.-
lems, discuss these problems and develop .' -
The problem mi.'l' be 1--:I'. m; members enrolled
and interested, transportation, or the need for
project materials.
Whatever the situation, these elected .1.1, ,i, .
are -,i-.l',;in and solving their own problems.
Basically, councils help in ..1: nn ii.- and i ., '!.

out county, district, and state 4-HI programs.
Some of these undertakings last year included
Rally and Achievement Days, banquets, tours,
camps, clinics, short courses, shows and fairs,
and contests.
''i rewards for council participation are not
material ones. Few, if any, Council delegates or
officers get ribbons, gifts, or lavish trips as cor-
pensation. But, they have learned the value of
i" I ~' development --development not meas-
ured in a material way. 'I'morrow's leaders are
being developed in such ways


The Right Career

i. i are our young people coming to?"
That's a question we often hear. Extension is
concerned with helping our teenagers supply a
satisfactory answer.
For this reason, the 4-H Club is now offering
a project in career exploration. The object is to
guide teenagers who are thinking about what
career to follow-to help them explore systemati-
cally the many i' '. opportunities available to them
,I.1- .,1, at the same time help them choose
in line with their own abilities and desires.
Besides, this new I:....j: gives young people
the .'[" '...ni to learn a systematic method to
use in making decision. The irject encour-
ages 4-H members to look into alternatives and
to ,.l:...' ie the various choices they could make.
The p;-iFject materials were developed primar-
ily by a Farm Foundation-sponsored committee of
Farm Management Specialists, with assistance
from State 4-H Club Agents and Economists from
the Federal Extension Service. C. C. '.l *::i.y,
Farm :I. n ,_. a.i Specialist for the .1.. i-. Ag-
ricultural Extension Service, is chairman of the
committee. He says the new project is being pre-
tested for one year in Tennessee, Texas, 'i.i-
homa and r;.., i
Six selected Florida counties are participating
in the testing program. They are Gadsden, Madi-
son, Manatee, Osceola, Brevard and Broward.
Lli :.. 1960, the project and the materials will
be carefully evaluated. Revisions will be made as
indicated from the experience gained in their use.
.. _;. i ; in r : ii!.. 1960, this project will be
available to all Florida young people over 14
years of age-both boys and girls-in rural and
urban areas



Florida's recipe for a fun-pack-
ed recreation program is: I a1.. a
group of 4-1 boys and girls; move
them about to mix and mingle;
spice upi with excitement, and use
games -new and old -as the leven-
ing ingredient..
The best chiefs for a sure suc-
cess with this fun recipe are 4-H
club members trained as junior



Leadership camps -- now in
their fourih year in Florida have
served in a n purposes. i '*
camps arc limited to boys and girls
14 ea rs and older. Programs have
interested these mcmibers. There
is a balance between fun, discussion .... rec-
reation, and i i1 for using this recreation
back home.
This year's Leadership ca nm s' recreation
reached a hiQh in fun, learning and leadership.
Through class discussions on how to plan rec-
reation programs. the boys and girls saw the
function and valiies of 'ecice;lion iii action. They
talked of 111 1i thirou h like interest, self-expres-
sion and rec1 ,n1)ition buildii] 00ood attitudes of
cooper ativt'enes and consideration of others rather
than playing just to win.
O()1er viluesof ji rea ion i covered: A chance
to relax. i change oir paci beimirin better ac-
quIai l and l'elini l a oneii ess As oI ne of the
group said, creation in 4-1i can be sulmed up
inl t\ ) words 'we' and 'ifun'."

F LE&0E. I 'T4 *' 01




The variety of activities included were: relays,
active, quiet, musical, mental, and spectator.
The boys and girls did not go to this camp
just for fun -- '. have used the games, ideas
and ideals learned in their own ( -I-I. and coun-
ties. Through their county camps alone these jun-
ior leaders have reached 6,000 4-H club members.
The recreation training and interest received
through 4-H has been used by the junior leaders
as a carryover to their church, school, and other
youth groups. And through these varied 4-H rec-
reational experiences, older boys and girls are
seeking recreation as a possible career. Two are
presently recreation majors at Florida State Uni-

" rida 4-1 In Action

TAP," the gavel sounds. The young
rises. "We will now our 4-
le says.
ied i ida club meetings attended last
rc than 700 i 4-] boys and girls.
tor".;s provided club members oppor-
laderhi, citim ship andii

W i)oi pro w k was important,
. projects, )o people get instrue-
q... Aives onck. viil'y, vegetables, ma-
' c. U'triO&t ,. orna!mentaws, eIntomno-

logy, and a variety of others. Taking part in other
activities such as judging, demonstrations, ree-
reational leadership, safety, conservation, forestry
and thrift -- gave self-confidence and know-how
to almost -. .I I 1 hi .ida 4-H boys and girls.
Agents and leaders helped members to practice
democratic principles by presiding at meetings,
entering discussions, giving reports, voting and
accepting majority rule. 1. I : had opportuni-
ties to make known program needs in keeping
with their interests. They 1... ...1 and carried
out tours, ra y and achievement . camps and
other 4-fl events.

1 CAP1

Year )
t V 'Y
C,1 I

Ir -i~-~- -- rI-

i K


Experiences in outdoor living, crafts, health,
water safety and agricultural and home economics
subjects highlighted the weeklong 4-H summer
camps last year. Some 6,000 club members at-

"-", - ..


.4 1



These five Florida 4-H Camps are located in
Okaloosa, Madison, Marion, Lake and Highlands
counties. Each year boys and girls from 66 Flor-
ida counties are selected by county and home
agents to attend one of these camps. Each camp
has a caretaker on year-round duty to safeguard
buildings and equipment and to maintain the
grounds and facilities.
The camping season began on June 1 and
ended on August 22 in 1959. Special camps were
held at selected camp sites during the year also.
Leadership Camps
Older boys and girls attended.weekend leader-
ship camps at Camp Cloverleaf (Highlands Coun-
ty) and Camp Cherry Lake (Madison County). At
these camps, the young people got instruction in
leadership and recreation to enrich county camp
and club programs. These older 4-H members
taught others at home about planning and con-
ducting assembly programs, ceremonials, water
safety, and indoor and outdoor recreation.
Wildlife Camp
An excellent example of a state-wide 4-H camp
is the annual Wildlife Carp held at 4-H Camp
McQuarrie for a week each summer.
Boys and agents from many Florida counties
attend. While at camp they take part in a wide
variety of activities. Several new features were
added this year.



New Activities
These new activities included boating and boat
safety. Qualified instructors from one of the na-
tional outboard motor companies led this group.
Fishing and fishing tackle was taught for the
second year and greatly enjoyed by the boys and
agents alike.

Gun safety instruction was another highlight
of this 24th annual Wildlife Camp. The campers
learned the commandments of gun safety, had
dry-run practice in sighting and trigger squeez-

m sslar
H Cluf

ing, and fired live ammunition at targets.
A cook-out in the Ocala Forest and a night
ride through the forest looking for deer was also
an enjoyable feature of last year's camp.

"~~ Ark~

*11 -_





Orange County's 4-H delegates to the American
Institute of Cooperation: Front, left to right, Mrs.
Joyce M. Rine, assistant home agent; Brenda Den-
nison; Jeannette Foote; and Jackie Plait. Rear:
Kenley Platt; Shelby Brothers, assistant county
agent; Tommy Edge, and Larry Hiatt.

Through their 4-H and FFA organizations,
young Floridians are getting an early start in
understanding and using farmer cooperatives.
And the awards they are winning prove their
ability in this field.
The second 4-H Cooperative Institute-directed
by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service-
was held this year. Florida was the first state in
the Union to have such an event. The Institute
was held at Daytona Beach on May 15th through
17th. One-hundred forty-two 4-H members and
leaders attended.
These members and leaders represented 10
girls' 4-H Clubs and 10 boys' 4-H Clubs, all dis-
trict winners. Delegates from each club received
an expense-paid trip as a reward for their club
having been chosen a district winner.
At Daytona Beach, representatives of farmer
cooperatives and groups of cooperatives in Florida
told 4-H members how and why their organiza-
tions came into being, what services they rendered
growers, etc. A representative of each club told
the group what their members were doing to
learn about and practice cooperation.
Florida also gets credit for providing more
national and regional winning FFA Chapters in
the FFA Cooperative Awards Program-spon-
sored by the American Institute of CooDeration-

than any other state. Florida also has one FFA
Chapter which has been Southern Regional Win-
ner in this program for three years, The South
Dade Chapter of Homestead. The Florida Council
of Farmer Cooperatives provided state awards in
this program, as well as the 4-H Cooperative
Awards Program.
Recognition for six district winning chapters
in Florida's FFA Cooperative Activity Contest
was given at Daytona Beach. During the Annual
FFA State Convention, held June 8-12 at Daytona,
representatives of e a c h winning chapter told
about the cooperative activities of their groups.
Each chapter received $100 expense money for
sending additional delegates to the Convention,
as well as beautiful plaques. Besides, the South
Dade Chapter received $500 to use in sending
delegates to the American Institute of Coopera-
tions's Annual Meeting at the University of Illi-
nois, August 8-13.
The state-winning S o u t h Dade Chapter-
through reports submitted in the national contest
-became Southern Regional Winner. Four re-
gional winning chapters are selected by the Amer-
ican Institute of Cooperation. The South Dade
Chapter received an extra $500 for being regional
The Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives
also awards $500 annually to the state winning
4-H Club for a trip to the American Institute.
This year the Orange County Dairy Club won
this honor.
Florida had five youth delegations of 4-H or
FFA Members at the American Institute of Co-
operation in August, 1959.

