Citation
Redefining Safety Harbor

Material Information

Title:
Redefining Safety Harbor late prehistoricprotohistoric archaeology in west peninsular Florida
Creator:
Mitchem, Jeffrey McClain, 1955- ( Dissertant )
Milanich, Jerald T. ( Thesis advisor )
Gannon, Michael V. ( Reviewer )
Marquardt, William H. ( Reviewer )
Rice, Prudence M. ( Reviewer )
Wing, Elizabeth S. ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1989
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2 v. (xxiv, 651 leaves) : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology ( jstor )
Bead welding ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Burial mounds ( jstor )
Eggshells ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Middens ( jstor )
Paleoanthropology ( jstor )
Pottery ( jstor )
Silver ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Florida ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF ( lcsh )
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Florida ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Citrus County

Notes

Abstract:
This study presents new data and a redefinition of the late prehistoric and postcontact Safety Harbor archaeological culture of west peninsular Florida. The Indians of this area were the first aborigines contacted by the early sixteenth century Spanish expeditions of Panfilo de Narvaez and Hernando de Soto. A complete review of known Safety Harbor sites is presented, along with descriptions and interpretations of previously undescribed collections, both publicly and privately owned. A description of the results of three field seasons of excavation at the Tatham Mound in Citrus County, Florida, is then presented. This previously undisturbed site yielded abundant evidence of early sixteenth century Spanish contact, including evidence of a probably epidemic and at least two cut human bones indicating violent confrontations with Spanish explorers. Several hundred primary and secondary human burials were recovered. The recovery of dozens of broken pottery vessels and many Busycon shell cups o the mound surface indicated that black drink rituals had been carried out prior to the mound's abandonment. The lower stratum of the mound yielded a small number of precontact burials accompanied by copper objects, ground and polished stone celts, galena, and abundant shell beads. The circumstances of burial suggest that these were high status individuals. Using the newly-obtained data, a provisional phase sequence for Safety Harbor is presented. Four phases are proposed: Englewood (A.D. 900-1000); Pinellas (A. D. 1000-1500); Tatham (A. D. 1500-1567); and Bayview (A. D. 1567-1725). Five regional variants of Safety Harbor are also proposed: Northern; Circum-Tampa Bay; Manasota; Inland; and South Florida. These units are proposed to aid in clarifying the spatial and temporal relationships between Safety Harbor groups and other cultures in Florida and southeastern North America.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 606-650).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jeffrey McClain Mitchem.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Jeffrey M. Mitchem. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
21169237 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
REDEFINING SAFETY HARBOR:
LATE PREHISTORIC/PROTOHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY
IN WEST PENINSULAR FLORIDA
By
JEFFREY McCLAIN MITCHEM

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1989




Copyright 1989
by
Jeffrey McClain Mitchem




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people have helped me during this endeavor.
First, I must thank those individuals who read drafts of Chapter 2 and/or provided me with unpublished information on Safety Harbor sites. The contributions of these people were indispensable, and I am extremely grateful. They are Marion Almy, Walter Askew, Bob Austin, Jan Ballo, John Beriault, Laura Branstetter, Bill Burger, Mark Burnett, Bill Dayton, Joan Deming, Albert Goodyear, Jennifer Hamilton, Laura Kammerer, Paul Lien, George Luer, Bill Marquardt, Gus Nelson, Don Ness, Harry Piper, Bruce Smith, Marion Smith, and Ray Williams. Of these, I must single out Bob Austin, Bill Burger, and George Luer for truly going way beyond professional courtesy in providing essential data.
The Tatham Mound project has been a fantastic and unforgettable experience. When we began working there, I never dreamed that it would contain such interesting and scientifically valuable objects and information. I owe a great debt of gratitude to my colleague Brent Weisman, who first discovered the site and co-directed

iii




the initial excavations there. Don Sheppard was also instrumental in organizing and coordinating many of the early aspects of the project. I also want to thank all of the students who participated in the three field schools at the site, sometimes under very adverse conditions. John Marron served admirably as field assistant during the third season. Dale Hutchinson, the project osteologist during the second and third seasons, has become a close friend and sounding board for ideas and potential interpretations of the site data. It has been a pleasure to collaborate with such a scholar. I look forward with anticipation to his dissertation on the Tatham skeletal remains.
The many members of the Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council who volunteered to help with excavation and laboratory work on the Tatham project were indispensable. Many of these people gave up weekends and got up at painfully early hours to participate. Close to 100 WRAC members volunteered on the project, and I want to express my heartfelt thanks. I must-single out four WRAC members who faithfully showed up: George Hamilton, Cheryl Jacob, Jean Kratzer, and Jack Quinn.
I gratefully acknowledge the Boy Scouts of America, including Directors George Preston and Bill Ort, for




allowing us to work at Tatham, and for providing accomodations and laboratory space on their property. Paul Anderson, the ranger for the McGregor Smith Scout Reservation, helped out in many ways, especially with logistical and transportation problems. Paul and his wife, Barbie, took on many of the tasks of scheduling volunteers and relaying messages to us during the fieldwork. Paul also helped us out of several bad situations, most involving uncooperative vehicles or septic tanks. I think I speak for the entire crew when I express great thanks to Paul.
Funding for the Tatham project and other aspects of my research has come from several sources. The great majority was voluntarily provided by a single individual, who wishes to remain anonymous at present. His generous support of the Tatham project resulted in the most complete and best-documented body of data from any known Safety Harbor site. Words cannot adequately express my gratitude, but I hope that this dissertation will indicate that the funds were well spent.
Additional support was provided by the Division of Parks and Recreation, Florida Department of Natural Resources (four grants to Jerald Milanich for research on the route of Hernando de Soto); the Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State




(funded the project which resulted in the initial discovery of the Tatham Mound); the Division of Sponsored Research, University of Florida (provided a graduate assistantship); the Institute for Early Contact Period Studies, University of Florida (provided a graduate assistantship and other funding); the Department of Anthropology, University of Florida (awarded a Charles H. Fairbanks Scholarship); the Tinker Foundation (awarded a field research grant for travel to Spain, administered by the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida); the Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois (provided support to Dale Hutchinson for analysis and transportation of collections); and the Bead Society (awarded a grant to study the Spanish beads). Support in the form of equipment, laboratory space, and facilities was provided by the Anthropology Departments of the Florida Museum of Natural History (FMNH) and the University of Florida.
Many curators and staff members of the FMNH and
students helped with the Tatham project. These include Nancy Aparicio, Kurt Auffenberg, Dana Austin, Gianna Browne, Ed Chaney, Ann Cordell, Kathleen Deagan, David Hall, Ken Johnson, Jon Leader, Elise LeCompte, Robert LeCompte, William Maples, Mondi Mason, Ed Napoleon, Lee Newsom, Claudine Payne, Ann Poulos, Guy Prentice, Donna




Ruhl, Mike Russo, Fred Thompson, and Maurice Williams. I thank them for their help. A special word of thanks is due to Dara Silverberg.
Bunny Stafford of the UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences took most of the photographs included in this study. A number of people at various institutions also provided help in different forms, and I would like to acknowledge their help. They are Jeffrey P. Brain (Peabody Museum, Harvard University); Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge Library, UF); Cheryl P. Claassen (Appalachian State University); Charles Ewen, Calvin Jones, John Scarry, Margie Scarry, Jim Miller, Herb Bump, Jamie Levy, and David Muncher (Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State); Christopher S. Peebles (Indiana University); T. M. Hamilton (Miami, Missouri); Thomas F. Kehoe and Claudia L. Jacobson (Milwaukee Public Museum); George Hamell (New York State Museum); Clark Larsen (Northern Illinois University); Alex Lodding (Chalmers Institute of Technology, G6teborg); Fernando Martin (Real Armeria, Madrid); Barbara Purdy (UF Anthropology Department); Betsy Reitz and Marvin Smith (University of Georgia); Sargento Major Ramon Sanchez Serantes (Museo del Ejercito, Madrid); William L. Stern (UF Botany

vii




Department); Douglas Ubelaker (Smithsonian Institution); and Bradley Vierra (University of New Mexico).
Each of the members of my doctoral committee has provided valuable input into my training and into this dissertation. William Marquardt provided me with much unpublished information on his work in southwest Florida, and discussions with him have aided my attempts to make sense of the complex cultural interactions going on in that area during the late prehistoric period.
Prudence Rice first introduced me to the scientific aspects of technological analysis of archaeological ceramics. Her training has enabled me to investigate many questions concerning Safety Harbor that otherwise would have been overlooked. Pru has also provided me with good advice on matters ranging from job applications to the writing of grant proposals. Her constructive comments on my writing have improved many past papers, as well as this one. She also makes fantastic chocolate chip cookies.
Elizabeth Wing introduced me to zooarchaeology, and even though I chose not to pursue this avenue full time, I can tell a fish bone from a bird or mammal,, something which I could not do previously. In fact, I probably learned more from Liz's zooarchaeology course than from

viii




any other course in my college career. She is also the only person I've ever known who had a pet water buffalo.
At the oral portion of my qualifying examination, Michael Gannon asked me the only question I was unable to answer. He asked on what evidence I based the claim that the Tocobaga Indians (a historic group near Tampa Bay) were a Timucuan group. I didn't have an answer, but in trying to find out, I came across many other obscure facts which have helped me interpret some of the Safety Harbor sites in that area. I have also benefited from attending and participating in several conferences sponsored by Dr. Gannon through the Institute for Early Contact Period Studies.
The chairman of my doctoral committee is Jerald
Milanich. since 1974, when I took my first anthropology course from him, Jerry has served as my inspiration and mentor in archaeology. Though he probably does not remember, it was he who talked me into majoring in anthropology as an undergraduate. My first field experience was under his tutelage in 1976. While I was working on my Master's degree at the University of South Florida, I mentioned him so much that some fellow students began calling me "Little Milanich."1
It was Jerry who talked me into pursuing a doctoral degree, and it was under his direction that I supervised




the Tatham excavations. His style of teaching is to give students free rein, if they wish. I thrived in this environment, and Jerry has always been willing to discuss any problems, questions, or any other aspect of research about which I was unsure. He also made sure that I was covered financially, and he lavished funds on me which allowed me to travel to museums and conferences to study collections and interact with colleagues. For all of this, I am overwhelmed with gratitude. It has been good to be one of "Jerry's Kids."
I also want to express my thanks to Kathleen A.
Deagan, who was originally a member of my committee, but her busy research schedule conflicted with my timetable for completion. She provided thoughtful comments on my initial proposal, and has helped me to understand many aspects of early Spanish/Indian contact.
I must also acknowledge the support of my
relatives, who have supported much of my education, and helped me through many rough situations. Their patience, love, and support have sustained me, and it is impossible to repay them. Finally, I thank Bonnie McEwan, who understands what it is like to complete a doctorate, and who is a beautiful woman and an excellent scientist. Her love and support have' made it all worthwhile.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
poage
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS....................................... iii
LIST OF TABLES........................................ xiv
LIST OF FIGUJRES. .. .. .. ... ............ .. ... ... ... .xviii
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS................................ xxi
ABSTIRACT............................................. xxiii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION. .. ... .. .............. .. .. .. .. 1
2 PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON SAFETY
HARBOR......................................... 8
Description of Sts...............10
Dixi n evyCuntesv.............. 10
Citrus County. ... ................. .. .. 15
Lake County......................... .. .. .. 27
Orange County................................. 31
Hernando County.............................. 38
Pasco County................................. 44
Pinellas County. .. .. ................ 49
Hillsborough County................ 97
Polk County............ .. .. ...... .. ... 137
Manatee County............................... 147
Hardee County................................ 202
DeSoto County................................ 207
SarasoCuty.....ty.......................213
Charlotte County. .. ... .. .. ......... .. 231
Lee County. .. .................... ... 257
Collier County ............................ 287
Other Counties............................... 299
Discussion of Known Sites...................... 304




3 TATHAM MOUND: A CASE STUDY OF
SPANISH/INDIAN CONTACT..................... 306
First Field Season............................. 312
Research Design and Methodology............. 312
Description of Results...................... 317
Preliminary Interpretations.................. 321
Second Field Season. .. ... ... ............. 327
Research Design and Methodology ............ 327
Description of Results ................. 332
Preliminary Interpretations ............ 336
Third Field Season............................ 342
Research Design and Methodology ..............342
Description of Results....................... 346
Summary of Tatham Mound Excavation Data ........352
ceramics ........ .. ................... ... 352
Lithic Artifacts. .. ............. ...... 393
minerals and Miscellaneous Artifac..s. 408
Faunal Remains. .. ............. ..... .. 416
Precontact Copper Artifacts ............. 419
European Artifacts........................... 434
Seminole period or later................... 434
Spanish glass beads........................ 436
European metal artifact s .................452
Mortuary Practices and Burial Associations ... 468
Mortuary Practices ............. ......... ... 468
Burial Associations .................... 474
Precontact stratum .............. 474
Postcontact stratum................... 483
Cut bones................................. 495
Ancillary Studies............................. 498
Native Copper Sourcing..................... 498
Postcontact Metal .................... 499
Shell Sourcing. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 499
Botanical Remains. .. .. .. .. .. ............. 500
Plant fibers .................... ........ 500
Carbonized and "fossilized" seeds ....... 501
Preserved wood and bark.................... 502
Charred w.jood. .. ...................... 502
Soil Analyses................................ 503
Stratipr apa ......t....................504
Datingthos hod Rsult nd......u..... 509
Artifact Associations................ 509
Chronometric Ds..t es......... 519
Interpretations................................ 527
Sequence of Events........................... 528
Interaction with Other Aboriginal
Cultures................................... 532

xii




Spanish/Indian Contact at the Tatham
Mound .................................... 537
The Tatham Mound in the Context of
Safety Harbor ............................ 545
4 SAFETY HARBOR: A CULTURE IN WEST PENINSULAR
FLORIDA .................................... 550
Spatial-Temporal Units ....................... 553
Phase Definition ........................... 557
Definition of Regional Variants ............ 567
Non-Ceramic Aboriginal Artifacts ............. 579
Site Types and Settlement Patterns ........... 583
Subsistence Information ....................... 586
Mortuary Practices ........................... 588
Sociopolitical organization .................. 594
Directions for Future Research ............... 600
REFERENCES ......................................... 606
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ 651

xiii




LIST OF TABLES

page
1 Artifacts from Duval Island (8Ci5) in FMNH..... 19 2 Artifacts from Tiger Tail Bay Midden (8Cil36).. 23
3 Artifacts from an Unrecorded Shell Midden on
the Chassahowitzka River...................... 28
4 Artifacts from 80r2 in FMNH................... 34
5 Artifacts from the Palm Grove Gardens Site
(8He8) in FMNH................................. 40
6 European Artifacts from the Safety Harbor
Site (8Pi2) ................................. 54
7 Beads Collected from S. T. Walker's Spoil at
the Bayview Mound (8Pi7)....................... 62
8 European Artifacts from the Seven Oaks Site
(8Pi8) in FMNH............................... 65
9 European Artifacts from the Bayview/Seven
Oaks Mound (8Pi7/8Pi8) Displayed in the
Oldsmar Museum................................. 71
10 Artifacts from the Booth Point Site (8Pi36)
in FMNH ...................................... 81
11 Glass Beads from the Picnic Mound (8Hi3) in
the Simpson Collection, FMNH................. 104
12 Artifacts from Mill Point 1 (8Hil6) in FMNH.... 118 13 Artifacts from Old Shell Point (8Hi31)
in FMNH ...................................... 121
14 Artifacts from the Gardensville Mound (8Hi37)
in FMNH ...................................... 122

xiv




15 Artifacts from the De Shone Place Site (8Hi74)
in FMNH ...................................... 123
16 Artifacts from the T. L. Barker Site (8Hi79)
in FMNH ...................................... 125
17 Artifacts from the Elsberry Site (8Hil0l)
in FMNH ...................................... 127
18 Artifacts from the Henriquez Mound (8Hi1077)
in UMMA ...................................... 131
19 Ceramics from Two Sites near Tampa Bay
in NMNH ...................................... 135
20 Artifacts from Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3)
in FMNH ...................................... 156
21 Artifacts from the Harbor Key Platform Mound
(8Ma13) in FMNH ............................ .. 164
22 Artifacts from the Snead Island I Site
(8Mal8) in FMNH ................. ............. 170
23 Artifacts from the Feeney Site (8Ma21)
in FMNH ...................................... 173
24 Artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715)
in SFM ......................... ........... 195
25 European Beads in SFM from an Unknown Manatee
County Site .................................. 198
26 Glass Beads in a Private Collection from the
Myakka Area, Southeastern Manatee County ..... 200 27 Artifacts from the Bostwick Mound (8Hr52)
at USF ....................................... 205
28 Artifacts from the Weber Burial Mound (8So20)
in FMNH ...................................... 224
29 A Collection from Cayo Pelau (8Chl) .............. 234
30 A Private Collection of European Material
from Cayo Pelau (8Chl) .......................... 236
31 Goggin's Ceramic Collection from Big Mound
Key (8ChlO) .................................. 241




32 Partial List of Bullen and Bullen's Collection
from Big Mound Key (8ChlO) in FMNH ........... 242
33 Goggin's Collection from 8Ch3l ................. 246
34 Ceramics from the Cape Haze Site (8Ch48) ....... 249 35 Artifacts from the Burial Area at the Dunwody
Site (8Ch61) ................................. 251
36 Artifacts from the Shell Ridge Area of the
Dunwody Site (8Ch61) ........................ 252
37 Artifacts from Mound Key (8LL2) at UPM ......... 262 38 Metal Artifacts Attributed to Punta Rassa
(8LL7) in MAI, but Probably from 8LL2 ........ 267 39 Ceramics in a Collection from the Pineland
Burial Mound ................................. 275
40 Artifacts in a Private Collection from the
Pineland Burial Mound ........................... 276
41 Artifacts in FMNH from Excavation and Surface
Collection at the Indian Field Site (8LL39).. 278 42 Artifacts Recovered from Burials in the Main
Portion of the Pine Island 8 Site (8LL40)
by C. B. Moore in 1904 ....................... 282
43 European Beads in a Private Collection from
the Galt Island Burial Mound (8LL81) ......... 285 44 Ceramics from the Shell Point Burial Mound,
Lee County ................................... 287
45 Artifacts Removed from the Gordon's Pass Sand
Mound/Kirkland Mound (8Cr57) ................. 292
46 European Artifacts in a Collection from the
Gordon's Pass Sand Mound/Kirkland
Mound (8Cr57) .............................. 293
47 Ceramics from the Lake Trafford Burial Mound
(8Cr80) in YPM ............................... 298
48 Ceramics from the Tatham Mound ................... 353

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49 Ceramic Types Recovered from Precontact and
Postcontact Strata in the Tatham Mound ....... 392 50 Lithic Artifacts from the Tatham Mound ......... 394 51 Shell Artifacts from the Tatham Mound .......... 403 52 Minerals and Miscellaneous Artifacts from
the Tatham Mound ................................ 409
53 Faunal Remains from the Tatham Mound ........... 417
54 Native Copper Artifacts from the Precontact
Stratum of the Tatham Mound .................. 420
55 Seminole and Later Material from the
Tatham Mound ................................. 435
56 Spanish Glass Beads from the Tatham Mound ...... 437 57 European (Pre-Seminole) Metal Artifacts
from the Tatham Mound ........................ 453
58 Glass Bead Inter-Site Comparisons .............. 513
59 Uncorrected Radiocarbon Dates from the
Tatham Mound ................................. 521
60 Calibrated Ages of Radiocarbon Samples from
the Tatham Mound ............................. 522

xvii




LIST OF FIGURES

page
1 Map of Peninsular Florida Showing Pertinent
Counties ..................................... 9
2 Map of Florida Showing the Location of the
Tatham Mound ................................. 307
3 Topographic Map of the Tatham Mound Prior to
Excavation ................................... 316
4 Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised Ceramics
from the Tatham Mound ........................ 359
5 Safety Harbor Incised Vessel from the Tatham
Mound ........................................ 363
6 Safety Harbor Incised, St. Johns Cob Marked,
and Prairie Cord Marked Vessels from the
Tatham Mound ................................. 366
7 Point Washington Incised Vessels and Ground
Stone Celts from the Tatham Mound ............ 369
8 St. Johns Dentate Stamped, Sand Tempered Plain,
and St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound ........................................ 374
9 St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound ........................................ 378
10 Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, and Belle Glade
Plain-Like Ceramics from the Tatham Mound .... 381
11 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound ........................................ 383
12 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound ........................................ 385
13 St. Johns Check Stamped and St. Johns Plain
Vessels from the Tatham Mound ................ 388
xviii




14 Reconstructed St. Johns Check Stamped and
Sand Tempered Plain Vessels from the Tatham
M~'ound........................................... 390
15 Pinellas Projectile Points, St. Johns Plain
Vessel, and Large Side-Notched Flaked Blade
from the Tatham Mound .................... 397
16 Quartz Crystal Pendants and Busycon Shell Cups
from the Tatham Mound.......................... 401
17 Engraved Bark Object from the Tatham Mound.......414 18 Radiograph of Circular Copper Plate
(Feature #9) from the Tatham Mo und.... 422 19 Copper Plume Ornament (in original matrix)
and Copper Ear Spool from Burial #105... 425
20 Radiograph of Copper Plume Ornament from
Burial #105..................................... 427
21 Copper-Covered Wooden Baton (in original
matrix) fromrul 10 ia.......... 430
22 Radiograph of Copper-Covered Wooden Bato n ... 433
23 Glass and Metal Beads from the Tatham Mound .... 451 24 Silver Celt Effigy Pendant and Drilled Silver
Rod Bead from Burial #2........................ 459
25 Armor Plate and Rolled Iron Bead from
26 Iron Artifacts from the Tatham Mound .............467
27 Burial #60 from the Tatham Mound.................. 472
28 Shell and Glass Beads with Burials from the
Tatham Mound. .. .. .. .................. .. .. 477
29 East-West Profile of the Tatham Mound .......... 506
30 North-South Profile of the Tatham Mound ..........507
31 Map Showing Locations of Tatham, Weeki Wachee,
and Ruth Smith Mounds......................... 547

xiX




32 Map Showing Extent of the Safety Harbor
Culture Area ................................. 555
33 Map Showing Regional Variants of Safety Harbor
Culture ...................................... 569




A.D.
AMNH B.C.
B.P.
Cal. AD FMNH FMSF FPS FSU HPM MAI MNI MPM

xxi

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Anno Domini (refers to dates in the Christian
Era)
American Museum of Natural History, New York Before Christ (refers to dates prior to the
Christian Era)
Before Present (for dating purposes, means
years before A.D. 1950)
Calibrated calendar years (used for reporting
calibrated radiocarbon dates)
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville Florida Master Site Files Florida Park Service Florida State University, Tallahassee Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Museum of the American Indian, Heye
Foundation, New York
Minimum number of individuals Milwaukee Public Museum




NMNH
ONM
RSPF
SCHC SEAC-NPS
SFM SHAHS TL TMM UF
UMMA
UPM
USF
WPA WRAC
YPM

National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
(formerly U. S. National Museum)
Ocmulgee National Monument, Macon, Georgia R. S. Peabody Foundation, Phillips Academy,
Andover, Massachusetts
Sarasota County Historical Commission Southeast Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee
South Florida Museum, Bradenton Safety Harbor Area Historical Society Thermoluminescence Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach University of Florida, Gainesville University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology,
Ann Arbor
University of Pennsylvania Museum,
Philadelphia
University of South Florida, Tampa Works Progress Administration Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut

xxii




Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
REDEFINING SAFETY HARBOR:
LATE PREHISTORIC/PROTOHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY
IN WEST PENINSULAR FLORIDA By
Jeffrey McClain Mitchem
May, 1989
Chairman: Jerald T. Milanich Major Department: Anthropology
This study presents new data and a redefinition of the late prehistoric and postcontact Safety Harbor archaeological culture of west peninsular Florida. The Indians of this area were the first aborigines contacted by the early sixteenth century Spanish expeditions of P~nfilo de Narvdez and Hernando de Soto.
A complete review of known Safety Harbor sites is presented, along with descriptions and interpretations of previously undescribed collections, both publicly and privately owned. A description of the results of three field seasons of excavation at the Tatham Mound in Citrus County, Florida, is then presented. This previously undisturbed site yielded abundant evidence of

xxiii




early sixteenth century Spanish contact, including evidence of a probable epidemic and at least two cut human bones indicating violent confrontations with Spanish explorers. Several hundred primary and secondary human burials were recovered. The recovery of dozens of broken pottery vessels and many Busycon shell cups on the mound surface indicated that black drink rituals had been carried out prior to the mound's abandonment.
The lower stratum of the mound yielded a small number of precontact burials accompanied by copper objects, ground and polished stone celts, galena, and abundant shell beads. The circumstances of burial suggest that these were high-status individuals.
Using the newly-obtained data, a provisional phase sequence for Safety Harbor is presented. Four phases are proposed: Englewood (A.D. 900-1000); Pinellas (A.D. 1000-1500); Tatham (A.D. 1500-1567); and Bayview (A.D. 1567-1725). Five regional variants of Safety Harbor are also proposed: Northern; Circum-Tampa Bay; Manasota; Inland; and South Florida. These units are proposed to aid in clarifying the spatial and temporal relationships between Safety Harbor groups and other cultures in Florida and southeastern North America.

xxiv




CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
In 1949, Gordon R. Willey published his definition of the archaeological culture centered around Tampa Bay in the late prehistoric and early Spanish contact period. He referred to this as the Safety Harbor Period, and included descriptions and illustrations of the artifacts typically found on Safety Harbor sites (1949a:475-488).
His definition has been used as the standard
reference ever since, and no attempts have been made to revise his criteria to any major extent. Archaeological research in the intervening four decades, especially since 1970, has yielded a large data base of information about Safety Harbor sites. In addition, with the advent of radiocarbon dating and accurate calibration curves, it is now possible to demonstrate that the earliest Safety Harbor sites are much older than the A.D. 1500 suggested by Willey (1949a:488). Studies of artifacts, especially European artifacts, have resulted in the ability to date postcontact deposits precisely (Deagan 1987; Smith and Good 1982).




2
Because of these changes, it is time to take a
critical look at Willey's definition and to update or alter it to include new data. In this study, a redefinition of the Safety Harbor Culture is presented, based on a thorough discussion of all known Safety Harbor sites. Chapter 2 includes descriptions of many collections which have never been published, as well as reinterpretations of previously reported sites. Chapter
3 is a site report on excavations conducted in 1985 and 1986 at the Tatham Mound (number 8Ci2O3 in the Florida Master Site Files EFMSF] numbering system), a previously undisturbed Safety Harbor burial mound that contained evidence from both precontact and postcontact occupations. The final chapter presents a redefinition of Safety Harbor, including a proposed phase sequence and the identification of regional variants. In this new definition, Willey's (1949a:470-475) Englewood Period is subsumed as the first phase of Safety Harbor.
This study should not be considered the final word on Safety Harbor. As originally conceived, it was to include a completely revised ceramic classification; an in-depth consideration of the interaction between Safety Harbor groups and early Spanish explorers, missionaries, and colonists; and a greatly expanded consideration of sociopolitical organization and structure. However, the




3
volume of previously unpublished data was much greater than anticipated, and time and manuscript length constraints prevented a full coverage of all of these categories. Readers of this work should remember these factors when judging it. More refinements will be forthcoming, and the final section of Chapter 4 presents the topics deemed (by the present author) most important for future research.
In describing the sites and collections in this
study, Willey's (1949a:472-475, 479-486) definitions of ceramic types are generally followed. However, a few minor, but important modifications are necessary. First, Englewood Plain (1949a:474) is not considered a valid type, because sand tempered plain wares generally cannot be distinguished from one another. In this case, this fact is especially important because the identification of plain ware as Englewood Plain would be very significant in terms of chronological interpretation.
The second modification has already been suggested by George M. Luer (1985:236). Willey's (1949a:474) definition of the type Sarasota Incised should be broadened to include sand tempered paste as well as the chalky St. Johns paste, since specimens with Sarasota




4
Incised motifs on sand tempered paste have been recovered.
The third modification involves Willey's
(1949a:482) definition of Pinellas Plain. He glossed over the fact that some sherds of this ware tended to have laminated, crumbly paste. However, when Pinellas Plain from the village area at the type site (8Pi2) is examined, almost all of the sherds have very laminated paste (Griffin and Bullen 1950:10). Examination of sherds from other Safety Harbor. sites, especially those in the area around Tampa Bay, indicates that the laminated paste is the norm, rather than the exception, for Pinellas Plain. This characteristic should be incorporated as one of the main identifying traits of Pinellas Plain.
The most drastic proposed modifications are to
Willey's definitions of Pinellas Incised (1949a:482) and a Fort Walton type called Point Washington Incised (1949a:463). William H. Sears (1967:37-39, 57-58) discussed problems and proposed changes to these types, but both his and Willey's criteria were vague and ambiguous. It should be noted that John F. Scarry (1985:220) subsumed both types under Lake Jackson Incised for the Fort Walton area. He also subsumed one variant of Pinellas Incised under the type Cool Branch




5
Incised (1985:214). However, in the Safety Harbor area, there are enough differences in vessel form and decorative motifs to warrant separate types for Point Washington Incised and Pinellas Incised.
When Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised are referred to in this study, the criteria published in Mitchem, Smith et al. (1985:187-189) are used to distinguish them, with minor alterations to the Pinellas Incised definition. Point Washington Incised includes sand tempered simple open bowls and jars with multiple broad-line incisions on the exterior near the rim. These usually consist of three or four parallel lines which incorporate loops and U-shaped pendant figures. Rim adornos and flat handles are common, often incorporating representations of anatomical features of birds. Bird head adornos are especially common. Loop handles and rim nodes sometimes occur.
In contrast, Pinellas Incised as used herein refers to simple open bowls, carinated bowls, short-collared jars, and (occasionally) casuela bowls with broad-line incision on the exterior. Multiple parallel lines sometimes occur below the rim, but do not incorporate loop elements. A single line of punctations may also be present parallel to the rim. On the vessel body, incised curvilinear elements are typical, sometimes




6
bordered by one or two lines of punctations, which are typically square. Adornos and flat handles are lacking on Pinellas Incised vessels in the Safety Harbor area, but loop handles are occasionally present.
It is interesting to note that Pinellas Incised, whether defined using Willey's criteria or those presented above, is very rare on Safety Harbor sites (Luer et al. n.d.). Specimens of Point Washington Incised (as defined above) are much more common. Readers should note that many 'of the sites and collections in Chapter 2 were analyzed by others, and their definitions of Pinellas and Point Washington Incised (as well as other ceramic types) may vary. Every attempt was made to check extant collections, but in some cases it was impossible.
Before proceeding to the presentation of data on
Safety Harbor sites, it is necessary to explain how the terminology of archaeological units is used in this study. The terms "component" and "occupation" have very similar meanings as used herein. However, there is an important distinction which should be pointed out. component is used in the sense defined by Willey and Phillips (1958:21), that there are Safety Harbor artifacts present at a site, but that these may have been obtained by exchange or some other means, so their




7
presence does not necessarily indicate that the makers of the artifacts lived at the site. In contrast, occupation is used to indicate that a Safety Harbor group (people who made and used the artifact types) actually inhabited or built the site. This distinction is especially important in discussing Safety Harbor evidence in south Florida, where distinguishing sites associated with different cultural groups is difficult. Randolph J. Widmer (1988:86) has noted that the presence of Safety Harbor artifacts does not necessarily indicate that the historically-known Tocobaga Indians occupied an area, as Ripley P. Bullen (1978b:50) believed.




CHAPTER 2
PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON SAFETY HARBOR
In order to redefine Safety Harbor, it is first
necessary to discuss previous work (both published and unpublished), so that the state of present knowledge and interpretation can be evaluated. Numerous site reports and papers dealing with various aspects of Safety Harbor culture have been published. There arealso many collections held by private individuals and in institutions which have never been thoroughly studied or described in print. However, any attempt at summary is doomed to be incomplete, due to inaccuracies in records, incomplete survey coverage, and other factors.
This chapter discusses known sites by county
(Figure 1), following a roughly north to south course. Sites that have been previously identified as having Safety Harbor components, but which do not, are also included. Collections from sites are generally not enumerated if they have been previously published. A section on sites outside of the Safety Harbor culture area that have yielded small quantities of Safety Harbor artifacts is also included.
8




P, A*I Ias
K IL OMET ERS
0 100

a
o Cd

Figure 1
Map of Peninsular Florida Showing Pertinent Counties.




10
In describing collections, a standard format is
used for sherd counts when counts of rim and body sherds are available. This format consists of two numbers separated by a slash (/). The first number represents the total number of sherds, and the second refers to the number of these which are rim sherds.
Description of Sites
Dixie and Levy Counties
As will be discussed later, Dixie and Levy counties are outside of the actual Safety Harbor culture area.Examination of collections has revealed that there are no sites in these two counties that convincingly demonstrate the presence of a Safety Harbor component. However, there are some sites that have yielded small numbers of Safety Harbor and Englewood sherds. These are briefly described here.
In recent surveys of Dixie County, Kohler and
Johnson (1986:25-32) found possible Safety Harbor sherds at only three sites. At the Lolly Creek-Butler Island NE site (BDi50), a shell midden on a low island surrounded bY salt marsh, they identified one sherd as possible Englewood or Safety Harbor Incised (1986:25). However, since the other ceramics from the site consisted of Norwood, Deptford, and Swift Creek types,




11
the sherd in question is probably actually Crystal River Incised (Willey 1949a:389), a Swift Creek type which resembles Safety Harbor Incised.
At the Kenny Land site (8DilO3), they recovered one sherd of Pinellas Incised or Safety Harbor Incised. The other artifacts from the site clearly indicate that it is an Alachua Tradition midden (Kohler and Johnson 1986:25), so the single sherd is probably a result of exchange.
A third site mentioned by Kohler and Johnson
(1986:26) remains unrecorded, but local collectors found Weeden Island, Alachua Tradition, possible Fort Walton, and Safety Harbor pottery types on the surface. They illustrated five sherds (1986:Figures 3 and 4) which appear to be Safety Harbor types (Safety Harbor or Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised), but the failure to relocate the site and to obtain better samples precludes assigning a cultural affiliation to the site.
In the collections of the South Florida Museum
(SFM) in Bradenton there is an engraved bottle (#2328), reportedly from Dixie County, with red ochre rubbed into the engraved designs. A Safety Harbor Incised bottle from the Tierra Verde site (8Pi5l) in Pinellas County had ochre rubbed into the incisions (Sears 1967:46). However, red pigmented engraved (rather than incised)




12
vessels are more common from sites to the north, such as Moundville, Alabama, where such vessels tend to be found in Moundville I Phase contexts dating to about A.D. 1050 to 1250 (Steponaitis 1983:80, 100). The Dixie County vessel is probably a trade item from cultures to the north.
In Levy County, artifacts were collected from
Palmetto Island (8Lv7) in the 1880s by Decatur Pittman, who later donated the material to the Florida Museum of Natural History (FMNH). The site is primarily Weeden Island-related, but one Pinellas Incised sherd was listed by Willey (1949a:311). This could not be located in the FMNH collections. Willey (1949a:312) also listed two Prairie Cord Marked and two fabric impressed sherds in the collection, which suggest an Alachua Tradition component (Milanich 1971).
Willey (1949a:313) mentioned that three Pinellas Plain sherds were surface collected at the Hodgeson's Hill site (8Lv8) in 1949, and he postulated a possible Safety Harbor occupation on the basis of this. Pinellas Plain pottery has since been shown to occur in some Weeden Island-related contexts, however, which is consistent with the collection from the site (Luer and Almy 1980:211).
A single sherd of Safety Harbor Incised and one of Sarasota Incised were noted by Willey (1949a:313) from




13
the predominantly Weeden Island-related site of Piney Point on Cedar Key (8Lv9). A note in the FMNH site files also indicates that at least one Englewood Incised sherd was present in a private collection from the site.
A collection in FMNH (#95817) from the Coulter site on Piney Point contains two sherds of Safety Harbor Incised (Ripley Bullen identified these as Fort Walton Incised) and one Englewood Incised sherd. There are two possible Pinellas Plain or Lake Jackson Plain sherds, and many sand tempered plain, Pasco Plain, and St. Johns Plain sherds. The collection also includes cord marked, simple stamped, and grit tempered check stamped sherds, which may indicate a Deptford component (Milanich 1973). Weeden Island types are present as well. It is unclear whether 8Lv9 and the Coulter site are the same. Notes with the Coulter collection indicate that the sherds were collected from the beach below the high tide level.
The site number 8Lv21 was assigned for materials from various sites on Cedar Keys. According to Willey (1949a:315), a small collection in the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) (#42481-42486) with this designation includes Weeden Island and Safety Harbor ceramic types.
A note in the FMNH site files mentions that one sherd of Pinellas Incised and four sherds of Pinellas Plain were included in collections from Manatee Springs




14
(8Lv32). A search of the FMNH collections failed to locate these artifacts (#72920-72927), however.
Another FMNH collection (#A-11014) was gathered from the Seahorse Key site (8Lv64) by G. L. Streib. This small collection contains five sherds from two vessels which have interlocking scroll designs incised on the exterior. These are similar to what Willey (1949a:482-485, Figure 66c) called Pinellas Incised. Pasco Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds make up the rest of the assemblage.
Derrick Key (8Lv122), a multicomponent shell
midden, apparently yielded some Pinellas Incised sherds from beach erosion. The majority of the material from the site was from earlier periods.
Willey (1949a:315) mentioned a small collection in NMNH (#42481-42486) from an unidentified mound on Cedar Key. He described the pottery as mixed Weeden Island and Safety Harbor types, but no specific details were provided.
Catalog cards from the Cedar Key High School site in FMNH (#97876) list a single Englewood Incised sherd, but a check of the collection failed to turn up this specimen. The site appears to be a single component Weeden Island-related occupation.
As the above discussion indicates, no Levy or Dixie County sites appear to have definite Safety Harbor




15
components. The Safety Harbor and Englewood pottery sherds (some of which may actually be Fort Walton types) probably resulted from exchange or other interaction with Safety Harbor groups to the south.
Citrus County
Citrus County is the northernmost county where
sites with definite Safety Harbor components have been identified. The Withlacoochee River, which forms the northern and eastern borders of the county, was probably a sociopolitical boundary during the protohistoric period, and possibly earlier (Mitchem 1988a, 1989).
The Crystal River site (8Cil) is a famous
multimound site located on the north side of Crystal River near its mouth. Clarence B. Moore (1903, 1907a, 1918) excavated in some of the mounds, and much has been written about various interpretations of the artifacts from Moore's work and later excavations (A. Bullen 1972:160; R. Bullen 1951a, 1953; Greenman 1938; Hardman 1971; Smith 1951; Weisman 1987; Willey 1948a, 1949a:316-323, 1949b; Willey and Phillips 1944).
In 1960 and 1964, Ripley Bullen (1965:10, n.d.)
excavated portions of a small burial mound at the site which yielded 35 flexed burials. He believed that these burials dated to Safety Harbor times, but an examination of the FMNH collections from these excavations




16
(#98959-98970) indicates that there is little artifactual evidence to support this interpretation.
There are sherds of Safety Harbor pottery types
from Crystal River, but they are few in number. Bullen (1953:11, Figure 3) discussed and illustrated Point Washington or Pinellas Incised sherds from the east end of the shell midden extending east from Mound A (this area is now under a trailer park). He noted that the site did not appear to have been intensively occupied during Safety Harbor times, and suggested that the site served as some sort of ceremonial center during that period (1953:32). Willey (1949b:43) believed that the two truncated rectangular mounds at the site could represent Safety Harbor constructions, but no stratigraphic or artifactual data have been produced to substantiate this.
The majority of the work at Crystal River has demonstrated pre-Safety Harbor occupation (Bullen 1965:10; Willey 1949a:316-323). There does appear to be a Safety Harbor component, but the intensity of this occupation cannot be determined on the basis of previous work at the site.
The Buzzard's Island site (8Ci2) is located on an island in the Crystal River. The site apparently consists of a cemetery (not a mound), from which Rainey (1935) excavated an undisclosed number of secondary




17
burials and a few flexed and extended individuals. He also noted evidence of cremation.
The artifacts from the site are of interest because they reflect primarily Safety Harbor affiliations, but also an Alachua Tradition connection. Rainey (1935) illustrated several sherds and an almost complete vessel. The sherds clearly indicate a Safety Harbor occupation, consisting of St. Johns Check Stamped, Lake Jackson Plain with a fluted rim, and Point Washington Incised types (Willey [1949a:323-324] identified the latter as Pinellas Incised). There was also a vessel that Willey (1949a:324) identified as cob marked. This bowl would be classified as Alachua Cob Marked, a ceramic type associated with the later portion (ca. A.D. 1400) of the Alachua Tradition (Milanich 1971:28, 32).
Rainey (1935) also illustrated a ground stone celt, Pinellas points, large stemmed points, a ceramic pipe fragment, and a quartz plummet. Willey (1949a:323) added that Rainey's collection at Yale included chipped celts, long ground stone celts, St. Johns Plain pottery, and stone pendants. Notes from the Yale Peabody Museum (YPM) (#22767-22781) in the FMNH site files indicate that at least four Pinellas Plain and nine Pinellas Incised or Point Washington Incised sherds were also in Rainey's collection.