Future Farmers of America from Florida at .tie
Institute: Front, left to right, Maurice E. Ennis,
Paul Konsky, Donald King, and Donald Davis, Jr.
Rear, Vo. Ag. Teacher Lansing Gordon, Marketing
Specialist Dr. E. W. Cake of the Extension Serv-
ice, Eddie Starling, and Vo. Ag. Teacher Eugepn


Citrus people are asking, "What can we do to
bolster the diminishing supply of trained citrus
workers?" An obvious answer is: start with young
boys; train them.
To do just this, the Junior Citrus Institute
came into being in 1955.
In 1959, 96 4-H boys with outstanding citrus
projects were awarded a week in this camp, with
all expenses paid by the sponsors.
Extension Fruit Crops personnel and 4-H lead-
ers supervise and instruct at these Junior Citrus
Institutes. The boys operate and manage the
camp's five acre grove for a week. They hoe, they
fertilize, they dilute and mix insecticides, they
operate the machinery and they keep records.
Today-only four years after its beginning-
over 300 boys are at various levels of this inten-
sive five-year training program. They will be
the trained workers the industry needs for the

-H poultry Projects

.e More Than

Itry Production

Where are the youth of today headed?
This is a question responsible adults often ask
-and with reason. One only has to look about to
see that idleness prevails among many of our boys
and girls. Trouble usually follows idleness.
But trouble and delinquency among 4-H mem-
bers with poultry projects are rare. There are sev-
eral good reasons for this. The daily care and
attention required by birds in a poultry project
develop self-reliance and responsibility in young
people. It keeps them occupied in a worthwhile
activity. The nature of poultry production re-
quires attention to details-thus it teaches a per-
son to be precise and observant.
To properly operate a 4-H poultry project, a
young person exerts himself both mentally and
physically. This is a healthy outlet for these
Working with poultry develops a keener under-
standing of the feelings of living organisms. This
contributes toward a person's developing an
understanding and respect for the rights and
feelings of other people.
So a 4-H poultry project is an outstanding tool
for the development of an individual. It also
trains boys and girls in poultry production, and
recruits leaders for the poultry industry.
Delinquency is rare among the nearly 3,000
4-H Club boys and girls in poultry projects in

YOUNG PEOPLE--and Their World

Young people need to appreciate the value of
natural resources. They are the coming genera-
tion who will literally "inherit the earth."
The Extension 4-H Club Program provides an
excellent opportunity for youngsters to develop
their interests along the lines of soil and water
conservation. But this sometimes presents prob-
lems because 4-H Club members are not often
landowners. Besides, it is also hard for them to
see immediate progress-particularly in terms of
dollars and cents.
Four-H workers interest young people in con-

servation by explaining that good management
(conservation) practices contribute to the success
of other projects in which the 4-H'er may be
Last year over 7,000 club members received
instruction in soil and water conservation. Forty
boys earned gold medals for their accomplish-
ments in conservation. Seventy-nine boys attend-
ed the annual 4-H Wildlife Camp where they at-
tended classes in soil and water conservation;
boats, motors and waterfront safety; and fishing
and fishing tackle.

For the third consecutive year, a land apprecia-
tion school and judging contest for 4-H Club and
FFA Chapter teams was held in the Chipola River
Soil Conservation District in 1959. Contestants
came from the three counties-Jackson, Calhoun
and Liberty-which make up the district.
An approach different from that of previous
years was used in 1959. The first two years, the

Above: Mrs. Velma Clunan, Sec;i: -ij o Jacicson
County Agricultural Extensior, '-; registers
contesting teams as i"-.' arrive.

Below: Chairman John D. Fuqua '' .
River Soil Conservation District, i- -i. *
comes quests and instructs the contestants in the
rules of the contest.

Food i:; ''. ,,. t .. -.-.-. to boys. Here Mr.
:-.uiq,. n-, I ,.. -, -. : '.,: boys are well fed at
lunch time.

Extension Conservationist conducted the events.
This year the event was conducted entirely by
local people.
County Extension Agents and Vocational Agri-
culture teachers gave contestants necessary in-
struction before the event. Representatives from
the Soil Conservation District Governing Body,
Soil Conservation Service, Agricultural Extension
Service, State Department of Education and pri-
vate enterprise made up a team which guided the
day-long program.
A similar event was held for the first time in

the Hillsborough Soil Conservation District, Hills-
borough County, Florida.
So much interest has developed that a state

land judging event was held in April of 19tiU.
Winners of the State event will represent Florida
in the Ninth National Land Judging Contest.

Mr. John E. Lambe, District Sup-
ervisor. (right rear) conducted
Group 2 to the various sites to
complete the field judging.

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4-H Shows, Exhibits And Contests

Four-H boys showed a range of things from
steers to honey at more than 100 shows and fairs
last year. Four-H contests (dairy, livestock, trac-
tor, soils, vegetables, public speaking and lamp
making, also involved thousands of members in

healthy competition.
Most of the exhibits at 4-H shows, fairs, and
contests are related to the members' project work.
They give the members an added reason to do
their best. Members showed an active interest
in the ten 4-H district event days, state dairy and
poultry shows, at Orlando; fat steer shows at
Ocala, Quincy, Madison, Pensacola, and Tampa;
sate corn, fat barrow and breeder hog shows at
Tallahassee; and numerous judging contests
throughout the state.

Thus, thousands of 4-H members were gain-
fully involved in constructive activities. Let's con-
sider a special case-Tom Williams of St. Cloud
in Osceola County has been a consistent exhibitor
of champion and grand champion steers through-

A group of 4-H Club boys
discuss their entries in the
4-H Club State Dairy Show
at Orlando. This is a yearly

out his 4-H career. He has also practiced thrift.
Presently, Tom is a student at the University of
Florida, pursuing a degree in Veterinary Science.
He has earned and saved enough money to fi-
nance his own college education.
Other former 4-H'ers are here at the University
of Florida using money earned in their 4-H ca-
reers. They enjoy with their parents a feeling of
financial security. This might not have been pos-
sible without productive projects and participa-
tion in shows and fairs.

.. "






Many 4-H members get first hand experience
in forestry and wildlife management in Florida's
4-H forests.
On the 16 county 4-H forests scattered through-
out Florida, hundreds of members learn about our
many valuable commercial forest trees and game
These 4-H forests are often sponsored by wood
using industries under a lease agreement. Three-
fourths of the profits from the 4-H County Forest
usually goes to 4-H Clubs of the county and /4
goes to improvement of the forest itself.
These forests average about 20 acres in size.
In them, County Agents, Extension Foresters,
and industry and local leaders give instructions
in all phases of forestry, nature study and wild-
life management. County 4-H forests supplement
the regular 4-H forestry projects.
An outstanding example of a 4-H County
Forest is the Escambia Timber-Grazing and Game
Project. This 440 acre tract is managed for tim-
ber, cattle and game. Annual forestry meetings
are held on the project. The Escambia forest was
established in 1943; it now has a camp including
cabins, an auditorium and a caretaker's house. At

County Agent W. 0. Whittle of Lafayette County
discusses forestry with a group of 4-H club boys
during the dedication of the County 4-H Forest.

least one full week of camp a year is held for
Escambia County 4-H members. At this time,
qualified instructors teach all phases of forestry
to the boys.
Several thousand dollars worth of timber has
been cut off this project. Generally 4-H forests
yield a cash profit. Yet, this money is only of

lessons learned by 4-H boys actually working in
the woods on these 4-H county projects is beyond


Young vegetable growers find that it's lots of
fun to judge, grade and identify vegetables. This
means a successful completion of a home, market
and commercial gardening year. They also learn
selection, grade defects, insects, diseases, nutrient
deficiencies and weeds.
Four-H vegetable judging, grading and identi-
fication activities were held in 22 counties in
1959. Other counties participated in district train-
ing schools and more limited training for 4-H
The second state 4-H club vegetable judging,
grading and identification event was held at the
Orange County Agricultural Building in Orlando
during the year.
The Clay County 4-H team represented Florida
in the National 4-H Club Vegetable Judging,
Grading and Identification contest. This was held
at the National Junior Vegetable Growers' Asso-
ciation Convention in Washington, D. C.
St. Johns County, one of eight original pilot
counties, held a complete county-wide vegetable

judging, grading and identification event this
year. The Hastings Rotary Club sponsored the
contest and furnished engraved trophies and pens
to the four high individuals. Members of their
state winning team had presented a program at
one of their meetings.
Adding a vegetable judging, grading and iden-
tification event has been a valuable asset to the
4-H club program of St. Johns County as well as
other counties. It gives 4-H members with vege-
table projects an opportunity to compete in a con-
test, and at the same time increases their know-
ledge of all phases of vegetable production.
The Home Gardening Specialist assists Agri-
cultural Extension agents and 4-H Club leaders
in planning these judging, grading, and identifi-
cation events, training club members and in con-
ducting county events. He also held district train-
ing schools. Besides, training materials were pro-
vided for 4-H club members, leaders and exten-
sion agents.

B Boys' 4-H

Short Course

"What's that?" asked a boy. "Century'Tower,
the heart of the University of Florida campus,"
answered the County Agent, as he turned down
Stadium Road towards the new men's dormitories
with his 4-H delegation.
He, along with agents from 59 other counties,
were bringing 392 select 4-H members to the
Fortieth Annual Boys' 4-H Short Course, June
8-12, 1959-its theme "You and the University."
Each year, this short course brings 4-H Club
members to the University of Florida. These
young men are taught by college professors and
Extension staff members; housed in the newest
men's dormitories; and served meals in the Uni-
versity Cafeteria. Subject-matter instruction in
agriculture is enriched by special tours to visit
points of interest on the campus. Short Course
delegates also take part in organized recreation
and enjoy the facilities of the University pool.
The 1959 short course was designed to give the
most opportunity for leadership development to
the delegates. They assumed important responsi-
bilities. These included presiding over general
assemblies, serving as junior leaders, preparing
and giving reports, various committee assign-
ments, and providing delegates to State 4-H

Bill Nelson, Melbourne, 1959 State 4-H Public
Speaking Contest winner, makes his winning
speech. This contest is held during Boys' 4-H
Short Course.

County delegations remain in groups by 4-H
districts for assemblies, instruction, recreation,
meals and lodging. This permits each Extension
agent to serve as counselor to his own county
Several outstanding state-wide 4-H activities
were staged in conjunction with the short course
last year. These included: The annual meeting of
the State Boys' 4-H Council and election of offi-
cers; state 4-H dairy judging contest and selecting
a champion team; state tractor operators' contest
and selecting Florida's representative to the re-
gional contest held in Richmond, Virginia, in Sep-
tember; recognizing district and state winners in
the 4-H cooperative program and reading lamp
contest; and presenting the speeches of the five
finalists in the 4-H State Public Speaking Contest.

The 44th annual 4-H club short course
at Florida State University is their
"beat" and their paper is "The Florida
Cloverleaf." These two reporters are
Phyllis Roberts (left) of Tallahassee
and Florence Ann Mikler of St. Augus-
tine. Their paper was distributed daily
to 500 4-H club members and leaders.

~ __ _l__l___l_________s~_

And 4-H

The coming of the Satellite Age has brought a
keen interest in science to many young people.
4-H members are showing an interest and aptitude
for projects in technical fields, such as electricity.

Bo y s learn about voltage
drop at State 4-H Tractor-
Electric Clinic-1959.

Enrollment in electric projects has almost
doubled in the past two years. Extension seeks to
help sustain 4-H members' natural interest and
to give them backing. To do this, all rural power
suppliers have been invited to aid the 4-H Elec-
tric Program.
In 1959, projects in 59 counties were sponsored
by 14 rural electric cooperatives and one major
power company. Materials valued at $20 were
provided to each county.
State Contest
State Lamp Contests were held to interest 4-H
members in electricity and to help improve their
lighting at home. Three private utilities-Florida
Power Corporation, Gulf Power Company, and
Florida Power & Light Company-sponsored this
One hundred and fifteen adult and junior
leaders received advanced training in two state-
wide clinics. These clinics and the state awards
in the Electric Program were sponsored by the
Florida REA Cooperatives Association. This
group is composed of electric co-ops located at
Jay, DeFuniak Springs, Wewahitchka, Madison,
Live Oak, Chiefland, Keystone Heights, Dade
City, Ft. Myers, Wauchula, Moore Haven, Taver-
nier, Quincy, Sumterville, and Nahunta, Georgia.
The help given the Extension Electrification

Program by power suppliers has been largely re-
sponsible for progress to date.
This support will help insure the continued

interest of 4-H boys and girls in electricity. Such
work can become a stepping stone to lifetime
careers in engineering and science.



*1~ *
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Getting, a start in Citrus: Assistant County Agent
Verne Caldwell (left) supervises 4-H Club boys
in planting a citrus tree at the 4-H Citrus Insti-

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DE'"VE "' P

Ai' GR~K~DOi

Florida Home Demonstration Club work is
based on the needs and wants of the people in
local clubs. Local leaders guide it. In such leader-
ship is its strength.
During 1959, over 45 hundred women served as
officers, chairmen or other leaders for these
Clubs. Home Demonstration agents in the coun-
ties helped these leaders by setting up training
meetings and by supplying them with guide mate-
rials and handbooks.
Local leaders guided the c 1 ubs by helping
agents make plans for club programs and other
activities. They also helped put these plans into
Thinking and planning by people throughout
a county can strengthen community programs.
Here is where county Home Demonstration Coun-
cils are most important. There are 45 such coun-
cils in the State.
Council officers and chairmen work with the

agents to find county-wide interests and needs.
They also plan activities to support the teaching
program led by the agents. Events such as tours.
achievement days and exhibits provide new ideas.
Councils help provide scholarships to camp and
4-H Short Course to encourage 4-H club members.
The State Home Demonstration Council repre-
sents the top level of leadership in Home Demon-
stration Club Work. Two representatives of each
of the 45 county councils make up this group.
Some of the things accomplished by this state
group of leaders were: making recommendations
for home demonstration activities; sponsoring the
project for District 4-H Club camp improvement;
and helping provide a college scholarship loan
The theme for the 1959 State Council Meet-
ing Keep the Lights Burning: Knowledge,
Understanding, Service express the philosophy
of this group of leaders.

An exhibit, "Family Meals In
Disaster," prepared by the Fami-
ly Food Committee and the Citi-
zenship and Civil Defense Com-
mittee of the State Senior Coun-
cil of Home Demonstration Work.
'Pictured, left to right, are: Mrs.
M. T. Crutchfield, President, State
Senior Council of Home Demon-
stration Work: Miss Anna Mae
Sikes, State Home Demonstration
Agent; and Mrs. W. S. Steen,
Chairman, State Citizenship and
Civil Defense Committee.

. 1.


Families are the basis of our civilization. We
must encourage and strengthen them if our way
of life survives. Extension is working to help
with this effort.
Let's look in on a typical adult leader training
meeting in Family Life Education.
The chairs are arranged in a semi-circle-there
are no backs to stare at. The instructor asks each
person to introduce herself and tell something
about her family. This helps to "loosen up" peo-
ple and make them feel at ease.
The topic for discussion is, "United We Stand"
(as a family). The specialist shows two posters-
United we stand for: appreciation, understanding,
cooperation, happiness, consideration, and love;
Divided we fall for: criticism, misunderstanding,
uncooperativeness, unhappiness, and self-pity. She
hands out a leaflet to the members-in this leaf-
let is a page for each family member-a pre-
school, school-age child, adolescents, parents, and
grandparents. The needs of each individual are
Discussion follows. In it, the leaders decide,
first of all, that we must know the particular
needs of each family member. These needs must
be considered. Second, we must know the needs
we all have in common.
The group joins in guided discussion-What
are some things to do to help families feel united?
The leader uses a flannel board for visual mate-
rials. Words and pictures suggest ideas. Ideas
come from the group.
Now it is time for lunch.
After lunch comes the question and answer
period. This can help clear up any questions that
might need answering. The discussion is lively,
with everyone participating.
The group now divides into buzz groups. They
will decide how the information received will be
carried back to their clubs. Each group reports
its ideas. Each member gets printed materials
containing a bibliography.
A number of meetings such as this one were
held by the family life specialist last year in
several parts of Florida. Over 200 leaders from
Home Demonstration Clubs, and others, attended
these meetings. The influence of these leaders
will be felt when they carry this information to
other Florida women. Our families may be
strengthened by these efforts.

Miss Ruth Harris, left, Extension family life spec-
ialist, talks with a group of Home Demonstration
Club leaders.

"Layman leadership"-that's a phrase often
used in our churches. But the 4-H Club organi-
zation is "led by laymen," too. Dedicated local
leaders and families make it possible to bring the
benefits of 4-H to many more people than would
be possible with professional guidance alone.
Florida's Agricultural .Extension Service-the
official group which guides 4-H-made an all-out
effort to discover and encourage local leaders
during 1959. All Extension workers joined to
back a state-wide Leadership Development Pro-
This program began with six pilot counties-
two in each Extension District. These counties
were Seminole, Clay, Jackson, Leon, Polk and
Levy. This Leadership Development Program
will eventually reach all of Florida's counties. The
result-more Florida boys and girls will enjoy the
benefits of belonging to the 4-H Club.
Already the six counties have made significant
progress in securing more volunteer workers, and
in planning and carrying out an intensive program
for 4-H adult and junior leaders. The leaders
themselves helped plan these training sessions.
Extension specialists cooperated by preparing
leader guides and needed project materials. They
have also revised 4-H literature and records in
line with the needs and interests of individual
club members and county programs.
Florida can expect more local 4-H Club lead-
ers, more project leaders and junior leaders as a
result of this program.

ii ~ JgE~ 1~ 1 ...'.i AI

"Five years ago in our county, 4-H leaders
were practically heard of. This year twenty-one
4-H leaders attended County Achievement Day
at the Agricultural Center." This report from
one Home Demonstration Agent shows how 4-H
leadership is growing.
For example, Taylor County reports that their
number of 4-H leaders has increased 100 percent.
Other counties give similar increases.


An example of an active, wide-awake leader
is Mrs. Victor Nickerson. Mrs. Nickerson, a mo-
ther, leader, and Home Demonstration member,
volunteered her services as a 4-H leader after at-
tending 4-H functions with her daughter. She
has attended camp, prepared a County 4-H Lead-
ers' Handbook, plans, organizes and carries out
activities with her girls, provides transportation,
chaperons parties, and assists with the fair.
Here is another tribute to a local leader. "Nell"
is a 4-H Club girl who lives in a rural community
on the edge of the Everglades. At the time she
joined 4-H, the house in which she lived was
nothing to be proud of. The outside had not
been painted in many years; the yard was rough
and full of weeds. As Nell grew older this was
not pleasant.

Nell undertook a project to improve her home.
A new roof and siding were added. Steps were
repaired. The house was painted and the yard
was leveled and planted.
Nell's leader, who was in the landscape busi-
ness, was able to help materially. She assisted
in working out a two-year landscape plan. This
included grass on the lawn; a ficus tree for shade;
a banana hedge at the back to hide an unsightly
view and to provide fruit; palms, and shrubs.

State Girls' 4-H Club
Council Officers: These
/, girls, with other junior and
adult leaders, help their
S Home Demonstration Agents
develop and carry out the
girls' 4-H Club program.

Franklin County chose leadership as the major
phase of work for the year. Their theme was
"4-H Leaders in Action."
In Sumter County, the 4-H Club program was
carried on for a year by leaders, since there was
no Home Demonstration Agent. These leaders
were completely responsible for organizing and
carrying through local club and county-wide pro-
grams. A few of these programs were dress
revue, demonstration day, achievement day and
county camp.
The junior leaders of the county also assumed
much responsibility. Around 75 junior leaders
are active in a county-wide teenage club. These
young people go back into their community clubs
to assist young 4-H members in club organization,
their project work and numerous other things
that 4-H Club members do.

~:~: Et .. ;is.

A representative of an elec-
tric supplier teaches 4-H
boys about electric welding.
Cooperation by electric
power suppliers has helped
make electric clinics poss-

Florida agriculture is changing radically.
Everywhere this change can be seen-but in no
area is it more important than in mechanization.
More and more, farm machinery, electric motors
and gasoline and diesel engines are replacing
human and animal labor.
But new methods bring new problems. Peo-
ple who understand these new ways of doing
things are needed. The Extension Service has a
plan to meet this need for workers trained in
electrification and machinery. In this plan, em-
phasis is being placed on 4-H projects in elec-
tricity and tractor care.
This year two joint 4-H Tractor-Electric
Clinics were held. Representatives of electric
power suppliers, farm machinery distributors, and
a major oil company taught 200 adult and junior
leaders. These teachers gave training in ma-
chinery maintenance and the safe, economical use
of electricity. The leaders who were trained will
go back to their respective counties and help

Four-H Club members working in the grove at
4-H Club Camp Cloverleaf near Lake Placid dur-
ing the Junior Citrus Institute.

others in these areas.
County agents were also trained for more ef-
fective work in this area. They held round-table
discussions and learned how to locate and train
volunteer leaders for 4-H work.
The final result will be more people trained
to solve tomorrow's problems caused by more
mechanization on Florida's farms.



New hope for safer farming in Florida came
about this year with the organization of a State
Farm Safety Committee.
The National Safety Council, the Florida Farm
Bureau, and the Agricultural Extension Service
helped develop the organization. Objectives of
the committee are to show farm people safer
ways of performing their work and to help them
to become more safety-conscious.
The following agencies are also participating
in the safety committee: Florida Fruit & Vege-
table Growers' Association, Vocational Agricul-
tural Education, Agricultural Stabilization & Con-
servation Committee, Florida Retail Farm Equip-
ment Association, Florida Committee on Rural
Health, Florida State Board of Health, Florida
REA Cooperatives Association, Soil Conservation
Service, and the Farmers' Home Administration.
The interest shown by this Farm Safety Com-
mittee foretells effectiveness in reducing the in-
juries and accidents to Florida farm workers.


From chickee to Chairman of the Business
Council of the Seminole Indian Tribe of Florida-
that's the story of Rev. Bill Osceola as told by
Fred Montsdeoca, Extension Agent for Indian
This young Indian boy migrated from his
home on the Tamiami Trail to the Dania Reserva-
tion 16 years ago. With the help of a friend
as interpreter he got work on a construction job.
On this job, he showed enthusiasm and ability
to work hard, and became a bulldozer operator.
Montsdeoca says, "He was very determined to
succeed, in spite of the fact he could speak little
English, because he could see the time coming
when his people would have to change their way
of life. He realized this would have to be done
through educating the Indian youth. This young
Indian boy was thinking how he could help his
Osceola met and married a Seminole girl from
the Dania Reservation who had attended the
Indian Boarding School in Cherokee, N. C. She
interested him in the Christian religion, and would
read to him from the Bible, explaining in their
native tongue. As a result, Bill was converted to
the Baptist faith. He abandoned the Seminole
Indian religious customs, such as their Indian corn
With the assistance of his wife and mission-
aries working among the Seminoles-and through
hard work and study-Osceola became an or-
dained minister. He is now preaching among
his people, besides his other services.

This is the new house built by Bill Osceola. It is
well furnished and has many modern conveni-
ences. It is a far cry from the chickee. Osceola
is now a Baptist preacher and Chairman of the
Business Council of the Seminole tribe of Florida.