18
There is a small collection of sherds from the site in FMNH (#94677) donated by L. W. Harrell in 1958. It includes 26/5 Pasco Plain, 10/3 sand tempered plain, 1/0 St. Johns Check Stamped, 1/0 sand tempered check stamped, and 1/1 sand tempered plain with a notched lip. It should be noted that the latter is not Pinellas Plain. The types present in this collection do nothing to alter the Safety Harbor interpretation of the site.
Moore (1903:413-414) excavated a burial mound
(8Ci3) near the Chassahowitzka River, which may have been a Safety Harbor mound. Unfortunately, the verbal description of the pottery encountered is too vague to determine actual types, but it is safe to assume the site was Weeden Island or Safety Harbor in age, possibly both. Moore (1903:Figure 73) illustrated a rim sherd with an effigy lug which could be classified as Lake Jackson Plain.
A very large multicomponent habitation site (8Ci5) is located on a peninsula known as Duval Island in Lake Tsala Apopka. This site was mentioned by Willey (1949a:324), who suggested a Deptford date for it. Three collections (#85525-85527, 85977, and 92502) from the site were donated to FMNH by Edward P. St. John of Floral City. These collections are listed in Table 1.
More recent collections from the site have included large numbers of St. Johns Check Stamped sherds, whole




19
Table 1. Artifacts from Duval Island (8Ci5) in FMNH. Description Count
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain 33/8
Pasco Check Stamped 11/5
Pasco Plain with scratched surface 1/0
Prairie Cord Marked (some with Pasco paste) 27/8
St. Johns Plain 14/1
St. Johns Check Stamped 12/2
Dunns Creek Red 5/3
Sand tempered plain 5/0
Sand tempered plain tetrapod base 1/0
Perico Incised 1/1
Safety Harbor Incised 1/0
Stone:
Ovate chert biface 1
Metal:
Iron axe head 1
Busycon contrarium shells, shell celts, and Pinellas projectile points (Mitchem and Weisman 1987:156-158). While test excavations have not been conducted, it should be noted that the presence of a protohistoric component (including Safety Harbor ceramics) and the site size (ca. 8 ha) strongly indicate a large Safety Harbor settlement, possibly the town of Tocaste




20
mentioned in the accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition, which passed through this portion of Florida three times in 1539 (Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdds 1973:65; Smith 1968:37; Swanton 1985:142).
A collection in FMNH (#77919-77933) from a site on the shore of Lake Tsala Apopka (8Ci7) includes 3/2 Sarasota Incised and 1/1 Point Washington Incised sherds, along with St. Johns types, Pasco types, and Prairie Cord Marked. Deptford and Perico wares indicate the site is multicomponent. Unfortunately, the records do not indicate whether this was a mound or a midden.
S. T. Walker excavated approximately 150 European glass beads from a mound (8Ci16) somewhere on Chassahowitzka Bay (Willey 1949a:324). A note in the FMNH site file describes these (NMNH #59376) as large blue and large white seed beads, with cut tubular beads of green, blue, opal, lavender, and colorless glass. A large (1.2 cm diameter) dark blue bead and four brown tubular or ovoid beads are also included. The verbal description, though inadequate, seems to indicate that these are probably seventeenth century types. No other artifacts were mentioned from the site. It may have been a postcontact Safety Harbor mound.
Three shell middens, Crystal River #3 (8Ci37), Jake's Drop (8Ci38), and Shell Island (8Ci43), are listed in the FMSF as having Safety Harbor components.




21
A check of the FMNH collections from these sites (#96065 and 99318; 96067; and 94676, 96071, and 99319, respectively) yielded no definite evidence of Safety Harbor occupation, however.
The Wash Island site (8Ci42) is also listed as
having a Safety Harbor component. This site was surface collected and excavated by Bullen and Bullen (1961, 1963). Their collections indicated a primarily Deptford occupation, but the presence of Pinellas Plain sherds, including one rim with a notched lip (the later form of this type) suggests a minor Safety Harbor component as well (Bullen and Bullen 1963:84).
The Gard site (8Ci5l), a burial mound on Rendevous (sic) Island in the Homosassa River, was excavated by Bullen (1951b). At least 11 burials were found, all secondary interments (1951b:28). Few artifacts were recovered, but the pottery included St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped, Prairie Cord Marked, and a Lake Jackson Plain rim with a loop handle. A greenstone celt, two bifacial chipped tools, and a Busycon shell bead were also recovered. Bullen (1951b:31) thought that the mound was Safety Harbor in date, with a possible late Weeden Island-related component. This seems reasonable based on the few artifacts available.
The Pumpkin Creek site (8Ci57), a small midden on the Chassahowitzka River, was originally recorded as




22
Hd-7 (Hernando County) by Florida Park Service (FPS) archaeologists. The FMNH site file lists this as a possible Safety Harbor site, but the meager FMNH collection (#99364) contains no diagnostic sherds to support the contention.
Burtine Island D (8Ci6l), a shell midden near the mouth of the Withlacoochee River, was excavated by Bullen (1966). Pottery types indicated occupation from Deptford through Safety Harbor times, the latter being represented by a few Sarasota Incised and Pinellas Plain sherds. The relatively small number of Safety Harbor artifacts suggests only a light occupation of the site by Safety Harbor peoples (Bullen 1966:16). A small number of Alachua Tradition types were also recovered, evidence of interaction with groups north of the Withlacoochee.
According to notes on the FMSF form, a marine shell and dirt midden on the Homosassa River, the Tiger Tail Bay Midden (8Cil36), yielded the artifacts listed in Table 2. The site appears to be a mixed Weeden Islandrelated and Safety Harbor midden.
An extremely large flat-topped shell mound, known as the Withlacoochee River Platform Mound (8Ci189), is located on the bank of the Withlacoochee. The site has never been excavated, but its configuration is reminiscent of truncated "temple mounds" associated with




23
Table 2. Artifacts from Tiger Tail Bay Midden (8Ci136). Description Count
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain 12
Weeden Island Plain 12
Sand tempered plain 9
Pinellas Plain 1
Safety Harbor Incised 1
St. Johns Check Stamped 1
Lake Jackson Plain 1
Miscellaneous:
Chert flakes 2
Faunal remains count unrecorded
many Safety Harbor sites in the Tampa Bay area (Luer and Almy 1981). No artifactual information is available, but the site could be a possible Safety Harbor mound.
An extensive multicomponent shell midden on the Withlacoochee River, the Bayonet Field site (8Ci197), was partially excavated in 1985 (Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985:44-47). Analysis has revealed that a Safety Harbor component is present at the site, as indicated by Safety Harbor Incised sherds. Abundant Prairie Cord Marked sherds were also recovered from the midden, indicating interaction with Alachua Tradition groups across the river. Three radiocarbon samples (charcoal) from two




24
probable hearths (Features #7 and 13) yielded dates of 1000 60 B.P. (Beta-12679) and 630 50 B.P. (Beta12680) from Feature #7, and 1050 90 B.P. (Beta-12681) from Feature #13 (Mitchem 1985b). When these dates are calibrated using the computer programs CALIB and DISPLAY (Stuiver and Reimer 1986), they yield calibrated date ranges of Cal. AD 984-1150; Cal. AD 1282-1393; and Cal. AD 891-1146, respectively. Artifacts in this part of the midden consisted of mixed Weeden Island and Safety Harbor types. The midden may represent one of the habitation sites occupied by people buried in the Tatham Mound (8Ci203).
A multicomponent artifact scatter known as the Wild Hog Scrub site (8Ci198) is located a few hundred meters from the Tatham Mound, and probably contains some artifacts associated with the builders of the mound (Weisman 1986:12-15, 1989:142; Weisman and Marquardt 1988), though the Safety Harbor component appears to be minor. The site was probably used on a short-term basis during Safety Harbor times.
The Alligator Ford site (8Ci199) is located in the Cove of the Withlacoochee, a wetland area of eastern Citrus County. Weisman (1986:12) excavated two units at this site, which appeared to be a habitation site occupied from Weeden Island through Seminole times. Safety Harbor occupation was suggested by a possible




25
Pinellas Incised sherd and a Savannah Fine Cord Marked sherd. The site may have been occupied by some of the people buried at the nearby Tatham mound (8Ci203), but further testing of the site is necessary to determine this.
The Ruth Smith Mound (8Ci200) is also located in the Cove of the Withlacoochee area. This site was vandalized for many years, culminating in its destruction by bulldozer early in the 1970s (Mitchem and Weisman 1984:100). Test excavations of the site in 1984 revealed that no portions of the mound were intact (Mitchem and Weisman 1984).
A number of collectors with material from the site were contacted and loaned artifacts to FMNH for study. They reported that many burials were excavated from the mound, but no records on numbers or positions were kept. Decorated pottery types from the site included Safety Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Point Washington Incised, and St. Johns Check Stamped, clearly indicating a Safety Harbor occupation (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:198). Alachua Tradition types were also present in small numbers.
The most significant artifacts from the site are Spanish objects dating to the first half of the sixteenth century. These include 30 glass beads, 51 silver beads, two gold beads, an iron chisel, a rolled




26
iron bead, brass rings (possibly representing chain mail), and a sherd of Green Bacin pottery (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:202). The glass beads included Nueva Cadiz and faceted chevron varieties, indicating an early sixteenth century date (Deagan 1987; Smith and Good 1982). Two additional glass beads, one Nueva Cadiz Plain and one faceted chevron, were recently collected from the surface of the site and donated to the FMNH (Walter H. Askew, personal communication 1988). The location of the site and the assemblage of Spanish artifacts suggest that the people buried in the mound made contact with one or both of the expeditions of Pdnfilo de Narvdez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539.
A few kilometers away is the Tatham mound (8Ci203), excavated by FMNH archaeologists in 1985 and 1986 (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986, 1987). This protohistoric site is discussed in detail in Chapter 3.
An artifact scatter known as the Weaver site
(8Ci213) yielded St. Johns Check Stamped and Prairie Cord Marked sherds, as well as Pinellas projectile points. While the evidence is scant, these artifact types suggest a Safety Harbor designation for the site.
Weisman (1989:116) stated that the Zellner Grove site (8Ci215) had a possible Safety Harbor component represented by a light scatter of artifacts. As he




27
noted, this was probably related to the larger Duval Island site (8Ci5), which is located nearby.
A collection from an unnumbered site known as the "shell midden half way down the Chassahowitzka River on the right" is in FMNH (#104968). The artifacts in this collection are listed in Table 3. A note with the collection indicates that many Pinellas projectile points were found on the site, to the virtual exclusion of other point types. The collection seems to indicate a multicomponent site, with Safety Harbor occupation possibly represented by the Pinellas points.
Several unrecorded middens are located on the north bank of the Homosassa River. Pinellas projectile points and Safety Harbor Incised pottery have been collected from eroding beaches adjacent to these middens (Walter H. Askew, personal communication 1988).
Lake County
Lake County, located east of Sumter County, is
outside of the Safety Harbor culture area. A few sites, however, have yielded evidence which may indicate interaction with Safety Harbor groups.
In the late nineteenth century, C. B. Moore
(1896:536-539) excavated a previously disturbed mound west of the town of Tavares (8La52). The sand mound yielded many secondary burials, shell beads, galena,




28
Table 3. Artifacts from an Unrecorded Shell Midden
on the Chassahowitzka River.
Description Count
Ceramics:
St. Johns Check Stamped 9/2
Sand tempered plain 4/3
Deptford Cross Simple Stamped 1/0
Complicated stamped (faint concentric circle-Jefferson Ware?) 1/0
Stone:
Pinellas projectile points 5
Chert biface fragment 1
Bone:
Polished bone pin fragment 1
plain and red painted pottery, stone celts, projectile points, and pendants of stone and shell (1896:536-538). One illustrated sherd (1896:Plate LXXXVI[4]) is typical Weeden Island Incised. He also made brief mention of a smaller sand mound (8La53) nearby, which purportedly had yielded objects of brass or bronze in the past. Though Moore did not dig in the smaller mound, he noted the presence of glass beads on its surface (1896:539).
The sites, consisting of the two mounds and a
habitation area, were rediscovered by Sleight (1949), who excavated in the smaller mound (8La53) and screened




previous workers' backdirt. His work yielded 366 glass beads, a teardrop-shaped glass pendant, and three pottery vessels.
The glass beads were primarily seed beads, of a
wide variety of colors. A tubular blue bead with red, white, blue, and green longitudinal stripes was also recovered. The pendant (2.5 cm x 1.3 cm) was of light blue glass (Sleight 1949:27-28), and had a perforation made by looping the molten glass. He noted the similarity of this assemblage to that from the Goodnow mound (8Hg6) in Highlands County (Griffin and Smith 1948).
The three vessels from the mound were of the types St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, and Sarasota Incised (Sleight 1949:28-30). The Sarasota Incised vessel suggests either a very early Safety Harbor component for the site or interaction with Safety Harbor groups during this time period. However, since the site is located on the edge of the St. Johns culture area, the vessel could merely be a St. Johns paste vessel with designs that coincidentally match those used to define the type Sarasota Incised (Willey 1 949a:474). The glass beads indicate a much later occupation, but the cultural affiliations of the postcontact component are not evident from the available data.




30
The Mound near Old Okahumpka (8La57) was also excavated by Moore (1896:542-543). This sand mound yielded many burials, all of which were apparently secondary (bundles). Eight stone celts, shell beads, plain and red-painted sherds, and three copper objects came from the mound.
One of the copper objects was a plate fragment with a repousse design embossed on it (Goggin 1949d). The design consisted of the lower portion (the top had been broken away) of a human figure in profile. The method of depiction of this individual is clearly reminiscent of motifs associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Hamilton et al. 1974:153-161; Waring and Holder 1968). Such motifs are common on Mississippian period (ca. A.D. 1200-1450) ceremonial objects (Knight 1986), and the copper plate from Old Okahumpka dates the mound to this period. Copper and pottery objects with Southeastern Ceremonial Complex motifs have been found at the Tatham Mound in Citrus County (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987; see also Chapter 3, this volume).
Moore (1896:Figure 91) illustrated a sherd from the site which bears a striking resemblance to a sherd from the Briarwoods site (8Pa66), a Safety Harbor burial mound in Pasco County (Mitchem 1985a, 1988b). The artifactual evidence suggests that the site was probably occupied by people who interacted with Safety Harbor




31
groups, though collections from the site are too scant to allow determination of whether or not the mound should be considered a Safety Harbor site. *
Another site (8La62) in Lake County, known as the West Apopka site (or Burial Mound on the West Shore of Lake Apopka), was described by Kunz (1887:222). His discussion focused on description of two metal objects (American Museum of Natural History [AMNH] #1/4662) from the site, one of cast gold (Goggin 1954b:Figure la) and one of silver (Kunz 1887:Figures 4 and 5). He also mentioned that the mound contained a stone celt and a large number of decomposed bones representing hundreds of individuals. No information on pottery types or other artifacts was included. The FMNH site file designates this as a Safety Harbor site, but presently available data do not allow confirmation of this interpretation.
Orange County
A note in the FMNH site file (apparently written by John Goggin) indicates that the East Shore of Lake Butler site (80r11) was a Safety Harbor mound. However, the only artifacts rec6rded from the site are two artifacts of European metal, one of silver and one of gold (Kunz 1887:221-223, Figures 2 and 6). There is no




32
evidence to indicate that the site was a Safety Harbor mound.
A site known as the Mound West of Lake Butler
(80r12), or the Gotha Mound, was excavated in the late nineteenth century by Adolph Meinecke, a trustee of the Milwaukee Public Museum (MPM). Material attributed to this site came from at least two mounds in the area (Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 1892:15, 1893:12-13). One of these mounds may also have been dug in 1896 by Thomas Featherstonhaugh (1897, 1899). One of them may have been 80r1l.
John Goggin studied the MPM collection in 1945, and obtained many of the European artifacts from there in 1961. Goggin's notes on the collection were probably used by Smith (1956:52) to write his brief discussion of the site, which he incorrectly referred to as 80r1l. Goggin's (1945) notes indicated that Weeden Island Punctated, Wakulla Check Stamped, Englewood Incised, "Englewood Punctated," Safety Harbor Incised, Fort Walton Incised, and St. Johns pottery types were in the collection. An intact Seminole vessel was also present (Goggin 1953b:Figures la and 7a).
The European artifacts, most of which are now in FMNH (#A-20117), consist of a wide variety of glass beads and metal objects. Several of the metal items listed in the notes in the site file have disappeared,




33
including a tanged iron knife blade, a perforated iron celt, and an iron chisel. The FMNH collection from the site is listed in Table 4.
The European artifacts from 80r12 provide some
evidence for the date of contact. The glass beads are most useful for this purpose. The Nueva Cadiz bead and the oblate transparent purple specimens are early sixteenth century varieties (Smith and Good 1982), but most of the collection is later, suggesting that the early beads were curated items. The opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue), aquamarine, medium blue, heataltered compound, and Cornaline d'Aleppo beads probably all date to the late sixteenth or seventeenth centuries (Deagan 1987:Table 4, 168, 171, 175; Smith 1983:150, 1987:46). The Gooseberry beads are spheroid, which indicates a probable eighteenth century date (Deagan 1987:168; Smith 1983:150).
The rolled sheet silver bead is a 4.15 cm long tube weighing 5.9 g. Beads of this type have been recovered from many sixteenth and seventeenth century contact period aboriginal sites in Florida (Mitchem and Leader 1988:54). The brass disc, originally about 11 cm in diameter, is of a type found on sites in the interior Southeast dating from the late sixteenth century or later (Smith 1987:37-38). The two iron "awls" measure 20.3 cm and 20.6 cm in length, are square in cross




34
Table 4. Artifacts from 8Or12 in FMNH.
Description Count
Glass Beads:
Opaque white seed 98
Transparent light blue-green seed 71
Transparent medium blue seed 19
Opaque turquoise blue seed 10
Transparent light purple seed 2
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed 2
Spheroid translucent dark purple seed 1
Large Nueva Cadiz Plain, faceted (transparent
medium aquamarine blue/thin white/transparent
medium blue core) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 27
Drawn oblate or barrel-shaped transparent
aquamarine blue 21
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium blue 6
Colorless Gooseberry (I is oblate, other is double) 2 Drawn barrel-shaped opaque white 4
Heat-altered compound spherical (translucent
turquoise blue/possible thin white/transparent
medium aquamarine blue core) 5
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium green 4
oblate transparent purple (IBig) 2
Drawn barrel-shaped translucent dark burgundy 2
Oblate Cornaline d'Aleppo 1




35
Table 4--continued
Description Count
Small olive-shaped medium transparent purple with
marvered facets 1
Oblate translucent yellow 1
Barrel-shaped transparent medium aquamarine blue
with 4 longitudinal red-on-white stripes 1
Barrel-shaped transparent light blue with 9
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent cobalt blue 2
Spheroid medium transparent blue with 4 longitudinal
opaque white stripes 3
Small oblate transparent medium blue with 4
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Large drawn translucent dark brown with 3
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped opaque dark burgundy with 1
longitudinal thin white stripe 1
Blue metallic-finish faceted spherical (5 rows of
facets, mold-made, probably modern) 1
Metal:
Rolled sheet silver bead 1
Broken circular brass disc 1
Miscellaneous flat brass fragments 2
Iron "awls" 2
Iron scissors fragments (from a single pair) 2




36
Table 4--continued
Description Count
Unidentified iron fragment 1
Stone:
Polished stone bead (probably hematite) 1
Shell:
Barrel-shaped beads 2
Disc beads stained with red ochre 3
Small disc beads 3
*Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
section, have tapered ends, and are 0.7 cm thick at the widest point. The identification of these items as awls is speculative. similar iron awls have been recovered in seventeenth century Onondaga contexts in New York (Bradley 1987:141-142, 202) and in eighteenth century contexts at Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan (Stone 1974:155-159). But specimens from these areas are much smaller than those from 80r12, and are probably of Dutch or French origin rather than Spanish (Bradley 1987:142). Dan and Phyllis Morse (1986) have suggested that these objects were raw material for blacksmiths accompanying the early Spanish expeditions. Present evidence.is insufficient to determine their function.
Because of the location of the site outside of the apparent Safety Harbor culture area, a visit was made to




37
MPH in August, 1988, to study and photograph the aboriginal artifacts from the mound. This study indicated that the aboriginal ceramics from the mound are clearly Weeden Island types. The decorated sherds of Safety Harbor and Englewood types mentioned by Goggin (1945) were misidentified. Furthermore, many of the stone artifacts in the MPH collection (primarily projectile points and ground stone objects) are not from Florida. Specifically, many of the projectile points appear to be quartzite points typical of the Georgia Piedmont, and the presence of several grooved stone axes (typical of northeastern North America) strongly suggests that the collection wag mixed with material from many sites.
The collector, Adolph Meinecke, owned a winter home near Lake Butler. During visits there, he and some associates would excavate in at least two mounds (possibly more) in the vicinity, subsequently donating the material to MPH (Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 1892:15, 41-42, 1893:1213, 44-45, 1894:13, 70, 1896:13, 34). The artifacts in FMNH and MPH were excavated from these mounds, but artifacts from other states were mixed in with the collection at some point. The European artifacts indicate that the major period of contact was probably during the late sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, but




38
there is no evidence to support a Safety Harbor component at the mound.
Hernando County
The Bayport mound (BHel) was excavated by Moore
(1903:415-424). This oblong burial mound yielded about 40 burials, most of which were secondary interments, along with a few cremations (Willey 1949a:325-326). Though most of the pottery consists of Weeden Island types, Moore illustrated what appears to be a sherd of Englewood Incised (1903:Figure 66), and a Safety Harbor Incised bottle form (1903:Figure 71). A cast of the bottle is in FMNH (#A-3068). These latter types suggest a minor Safety Harbor component at the site.
Moore also excavated a mound known as Indian Bend
(8He2), from which he recovered check stamped sherds and at least one sherd from a St. Petersburg Incised bottle (1903:Figure 65). Willey (1949a:442) noted that St. Petersburg Incised is primarily a late Weeden Island type, but probably also occurs in Englewood contexts. Therefore, it is possible that this site had an early Safety Harbor component.
The multicomponent Johns Island site (8He4), first mentioned by Heilprin (1887:4), was tested by Antonio Waring in 1948 (Willey 1949a:327-328), who found mostly Weeden Island pottery types. Bullen and Bullen (1950)




39
also worked at the site, recovering a small number of Pinellas Plain sherds in the top stratum of the midden, along with shell tempered wares (1950:44). These types, in addition to Pinellas points surface-collected nearby, would suggest a possible minor Safety Harbor occupation of the site, though these could also represent a Weeden Island-related component. A collection in FMNH (#30350) also includes a Spanish Olive Jar sherd, indicating some habitation or contact after the early sixteenth century. A collection in the NMNH (#59368), apparently collected by S. T. Walker (Goggin thought it was from the Johns Island site), also includes one sherd identified as European by John Goggin.
The Bayport II site (8He7) is apparently a
habitation site about 1.6 km south of 8Hel. Notes in the FMNH site file indicate that a surface collection at the site produced 73 sherds, supposedly all Safety Harbor types. Only two decorated sherds were noted, both of which were Pinellas Incised. The collection is housed in the Temple Mound Museum (TMM) in Fort Walton Beach.
A collection in FMNH (#98449) was obtained in 1963 from the Palm Grove Gardens site (8He8). The artifacts are listed in Table 5. The Pinellas Plain pottery




40
Table 5. Artifacts from the Palm Grove Gardens Site (8He8) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain 46/6
Pasco Check Stamped 3/2
Pasco Cord Marked 1/1
Sand tempered plain 39/6
Pinellas Plain 10/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 6/2
St. Johns Plain 4/1
Stone:
Utilized chert flake 1
suggests a Safety Harbor component, though this could represent a late Weeden Island-related occupation.
A multicomponent site (8HelO) known as the First
Gardens or Weekiwachee site (not to be confused with the Weeki Wachee Mound (8He12] discussed below) was collected by Ferguson (1976). This midden, which had been vandalized, yielded material indicating continuous occupation from Deptford through Seminole times. The probable Safety Harbor component was represented by Pinellas Plain sherds, Pinellas projectile points, and a Tampa projectile point. Ferguson (1976:Figure 1[3]) also recovered an incised sherd, which he identified as




41
Ocmulgee Fields Incised, but is Point Washington Incised. Fifty Olive Jar sherds were also collected,but these may have been associated with the Seminole component (1976:76).
The Weeki Wachee Mound (SHe12) was excavated in
1970 by Robert Allen. Located near the springs of the same name, the mound yielded 63 burials, many of which consisted of more than one individual. Pottery from the mound included typical Safety Harbor types with some Alachua Tradition types present (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:185). Shell artifacts were numerous, including Busycon cups, unaltered whelk shells, beads, and freshwater mussel shells (as necklaces). The mussel shells are of interest because they were identified as Shepard's Filter Clam (Elliptio shepardianus Lea), a species that occurs only in the Altamaha River drainage of Georgia. Shells of this species were also recovered at the Tatham mound in Citrus County (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:17-18, 1987:23).
In addition, the excavations yielded between 123
and 127 glass beads, 151 silver beads, and one spherical true amber bead. The glass beads consisted of many varieties of Nueva Cadiz, faceted chevron, and striped beads, all of which are early sixteenth century types (Deagan 1987; Smith and Good 1982). The European bead




42
assemblage is remarkably similar to those recovered from the Ruth Smith and Tatham mounds in Citrus County (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:27-34, 1987:48-55; Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:204-205). The Weeki Wachee Mound was apparently an isolated burial mound, with no associated habitation area. This appears to be a typical pattern in the region north of Tampa Bay (Mitchem 1988d).
A site known as Anderson's Mound (8Hel4) was
destroyed by treasure hunters. Excavations prior to destruction yielded a beaker-shaped vessel with vertical bands of parallel incised lines in a zigzag pattern (probably a variant of Englewood Incised), a stone plummet, and a ground stone celt fragment (William G. Dayton, personal communication 1986). The FMNH site file also records that a sherd of Englewood Incised and a blue glass bead were recovered after the mound's destruction. This bead was a heat-altered opaque turquoise blue specimen (Ichtucknee Blue). These first show up in sites in the Southeast around 1560 or 1570, but are occasionally found on sites dating as late as the eighteenth century (Deagan 1987:171; Goggin 1953a; Smith 1983:150, 1987:33). Local informants claim that many similar beads were recovered from the mound. The scant evidence from the site suggests that it was a




43
Safety Harbor burial mound, used well into the postcontact period.
In the files of the FPS (housed in FMNH), a letter written by Harry L. Schoff (dated December 12, 1935) includes a basic description of artifacts recovered from a mound near Istachatta in northeast Hernando County. The small sand mound yielded 14 pecked and ground stone celts, projectile points, and "a few silver, stone and shell beads" (Schoff 1935). Because of the location of the mound and the presence of silver beads, the site probably had a postcontact Safety Harbor component.
In the SFM collection in Bradenton, an iron celt (#35-11, 2120) is identified as having been found in Hernando County, probably by Montague Tallant. The celt is 24.2 cm long, 6.0-7.5 cm wide, and 0.7-1.0 cm thick. Similar iron artifacts have come from sixteenth century Spanish sites elsewhere in the Southeast (Smith 1975; 1987:34-36, 45-46). It is assumed the celt was recovered from a postcontact Safety Harbor site. There is also a large scalloped-rim Safety Harbor Incised bowl in SFM (#2324), which was found somewhere in Hernando County. It should be noted, however, that the boundaries of many Florida counties have changed over the years.




44
Large numbers of Pinellas projectile points have been collected from a site on the Chassahowitzka River by collectors who screened material eroding into the water (J. Raymond Williams, personal communication 1988). The site is apparently unrecorded, and no other information is available. The Pinellas points could indicate either a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor component. It is possible that this could be the same site mentioned in the Citrus County discussion above (Table 3).
Pasco County
S. T. Walker (1880a:392-394) and C. B. Moore
(1903:426-433) both excavated at the Pithlochascootie River site (8Pa2). This site was described by Walker (1880a:392) as consisting of two mounds about 90 m apart. One of these was a flat-topped mound of alternating shell and sand strata, and the other was an oval-shaped sand mound with a small projecting ridge. Walker recovered no artifacts from the first mound, but encountered numerous primary and secondary burials in the sand mound (1880a:394). An iron spike, a projectile point, and decorated sherds were also recovered during Walker's work.




45
Moore excavated flexed, extended, and secondary burials from the sand mound, representing a total of probably 150 individuals. (Willey 1949a:329). Evidence of cremation was also found. Many artifacts of stone, bone, and shell were recovered (Moore 1903:426-433; Willey 1949a:329).
Pottery from both Walker's and Moore's excavations consisted mostly of Weeden Island types, but Moore (1903:Figure 83) illustrated a vessel which appeared to be Sarasota Incised. Willey's (1949a:330) analysis of Walker's collection included a sherd of St. Petersburg Incised. These suggest a minor early Safety Harbor component at the site. If there is indeed a Safety Harbor component at the site, it represents the northernmost occurrence of the Mississippian-style Safety Harbor village site consisting of truncated mound, plaza, and burial mound, as described by Bullen (1955:60-61, 1978b:51).
Several low burial mounds (8Pa9) were destroyed
while clearing land for an orange grove near Dade City in 1946. FPS files indicate that numerous Busycon shell fragments were present, as well as human bones from burials. Two small collections in FMNH (#99658 and 104902) contain chert flakes, St. Johns Check Stamped, and Pasco Plain sherds, along with a partially




46
reconstructed sand tempered vessel with a brushed exterior. Though the latter vessel suggests Seminole occupation (many Seminole sites are known in the area), the reset of the pottery types are not inconsistent with a Safety Harbor date. The presence nearby of a large Safety Harbor habitation site (the Pottery Hill site) increases the probability that the mounds were Safety Harbor burial mounds.
At the multicomponent Grace Memorial Gardens site (8Pa2l), excavations by amateur archaeologists revealed Archaic, Weeden Island-related, and Safety Harbor occupations. The Safety Harbor component was indicated by sherds of Pinellas Plain pottery with notched lips (Wells and Bull 1978:23).
Members of the Suncoast Archaeological Society reported an artifact scatter (8Pa37) in 1978 which yielded aboriginal ceramics, lithic artifacts, and faunal remains. On the FMSF form, the site was dated to late Weeden Island and Safety Harbor times, but the artifacts were not described.
Another multicomponent artifact scatter (8Pa54), known as the Upper Hillsborough 9 site, also contained ceramics and lithic artifacts. Though artifact types were not described on the FMSF form, the site was




47
classified as occupied from Deptford through Safety Harbor times.
The Briarwoods site (8Pa66) was a small Safety Harbor burial mound salvaged in 1980. Two flexed burials were recovered, with many secondary remains above them. Some of the burials were surrounded by sand stained with red ochre (Mitchem 1985a:162). Artifacts included a ground stone celt, a shell gorget, a flaked stone celt, shark teeth, shell beads, and aboriginal ceramics. Pottery types indicated that the site was a Safety Harbor mound (1985a:163-164). Attempts to locate an associated habitation site were unsuccessful.
Four artifact scatters (8Pa123A, 8Pa125G, 8Pa126E, and 8Pa129) were located in 1983 (Wharton 1984). The FMSF forms indicate that aboriginal ceramics and lithic artifacts were recovered at each of these sites, and they were dated to Weeden Island and Safety Harbor times. Pinellas points were recovered at 8Pa123A, 8Pa125G, and 8Pa129 (Wharton 1984).
The River Road Site A (8Pa158A) is a lithic scatter that yielded a single Pinellas projectile point base (Wharton 1984). The site is identified as a Safety Harbor site on the FMSF form based on this artifact, but it could be a late Weeden Island-related site.




48
The Pottery Hill site is a previously unrecorded site near Dade City. The site originally had a mound which was levelled with a bulldozer many years ago. Local informants claimed that this mound was flattopped, about 2 m high, and about 12 m across (William G. Dayton, personal communication 1986).
A habitation area is located adjacent to the
supposed mound site. Surface collections from this area contained many projectile points, including specimens of the Pinellas, Tampa, Hernando, Bolen, Lafayette, Newnan, and Florida Archaic Stemmed types (Bullen 1975). Pottery consisted of Pasco Plain, sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Prairie Cord Marked, and Safety Harbor Incised. Various lithic artifacts and BusycPon fragments were also recovered. The artifacts indicate a Safety Harbor component at the site, with possible earlier components. Several low burial mounds (8Pa9), which were destroyed in 1946, were located less than .75 km north of Pottery Hill, and may have been associated (see discussion of 8Pa9 above).
Another site, the Evans Creek site (8Pal68), is
located about 1.6 km away. Local informants report that Pinellas projectile points and Safety Harbor pottery types were surface-collected from this site (William G. Dayton, personal communication 1986).




49
A Safety Harbor Incised bowl with a restricted neck and a flared rim is in the SFM collection (#2325). The lip is also notched. The vessel came from an unknown site in Pasco County.
Neill (1978:224-225) indicated that Safety Harbor sites are abundant in Pasco County, primarily in inland areas which have recently been developed. Though he did not mention any specific sites, he noted that at least three Safety Harbor cemeteries (as opposed to mounds) had been found in the county, and that majolica had been recovered from some of the area's larger Safety Harbor sites.
Pinellas County
Pinellas County, along with Hillsborough and Manatee Counties, is the region of the greatest concentration of Safety Harbor sites. Unfortunately, it is also an area that has undergone very heavy development with consequent destruction of numerous archaeological sites (Williams 1975).
One of the most famous sites in Pinellas County is the Weeden Island site (8Pil), which was partially excavated by archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution in 1923 and 1924 (Bushnell 1926:129-132; Fewkes 1924; Willey 1949a:105-113)-. Though this was the




50
type site for the Weeden Island period, there was a minor Safety Harbor component at the site, as evidenced by some of the pottery types recovered. Willey (1949a:109-ll) listed a small number of Englewood and Safety Harbor sherds in the NMNH collection from the site. Their exact provenience is unknown. Bushnell (1926:131-132) collected and illustrated part of a Sarasota Incised vessel (NMNH #330622) from the surface of the burial mound. A collection from the site in FMNH (#A-2612) contains some Safety Harbor Incised sherds mixed with a predominantly Weeden Island assemblage. A collection in YPM (#4572) also includes some Safety Harbor Incised and probable Pinellas Incised sherds, as well as a sherd with a notched lip (possibly the late variety of Pinellas Plain).
The Safety Harbor site (8Pi2), on the west side of Old Tampa Bay, is the type site for the Safety Harbor archaeological culture. It was first mentioned in print by Daniel Brinton (1859:118, 171). Several decades later, S. T. Walker (1880a:410-411) visited the site, then known as Phillippi's Point, but was refused permission to excavate. Twenty years later, C. B. Moore (1900:356) was also refused permission to dig at the site.