The Seminoles had developed, with the help
of Extension and other agencies, a tribal herd of
cattle. In 1954, Bill became interested in cattle.
He purchased cattle from the tribe on an eight-
year loan basis.
Almost at once, he became a leader among
the Indian cattlemen. He held the office of Chair-
man of the Board of Trustees in their cattlemen's
Association. He served as a director on the Cat-
tlemen's Association Board for a number of years.
He has worked very hard, Montsdeoca says, to
convince his people of the advantage of seeking
more information and adopting more ideas.
He decided with his family that they could af-
ford a new home. Through the assistance of the
Friends of the Seminoles and other business peo-
ple, he started building his first home.

Osceola worked with other leaders to organize
4 the Seminole Tribe. This was accomplished in
'A- 1957. After this organization, he sold his house to
the Tribe for a business office and built a new
home. This home is beautifully furnished with
many modern conveniences and the yard is well
landscaped. About 30 other Indian families now
live in houses for the first time. At least 20 of
these houses are very modern.
Through the leadership and ability of leaders
.. like Rev. Bill Osceola, and with the help of Ex-
tension and other agencies, Florida's Seminoles
are taking their place as citizen of a great coun-


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1*,i ~p '" r -,

,c. *

Bill Osceola grew up in a chickee like this on the
Tamiami Trail. Many of his people still live in
54 such camps.

* *1...





;:-. ;J



1 ,

The Need to Know

Developing Home Grounds

More than 200,000 new residents pour across
Florida's borders each year. Most of these people
want and need information on Florida's orna-
mental plants, climate, and soils.
These new residents need help in developing
new homes in a strange environment. Many turn
to Extension.
Individual visits by specialists or county work-
ers can reach only a few of the people requesting

B ;XJ-HI^B .-
Dr. E. W. McElwee, Extension Ornamental Horti-
culturist, (left) and Mrs. Sue Young, (right). Brev-
ard County Home Demonstration Aqent, discuss
landscaping problem with a HD club member
during a workshop on home grounds improvement
held at the Brevard County Agricultural Center.

help. The Extension workers contact many peo-
ple through schools, but it is not easy to help with
specific problems.
As a possible better method, workshops are
being tested. Specialists, county workers, and
homeowner all direct their attention to home
grounds problems. The success of this method
depends on some action being taken on what has
already been learned.
Let's take a look at the activities of a home
demonstration group in Brevard County, Florida.

under the leadership of Mrs. Sue Young.
Club members attended workshop sessions.
They were instructed in making plans and se-
lecting plants for their home grounds.
Later, specialists met with the group to dis-
cuss problems. Plans made by members were
gone over before the entire group. A specialist
and the home agent visited the homes of some
members-others brought their plans to the coun-
ty office for help.
Quite a few homeowners have done a com-
mendable job of landscaping their homes. The
cooperation of the specialist, county personnel
and homeowner has been effective.

Improved living conditions for Floridians-
whether they live on the farm or in the city-this
is the objective of Extension home grounds im-
provement work.
To forward this objective, 4 one-day schools
on farm and home development were conducted
for Farm and Home Administration supervisors
this year. These schools were a significant step
toward bettering living conditions in Florida.
The supervisors wanted to become better in-
formed on the landscape needs of small home
grounds to be able to judge landscape jobs and
to help others do so.
Schools were held in different districts of the
state. More than 60 supervisors attended. Spe-
cialists taught procedures in landscaping, select-
ing ornamental plants, transplanting, pruning, fer-
tilization, and lawns. They also answered many
questions asked by the supervisors.
The result of these schools? There has been a
definite improvement in the quality of plants
and the landscaping of FHA homes.

TIj~r. -~

K~Z.~ IL!


U ~n,


.1: 14'
4 ,er ;

-~, 444

annee County's Rural Development Com-
e ad to "borrow time" around the clock to
et emergency in their liming program. They
S had one week to alert farmers all over
to sign up for a new ASC practice
itic limestone on summer cover crops.
this group did exploded the idea that
c mittees must work slowly.
"A committee." says County Extension Agent
Paul Crews, "is like a ball team-only as good as
its members. When a committee is well organized
and full of pep, it can do a lot more-and do it
quicker-than individuals working at cross pur-
poses or duplicating effort can do."
Associate Extension Agent Howard Smith
served as chief coach and organizer. He found it
was no small job to arrange for buying, shipping,
and spreading 10,000 tons of dolomite on 300 dif-
ferent farms.
4-H Club members and vocational agriculture
students visited farms. They took soil samples
and spread the news. Railway officials, spreader
services and limestone suppliers helped plan for
special rates and efficient service. Officials of
banks, production credit associations, and Farm-
ers' Home Administration arranged financing
until ASC could issue purchase orders.

.4 4 .

The press gave enthusiastic support and pub-
licity. The radio station donated time for repeat-
ed spot announcements.
The end of the week saw applications from 282
farmers for 10,483 tons of dolomite-eight times
as much as ever used before in one year in
Suwannee County.

Davis Bass, truck driver, left, explains the mech-
anics of a lime spreader to Associate County
Agent Howard Smith, kneeling, and Aubrey Fowl-
er, a Live Oak farmer.

FV" t*

Suwannee County Rural I
velopment lime progri
was backed by the count
lending agencies. Maki
plans are: left to right, A
brey Fo w 1 e r, Producti
Credit Assn.; Howa:
Smith, associate cour
agent: J. B. Mills. Aqrici
tural Stabilization and Cc
servation: Paul Cre
County agent; W. M. Jen
gan, Commercial Bar
Live Oak: Jud Fulmer, i
/ sistant county agent: a&
Windell Roberts, Farme
Home Adm.



Rural Housing

Poor rural housing has long been a problem
in Florida. Early in 1959, the Home Demonstra-
tion Agent in Marion County decided that she
would do something about housing.

The agent asked the Extension Agricultural
Engineer for advice. Together they decided that
a demonstration approach was best.

Two families were selected as cooperators;
one whose home needed remodeling and another
who was planning a new home. These families
were the Wylie Dunns and the Jessie Proctors.
The needs of the families were discussed. Both
agreed that they would follow plans prepared by
the Extension Service. They also agreed that the
Home Demonstration Agent could use their homes
later as demonstration homes.

Each of these projects was completed in 1959.
Both families followed the recommended plans.
In each case, the family was pleased with the

Many home demonstration women and others
throughout Marion County have visited these
homes. The result is that interest has developed
in better housing. To satisfy this interest, a two
day housing clinic is planned for 1960.

Marion County is not unique in its rural
housing problems-nor need it be unique in the
approach to solving these problems. What has
been done to better housing in Marion County is
possible in all areas of the state. Leadership,
planning and cooperation can do the job.

Here is a modern farm
home built from plans sup-
plied by the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service
plan service. Such modern
housing improves the com-
munities in which they are


For Better Homes

Cooperation and training were the keynotes
in a joint effort by two governmental agencies in
Florida last year. The problem-poor housing in
some of our rural areas.

Many individuals and groups are interested in
getting better housing in rural Florida. The peo-
ple most concerned-those who occupy the below-
standard houses-often cannot do much about it
without help. Just as slums are associated with
low income urban dwellers, poor housing is asso-
ciated with low income rural people.

The governmental agencies-the Agricultural
Extension Service, and the Farmers' Home Ad-
ministration-are vitally interested in this prob-
lem. Both have active programs to help the rural
farm family improve their home and surround-

During 1959, these two agencies cooperated in
a series of three training meetings. Seventy-five
county personnel from both agencies received
training in home planning and home beautifica-
tion. Instructors were members of the Agricul-
tural Engineering, Home Economics, and Orna-
mental Horticulture staffs of the Agricultural
Extension Service.

As a result of this specialized training, the
county personnel will be better prepared to help
families with their home problems. It will give
them confidence to encourage these families arid
offer assistance. The result should be better
homes and happier families in Florida's country-


Extension Lends A Helping Hand
Florida Home Demonstration works with low must plan. They must also exerci ill we
income groups as well as others. The two groups keep from spending for some in
given special attention this past year were the family plan. The home agent poid out t at
Seminole Indians and migratory farm families, one way to avoid this temptation wa to put a ay
A home demonstration agent works with the the money for the house, car, f rniture
Seminole Indians on three of the four reservations utilities out of handy reach until st
in South Florida. Regular county home demon- month.
station agents do the work with the families of Similar family finance programs are planned
migratory farm workers. for each new group of home loan families.
It takes good management to pay for a new
house and its upkeep. So, the Indian agent puts a Migrant Workers
high priority on money management education in In Manatee County some migrant workers and
working with Seminole Indians. These people are others live in substandard homes. Extension co-
developing their first housing project at Dania operates with the County Planning Board and
Reservation. Health Department in working on this problem.
A meeting was held to explain money manage- This year a County Health Council was formed
ment principles to the families whose home loans of doctors and representatives of various civic
had been approved. The home agent, the tribal organizations.
council chairman, the agency credit officer, and The Health Council worked to correct prob-
the agency superintendent made the arrange- lems of the migrant workers. Work was also done
ments. The council chairman contacted the fami- td make the county's public areas more beautiful.
lies. He invited both husbands and wives to at- One 4-H club landscaped their community park
tend and also served as interpreter, and built a barbecue pit there. Another 4-H club
The home agent gave an illustrated talk on planted a tree in the entrance park of Bradenton.
"The Family Weekly Pay Check." The average This is one of the trees that are lighted for the
weekly income among the Seminole Indians is Christmas season.
$55.00 a week. She divided play money totaling The Home Demonstration Council is working
$55.00 to show how expenses could be met. on plans for a wayside park. Help was given to
To buy their new home-and to properly oper- the Garden Club on programs at club meetings.
ate and maintain it-each family saw that they They gave a program for the Builders' Association
on 'What Women Want in Their homes.'
Home demonstration agents have assisted low
income families (migrants and others) with food
nutrition and food conservation in Gadsden, Ma-
rion, Polk, Highlands, Manatee, and Hillsborough
The Dade County home agent was asked to
-! assist with some homemaking instruction for mi-
grant youngsters again this year. The major part
of this work dealt with foods and nutrition. The
use of more milk is felt to be the greatest diet
need of this group. Since they are a low income
group the preparation and use of dry milk served
S.. as a starting point.

.. :Members of the Seminole tribe are happy in a
new home. Many Seminoles are leaving the chick-
ees for new homes on the South Florida reserva-

The new home of Joe and Mary Bowers
at Dania.

The agent demonstrated
at one meeting. Then at t
girls working as teams prj
They also used evapor
instruction. jn using
.in usina

May Dell Osceola in front of her cozy, re-
modeled home.

desserts. The agent pointed out the cost of
and evaporated milk as compared to whole
1'ell" wish arbonated drinks.
o we "rest, toD. In fact, they were
tere6 t f a/das:jas d for them too.

VS~n /'^


i -vi-

o. -

Back view of homes of Jack and Mary Mot-
low and Jackie and Frances Willie.




-- 1

Home of Max and Laura Mae Osceola.


f H ,-


"- ,"<^'.flP rcil,

- pensionn Service At Work

The purpose of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service is education. The Smith-Lever
Act-which established Extension-stated that
this Service will bring to the people "useful and
practical information on subjects relating to agri-
culture and home economics." Extension was
also "to encourage the application" of this infor-

The county agricultural and home demonstra-
tion agents make up the largest part of the staff
of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Of
a total of 323 people, they number 221. Sixty-six
county agricultural agents serve in Florida. Every
county except Monroe has an agent. There are
also 64 assistant county agents and two associate
agents. A staff of three district agents-responsi-
ble to the Director of Extension-supervise these

Home Demonstration
Fifty-three home demonstration agents wori
in as many Florida counties. They have 33 assist-
ant home agents who work with them. These
agents are also supervised by three district agents,
who are responsible to the State Home Demon-
stration Agent located in Tallahassee at Florida
State University. She, in turn, is responsible to
the Director.

Negro work goes on through 10 Negro county
agricultural agents and 12 Negro home demon-
stration agents. They are supervised by a man
and a woman District agent office at Florida
A&M University in Tallahassee.

Youth work is very important in the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service program. Every-
one in Extension assists. Four men and three wo-
men give immediate supervision. The state is
divided into ten 4-H Districts. In each, 4-H pro-
grams are developed through joint planning by
the administrative, specialist and county staffs.

State Specialists

Men and women specialists work in various
fields of agriculture and home economics. They
keep county agents and home agents informed on
research developments and make recommenda-
tions in their fields. To do this, they must sift
through, sort, and package the tremendous volume
of technical information developed by research.

They present it to the county Extension workers
in a form that can be readily used. Agents also
call local problems to their attention. The special-
ists then refer these problems to research agencies
for attention when there is no research to solve
The specialists carry out their information
giving task by preparing printed materials, by
making radio tapes and TV film, by personal
visits to the counties for consultation, and through,
training sessions with the agents on state, area
and local levels. They assist in holding county,
District and State-wide institutes, short courses,
and conferences.

The editorial department of the Extension
Service edits and prepares for release all informa-
tion coming from the specialists and for formal
release bulletins, circulars, pamphlets, news
releases, radio tapes and TV films.

Besides, the members of the editorial depart-
ment serve as specialists in the field of commu-
nications. They advise specialists and county staff
members on information giving, and give special
training in this area to the other staff members
from time to time. Seven staff members work in
the editorial department.


The Extension Service is administered by a
staff headed by the Director. He is responsible
for administration at both state and county levels.
The Director reports to the President of the Uni-
versity of Florida through the Provost for Agri-
culture. He is also responsible to the Administra-
tor of the Federal Extension Service for the
proper use of federal funds and for carrying out
federal policies involved in administration of Ex-
tension work. The Director has an administrative
staff to assist him with this work. See the ap-
pendix for an organizational chart and a list of
staff members.

The Director of Extension is required by law
to serve on many policy-making boards and com-
mittees. He and other members of the Extension
staff serve on local, state and national committees
as a means of coordinating educational programs
and to participate in policy-making decisions af-
fecting farm people.

p 1


The effective operation of a home in present-
day society demands at least as much time, money,
intelligence, and achievement drive as the opera-
tion of a small business-in fact, it involves
many of the same activities.
Home Demonstration Work helps make these
activities more efficient, with the aim of develop-
ing more f; f f..l.I family living--in short, the
aim of Home Demonstration is better homes for
More and more people are ;, 1..'. "What is
Home Demonstration Work?" as Florida's popu-
lation spirals upward at the rate of more than
2500 new residents each week.
To answer, the State Home Demonstration
Agent this year prepared two talks on "Keys to
Home Demonstration Work" and "Cl ninm"
Styles in Home Demonstration Work." These
talks-with visuals-were given throughout the
state to county leaders, home demonstration coun-
cils, civic groups, educators and lay groups.
Home Demonstration work helps families cre-
ate a home environment nourishing to each fam-
ily member's well-being. It also shows how each
member can share the task of maintaining a
satisfying home.
Actually, better family living is the goal of
S'. I tlb;.. Extension does. When Extension helps
boost production efficiency, it helps the family to
increase its net income-to get more money to
buy the things that contribute to a higher living

Extension has the same objective in teaching
farm and home management. By managing their
resources wisely, families can reach objectives
that will lead to fuller, more satisfying living.
The same thing is true in other areas-market-
ing, leadership development, youth development,
natural resource conservation, community im-
provement and public affairs. i.-.. 1 contributes
to better family living.
Many developments affect the people, the
home and family life in Florida. Home Demon-
stration is reflecting these changes. Some include:
Changing community patterns; technological ad-
vances in the home and its equipment; rising edu-
cational levels; and rapid increases in population
and income.
A look at some of the more recent home
demonstration programs demonstrates >..,,.lin;
interests of Florida families. These include Fam-
ily Economics, Consumer Education, Home M -
agement, Human Relations, Food and Nutrition,
Clothing and Textiles, Housing, Citizenship,
Health and Safety, Conservation, and Problems
of Low Income families.
A well-rounded Home Demonstration program
means active support by all Extension Service
workers. Through planning with local people,
conditions that inhibit successful family living
can be identified. Then the resources of the Ex-
tension Service and other agencies and organiza-
tions can be directed toward helping families
achieve healthy, happy and productive lives.

Telling The News About Homemaking

Information about homemaking is spread in
many personal ways-from neighbor to neighbor,
home demonstration agents' visits and letters, and
at meetings. But through newspapers, magazines,
radio, television, bulletins, photographs, and
movies, agents and Extension specialists bring
their message to thousands of people at once.
The Agricultural Extension Service prints pub-
lications containing practical home economics in-
formation. These publications and publications of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture are available
on request for free distribution. Leaflets and cir-
cular letters on timely topics are distributed
In 1959, home demonstration workers prepared
thousands of news stories which were published
in Ihe newspapers of the state and in national

and state farm magazines.

Fifty-one leader training meetings in 4-H elub
news reporting were. hld. Home demonstration
leader training meetings in news reporting num-
bered 58.
Four special editions of newspapers were pub-
lished, featuring home demonstration and 4-H
club work. Home demonstration agents and spe-
cialists also made use of radio and TV to give
information and advice.
Home demonstration agents and club members
set up more than 400 educational exhibits at fairs
in 1959. Home demonstration and 4-H clubs ope-
rated or assisted with 126 libraries in Florida last
year. They also helped establish two regional
libraries this year.

Your Personal Pipeline to Those-Who-Know:

Classrooms Unlimited

Agricultural Extension is a teacher with many
classrooms-and many subjects to teach.
Do you want to know more about caring for
the lawn around your home-or your prize
shrubs? Extension can help you learn. You may
find out what you want to know by reading a
bulletin-attending a training school or clinic-
seeing a TV program-or calling your county
Are you looking for a way to clean the new
man-made fabrics safely? Then you may get your
answer from a radio program-a story on the
woman's page of the newspaper-a leaflet-or by
visiting your home demonstration agent.
Agricultural Extension can advise you in areas
ranging from agricultural production to public af-
fairs, from family living to developing the young
leaders of tomorrow.
Key to the ability to man these diverse class-
rooms is modern mass communications.
Within the Extension organization, the Edito-
rial Department specializes in the channels and
methods of communication. Through the hands
of the editor and his four assistants go pub-
lished and broadcast information on the vast array
of subjects Extension teaches.
For example, 15 circulators containing 167
pages were edited and published last year. Over
213,000 copies were printed. Forty thousand copies
of new Extension bulletins were printed.
Extension specialists and agents beamed infor-
mation to millions of Florida people last year
through radio and TV. The Florida Farm Hour
brought radio reports to listeners every week
day of the year, with 539 separate features. Farrn
Flashes went to 52 radio stations 5 days a week.
AgriViews, a 30 minute program aired over edu-
cational TV Station WUFT, Channel 5, each week,
featured live appearances by 72 specialists. Film-
ed TV programs featuring Extension Specialists
were shown 194 times during the year. Assistant
editors produce both these programs. Besides,
agents in 28 counties did 914 broadcasts, and
agents in 46 counties delivered 4,062 radio talks.
Other editors wrote news releases and maga-
zine stories which were widely used, both in
Florida and in other parts of the country. Many
still pictures were taken and were widely used.
All of these stories and pictures are based on in-

formation from other specialists and agents of
the Extension Service.
But good communications is more than pro-
ducing stories and pictures and broadcasting TV
and radio programs. Editorial workers are con-
centrating more and more on training-on helping
other specialists and agents to become more effi-
cient teachers in Extension's state-wide classroom.
For example, the editors gave other members
of the Extension team training in written com-
munications at 4 different sessions this year. They
also trained 4-H Club members and home demon-
stration club members in news writing, photo-
graphy, and reporting.
The staff participated in 151 clinics, schools or
other organized programs involving over 10,000
people. They further gave 38 radio talks, partici-
pated in 4 live TV programs and made 4 TV
movies. During the year, they prepared 5 publica-
tions, 84 news articles and made 107 farm visits
with county agents. In addition, 334 office calls,
5,250 phone calls and 13,500 pieces of correspond-
ence were handled.
The ultimate beneficiary of this communica-
tions effort and training in the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service will be the people of Florida. Ex-
tension information is designed for everyone who
can use it-our classrooms are unlimited.

Extension agricultural engineering serves a
dynamic and changing agriculture in Florida.
Each year, fewer farmers are producing more
on fewer acres. One of the most important rea-
sons why this is possible is the contribution
which agricultural engineering makes to the tech-
nology of a mechanized agricultural industry.
The Extension agricultural engineers-work-
ing in cooperation with other specialists, county
Extension workers, the department staff, research
workers and industry-have made significant con-
tributions to this progress. Through their efforts,
more and more people are aware of the impor-
tance of sound engineering to agriculture. More
people are using the assistance available to them
from the Extension Service in agricultural engi-

Better Writing

For Easier Reading

"The utilization of O, O-diethyl O-p-nitrop-
henyl thiophosophate by unschooled persons, espe-
cially those lacking adequate safety equipment, is
fraught with many hazards, and should be rigor-
ously avoided."
Complicated, isn't it? No doubt you would
rather get this bit of advice like this: "It's dan-
gerous to use parathion unless you know how,
especially if you don't have good safety equip-
Extension Service specialists and agents have
been going to school this year-learning how to
put their advice into better writing for easier

Special Training
At a three-aay school last spring, specialists
examined this subject from several viewpoints:
that of the reader, that of the writer and in
terms of the writing process itself. Two assistant
editors-who had attended a short course in writ-
ten communications staged by the National Pro-
ject in Agricultural Communications-led this
school. The editor and another assistant editor
also helped them.
County and home demonstration agents con-
sidered better letter and report writing during
their annual conference last summer. Negro
agents and home agents studied written commu-
nications for four days at their annual conference.

Individual Help
Besides these formal training sessions, the edi-
tors have given many specialists and agents indi-
vidual help in solving communications problems
during the year. For example, Dade County is
publishing a new, streamlined, more readable
annual report this year as a result of a special
training session on report writing in their county.

All of this emphasizes a new look in Exten-
sion communicating. Editorial workers are con-
centrating more and more on their role of com-
munications specialists-on helping other special-
ists and agents become better Extension teachers.
This trend should continue in coming years.