51
Two mounds were present, one a low sand burial
mound located at the northern end, and the other a large truncated "temple" mound at the southern end. At the time of Walker's visit, part of the truncated mound had been eroded by storm action, and he was able to observe that it was composed of alternating sand and shell layers (1880a:411). Habitation areas were apparently located around the latter mound, close to the bay shore areas (Griffin and Bullen 1950:Figure 1).
Several major episodes of excavation have been undertaken at the site during the twentieth century. Stirling (1931:171-172) excavated the burial mound in 1930, removing about 100 secondary burials, along with aboriginal and European artifacts. Fifty of the crania were studied by Hrdlicka (1940:339-340, 373), but apparently most of the skeletal remains were discarded (B. William Burger, personal communication 1986). A contemporary newspaper account indicates that over 1400 burials were removed during these excavations (Anonymous 1930).
Willey (1949a:138) listed the sherd counts and
types from the burial mound (NI4NH #351513-351525) and from the habitation area between the mounds (NMNH #351526-351536, 362378-362386), which was also tested by Stirling. Stone, shell, bone, and European materials




52
from both contexts were also described. The ceramic assemblage from these excavations consisted almost completely of Safety Harbor types, with no earlier Weeden Island types present.
In August, 1948, the FPS excavated in the top of the large truncated mound and in portions of the presumed habitation area (Griffin and Bullen 1950). The artifacts recovered from this work (FMNH #97199-97225, 97231-97234) consisted of Safety Harbor and Leon-Jefferson (Mission Period) types, with no Weeden Island materials. Great quantities of Pinellas Plain sherds were recovered from the presumed habitation area, indicating that this was the primary utilitarian ware at the site.
A small collection of faunal remains collected during these excavations is housed in the FMNH Zooarchaeology Laboratory (#91). The collection is heavily biased toward large elements because the material was not screened, and only those bones noticed during excavation were kept. As would be expected from a coastal site, the assemblage consists primarily of marine fauna, with some terrapins, birds, and mammals (Kozuch 1986:Table 1).
Additional excavations were conducted at the site in the late 1960s by several local groups of amateur




53
archaeologists (Gustave A. Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). The results of this work have not been published, but material from the excavations displayed in the Oldsmar Museum and in the Pinellas County Courthouse in Clearwater includes Pinellas projectile points and sherds of Safety Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Point Washington Incised, Englewood Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, and Pinellas Plain pottery. Some bird head adornos from the site were illustrated by Gorges (1979).
The site has been surface collected many times in the past, and some of these collections are housed in FMNH (#3041-3373, 5202-5218). They contain typical Safety Harbor sherds and lithic artifacts, as well as a surprising number of Archaic projectile points. A possible stone tool was collected from the site by Armistead (1949).
The European items found at the site are of great interest, because most researchers feel that the Safety Harbor site is the town of Tocobaga visited by Pedro Mendndez de Avilds in 1567 (Bullen 1978b; Solis de Merds 1964:223-229). European artifacts from the site in FMNH, NMNH, and other places are listed in Table 6.
Goggin (1953:11, 1954a:152-153) indicated that the sherd of Yayal Blue on White majolica and the Portuguese




54
Table 6. European Artifacts from the Safety Harbor Site (8Pi2).
Description Count
Ceramics (all in FMNH, except where noted):
Olive Jar (includes 2 strap handles) 43/2
Melado 2/1
Green Lebrillo 1/0
Unglazed red coarse earthenware 1/0
Unglazed coarse earthenware strap handle 1
7 Yayal Blue on White majolica (Florida State
University [FSU]) 1
Metal:
Portuguese copper ceitel coin (location unknown) 1
Iron axes (NMNH #351513 & 384087) 2
Rolled sheet silver bead (NMNH #351514) 1
/ Sheet silver ornament 1
Other:
Clay pipe fragments (1 is a green-glazed human head
effigy) (NMNH #351536 and 362386) 3
coin were collected from the beach adjacent to the site.
The iron axes, rolled sheet silver bead, and sheet
silver ornament were recovered during the burial mound excavations (Goggin 1953:11; Stirling 1931:172; Willey
1949a:139). Willey (1949a:Plate 57) illustrated the
three European pipe fragments from the site, and noted




55
that they came from excavations or surface collections in the village area (1949a:139). The green-glazed pipe fragment matches a reproduction of a Moravian pipe in the type collection at FMNH. The 8Pi2 specimen was probably associated with the early nineteenth century homestead of Count Odet Phillippi on the site (Griffin and Bullen 1950:7-8).
The Olive Jar handles are from early style Olive Jars, indicating a date of 1500-1570 or 1580 (Deagan 1987:33; Goggin 1960:23, 27). The copper Portuguese ceitel (identified by Sydney P. Noe of the American Numismatic Society in 1952) could have been minted any time during the reign of John III of Portugal (1521-1577) (Goggin 1954a:153). Melado is generally found in early sixteenth century contexts, while Yayal Blue on White majolica and Green Lebrillo date from the late fifteenth to the early seventeenth centuries (Deagan 1987:Table 4-1). The diversity of these artifacts, along with the presence of Leon-Jefferson wares (Griffin and Bullen 1950:11), suggests the possibility that several different episodes of contact may be represented at the site. However, it is likely that some of the artifacts were obtained by exchange with other aboriginal groups in the area, or as tribute from subordinate settlements.




The description of the town of Tocobaga and its location, provided by Solis de Merds (1964:224), strongly suggests that the Safety Harbor site was indeed the cacique Tocobaga's town, which was visited by Menendez. The town was 20 leagues inland (this apparently means 20 leagues from the mouth of Tampa Bay), "and one could sail up close to the side of his house by a channel of salt water" (Solis de Meras 1964:224). The account also mentions steering north from the mouth of the bay to reach the town. Once contact was established, Mendndez left 30 soldiers and a captain (1964:228), who then constructed a blockhouse in the town (1964:242).
The Jesuit priest Juan Rogel, along with Pedro
Mendndez Marqudz, visited the garrison some months later and found things going well (Lyon 1976:202; Zubillaga 1946:276). However, when they returned in January, 1568, they found the town deserted and that all of the Spaniards had been killed (Lyon 1976:203; Zubillaga 1946:295-296). The European artifacts from the Safety Harbor site could represent material evidence of this garrison, as none of them dates solely to a post-1568 period. The Leon-Jefferson wares could also be from this episode of contact.




The Safety Harbor site is remarkable because it appears to be a single component site with two mounds and a large habitation area, representing an intensive Safety Harbor occupation with no underlying Weeden Island-related component (Griffin and Bullen 1950; Willey 1949a:137, 141). Many Safety Harbor sites in the Tampa Bay area are multicomponent, and unmixed habitation or midden areas are rare.
The Safford Mound (8Pi3) near Tarpon Springs was excavated by Frank H. Cushing (1896:352-354), who provided only a brief general description of his findings. W. H. Holmes (1903) illustrated some vessels from the mound. Moore (1903:433) claimed that this was the Ormond Mound excavated previously by Walker (1880a:396-399, Plate III), but the evidence is inconclusive. Walker's description was of a sand mound. 29 m in diameter and 1.5 m high, which yielded secondary burials, cremations, and sherds (1880a:396-399).
Using Cushing's notes and photographs along with the collection (now housed in the University of Pennsylvania Museum [UPM] and FMNH), Bullen et al. (1970) and Smith (1971:131-133) published descriptive reports on the excavations and the recovered artifacts. The reports included descriptions and illustrations of pottery and other artifacts from the mound. The pottery




58
types revealed occupation from Deptford through Safety Harbor times. The Safety Harbor component was represented by Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised, Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, and Safety Harbor Incised sherds and vessels (Bullen et al. 1970; Smith 1971:131-133). Unfortunately, exact provenience information was not recorded, so very little is known about associations.
The mound was originally roughly circular in shape, with a diameter of approximately 39 m, and a maximum height of 1.8 m. It was surrounded by borrow pits. Two pottery caches were noted on the east side, and Cushing identified at least three strata of burials (Bullen et al. 1970:84). More than 600 burials were excavated, consisting mostly of secondary interments with a few primary extended burials (Cushing 1896:353).
The Johns Pass Mound (8Pi4), located on a small island along the Gulf coast, was first excavated by Walker (1880a:401-403). He described an oval-shaped sand mound measuring about 15 m by 7.6 m, with a height of less than 1 m. He mentioned a large number of sherds, apparently concentrated beneath extended burials, many of which were subadults. An undescribed glass bead (NMNH #35643) and a well-made rolled sheet




59
silver bead (#35642) were recovered from the mound surface.
Moore (1903:434-436) excavated at the site several decades later, removing flexed burials and discovering a large secondary bone deposit. He mentioned staining from red ochre and 10-12 Busycon cups, but generally the burials were not accompanied by artifacts. His illustration of sherds (1903:Figure 88) reveals that Safety Harbor Incised and Pinellas Incised wares were abundant. Check stamped sherds and fragments of a single shell tempered vessel were also mentioned. This may be the site mentioned by Bethell (1914:54-55), who dug part of the mound (he encountered no artifacts), and collected some human bones which he intended to send to the Smithsonian Institution. Whether or not these reached the Smithsonian is not known. Additional collections from the Johns Pass site are in YPM (#21582) and the R. S. Peabody Foundation (RSPF) (#38978 and 39319).
A collection of sherds from the site was
illustrated by Ostrander (1960). These sherds represent vessels of Pinellas Incised, Safety Harbor Incised, Point Washington Incised, and (according to William Sears) Fort Walton Incised. Sears also identified Lake Jackson Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,




60
Pinellas Plain, and sand tempered plain sherds in the collection (Ostrander 1960:77).
Griffin and Smith (1948:28) cited Bushnell
(1937:34) as identifying the glass bead recovered by Walker as a Florida Cut Crystal specimen, but it appears that they were in error. The bead described by Bushnell was from the Maximo Point site (1937:33).
The Clearwater site (8Pi5) was apparently a complex of two large (approx. 90 m long and 3-4.5 m high) linear shell mounds with a smaller one between them, and a graded path leading to a freshwater pond about 140 m away (Walker 1880b:419). Willey (1949a:332-333) classified sherds and a Busycon pick in NMNH (#35638, 43098-43101, and 88409), which were probably from this site. The pottery indicates a Safety Harbor occupation with an underlying late Weeden Island-related component (see also Table 19).
A collection in NMNH (#363066) from an island site (midden?) known as the Boca Ciega Island site (8Pi6) contains mixed late Weeden Island and Safety Harbor pottery types, along with sand tempered plain sherds (Willey 1949a:333). A single rim sherd of shell tempered ware from the site is in FMNH (#A-2614). Willey (1949a:333) also listed two Pensacola Plain (a shell tempered Fort Walton type) sherds from the site.




61
The Bayview site (8Pi7) was a mound excavated by S. T. Walker (1880a:410). He described it as a sand mound 14 m in diameter, and less than a meter high at its summit. Burials were deposited in three strata. Most interments were apparently secondary, though his description suggests that some primary burials may have been present. In association with burials in the upper two strata, Walker (1880a:410) found large numbers of glass and metal beads, brass and copper ornaments, a pair of scissors (NMNH #35313), and a looking glass fragment (#35314). The large collection in NMNH also contains a Flushloop bell (#35318), an early style Olive Jar neck (#35320), and the basal portion of a majolica vessel (#35327). This latter specimen is of particular interest. It appears to be part of an albarelo, or drug jar (Lister and Lister 1976:13). It is sloppily decorated with dark green enamel over a gunmetal gray glaze. There is a carefully executed round hole in the base, suggesting that the aborigines "killed" the vessel prior to interment. Willey (1949a:334) identified four of the aboriginal sherds from the site as Safety Harbor types.
A card in the FMNH site file indicates that the beads listed in Table 7 were collected from Walker's spoil dirt. The present location of this collection is




62
Table 7. Beads Collected from S. T. Walker's Spoil
at the Bayview Mound (8Pi7).
Description Cou
Glass:
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) Drawn transparent dark blue Yellow oval
Spherical yellow Spherical colorless Ovate royal blue with 3 spiral white stripes Gooseberry (spherical) Gooseberry (ovate) Cornaline d'Aleppo Short royal blue cane with 3 groups of 3 red stripes Chevron (undescribed) Transparent dark blue seed Drawn transparent dark green Fragments of opaque turquoise blue unkno
Metal:
Spherical silver coin beads Rolled sheet silver Shell:
Disc beads
unknown. However, it may have been catalogued as part of the Seven Oaks (8Pi8) collection (see below). A

it
9 L2
2
1
1
1
1
9
1
1
5
7
2 wn
4
2
12




63
silver tablet (NMNH #35343) was also recovered from Bayview by Walker (Allerton et al. 1984:28).
The NMNH collection (#35334-35345) includes many strings of glass beads from the mound. These have not yet been analyzed, but a cursory inspection revealed the presence of tumbled chevrons, faceted chevrons, opaque turquoise blue, eye beads, transparent green spheroid, barrel-shaped gooseberry, Florida Cut Crystal, spheroid Cornaline d'Aleppo, a few faceted transparent blue (typically found on Seminole sites), and a diverse collection of seed beads.
Willey (1949a:333) noted that the exact location of the Bayview mound was uncertain. It is probable that this is the same site as the Seven Oaks mound (8Pi8), said to be "located about one-half mile west of Seven Oaks" (Willey 1949a:334). This statement suggests that there was a town or settlement called Seven Oaks at one time. However, a local resident who directed excavations at the site in the 1960s noted that Seven Oaks was merely the name of a U. S. Post Office southwest of Alligator Lake in Pinellas County (Gustave A. Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). He produced a map which had the locations of the Seven Oaks Post Office, the town of Bayview, and the excavated mound plotted. From this, it appears that both sites




64
are the same, a single mound south of Alligator Creek. The location matches both Walker's (1880a:410) description of Bayview and Willey's (1949a:334) location for Seven Oaks.
In addition to Walker's excavations, a number of episodes of excavation and collecting have occurred at this site, which is now completely destroyed. A sizeable collection of material from the site is curated at FMNH, some of which was identified by Willey (1949a:334-335). His identifications indicate a Safety Harbor mound with both a Weeden Island-related component and substantial evidence of European contact.
Most of the FMNH artifacts were obtained during the first two decades of the twentieth century by T. Van Hyning. Local residents obviously knew of the site, because three of them donated many artifacts to FMNH, including an extensive collection of European beads. In addition to the aboriginal pottery reported by Willey (1949a:334) and a large collection of shell beads, the FMNH collection includes the European items listed in Table 8.
The FMNH catalog lists 228 glass beads from the site, but only 147 are present in the collection. Goggin (1954b:Figure Ib) illustrated a brass or bronze plummet from the site, but it is not in FMNH. The FMNH




65
Table 8. European Artifacts from the Seven Oaks Site (8Pi8) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Columbia Plain majolica (early variety) 5/2
Lead-glazed coarse earthenware (probably Spanish
Storage Jar) 2/0
Glass Beads:
Faceted chevron (olive/barrel-shaped: navy blue/
white/red/white/transparent light blue/white/
thin transparent light blue core) 2
SFaceted chevron (barrel-shaped: cobalt blue/white/
red/white/transparent medium blue/white/
transparent medium blue/thin white core) 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent cobalt blue) (IIAle)* 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent medium blue) (IIAlf)* 1
Opaque white seed 5
Translucent dark purple seed 3
Wire-wound transparent light-medium blue seed 24
Drawn medium transparent blue seed 5
Patinated translucent yellow or amber-colored seed,
possibly wire-wound (VIDlc?)* 1
Transparent light green seed 1
Spherical transparent medium green seed 2




66
Table 8--continued
Description Count
oblate colorless seed 1
Opaque turquoise blue seed 2
Olive-shaped/spheroid opaque turquoise blue seed 2
Donut-shaped opaque turquoise blue large seed 2
Oblate transparent medium aquamarine blue large seed 1 Spherical drawn opaque turquoise blue 8
Barrel-shaped drawn opaque turquoise blue 2
Drawn spherical translucent navy blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped medium translucent blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped medium transparent blue 3
Drawn barrel-shaped medium translucent cobalt blue 2 Spherical transparent light/medium blue 6
Spherical translucent cobalt blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent aquamarine blue 1
Spherical/oblate transparent aquamarine blue 9
Oblate transparent yellow 2
Olive-shaped transparent yellow 1
Olive or barrel-shaped translucent cobalt blue with
marvered facets 4
7Spherical transparent purple (IBlg)* 2
Olive-shaped colorless Gooseberry 1
Spherical/barrel-shaped colorless Gooseberry 3
Small oblate colorless Gooseberry 1




67
Table 8--continued
Description Count
Spherical colorless 1
Spherical transparent emerald green 1
Small short tubular medium transparent blue 1
Small heat-altered tubular transparent cobalt blue 1 Small spherical colorless 2
Small olive-shaped opaque medium blue (VIDIh)* 2
Small olive-shaped/spheroid transparent medium blue 3 Small olive-shaped/spheroid transparent cobalt blue 1 Small olive-shaped transparent medium green 3
Small olive-shaped/spheroid translucent medium blue with marvered facets 7
Small oblate transparent medium blue with marvered facets (large seed size) 2
Small spherical transparent medium green with marvered facets 2
Small spherical transparent medium emerald green (large seed size) 3
Drawn tubular opaque medium blue 1
Small barrel-shaped opaque turquoise blue/thin white/turquoise blue core 1
/'Small spherical Cornaline d'Aleppo 1




68
Table 8--continued
Description Count
Spheroid transparent light green with 2 opaque white
and 2 opaque brick red alternating longitudinal
stripes 1
Tubular transparent emerald green with 3 opaque white
on wide brick red stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped transparent yellow-green with
2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes (a double bead) 1
Spherical transparent medium blue-green with 2 wide
opaque red and 2 thin opaque white alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium blue with 2 opaque
white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 2
Large drawn olive-shaped transparent medium blue
with 2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red
alternating longitudinal stripes I
Small olive-shaped translucent yellow with 3 opaque
white and 3 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium green (large seed size)
with gilded exterior 1




69
Table 8--continued
Description Count
Olive-shaped molded colorless or pale transparent
yellow with gilded exterior 1
Large olive-shaped spiral flute molded pale
transparent yellow with gilded exterior 1
Olive-shaped opaque medium blue Eye bead with
4 chevron insets 1
Tubular composite bead (translucent cobalt blue/thin
white/translucent cobalt blue core): 3 sets of
3 opaque red spiral stripes on exterior 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, faceted) 3
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, spiral faceted) 1
Spherical smooth polished colorless quartz 1
Large spherical true amber 1
Faceted garnet (12 linear facets, olive-shaped, sharp
equatorial ridge, 6 facets on each hemisphere) 2
Clay:
Large spherical clay bead with gilded exterior 1
Metal:
Drilled silver rod bead 3
Barrel/olive-shaped silver bead 3
Spherical/oblate silver bead 3
Silver coin bead 3




70
Table 8--continued
Description Count
Hammered silver object with engraved design Perforated copper or brass disc
*Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
catalog also listed a musket ball in the collection, but this could not be located.
In the late 1960s a group called the Safety Harbor Area Historical Society (SHAHS) excavated what was left of the mound. Though a report has not been completed, they reportedly excavated 76 secondary burials, with many aboriginal and European artifacts (Gustave A. Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). Some of these objects were on display at the Oldsmar Museum, and are listed in Table 9. Many other glass beads similar to the ones in the FMNH collection were also excavated by SHAHS. Several Busvcon cups and shells, and a large number of sherds of Safety Harbor and Weeden Island pottery types were also on display at the Oldsmar Museum.
Many of the glass beads from Seven Oaks (and those attributed to Bayview) are early sixteenth century types (Smith and Good 1982), but a large percentage are late sixteenth or seventeenth century or later types (Deagan




71
Table 9. European Artifacts from the Bayview/Seven Oaks
Mound (8Pi7/8Pi8) Displayed in the Oldsmar Museum.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Olive Jar (some with handles) many
Lead-glazed coarse earthenware many
Columbia Plain majolica (early variety) 3
Glass Beads:
Faceted chevron 5
Olive-shaped white with 3 wide spiral blue stripes on
exterior (IB3e)* 1
Colorless Gooseberry (shape not recorded) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue 6
Metal:
Drilled silver rod bead 2
Spherical silver bead 4
Iron scissors 1
Possible spoon 1
Possible knife 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
1987). The Columbia Plain majolica, Olive Jar sherds with handles, and early style Olive Jar neck suggest an early sixteenth century contact (Deagan 1987:33, 56-57; Goggin 1960, 1968). These data indicate at least two episodes of European contact. This interpretation is




72
supported by ethnohistoric accounts of early sixteenth century and later contacts in the area (Solis de Merds 1964; Swanton 1985). The mound may have been used by people occupying the Safety Harbor site (8Pi2) during the protohistoric period. Other protohistoric habitation sites have not been recorded in the immediate vicinity.
The Karlton Street Mound (8Pi13) is about 200 m south of the Hirrihigua Mound (8Pii08), near the southern end of the Pinellas peninsula. It is apparently the same site known as the Circle Drive site (8Pi30), which Walker (1880a:406-407) called Pinellas Point 1 (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). Local informants report that a sand and shell causeway previously connected this site to the Hirrihigua Mound (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). The site is described as a midden or mound of sand and shell, measuring 30 m across and 1.5-1.8 m high. The proximity of this site and the Hirrihigua Mound suggests that they are contemporaneous, but a collection in FMNH (#A-2616) from 8Pi30 contains a single Busycon shell, some quartzite pebbles, and sherds of sand tempered plain and Norwood pottery. The Norwood pottery indicates a late Archaic date (Phelps 1965), and no




73
diagnostic Safety Harbor artifacts are known from the site.
The Mullet Key site (8Pi16), consisting of a shell midden and two possible sand mounds, was recorded by John Griffin (1951b), who collected eight sherds of Pinellas Plain from the surface (FMNH #99708). Based on these, he assigned a Safety Harbor date to the site. However, it should be noted that Pinellas Plain also occurs in late Weeden Island-related contexts in the region (Luer and Almy 1980:211).
Private collections from a site recorded as 8Pi1O5, east and south of 8Pi16, include Pinellas Plain (with at least one notched lip), possible Pinellas Incised, sand tempered plain, Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, grog tempered sherds, faunal remains, and a chert flake (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). These materials probably came from part of the same site, and indicate that a Safety Harbor component is present.
The Dunedin Temple Mound (8Pi17) is listed in the FMSF as a Safety Harbor mound, but Walker (1880a:399) recovered no artifacts in his excavations there. The rectangular, flat-topped mound, now destroyed, measured 24 m x 48 m, with a height of 2.7 m (Luer and Almy 1981:130).




74
The site called the Point Pinellas (sometimes
spelled Pinellos) Mound (8Pi18) presents a problem in interpretation. This is recorded in the FMSF as a large, flat-topped mound composed of sand and shell, and was first described by Walker (1880a:407). He assigned No. 10 to the mound, and noted that it was oblong, 7.6 m high, had a ramp on the west side, and was steep-sided (1880a:407). His excavations yielded burials, pottery, projectile points, and tools, but these were subsequently lost in an accident.
The problem involves the location of the site.
Walker's (1880a:406) map was not very accurate, and he seems to have confused cardinal directions in some of his descriptions. Two decades later, C. B. Moore (1900:355-356) visited the site and excavated part of it, encountering plain pottery, a bone tool, and a chert point fragment. He also mentioned a sand and shell causeway extending about 34 m to the south. The same site was described some years later by Bethell (1914:5152) and Wainwright (1916:142-143).
This site is probably the Hirrihigua Mound
(8Pil08), which is still preserved in a residential neighborhood of St. Petersburg (Goodyear 1972:29; Luer and Almy 1981:131). This mound originally had a shell causeway extending out from the south side (Goodyear




75
1972:29). Recent research suggests that 8Pi18 is indeed the Hirrihigua Mound (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). The truncated pyramidal configuration of the mound suggests that it is a Safety Harbor mound, but the possibility exists that it is a Weeden Island-related site.
On the southwestern end of the Pinellas peninsula, the Maximo Point site (8Pi19 and 8Pi31) is located. This large multicomponent site was first recorded by Walker (1880a:404-405, 1880b:419), who explored the site and excavated a few test pits. He described the site as consisting of a 4.6 m high mound, flat on top, which extended for several hundred feet in length. He also noted a ramp on the south side. In addition, Walker mentioned other earthen and shell features at the site, which he was unable to record accurately due to extremely heavy underbrush (1880a:405). His excavations produced only a few sherds and a wooden post which had been sharpened at one end. A collection in NMNH (#35775) includes a Florida Cut Crystal bead and some small Cornaline d'Aleppo beads collected by Walker at the site (Bushnell 1937:32-33). These beads probably date to the second half of the sixteenth century or later (Deagan 1987:168, 180; Smith 1987:31).




76
C. B. Moore visited the site about two decades
later, and produced a map of the most prominent mounds and causeways at the site (1900:Figure 1). He also noted that many other earthworks and shell middens were present, but not included in the map. Though the landowner refused permission to excavate, one sand mound was tested and yielded some poorly preserved human skeletal material (Moore 1900:354).
The extensive earthworks were later described by John Bethell (1914:53), who had a ranch and fishery at the site for a few years before the Civil War. The next mention of the site was a commentary by R. D. Wainwright (1916:142). He evidently did not excavate, but described some of the earthworks and shell middens.
John K. Small also mentioned a "serpentine
aboriginal mound running east and west for about a quarter of a mile" at Maximo Point (1929:41). He did not investigate the site.
The first excavations at the site directed by a
trained archaeologist were conducted by William Sears in the late 1950s (Sears 1958b). His research revealed that the midden and mound area tested was a Safety Harbor occupation. over 92% of the pottery from the excavations was Pinellas Plain, with other common Safety Harbor types comprising the rest of the ceramic




Full Text
332
Description of Results
The second season of excavations at the Tatham
Mound yielded many more human burials, artifacts, and
important stratigraphic information. A total of 21
primary burials were excavated, and secondary bones were
present in all parts of the mound. A cremation (Burial
#54) was discovered at the end of the field season, but
was carefully covered so that it could be removed in the
third season. Primary burials were generally supine,
with legs tightly flexed over the chest or tibiae under
femora (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:18). This latter
burial position was common in the mound, and is
apparently unique to this site. All but two of the
interments were aligned on the same axis as the primary
burials from the first season, and were in rows. One of
the exceptions was a tightly flexed burial (#16) lying
on the left side, with the head to the northwest. This
individual was very well preserved, and was outside of
the main burial area, possibly the result of a later
interment. The second exception was a supine flexed
adult male (#58), turned directly opposite of the other
burials, with the head to the east-southeast and the
body trending west-northwest. It was in a row with
other burials, and the reason for the different
orientation is not known.


344
stratigraphic locations of each burial would be very
important for the physical anthropological study.
The fifth research objective was to clarify the
sequence of burial episodes in the mound. It was
important to determine how many episodes of burial
occurred and in what order. These data would be
essential for reconstructing past events at the site, as
well as in analyzing the demographic and osteological
information. This task could only be addressed by
careful excavation and recording methods, continuing to
map individual bones and to record profiles.
The sixth objective was to obtain the most accurate
demographic data possible from the mound. This overlaps
with the previous objectives. The ultimate aims were to
arrive at population estimates for each time period, as
well as information on the age and sex structure of the
populations using the mound. As complete a sample as
possible was needed to achieve such goals. Therefore, a
large crew of field school students and WRAC volunteers
was assembled, so that the mound could be excavated as
completely as possible during the field season.
The final objective was to explain the large number
of primary and secondary burials in the top stratum. As
noted earlier, five hypotheses were proposed at the end
of the second season as possible explanations for the


310
Due to the undisturbed nature of the site and its
potential importance, it was recognized that a large-
scale project would be necessary to collect the maximum
amount of data and to adequately address research
questions. The need for a complete, carefully excavated
sample from a Safety Harbor mound was apparent, so a
decision was made to obtain funding to allow as complete
an excavation as possible.
Proposals to various granting agencies were being
considered when an unexpected funding source appeared.
After an illustrated talk at a WRAC meeting, in which
Weisman spoke of the mound's discovery and plans to
undertake a major excavation project, he was approached
by a local resident who expressed interest in
underwriting a major portion of the project. After
further discussions, the individual agreed to make a
sizable donation to the University of Florida Foundation
to support the project. At the time, the total cost of
such a program was considerably underestimated, but the
individual made a commitment to fund the major part of
the project to its completion, a promise which he kept.
Once funding was secured, an agreement was worked
out with the landowners concerning excavation
objectives, curation, ownership of artifacts, and other
aspects of the project. The landowners very graciously


440
Table 56
Provenience Count
1
8
517N503E, Zone B2 1
F.S. 100
1
517N500E, Zone B2 1
Burial #48
F.S. 127
1
-continued
Description
VIDlf (#106) Wire-wound.
Donut-shaped: Translucent
yellow (very patinated)
VIDlh (#108). Olive-shaped:
Opaque medium blue
IIAld (#36) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Short, tubular:
Translucent dark navy blue
IIC2b (#51) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Long,
tubular: Turquoise blue/
thin white/colorless core
IIAld (#36) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Short, tubular:
Translucent dark navy blue
IIA2e (#44) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Short, tubular:
Translucent navy blue/thin
white/translucent navy blue
core
Spherical transparent green


169
The Port Avant site was probably associated with
the Snead Island I (or Fertilizer Plant) site (8Mal8),
an extensive shell ridge located on the extreme
southwestern shore of the island. When recorded in
1953, the ridge was 15.2 m wide and 0.6 m high, and
about 0.4 km long. Two collections from the site are in
FMNH. One (#99470) was transferred from FPS, and the
other (#A-2603) was transferred from the UF Department
of Anthropology. The contents of both collections are
listed in Table 22.
A note in the FPS files describes a private
collection from the site owned by a Bradenton resident.
Included were a melted glass fragment, 30 Spanish
sherds, a green glazed Spanish sherd, an unidentified
black and white glazed sherd, three Mission Red Filmed,
eight possible Miller Plain, an indented rim sherd, and
seven Belle Glade Plain-like sherds. Unfortunately, the
description of the European sherds is inadequate for
determining which types are represented.
Another private collection from the site includes
2/2 Pinellas Incised sherds, both with handles (one loop
and one lug handle). There is also a rim sherd from a
Safety Harbor Incised carinated bowl (Mark Burnett,
personal communication 1988).


Scattered small settlements are prevalent in most inland
areas, despite claims to the contrary (Wharton and
Williams 1980).
Several models of Safety Harbor settlement patterns
have been developed. Almy (1978:87-88) and Deming
(1980:22-31) determined that the primary environmental
factors relevant to site location (of all periods, not
just Safety Harbor) appear to have been distance to
water (especially fresh water) and soil type, which may
be interrelated characteristics. Their models were
developed specifically for Sarasota and Hillsborough
Counties.
Goodyear (1972) developed a preliminary settlement
pattern model for Safety Harbor groups around Tampa Bay,
in which he divided the area into several zones ("eco-
modes") based on ecological characteristics. In
general, his model stated that sites of the Tocobaga
Indians were functionally divided between the mainland
(east of Tampa Bay) and the Pinellas peninsula, with the
mainland residents supplying agricultural products and
the coastal residents supplying species from the bay and
other seafood (1972:54).
A controversial model based on environmental zones
and proposed land use was developed by Padgett (1976).
Using data from archaeological surveys, he suggested


530
occurred, possibly the result of diseases introduced by
Europeans.
The surviving inhabitants scraped away some of the
dark soil on the mound summit and began laying out the
(at least) 77 deceased individuals. They added sand to
the mound slopes before placing many of the corpses on
them, covering the dark stained layer in the process.
This effectively enlarged the mound summit, providing a
relatively flat surface upon which to lay the bodies.
Some ceramic vessels (a hole had been knocked out of the
bottom of each) were placed on the surface before
burial. Other vessels and artifacts were broken and/or
scattered throughout the mound fill as it was being
added. Most of the corpses were laid out in parallel
rows, with the heads to the WNW and the bodies along an
axis to the ESE (there were two exceptions: Burials #54
and 66).
A charnel structure (presumably nearby) was then
cleaned out and the secondary bundles and loose bones
were placed between and on top of the primary
interments. This was followed by adding a cap of sand
over the entire mound.
After this final sand cap was added, an additional
individual (Burial #16) was interred south of the main
burial area. It is unclear how much time passed between


580
culture area, they are less common in the southern
region, where chert sources are less plentiful.
Willey (1949a:486) noted that larger, Archaic-style
points are also commonly found on Safety Harbor sites,
most notably the type site (8Pi2) on Tampa Bay. Some of
these may have been curated or collected from earlier
sites, but they may also be knives or other specialized
tools. Grinding stones have been found at a few sites.
Another type of stone artifact from Safety Harbor
sites is various styles of plummets and pendants,
usually made from exotic stone and often carved to ^
represent animals (Bullen 1952b:Figure 16). Quartz /
crystal pendants like those from Tatham have also been
found at a few sites. Ground stone celts are found
occasionally, also produced from non-Florida stone.
Both of these artifact types are restricted to mortuary
contexts.
Little is known about non-projectile point chipped
stone tools of the Safety Harbor Culture. This is
partly a result of the dearth of excavations carried out
at habitation sites, but also reflects a bias among
investigators to ignore this and other utilitarian
artifact classes. A few "ceremonial" blades, like the
large chert blade from Tatham, have been recovered and


127
Table 17. Artifacts from the Elsberry Site (8H101)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pinellas Plain (1 rim has hemispherical
indentations on lip) 16/9
Sand tempered plain 4/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Belle Glade Plain 1/0
Unclassified limestone tempered 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon fragments 3
points surface collected from the site support a Safety
Harbor component, but there are no unquestionably Safety
Harbor artifacts.
The predominantly Archaic site of Mizelle Creek One
(8H374) also yielded a single Pinellas projectile point
(Swindell 1977:41). This may indicate a Safety Harbor
component at the site, but the point could also be from
a Weeden Island-related context.
The Halls Branch 4 site (8H376) was recorded by
William Browning (1975). A collection from the artifact
scatter yielded 15 chert flakes, an oyster shell
fragment, and two sherds of possible Pinellas Plain
(1975:14). The site was identified as a probable Safety


44
Large numbers of Pinellas projectile points have
been collected from a site on the Chassahowitzka River
by collectors who screened material eroding into the
water (J. Raymond Williams, personal communication
1988) The site is apparently unrecorded, and no other
information is available. The Pinellas points could
indicate either a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor
component. It is possible that this could be the same
site mentioned in the Citrus County discussion above
(Table 3).
Pasco Countv
S. T. Walker (1880a:392-394) and C. B. Moore
(1903:426-433) both excavated at the Pithlochascootie
River site (8Pa2). This site was described by Walker
(1880a:392) as consisting of two mounds about 90 m
apart. One of these was a flat-topped mound of
alternating shell and sand strata, and the other was an
oval-shaped sand mound with a small projecting ridge.
Walker recovered no artifacts from the first mound, but
encountered numerous primary and secondary burials in
the sand mound (1880a:394). An iron spike, a projectile
point, and decorated sherds were also recovered during
Walker's work.


437
Table 56. Spanish Glass Beads from the Tatham Mound.
Provenience
Count
520N500E,
Zone
B2
5
Burial #2
1
F.S. 58
517N500E,
Zone
B2
5
F.S. 64
2
1
1
5
Description
Spherical dark navy blue
Spherical (burned or
patinated)
IIA2g (#46) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Short, tubular:
Translucent cobalt
blue/thin white/
translucent medium blue
core
IVC2a (#79) Faceted
chevron. Olive-shaped:
Blue/white/red/white/
translucent green/white/
translucent green core
VIDlh (#108). Olive-shaped:
Opaque medium blue
VID1-. Donut-shaped: Red or
reddish purple (very
patinated)
Spherical transparent green


168
midden ridge that abuts the large mound. This may be
the same site listed as 8Ma84 and 8Ma88 in the FMSF
(Burger 1982:Appendix 2).
The site is located on Snead Island between the
Manatee River and Terra Ceia Bay. It is considered a
Safety Harbor site by some researchers due to its
"temple" mound shape (Burger 1982:Table 34). This site
was probably visited by Ripley Bullen in 1950. A note
in the FPS files at FMNH indicates that Bullen collected
nine Pinellas Plain, an eroded stamped sherd, and six
sand tempered plain sherds from the surface. These
sherds could represent either a Weeden Island-related or
Safety Harbor occupation.
Luer (1986:140) mentioned several shell artifacts
from the adjacent shore. Sherds collected from the site
by Luer and Almy include Pinellas Plain, Pinellas
Incised, Point Washington Incised, Lake Jackson Plain,
Lake Jackson Incised, and some types which resemble Fort
Walton or Rood Phase (Georgia) types (George M. Luer,
personal communication 1988). These latter sherds
include Fort Walton Incised var. Blalock (Scarry
1985:215) and other varieties, and Columbia Incised
(Schnell et al. 1981:173-175). The types represented in
this collection indicate that a substantial Safety
Harbor component is present.