The result will be information better designed
for busy people to read quickly and understand


Marketing is an area which is becoming more
important both in agriculture generally and to
Extension. This is easily understood. Marketing
problems are becoming more numerous and more
complex. Besides, agricultural marketing repre-
sents about twice as much money value as does
the original production of the marketed products
Agents Reports
All of Florida's county agents reported market-
ing activities during 1959. This estimates showed
that they had helped farmers in more than 75,000
instances of marketing problems.
County agents made a number of informal
surveys on marketing problems in their counties
during 1959. They furnished information or ad-
vice on marketing problems in over 12,000 in-
stances to buyers, handlers, processors and trans-
porters of farm products last year.
County agents also assisted 135 formally or-
ganized farmer cooperatives in 1959. Besides, they
worked with 176 informally organized marketing,
purchasing or farm service groups.

Marketing Meetings

County agents of St. Johns, Putnam and Flag-
ler Counties helped potato growers of the Hasting,
Bunnell area hold 24 meetings to discuss market-
ing. Specialists also assisted at these meetings
while growers considered a potato marketing
agreement. A grower referendum on this agree-
ment was held in February.
County agents in Broward, Palm Beach and
Dade counties-with specialist assistance-helped
growers of vine-ripe staked tomatoes during 1959
in attempting to form a central sales and informa-
tion agency.
An assistant Hillsborough county agent and
the marketing specialist advised a new vegetable
marketing cooperative in Plant City on operating
procedure, selection and employment of manager
and sales manager, as well as instituting a book-
keeping system.
The marketing specialist also advised the Flor-
ida Cattlemen's Association in the preparation of
proposed state legislation to provide funds for
beef promotion. Two Indian Cattlemen's Coopera-
tives were given assistance by the Indian agent
and the marketing specialist.
In these areas and more, Extension worked
to help create better marketing in Florida.

xtee- ~'~~i carries on many activities in the course of a year many more
than could be ;-,oort.* d in full in the space of this report. The following items
are capsule reports of examples of Extension activities, and our cooperative ac-
ivities with other organizations.

County agricultural agents served as
secretaries to Soil Conservation District
Boards of Supervisors in 47 of the 59 Dis-
tricts in Florida. C o u n t y agricultural
agents also served as chairman to seven
county committees in the development of
the Conservation Needs Inventory. Agents served
as secretary to similar committees in 59 counties.
Vegetable special-
ists and county
agents are cooper-
ating closely in a
few selected coun-
:i4 ties in studying an
improved soil test-
ing method known
as the "Intensity and Balance" approach. A de-
tailed set of instructions was prepared for use by
county agents in interpreting results of tests.
To partially offset decreases in acreages of
cotton, peanuts, and flue-cured tobacco-which
are under acreage allotment and marketing
quotas-Florida farmers are working to in-
crease yields and improve quality of these crops.
This is especially true for growers of flue-cured
tobacco. These growers, in increasing numbers,
are adopting Extension recommendations for
production, harvesting, curing, and marketing
of their crops.
I --T I I --'

Jersey Aged Cow class in the 1959 State 4-H
Dairy Show. This show is one of the too events
of the 4-H year. Judge l foreground) of this
class was Dairy Specialist J. G. George of N. C.
State College.

SIt has been estimated that spray pro-
r'f grams account for about 25 percent of
Sthe cost of producing a box of citrus fruit.
n many groves, the cost is higher. Growers can
cut spray costs by learning more about pests,
choosing pesticides wisely, and making periodic
inspections to determine if and when the pests
should be controlled.
To aid growers with these problems, the Ex-
tension Entomologist taught citrus pest control at
3 citrus institutions and 7 citrus schools. Besides,
the specialist used TV and publications to furnish
The Florida Milk Commission operates a
clearing house for Florida milk in the markets
Over which it has jurisdiction. Distributors
who have surplus Florida milk and those
who are short may call the Milk Commis-
sion to find out where they may sell or buy,

The state dairy specialist and several of the
county agents have worked closely with this ac-
tivity. The latest report of the Florida Milk Com-
mission suggests that producers in the three mar-
ket areas may benefit to the extent of $200,000.00
per year.
Forestry in Flor-
ida is only 30 years
old. Ye t, looking
"' to 1929 or so when
F I o dFlorida forestry
i was barely begin-
ning, we see that
significant changes
have come about in at least two major phases of
forestry. These are in tree planting and fire con-
trol-two fundamental areas.
Hundreds of small woodlands owners have
planted trees and kept fire out of the woods and
grown excellent crops of timber. They have done
this only to fall down on harvesting and market-
ing the timber in a proper manner. Extension
foresters are working to improve this situation.


.. .5 ;yods

"How can we improve the turf of our
football stadium?" Extension answered
S this question for the Lockhart Stadium in
a Ft. Lauderdale and the Dade City High
> 'School football field. The answer: By a
renovation program prescribed by the
ornamental horticulture staff.

A sample of sweet potatoes with the
disease scurff" was brought to the Plant
Disease Clinic. Nothing could be done for
these particular potatoes. But the patho-
logist informed the grower how to prevent
the disease in the future by clean seed
and rotation.

One large dairyman-who started DHIA
testing during 1959-was a heavy feeder. He
adopted the DHIA Supervisor's feed list made
according to the individual cows' milk produc-
tion and test. The second month he reduced
his feed cost for producing each 100 pounds of
milk by $1.29 (llc per gallon reduction).

A ne w Florida
junior college does
not look its best
--e: without a good land-
) scape. To take care
of this deficiency,
two of these schools
have requested help
from the ornamental horticulture staff.

Fifteen supervisors kept DHIA and Weigh-
A-Day-A-Month records on 25,069 cows lo-
cated in 36 different counties during 1959.
The 1958-59 average of all Florida DHIA
cows was 7,198 pounds milk, 4.2 percent test,
and 301 pounds butterfat. This milk average was
37 percent above the average of all Florida milk
cows on a 4 percent fat-corrected milk basis.

The purpose of

project is to de-
velop a program
that will help
prepare people
for their roles as
E 9- R family members
and useful citizens. In working with agents, the
specialist has used the Family Life Cycle to point
out the different stages of the family and the
needs of family members at each stage. We are

working toward a program based on the needs of
the people. There is still much work to be done
in helping people identify their needs.

The Efficient Dairy Production winner in-
creased his herd's 1959 production 1,553 pounds
Smilk per cow above 1958. He made an average
of' 9,996 pounds per cow, while reducing the
cost of producing 100 pounds milk. It is a real
success story of a young man applying industry,
hard work, know-how and Extension help to de-
velop a business of his own.

This year marked the first egg quality
d grading schools to be conducted by the
lorida Egg Commission. This is a common
pattern for such a school; the county agent,
S the Florida State Department of Agriculture,
-and the Florida Egg Commission cooperate in
conducting a 2-night school on egg quality ahd
The county agent provides the building and
assists in publicizing the meeting. The Florida
Egg Commission and the State Department of
Agriculture usually provide the instruction.
These schools feature Haugh unit measure-
ments. Such a school is a stimulating educational
experience for a substantial percentage of the
egg producers attending, and should do much to
improve Florida egg quality.

With its big birthday celebration com-
ing up in several years, St. Augustine has
started a citywide beautification program.
Suggestions a n d recommendations are
being made by the ornamental horticul-
turists to achieve this goal. The "beautiful
city" is beginning to look even better.


SThe operator of one dairy plant was hav-
ing trouble with cream rise on homogenized
milk and receiving customer complaints. Upon
Request, the dairy manufacturing specialist
made a special visit to the plant and studied
the pasteurization and homogenization procedures.
He made recommendations-which were carried
out-for the changes in the physical set up of the
homogenization process. This eliminated the prob-
The customers of another dairy plant com-
plained about whey appearing in the cultured but-
termilk. After the dairy manufacturing specialist
reviewed the making procedure, he recommended
changes that corrected the problem.

The cow before the jury. The milk scales (or the
Milk-O-Meter), the Babcock tester, and the DHIA
record Book gives the verdict of profit or the
butcher. A total of 25,069 cows were on some
form of cooperative record keeping in Florida in

The citizens
#7 of Madison real-
/ ly took their six-
week landscape
school seriously.
Such schools
help the home-
owners get on
the right track with their landscape planning and
planting. With the excellent assistance from the
county agent, the school was well attended and
very fruitful. Good use was made of many attrac-
tive native plants that were included in the plans.

The 4-H Entomology Program gives fu-
ture growers and home owners an oppor-
tunity to learn about beneficial and destruc-
tive insects and the control of pests. They also
learn safe handling of insecticides, the importance
of using pesticides so as not to leave harmful resi-
dues and many other important phases of Ento-
mology. Summer camp offers an, excellent oppor-
tunity to collect and study insects in their native

During 1959 there were 1,140 boys and girls
entered in the 4-H Entomology project and 670
who completed it. We had our first girl state
winner, Holly Farish, Pinellas County, who won
a trip to National 4-H Congress in Chicago.

Many operators
of citrus groves are
~, / interested in com-
paring their yields,
production costs, re-
.. turns and other data
with those of other
growers. Results of
the Agricultural Extension Service grove manage-
ment project supplies information for such com-
There are many people who have never owned
Florida citrus property who are seriously con-
sidering making such an investment. Extension
'supplies information to assist such people in
making up their minds whether or not they
should purchase a grove.

SToday at county fairs, especially in
\Q.> Northern. Florida, forestry and timber is
featured almost as much as corn and
pumpkins. Timber is the leading money
crop by far in most counties in this area; people
are beginning to realize this more each year. The
Extension Forestry Department assisted several
counties with planning forestry exhibits for their
county fairs.

The Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the
Florida Guernsey Cattle Club set up state sale
averages of $526 and $514 respectively for
their 1959 sale. The Jersey average of $526
was a national record. Extension has assisted
with these activities.

r The county agent of Madison county
S; sets an example in developing his own
__ home grounds. He has attracted the at-
tention of home-owners in. his county by using
many native plants collected. locally.
Mrs. Don Hardin, Mims, Florida, Home Dem-
onstration, club member of Brevard county, does
an outstanding j o b of landscaping h e r home
grounds. She developed her plan during Home
Demonstration workshop sessions arranged by.
Home Demonstration Agent Mrs. Sue Young.

S" Orchids! Orchids! Orchids! The tremen-
yc \ us number of requests for information
on this plant triggered the First Orchid
Growers Short Course. Not knowing the number
to expect, it was a surprise to count 180 enthusi-
asts. Now a second course is planned.



The state staff and the county agents were

Invited on many different occasions to help
S the Florida Egg Commission. Radio tapes
were prepared, TV shorts were made and dis-
tributed, art layouts for point-of-sale mate-
rials were provided, advice and counsel as well as
much assistance in organizing informal meetings
was given.

These activities benefited the public and in-
dustry relations of the poultry industry. Sales of
Florida eggs were increased.

Dr. Ralph Eastwood (right), Extension economist,
checks the operating budget of the Hernando Egg
Producers, a cooperative, with Manager Lou
Vyhnanek (left).