157
The cremation included a 14.7 cm long iron chisel
(square in cross-section), a 13.2 cm knife or sword
blade fragment (this object might be a barrel hoop
fragment), a possible gun barrel, and five small
miscellaneous iron fragments (Willey 1949a:155).
Several of the iron objects have preserved wood attached
to them, suggesting that they were originally parts of
wooden barrels. Stirling (1935:382) also mentioned five
small glass beads (one of which was melted) (NMNH
#383235), two stemmed projectile points (burned), and a
sandstone abrading stone (#383236), to which iron
fragments were attached. He believed that the iron
fragments were parts of a gun.
Lacking illustrations or accurate descriptions of
the glass beads, they are of little use in interpreting
the period of contact at the site. The catalog card in
NMNH indicates that the glass beads included blue,
white, red, black, and other colors of beads, but no
counts or shape descriptions are included. The iron
objects are of interest because of their possible
similarity to objects found at the Tatham Mound (8C203)
in Citrus County. A 14.2 cm long iron chisel was
recovered from an early sixteenth century context at
Tatham (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:63). The possible
gun barrel from Parrish #3 is also of interest because a


102
apparently built on an artificially constructed ridge,
and had adjacent borrow pits (Bullen 1952b:62-63).
At least two strata were recorded, but prior
disturbance had mixed much of the material. Screening
of the disturbed portion yielded human bones, various
types of glass beads, and nearly 100 Pinellas projectile
points (Bullen 1952b:63). A total of 77 burials were
encountered in the lower portions of the mound,
including one cremation, 22 secondary (bundle) burials,
33 flexed burials, 18 isolated skulls, 2 indeterminate
burials, and an infant buried in a Busvcon shell cup
(Bullen 1952b:64).
Artifacts were associated with 11 burials,
including Busvcon cups, broken pottery vessels, shell
beads, copper-covered wooden ear spools, a stone ear
spool, copper-covered bone objects, a bead made of
fossil manatee bone, copper and iron fragments, and two
large blue glass beads (Bullen 1952b:64-65). The
pottery from the mound consisted primarily of Safety
Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas Plain, and
various plain types. Included in the FMNH collection
from the site are an excellent example of an incised
bottle with hand motifs on a punctated background and a
prefired "kill" hole (#76661), and a cast of a unique
Safety Harbor Incised frog effigy vessel (#76660).


Figure 28
Shell and Glass Beads with Burials from the
Tatham Mound.
Top: Shell beads on the right wrist of
Burial #105.
Bottom: Burial #17 with a Nueva Cadiz Bead
on the neck.


457
shipwrecks. The celt effigy pendant (Figure 24) was
apparently fashioned from a cast silver ingot. This
unique artifact was recovered from near the right knee
of Burial #2. It is 5.65 cm long, 1.45 cm wide (at its
widest point), and 0.9 cm thick (at its thickest point).
A few centimeters away from the celt effigy, a large
drilled silver rod (Figure 24) was recovered. This
presumed bead (7.0 cm x 1.1 cm) was a solid bar or rod
(round in cross section) which had been drilled,
probably from only one end. The drill bit apparently
veered sideways and exited the side of the rod, which
evidently determined its length. The other drilled
silver rod beads were probably produced by biconically
drilling sections of a solid rod (Mitchem and Leader
1988:51).
The dome-shaped silver object (F.S. 147) was
possibly made from a Spanish coin (3 or 4 reales, based
on weight). It measures between 3.7 and 3.9 cm in
diameter, and has a weight of 11.2 g. Nesmith (1955:44)
noted that average weights of uncirculated 3 and 4
reales coins from the sixteenth-century Mexico City mint
averaged 10.296 g and 13.731 g, respectively.
When first excavated, a dark brown substance was
adhering to portions of the concave surface. This may
have represented bits of preserved leather, suggesting


Figure 12
St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham Mound.
Top (1 to r): Jar; base of boat-shaped (?) vessel.
Bottom: Bowl with dentate stamping around rim.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


364
et al. 1984:99, 166). The design elements on this
vessel are quite similar to those on portions of a
Safety Harbor Incised bottle from the Tierra Verde Mound
in Pinellas County (Sears 1967:Figure 8.1).
A second Safety Harbor Incised vessel is a small
carinated bowl with incised and punctated designs on the
exterior and a ticked lip (Figure 6). This broken
vessel was recovered from a unit on the extreme eastern
edge of the mound, and was located in the postcontact
stratum just above Feature #6. Similar vessels from the
Fort Walton site of Lake Jackson (8Lel) have been
identified as Fort Walton Incised, var. Crowder (John F.
Scarry, personal communication 1985).
The third vessel is a small beaker with very faint
incised decoration consisting of at least three vertical
rows of three zigzag parallel lines. This vessel was
made with a neat round hole in the bottom, and was
apparently broken prior to or during interment. Most of
the sherds were recovered from the west side of the
mound, but one basal sherd was found near the northeast
periphery. All were very near the surface.
Two sherds from a fourth Safety Harbor Incised
vessel were excavated from the eastern side. These were
from the basal portion of a small beaker or bowl, with


199
and seventeenth centuries. No other artifactual
information is available, but sites from that time
period in Manatee County would have been occupied by
Safety Harbor groups.
A large number of European beads were recovered
from the Myakka area in southeast Manatee County,
including some from the Wingate Creek Mound (8Ma57)
(Burger 1988:4; Mark Burnett, personal communication
1988). It is possible that some of the material
actually came from Sarasota County. The collection
contains many diverse bead types, representing more than
one period of contact. Table 26 lists the beads in the
collection.
All of the beads in this collection included in the
Smith and Good (1982) typology are probably early
sixteenth century types, with the exception of the
olive-shaped gooseberry beads, which generally date to
the late sixteenth century or later (Deagan 1987:168).
The barrel-shaped gooseberry beads tend to be found on
eighteenth century sites (Smith 1983:150).
The beads not in the Smith and Good (1982) typology
appear to date primarily from the late sixteenth century
and later (Deagan 1987:171-177). Some of the beads,
especially the mold-made varieties, may represent
Seminole occupations. However, the early sixteenth


Table 4continued
Description Count
Small olive-shaped medium transparent purple with
marvered facets 1
Oblate translucent yellow 1
Barrel-shaped transparent medium aquamarine blue
with 4 longitudinal red-on-white stripes 1
Barrel-shaped transparent light blue with 9
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent cobalt blue 2
Spheroid medium transparent blue with 4 longitudinal
opaque white stripes 3
Small oblate transparent medium blue with 4
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Large drawn translucent dark brown with 3
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped opaque dark burgundy with 1
longitudinal thin white stripe 1
Blue metallic-finish faceted spherical (5 rows of
facets, mold-made, probably modern) 1
Metal:
Rolled sheet silver bead 1
Broken circular brass disc 1
Miscellaneous flat brass fragments 2
Iron "awls" 2
Iron scissors fragments (from a single pair) 2


428
Florida, and other Mississippian sites (Burnett
1945:Plate 73; Hamilton 1952:52-53, Plates 71, 73, 74,
and 77; Hamilton et al. 1974:150, Figures 88 and 91;
Jones 1982:18; Thomas 1985:306; Waring and Holder
1968:17, Figure 3; Willoughby 1979:43-44).
The ear spool (Figure 19) was recovered attached to
the mastoid portion of the right temporal bone of Burial
#105. In the field, this was thought to be a fragment
of the decorated plate, but it was recognized as an
earspool in the laboratory. It is approximately 4.2 cm
in diameter, with a raised (convex) central portion and
a single row of raised, embossed dots around the edge.
There is a small hole in the center. Like the other
copper objects, it is in poor shape and was left
partially covered by the original matrix. Most of the
organic material covering the exterior was removed in
the laboratory. An almost exact duplicate of this
object was recovered from the Mt. Royal site (8Pu35) by
Moore (1894b:142, Figure 7).
Another burial in the precontact stratum, Burial
#109, a probable adult female, had a fourth copper
object in the neck and chest region (Figure 21). This
object was removed in the original sand matrix with
portions of the ribs and vertebrae. Initial attempts at


198
Table 25. European Beads in SFM from an Unknown
Manatee County Site.
Description Count
String #1:
Glass:
Tumbled five-layer chevron (not facetedcolor
layers not recorded) 1
Seed beads (of several shades of blue, opaque white,
transparent green, and Cornaline d'Aleppo) many
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 2
String #2:
Glass:
Olive-shaped transparent blue (IBlc)* 1
Spherical colorless (IBld)* 2
Faceted chevron (Cobalt blue/white/red/white/
colorless/white/colorless core) (IVC2p)* 1
Olive-shaped transparent amber-colored (VIDla)* 1
Small olive-shaped colorless (VIDlj)* 1
Donut-shaped opaque white with 5 opaque brick red
longitudinal stripes 1
Large seed beads (blue, white, and Cornaline
d'Aleppo) many
Lapidary:
Oblate smooth-surfaced rock crystal 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.


135
Table 19. Ceramics from Two Sites near Tampa Bay
in NMNH.
Description Count
Site A:
St. Johns Check Stamped 43
St. Johns Plain 1
Sand tempered plain 24
Perico Plain 17
Wakulla Check Stamped 14
Ruskin Dentate Stamped 3
Pasco Check Stamped 3
Weeden Island Plain 2
Carabelle Incised 1
Tucker Ridge Pinched 1
St. Petersburg Incised 1
Safety Harbor Incised 2
Pinellas Incised 1
'European plain" 2
Sand tempered brushed (gritty paste) 1
Unclassified sand tempered cord marked (gritty
paste)
Site B:
Unclassified Pinellas Plain-like
Safety Harbor Incised
Pinellas Incised
St. Petersburg Incised
1


94
Harbor Incised, and Leon Check Stamped pottery.
Projectile points included several Archaic types and
Pinellas points (Joan Denting, personal communication
1988). The artifact types indicate that the site was
utilized by Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor
groups, with an Archaic component.
Some distance south from the Cobb Mound, a
collection of sherds was gathered, including 10 Pasco
Plain, two sand tempered plain, two notched lip Pinellas
Plain, two burnished-surface St. Johns Plain, and a
notched-lip rim sherd which looks like Pinellas Plain
with spiculite paste (Robert J. Austin, personal
communication 1988). The presence of Pinellas Plain
with notched lips indicates a Safety Harbor component,
probably associated with the Safety Harbor component at
the Cobb Mound.
The Sawgrass Lake #2 site (8P902) is a
multicomponent lithic scatter. In addition to a number
of Archaic and Weeden Island projectile point types,
Pinellas projectile points have been recovered from the
site, suggesting the presence of a Safety Harbor
component (Bullen 1975:8), though these could be from
the Weeden Island-related component.
Collections from the Taylor Mound (8P1204), a
mound measuring 45.7 m in diameter and 2.5-3.0 m high,


592
Safety Harbor populations were direct descendants of the
Weeden Island-related population.
Evidence from the Safety Harbor site (8Pi2)
suggests that the platform mound at that site may have
been constructed over a smaller burial mound (Griffin
and Bullen 1950:15). It is not known if this was a
standard Safety Harbor practice.
Most Safety Harbor burial mounds are simple dome
shaped structures, but Willey (1949a:478) mentions two
mounds partially surrounded by crescent-shaped sand
embankments, and other mounds have been located that
have additional earthworks associated (Benson 1967).
Some of the mounds in the South Florida region also have
peculiar configurations.
The Tatham Mound appears to have been used as a
platform for black drink ceremonies after its
completion, and may have served as a base for a charnel
structure prior to the addition of the final stratum.
Its squarish shape and ramp may indicate that it was
constructed as a type of platform mound.
In general, Safety Harbor burials were not interred
with individual grave goods. Exceptions are items of
personal adornment, such as beads, and items which were
probably related to social rank, such as copper
artifacts. As Willey (1949a:478) noted, vessels were


63
silver tablet (NMNH #35343) was also recovered from
Bayview by Walker (Allerton et al. 1984:28).
The NMNH collection (#35334-35345) includes many
strings of glass beads from the mound. These have not
yet been analyzed, but a cursory inspection revealed the
presence of tumbled chevrons, faceted chevrons, opaque
turquoise blue, eye beads, transparent green spheroid,
barrel-shaped gooseberry, Florida Cut Crystal, spheroid
Cornaline d'Aleppo, a few faceted transparent blue
(typically found on Seminole sites), and a diverse
collection of seed beads.
Willey (1949a:333) noted that the exact location of
the Bayview mound was uncertain. It is probable that
this is the same site as the Seven Oaks mound (8Pi8),
said to be "located about one-half mile west of Seven
Oaks" (Willey 1949a:334). This statement suggests that
there was a town or settlement called Seven Oaks at one
time. However, a local resident who directed
excavations at the site in the 1960s noted that Seven
Oaks was merely the name of a U. S. Post Office
southwest of Alligator Lake in Pinellas County (Gustave
A. Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). He
produced a map which had the locations of the Seven Oaks
Post Office, the town of Bayview, and the excavated
mound plotted. From this, it appears that both sites


the initial excavations there. Don Sheppard was also
instrumental in organizing and coordinating many of the
early aspects of the project. I also want to thank all
of the students who participated in the three field
schools at the site, sometimes under very adverse
conditions. John Marrn served admirably as field
assistant during the third season. Dale Hutchinson, the
project osteologist during the second and third seasons,
has become a close friend and sounding board for ideas
and potential interpretations of the site data. It has
been a pleasure to collaborate with such a scholar. I
look forward with anticipation to his dissertation on
the Tatham skeletal remains.
The many members of the Withlacoochee River
Archaeology Council who volunteered to help with
excavation and laboratory work on the Tatham project
were indispensable. Many of these people gave up
weekends and got up at painfully early hours to
participate. Close to 100 WRAC members volunteered on
the project, and I want to express my heartfelt thanks.
I must single out four WRAC members who faithfully
showed up: George Hamilton, Cheryl Jacob, Jean Kratzer,
and Jack Quinn.
I gratefully acknowledge the Boy Scouts of America,
including Directors George Preston and Bill Ort, for
iv


216
communication 1988) feel that it may actually be the
vessel illustrated by Stirling from the Englewood Mound.
In the same collection, a flattened globular St. Johns
Plain bowl with a restricted orifice (#GRAN 6) is
probably also from the Englewood Mound (George M. Luer
and Marion M. Almy, personal communication 1988). Both
vessels have basal perforations.
Predominant decorated types from the mound included
Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised, Lemon Bay Incised,
and Safety Harbor Incised. Pottery was located
throughout the secondary mound, apparently as caches in
some instances, and was especially abundant on the
original ground surface beneath the mound (Stirling
1935:384; Willey 1949a:130-131) .
Willey (1949a:135) noted that it appeared that the
Englewood ceramic complex was chronologically and
stylistically intermediate between Weeden Island and
Safety Harbor pottery types. This appears to be the
case on the basis of the scant evidence available.
Willey's Englewood Period is now considered the earliest
phase (Englewood Phase) of Safety Harbor, as the
archaeological evidence seems to indicate that Englewood
pottery is more often associated with early Safety
Harbor occupations than late Weeden Island-related


24
probable hearths (Features #7 and 13) yielded dates of
1000 + 60 B.P. (Beta-12679) and 630 50 B.P. (Beta-
12680) from Feature #7, and 1050 90 B.P. (Beta-12681)
from Feature #13 (Mitchem 1985b). When these dates are
calibrated using the computer programs CALIB and DISPLAY
(Stuiver and Reimer 1986), they yield calibrated date
ranges of Cal. AD 984-1150; Cal. AD 1282-1393; and Cal.
AD 891-1146, respectively. Artifacts in this part of
the midden consisted of mixed Weeden Island and Safety
Harbor types. The midden may represent one of the
habitation sites occupied by people buried in the Tatham
Mound (8C203).
A multicomponent artifact scatter known as the Wild
Hog Scrub site (8C198) is located a few hundred meters
from the Tatham Mound, and probably contains some
artifacts associated with the builders of the mound
(Weisman 1986:12-15, 1989:142; Weisman and Marquardt
1988), though the Safety Harbor component appears to be
minor. The site was probably used on a short-term basis
during Safety Harbor times.
The Alligator Ford site (8C199) is located in the
Cove of the Withlacoochee, a wetland area of eastern
Citrus County. Weisman (1986:12) excavated two units at
this site, which appeared to be a habitation site
occupied from Weeden Island through Seminole times.
Safety Harbor occupation was suggested by a possible


27
noted, this was probably related to the larger Duval
Island site (8Ci5), which is located nearby.
A collection from an unnumbered site known as the
"shell midden half way down the Chassahowitzka River on
the right" is in FMNH (#104968). The artifacts in this
collection are listed in Table 3. A note with the
collection indicates that many Pinellas projectile
points were found on the site, to the virtual exclusion
of other point types. The collection seems to indicate
a multicomponent site, with Safety Harbor occupation
possibly represented by the Pinellas points.
Several unrecorded middens are located on the north
bank of the Homosassa River. Pinellas projectile points
and Safety Harbor Incised pottery have been collected
from eroding beaches adjacent to these middens (Walter
H. Askew, personal communication 1988).
Lake County
Lake County, located east of Sumter County, is
outside of the Safety Harbor culture area. A few sites,
however, have yielded evidence which may indicate
interaction with Safety Harbor groups.
In the late nineteenth century, C. B. Moore
(1896:536-539) excavated a previously disturbed mound
west of the town of Tavares (8La52). The sand mound
yielded many secondary burials, shell beads, galena,


494
chest. A chert flake and red ochre fragments were
present.
Burial #111. This was a possible primary burial,
but was very poorly preserved and incomplete. Included
were many small fragments of red ochre, five small
silver disc beads, four small olive-shaped turquoise
blue glass beads (VIDlh), 20 Nueva Cadiz Plain beads (16
are IIAle, two are IIA2a, and two are IIA2c), seven
faceted Nueva Cadiz Plain beads (six are IIC2g and one
is IIC2a), and two unique tubular red glass beads with
dark green cores and spiraling white stripes on the
exterior (one has paired stripes).
Burial #125. This poorly-preserved burial, an
adult of indeterminate sex, was interred in a supine
position, probably with the legs tightly flexed over the
chest. The head was oriented to the south with the body
trending directly north. Along with Burial #128, this
individual was interred in a pit intrusive into the
precontact portion of the mound. Three chert flakes and
several small cubes of galena (16.1 g) were present.
The galena may have been present in the matrix prior to
the burial.
Burial #128. This individual was buried in the
intrusive pit with Burial #125. It consisted of a
single skull, with two tubular shell beads and a rolled


244
glazed interior, and 3/0 Olive Jar sherds. A sharpened
bone fragment, two Mercenaria shell fragments, and a
partial Busvcon shell are also present. This material
represents the results of the Bullens' test, but some
has evidently been lost since their work. Their
identification of fiber tempered sherds (1956:13-14) was
in error, unless these have since been lost. The
assemblage suggests a site with some Spanish contact,
but as Bullen and Bullen mentioned (1956:15), the Olive
Jar sherds could represent remains from eighteenth or
nineteenth century Cuban fisheries. Safety Harbor
occupation cannot be demonstrated on the basis of this
collection.
A large shell midden on Cayo Pelau (8Ch28), about
180 m south of 8Chl, was investigated by William Plowden
and John Goggin. The site covers 1.6 ha, and is about
1.5 m high. A note in the FMNH site file indicates that
Plowden and Goggin collected 145/10 sand tempered plain,
2/1 Belle Glade Plain, 2/0 Pinellas Plain, 1/0 St. Johns
Plain, and 1/0 unclassified plain sherds, along with
five Busvcon shell tools. The present location of this
collection is unknown. This site is undoubtedly related
to 8Chi, and may have a Safety Harbor component, based
on the presence of Pinellas Plain (though this could
indicate Weeden Island-related occupation). Another


172
eighteenth century (Aga-Oglu 1955:107; Noel Hume
1976:258). These dates fit with the Stokes Brushed
sherds, which are a Seminole type (Goggin 1953b:2-1, 2-
2). The postcontact materials from Snead Island are
probably related to the fishery established at the mouth
of the Manatee River by Captain William Bunce in 1834,
which was burned in 1837 (Covington 1959:127; Dodd
1947:249, 252; Goggin 1960:34). Cuban fishermen and
Seminole Indians were employed at such fisheries.
Two other shell midden sites (8Mal8 or 8Mal9, and
8Ma20) are recorded on Snead Island. The cultural
affiliations of these sites are unknown.
The Feeney site (8Ma21) was discovered by Montague
Tallant. The site was a small shell midden, measuring
8.6 m in diameter and about 0.5 m high. A collection in
FMNH (#A2605) contains the artifacts listed in Table
23. The notched-lip Pinellas Plain rim sherds indicate
a Safety Harbor component at the site.
Burger (1982:Table 34) listed 8Ma22 as a Safety
Harbor site. Montague Tallant (n.d.:l) noted that bone
needles, pendants, chert blades, shell celts, and other
artifacts had been recovered from the large shell
midden, but these are not available for study, and there
is no definite evidence for a Safety Harbor component at
the site.


636
Padgett, Thomas J.
1974 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
W. R. Grace Property in Hillsborough and Manatee
Counties, Florida. Miscellaneous Project Report
Series No. 17. Florida Division of Archives, History
and Records Management, Bureau of Historic Sites and
Properties, Tallahassee.
1976 Hinterland Exploitation in the Central Gulf
Coast-Manatee Region During the Safety Harbor
Period. The Florida Anthropologist 29:39-48.
Pearson, Gordon W.
1987 How to Cope with Calibration. Anticmitv 61:98-
103.
Peebles, Christopher S.
1971 Moundville and Surrounding Sites: Some
Structural Considerations of Mortuary Practices II.
In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary
Practices, edited by James A. Brown, pp. 68-91.
Memoir No. 25. Society for American Archaeology,
Washington, D. C.
1986 Paradise Lost, Strayed, and Stolen: Prehistoric
Social Devolution in the Southeast. In The Burden of
Being Civilized: An Anthropological Perspective on
the Discontents of Civilization, edited by Miles
Richardson and Malcolm C. Webb, pp. 24-40. Southern
Anthropological Society Proceedings No. 18.
University of Georgia Press, Athens.
Peebles, Christopher S. and Susan M. Kus
1977 Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked
Societies. American Antiguitv 42:421-448.
Phelps, David Sutton
1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber-Tempered Ceramics.
Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin
2:65-69.
Phillips, Philip and James A. Brown
1978 Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from the Craig
Mound at Spiro. Oklahoma. Peabody Museum Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Pierson, Lloyd M.
1965 Tabby Ruin Test Excavation, De Soto National
Memorial, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
18:125-136.


416
usually wear a strip of bark" (Lorant 1946:85).
Therefore, the bark object from Tatham could have been
such a wristguard, but the evidence is insufficient to
determine whether this was the case.
The unidentified substance listed in Table 52 may
be some sort of bark or hide residue. It is thin and
somewhat flexible) but broken into many fragments. It
was recovered from the precontact portion of the mound,
and was not in direct association with other objects.
Faunal Remains
The non-human skeletal remains recovered from the
mound are listed in Table 53. The MNI of each taxon is
also listed. The MNI was derived by counting the most
abundant skeletal element from each taxon (Wing and
Brown 1979:123).
The majority of the animal taxa listed in Table 53
can be considered to have died at the site after the
final human occupation. One gopher tortoise (Gooherus
Polyphemus) burrow was present on the mound, and
evidence of others was encountered during excavations.
These burrows attract other species which periodically
use them for shelter. At least one of the skunk
(Mephitis mephitis) skeletons was an articulated
specimen which had died in a burrow.


420
Table 54. Native Copper Artifacts from the
Precontact Stratum of the Tatham Mound.
Description
Circular plate (Feature #10)
Embossed plume ornament (Burial #105)
Ear spool (Burial #105)
Probable baton or pendant (Burial #109)
Count
1
1
1
1
discovered beneath the plate. Bones of a second
individual, a juvenile, were also present in the matrix.
These two individuals were assigned Burial #133.
After the matrix was removed, a radiograph was taken
of the plate (Figure 18). This revealed that it had
been repaired in two places, by hammering two patches of
copper sheet, using rivets of rolled sheet copper. The
radiograph also revealed that the plate has a row of
small raised dots embossed around the edge. This is
analogous to smaller metal plates found at Fort Center
and other Southeastern sites (Jonathan M. Leader,
personal communication 1988; Sears 1982:63-64). Large
circular metal plates with central perforations are
depicted worn as gorgets by high-status Utina warriors
and chiefs in the de Bry engravings of the drawings of
Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (Lorant 1946:59, 63, 71).
The embossed copper plume ornament and the ear spool
were recovered with Burial #105, an adult of


167
(1979:Table 11). In both sites, Pinellas Plain
comprised the bulk of the pottery recovered.
The Harbor Key sites appear to represent a mixed
Safety Harbor/Weeden Island-related/Manasota occupation.
The complete lack of diagnostic decorated ceramics is
unusual for sites that have been excavated as
extensively as these, and without such artifacts it is
impossible to identify a definite Safety Harbor
component at the site. The "Mississippian-like"
arrangement of the sites is not sufficient evidence.
The purported recovery of blue glass beads from early
work at 8Mal4 strengthens the argument for a Safety
Harbor component, but the lack of beads from later
excavations calls the validity of such claims into
question.
The Port Avant (also known as Portavant or
Poitevant) Mound (8Mal7) is a shell and soil platform
mound about 4.6 m high. The basal dimensions are 75 m
by 45 m, with the longer axis running west-northwest to
east-southeast. The summit measures about 46 m long and
24 m wide, and a lower platform is attached to the
northwest edge. This lower portion measures about 30 m
square, and is about 1 m high (Luer and Almy 1981:134).
B. William Burger (personal communication 1988) believes
that the supposed lower platform is actually part of a


456
Table 57continued
Field Specimen Count Description
F.S. 256
5 Small .999 silver disc beads
Burial #111
F.S. 262
2 Small .999 silver disc beads
F.S. 289
1 Small .925 silver disc bead
F.S. 303
1 Rolled sheet brass or bronze
Burial #128
bead*
* Contains both zinc and tin.
and/or gold to aboriginal rulers (Fernndez de Oviedo y
Valds 1973:90; Francis 1986:33).
The metal beads and some of the other metal
artifacts were studied by Jonathan M. Leader (Mitchem
and Leader 1988). The main purposes of this study were
to determine (qualitatively) the composition of the
beads and to discover the manufacturing techniques used
in their production. This aided in determining whether
aboriginal or European tools and techniques were
employed in their manufacture.
This research, along with results of a previous
cursory study (Leader 1986) of some of the metal items
recovered during the first two field seasons, indicates
that the silver objects were probably made by Indian
artisans using silver obtained from the Spaniards or


CHAPTER 3
TATHAM MOUND:
A CASE STUDY OF SPANISH/INDIAN CONTACT
The Tatham Mound (8C203), an aboriginal burial
mound in eastern Citrus County, was discovered in May,
1984 (Figure 2). It was located by Brent R. Weisman
(then a UF graduate student), along with members of the
Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council (WRAC), a local
chapter of the Florida Anthropological Society.
Weisman was involved in a search for the location
of Powell's Town, one of the Second Seminole War (1835-
1842) encampments of the famous Seminole leader Osceola.
Using a diary written by Lieutenant Henry Prince, a
cartographer who mapped portions of the region during
the war, Weisman had been able to identify several
topographic features which Prince had included in
sketches and verbal descriptions in his diary. His
research led Weisman to believe (correctly, as later
research proved) that the site of Powell's Town was
probably located in a relatively high piece of land in
the Cove of the Withlacoochee area known as Wild Hog
Scrub.
306


245
shell midden (8Ch29) is located about 90 m to the east
of 8Ch28, but no artifacts are recorded from this site,
so its cultural affiliation is unknown.
On the beach on the west side of Cayo Pelau is
another shell midden (8Ch31), from which a collection
was made by Goggin and others. This midden is 180 m
long, and varies from 3 m to 30 m in width. The
collection is not extant, but a card in the FMNH site
file indicates that the artifacts in Table 33 were
collected.
It is difficult to determine what types of European
wares were present at 8Ch31 based on the descriptions,
but stoneware would probably have to date after the mid
seventeenth century (Noel Hume 1976:281), and transfer-
printed ware dates after 1750 (Noel Hume 1976:128).
Therefore, the site is apparently multicomponent,
exhibiting an aboriginal occupation, as well as a
postcontact one. The later occupation was probably
either a Cuban fishery or a homestead. It is possible
that one of the aboriginal occupations was a Safety
Harbor one, based on the presence of Pinellas Plain and
the untyped incised and punctated ware, though these
could be Weeden Island types.
An unnamed midden on the north side of Charlotte
Harbor (8Ch33) was recorded by Goggin, who collected


179
a 0.6 m high ridge of sand (Tallant n.d.:6). Schoff
reportedly recovered glass beads, silver objects, and
undescribed pottery sherds or vessels (n.d.:6). Burials
were encountered, but were poorly preserved.
A private collection from the mound includes a
Florida Cut Crystal bead and seed beads of blue, white,
green, yellow, and colorless glass (Don Ness, personal
communication 1988). The Florida Cut Crystal bead dates
from the late sixteenth century, and the seed beads
probably also date to this period or later (Deagan
1987:170, 180). Based on the artifacts recovered, the
site was probably a Safety Harbor burial mound
constructed in the late sixteenth century.
Montague Tallant (n.d.:6) excavated a cemetery
site, the Mobley Scrub site (8Ma58), that yielded 77
burials, some as deep as 1.4 m. A subadult burial was
accompanied by a string of blue glass beads, of several
different sizes. The only other artifact recovered was
a tortoise shell comb found with a "female" burial
(n.d.:6). The site probably represents a postcontact
Safety Harbor cemetery (or one that was used over a long
period, including after contact). Safety Harbor
cemeteries are exceeding rare, with only two, Buzzard's
Island (8Ci2) and Pool Hammock (8So3) previously
recorded (Willey 1949a:476). The tortoise shell comb is


302
pottery are recorded from the county. Both are from the
MacKenzie Mound (8Mr64), a Weeden Island-related burial
mound on Bird Island (Sears 1959:18, 25). The report is
unclear, but apparently, one was surface collected and
the other came from the top level (15 cm). Sears
(1959:18-19) believed that at least one of these (FMNH
#93987) was associated with a badly disturbed, intrusive
burial (#23), which had a fragment of an opaque
turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) glass bead (FMNH
#93996) in association. The bead would indicate a late
sixteenth century (or later) date for this burial
(Deagan 1987:171).
Monroe County. Excavations at the Key Largo 1 site
(8Mo25) yielded a single sherd of probable Sarasota
Incised pottery (Goggin 1944a:23, Figure 2g, 1949a:463).
Some Safety Harbor material has also reportedly been
recovered from Stock Island in the Florida Keys (John G.
Beriault, personal communication 1988).
Palm Beach County. From excavations at the Belle
Glade site (8Pb40) in the 1930s, Willey (1949c:32, 66-
67) identified a single rim sherd of Safety Harbor or
Pinellas Incised (1949c:Plate 5n). He also noted a
sherd of Englewood Incised (1949c:Plate 5j) and one of
probable Sarasota Incised (1949c:Plate 5k).


72
supported by ethnohistoric accounts of early sixteenth
century and later contacts in the area (Solis de Meras
1964; Swanton 1985). The mound may have been used by
people occupying the Safety Harbor site (8Pi2) during
the protohistoric period. Other protohistoric
habitation sites have not been recorded in the immediate
vicinity.
The Karlton Street Mound (8P13) is about 200 m
south of the Hirrihigua Mound (8P108), near the
southern end of the Pinellas peninsula. It is
apparently the same site known as the Circle Drive site
(8P30), which Walker (1880a:406-407) called Pinellas
Point 1 (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988).
Local informants report that a sand and shell causeway
previously connected this site to the Hirrihigua Mound
(Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). The
site is described as a midden or mound of sand and
shell, measuring 30 m across and 1.5-1.8 m high. The
proximity of this site and the Hirrihigua Mound suggests
that they are contemporaneous, but a collection in FMNH
(#A-2616) from 8P30 contains a single Busvcon shell,
some quartzite pebbles, and sherds of sand tempered
plain and Norwood pottery. The Norwood pottery
indicates a late Archaic date (Phelps 1965), and no


210
ochre-stained sand, which were then reinterred. This
does not agree with the description by Wainwright
(1918:43), who noted a much higher mound from which
several skeletons had been removed. However, the site
locations from the FMSF form and Willis and Johnson's
(1980:K59) report indicate that the two descriptions
refer to the same place. The lack of postcontact
materials in Willis and Johnson's excavations is also
puzzling, in light of Wainwright's (1918:43) report that
glass beads had been recovered previously. Perhaps the
entire postcontact portion had been removed several
decades prior to Willis and Johnson's work.
The Pine Level 2 site (8De3) is another sand burial
mound mentioned by Wainwright (1918:43). This mound had
been heavily plowed, and skeletons with glass beads had
been removed from it. The presence of glass beads
indicates that it was probably a postcontact Safety
Harbor mound.
Willis and Johnson (1980:K46) located a midden site
called Brandy Branch Village (8De4), from which they
recovered sand tempered plain pottery, lithic remains,
and marine shell. This site was identified as a Safety
Harbor midden, but there is no evidence to support this
interpretation.


397


Contour interval 20 cm except for 10 cm (1530 cm)
on summit. Measurements are above mean sea level.
Drawn from a 1985 map by Brent R. Weisman.
316


84
time. All of the vessels in the cache were broken and
incomplete.
Sears' report on the site (1967) included the
results of a major attempt at revising the typology of
Safety Harbor ceramics. The pottery included many
different decorated types, and Sears believed that many
did not fit into Willey's (1949a:479-486) typology. His
primary changes involved limiting Willey's definition of
Point Washington Incised and subdividing Pinellas
Incised into three subtypes (Sears 1967:56-62). He also
attempted to relate the ceramic styles to other areas of
the Southeast, suggesting possible direct contacts with
the Caddoan area (1967:69).
The Tierra Verde site yielded the best known
collection of Safety Harbor decorated ceramics. Pottery
from the site also demonstrated continuity with the
earlier Weeden Island-related cultures, due to the
Weeden-Island-style east side pottery cache, prefired
"kill" holes in some Safety Harbor vessels, and the
inclusion of some Weeden Island type vessels in the
cache. Sears (1967:62, 66) indicated that the Weeden
Island specimens were worn and fragmentary, suggesting
that they had been kept for long periods as heirlooms or
relics.


517
sites. The table also indicates that the Weeki Wachee
Mound (8Hel2), Ruth Smith Mound (8C200), St. Marks
Wildlife Refuge Cemetery (8Wal5), and Martin (8Le853B)
sites have a number of varieties in common with Tatham.
Several of the varieties have been found (in North
America) only at one or more of these sites.
The similarity of assemblages from these sites
suggests that the beads were derived from the same
source(s) (Mitchem and Leader 1988:55-58). Especially
interesting are the assemblages from Ruth Smith and
Weeki Wachee, which are Safety Harbor mounds near
Tatham. There may have been intersite exchange of
European artifacts occurring because of their proximity,
but their geographic locations would also put them near
the presumed route of the Soto expedition.
The blue and white striped variety (IB3e), a
variety of faceted Nueva Cadiz Plain (IIC2a), and three
varieties of faceted chevrons (IVC2a, IVC2d, and IVC2e)
were found at St. Marks as well as Tatham. The St.
Marks site is of interest because it yielded a large
assemblage of early sixteenth century European material,
and also because it is probably near the site where
Narvez and his men set out in boats or rafts (Mitchem
1988b; Scott 1981:59-61). That place was later visited
by a group of Soto's soldiers, and his ships were


139
A similar situation exists in terms of the
Frostproof Mound (8Po7) in the southern part of the
county. This mound, which was originally about 30.5 m
in diameter and at least 1.2 m high, was dug into by
many different individuals over a long time period. A
note in the FMNH site file by William C. Sturtevant
indicates that local people had recovered extended
burials, glass beads (either seed bead size or about the
size of peas), and a triangular silver pendant. A small
collection in FMNH (#A-2622) includes 13/2 St. Johns
Plain, 8/2 sand tempered plain, 4/0 Belle Glade Plain,
and 2/0 Dunns Creek Red sherds. A marine shell fragment
is also in the collection. The only possibly diagnostic
pottery in the collection is Dunns Creek Red, which most
commonly occurs in early Weeden Island-related contexts,
but may occur later (Goggin 1948:7-8). Once again, it
is impossible to determine whether or not the mound had
a Safety Harbor component.
The Singletary site (8Pol3) may be a postcontact
Safety Harbor site. The site form indicates that an
Olive Jar was plowed up at this site in 1915.
Undescribed aboriginal remains were also found. The
site is called a mission on the form, but there is no
evidence to support this.


252
Table 36. Artifacts from the Shell Ridge Area of
the Dunwody Site (8Ch61).
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 71/12
Sand tempered plain with red interior 1/0
Pinellas Plain (2 rims have notched lips) 5/3
Norwood Plain 5/0
St. Johns Plain 3/1
St. Johns Incised 1/0
Pasco Check Stamped 1/1
Possible Matecumbe Incised 1/0
Shell:
Perforated Noetia ponderosa shell 1
The Aqui Esta site (8Ch68), also known as the
Alligator Creek Mound, was vandalized for many years
prior to excavations conducted in 1962 (Luer 1980; Luer
et al. n.d.). This site may have been visited by
Wainwright (1918:46-47), who excavated five burials with
the heads together, and noted many sherds and secondary
burials. The mound was recorded by Miller (1975:13) as
the Alligator Creek Mound, with measurements of 24.4 m
east-west, 42.7 m north-south, and a height of 2.1 m.
Miller collected human bone and marine shell fragments,
two sand tempered plain sherds, two St. Johns Plain


391
bowl, and the other an open bowl with a slightly
restricted orifice. The designs on the former are
linear check stamps, and those on the latter are faint,
large checks. Neither of the vessels appears to
represent Wakulla Check Stamped (Willey 1949a:437-438).
All of the sherds were recovered from the postcontact
stratum on the east side of the mound.
The Belle Glade Plain-like sherds are from a single
vessel. This vessel, a bell-shaped long-collared jar
(Figure 10), was recovered from the postcontact stratum
in a unit at the northwest edge of the mound. It is
classified as Belle Glade Plain-like due to the sponge
spicule and sand inclusions, with surface texture
resembling the "cut" surface of typical Belle Glade
Plain (Sears 1982:21; Willey 1949c:25).
Because so few Safety Harbor sites have been
scientifically excavated, little comparative
stratigraphic information on pertinent ceramic types is
available. Contextual data on the Tatham pottery is
included in the above discussion. In addition to this
discussion, Table 49 is presented to list the pottery
types coming from each stratum in the mound. It should
be noted that the presence of a particular type in the
postcontact stratum does not demonstrate that that type
was being produced during the postcontact period, as


218
Chapter 3 > this volume), within the northernmost
boundaries of the Safety Harbor culture area.
At the town of Osprey, there are several shell
middens located along Little Sarasota Bay. Willey
(1949a:342-343) classified a collection (NMNH #238493-
238502) possibly obtained from one of these sites by
Ales Hrdlicka (1907:60-61). The catalog in NMNH
indicates that the collection was made by T. W. Vaughan.
Willey believed that the artifacts came from the midden
known as the Osprey site (8So2), but more recent work on
the sites indicates that Hrdlicka probably collected
them from one of the other middens (Marion M. Almy and
George M. Luer, personal communication 1988). The
collection included pottery types indicating Weeden
Island-related and Safety Harbor occupations.
Also in NMNH is a small collection (#238488-238491)
of marine shell tools from Osprey, also obtained by Mr.
Vaughan. Willey (1949a:343) mentioned another
collection in NMNH which he assumed also came from
Osprey. Included in this latter collection were Olive
Jar sherds (Shepard Associates 1980:A17-A18). If this
collection indeed came from the Osprey site, it would
indicate that a postcontact component was present,
though it was probably a Cuban fishing rancho. Recent


Figure 9
St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Four bowls found together.
Bottom (1 to r): Beaker or jar; bowl with residue
and original matrix in interior.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


23
Table 2. Artifacts from Tiger
Description
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain
Weeden Island Plain
Sand tempered plain
Pinellas Plain
Safety Harbor Incised
St. Johns Check Stamped
Lake Jackson Plain
Miscellaneous:
Chert flakes
Faunal remains
Tail Bay Midden (8C36) .
Count
12
12
9
1
1
1
1
2
count unrecorded
many Safety Harbor sites in the Tampa Bay area (Luer and
Almy 1981). No artifactual information is available,
but the site could be a possible Safety Harbor mound.
An extensive multicomponent shell midden on the
Withlacoochee River, the Bayonet Field site (8C97) ,
was partially excavated in 1985 (Mitchem, Weisman et al.
1985:44-47). Analysis has revealed that a Safety Harbor
component is present at the site, as indicated by Safety
Harbor Incised sherds. Abundant Prairie Cord Marked
sherds were also recovered from the midden, indicating
interaction with Alachua Tradition groups across the
river. Three radiocarbon samples (charcoal) from two


122
Table 14. Artifacts from the Gardensville Mound (8H37)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 6/2
Perico or Pasco Plain 5/1
Pinellas Plain 2/0
Unclassified heavy grit tempered 1/0
Orange Micaceous Ware 1/0
Stone:
Chert tool fragments (probably projectile points) 2
Secondary decortication flake (silicified coral) 1
Fossil bone fragment 1
separate component, probably dating to the late
eighteenth or nineteenth centuries (Nol Hume 1976:129-
130) .
The T. L. Barker site (8H79), a sand and shell
field, was recorded by William Plowden in 1952. He made
a collection, which is housed in FMNH (#A-2592). It
is listed in Table 16. A note in John Goggin's site
file in FMNH indicates that there was also originally a
sherd of San Luis Blue on White majolica in the 8H79
collection. The majolica types date within the period
of about 1550 to 1650 (Deagan 1987:64, 70, 74).
Jefferson Ware is found on mission sites in north


492
was found in the general vicinity of this burial (but
was not directly associated).
Burial #77. This was a poorly-preserved female
burial, either tightly flexed or secondary (bundle).
One small piece of red ochre was present.
Burial #79. This was an approximately eight-year-
old (based on dental eruption) child buried in a supine
position with the legs tightly flexed over the chest.
Ten small translucent dark purple seed beads and two
small silver disc beads were present.
Burial #81. This supine male burial had the legs
tightly flexed at the knees. Three Pasco Plain sherds,
a single St. Johns Check Stamped sherd, seven shell disc
beads, one barrel-shaped shell bead, and a land snail
[Polvgyra sp.) shell were in association.
Burial #94. This adult female was buried in a
supine position with the legs tightly flexed at the
knees. The left arm was extended parallel to the body,
and the right arm was flexed so that the right hand was
atop the left innominate. With the burial were four
faceted chevron beads (three are IVC2d and one is
IVC2p), two shell disc beads, a Pasco Plain sherd, and
three fragments of red ochre.
Burial #95. This adult burial of indeterminate sex
was interred in a supine position with the legs tightly


234
Table 29. A Collection from Cayo Pelau (8Chl).
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 46/4
Sherd tempered plain 13/1
Belle Glade Plain 7/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 3/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Pinellas Plain 3/0
Orange Plain 1/0
Glades Red 1/0
Limestone tempered plain (Pasco?) 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon hammer 1
Perforated Busvcon cup 1
Oaks Gilded bead, an unidentified cane bead, a chevron
bead, an undescribed red glass bead, a faceted crystal
pendant, a "pumpkin-shaped" crystal bead, a "figa"
crystal pendant, an "evil-eye ward-off" crystal pendant,
a Spanish "man-in-the-moon" silver pendant, and drilled
fossil shark tooth pendants (1984:36). The location of
this collection was not recorded, but if it exists, it
contains a remarkable assemblage of sixteenth and
seventeenth century European artifacts.


477


650
Wing, Elizabeth S. and Antoinette B. Brown
1979 Paleonutrition: Method and Theory in Prehistoric
Foodwavs. Academic Press, New York.
Wittry, Warren L. and Joseph 0. Vogel
1962 Illinois State Museum Projects, October 1961 to
June 1962. In First Annual Report: American Bottoms
Archaeology, July 1. 1961 July 1. 1962. edited by
Melvin L. Fowler, pp. 15-30. Illinois Archaeological
Survey, University of Illinois, Urbana.
Wyman, Jeffries
1875 Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St. John/s
River. Florida. Memoir 1(4). Peabody Academy of
Science, Salem, Massachusetts.
Zubillaga, Felix, S. I. (editor)
1946 Monumenta Antiouae Floridae (1566-1572).
Monumenta Histrica Societatis Iesu, vol. 69.
Monumenta Missionum Societatis Iesu, vol. III. Rome,
Italy.


251
Table 35. Artifacts from the Burial Area at
the Dunwody Site (8Ch61).
Discussion Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 73/10
Miscellaneous sand tempered punctated 3/0
Belle Glade Plain 1/1
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Pinellas Plain 1/0
Pasco or Perico Plain 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon celt 1
Strombus celt 1
Busvcon fragments 5
Perforated Oliva shell 1
sherds and a perforated oyster (Crassostrea viroinica)
shell. The artifacts from both areas indicate that the
site was multicomponent, with at least late Archaic and
Safety Harbor components. Safety Harbor occupation is
indicated by the Pinellas Plain with notched lips, and
the miscellaneous punctated sherds could be from one or
more Safety Harbor Incised vessels. As mentioned
previously, there is a collection in FMNH (#A-7989) that
may be from this site (or 8Ch22). If it is, it would
not alter the interpretation presented here.


617
1987 Chevrons and the Conquistadors. The
Margaretoloqist 1(4):6-7. Center for Bead Research,
Lake Placid, New York.
Fritts, Bill
1961 Shovels Bite Deep into County Past. Sarasota
Herald-Tribune Sunday, October 1:18.
Fuller, Walter P.
1972 St. Petersburg and Its People. Great Outdoors,
St. Petersburg.
Futch, Robin S.
1980 Preliminary Archaeological Reconnaissance on
Galt Island: Results and Recommendations. Ms. on
file, Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville.
Gamble, Roger and Lyman Warren
1966 Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone,
Narvaez Midden, Safety Harbor Period, Saint
Petersburg. The Florida Anthropologist 19:154.
Gatschet, Albert S.
1969 A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, vol.
II. Reprinted. Kraus Reprint, New York. Originally
published 1888, St. Louis Academy of Science, St.
Louis, Missouri.
Gibson, Charles Dana
1982 Boca Grande: A Series of Historical Essays.
Great Outdoors, St. Petersburg.
Gluckman, Stephen J., Sam Upchurch, George Bailo, Gayle
Russell, and Glen Westfall
1980 49th Street Bridge Environmental Feasibility
Study Report. Appendix CCultural Resources
Assessment. Ms. on file, Florida Division of
Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Goad, Sharon I. and John Noakes
1978 Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in the Eastern
United States. In Archaeological Chemistry II.
edited by Giles F. Carter, pp. 335-346. Advances in
Chemistry Series No. 171. American Chemical Society,
Washington, D. C.
Goggin, John M.
1939 A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida. New Mexico
Anthropologist 3:35-40.


132
The Bay Cadillac site (8H2398) is a multicomponent
site in downtown Tampa (Hardin and Austin 1987).
Pinellas Plain (including rims with notched lips) sherds
were recovered, along with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, Wakulla Check Stamped, sand tempered
plain, and fiber tempered wares (Robert J. Austin,
personal communication 1988). The notched-lip Pinellas
Plain sherds indicate a Safety Harbor component was
present.
Many unnumbered sites with Safety Harbor components
have been excavated or surface collected in Hillsborough
County. Most of these are probably now destroyed due to
development and mining in the county.
George F. Kunz (1887:223) described and illustrated
three silver ornaments which had been found in a mound
or mounds near Tampa. These resemble silver artifacts
that have been recovered from early contact sites
elsewhere in west peninsular Florida, and were probably
made from small silver ingots. The sites from which
they came were probably Safety Harbor burial mounds.
Bushnell (1937:32-35) mentioned a number of beads
from Hillsborough County in NMNH, collected by S. T.
Walker. Fourteen Florida Cut Crystal beads (#35334-
35344) had been recovered from burials near Tampa Bay in
Hillsborough County (1937:33). One or more blue glass


65
Table 8. European Artifacts from the Seven Oaks Site
(8Pi8) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Columbia Plain majolica (early variety) 5/2
Lead-glazed coarse earthenware (probably Spanish
Storage Jar) 2/0
Glass Beads:
y/~ Faceted chevron (olive/barrel-shaped: navy blue/
white/red/white/transparent light blue/white/
thin transparent light blue core) 2
/ Faceted chevron (barrel-shaped: cobalt blue/white/
red/white/transparent medium blue/white/
transparent medium blue/thin white core) 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent medium blue)
(IIAlf)* 1
Opaque white seed 5
Translucent dark purple seed 3
Wire-wound transparent light-medium blue seed 24
Drawn medium transparent blue seed 5
Patinated translucent yellow or amber-colored seed,
possibly wire-wound (VIDlc?)* 1
Transparent light green seed 1
Spherical transparent medium green seed 2


201
Table 26continued
Description Count
Small olive-shaped translucent purple 1
Oblate translucent purple with marvered facets 2
Cornaline d'Aleppo (brick red over opaque white core) 1
Olive-shaped colorless with many spiral opaque white
stripes on exterior 1
Spherical opaque black 1
Barrel-shaped opaque white 51
Transparent green with marvered facets 1
Seed beads (opaque white, transparent blue, opaque
white over colorless core, opaque turquoise blue,
transparent green, translucent burgundy, colorless,
light transparent purple, transparent yellow, and
Cornaline d'Aleppo [brick red over colorless]) 209
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
century varieties probably came from one or more Safety
Harbor sites. Unfortunately, lack of accurate records
and subsequent mixing of the assemblages precludes any
more accurate interpretation.
Many other Safety Harbor sites undoubtedly are
present in Manatee County. In the eastern part of the
county, some of these have probably been destroyed as a
result of phosphate mining activities. Those in the


51
Two mounds were present, one a low sand burial
mound located at the northern end, and the other a large
truncated "temple" mound at the southern end. At the
time of Walker's visit, part of the truncated mound had
been eroded by storm action, and he was able to observe
that it was composed of alternating sand and shell
layers (1880a:411). Habitation areas were apparently
located around the latter mound, close to the bay shore
areas (Griffin and Bullen 1950:Figure 1).
Several major episodes of excavation have been
undertaken at the site during the twentieth century.
Stirling (1931:171-172) excavated the burial mound in
1930, removing about 100 secondary burials, along with
aboriginal and European artifacts. Fifty of the crania
were studied by Hrdlicka (1940:339-340, 373), but
apparently most of the skeletal remains were discarded
(B. William Burger, personal communication 1986). A
contemporary newspaper account indicates that over 1400
burials were removed during these excavations (Anonymous
1930) .
Willey (1949a:138) listed the sherd counts and
types from the burial mound (NMNH #351513-351525) and
from the habitation area between the mounds (NMNH
#351526-351536, 362378-362386), which was also tested by
Stirling. Stone, shell, bone, and European materials


180
of interest because similar artifacts were recovered at
the Parrish Mounds #1 and 2 (8Mal and 8Ma2), along with
European artifacts (see description above).
The Albritton Field site (8Ma61) was a sand burial
mound 18.3 m in diameter and 0.9 m high, though it had
been extensively plowed at the time of discovery
(Tallant n.d.:7). At some time early in the twentieth
century, large glass beads, a copper bell, and
projectile points were removed from the site. Based on
the available information, the site was probably a
postcontact Safety Harbor mound. Willis and Johnson
(1980:K29) were unable to locate this site and inferred
that Tallant may have mistaken a spoil pile for a mound.
A yellow sand burial mound, the Duette #1 Mound
(8Ma67), was recorded by Tallant (n.d.:7), who gave
measurements of 15.2 m diameter and 1.2 m high. The
mound had been excavated by treasure hunters years
before, who had reportedly removed glass beads and a
pottery vessel from the central portion. The presence
of glass beads suggests that the mound was a postcontact
Safety Harbor burial site.
A yellow and white sand mound, the Ogleby Creek #1
Mound (8Ma70), was partially excavated by Montague
Tallant (n.d.:7). It was 24.4 m in diameter and 1.5 m
high, and contained many poorly preserved burials. Some


577
spanning at least the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries (Benson 1967; Karklins 1974). The quantity of
European material from the Philip Mound strongly
suggests that the local residents were receiving tribute
from other Safety Harbor groups to the west.
The area appears to have been heavily influenced by
the Belle Glade cultures to the south, and Belle Glade
Plain and St. Johns wares seem to dominate the few known
ceramic assemblages.
The final regional variant is the South Florida
area. This includes portions of Lee, Collier, Glades,
and Hendry Counties, but the exact boundaries are
unclear. The situation in this region is perplexing.
Some burial mounds in the coastal area have yielded
classic Safety Harbor assemblages, but the situation is
more difficult to interpret as one moves inland.
Controlled excavations are needed on some of the inland
sites to determine whether Safety Harbor and Englewood
sherds reported from these areas represent actual Safety
Harbor occupations or exchange with Safety Harbor
groups. The amount of Belle Glade Plain pottery found
in southern Safety Harbor sites demonstrates that
cultural interaction was active in the region, but
specific contextual data are lacking in many cases.


166
which yielded a single skull interment surrounded by
small limestone slabs (1979:Appendix 2:1). Another
informant claimed that he had watched excavations at the
site as a child (ca. 1914) and had seen numerous large
blue glass beads removed, along with many isolated skull
interments.
Excavations in the mound by Burger yielded 127
burials, along with 14 Pinellas Plain sherds, two
Busvcon shell cups (one perforated and one carved), and
several worked or broken shell objects (1979:98).
Additional St. Johns Plain and Pinellas Plain sherds
were collected from spoil dirt left by previous diggers.
The burials included 15 secondary (bundle) interments;
one flexed, three semi-flexed, and 14 "semi-extended"
primary burials; 65 single skull interments; and 29
indeterminate. Some infant interments were present
(1979:99).
Burger also tested the Harbor Key platform mound
(8Mal3), which yielded Pinellas Plain, sand tempered
plain, Belle Glade Plain, Pasco Plain, and sand tempered
red pottery (1979:Table 10). Excavations in the midden
ridge (8Mal5) produced Pinellas Plain, sand tempered
plain, sand tempered red, unidentified plain, Belle
Glade Plain, Pasco Plain, and Weeden Island Red sherds


241
Table 31. Goggin's Ceramic Collection from
Big Mound Key (8ChlO).
Description Count
Sand tempered plain 677/60
Sherd tempered plain 139/13
Sherd tempered decorated 26/15
Pinellas Plain 102/10
Belle Glade Plain 29/10
Olive Jar 28/0
St. Johns Plain 8/2
St. Johns Check Stamped 5/0
Pasco/Perico Plain 3/0
Glades Tooled 2/2
San Marcos Plain 2/0
Miscellaneous "Glades" (?) 2/0
Shell tempered 2/0
Pinellas Incised 1/0
"Early American Earthenware" 1/0
Several of the pottery types indicate Safety Harbor
occupation. The pertinent types and counts are listed
in Table 32. Most of these types indicate a very late
Safety Harbor component, probably seventeenth century.
However, some of the ceramics could be remains from
Cuban fishing operations in the area. Bullen and Bullen
(1956:51) thought that the Leon-Jefferson and associated


272
of his excavations supported this interpretation
(1900:366).
Collections from the site are in NMNH (#241215-
241218, 293057-293060, and 299988), UPM (#41216 and
123043-123065), MAI (#10/5679), and YPM. Most of these
specimens were undiagnostic, but notes in the FMNH site
file indicate that one sherd in NMNH was identified by
Goggin (1949a:290) as Pinellas Incised (#293059). Part
of a Lake Jackson Plain vessel with lug handles on the
rim is also in NMNH (#299988). Collections by William
Plowden in 1952 included Pinellas Plain, Jefferson
Complicated Stamped, sand tempered plain, Belle Glade
Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Glades
Tooled, Olive Jar, and other miscellaneous pottery
types, both aboriginal and European.
If there is a Safety Harbor component at the site,
it is apparently minor. Most of the European material
is probably of recent origin, either from Cuban
fishermen or other early nonaboriginal settlers.
The Pineland site (8LL33) was visited by Cushing
(1897:341-342), who referred to the site as Battey's
Landing. The site is a complex of shell middens and
features covering several hectares on Pine Island.
Notes in the FMNH site file indicate that small
quantities of Englewood Incised, Safety Harbor Incised,


528
the preceding descriptive sections. However, it is
instructive to summarize these so that more general
interpretations can be made.
Sequence of Events
Sometime between A.D. 775 and A.D. 940, the spot
was chosen as a mortuary site by local inhabitants. It
is probable that a charnel structure was constructed on
the future mound site or nearby.
During the several subsequent centuries, (probably
around A.D. 1200-1450), the remains of at least 24
people were buried in a low sand mound, probably on the
site of a charnel structure (or immediately adjacent to
one). Most of the humus was apparently scraped away
from the area before mound construction began. Borrow
pits are evident near the northeast and southeast
corners of the mound. Some of the remains interred were
incomplete and disarticulated, possibly representing
trophy skulls, though most were secondary burials.
Several of the people interred at this time were
accompanied by copper objects, and most had shell beads
worn on their bodies or deposited nearby. Crushed
galena was also sprinkled on several interments, and may
have been used as body paint. These individuals were
covered with a thick layer of sand, and were apparently


568
One fact that has become clear in recent years is
that Safety Harbor Culture was much more widespread than
previously thought. This is not a new idea, however.
Matthew Stirling (1936:354) noted as early as 1936 that
Safety Harbor pottery had been recovered as far south as
the Caloosahatchee River, and both Willey (1949a:476)
and Bullen (1978b:50) speculated that the Safety Harbor
culture area could have extended from the Aucilla River
on the north to Charlotte Harbor on the south.
As demonstrated by the site descriptions in Chapter
2, sites with predominantly Safety Harbor pottery types
have now been reported from as far south as Collier
County. To the east, definite Safety Harbor sites are
known at least as far as eastern Polk County. The
Withlacoochee River appears to form the northern
boundary of the culture area.
Five regional or geographical variants of Safety
Harbor are proposed (Figure 33), based on differences in
artifact types and settlement patterns. As in the
discussion of phases, these definitions and boundaries
must be considered provisional, especially in areas
where the data base is insufficient. Also, it must be
remembered that sociopolitical boundaries are never
stable, and boundary fluctuations probably occurred due


313
diachronic changes (or the lack thereof) in Safety
Harbor mortuary practices.
More basic data were also needed concerning the
material culture of these northern Safety Harbor groups.
Artifact collections from the Ruth Smith Mound were so
incomplete that it was impossible to determine the
composition of a typical northern Safety Harbor
assemblage. It was hoped that the Tatham Mound would
yield an assemblage large enough to allow the
development of a basic typology for the area.
Another initial objective was the collection of
charcoal or other organic materials suitable for
radiocarbon dating. Very few radiocarbon dates are
available for Safety Harbor sites, and these data would
be helpful in identifying chronologically sensitive
artifact types, to facilitate chronological placement of
other Safety Harbor sites. The lack of chronological
controls has hampered processual studies of the Safety
Harbor Culture.
The studies of the assemblage from the Ruth Smith
Mound (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985; Mitchem and Weisman
1984) had demonstrated that Spanish/Indian contact had
occurred in the region during the early sixteenth
century. At least two early Spanish expeditions, those
of Panfilo de Narvez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in


445
Table 56
Provenience Count
520N497E, Zone B2 3
Burial #94
F.S. 212
1
520N497E, Zone B2 1
F.S. 249
3
-continued
Description
IVC2d (#82) Faceted
chevron. Olive-shaped:
Cobalt blue/white/red/
white/transparent medium
blue/white/transparent
medium blue core
IVC2p (#94) Faceted
chevron. Olive-shaped:
Cobalt blue/white/red/
white/colorless/white/
colorless core
IIA2a (#40) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Long, tubular:
Turquoise blue/thin white/
translucent navy blue core
IVC2d (#82) Faceted
chevron. Spherical to
olive-shaped: Cobalt blue/
white/red/white/
transparent medium blue/
white/transparent medium
blue core


217
occupations (Luer and Almy 1987:311, Figure 5; Mitchem
and Hutchinson 1987).
Willey also noted an apparent "Glades influence" at
the site, a now-obsolete concept which was used to
separate occupations in southern and central Florida.
This concept was based particularly on the presence of
gritty sand tempered plain pottery, which he referred to
as Glades Plain, and by the presence of Belle Glade
Plain and Miami Incised pottery (1949a:133-134).
However, it is now apparent that many sherds originally
assigned to the types Englewood Plain and Glades Plain
are probably indistinguishable from body sherds of other
sand tempered plain varieties, so all of the sherds he
classified in these categories should be subsumed under
a general sand tempered plain designation (Luer and Almy
1980:207-209).
The Englewood Mound yielded a very significant
assemblage of early prehistoric Safety Harbor pottery,
and demonstrated continuity with the preceding Weeden
Island-related culture in the region. Willey
(1949a:470-475) defined his Englewood Period primarily
on the basis of data from this site. Since the
excavation of the site, most evidence of Englewood
occupation has been found in south Florida, but possible
evidence has also been found in Citrus County (see


348
season (Mitchexn and Hutchinson 1987:37). Using counts
of the most numerous element (left femur), he determined
that approximately 148 individuals (both primary and
secondary remains) were recovered from the postcontact
stratum during the third season. From the precontact
portion, a MNI of 22 was obtained by counting crania.
The infant discovered in the laboratory raised this to
23 individuals. The juvenile discovered in the
laboratory did not include cranial elements, so is not
included.
Among the postcontact burials, sex determination
revealed 21 females, 13 males, and 33 whose sex was
indeterminate. Age determination was possible for 34 of
the postcontact individuals, and resulted in an estimate
of four preadults and 30 adults (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:39).
Among the precontact burials, four females and one
male were identified. Seven (which includes the infant
discovered in the laboratory) were of indeterminate sex.
Nine of the precontact individuals, including the
infant, were assigned age estimates, resulting in three
preadults and six adults (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:39).
Artifacts from all three seasons are discussed
together in a later section of this chapter. The third


510
assemblages that suggest that exchange of large
quantities of European material was taking place.
Some of the Tatham material, especially the silver
and gold, may have been salvaged from ships wrecked
while transporting it back to Spain from South America.
However, a shipwreck origin for the glass beads seems
unlikely, because these materials would probably not be
carried in quantity aboard a ship traveling toward
Spain.
Another factor which argues against a salvage
origin for the Tatham materials is the lack of many
other items that would have been salvaged from a wreck,
such as ceramic vessels, various tools, clothing,
rigging, etc. Many of these items would have been easy
to salvage and would have been very valuable as trade
items among the aboriginal groups, but they are
generally not present at the known early sites in this
part of Florida. The single exception is a sherd of
Green Bacin from the Ruth Smith Mound (Mitchem, Smith et
al. 1985:202).
The two cut bones from Tatham indicate direct
physical contact. The fact that both of the cut bones
were secondarily deposited is also interesting, and may
relate to more than one instance of contact. The Soto
expedition first passed through the area in July, 1539.


553
Unfortunately, the lack of stratigraphically controlled
excavations at most other Safety Harbor sites limits the
precision that can be attained by studying extant
collections. However, using the limited evidence
available, it is possible to propose a redefinition of
Safety Harbor that can be refined with data from future
archaeological research.
Spatial-Temporal Units
The first step in redefining Safety Harbor is to
establish boundaries in time and space. Willey and
Phillips (1958) wrote the generally-accepted work on
defining archaeological temporal and spatial units. In
this work, they specifically referred to Safety Harbor
as a phase (1958:29).
They defined a phase as:
... an archaeological unit possessing traits
sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from
all other units similarly conceived, whether of the
same or other cultures or civilizations, spatially
limited to the order of magnitude of a locality or
region and chronologically limited to a relatively
brief interval of time. (Willey and Phillips 1958:22)
As they noted, their definition was intentionally
flexible due to the very different potential situations
in various regions (Willey and Phillips 1958:22).
Since the time of their definition, usage of the
term has changed. For instance, Willey and Phillips


202
coastal zone have suffered from heavy development and
vandalism (Burger 1982:143).
Hardee Countv
The archaeological resources of Hardee County are
poorly known relative to the counties along the Gulf
coast. The first site recorded in the county was the
Davis Mound (8Hrl), a burial mound excavated by Ripley
Bullen (1954) before its destruction during planting of
an orange grove. The sand mound was originally 1.2 m
high, with a diameter of 12.2 m. Though the mound had
been disturbed prior to excavations, Bullen recovered
the remains of about 12 individuals, which consisted of
secondary burials and one cremation (1954:98). One
burial was in sand stained by red ochre.
Artifacts were not numerous. A small collection in
FMNH (#92623) includes 6/2 sand tempered plain, 1/0 sand
tempered plain with contorted paste, 1/1 sand tempered
plain sherd with red paint on the exterior, and a
projectile point fragment, probably a Pinellas point.
Bullen (1954:101) assumed that the site dated from the
early Safety Harbor period, but the artifacts could also
represent a late Weeden Island-related occupation.
The Carlton Ranch #1 site (8Hr5) was discovered
during a survey in 1975 (Milanich and Martinez 1975:8-


184
disturbed prior to his investigations (1951c:20-21).
Bullen's work indicated that there was a substantial
Safety Harbor component in the mound. Collections in
FMNH (#99514-99619) include Sarasota Incised, Lemon Bay
Incised, Englewood Incised, Safety Harbor Incised, Point
Washington Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, Pinellas Plain
(some with notched lips), St. Johns Plain, Pasco Plain,
cob marked, and sand tempered plain sherds. The bulk of
the ceramics from the mound, however, are Weeden Island
types.
Bullen (1951c:29) noted that the Safety Harbor
sherds were generally found in the top 15 cm, with
Englewood types occurring stratigraphically below this
level. Weeden Island types were found throughout the
mound. The artifacts indicate that the mound was a
Weeden Island-related burial mound reused by Safety
Harbor groups. It is possible that it was a
continuously-used site.
The Boots Point Midden (8Ma83D) is a shell midden
on a point of Terra Ceia Island. Originally, this
midden was huge, covering about 1 ha and rising to a
height of 6 m (Bullen 1951c:9). Bullen made surface
collections from this site, which are now housed in FMNH
(#99633). The collection includes 16/4 sand tempered
plain, 3/2 Pinellas Plain (one rim has a notched lip),


629
Martin, John D.
1976 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
Borden Big Four Mine Properties in Southeastern
Hillsborough County. Florida. Archaeological Report
No. 3. Department of Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa.
Mathews, David S.
1988 The Massacre: The Discovery of De Soto in
Georgia. In The Kina Site: Continuity and Contact in
Sixteenth-Centurv Georgia, edited by Robert L.
Blakely, pp. 101-116. University of Georgia Press,
Athens.
McCall, George Archibald
1974 Letters from the Frontiers. Reprinted.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Originally published 1868, L. B. Lippincott,
Philadelphia.
McKay, D. B.
1949 Pioneer Florida. The Tampa Tribune. October 30.
1952 Pioneer Florida. The Tampa Tribune. March 9,
Columns 3 and 4.
1956 Pioneer Florida. The Tampa Tribune. July 29,
Columns 6 and 7.
McCullough, David L. and Elizabeth Fisher
1978 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
Proposed Fletcher Avenue Park Site. Hillsborough
Countv. Florida. Archaeological Report No. 7.
Department of Anthropology, University of South
Florida, Tampa.
McMurray, Carl D., Jr.
1974 A Natural Resources Inventory and Ecological
Analysis for a Development of Regional Impact
(Phosphate Mine^ in Manatee Countv. Ecolmpact,
Gainesville. Submitted to Swift Agricultural
Chemicals, Bartow, Florida.
Merrill, William L.
1979 The Beloved Tree: Ilex vomitoria Among the
Indians of the Southeast and Adjacent Regions. In
Black Drink: A Native American Tea, edited by
Charles M. Hudson, pp. 40-82. University of Georgia
Press, Athens.


258
Solis de Mers 1964:139-140; Widmer 1988:97), and it is
probable that Calusa groups used Safety Harbor ceramics
in mortuary contexts (Widmer 1988:85-86).
The Mound Key site (8LL2) in Estero Bay is an
extensive network of shell middens, shell works, and a
canal. The island was visited by Andrew E. Douglass in
1885, though he did no digging (Douglass n.d.:130).
Cushing (1896:347-348) also visited the key, which was
also known as Johnson's Key. He described an extensive
complex of courts and mounds reaching heights of over 18
m. A local resident told Cushing that many European
artifacts had been found atop the features, including
glass beads, copper sheets, ornaments of silver and
gold, and a copper-gilt locket which contained a Spanish
letter written on parchment (Cushing 1896:348).
Clarence B. Moore (1900:366-368) visited the island
a few years later. He measured the height of some of
the mounds, and found that the highest was 9.4 m high,
less than half the estimated height given by Cushing
(1900:367). Moore (1900:367) excavated in some of the
canals and "courts" on the island, finding only a few
sherds and a shell tool (NMNH #204798). He also
excavated in the burial mound (8LL3), which will be
discussed below.


343
skeletal remains especially desirable (Willey 1949a:130-
131) .
The second objective was to obtain radiocarbon
dates for the lowest stratum. As mentioned before,
chronometric dates for the Englewood Phase have never
been obtained, though the early Safety Harbor placement
of the phase has been demonstrated stratigraphically
(Willey 1949a:475). Such dates would be valuable for
identifying the beginning time period of the Safety
Harbor Culture in general, as well as in the Citrus
County area.
The third objective was to search for structural
evidence in the mound. Though no definite structural
evidence had been recovered during the first two
seasons, it was hoped that further excavations would
reveal postmolds in the lower strata, indicating that a
charnel structure or some other type of building had
been atop the mound at some time. Such evidence was
recovered at the Parrish Mound #2 (8Ma2) in Manatee
County (Willey 1949a:147-148).
Completion of uninterrupted profiles through the
mound was the fourth objective. Complete north-south
and east-west profiles through the mound were especially
important for interpreting the sequence of burial
deposition and mound construction. Determining


417
Table 53. Faunal Remains from the Tatham Mound.
Taxon #
Probable Cervus canadensis canadensis 2
Odocoileus virainianus 1
Didelphis virainiana 20+
Mephitis mephitis 48+
Svlvilacms floridanus 1
Sciurus sp. 1
Unidentified large mammal 1
Gopherus Polyphemus 11
Sternotherus odoratus 2
Trionvx ferox 59
Pseudemvs sp. 3
Testudinae (miscellaneous turtles) 17
Crotalus sp. 8
Colubridae 6
Unidentified snake 6
Unidentified fish 5
Unidentified bone 28+
MNI
1
1
3
2
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
The deer (Odocoileus virainianus) and fish bones
could have been deposited by animals hunting or
scavenging these species from nearby, though it is
possible that they were brought to the mound by humans.
Most of the species occur abundantly in the area today,


3 TATHAM MOUND: A CASE STUDY OF
SPANISH/INDIAN CONTACT 3 06
First Field Season 312
Research Design and Methodology 312
Description of Results 317
Preliminary Interpretations 321
Second Field Season 327
Research Design and Methodology 327
Description of Results 332
Preliminary Interpretations 336
Third Field Season 342
Research Design and Methodology 342
Description of Results 346
Summary of Tatham Mound Excavation Data 352
Ceramics 352
Lithic Artifacts 393
Shell 402
Minerals and Miscellaneous Artifacts 408
Faunal Remains 416
Precontact Copper Artifacts 419
European Artifacts 434
Seminole period or later 434
Spanish glass beads 436
European metal artifacts 452
Mortuary Practices and Burial Associations... 468
Mortuary Practices 468
Burial Associations. 474
Precontact stratum 474
Postcontact stratum 483
Cut bones 495
Ancillary Studies 498
Native Copper Sourcing 498
Postcontact Metal 499
Shell Sourcing 499
Botanical Remains 500
Plant fibers 500
Carbonized and "fossilized" seeds 501
Preserved wood and bark 502
Charred wood 502
Soil Analyses 503
Stratigraphic Data 504
Dating Methods and Results 509
Artifact Associations 509
Chronometric Dates 519
Interpretations 527
Sequence of Events 528
Interaction with Other Aboriginal
Cultures 532
xii


327
the central portion. However, the presence of Englewood
pottery types suggested that the mound had been used
over a long time period. The sequence of occupation was
clarified by later work at the site.
In summary, the first field season indicated the
need for further excavations at the site. At the end of
these initial excavations, plans were formulated for at
least one more season.
Second Field Season
The second field season at the Tatham Mound was
conducted in fall of 1985. As the earlier work had
revealed the presence of large numbers of human burials,
an osteologist was added to the crew. Dale L.
Hutchinson of the University of Illinois joined the
project in this capacity. Another field school was
organized, including participation by volunteer members
of WRAC. Preliminary results and interpretations were
presented in an interim report (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986).
Research Design and Methodology
The second season's work continued to address the
objectives expressed during the initial season, along
with several more specific questions raised by the


333
The presence of an osteologist aided in field
determination of age, sex, and pathologies present for
many of the burials. This resulted in tentative
identification of 12 females, five males, and 36
indeterminate sex individuals among the burials (primary
and secondary) exposed during the season. Age
determinations were made for 16 of these, resulting in
14 adults, one juvenile, and one younger adult (Mitchem
and Hutchinson 1986:20-21).
Pathologies identified included enamel hypoplasia,
carious lesions, premortem tooth loss, possible
periodontal disease, periosteal reactions,
osteomyelitis, fractures, and a cut (severed) element
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:21). This last bone was a
portion of a right scapula from which the acromion
process had been cleanly cut off. This was a
secondarily deposited bone, and the interpretation of
having been cut, again by an edged metal weapon, was
supported by William R. Maples of FMNH.
Aboriginal artifacts recovered during the second
season included the pottery types recovered during the
first season, along with Sarasota Incised, Lake Jackson
Plain, and many decorated sherds on St. Johns paste.
These latter included simple stamped, cord marked,
punctated, cob marked, brushed, and incised specimens.