S Throughout the state, county agents and
S state Extension staff cooperated with the
Florida Egg Commission and the Florida
tate Department of Agriculture in an activ-
ity known as the Florida Egg Commission
egg clearing house. The FEC encouraged anyone
with a surplus of Florida eggs to notify it, and
anyone in need of Florida eggs to do likewise.
The FEC would advise those who were long con-
cerning the whereabouts of those short.
This activity was successful in moving Florida
eggs. It also did a great deal to educate the
poultry industry in egg marketing and to improve
the public and industrial relations of all segments
of the industry.

hz "./

Mrs. Mary 0. Fulton 006 Indian Home Demon-
stration Agent, help a Seminole woman refinish

The one billionth pine was planted in
:-'A '- Florida this planting season.
jTree planting today is the most com-
monly practiced forestry operation. The
importance of planting pines is stressed by Agri-
cultural Extension agents in many Florida coun-
ties. Each year several thousand Florida land-
owners are assisted with planting pines under
their direction.
Agents, together with the Extension foresters
of the University of Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, gave instructions on planting trees
to hundreds of 4-H members at summer camps
and local 4-H meetings.

The farm management specialist provided out-
look information to farmers, growers and ranch-
ers. He gave agents and farmers training in pro-
duction economics, income tax, social security and
record keeping. In rural development, he acted
as the Extension leader and helped initiate a 4-H
Project in Career Exploration.

African violets brought to the Plant Disease
Clinic were found to be infested with nematodes.
The grower was advised to discard the most in-
fested plants and make treatments on the others
with a nematocide. Latest information from this
growers is that his plants are in much better con.



A former unemployed Gadsden county colored
farmer is now almost over-employed.
The farmer is Tyler Sanders, Jr. of Quincy,
who now sells annually about $16,000 worth of
shade-grown tobacco, beef cattle, hogs, peanuts
and a sizeable quantity of vegetables. Besides,
he and his family run a grocery store and a gaso-
line filling station, as he says, "on the side."
Sanders once had plenty of time on his hands.
That was during the depression years when he
and Mrs. Sanders were married. "At that time I
was farming light and running a little store which
had less than $100.00 worth of stock on the
shelves," says Sanders.
Then one day a neighbor walked into their
store and offered to sell them 40 acres at $5.00
an acre. They talked it over, borrowed the money,,
and bought the land.
Little by little, they have added a few acres
by careful management and saving. Now they
own 168 acres and manage 213 for Sanders father
who has retired. On this land the family raises
five acres of shade tobacco, 75 acres of corn,
twenty acres of peanuts, and eleven acres of truck
crops. Forty acres are in improved pastures for
grade and purebred Hereford cattle. The rest of
the farm is unimproved pastures and woodland.
Sanders gives mucn credit for his advancement
to the fact he has worked closely with and fol-
lowed the advice of Russell Stephens, the Negro
county agent in Gadsden County. In line with
his recommendations, they had their soil tested
and began applying fertilizer as the need indi-
cated. These cropping practices-combined with
a good cattle and swine breeding program-have
definitely increased their earnings.
Daughter Ellen was a delegate to the Fifth
Regional 4-H Club Camp, and son Solomon has
won a number of prizes in 4-H with his calf and
pig demonstrations. Sanders is president of the
County Cattle Improvement Association, which
sponsors an annual fat cattle show and sale. This
show and sale was organized 13 years ago and

The Nunns

Build A New Home

The Johnny Nunn family made many home
improvements during the year.
This family of ten lived in a five-room house
until the spring of this year. With the help of
the Agricultural Extension Service and the Farm-
ers Home Administration, the Nunns built a new
eight-room house.

They conferred with Extension and FHA work-
ers often during the building process to be sure
that rooms were large enough, closets were put
in where needed, and electric outlets were in the
right location.
Through discussions and the use of pamphlets,
the 4-H club members in the family, the house-
wife, and the home demonstration agent worked
out the color scheme.

Some furniture was refinished and re-uphol-
stered to cut down on the furniture bill. The 4-H
club girls selected their own color schemes for
their rooms. All family members helped to plan
for the living and dining rooms.


In Columbia County the Negro home demon-
stration agent worked with a club member to
raise poultry for home use and to produce eggs
for market. She started her project with 300
birds. Of this number, 100 were allotted for
home use and for market and 200 were used for
egg production.
The 200 laying birds averaged from 75 to 80
dozen eggs each week. The homemaker's income
from her poultry this year was $1,152.

has grown steadily since that time.

"We keep very busy" says Sanders, "but we
like it that way. We are building for our chil-
dren, and we hope they will take over one day."


Good management of time, money, and human
resources pay off, say James Floyd and his wife
of the Arlington Community of Duval County.
Today they have achieved their goal-a comfort-
able and convenient home.
Twenty-two yea r s ago, this Negro couple
moved to the Arlington Community. Two years
later they bought two lots, upon which they con-
structed and operated a licensed barbecue stand.
In 1943 they decided to close the business and
divided the building into living quarters.
In June, 1948, they began their present house
adjacent to the old barbecue stand. But, just as
the exterior of the house and roof were partially
completed, Floyd's wife became ill. Work had to
be discontinued because of expensive medical and
hospital bills.
In the fall of 1956, the Board of Public Instruc-
tion acquired adjoining properties for the expan-
sion of the Arlington School (White). Thus began
a search for a new home-site. The Floyds bought
a one-half acre plot and moved the houses. They
then resumed construction on a pay-as-you-go
Floyd's wife was not able to supplement the
family's income during 1957 and 1958 because of
illness. Again, this slowed the process of building.
Early in January, 1959, a visit by the Negro
home demonstration agent to two discouraged
people gave them new hope.
Floyd is a sand blaster at the shipyard dry
dock. He sought all over-time employment
available. His wife supplemented the family's
income by caring for mothers and their newborn
infants and pre-school age children.

Home Dedicated
On Sunday afternoon, August 16, the new
home was dedicated. The Arlington Home
Demonstration Club arranged a unique program,
using the Ceremony of Lighting the Fires-the
Fire of Faith, The Fire of Love, and The Fire of
The house is of wooden construction with as-
bestos siding. It contains a living room, dining
room, kitchen with modern appliances, two bed-
rooms-closets in each-a bathroom, linen closet,
central heating system, and an enclosed porch
which serves as a utility room. A drilled well
furnishes water.
This home was constructed on a pay-as-you-

go basis; it is now debt free. All construction was
done by Floyd in his spare time, with the excep-
tion of the plumbing, wiring, and roofing. The
appraised value of the completed structure is

Jackson County Negro Home Demonstration
Club women are working for better communities.
A community development project is helping
local families improve their communities.
A survey showed a lack of time, interest and
attention given to this situation. The survey also
showed that there was a need for improved sani-
tation, better churches, better homes, better
P.T.A. attendance, better roads, and a better com-
munity relationship.
Community leaders were called together to
discuss methods of improving their communities.
They were presented with the facts. These lead-
ers decided if the facts were presented to the
people, results would be better. A committee was
set up for each problem area.
Three communities took part in this project for
1959. They are Browntown, Jacob, and Camp-
bellton. This program was started in March 1959.
The success of these communities has stimu-
lated interest among other communities. Six
other communities are expected to adopt this pro-
gram for 1960.

Poor Light Means
Poor Sight

Thousands of Florida homes have inadequate
This year, for the first time, the Florida
Power Corporation, Florida Power & Light Com-
pany and the Gulf Power Company sponsored a
State Negro 4-H Lamp Contest.
These power suppliers also provided sample
reading lamp kits to Negro County Agents and
Negro Home Demonstration Agents. These were
used in teaching people in their counties about
proper lighting.
Many Negro 4-H members constructed lamps
during the year. As a result, many Negro families
will have better reading lamps in the future.






Statistical Summary of 1959 Extension Activities

Farm families making changes in agricultural practices 35,212
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices 65,233
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices 232.813
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices 16.098
Rural non-farm families making changes m homemaking practices 32.466
Urban families making changes in honimmaking practices 135,405
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs 44.162
Total different rural non-farm families. as-isted by Extension programs 88.601
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs 316.987


Federal Funds:

Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Bureau of Indian Affairs


State Appropriation:


State Trust Funds:

Incidental (actual)

County Appropriations:




Grand Total




Federal Funds:

Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Bureau of Indian Affairs


State Appropriation:


State Trust Funds:

Incidental (Estimated)
County Appropriations:





Grand Total



Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration Agent's Reports


Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
News articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Bulletins distributed

104,704 Adult result demonstrations conducted 4,520
Training meetings held for local leaders:
257,447 Number 2,907
375,135 Total attendance 57,604
14,186 All their r meetings agents held or participated in:
Number 36,077
914 Total attendance 1,366,204
4,062 Meetings held or conducted by local leaders,
801A43 Number 7,311
Total attendance 144.159

II I- ~I I II~- I --~-ls II Ir


Total number of different voluntary leaders assist-
ing Extension Agents with organization, planning and
conducting of Extension work in counties:
Men 4.011
Women 6,951
Older club boys 383
Older club girls 1,984
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended produc-
tion and marketing practices in subject matter fields:

Individuals assisted with:
Grain Crops 16,105
Hay and other forage, pasture, range 18,295
Cotton and other fibre crops 6,574
Tobacco 7,615
Oil and sugar crops 6,174
Fruits and nuts 114,347
Vegetables, including potatoes 65,189
Flowers, ornamental shrubs 457,950


Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conservation and
management 27,902
Forestry 9,647
Wildlife 4,880


Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and products 12,918
Poultry and products 14,771
Beef cattle 20,914
Sheep and goats 514
Swine 14,083
Other livestock 2,775


Individuals assisted with: 58,648


Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings 4,463
Farm mechanical equipment 6,636

Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surroundings 134,132
Furnishings and equipment 42,338


Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition 161,450



Health 97,984
Family life 50,406
Safety 104,506
Individuals assisted with:
Home management 42,562 "
Family economics 32,671 . .
Clothing 110,206

Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on agricultural
products 172,315



Formally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number 135
Members 15,718
r Farm and home service:
Number 103
Members 20,819
Informally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number 176
Members 5,326
Farm and home service:
Number 67
Members 4,692



Citizenship activities 33,331
Developing and improving county or
community organization 43,300
Local projects of a general public nature:
General community problems 13,426
Improving health facilities 26,080
Improving schools 10,663
Improving churches 7,287
Bettering town-country relation 26,336
Libraries 6.016
Roads 2,713
Telephones 2,914
Community centers 11,462
Recreation programs and facilities 26,956
Community beautification 14,661
Economic services 2,387
Regional or area development programs 9,548
National programs 13 509
World Affairs I1,595
Emergency activities 7,879

Number of 4-H Clubs
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and
completing projects:
Boys 17,847; girls 25,087; t
Boys 11,798; girls 16,907; t

4-H Projects Completed:
Other cereals
Range and pasture
Other crops
Soil & water conservation and
Wildlife and nature study
Dairy cattle
Beef cattle
Other livestock


1,736 4-H Membership:
Farm-7,896; rural non-farm-5,390; urban-4,561
42,934 Farm-6,723; rural non-farm-8,555; urban-9,809

otal 28,696



Tractor maintenance
Soybeans and other legumes
Potatoes, Irish and sweet
Farm shop
Other engineering projects
Farm management
Beautification of home grounds
Meal planning and preparation
Canning and preserving
Freezing of food
Health, nursing, first aid
Child care
Home Management
Home furnishings and room
Home industries, arts, crafts
Junior leadership
All other
Total projects completed