351
The pit in which Burials #125 and 128 were interred
was dug into the area where Feature #6 had been scraped
away. Because of this fact and the homogeneous nature
of the sand used in building the mound, the intrusive
nature of these burials was not recognized until tests
of the metal bead from Burial #128 revealed that it was
made of brass or bronze, indicating European origin
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:64-65; Mitchem and Leader
1988:Table 2). Rechecking of the notes and maps
revealed that puzzling amorphous soil stains had been
noted around these burials as they were excavated, but
could not be positively identified as pit features at
that time.
The stratigraphic and burial evidence indicated
that the postcontact stratum was added in a single
episode, covering a mass burial of many individuals.
The only probably intrusive postcontact burials were
Burials #16, 125, and 128. The stratigraphic evidence
from all three seasons is discussed in detail in a later
section of this chapter.
Because the interpretations at the end of the third
season represent summary interpretations, these are
presented in a later section of this chapter rather than
a preliminary interpretations section. The research


88
largest number of specimens, followed by fish
(1966:Figure 3). Terrestrial species consisted
primarily of deer (Odocoileus viroinianus), with one
bone each from opossum (Didelphis virainiana) and
raccoon (Procvon lotor). The faunal list, though basic,
is important because very little faunal information is
available for Safety Harbor sites (Kozuch 1986).
The Narvaez Midden was at least 1.8 m thick
(Goodyear 1972:34), and probably represents a major
Safety Harbor settlement. A burial mound (8P100, the
Jungle Prado Mound) was located nearby. This and the
Johns Pass Mound (8Pi4) may have served as burial places
for the residents of the Narvaez site. Goodyear
(1972:34) mentioned other sites in the area that may
have been contemporaneous satellite hamlets, which would
fit with his interpretation of the site as a major town
with a large ceremonial ("temple") mound.
The Canton Street site (8P55) was designated a
possible Safety Harbor site when first recorded because
a number of Pinellas Plain sherds were collected from
the surface. However, subsequent excavation of the site
(Bullen et al. 1978) demonstrated that it dated
primarily to the Florida Transitional period (pre-500
B.C.). Some Weeden Island artifacts were recorded on
the original site form, suggesting that the Pinellas


619
1953b Seminole Pottery. In Prehistoric Pottery of the
Eastern United States, edited by James B. Griffin,
unpaginated. Museum of Anthropology, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor.
1954a Are There De Soto Relics in Florida? Florida
Historical Quarterly 32:151-162.
1954b Historic Metal Plummet Pendants. The Florida
Anthropo1octist 7:27.
1954c Preliminary Statement on the Archeology of the
Cape Haze Area, Southwestern Florida. Ms. on file,
P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
1960 The Spanish Olive Jar: An Introductory Study.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 62.
New Haven, Connecticut.
1968 Spanish Majolica in the New World: Types of the
Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology No. 72. New Haven,
Connecticut.
Goggin, John M. and William C. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural
Society (With Notes on Sibling Marriage). In
Explorations in Cultural Anthropology; Essays in
Honor of George Peter Murdock, edited by Ward H.
Goodenough, pp. 179-219. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Goodman, Claire Garber
1984 Copper Artifacts in Late Eastern Woodlands
Prehistory. Center for American Archeology,
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
Goodyear, Albert C.
1968 Pinellas Point: A Possible Site of Continuous
Indian Habitation. The Florida Anthropologist 21:74-
82.
1972 Political and Religious Change in the Tampa Bay
Timucua: An Ethnohistoric Reconstruction. Ms. on
file, Department of Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa.
Gorges, Harold
1979 Effigies from Tocobaga. Early Man 4(1):14-15.
Peninsular Archaeological Society, Holiday, Florida.


Figure 5
Safety Harbor Incised Vessel from the
Tatham Mound.
Top: Side View.
Bottom: View of Base Showing Prefired
Basal Perforation.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Jeffrey McClain Mitchem was born on October 21,
1955 in Atlanta, Georgia. Graduating from Lakeland
(Florida) High School in 1973, he entered the University
of Florida as a pre-vet major the following fall. After
one year of study, he changed his major to anthropology,
graduating with honors in 1977. He received a Master of
Arts degree in anthropology from the University of South
Florida in 1984. While a doctoral student at the
University of Florida, he held numerous teaching and
research assistantships, and was the recipient of a
Charles H. Fairbanks Scholarship. He has participated
in archaeological fieldwork in Florida, Georgia, Idaho,
and Alabama.
651


594
discarded. Through the efforts of B. William Burger,
some of the remains from the mound were recently located
in private ownership, and these and the specimens housed
in NMNH are being studied by Dale L. Hutchinson. This
information will be used as comparative data in his
analysis of the Tatham skeletal remains. Hutchinson has
also examined human remains from the Weeki Wachee Mound
(8Hel2), Aqui Esta (8Ch68), and Tierra Verde (8P51).
Sociopolitical Organization
It is clear from the early Spanish narratives that
the sixteenth century people who had a Safety Harbor
material culture were organized into small chiefdoms /
(Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:206-207). Boundaries of
particular chiefdoms apparently shifted often, and
warfare was common both among Safety Harbor groups and
between Safety Harbor and Calusa Indians. In the Elvas
narrative of the Soto expedition, Juan Ortiz noted that
he moved from Ugita's town to that of Mocoso after
Mocoso burned Ugita's town (Smith 1968:30-31). It is of
interest that after this event, Ugita merely moved to
another town "he had in another seaport." (Smith
1968:31). The animosity and state of war between
Tocobaga and Carlos (chief of the Calusa), and Tocobaga
and inland Florida groups, was clearly depicted in the


203
9). Test excavations revealed a buried midden stratum
covering an area of 54 m by 17 m (1975:8). Artifacts
(FMNH #A-6776) included 9/2 sand tempered plain, 5/0
sand tempered plain with contorted paste (possible
Pinellas Plain), a fragment of a sand tempered handle or
vessel appendage, 10 chert flakes, three secondary
decortication flakes, a utilized flake (scraper), and a
fragment of red-colored stone. On the basis of this
assemblage, Milanich and Martinez (1975:8) suggested
that the site dated to about A.D. 200.
More extensive excavations were conducted at the
site by Piper et al. (1982). Pottery types recovered
included sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, Belle Glade Plain, Pinellas Plain, grog
tempered, and Wakulla Check Stamped. A number of
Pinellas projectile points were also recovered (Piper et
al. 1982:40-41). An uncorrected radiocarbon date of
1060 50 B.P. was obtained from charcoal in a feature
containing a Pinellas point (1982:43). When this is
calibrated (Stuiver and Becker 1986), it yields a date
range of Cal. AD 900-1018. These data indicate that the
site had an early Safety Harbor component, and probably
had a late Weeden Island-related component as well.
David Batcho (1978:31) and Wharton and Williams
(1980:218) suggested that a burial mound known as the


233
types, while a note in the FPS files in FMNH indicates
that NMNH #364698 includes Safety Harbor sherds.
John Goggin's field notes and a card in the FMNH
site file indicated that the artifacts listed in Table
29 were collected at the site in 1953. The present
location of this collection is unknown.
A small collection (#A-7987) from the site in FMNH
includes 5/0 sand tempered plain sherds and a Busvcon
columella. A spiral faceted Florida Cut Crystal bead is
also in FMNH (no number). In the Simpson collection in
FMNH, there is a partially reconstructed Dunns Creek Red
vessel (#103718) from the site, which the late J.
Clarence Simpson obtained from Montague Tallant.
Allerton et al. (1984:36, 38) mentioned that two
ceremonial tablets, one of silver and one of brass or
copper, were excavated from the site. They also
indicated that a large number of European materials were
found at the site, including a sheet silver alligator
effigy and a silver shark tooth effigy recovered with
the silver tablet (1984:36). Also reportedly recovered
were rolled sheet silver and sheet gold beads, drilled
silver rod beads, silver and gold coin beads, white and
blue glass seed beads, large and small Cornaline
d'Aleppo beads, a fluted green melon bead, an amber
bead, a Nueva Cadiz bead, Ichtucknee Blue beads, a Seven


338
represented a single episode of interment). Briefly,
these were:
1. Normal charnel house mortuary storage for
several years with a larger contemporary death event (a
large number of people dying in a short time period)
resulting in the burial of both primary and secondary
remains.
2. A large mortality event of some duration, with
secondary burials representing individuals whose bodies
had decomposed due to disruption of normal mortuary
activities. This would assume that a large number of
deaths occurred over a time period long enough for
decomposition of the earliest victims to occur, with the
primary burials representing the later victims (e.g., an
extended disease epidemic).
3. A large contemporary mortuary event, with some
corpses defleshed before interment (secondary) and
others not defleshed (primary). The reasons for
differential treatment could be cultural (e.g., status
or kin group differences) or due to circumstances (e.g.,
survivors not able to provide normal mortuary treatment
for all corpses due to exceptionally large number).
4. Due to dispersed settlement pattern, primary
burials represent individuals who died in the vicinity
of the mound, and secondary interments represent those


419
skeletal elements of this species were recovered from
the mound.
Precontact Copper Artifacts
Metal artifacts were recovered from both the
precontact and postcontact strata of the mound. This
section will discuss copper objects which were recovered
from the precontact stratum. Copper or copper alloy
artifacts from the postcontact stratum will be discussed
separately in a later section of this chapter. Table 54
lists the precontact metal artifacts.
The circular plate (Feature #10) is approximately 23
cm in diameter, and has a small (ca. 0.5 cm diameter)
central perforation. It is a thin sheet of copper, and
one edge is bent. When first discovered, a mass of
preserved roots and other organic material was
adhering to the upper surface. Most of this material
was removed in the field and kept for analysis.
As the plate was pedestaled prior to removal, small
bones were noted in the matrix below it. It was removed
with the sand matrix adhering to the lower side. This
was done both to avoid damaging the bones (which were
thought to be some sort of faunal remains) and to ensure
that the plate remained intact. When the matrix was
removed in the laboratory, a human infant skeleton was


Figure 18
Radiograph of Circular Copper Plate (Feature #9)
from the Tatham Mound.
Shown approximately 78% actual size.
Diameter at widest point is 23 cm.


546
the location of a large village (Trigger 1987:85-90).
On these occasions, the corpses or bones of the dead
from satellite villages were brought for communal
burial, along with the bodies or bones of residents who
had died elsewhere and nonresident Hurons who had wished
to be buried at the place (1987:85-87). These latter
individuals were especially significant.
The significance of the mingling of the bones of the
dead from many parts of the Huron country in a single
grave cannot be overstressed. The Huron said that
because their dead relatives were united in this way,
it was necessary for the living to cooperate and be
friends with one another. Friendly tribes from
outside the confederacy were invited to attend the
ceremony as an expression of goodwill, but only very
close allies appear to have been asked to mingle the
bones of their dead with those of the Huron.
(Trigger 1987:87)
Among the Huron, these ceremonies functioned as a way to
solidify alliances and to maintain peaceful relations
with other groups. A similar situation probably existed
among the northern Safety Harbor groups, though on a
much smaller scale.
It was noted earlier that the Tatham Mound had not
been used for interments for several centuries prior to
the postcontact burial episode, even though there may
have been a charnel structure on it for at least part of
that period. The Weeki Wachee (8Hel2) and Ruth Smith
(8C200) Mounds (Figure 31) may have been the central
Safety Harbor burial places for the region during these


22
Hd-7 (Hernando County) by Florida Park Service (FPS)
archaeologists. The FMNH site file lists this as a
possible Safety Harbor site, but the meager FMNH
collection (#99364) contains no diagnostic sherds to
support the contention.
Burtine Island D (8C61), a shell midden near the
mouth of the Withlacoochee River, was excavated by
Bullen (1966). Pottery types indicated occupation from
Deptford through Safety Harbor times, the latter being
represented by a few Sarasota Incised and Pinellas Plain
sherds. The relatively small number of Safety Harbor
artifacts suggests only a light occupation of the site
by Safety Harbor peoples (Bullen 1966:16). A small
number of Alachua Tradition types were also recovered,
evidence of interaction with groups north of the
Withlacoochee.
According to notes on the FMSF form, a marine shell
and dirt midden on the Homosassa River, the Tiger Tail
Bay Midden (8C136), yielded the artifacts listed in
Table 2. The site appears to be a mixed Weeden Island-
related and Safety Harbor midden.
An extremely large flat-topped shell mound, known
as the Withlacoochee River Platform Mound (8C189), is
located on the bank of the Withlacoochee. The site has
never been excavated, but its configuration is
reminiscent of truncated "temple mounds" associated with


108
are Safety Harbor burial mounds (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:23-24; Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:193).
Unfortunately, the species of the Jones shells was not
identified, and they are no longer available for study.
This information would have been useful, as the
specimens from Tatham and Weeki Wachee are a non-Florida
species.
The Snavely Mounds (8Hi5 and 8H42) were a pair of
mounds about 0.9 m high located along the Hillsborough
River (Bullen 1952b:39-41; Simpson 1937:116; Willey
1949a:337). Excavated by the WPA, the mounds yielded
only one secondary burial (from Mound A), and Mound A
contained a large number of stone tools, partially
finished tools, and debitage, suggesting that the site
was the home of a stone tool maker (Bullen 1952b:39). A
chert quarry (8H43) located nearby supports this
interpretation (1952b:41). Discolored zones of ash and
charcoal in both mounds may have represented house
floors (1952b:39). Pottery from the mounds was not
described, but on the basis of the presence of Pinellas
projectile points, Bullen (1952b:41) assigned a Safety
Harbor date to the site. The validity of this
interpretation is dubious. The only artifacts from the
site in FMNH (#102468) are two projectile points, a


221
southeast. Notes taken by David 0. True in 1934 (now in
the FPS files, FMNH) indicate that about 50 human
skeletons were removed from the mound, some very near
the surface. Included was a central burial, which was
reportedly covered with some sort of nuts (possibly
shell beads?). Flexed burials were described, and many
apparently had conch or whelk shells accompanying them.
Artifacts recorded by True included glass beads
(including a large chevron), a copper cone-shaped disc
(ca. 3.8 cm diameter) with a central perforation, a
possible pair of metal shears, and a decorated vessel
(apparently a collared jar or wide-mouthed bottle form)
with a perforated base (Luer and Almy 1987:311). Willey
(1949a:344, Figure 63c) indicated that this vessel was
Safety Harbor Incised.
A number of artifacts from the site are in the
Tallant collection at SFM. These include a stone bead
(#4241), undescribed glass beads1(#4243), an iron lance
head (#4255, 35-00), and an iron chisel (#4256, 35-26).
The chisel is 13.5 cm long, with a width varying from
1.9-2.2 cm and a thickness ranging from 0.9-1.2 cm.
There is also a Florida Cut Crystal bead from the mound
in FMNH (#A-19998). Information on the FMSF form for
8So403 indicates that an Englewood or Fort Walton-like


142
silver and copper, included "coin" beads (Fairbanks
1968b), rolled sheet metal beads, and drilled rod beads.
Benson also recovered metal discs and pendants, a
silver thimble, miscellaneous metal objects, iron
scissors, an iron knife blade, an iron eyed axe, an iron
celt, various stone tools, and aboriginal and European
ceramics (1967). Allerton et al. (1984:38) indicated
that a sheet silver ceremonial tablet may also have come
from the mound, but Benson (1967:130-131) specifically
mentioned that to his knowledge no such artifacts had
been recovered there. The single European sherd was
identified as San Luis Polychrome majolica. The
aboriginal ceramics recovered by Benson (1967:129-130)
indicated a Safety Harbor component with heavy Belle
Glade influence. Identified types included Sarasota
Incised, Englewood Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, and possible Gordon's Pass Incised.
Karklins' (1974) work at the site produced a
deposit of pottery near the western edge of the mound,
consisting of Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, St.
Johns Check Stamped, and Pinellas Incised sherds and
vessels, all of which had been broken or perforated.
From other parts of the mound, he recovered sherds of
Pasco Complicated Stamped, Ocklawaha Incised, Papys


181
red ochre was present, but no artifacts. Some years
before, a gold object had reportedly been removed from a
burial near the surface in the center of the mound
(n.d.:7). If a gold artifact was indeed found, the
mound probably had a postcontact Safety Harbor
component.
Burger (1982:Table 34) listed a small shell midden
(the Bayshore site) on Terra Ceia Island (8Ma77) as a
Safety Harbor site. A small collection from the site in
FMNH (#99468) includes 6/4 Pinellas Plain and 1/0 sand
tempered plain sherds. The lips of the Pinellas Plain
rims are not notched, so the site could date from either
Weeden Island or Safety Harbor times.
From a small shell ridge on Terra Ceia Island,
known as Sea Breeze Point (8Ma78), Ripley P. Bullen
(1951c:35) collected a single Olive Jar body sherd, 6/0
sand tempered plain, 3/0 Pinellas Plain-like, and 1/0
St. Johns Plain (with some sand inclusions) sherds (FMNH
#99469). The presence of Olive Jar and probable
Pinellas Plain sherds suggests that the site had a
postcontact Safety Harbor component. However, the Olive
Jar sherd could have come from one of the eighteenth
century Cuban fisheries in the region (Dodd 1947).
Glass beads were reported by a local informant to
have been found at the Palm View site (8Ma82) (Burger


195
Table 24. Artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715)
in SFM.
Description Count
Glass Beads:
Large seed beads (opaque turquoise blue, white,
and Cornaline d'Aleppo) many
Heart-shaped several
Cornaline d7Aleppo several
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 3
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short translucent navy blue/
thin white/translucent navy blue core) (IIA2e)* 1
Complex oval (3 or 4 wide blue longitudinal stripes/
opaque white/transparent blue core) (similar
to IB4b)* 2
Silver Beads:
Small disc 31
Spheroid 2
Donut-shaped 1
Olive-shaped 1
Drilled rod (1.85 cm long) 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
and Cornaline d'Aleppo specimens probably date to the
second half of the sixteenth century or later (Deagan
1987:168-169). Though no description of aboriginal


174
measurements as 25.9 m diameter and 1.1 m high (Tallant
n.d.¡2).
Ripley and Adelaide Bullen excavated a large
portion of one of the mounds in 1963, recovering 134
burials and much pottery (FMNH #98050-98282). The FMNH
collection is labeled 8Ma31 (the platform mound), but B.
William Burger and George M. Luer (personal
communication 1988) indicate that it was the burial
mound (8Ma30) that the Bullens excavated. Most of the
ceramics are Weeden Island types. The Safety Harbor
component at the burial mound appears to be minor. Of
the 5619 sherds in the FMNH collection, only 12 are
definite Safety Harbor types. These include Point
Washington Incised (#98056), Safety Harbor Incised
(#98053, 98102, and 98116), Sarasota Incised (#98062,
98085, 98104, and 98126), Pinellas Plain with notched
lips (#98091 and 98135), Pinellas Incised (#98110), and
possible Englewood Incised (#98106). There are many
examples of Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns
Plain and Check Stamped, and sand tempered plain sherds
in the collection, any of which could date from Safety
Harbor times, but the overwhelming majority of the
decorated sherds are unmistakeable Weeden Island types.
The catalog list in SFM of the private Burnworth
Collection lists ten vessels or partial vessels from the


CHAPTER 2
PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON SAFETY HARBOR
In order to redefine Safety Harbor, it is first
necessary to discuss previous work (both published and
unpublished), so that the state of present knowledge and
interpretation can be evaluated. Numerous site reports
and papers dealing with various aspects of Safety Harbor
culture have been published. There are also many
collections held by private individuals and in
institutions which have never been thoroughly studied or
described in print. However, any attempt at summary is
doomed to be incomplete, due to inaccuracies in records,
incomplete survey coverage, and other factors.
This chapter discusses known sites by county
(Figure 1), following a roughly north to south course.
Sites that have been previously identified as having
Safety Harbor components, but which do not, are also
included. Collections from sites are generally not
enumerated if they have been previously published. A
section on sites outside of the Safety Harbor culture
area that have yielded small quantities of Safety Harbor
artifacts is also included.
8


162
Puebla Blue on White (ca. 1675-1830) (Deagan 1987:56-57,
74, 77, 82, 84).
Another private collection from the site includes
two Florida Cut Crystal beads, three rolled sheet silver
beads, six small silver disc beads, and many glass seed
beads of blue, white, green, turquoise blue, yellow,
colorless, and Cornaline d'Aleppo glass (Don Ness,
personal communication 1988).
The site probably represents an example of a Safety
Harbor mound used during the late sixteenth century and
later. It is interesting to note that this site is
within 2 km of the previously discussed Shaw's Point
site (8Ma7), the location of the DeSoto National
Memorial. The mound could be an early contact site, but
the private collections have not been adequately studied
to determine this.
Burger included the Tidy Island site (8Mal2c or
8Ma24) in his list of Safety Harbor sites (1982:Table
34). Tallant's (n.d.rl) notes mentioned only a few
shell and bone artifacts from the site, which is a large
shell midden. Burger (personal communication 1988)
indicated that the midden is primarily late Weeden
Island-related, but Pinellas Plain sherds with notched
lips were collected from the surface of the site,
indicating the presence of a Safety Harbor component.


3
volume of previously unpublished data was much greater
than anticipated, and time and manuscript length
constraints prevented a full coverage of all of these
categories. Readers of this work should remember these
factors when judging it. More refinements will be
forthcoming, and the final section of Chapter 4 presents
the topics deemed (by the present author) most important
for future research.
In describing the sites and collections in this
study, Willey's (1949a:472-475, 479-486) definitions of
ceramic types are generally followed. However, a few
minor, but important modifications are necessary.
First, Englewood Plain (1949a:474) is not considered a
valid type, because sand tempered plain wares generally
cannot be distinguished from one another. In this case,
this fact is especially important because the
identification of plain ware as Englewood Plain would be
very significant in terms of chronological
interpretation.
The second modification has already been suggested
by George M. Luer (1985:236). Willey's (1949a:474)
definition of the type Sarasota Incised should be
broadened to include sand tempered paste as well as the
chalky St. Johns paste, since specimens with Sarasota


REDEFINING SAFETY HARBOR:
LATE PREHISTORIC/PROTOHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY
IN WEST PENINSULAR FLORIDA
By
JEFFREY MCCLAIN MITCHEM
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989


biography of Pedro Menndez de Avils by Solis de Mers
(1964:223-229, 233).
Intermarriage as a way of forming alliances among
Safety Harbor groups was apparently common. Bullen
(1978b:56) noted that the sister of Hirrihigua (a name
used in one of the Soto narratives for the chief of
Ugita) was married to Mocoso, and that Urriparacoxi was
Mocoso's brother-in-law. These marriages helped
strengthen alliances between the chiefs. Bullen did not
cite his source of this information, but it was
apparently the narrative of Garcilaso de la Vega, the
least reliable of the Soto accounts. Garcilaso
mentioned that Urriparacoxi was Mocoso's brother-in-law
(Varner and Varner 1951:72), but no reference was made
to Mocoso being married to Hirrihigua#s sister. In
fact, Garcilaso stated that Mocoso wished to marry
Hirrihigua's daughter, a wish that apparently went
unfulfilled (Varner and Varner 1951:73). However, these
relationships might have referred to clan membership or
other kinship ties that were misunderstood by the
Spaniards.
It is clear that European contact had profound
effects upon the Safety Harbor chiefdoms, especially in
the Tampa Bay area and to the north. Ethnohistorically,
this is demonstrated by the lack of references in the


20
mentioned in the accounts of the Hernando de Soto
expedition, which passed through this portion of Florida
three times in 1539 (Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds
1973:65; Smith 1968:37; Swanton 1985:142).
A collection in FMNH (#77919-77933) from a site on
the shore of Lake Tsala Apopka (8Ci7) includes 3/2
Sarasota Incised and 1/1 Point Washington Incised
sherds, along with St. Johns types, Pasco types, and
Prairie Cord Marked. Deptford and Perico wares indicate
the site is multicomponent. Unfortunately, the records
do not indicate whether this was a mound or a midden.
S. T. Walker excavated approximately 150 European
glass beads from a mound (8C16) somewhere on
Chassahowitzka Bay (Willey 1949a:324). A note in the
FMNH site file describes these (NMNH #59376) as large
blue and large white seed beads, with cut tubular beads
of green, blue, opal, lavender, and colorless glass. A
large (1.2 cm diameter) dark blue bead and four brown
tubular or ovoid beads are also included. The verbal
description, though inadequate, seems to indicate that
these are probably seventeenth century types. No other
artifacts were mentioned from the site. It may have
been a postcontact Safety Harbor mound.
Three shell middens, Crystal River #3 (8C37),
Jake's Drop (8C38), and Shell Island (8C43), are
listed in the FMSF as having Safety Harbor components.


156
Table 20. Artifacts from Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3)
in FMNH.
Description Count
FMNH #82133-82134:
Ceramics:
St. Johns Plain 5/3
St. Johns Check Stamped 4/3
Sand tempered plain 2/1
Pasco Plain 2/0
Belle Glade Plain 2/0
Pinellas Plain I/O
Shell:
Busycon cups 3
FMNH #99374:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 7/3
St. Johns Check Stamped 4/0
Belle Glade Plain 2/1
Pinellas Plain-like 2/1
Sand tempered check stamped 1/0
mound fill. Willey (1949a:155) indicated that the
chisel was 6 cm long. This object is in NMNH (#383236),
and is flat (0.9 cm thick), rectangular, and has a
beveled bit end.


483
It is tempting to suggest that Burials #102 and 105
represent a high-status couple, and that the infant
(Burial #133) beneath Feature #10 is their child. In
this scenario, Burial #109 would probably also be a
relative or wife, and the other skeletal remains would
represent trophy skulls, sacrificial victims, or bones
from a charnel structure. However, Dale Hutchinson
(personal communication 1989) has indicated that Burials
#102, 105, and 109 appear to all be females, based on
the very limited evidence available. The fact that
Burial #105 was accompanied by two copper artifacts
would suggest that this individual was a high-status
person, whose death led to the burial episode. Due to
poor preservation, the sex of Burial #105 was based
solely on mastoid processes and nuchal markings, so
there is considerable room for error. If #105 was
actually a male, Burial #102, an adult female, would
most likely be his wife, as she was lying parallel to
Burial #105. The fact that the infant (Burial #133) was
between the two strongly suggests a family relationship.
As analysis of the skeletal remains proceeds, it should
be possible to propose more confident interpretations.
Postcontact stratum
This section presents a summary of information
about burials in the postcontact stratum which were


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people have helped me during this endeavor.
First, I must thank those individuals who read drafts of
Chapter 2 and/or provided me with unpublished
information on Safety Harbor sites. The contributions
of these people were indispensable, and I am extremely
grateful. They are Marion Almy, Walter Askew, Bob
Austin, Jan Bailo, John Beriault, Laura Branstetter,
Bill Burger, Mark Burnett, Bill Dayton, Joan Deming,
Albert Goodyear, Jennifer Hamilton, Laura Kammerer, Paul
Lien, George Luer, Bill Marquardt, Gus Nelson, Don Ness,
Harry Piper, Bruce Smith, Marion Smith, and Ray
Williams. Of these, I must single out Bob Austin, Bill
Burger, and George Luer for truly going way beyond
professional courtesy in providing essential data.
The Tatham Mound project has been a fantastic and
unforgettable experience. When we began working there,
I never dreamed that it would contain such interesting
and scientifically valuable objects and information. I
owe a great debt of gratitude to my colleague Brent
Weisman, who first discovered the site and co-directed
iii


173
Table 23. Artifacts from the Feeney Site (8Ma21)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 29/3
Pinellas Plain (both rims have notched lips) 5/2
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Stone:
Bone fossil fragment 1
Unidentified rocks 2
Shell:
Utilized Busvcon shells 2
The Pillsbury site, west of Shaw's Point,
apparently consisted of two mounds, a platform mound
(8Ma31) and an adjoining burial mound (8Ma30), both of
sand (Luer and Almy 1981:134; Tallant n.d.:2). The
rectangular platform mound, mentioned by Stirling
(1930:186), measured about 26.5 m by 34 m at its base,
with the longer axis oriented north-northeast to south-
southwest (Luer and Almy 1981:134). The height was
about 3.7 m, and a ramp was present on the east-
southeast side (1981:134). Tallant (n.d.:2) reported
that the burial mound had been partially excavated, and
that many skeletons had been removed from it, but no
artifacts were encountered. He recorded its


12
vessels are more common from sites to the north, such as
Moundville, Alabama, where such vessels tend to be found
in Moundville I Phase contexts dating to about A.D. 1050
to 1250 (Steponaitis 1983:80, 100). The Dixie County
vessel is probably a trade item from cultures to the
north.
In Levy County, artifacts were collected from
Palmetto Island (8Lv7) in the 1880s by Decatur Pittman,
who later donated the material to the Florida Museum of
Natural History (FMNH). The site is primarily Weeden
Island-related, but one Pinellas Incised sherd was
listed by Willey (1949a:311). This could not be located
in the FMNH collections. Willey (1949a:312) also listed
two Prairie Cord Marked and two fabric impressed sherds
in the collection, which suggest an Alachua Tradition
component (Milanich 1971).
Willey (1949a:313) mentioned that three Pinellas
Plain sherds were surface collected at the Hodgeson's
Hill site (8Lv8) in 1949, and he postulated a possible
Safety Harbor occupation on the basis of this. Pinellas
Plain pottery has since been shown to occur in some
Weeden Island-related contexts, however, which is
consistent with the collection from the site (Luer and
Almy 1980:211).
A single sherd of Safety Harbor Incised and one of
Sarasota Incised were noted by Willey (1949a:313) from


Figure 7
Point Washington Incised Vessels and Ground Stone
Celts from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Point Washington Incised. A bird head rim
adorno was attached to the left vessel after it
was photographed.
Bottom: Four stone celts.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


529
buried in a single episode. A wide sand ramp was placed
on the east slope of the mound.
The mound was then either abandoned or a charnel
structure was built atop it. A layer of very dark,
greasy soil accumulated over the mound's surface during
this period, unlike the surrounding natural humus
buildup. On one occasion, the dark stained soil was
scraped away from the summit area and replaced by a
layer of clean sand. This may have coincided with the
rebuilding of a charnel structure on the mound. The
dark greasy layer continued forming after this event.
After an undetermined period had passed, the Tatham
population made contact with Spanish explorers, probably
in 1539. More than three episodes of contact with
members of the Soto expedition may have occurred.
Sometime after contact (and apparently after the dark
layer had been scraped away on the summit), a pit was
dug into the north central part of the mound. The
remains of two individuals were buried in this pit,
which extended almost to the subraound ground surface.
At least one Indian was killed or mortally wounded
by a Spaniard, and the corpse(s) was placed in a charnel
structure. At some later time, after the flesh had
decomposed from the corpse(s), a large mortality event


119
site had at least two components, and possibly some
recent disturbance. Pottery was mostly plain, but check
stamped and other decorated types were mentioned in the
field notes. Various shell and stone tools were
recovered, along with large numbers of animal bones.
Unfortunately, the collections from the site are not
available.
Three finds mentioned in the field notes are of
special interest. A long glass bead is mentioned, as
well as bones of a pig and of a horse (or possibly cow)
(Bullen 1952b:72-73). These bones had reportedly been
intentionally split. These objects could be very
significant, because they might be evidence of early
Spanish contact. The long glass bead might have been a
Nueva Cadiz bead, and the horse and pig bones are
definitely postcontact in age. Some researchers believe
that the Soto expedition camped near this spot, and the
expedition had both pigs and horses (Swanton 1985).
However, the absence of the excavated artifacts prevents
interpretation. If there was occupation at the site
during the early sixteenth century, it would have been
by Safety Harbor groups.
The Old Shell Point site (8H31) was a shell mound
on the north bank of the Alafia River. It was recorded
in 1952 by William Plowden, who noted that much of it


467


607
Austin, Robert J. and Kenneth W. Hardin
1987 Conserving a City's Prehistory: St. Petersburg's
Archaeological Survey and Planning Project. The
Florida Anthropologist 40:266-274.
Bailo, George R.
1981 An Assessment of Hardee County Prehistoric Site
Data. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology,
University of South Florida, Tampa.
Bartlett, Marion C.
1964 Collections from Disturbed Sites on IR-75 in
Alachua and Marion Counties. The Florida
Anthropologist 17:201-214.
Batcho, David G.
1978 Archeological and Historical Resources Within
the Little Pavne Creek Mining Tract. Polk and Hardee
Counties. Florida. 1978. Miscellaneous Project
Report Series No. 11. Department of Social Sciences,
Florida State Museum, Gainesville.
Benson, Carl A.
1967 The Philip Mound: A Historic Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 20:118-132.
Bethel1, John A.
1914 Pinellas: A Brief History of the Lower Point.
Independent Job Department Press, St. Petersburg.
Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of
Milwaukee
1892 Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of
the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee.
September 1st, 1890 to August 31st. 1891. Edward
Keogh Press, Milwaukee.
1893 Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of
the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee.
September 1st. 1891 to August 31st. 1892. Edward
Keogh Press, Milwaukee.
1894 Eleventh Annual Report of the Board of Trustees
of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee.
September 1st. 1892 to August 31st. 1893. Edward
Keogh Press, Milwaukee.


361
at least four were from the precontact stratum. This
beaker-shaped vessel may have been broken and partially
interred during the construction of the primary mound,
with portions of the vessel left on or near the surface.
Additional breaking and scattering of the vessel remains
during the postcontact construction episode would best
explain the distribution of sherds.
St. Johns Cob Marked, St. Johns Cord Marked, Safety
Harbor Incised, Point Washington Incised, Prairie Cord
Marked, Prairie Fabric Impressed, and Alachua Cob Marked
were concentrated in the postcontact stratum.
Crossmending of sherds indicates that a minimum of
four Safety Harbor Incised vessels were present. One
partially reconstructed vessel (Figure 5) is a flattened
globular bowl (or possibly a bottle with the neck
removed) with incised and punctated designs illustrating
four human hands alternating with four "baton" or "mace"
symbols. Such designs are typical of Mississippian
iconography, sometimes referred to as the Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex (Waring and Holder 1968:20). The
vessel was made with a hole in the bottom (Figure 5),
indicating that it was never meant to be used as a
utilitarian vessel. This hole may have allowed the
mounting of the object on a pole, as has been suggested
for some Weeden Island effigy vessels (Milanich, Cordell


58
types revealed occupation from Deptford through Safety
Harbor times. The Safety Harbor component was
represented by Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised,
Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, Lake Jackson Plain,
and Safety Harbor Incised sherds and vessels (Bullen et
al. 1970; Smith 1971:131-133). Unfortunately, exact
provenience information was not recorded, so very little
is known about associations.
The mound was originally roughly circular in shape,
with a diameter of approximately 39 m, and a maximum
height of 1.8 m. It was surrounded by borrow pits. Two
pottery caches were noted on the east side, and Cushing
identified at least three strata of burials (Bullen et
al. 1970:84). More than 600 burials were excavated,
consisting mostly of secondary interments with a few
primary extended burials (Cushing 1896:353).
The Johns Pass Mound (8Pi4), located on a small
island along the Gulf coast, was first excavated by
Walker (1880a:401-403). He described an oval-shaped
sand mound measuring about 15 m by 7.6 m, with a height
of less than 1 m. He mentioned a large number of
sherds, apparently concentrated beneath extended
burials, many of which were subadults. An undescribed
glass bead (NMNH #35643) and a well-made rolled sheet


284
recovered. However, there is no other evidence to
suggest that the mound had a Safety Harbor component.
The Galt Island Burial Mound (8LL81) is a sand
mound measuring 36.6 m by 30.5 m, with a height of 3.7
m. At the time of its recording in 1952, it had been
badly disturbed. William Plowden recorded the following
pottery types: 33/5 sand tempered plain, 1/1 possible
Fort Drum Incised, 1/0 Safety Harbor Incised, and 7/1
Belle Glade Plain. He also noted that human bones were
present. Since Plowden#s work, the mound has continued
to be vandalized. Collections from disturbed areas were
made by Futch (1980) and Marquardt (1988). In
Marquardt's collection in FMNH (#A20402), there are 1/0
Pinellas Incised and 6/2 Pinellas Plain sherds. Both of
the rims have notched lips. These data indicate that a
Safety Harbor component is present.
There is a postcontact Safety Harbor component at
the site, based on photographs of a private collection
from the site (William H. Marquardt, personal
communication 1988), which include those European
artifacts listed in Table 43. The Nueva Cadiz bead
suggests an early sixteenth century contact, but the
Florida Cut Crystal, barrel-shaped Gooseberry, and blue
beads indicate a late sixteenth to eighteenth century
period of contact (Deagan 1987:168, 180).


621
Hall, Joseph J.
1929 Early Indians of Florida. Scientific American
140:537.
Hamel1, George R.
1983 Trading in Metaphors: The Magic of Beads. In
Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference.
edited by Charles F. Hayes III, pp. 5-28. Research
Records No. 16. Research Division, Rochester Museum
& Science Center, Rochester, New York.
1987 Strawberries, Floating Islands, and Rabbit
Captains: Mythical Realities and European Contact in
the Northeast During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries. Journal of Canadian Studies 21(4):72-94.
Hamilton, Henry W.
1952 The Spiro Mound. The Missouri Archaeologist 14.
Hamilton, Henry W., Jean Tyree Hamilton, and Eleanor F.
Chapman
1974 Spiro Mound Copper. Memoir No. 11. Missouri
Archaeological Society, Columbia.
Hammond, E. A.
1973 The Spanish Fisheries of Charlotte Harbor.
Florida Historical Quarterly 51:355-380.
Hann, John H.
1988 Apalachee: The Land Between the Rivers. Ripley
P. Bullen Monographs in Anthropology and History No.
7. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Hardin, Kenneth W. and Robert J. Austin
1987 A Preliminary Report on the Bay Cadillac Site: A
Prehistoric Cemetery in Tampa, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 40:233-234.
Hardman, Clark, Jr.
1971 The Primitive Solar Observatory at Crystal River
and its Implications. The Florida Anthropologist
24:135-168.
Harriot, Thomas
1972 A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land
of Virginia. Reprinted. Dover, New York. Originally
published 1590, Theodor de Bry, Frankfurt, Germany.


488
Directly adjacent to the burial was a stack of three
shells of Shepard's Filter Clam, Elliptio shepardianus
(Lea).
Burial #49. This secondary (bundle) burial
apparently consisted of more than one individual. Four
Pasco Plain sherds, 11 shell disc beads, and four
barrel-shaped shell beads were associated.
Burial #54. This was a cremation, apparently of a
single individual. Associated with the bones were three
small disc beads of an amber-colored, laminated vitreous
material. These could be made of plant resin or
possibly glass, but the laminated structure and lack of
characteristic patina argues against the latter. They
appear to be warped, probably due to heat. Also present
were one rolled sheet brass bead, two rolled sheet gold
beads, five rolled sheet silver beads, and one shell
disc bead. Some of the metal beads show evidence of
being burned. A single sherd of Pasco Plain pottery, a
snake (family Colubridae) vertebra, and four red ochre
fragments were also present.
Burial #57. This was an adult female in a supine
position with legs tightly flexed over the chest and
head turned facing the left. The right arm was folded
over the chest and the left arm was folded over the


238
style decorations from the area. The Cayo Pelau site
definitely had a Weeden Island-related component (Goggin
1947c:119; Willey 1949a:345), and probably had a Safety
Harbor component, including a postcontact one. The
island was also occupied by Cuban fishermen in the early
nineteenth century (Gibson 1982:18-19).
The Gasparilla Sound Mound (8Ch2), a sand burial
mound located on a key at the southern border of
Charlotte County, was excavated by Clarence B. Moore
(1905:302). He noted that it had been badly disturbed
prior to his excavations, but he recovered 15-20 flexed
burials, with one burial were three Busycon cups (two
of which were perforated), and two perforated cups were
with another burial. Some red ochre-stained sand was
noted, and Moore indicated that most of the pottery was
poorly made plain ware (1905:302). He illustrated two
decorated sherds, a Safety Harbor (or possibly Pinellas)
Incised variant (1905:Figure 4) and a Pinellas Incised
rim with a loop handle (1905:Figure 5). These sherds
indicate that the mound had a Safety Harbor component
(Bullen 1969:418; Willey 1949a:345).
The Hickory Bluff Mound (8Ch5) was also excavated
by Moore (1905:302), who noted that it had been
previously disturbed. He found a few sherds, three of
which he illustrated. One was a Safety Harbor Incised


597
...Safety Harbor material culture is typical of both
the Tocobaaa and the Calusa. and...it cannot be used
exclusively to distinguish the Calusa from the
Tocobaaa. The isomorphic correlation of the Safety
Harbor Phase with the Tocobaga appears to be a result
of the poorly known southern distribution of Safety
Harbor material. This complex is well represented in
the Caloosahatchee region and in considerably greater
amounts than was originally thought. Thus, Safety
Harbor material in the Caloosahatchee region is
associated with the Calusa and not the Tocobaga.
(Widmer 1988:86; emphasis in original)
Widmer's interpretation that the Calusa were using some
items of Safety Harbor material culture is probably
valid. If this is correct, it would appear that the
Calusa were primarily using Safety Harbor mortuary
assemblages, rather than utilitarian items (especially
pottery).
Several alternative interpretations and variations
on Widmer's explanation are equally possible, and can be
investigated by future archaeological research in
southwest Florida. First, it is possible that the
Calusa were indeed using Safety Harbor pottery in
mortuary ceremonialism, interring the vessels in the
mounds. If this is true, several alternatives and
implications must be addressed. One issue is whether
the Calusa were themselves producing the wares, which
presumes that the Mississippian ideas which led to the ^
evolution of Safety Harbor had diffused into the Calusa
area. The alternative is that the Calusa were obtaining
the vessels from Safety Harbor groups by exchange. The


451
0 oCOeoooo
OQOOOGOQQO
000Q000060
Q Q Q O O ^OOOO
0000000009
OOOOOOOOC
INCHES
O 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5
CENTIMETERS


83
worked at the site before professional archaeologists
conducted salvage excavations there.
Sears (1967) directed the final excavation of the
mound before its destruction by development. He first
removed about one third of the eastern portion of the
mound, cutting away profiles with a bulldozer. No bones
or artifacts were observed in this soil, and Sears
decided that the mound was a small ceremonial mound with
no interments (1967:27). However, amateur
archaeologists from the area continued digging at the
site after Sears left and recovered burials and large
quantities of pottery. Sears returned, and further work
indicated that burials and some sherds were located near
the center of the mound, and an extensive deposit of
Safety Harbor pottery vessels was found outside the
periphery of the mound on the east side (1967:27).
Most of Sears' fieldwork was conducted in 1961.
The excavation yielded flexed burials which Sears
believed were secondary (bundle) interments (1967:31).
Adelaide Bullen (1972:160) identified four bones from
the mound (FMNH #99683) as syphilitic. Sherds in the
mound fill fit with vessels recovered from the east side
cache, suggesting that the mound was constructed in a
single episode rather than used over a long period of


149
beads indicated they had been used as necklaces,
bracelets, and as decoration on such things as bags.
Willey (1949a:145-146, Plate 58) described and
illustrated many European artifacts in the NMNH
collections, including a "Punta Rassa" type glass
pendant (1949a:Plate 58f). Two "bone or tortoise shell"
(Stirling 1935:381; Willey 1949a:146) comb fragments
(NMNH #383199) may have also been of European origin.
Undescribed glazed sherds are in the NMNH collection
(#383194). Stirling (1935:379) also mentioned that two
Florida Cut Crystal beads were recovered, one faceted
with flat planes and the other cut with long spiraling
facets. In NMNH, there are 18 Florida Cut Crystal beads
(#383197-A) which apparently came from this site.
Some of the glass beads are now in the FMNH
collections (#82132). These include a large number (ca.
1100) of seed beads, mostly opaque white, but also
including various shades of blue, amber, green, black,
yellow, brown, and colorless specimens (FMNH records
indicate that these were transferred from NMNH in 1941).
There are also two larger glass beads, including a large
faceted Nueva Cadiz Plain specimen of (from exterior to
interior) translucent turquoise blue/thin
white/translucent turquoise blue core. This is a
previously undescribed variety (it is not in the Smith


288
shell, stone, and wood. Local residents knew of the
very extensive shell deposits covering most of the
island (Simpson 1920:65-66). Hrdlicka (1922:35-36) also
visited the island, pointing out its great potential for
yielding preserved organic remains.
Three sherds of possible Englewood or Sarasota
Incised pottery are in the FMNH collection from the site
(#98467 and 98477). Other researchers have also
reported variants of Englewood Incised from the island
(John G. Beriault, personal communication 1988). In
addition, there is a "terraced" bottle (similar to the
Georgia type Nunnally Plain [Schnell et al. 1981:Figure
4.1]) from the island in the collection of the Museum of
the Historical Society of Southern Florida in Miami
(John G. Beriault and George M. Luer, personal
communication 1988). However, the overwhelming majority
of decorated types consist of such types as Key Largo
Incised, Matecumbe Incised, Miami Incised, Surfside
Incised, Ft. Drum Punctate, St. Johns Check Stamped, and
Ft. Drum Incised (Goggin 1944b). The possible Englewood
or Sarasota types could be a variant of Ft. Drum
Punctated, but the evidence suggests that a variant of
Englewood/Sarasota Incised is indeed present on
Chokoloskee Island. The few sherds and the single


226
The Sarasota Bay Mound (8So44) was salvage
excavated by Ripley Bullen in 1968 (Almy 1976:153;
Monroe et al. 1982:89-90). Though no records or
collections from the site could be located in FMNH,
copies of correspondence and Bullen's field notes are in
the possession of George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy
(personal communication 1988). Extended burials and
decorated pottery were recorded when the site was
disturbed in 1920 (Grismer 1946:12; Monroe et al.
1982:89). The FMSF indicates that the mound had both
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor components, but
the accuracy of this cannot be determined.
The Old Oak site (8So51) was investigated by George
M. Luer (1977). This complex of at least two shell
middens and a possible sand burial mound is located near
the shore of Sarasota Bay (Luer 1977:37-40; Monroe et
al. 1982:93). Surface collections and excavations at
the site yielded sand tempered plain, Belle Glade Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain, fabric
impressed, probable Prairie Cord Marked, Indian Pass
Incised, sand tempered check stamped, Pinellas Plain,
and unclassified incised sherds (1977:40, 46). This
assemblage indicates a late Weeden Island-related and
possible Safety Harbor occupation.


486
the head turned facing the right side. Two Nueva Cadiz
Plain beads (IIA2a and IIC2a), one of which was faceted,
were recovered from the neck (Figure 28), along with 21
shell beads (20 disc, one barrel). A sand tempered
incised pottery lug handle was found adjacent to the
body.
Burial #27. This was an adult of indeterminate sex
buried in a supine position with the legs tightly flexed
at the knees. Arms were extended parallel to the body
with the hands in the pelvic region. Nine faceted Nueva
Cadiz Plain (one is IIC2f and eight are IIC2g) beads
were recovered from the pelvic region. These may have
been worn on the wrists, but one was recovered from
beneath the sacrum, suggesting that they were worn
around the waist or on a garment. A single small silver
disc bead came from the burial matrix, and 42 shell
beads (37 disc and five barrel) were on the neck.
Burial #29. This secondary (bundle) burial
probably consisted of remains from more than one
individual. A small Busvcon shell fragment and a Pasco
Plain sherd were present.
Burial #31. This was an adult female buried in a
supine position with arms extended parallel to the body
and legs tightly flexed over the chest. Eight small
olive-shaped turquoise blue glass beads (VIDlh), two


182
1988:3). According to Tallant (n.d.:4), this small sand
mound was excavated by Clarence B. Moore before being
leveled by the owner. A local resident apparently found
a stone effigy pipe prior to Moore's work. Moore
recovered artifacts, but no description is extant
(Tallant n.d.:4). The site could be a postcontact
Safety Harbor burial mound.
A complex of mounds and middens is present on Terra
Ceia Island. Swanton (1938, 1952, 1985:138) believed
that these features comprised the aboriginal town of
Ugita mentioned in the narratives of the Soto expedition
(Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds 1973:52; Smith 1968:23-
24). Bullen (1951c) tested a number of the sites,
recovering some evidence of Safety Harbor occupation,
but he did not agree that Ugita was located on the
island (1951c:36-37, 1952a, 1978:51).
The Abel Shell Midden (8Ma83A) was a very extensive
shell midden along the western side of the island,
extending for at least 0.4 km, with a width of at least
69 m and a height of 3.7-4.6 m (Bullen 1951c:ll). At
the time of Bullen's visit, he estimated that 85% of the
midden had been removed for road and building fill. He
dug two test units in the midden. The artifacts (FMNH
#99471-99494, A-2606) from this work seem to indicate
primarily a Manasota and Weeden Island-related


514
Table 58--continued
Smith & Good Tvoe
Site Name
Number
IIA2c (#42)
Tatham
2
Tallapoosa River
Valley, AL
**
IIA2e (#44)
Tatham
1
Weeki Wachee
9
Little Egypt, GA
**
Roger Mills County,
OK **
IIA2g (#46)
Tatham
5
Weeki Wachee
1
IIC2a (#50)
Tatham
7
Weeki Wachee
29
Ruth Smith
14
St. Marks
1
IIC2b (#51)
Tatham
1
Martin
1
IIC2f (#55)
Tatham
1
IIC2g (#56)
Tatham
14
Ruth Smith
3
IIC2-
Tatham
1
IIIC2a (#67)
Tatham
1
Weeki Wachee
1


5
Incised (1985:214). However, in the Safety Harbor area,
there are enough differences in vessel form and
decorative motifs to warrant separate types for Point
Washington Incised and Pinellas Incised.
When Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised
are referred to in this study, the criteria published in
Mitchem, Smith et al. (1985:187-189) are used to
distinguish them, with minor alterations to the Pinellas
Incised definition. Point Washington Incised includes
sand tempered simple open bowls and jars with multiple
broad-line incisions on the exterior near the rim.
These usually consist of three or four parallel lines
which incorporate loops and U-shaped pendant figures.
Rim adornos and flat handles are common, often
incorporating representations of anatomical features of
birds. Bird head adornos are especially common. Loop
handles and rim nodes sometimes occur.
In contrast, Pinellas Incised as used herein refers
to simple open bowls, carinated bowls, short-collared
jars, and (occasionally) casuela bowls with broad-line
incision on the exterior. Multiple parallel lines
sometimes occur below the rim, but do not incorporate
loop elements. A single line of punctations may also be
present parallel to the rim. On the vessel body,
incised curvilinear elements are typical, sometimes


36
Table 4continued
Description
Unidentified iron fragment
Count
1
Stone:
Polished stone bead (probably hematite)
1
Shell
Barrel-shaped beads
2
Disc beads stained with red ochre
3
Small disc beads
3
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
section, have tapered ends, and are 0.7 cm thick at the
widest point. The identification of these items as awls
is speculative. Similar iron awls have been recovered
in seventeenth century Onondaga contexts in New York
(Bradley 1987:141-142, 202) and in eighteenth century
contexts at Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan (Stone
1974:155-159). But specimens from these areas are much
smaller than those from 80rl2, and are probably of Dutch
or French origin rather than Spanish (Bradley 1987:142).
Dan and Phyllis Morse (1986) have suggested that these
objects were raw material for blacksmiths accompanying
the early Spanish expeditions. Present evidence is
insufficient to determine their function.
Because of the location of the site outside of the
apparent Safety Harbor culture area, a visit was made to


240
the focus of groups of treasure hunters who have caused
extreme damage by using bulldozers to cut huge trenches
through parts of the midden (Luer et al. 1986:98-103;
Marquardt 1987b).
John Goggin and some of his students surveyed and
collected at sites in the Cape Haze area (including Big
Mound Key) in the early 1950s (Goggin 1954c), and Bullen
and Bullen (1956:50-51) also made a surface collection
from the site. George M. Luer salvaged some data from
one of the episodes of vandalism in 1980, obtaining
radiocarbon dates which indicate that one of the mounds
was constructed during the period A.D. 800-1000 (Luer et
al. 1986:103).
There is some confusion regarding Goggin's
collection from the site. It is not in FMNH, and cards
in the site file seem to contain contradictory
information about the artifacts. Table 31 lists ceramic
counts from a summary card in the FMNH site file. Some
of the Pinellas Plain sherds apparently had notched
lips, other artifacts listed include Busvcon tools and
a cup, a Broward projectile point (Bullen 1975:15), a
quartz fragment, and various shell and stone objects.
The artifacts from the Bullens' work are in FMNH
(#94950). Some of these were illustrated in their Cape
Haze report (Bullen and Bullen 1956:Plates II and III).


552
typology based on his work at the Tierra Verde Mound
(8P51). Goodyear (1972:9-11) suggested a temporal
scheme to divide Safety Harbor into three rough
subdivisions, but he did not have enough data to develop
and test a precise chronology. Primarily as a result of
the availability of radiocarbon dates, Bullen (1973) and
Milanich and Fairbanks (1980:23) revised the time frame
of Safety Harbor, pushing back Willey's (1949a:Figure
76) beginning date several centuries. But none of these
changes significantly enhanced our ability to interpret
Safety Harbor culture.
One form of information lacking in Safety Harbor
studies has been an accurate system for determining the
time period of occupation by the presence or absence of
various artifact types. Recent archaeological research
has resulted in initial steps toward a solution to this
problem. Luer and Almy (1987:Table 2, Figure 5)
constructed a preliminary correlation of ceramic traits
with temporal differences, based primarily on decorated
ceramics from burial mounds. Their data suggest that
such a chronology is possible, at least in the southern
portion of the Safety Harbor culture area.
The results of excavations at the Tatham Mound (see
Chapter 3) also indicate that tighter chronological
controls are possible based on pottery styles.


474
paleopathological information will be included in Dale
L. Hutchinson's doctoral dissertation.
Burial Associations
Many of the burials in the Tatham Mound were
accompanied by artifacts. In the postcontact stratum,
most of the associated artifacts were European in
origin. In the precontact stratum, imported artifacts
with some burials could indicate status differences.
Precontact stratum
Burials with associated artifacts in the precontact
stratum were concentrated in the central portion of the
mound. They are discussed below by burial number.
Burial #93. This very poorly-preserved, partial
juvenile burial was accompanied by 24.2 g of galena
chunks, two concentrations of shell beads (n=177), and a
ground stone celt. The depths of the beads and bones
indicate that these artifacts are associated with Burial
#93, but another burial (#102) was located directly
beneath it (about 10 cm deeper), so it is possible that
the beads and celt were actually associated with this
latter individual. The ground stone celt was
immediately east of the remains, and the galena chunks
were apparently sprinkled over the burial.


128
Harbor site. However, since Pinellas Plain can also
occur in Weeden Island-related sites, the cultural
affiliation of Halls Branch 4 cannot be determined on
the basis of the collection.
The South Prong I site (8H418) was discovered in
1976 (Martin 1976). It was later excavated by Welch
(1983). Pottery types recovered during the excavations
included sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, Pasco
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, Pinellas Plain, Norwood Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, St. Johns Incised, and St.
Johns Red on Buff (Mitchem and Welch 1983:148). On the
basis of the Pinellas Plain pottery and Pinellas
projectile points, a possible Safety Harbor component
was identified at the site.
The South Prong II site (8H419) was also recorded
by Martin (1976). Located about 400 m east of the South
Prong I site, it was a lithic scatter which yielded two
Pinellas projectile points and 101 chert flakes. On the
basis of these, it was identified as a probable Weeden
Island-related and/or Safety Harbor site.
While conducting excavations at the nineteenth
century Barrio de Ascerrin site (8H426) in the Ybor
City section of Tampa, Ellis (1977:140-145) encountered
an aboriginal component. Ceramics from this component


602
acceptable typology needs to be worked out, and the
functional categories presently in use need to be
critically reevaluated to assess their accuracy. Shell
tools are plentiful on Safety Harbor sites, especially
coastal ones. The production and distribution of these
artifacts also needs to be investigated. Studies of
shell sourcing and typology/technique of manufacture of
shell beads are presently underway, using samples from
Safety Harbor sites as well as from other areas of North
America (Cheryl P. Claassen, personal communication
1988). These studies will aid in the interpretation of
shell remains from Safety Harbor sites.
Though knowledge of European artifacts from early
sixteenth century contexts has improved greatly in
recent years (Deagan 1987; Smith 1987; Smith and Good
1982), a better idea of specific bead and other artifact
types from the Bayview Phase is needed. These late
sixteenth century and seventeenth century assemblages
are much more diverse than the early ones, and
collections from Bayview Phase Safety Harbor sites need
to be studied so that an accurate typology can be worked
out for this period.
Additional radiocarbon dates from secure Safety
Harbor contexts are sorely needed. Especially for the
Englewood Phase, at present it is difficult to


548
several centuries. At the Weeki Wachee Mound, at least
two episodes of mound construction were evident, and
most of the 63 burials delineated were secondary, many
consisting of more than one individual (Mitchem, Smith
et al. 1985:184). The top stratum of the mound was
contemporary with the postcontact level at Tatham, but
the lower stratum may have been constructed during the
interim of several centuries between construction
episodes at Tatham. The lack of Englewood or Sarasota
pottery types from Weeki Wachee (Mitchem, Smith et al.
1985:185) may indicate that the lower stratum was
constructed sometime after the very earliest Safety
Harbor times, but prior to contact.
The Ruth Smith Mound, only a few kilometers north
of Tatham, probably also served as a regional burial
mound. It also had a contemporary postcontact
component, but the long-term vandalism and eventual
destruction of the mound precludes any study of the
skeletal remains or stratification. No Englewood or
Sarasota pottery is known from the site (Mitchem, Smith
et al. 1985:198), but the sample studied must be
considered incomplete due to the vandalism.
It is difficult to directly relate the Tatham Mound
populations to the Safety Harbor Culture as a whole, but
it is clear that the cultural affiliations of the


141
St. Johns Check Stamped, Weeden Island Incised or
Punctated, and fiber tempered wares. The illustrations
and descriptions do not allow identification of all the
pottery types present, but there could be a Safety
Harbor component at the site, based on the presence of
Pinellas points.
The Philip Mound (8Po446) was a burial mound
located near Lake Marion (Benson 1967; Karklins 1974).
Originally about 1.2 m high and 12.2-15.2 m in diameter,
the mound had an attached ramp or causeway which
extended about 60 m toward the east to a circular borrow
pit. This feature then extended back toward the mound,
stopping about 1.5 m from the southern edge of the
mound. The feature was 3.7-4.6 m wide, with a height of
1.2 m (Benson 1967:118-119).
The mound was vandalized over a long period, but
excavations nevertheless yielded a large and diverse
collection of aboriginal and European artifacts. Benson
(1967) recovered 16,328 glass beads, at least 12 silver
and copper (or copper alloy) beads, and five Florida Cut
Crystal beads. The glass bead types included eye beads,
faceted chevrons, striped ovals, gooseberry beads, Nueva
Cadiz Plain, Cornaline d'Aleppo, opaque turquoise blue
(Ichtucknee Blue), Seven Oaks Gilded Molded, striped,
and a wide array of seed beads. The metal beads, of


441
Provenience
517N503E, Zone
Burial #60
F.S. 140
517N497E, Zone
F.S. 147
523N500E, Zone
F.S. 157
517N500E, Zone
Burial #68
F.S. 164
Table 56continued
Count Description
B3 8
B2 1
B3 1
B3 2
1
IVC2d (#82) Faceted
chevron. Spherical to
olive-shaped: Cobalt blue/
white/red/white/
transparent medium blue/
white/transparent medium
blue core
VIDlh (#108). Olive-shaped:
Opaque medium blue
IIC2a (#50) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Long,
tubular: Turquoise blue/
thin white/navy blue core
IB3e (#26). Olive-shaped
white with 3 wide blue
spiraling stripes
IVC2d (#82) Faceted
chevron. Olive-shaped:
Cobalt blue/white/red/
white/transparent medium
blue/white/transparent
medium blue core


376
a stick or paddle. The impressions resemble those found
on the Early Woodland type Dunlap Fabric Marked, which
is common in central and northern Georgia (Sears and
Griffin 1950:1-3). However, there is no evidence to
suggest that the vessel is exogenous. A similar sherd
was recovered from the nearby Ruth Smith Mound (Mitchem
and Weisman 1984:106-107). The Tatham specimens were
excavated from the postcontact stratum.
In only one instance was a vessel associated
directly with a burial. Burial #95, an adult buried in
a supine position with the legs tightly flexed over the
chest, had a small Pasco Plain vessel accompanying it.
All other vessels in the mound fill were placed outside
of or above the burial area, including four St. Johns
Plain vessels (F.S. 235, P.C. #5), which were recovered
from atop the dark stain (Feature #6) on the northeast
slope of the mound (Figure 9).
In several cases, organic residues or stained soil
were present in the interior of vessels or sherds
(Figure 9). These residues have not been identified,
but samples were kept for possible future analysis.
Though a complete vessel form study is beyond the
scope of the present study, several observations can be
made about the Tatham Mound ceramic assemblage. The
most abundant paste type from the mound is the limestone


188
site, the Point Hill site may have a Safety Harbor
component, but it is impossible to determine with
certainty on the basis of available data.
A small sand mound called the "B11 Mound (8Ma97) was
tested by Browning (1973:48-50). A test unit in this
mound produced several chert flakes and a rusted iron
object, apparently some sort of buckle (1973:49, Figure
10). The depth of the iron object indicated that the
mound was postcontact in age, but it is not possible to
determine whether it had a Safety Harbor component from
this evidence.
The Long site (8Mall4) was an artifact scatter
along the South Fork of the Manatee River, consisting of
two aboriginal ceramic sherds and the distal end of a
chert knife (McMurray 1974:45). One of the sherds was
sand tempered plain, and the other was possible Belle
Glade Plain. Though this site is listed in the FMSF as
a Safety Harbor site, the available data do not support
this.
The Carruthers Mound (8Mall9) is a small sand
mound, about 10 m in diameter and 50-60 cm high, located
along the North Fork of the Manatee River (McMurray
1974:42). No artifacts were discovered during
McMurray's surface collection or test excavation of the
site. Further testing was later performed to determine


Figure 16
Quartz Crystal Pendants and Busvcon Shell Cups
from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Quartz crystal pendants.
Bottom: Busvcon shell cups.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


153
three glass seed beads (#383219, two light blue and one
white). They did not indicate whether these were
recovered with burials or in the mound fill. A bone or
tortoise shell comb (which was recovered with a burial)
may also have been of European origin (Willey
1949a:151). Unfortunately, these artifacts are not
temporally diagnostic.
The aboriginal artifacts indicate that Parrish
Mound #2 was a Safety Harbor mound. It was used as a
crematorium, possible charnel structure platform, and
burial mound. It was probably in use during the
postcontact period.
The Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3) was a circular sand
mound, 20.7 m in diameter and 2.1 m high, located on the
north bank of Gamble Creek. Previous excavations were
evident on the mound summit. It was partially
surrounded on the south, west, and east sides by a
horseshoe-shaped embankment that extended about 46 m
north of the mound. The embankment was 9.1 m wide and
0.9 m high, and was separated from the mound by a
depression which followed the inside edge of the
embankment. The depression (probably a borrow pit) was
5.2 m wide and 0.6 m deep (Stirling 1935:381; Willey
1949a:152). Two additional small circular mounds were
also excavated, 22.9 m and 30.5 m southeast of Parrish


398
it is made of exotic translucent thermally-altered
fossil coral. The other identifiable projectile point
from the mound is classified as a Bradford type, which
Bullen (1975:14) suggested dated to Swift Creek or
Weeden Island times. Milanich and Fairbanks (1980:100)
noted that these points are common in Cades Pond (ca.
A.D. 200-800) contexts in north central Florida. The
point is heavily patinated.
A large, side-notched flaked chert blade was
recovered from the northern part of the mound in the
postcontact stratum. This blade (Figure 15) is 12.25 cm
long and 5.25 cm wide at the base. Heavy polish on its
surface and lack of edge wear suggest it was not a
utilitarian tool, but was handled and curated for a long
period. Shell beads, ochre-stained sand, a chunk of
galena, and softshell turtle (Trionvx ferox) bones were
also recovered in the same level of the unit. Several
similar large points, including one with smoothed flake
scars, were recovered from the Safford Mound (8Pi3), a
Weeden Island and Safety Harbor mound excavated by Frank
Cushing in the late nineteenth century (Bullen et al.
1970:102-103, Plate X).
Other stone objects from the Tatham Mound include
four celts (Figure 7) and a small torpedo-shaped
pendant, all made of ground and polished non-Florida


613
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1878 Some Notes of Personal Investigations Among the
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Clausen, Carl J.
1970 The Fort Pierce Collection. Bureau of Historic
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Collins, Henry B., Jr.
1929 The "Lost Calusa Indians of Southwestern
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D. C.
Cordell, Ann S.
1984 Ceramic Technology at a Weeden Island Period
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1959 Trade Relations Between Southwestern Florida and
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1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on
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Heilprin, Angelo
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1987 The Long Bay Site, San Salvador. American
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1971 Excavations at the Hope Mound with an Addendum
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1964 Pedro Menndez de Avils, Adelantado. Governor
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1961 Types of Contact and Processes of Change. In
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1869 Rambles in Florida. The American Naturalist
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1983 Ceramics. Chronology, and Community Patterns: An
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646
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Figure 13
St. Johns Check Stamped and St. Johns Plain
Vessels from the Tatham Mound.
Top: St. Johns Check Stamped.
Bottom (1 to r): St. Johns Check Stamped; St.
Johns Plain. Both have rim appendages.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


82
and 1.5-1.8 m high. It was built on a sand ridge, and
he also made reference to extensive shell middens on the
eastern side of the key. He excavated in the top,
recovering four human crania and a bone ornament inlaid
with copper (1880a:404). The description of the mound
seems to indicate that it was indeed Tierra Verde,
though Walker's discussion of the geography of the keys
was somewhat inaccurate.
Clarence B. Moore (1900:355) also visited the site,
recording dimensions of 18.3-25.9 m diameter and 1.8 m
high. He mentioned that borrow pits were evident
adjacent to the mound. His excavations in the mound
yielded tightly flexed burials, large shell beads, and
sherds with incised and punctated decoration. Several
shell hammers from his excavations are in NMNH (#204747-
204750). Both Moore (1900:355) and Walker (1880a:404)
noted an artificial canal or pond to the west or north
of the mound.
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short discussion and illustration of Safety Harbor
Incised sherds with human hand designs on the exterior
(Warren et al. 1965). These sherds were among the
artifacts recovered by "thirty or forty amateurs over a
period of 18 months" (Warren et al. 1965:235), who


68
Table 8continued
Description Count
Spheroid transparent light green with 2 opaque white
and 2 opaque brick red alternating longitudinal
stripes 1
Tubular transparent emerald green with 3 opaque white
on wide brick red stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped transparent yellow-green with
2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes (a double bead) 1
Spherical transparent medium blue-green with 2 wide
opaque red and 2 thin opaque white alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium blue with 2 opaque
white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 2
Large drawn olive-shaped transparent medium blue
with 2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red
alternating longitudinal stripes 1
Small olive-shaped translucent yellow with 3 opaque
white and 3 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium green (large seed size)
with gilded exterior 1


582
Preserved organic materials from the Tatham Mound
and the Parrish Mound #2 (8Ma2) suggest that wooden
objects and cordage/textiles were commonly used by
Safety Harbor groups. Unfortunately, such materials
have generally not survived.
Exotic materials are found in small quantities in
Safety Harbor sites, almost exclusively in mortuary
contexts. Artifacts of non-Florida stone were mentioned
above. Copper artifacts, galena, and non-Florida mussel
shells are recorded from some sites, and provide
excellent evidence of participation by Safety Harbor
peoples in long-distance exchange networks. The
contexts indicate that these networks were present from
the Englewood Phase through at least the Tatham Phase.
As mentioned previously, the main commodities being
traded out were probably marine shells and shell
artifacts.
At present, none of these artifact classes exhibits
any evidence of temporal or geographic change within the
Safety Harbor Culture, with the exception of shell
tools, which are more numerous at coastal sites and in
the South Florida region. Careful typological and
technological studies may reveal useful characteristics,
however.


39
Schell, Rolfe F.
1968 1000 Years on Mound Kev: The Storv of the
Caloosa Indians on West Coast Florida. Centering
Around Ft. Mvers Beach and its Surrounding Bav
Waters. 1st rev. ed. Island Press, Ft. Myers Beach,
Florida.
Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Gail S.
Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee: Archaeology of a Mississippian
Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River. Ripley
P. Bullen Monographs in Anthropology and History No.
3. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Schoff, Harry L.
1935 Letter of December 12, 1935. On file, Florida
Park Service Files, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
Scott, Elizabeth
1981 The Route of the Narvaez Expedition Through
Florida. Florida Journal of Anthropology 6:53-63.
Sears, William H.
1956 The Turner River Site, Collier County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 9:47-60.
1958a Burial Mounds on the Gulf Coastal Plain.
American Antiquity 23:274-284.
1958b The Maximo Point Site. The Florida
Anthropo1oaist 11:1-10.
1959 Two Weeden Island Period Burial Mounds. Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences No. 5. University of Florida, Gainesville.
1967 The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. The Florida
Anthropologist 20:25-73.
1973 The Sacred and the Secular in Prehistoric
Ceramics. In Variation in Anthropology: Essays in
Honor of John C. McGregor, edited by Donald W.
Lathrap and Jody Douglas, pp. 31-42. Illinois
Archaeological Survey, Urbana, Illinois.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. Ripley P. Bullen Monographs in
Anthropology and History No. 4. University Presses
of Florida, Gainesville.


34
Table 4. Artifacts from 80rl2 in FMNH.
Description Count
Glass Beads:
Opaque white seed 98
Transparent light blue-green seed 71
Transparent medium blue seed 19
Opaque turquoise blue seed 10
Transparent light purple seed 2
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed 2
Spheroid translucent dark purple seed 1
Large Nueva Cadiz Plain, faceted (transparent
medium aquamarine blue/thin white/transparent
medium blue core) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 27
Drawn oblate or barrel-shaped transparent
aquamarine blue 21
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium blue 6
Colorless Gooseberry (1 is oblate, other is double) 2
Drawn barrel-shaped opaque white 4
Heat-altered compound spherical (translucent
turquoise blue/possible thin white/transparent
medium aquamarine blue core) 5
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium green 4
Oblate transparent purple (IBlg)* 2
Drawn barrel-shaped translucent dark burgundy 2
Oblate Cornaline d'Aleppo
1


438
Table 56-
Provenience Count
516N500E, Zone B2 1
F.S. 90
1
517N500E, Zone B2 1
Burial #27
F.S. 93
8
continued
Description
IIC2a (#50) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Long,
tubular: Turquoise blue/
thin white/transparent
medium blue core
IIC2- Nueva Cadiz Plain,
faceted (unique). Long,
tubular: Turquoise blue/
thin white/translucent
purple core
IIC2f (#55) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Short,
tubular: Translucent cobalt
blue/thin white/colorless
core
IIC2g (#56) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Short,
tubular: Cobalt blue/thin
white/translucent light
blue core


415
The function of this article is not definitely
known, but several early accounts mention the use of
bark by southeastern aborigines. Lawson (1967:180)
noted that Indians in the Carolinas built their houses
of bark, generally cypress or red or white cedar. But
of more interest here is his mention of the use of pine
or cypress bark to cover corpses among the Santee
Indians (1967:28). Adair mentioned the use of cypress
bark to cover Cherokee burials (Williams 1986:191), and
William Bartram (van Doren 1955:403) described the
Muscogulge (Creek) custom of lining graves with cypress
bark. None of these accounts mentions designs on the
bark.
The sixteenth century drawings of eastern Timucua
Indians by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues reveal another
possible function for the bark object. Aboriginal
archers depicted in four of de Bry's engravings of Le
Moyne's drawings are shown with wristguards tied to
their forearms (Lorant 1946:59, 63, 97, 107). Two of de
Bry's engravings of John White's drawings of Virginia
Indian warriors also include wristguards on the forearms
(Harriot 1972:46, 74; Lorant 1946:231, 271). The
caption accompanying one of Le Moyne's drawings,
entitled "Hunting Deer," includes the statement "to
protect their left forearm from the bowstring, they


Table 57continued
Field Specimen Count
F.S. 148 1
1
1
1
F.S. 150 1
F.S. 164 96
Burial #68
F.S. 167 60
Burial #73
2
F.S. 171 1
Burial #75
F.S. 173 3
Burial #66
F.S. 175 2
Burial #79
F.S. 190 37
F.S. 204 8
Description
Rolled sheet 22K gold bead
Dome-shaped 22K gold foil object
(Button cover?)
Small .925 silver disc bead
Rolled sheet .925 silver bead
Unidentified iron fragment
Small silver disc beads (10 are
.999 silver)
Small silver disc beads (10 are
.925 silver)
Rolled sheet gold beads (one is
18K gold, one is 22K gold)
Large iron chisel (Round cross-
section)
Small silver disc beads (one is
.925 silver)
Small silver disc beads (one is
.925 silver, one is .999 silver)
Small silver disc beads (eight
are .925 silver, two are .999
silver)
Small silver disc beads (three
are .925 silver)


134
91.4 m long, 18.3 m wide, and 4.6 in high. Fourteen
Olive Jar sherds and six green on white majolica sherds
were present.
A collection from a "sand mound near Tampa" was
also described in Goggin's files, but the location of
the collection was not listed. It included 54 Pinellas
Plain, 33 Lamar-like Complicated Stamped, 18 Pinellas
Incised, three Belle Glade Plain, and one Pasco Plain
sherd. The note included the notation "F. W. P. 1899,"
which might stand for Frederic Ward Putnam as the
collector. If so, the collection was probably in HPM,
as Putnam was the Curator of this museum from 1875 to
1909 (Willey and Sabloff 1980:43).
In NMNH, Goggin recorded a collection made by J. W.
Milner (#35638) from two sites near Tampa Bay (records
in NMNH indicate that this collection was made by S. T.
Walker near Clearwater, possibly at 8Pi5). It included
the sherds listed in Table 19. The collection was
clearly from two mixed Weeden Island-related and Safety
Harbor sites.
Goggin's notes also included mention of two other
collections from mounds near Tampa, which he identified
as Safety Harbor sites. One was in UMMA and the other
was in HPM. No numbers or descriptions were included,
so there is no way to check Goggin's identifications.


136
Table 19continued
Description
Count
St. Johns Plain
1
Unclassified sand tempered cord marked (gritty
paste)
Unclassified smooth plain
1
1
Robinson (1979:3-4) noted that a number of Pinellas
projectile points were recovered during excavations by
amateur archaeologists at an apparently unrecorded site
known as the Keese site. This site may have a Safety
Harbor component, but associated artifact types have not
been reported.
In a collection owned by Don Gray are glass beads
from a site near Lake Thonotosassa in eastern
Hillsborough County. Included are heat-altered drawn
opaque turquoise blue glass, transparent medium blue
spherical, a spheroid transparent purple (IBlg in the
Smith and Good [1982] typology), and many seed beads of
white, blue, and turquoise blue glass. Some Cornaline
d'Aleppo seed beads are also present. Most of these
beads date to the late sixteenth or seventeenth
centuries (Deagan 1987:168, 171; Smith 1987:46), though
the transparent purple bead could date to the early
sixteenth century. The provenience of their discovery


345
presence of the large number of burials in the uppermost
stratum (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:23-24). In order
to test these hypotheses, the largest possible sample of
burials from the stratum would be necessary, preferably
a complete sample. By careful excavation and recording
of proveniences and burial orientation, it would be
possible to determine the sequence of events in the
mound. When combined with such data as animal gnaw
marks, artifact association, and physical
anthropological data, each of the hypotheses could be
tested.
Methodology employed in the third season generally
continued the methods used in the second season.
Excavation methods had to be modified somewhat due to
the depth of the units and unstable sand walls. This
required a stepped method of excavation in some cases.
To prevent rapid drying of bones, a cargo parachute was
hung over the site, augmented by smaller tarps.
Soil samples were collected from most primary
burials for use in conjunction with planned chemical
analyses of bones. These would aid in determining
whether stable isotope ratios might have changed due to
diagenetic processes (DeNiro 1985:808).