Farm families making chtant,-. in aricultl ral praciticS 35.212
Rural norn-farnm tarrilies making chsne.L in aLin.ultural practices 65.233
Urban families making changes. in agriuitural practice. 232.213
Firm f:imi!llt.- mak-ini charge: in honim raking practices 1l.. i
lRr:,] r 'non-fai n. fa mili, i mnk:in chanri'-- in hLninicmaking practLces 32.- :,;
Urban 'in'ii-,- making m:lin i ig- in hontnmaking practi:e- 135.-115
T .,T'l 'ifi'rI ll rnii t rm i t'rnili-, a. l ed -. y Ext.ri-n. n pr!, erarn- 44.12'
T itI1l iI i'i,-rti ru trlI i-r t rm amilllli I ie..,l1 p. E:xt..n ~ nr, program 8;.t01
T.r-,ii ditl r- nr ur.ar, t.m il .I. i::; si ld t.,, Ext n;irn picg'ramsrr 311; 'J:7


,j i in I elJN 'h I In II

.JU( F I i I I I ; : II

S. K i 1- (,

j 11 CI -,I


Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture'
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
J. N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head of Editorial
William G. Mitchell, M.A., Assistant Editor'
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor
Jack W. McAllister, B.S., Assistant Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
T. W. Sparks, M.Agr., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman,
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Assistant in Poultry Husbandry
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-Laying Test,
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist and Head,
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
K. L. Durrance, M.Agr., Assistant Animal Husband-
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forster
A. S. Jensen, B.S., Assistant Farm Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Economist and Head of
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist in Marketing
R. A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist in Marketing
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing
Howard C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Farm and Home Develop-
ment Specialist
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Associate Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head of
S. A. Rose, M.S., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
William H. Mathews, M.Agr., Assistant Horticulturist
Jack T. McCown, M.Agr., Assistant Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M.Agr., State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, M.Agr., Associate State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent

B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent
T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
Clyde R. Madsen, B.S., Rodent Control Specialist2
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
and Head of Departmenti
S. E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Associate Marketing
Specialist in Vegetable Crops
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Assistant Vegetable Crops
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops
Joseph D. Norton, M.S., Assistant Vegetable Crops
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
John H. Herbert, M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
R. S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration
Eunice Grady, M.S., Assistant to State Home
Demonstration Agent in Trainee Work
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstra-
tion Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District Home Demon-
stration Agent
Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration
Roberta V. Halcomb, M.S., Home Improvement
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and
Marketing Specialist
Anne Elizabeth Thompson, M.Ed., Acting State Girls'
4-H Club Agent
Jo Ann Tilley, M.Ed., Assistant State Girls' 4-H
Club Agent
'Cooperative, Other Divisions, U. of F.
I2n cooperation with U.S.


BPE!~ ~ -~l ~

Susan R. Christian, M.S., Assistant Nutritionist Farm
and Home Development Specialist
Bonnie Belle McDonald, B.S.H.E., Assistant Economist
in Food Conservation
Alma Warren, M.A. in L.S., Assistant Editor and
Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Assistant Health Education

Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Ruth E. Harris. M.S.H.E.. Family Life Specialist

Floi UB til, S. i)V S I)l ;rl A ii
J. Grslui, B.S.A D)istnct Aieint


Alachua (Asst.)
Brevard (Asst.)
Broward (Asst.)
Broward (Asst.)
Calhoun (Asst.)
Citrus (Asst.)
Clay (Asst.)
Columbia (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dade (Asst.)
Dixie (Asst.)
Duval (Asst.)
Duval (Asst.)
Duval (Asst.)
Escambia (Asst.)
Escambia (Asst.)
Escambia (Asst.)
Gadsden (Asst.)
Glades (Asst. Indian Work)

Loonis Blitch
A. T. Andrews
A. L. Harrell
H. M. Carr
G. T. Huggins
J. T. Oxford
H. W. Cunningham
Robert S. Pryor
Frank J. Jasa
Lewis E. Watson
Thomas B. Jones
Donald P. Laws
N. H. McQueen
Quentin Medlin
William M. Knight, Jr.
Emmett D. McCall
George M. Owens
D. W. Lander
Neal M. Dukes
Hilton T. Meadows
John D. Campbell
Doyle E. Abbott
Douglas M. Knapp
Roy J. Champagne
Nolan L. Durre
William R. Llewellyn
Hugh C. Whelchel
Ralph E. Huffaker
William L. Hatcher
Ben H. Floyd
Charles E. Rowan
James N. Watson
Francis L. Wilson
James R. Yelvington
Thomas H. Braddock
E. Norbert Stephens
Calvin A. Winter
James H. Walker
Larmar A. Bell
Howard Taylor, Jr.
W. C. Zorn
John C. Russell
Bernard H. Clark
Leonard C. Cobb
B. O. Bass
Fred Montsdeoca
Cubie R. Laird

Panama City
Ft. Lauderdale
Ft. Lauderdale
Ft. Lauderdale
Punta Gorda
Green Cove Sp ings
Green Cove Springs
Lake City
Lake City
Cross City
Cross City
Moore Haven
Moore Haven

Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano


Emma S. Benton
Dorothy P. Ross
Sue B. Young
Dorothy I. Walling
Louise Taylor
Mary L. Morgan

Mrs. Annie W. Finlay

Mrs. Ray C. Baxter

Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson
Miss Sandra L. Reese

Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell


Olga Kent
Erma L. Butcher
Helen B. MacTavish
Marjory B. McDonald

Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey


Nellie D. Mills
Ida V. Evans
Mary L. Gallagher
Josephine M. Cameron
Ethel Atkinson
Leeta J. Coffey
Margaret C. Etheridge

Mrs. Ann P. Jeter
Mrs. Marjory B. Gregory
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson

Mrs. May O. Fulton

Highlands (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Hillsborough (Asst.)
Indian River
Jackson (Asst.)
Lake (Asst.)
Lake (Asst.)
Lee* (Assoc.)
Leon (Asst.)
Leon (Asst.)

Madison (Asst.)
Manatee (Asst.)
Manatee (Asst.)
Manatee (Asst.)
Marion (Asst.)
Marion (Asst.)
Orange (Asst.)
Orange (Asst.)
Orange (Asst.)
Palm Beach
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Pasco (Asst.)
Pinellas (Asst.)
Pinellas (Asst.)
Polk (Asst.)
Polk (Asst.)
Polk (Asst.)
Polk (Asst.)
Putnam (Asst.)

Rance A. Andrews
Jack C. Hayman
Frank L. Polhill
Charles R. Smith
B. J. Harris, Jr.
Jay D. Martsolf, Jr.
Alec White
Paul E. Glasscock
Jean Beem
C. F. O'Quinn
R. D. Downs
Verne M. Caldwell
M. C. Jorgensen
C. U. Storey
Forrest N. McCullars
Woodrow W. Glenn
Russell S. Rudd
Albert H. Odom
Edward J. Cowen
R. E. Norris
Herman D. Bowers
James R. Connell
Johnnie F. Barco
D. W. Jones
J. Lloyd Rhoden
Chas. L. Shackelford
James E. Harris
Wilburn C. Farrell
James B. Estes
J. E. Thomaston
Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr.
H. T. Paulk
W. H. Kendrick
E. M. Kelly
T. E. Whitmore
Robert G. Curtis
Edsel W. Rowan
William H. Jernigan
Everette H. Fischer
L. M. Johnson
Gordon B. Ellis
Jack D. Patten
C. R. Boyles
H. F. Swanson
S. L. Brothers
A. F. Cribbett
William E. Colburn
J. B. Smith
M. U. Mounts
John H. Causey
Rayburn K. Price
Raleigh S. Griffis
Charles S. Tucker
J. F. Higgins
Luther L. Rozar
Harry J. Brinkley
G. M. Whitton, Jr.
Theodore Gallo, III
W. Paul Hayman
John W. Hunt
Robert Yates
Jackson A. Haddox
James D. Pierce
H. E. Maltby
Ralph T. Clay, Jr.

Plant City
Plant City
Vero Beach
Ft. Myers
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
V7. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
Dade City
Dade City

Mrs. Wylma B. White

Mrs. Dot V. Rooks
Miss Catherine Brabson

Miss Lora Kiser
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett

Miss Mary E. Carter

Miss Virginia R. Hill
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers

Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Miss Fern S. Nix
Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Mrs. Marian B. Valentine
Mrs. Hilda M. Jennings
Mrs. Nancy S. Fox

Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley

Mrs. Earlece F. Greenawalt

Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer

Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Miss Ruth Louise Milton

Miss Elsie M. Garrett
Mrs. Elisabeth B. Furr

Miss Martha C. Burdine
Mrs. Evelyn I. Sabbarese
Mrs. Dora S. Stubblefield

Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Mrs. Joyce M. Rine



Marilyn Dietrich
Mary L. Todd
Elizabeth H. Pierce
Miriam I. LoPinto

Mary R. Stearns
Carolyn X. Painter
Charlotte M. Lattimer
Nancy W. Riley

Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Miss Alice T. Cook
Mrs. Rita G. Hilton

Mrs. Esther F. Harper
Mrs. Eva Nell W. Roop

St. Johns
St. Johns (Asst.)
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
Sarasota (Asst.)
Sarasota (Asst.)
Sumter (Asst.)
Suwannee (Asst.)
Suwannee (Assoc.)
Taylor (Asst.)
Volusia (Asst.)
Washington (Assoc.)

P. R. McMullen
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr.
Charles D. Kime
S. C. Kierce
Aaron A. Hutcheson
Kenneth A. Clark
Hal C. Hopson
Edwin S. Pastorius
Cecil A. Tucker, II
O. M. Maines, Jr.
Donald A. George
J. P. Crews

William H. Smith
H. P. Davis
William C. Smith, Jr.
William J. Cowen
T. R. Townsend
J. N. Luttrell
Lawrence D. Taylor
H. O. Harrison
Johnnie E. Davis
Lenzy M. Scott

St. Augustine
St. Augustine
Ft. Pierce
Live Oak
Live Oak
Live Oak
Lake Butler
DeFuniak Springs

Mrs. Ruth T. Penner

Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Mrs. Barbara D. Payne

Mrs. Julia F. Foster

Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon

Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman

Miss Ethel M. Paschall

Mrs. Edna S. Eby

Miss Betty J. Duckett
Mrs. Ruby S. McDonald


English M. Greene
McKinley Jeffers

Russell H. Stephens
Isaac Chandler, Jr.

Virgil Elkins
Robert Bryant, Jr.
Richard A. Hartsfield
James C. Miller
Eugene P. Smith

,Richard L. Bradley

Lake City

Leontine Williams
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner
Victoria M. Simpson
Mrs. Ethel M. Powell
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams

Sudella J. Ford
Dorothy P. Parker

Mrs. Irie Mae Clark

Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas
Leala Mae Reaves

Ida T. Pemberton


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
M. O. Watkins, Director

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