406
in this stratum were several examples of shells of
Shepard's Filter Clam [Elliptio sheoardianus (Lea)],
which occurs only in the Altamaha River drainage of
Georgia. These were found with three different burials
(#48, #68, and #74), two of which (#48 and #68) had
large numbers of glass and silver beads with them.
Three burials at the contemporaneous Weeki Wachee Mound
(8Hel2) yielded a total of 26 shells of this species
(Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:193). Two of the latter
burials also had European artifacts with them (Mitchem,
Smith et al. 1985:Tables 7 and 8). Bullen (1952b:51)
mentioned a child burial from the Jones Mound (8Hi4)
which had freshwater mussel shells around the pelvic
bones. Unfortunately, they were not identified by
species.
Shell beads were abundant in both strata of the
mound. Most were accompanying burials, and the contexts
of recovery indicate they were most often worn in
necklaces (often in combination with glass and/or metal
beads in the postcontact stratum) or bracelets. Several
of the precontact burials included hundreds of shell
beads.
For purposes of classification, the shell beads
were divided into groups based on their shape. Disc
shaped beads are by far the most common shape. These


266
associated with Cuban fishing activities lasting until
the nineteenth century (Covington 1959; Dodd 1947;
Hammond 1973).
A large number of European artifacts, as well as
Englewood Incised and Safety Harbor Incised pottery,
have been attributed to the Punta Rassa site (8LL7). It
is uncertain whether material attributed to this site
came from a now-unknown site in the Punta Rassa area or
from the Shell Creek site (8LL8). Research by George M.
Luer (personal communication 1989) has revealed that
many of the objects in MAI and UPM actually came from
8LL2, and were purchased by a Mr. Willcox and ended up
in the two museums. Notes in the FMNH site file
indicate that a number of artifacts from the site are
curated at MAI (#1/7969-7979), but George M. Luer
(personal communication 1989) has noted that they
probably came from 8LL2. They are listed in Table 38.
The perforated gold disc (#1/7969) was reportedly
recovered by Cushing (this also probably came from 8LL2,
as there is no evidence that Cushing visited Punta
Rassa).
From UPM are a chert projectile point (no number)
and a silver ornament (#6863), which, according to
George M. Luer (personal communication 1989), came from
8LL2. There are Englewood Incised sherds (#340718) and


261
illustrated by Goggin (1954b:Figure lc and Id) were from
Mound Key. So were the silver coin beads (UPM #8193)
illustrated by Fairbanks (1968b:Figure 1). Notes in the
FMNH site file record the items listed in Table 37 in
the Mound Key (8LL2) collection at UPM (#6872, 6879,
8188, 8195-8198, 8201, 8203, 8204, 8206-8208, 8211-8213,
8215-8217, 8219-8221, 8223, 8228, and 8233).
The artifacts indicate that there was a Safety
Harbor component on the island, but the extent of the
occupation is unknown. It is interesting that Englewood
pottery was present, indicating a very early Safety
Harbor component, as well as the abundant European
material. Unfortunately, lack of provenience
information limits our ability to interpret the extent
or duration of the Safety Harbor component.
There is a sand burial mound on the island, which
has been assigned the site number 8LL3. Many of the
objects mentioned above may have come from this mound.
Moore (1900:367-368) excavated portions of it, recording
measurements of 19.8 m diameter and 3.3 m high. He
reported finding "nothing of particular interest" (Moore
1900:367), but did mention that many objects, including
European artifacts, had been previously removed from it.
The locket containing a letter mentioned by Cushing
(1896:348) apparently came from this mound. Schell


557
Check Stamped, are found in both mortuary and habitation
contexts. The limited evidence also indicates that
utilitarian wares such as Pinellas Plain sometimes occur
in burial mounds and decorated wares such as Safety
Harbor Incised are occasionally recovered from midden
assemblages (Luer and Almy 1980:211-212).
Presently available evidence indicates that four
phases within the Safety Harbor Culture can be proposed,
along with five regional variants. Traits associated
with each of these are discussed below.
Phase Definition
In this initial formulation, four phases are
proposed. It should be stressed that these are subject
to revision. They should be regarded as provisional
phases, or working hypotheses to be refined by further
research (Knight 1981b).
The earliest proposed temporal unit is the
Englewood Phase. This is based mainly on Willey's
(1949a:470-475) Englewood Period, which he defined as a
transitional period between late Weeden Island and
Safety Harbor. Unfortunately, virtually no data from
habitation sites of this phase are known, so the
definition must rely solely on mortuary assemblages,
primarily the artifacts from the type site (8Sol).


59
silver bead (#35642) were recovered from the mound
surface.
Moore (1903:434-436) excavated at the site several
decades later, removing flexed burials and discovering a
large secondary bone deposit. He mentioned staining
from red ochre and 10-12 Busvcon cups, but generally the
burials were not accompanied by artifacts. His
illustration of sherds (1903:Figure 88) reveals that
Safety Harbor Incised and Pinellas Incised wares were
abundant. Check stamped sherds and fragments of a
single shell tempered vessel were also mentioned. This
may be the site mentioned by Bethell (1914:54-55), who
dug part of the mound (he encountered no artifacts), and
collected some human bones which he intended to send to
the Smithsonian Institution. Whether or not these
reached the Smithsonian is not known. Additional
collections from the Johns Pass site are in YPM (#21582)
and the R. S. Peabody Foundation (RSPF) (#38978 and
39319).
A collection of sherds from the site was
illustrated by Ostrander (1960). These sherds represent
vessels of Pinellas Incised, Safety Harbor Incised,
Point Washington Incised, and (according to William
Sears) Fort Walton Incised. Sears also identified Lake
Jackson Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,


81
Table 10. Artifacts from the Booth Point Site (8P36)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 29/5
Pasco Plain 13/6
St. Johns Check Stamped 9/0
St. Johns Plain 1/1
Pinellas Plain 5/1
Belle Glade Plain-like 1/1
Stone:
Bone fossils 3
Chert scraper 1
Chert fragment 1
Shell:
Busycon shell 1
Melonqena corona shell 1
The Tierra Verde (8P51) designation is considered
correct. It consisted of white sand, and measured
approximately 30.5 m by 22.9 m horizontally and about
2.5 m high (Sears 1967:25). Originally, an extensive
shell midden was nearby, which covered 1.2-1.6 ha. Both
features have now been destroyed by development.
The site may have been visited by Walker
(1880a:404), who described a mound 41.1 m in diameter


408
beads in the precontact stratum suggests that the beads
may have been coated with powdered galena in some cases.
Minerals and Miscellaneous Artifacts
Several types of minerals and other substances were
recovered during the excavations. These materials are
listed in Table 52.
Red ochre was extremely common in both strata of
the mound. It was in association with burials and
scattered in the mound fill. A few concentrated areas
(a few cm in diameter) of ochre-stained sand were noted,
but these did not appear to be associated with
individual burials or other features.
Galena was recovered from 10 contexts, all but two
of which were precontact. Three burials (#93, 105, and
125) yielded associated galena fragments. One of these
(#125) was postcontact, and the other two were
precontact. Since Burial #125 was intrusive into the
primary mound, the galena accompanying it may have been
accidentally included with the matrix. In most cases,
the mineral was in concentrations of very small
fragments, suggesting that it had been crushed and
sprinkled over the burial.
Galena is a lead ore which is found primarily in
deposits in the interior eastern United States (Walthall


312
University of Illinois) as an integral part of the crew.
Interim reports were prepared presenting preliminary
results of these excavations (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986, 1987).
First Field Season
Research Design and Methodology
The initial field season at the mound, in winter
and spring of 1985, was planned to address several
specific objectives. These site-specific objectives
were framed in the larger perspective of investigating
Safety Harbor culture in the Withlacoochee Cove area,
concentrating on the period of initial Spanish/Indian
contact.
A basic aim of the excavations was to obtain east-
west and north-south profiles through the mound so that
the sequence of mound contruction could be determined.
This information was essential for making inferences
about the human behavior resulting in the specific
contexts of burials and other features.
Another objective was to collect data regarding
burial practices at the site. These data would be
useful for comparative studies with other Safety Harbor
sites, as well as providing an opportunity to observe


464
wide, with a rivet and a hole at the corners of the
intact end. The rolled bead also exhibited a rivet,
which did not survive electrolysis. Fiber casts and a
"fossil" of a large squash seed (Figure 25) are present
on the surface. The seed cast has been identified as
Cucrbita sp. (Newsom and Decker 1986; C. Margaret
Scarry, personal communication 1986). The fiber casts
were identified as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides)
on the basis of morphology (David W. Hall and Lee A.
Newsom, personal communication 1986).
The plate is probably from either a brigandine or a
jack vest, both of which were worn by European infantry
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (Tarassuk
and Blair 1986:104-105, 284). Both types of armor
consisted of overlapping iron plates mounted on cloth or
hide. Jack plates were generally not riveted, but were
sewn inside layers of fabric (Tarassuk and Blair
1986:284).
Brigandine consisted of overlapping iron plates
(which were often coated with tin to prevent rusting)
that were riveted to a canvas garment, then usually
covered with another layer of cloth (Stone 1961:149-150;
Tarassuk and Blair 1986:104-105). The rivet heads were
usually on the outside of the cloth, and were often
gilded in the best examples. Whereas most brigandine


589
norm. However, a few sites have been investigated that
were interpreted as cemeteries (Willey 1949a:478).
The majority of Safety Harbor burials were
secondary, indicating that charnel structures were in
common use. This is demonstrated ethnohistorically in
the Elvas narrative (of the Soto expedition) by the
story of Juan Ortiz, a member of Narvez's expedition
who was captured by the Indians and forced to guard a
charnel structure in Ugita at night (Smith 1968:30).
The reference to a "temple" at one end of the town of
Ugita may refer to such a structure (Smith 1968:24).
Archaeological evidence of a charnel structure was
recovered at the Parrish Mound #2 (Willey 1949a:147-
149) .
Primary burials were generally flexed or extended, /
but myriad variations of these two positions were used.
/
Remains were cremated sometimes, but this does not
appear to have been the preferred method of treatment.
This technique may have been restricted on the basis of
circumstances of death or some other criterion. Urn
burial was extremely rare among Safety Harbor groups, in
fact only one example of this type of interment (Bullen
1952b:29) has been recorded, at the Cagnini Mound
(8Hi9). This was an urn burial of a child, and may date
from Weeden Island times.


REFERENCES
Aga-Oglu, Kamer
1955 Late Ming and Early Ch'ing Porcelain Fragments
from Archaeological Sites in Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 8:91-110.
Alexander, Michael (editor)
1976 Discovering the New World: Based on the Works of
Theodore de Brv. Harper and Row, New York.
Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.
Almy, Marion M.
1976 A Survey and Assessment of Known Archaeological
Sites in Sarasota County, Florida. Unpublished
Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology,
University of South Florida, Tampa.
1978 The Archeological Potential of Soil Survey
Reports. The Florida Anthropologist 31:75-91.
1981 Salvage Excavations at Curiosity Creek: An
Inland, Short-term Multi-period, Aboriginal
Occupation in Southern Hillsborough County, Florida.
Ms. on file, Division of Historical Resources,
Florida Department of State, Tallahassee.
Anonymous
1930 1,435 Skeletons Unearthed in Indian Burial
Mound. Safety Harbor Herald April 4:1.
Armistead, W. J.
1949 An Indian Stone Saw. The Florida Anthropologist
2:47-48.
Austin, Robert J.
1987 An Archaeological Site Inventory and Zone
Management Plan for Lee County, Florida. Piper
Archaeological Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Submitted to Lee County Department of Community
Development, Division of Planning.
606


73
diagnostic Safety Harbor artifacts are known from the
site.
The Mullet Key site (8P16), consisting of a shell
midden and two possible sand mounds, was recorded by
John Griffin (1951b), who collected eight sherds of
Pinellas Plain from the surface (FMNH #99708). Based on
these, he assigned a Safety Harbor date to the site.
However, it should be noted that Pinellas Plain also
occurs in late Weeden Island-related contexts in the
region (Luer and Almy 1980:211).
Private collections from a site recorded as 8P105,
east and south of 8P16, include Pinellas Plain (with at
least one notched lip), possible Pinellas Incised, sand
tempered plain, Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, grog
tempered sherds, faunal remains, and a chert flake
(Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). These
materials probably came from part of the same site, and
indicate that a Safety Harbor component is present.
The Dunedin Temple Mound (8P7) is listed in the
FMSF as a Safety Harbor mound, but Walker (1880a: 399)
recovered no artifacts in his excavations there. The
rectangular, flat-topped mound, now destroyed, measured
24 m x 48 m, with a height of 2.7 m (Luer and Almy
1981:130).


308
Along with WRAC members, Weisman searched this
scrub area in May of 1984. Soon after penetrating the
dense underbrush, the researchers encountered a large
mound of sand, which was almost totally obscured by
vegetation. Weisman placed a small shovel test in the
top of this feature, and immediately encountered pottery
sherds and human skeletal material (Mitchem, Weisman et
al. 1985:3). The unrecorded mound appeared to be
undisturbed, and some of the sherds encountered were of
the type Point Washington Incised, indicating that the
mound had a Safety Harbor component.
The discovery of a Safety Harbor component was
believed to be very significant. Very little was known
concerning the nature of Safety Harbor occupations in
the area. Prior research on a mound 8.95 km to the
northwest, the Ruth Smith Mound (8C200), had
demonstrated that Safety Harbor groups in the area had
encountered Spanish explorers during the early sixteenth
century (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985; Mitchem and Weisman
1984). However, the Ruth Smith Mound had not been
carefully excavated, but was vandalized by many people
over a long time period. The undisturbed nature of the
Tatham Mound implied that it would be a potentially
excellent site for learning about the nature of Safety


109
Bolen Plain and an Archaic Stemmed Point, which date to
late Paleo and Archaic times (Bullen 1975:32, 51).
Another site excavated by the WPA project was the
Buck Island site (8Hi6), an island located in dense
cypress swamp near Cypress Creek, north of Tampa. The
site consisted of sand ridges which yielded evidence of
habitation and an irregular, badly disturbed burial area
or mound. The description indicated that the burial
area was the result of the Indians digging a large hole
and covering burials around the margin with sand from
the hole (Bullen 1952b:75).
Twenty-eight secondary burials were recovered, some
of which apparently had artifacts accompanying them.
Three stone beads (ca. 2.5 cm long), a Busvcon shell,
sherds, and two gold objects reportedly came from
burials (Bullen 1952b:77). The pottery and a large
number of Pinellas projectile points from the site
clearly indicated a mixed Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor occupation (Bullen 1952b:78; Willey
1949a:338). A number of Archaic projectile points and
other stone tools (FMNH #102469) reveal that a
preceramic component was also present. The field notes
indicated that most pottery and associated artifacts
near the burial area occurred in a zone about 30-60 cm
below the surface, while most debitage and the Archaic


335
of the FMNH Malacology Department as Shepard's Filter
Clam, Elliotio shepardianus (Lea). This species occurs
only in the Altamaha River drainage of Georgia. Many
specimens of this species were recovered from the
contemporaneous Safety Harbor site of Weeki Wachee
(8Hel2) in Hernando County (Mitchem, Smith et al.
1985:193).
A few nonhuman bones were recovered in the mound
during the first two seasons (primarily during the
second season). These included elements from raccoon
(Procvon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis),
gopher tortoise (Gopherus Polyphemus), soft-shell turtle
(Trionvx ferox), unidentified snake, and unidentified
fish. They were found in the mound fill, and did not
appear to be associated with particular cultural
contexts.
A great number of European materials, primarily
beads of glass or metal, were recovered during the
second season. Most of these were found in direct
association with burials, and will be discussed in
detail in a later section of this chapter.
Significantly, several Nueva Cadiz Plain and faceted
chevron beads were recovered in situ with burials,
suggesting an early sixteenth century episode of
contact.


LIST OF FIGURES
page
1 Map of Peninsular Florida Showing Pertinent
Counties 9
2 Map of Florida Showing the Location of the
Tatham Mound 307
3 Topographic Map of the Tatham Mound Prior to
Excavation 316
4 Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised Ceramics
from the Tatham Mound 359
5 Safety Harbor Incised Vessel from the Tatham
Mound 363
6 Safety Harbor Incised, St. Johns Cob Marked,
and Prairie Cord Marked Vessels from the
Tatham Mound 366
7 Point Washington Incised Vessels and Ground
Stone Celts from the Tatham Mound 3 69
8 St. Johns Dentate Stamped, Sand Tempered Plain,
and St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound 374
9 St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound 378
10 Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, and Belle Glade
Plain-Like Ceramics from the Tatham Mound.... 381
11 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound 383
12 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound 385
13 St. Johns Check Stamped and St. Johns Plain
Vessels from the Tatham Mound 388
xviii


484
accompanied by artifacts, primarily European materials.
As noted previously, most of the primary burials in this
stratum were laid out in rows, with secondary remains
placed between and on top of primary interments. They
are discussed by burial number. Letter and number
designations in parentheses are typological
classifications of the glass beads using the Smith and
Good (1982) typology.
Burial #2. This was an adult female, buried in a
supine position. The lower legs were either tightly
flexed under the femora or extended: the uncertainty is
due to the fact that the lower legs and feet were not
present, probably due to root disturbance and associated
deterioration. Around her neck were five spherical dark
navy blue glass beads and approximately 132 shell disc
beads. The glass beads were apparently on a separate
string from the shell beads, and were not bunched, but
spaced as if knots separated them on the string. Half
of a very patinated (burned?) glass bead was discovered
in the soil matrix nearby. Next to her right knee, the
silver celt effigy pendant was found. During the
subseguent field season, the long drilled silver rod was
recovered a few centimeters away.
Burial #4. This was a poorly-preserved,
indeterminate (possibly tightly flexed) adult burial


200
Table 26. Glass Beads in a Private Collection from
the Myakka Area, Southeastern Manatee County.
Description Count
Oblate transparent purple (IBlg)* 5
Spherical blue/thin white/blue core (IB2a)* 2
Olive-shaped colorless Gooseberry (IB4a)* 2
Barrel-shaped colorless Gooseberry 5
Nueva Cadiz Plain (small navy blue) (IIAld)* 22
Nueva Cadiz Plain (small cobalt blue) (IIAle)* 3
Nueva Cadiz Plain (translucent blue/thin white/
navy blue core) (IIA2c)* 11
Nueva Cadiz Plain (translucent navy blue/thin white/
translucent navy blue core) (IIA2e)* 1
Oblate wire-wound transparent yellow large seed
(either VIDlc or VIDld)* 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue with 3 opaque white
longitudinal stripes 1
Spheroid transparent aquamarine blue 4
Barrel-shaped transparent medium navy blue 3
Spheroid translucent cobalt blue 37
Spheroid transparent green 3
Mold-made hexagonal faceted translucent medium blue 1
Mold-made hexagonal faceted translucent burgundy 1
Barrel-shaped colorless 3
Small olive-shaped transparent medium blue
1


Ruhl, Mike Russo, Fred Thompson, and Maurice Williams.
I thank them for their help. A special word of thanks
is due to Dara Silverberg.
Bunny Stafford of the UF Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences took most of the photographs
included in this study. A number of people at various
institutions also provided help in different forms, and
I would like to acknowledge their help. They are
Jeffrey P. Brain (Peabody Museum, Harvard University);
Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge Library, UF); Cheryl P.
Claassen (Appalachian State University)? Charles Ewen,
Calvin Jones, John Scarry, Margie Scarry, Jim Miller,
Herb Bump, Jamie Levy, and David Muncher (Division of
Historical Resources, Florida Department of State);
Christopher S. Peebles (Indiana University); T. M.
Hamilton (Miami, Missouri); Thomas F. Kehoe and Claudia
L. Jacobson (Milwaukee Public Museum); George Hamell
(New York State Museum); Clark Larsen (Northern Illinois
University); Alex Lodding (Chalmers Institute of
Technology, Gteborg); Fernando Martin (Real Armeria,
Madrid); Barbara Purdy (UF Anthropology Department);
Betsy Reitz and Marvin Smith (University of Georgia);
Sargento Major Ramon Sanchez Serantes (Museo del
Ejrcito, Madrid); William L. Stern (UF Botany
vii


30
The Mound near Old Okahumpka (8La57) was also
excavated by Moore (1896:542-543). This sand mound
yielded many burials, all of which were apparently
secondary (bundles). Eight stone celts, shell beads,
plain and red-painted sherds, and three copper objects
came from the mound.
One of the copper objects was a plate fragment with
a repouss design embossed on it (Goggin 1949d). The
design consisted of the lower portion (the top had been
broken away) of a human figure in profile. The method
of depiction of this individual is clearly reminiscent
of motifs associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex (Hamilton et al. 1974:153-161; Waring and Holder
1968). Such motifs are common on Mississippian period
(ca. A.D. 1200-1450) ceremonial objects (Knight 1986),
and the copper plate from Old Okahumpka dates the mound
to this period. Copper and pottery objects with
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex motifs have been found
at the Tatham Mound in Citrus County (Mitchem and
Hutchinson 1987; see also Chapter 3, this volume).
Moore (1896:Figure 91) illustrated a sherd from the
site which bears a striking resemblance to a sherd from
the Briarwoods site (8Pa66), a Safety Harbor burial
mound in Pasco County (Mitchem 1985a, 1988b). The
artifactual evidence suggests that the site was probably
occupied by people who interacted with Safety Harbor


31
groups, though collections from the site are too scant
to allow determination of whether or not the mound
should be considered a Safety Harbor site. ,
Another site (8La62) in Lake County, known as the
West Apopka site (or Burial Mound on the West Shore of
Lake Apopka), was described by Kunz (1887:222). His
discussion focused on description of two metal objects
(American Museum of Natural History [AMNH] #1/4662) from
the site, one of cast gold (Goggin 1954b:Figure la) and
one of silver (Kunz 1887:Figures 4 and 5). He also
mentioned that the mound contained a stone celt and a
large number of decomposed bones representing hundreds
of individuals. No information on pottery types or
other artifacts was included. The FMNH site file
designates this as a Safety Harbor site, but presently
available data do not allow confirmation of this
interpretation.
Orange Countv
A note in the FMNH site file (apparently written by
John Goggin) indicates that the East Shore of Lake
Butler site (80rll) was a Safety Harbor mound. However,
the only artifacts recorded from the site are two
artifacts of European metal, one of silver and one of
gold (Kunz 1887:221-223, Figures 2 and 6). There is no


634
Mooney, James
1900 Myths of the Cherokee. Nineteenth Annual Report
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1897-1898:3-
548. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
Moore, Clarence B.
1894a Certain Sand Mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida. Part I. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia X:5-103.
1894b Certain Sand Mounds of the St. John's River,
Florida. Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia X:129-246.
1895 Certain River Mounds of Duval County, Florida.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia X:448-502.
1896 Certain Sand Mounds of the Ocklawaha River,
Florida. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia X:517-543.
1900 Certain Antiquities of the Florida West-Coast.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia XI:351-394.
1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Florida Central
West-Coast. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia XII:363-494.
1905 Miscellaneous Investigation in Florida. Journal
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
XIII:298-325.
1907a Crystal River Revisited. Journal of the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia XIII:406-425.
1907b Notes on the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia XIII:458-470.
1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia XVI:515-579.
Moore, J. E.
1936 Log of the Ellenton Mound: Investigations June
14-18-21, 1936. Ms. on file, Archaeological
Consultants, Inc., Sarasota.


69
Table 8continued
Description Count
Olive-shaped molded colorless or pale transparent
yellow with gilded exterior 1
Large olive-shaped spiral flute molded pale
transparent yellow with gilded exterior 1
Olive-shaped opaque medium blue Eye bead with
4 chevron insets 1
Tubular composite bead (translucent cobalt blue/thin
white/translucent cobalt blue core): 3 sets of
3 opaque red spiral stripes on exterior 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, faceted) 3
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, spiral faceted) 1
Spherical smooth polished colorless quartz 1
Large spherical true amber 1
Faceted garnet (12 linear facets, olive-shaped, sharp
equatorial ridge, 6 facets on each hemisphere) 2
Clay:
Large spherical clay bead with gilded exterior 1
Metal:
Drilled silver rod bead 3
Barrel/olive-shaped silver bead 3
Spherical/oblate silver bead 3
Silver coin bead 3


512
during the first contact with the Soto entrada. Later
(possibly as a result of one of the subsequent
encounters with members of the Soto expedition), an
epidemic occurred, resulting in the deaths of a large
number of aborigines. They were laid out on the mound,
covered and intermingled with bones and bundles from the
charnel structure, and covered with sand.
This scenario of contact is speculative, but a
statement in the narrative of Alvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca
(1983:36) indicates that the 1528 expedition of Pnfilo
de Narvez did not make contact with any aborigines or
towns in the area. It therefore appears that the Soto
expedition is the most likely source of the European
artifacts at Tatham.
Several of the bead types from Tatham are of
interest when compared to finds at other Southeastern
sites. Table 58 presents a list of the currently known
sites in the Southeast that have produced examples of
the specific bead varieties found at Tatham. The list
was derived primarily from Smith and Good (1982:48-50),
and also uses their bead typology. Type and photo
numbers from Smith and Good (1982) are used for ease of
presentation, except in the case of unique, previously
undescribed types. Unfortunately, due to vague
reporting methods, exact counts are not available in


541
belief systems affected the value and desire for certain
types of artifacts. George Hamell (1983, 1987; Miller
and Hamell 1986) has suggested that among the Northern
Iroquoian and Central and Eastern Algonquian groups in
northeastern North America, the native response to
European contact and their acceptance of European goods
was affected by their symbolic and mythical beliefs.
According to his model, color symbolism and the
ideational and aesthetic values of materials of
particular colors may have influenced the desire to
obtain specific European beads or other artifact types.
Such factors may also have affected the
interactions of Spanish explorers and Southeastern
Indians, including the Tatham population. It is well-
documented that color symbolism was very significant
among Muskhogean groups in the Southeast, and this was
intricately tied in with mythology. Blue, white, and
red were especially imbued with symbolic significance
(Gatschet 1969:38-39; Williams 1927:62-65). The
majority of glass beads from Tatham (as well as most
other known early contact sites) are of these colors.
The quantity of red ochre and ochre-stained shell beads
from the Tatham Mound and other Safety Harbor sites
suggests that the Safety Harbor Indians had an equally
strong system of symbolic color beliefs. Such a model


410
This apparent association is especially intriguing
because a Safety Harbor Incised vessel from Tatham
(described above) is decorated with incised hands and
batons, a Southeastern Ceremonial Complex motif, and
some of the copper objects in the precontact portion of
the mound (discussed below) contain iconographic
elements originally included in the Complex (Waring and
Holder 1968).
There is some evidence from the Moundville, Alabama
site that galena, in association with certain other
types of artifacts, may identify high status individuals
in burial contexts (Peebles and Kus 1977:439; Walthall
1981:18). Most of the galena from Tatham appears to
have been ground, probably for use as pigment. Two of
the samples (F.S. 238 and 325) contain tiny galena
fragments embedded in a matrix which could either be
clay or some sort of organic material. This may be a
mixture of crushed galena and another substance which
was used as body paint or for painting ritual artifacts
(Walthall 1981:2, 16).
One of the galena fragments (F.S. 222) is a cube
weighing 9.2 g and measuring 1.4 cm x 1.4 cm x 1.1 cm
thick. One face of this cube has a conical hole
(diameter 0.4-0.5 cm at exterior) drilled almost halfway
through. It appears to be an unfinished galena bead.


610
Bullen, Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida.
American Anticruitv 16:23-45.
1961 Wash Island in Crystal River. The Florida
Anthropologist 14:69-73.
1963 The Wash Island Site, Crystal River, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 16:81-92.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1950 Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 3:21-30.
1951a The Enigmatic Crystal River Site. American
Anticuitv 17:142-143.
1951b The Gard Site, Homosassa Springs, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 4:27-31.
1951c The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida.
Publication No. 3. Florida Anthropological Society,
Gainesville.
1952a De Soto's Ucita and the Terra Ceia Site. Florida
Historical Quarterly 30:317-323.
1952b Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough
County, Florida. Report of Investigations No. 8.
Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee.
1953 The Famous Crystal River Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 6:9-37.
1954 The Davis Mound, Hardee County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 7:97-102.
1955 Archeology of the Tampa Bay Area. Florida
Historical Quarterly 34:51-63.
1965 Crystal River Indian Mound Museum. Ms. on file,
Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville.
1966 Burtine Island. Citrus Countv. Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences No. 14. University of Florida, Gainesville.
1969 Southern Limit of Timucua Territory. Florida
Historical Quarterly 47:414-419.


643
Stirling, Matthew W.
1930 Prehistoric Mounds in the Vicinity of Tampa Bay,
Florida. Explorations and Field-Work of the
Smithsonian Institution in 1929:183-186. Washington,
D. C.
1931 Mounds of the Vanished Calusa Indians of
Florida. Explorations and Field-Work of the
Smithsonian Institution in 1930;167-172. Washington,
D. C.
1935 Smithsonian Archeological Projects Conducted
under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration,
1933-34. Annual Report of the Smithsonian
Institution for 1934:371-400. Washington, D. C.
1936 Florida Cultural Affiliations in Relation to
Adjacent Areas. In Essays in Anthropology Presented
to A. L. Kroeber in Celebration of His Sixtieth
Birthday. edited by Robert H. Lowie, pp. 351-357.
Books for Libraries Press, Freeport, New York.
Stone, George Cameron
1961 A Glossary of the Construction. Decoration and
Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All
Times. Reprinted. Jack Brussel, New York. Originally
published 1934, Southworth Press, Portland, Maine.
Stone, Lyle M.
1974 Fort Michilimackinac 1715-1781: An
Archaeological Perspective on the Revolutionary
Frontier. Anthropological Series Vol. 2. The Museum,
Michigan State University, Lansing.
Stubbs, Sidney A.
1940 The Future of Florida Archeological Research.
Proceedings of the Florida Academy of Sciences
4:266-270.
Stuiver, Minze and Bernd Becker
1986 High-Precision Decadal Calibration of the
Radiocarbon Time Scale, AD 1950-2500 BC. Radiocarbon
28:863-910.
Stuiver, Minze and Gordon W. Pearson
1986 High-Precision Calibration of the Radiocarbon
Time Scale, AD 1950-500 BC. Radiocarbon 28:805-838.


393
Table 49continued
Precontact Stratum Postcontact Stratum
Prairie Fabric Impressed
Alachua Cob Marked
Belle Glade Plain-like
curation of vessels (especially in a charnel structure
situation) was probably practiced.
Lithic Artifacts
Artifacts of stone excavated from the Tatham Mound
are listed in Table 50. The most numerous stone tools
from the mound are projectile points, specifically the
small triangular variety known as Pinellas points
(Figure 15). These typically Mississippian points were
probably used as arrow tips, and are typical of Safety
Harbor and Alachua Tradition sites (Bullen 1975:8). The
majority of these (n=66) were recovered from the eastern
side of the mound in the postcontact stratum, which may
suggest that a large number of arrows were thrust or
shot into the slope, perhaps while it was being
constructed. At the Jones Mound (8Hi4) in Hillsborough
County, a similar concentration of Pinellas points on
the eastern side was noted (Bullen 1952b:56; Simpson
1939:59). Plate #40 from the LeMoyne narratives


601
as a part of the Fort Walton Culture, which it most
definitely is not.
An especially important task is to study the
various design elements and vessel forms to subdivide
Safety Harbor Incised, perhaps determining temporal
variants. Luer and Almy (1987) have already taken steps
in this direction.
As mentioned in context of the question of Calusa
use of Safety Harbor pottery, technological analyses of
clays and fired pottery are needed to address questions
of locus of manufacture, exchange, and general ceramic
ecology. Such studies have proven useful in
investigating Weeden Island pottery technology and in
southwest Florida (Cordell 1984; Milanich, Chapman et
al. 1984; Milanich, Cordell et al. 1984:120-160).
Stone tool assemblages from Safety Harbor sites
need to be carefully investigated, especially in terms
of edge wear, tool function, and typology. Other than
Pinellas projectile points and drills, little is known
about what should constitute a "typical" Safety Harbor
lithic assemblage. Such knowledge would greatly help in
the interpretation of small lithic scatters, which are
common in the interior areas east of Tampa Bay.
Shell tools need to be studied more intensively, to
answer questions of tool use and edge wear. An


500
suggest that shells from several Safety Harbor sites
(including Tatham) show very similar trace element
compositions, as would be expected (Cheryl P. Claassen,
personal communication 1988).
Botanical Remains
Several types of botanical remains have been
identified from the Tatham Mound. These include plant
fibers, carbonized and "fossilized" seeds, preserved
wood and bark, and charred wood. Several specialists
from UF and FMNH have identified these materials.
Plant fibers
Casts of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) fibers
were identified on the surface of the armor plate from
Burial #7. This was discussed in a previous section of
this chapter.
Preserved twine was recovered from metal beads in
two instances in the postcontact stratum. A short
length of twine was recovered from inside a small silver
disc bead accompanying Burial #48. This was examined by
Donna L. Ruhl and Lee A. Newsom of FMNH, but was not
morphologically distinct enough to identify. A longer
specimen of twine was found within a rolled sheet brass
bead found with Burial #54, a cremation. The species of


604
that relations between this important area and adjoining
regions can be investigated.
In terms of mortuary studies, the most pressing
need is physical anthropological information.
Unfortunately, so much of this particular data base has
been destroyed that irreparable damage has been done to
the potential of investigating questions of health,
dietary stress, and genetic relationships of various
Safety Harbor groups. This also prevents looking at
Safety Harbor populations in broader perspective,
comparing them to contemporary populations in the
Southeast and looking at diachronic changes (especially
those related to European contact). The Tatham Mound
population is presently an exception, but other
undisturbed sites are probably present, especially in
interior areas.
A complete excavation of the platform mound at the
Safety Harbor site (8Pi2) would answer questions about
the use of these earthworks in Safety Harbor sites.
Griffin and Bullen (1950) excavated portions of this
mound, but the results were inconclusive. Since it is
one of the few relatively intact examples of a Safety
Harbor platform mound (though it has been somewhat
disturbed and eroded), its careful excavation by trained


192
evidence to support the interpretation of a Safety
Harbor component.
The Northeast Head site (8Mal50) is a shell midden
at the eastern end of Bishop Harbor which formerly
included a shell mound 4.6-6.1 m high, according to a
local informant (Burger 1979). In addition to animal
bones, worked shell, and a late Archaic projectile
point, the following pottery types are recorded on the
site form: Weeden Island Plain, Weeden Island Plain
(with red paint), St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check
Stamped, Belle Glade Plain, sand tempered plain, Pasco
Plain, Pinellas Plain (some have notched lips), and
Safety Harbor Incised. These types indicate mixed
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor occupations of
the site.
A badly disturbed shell midden at the southern end
of Bishop Harbor, the Moses Hole Roadside Midden No. 1
(8Mal52), is listed as a mixed Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor site on the FMSF form. The artifacts
recorded include a single Pinellas Plain sherd, two sand
tempered plain sherds, animal and shell remains, and a
fossil shark tooth fragment. The Pinellas Plain
indicates that the site could be either Weeden Island-
related or Safety Harbor (or both), but it is impossible
to determine on the basis of the present evidence.


497
cut specimens do not indicate Spanish/Indian warfare.
One hypothesis considered to explain the cut bones
involves information gleaned from the de Bry engravings
of the paintings of Jacques le Moyne de Morgues, an
artist who accompanied Laudonnire's French expedition
to northeast Florida in 1564 (Lorant 1946). In one of
the engravings, entitled "How Outina's Men Treated the
Enemy Dead", Eastern Timucua Indians are depicted
mutilating the corpses of fallen enemy warriors. The
following excerpt from the narrative accompanying the
engraving describes one part of the custom.
After the battle they invariably cut off the arms and
legs of the fallen warriors with their knives, broke
the bare bones with a club, and then laid the bloody
bones over the fires to dry. They hung the bones and
the scalps at the ends of their spears, carrying them
home in triumph. (Lorant 1946:65)
If it is assumed that this custom was practiced by
the aborigines in the Withlacoochee region, it could be
suggested that the cut humerus was the result of this
practice being carried out using a sword, wielded by
either an Indian or a Spaniard. However, no sword
fragments have been recovered from Tatham or surrounding
sites to support this hypothesis.
It is more likely that the cut bones were the
result of skirmishes when the Soto expedition first
passed through the area in July of 1539. The Ranjel
account (Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds 1973:67-68)


350
Two wapiti (Cervus canadensis canadensis) teeth
were recovered from the mound fill, at least one
apparently from the precontact stratum. They have not
been previously recorded in Florida. Since many items
from the mound were obtained by exchange from areas to
the north, it is possible that the wapiti teeth were
obtained in this way. If not, this is the first record
of their presence in Florida. The lack of other
skeletal elements argues against the latter possibility,
however.
European artifacts from the third season supported
the earlier interpretation of an early sixteenth century
date for Spanish contact. These objects will be
discussed in a later section of this chapter.
The third season greatly clarified understanding of
the Tatham Mound stratigraphy. Profiles revealed that
Feature #6 was present on all slopes of the mound,
providing a convenient way to demarcate the precontact
and postcontact strata. Near the center of the mound,
profiles of Feature #6 showed a bifurcation, and the
feature was completely absent from an area on the
summit. This indicated that the dark soil had been
scraped away from the central area twice, adding a thin
cap of clean sand after the first time.


220
Originally 3.0m high and 18.3 m in diameter, the mound
had been previously investigated by Harry L. Schoff
(Willey 1949a:344), who presented a small collection of
Safety Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas Plain,
and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds to NMNH (#364695-
364696).
Milanich's excavations uncovered 10 burials, five
of which were flexed and two extended. The rest were
probably secondary (1972:32). A number of bone and
lithic artifacts were recovered during the excavations,
and the pottery indicated that the site (or the mound
fill) was multicomponent. Late Archaic, Deptford
(Manasota), Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor ceramic
types were present (1972:Tables 2 and 3). The Safety
Harbor component was represented by Pinellas Plain
sherds with notched lips. The archaeological evidence
recovered by Milanich indicated an apparently minor
reuse of an earlier mound by Safety Harbor people.
Possible postcontact occupation was represented by what
may have been a cow bone (1972:37).
The True Mound (8So5), possibly the same site as
the Deer Prairie Creek or Blackburn Mound (8So403), is a
sand burial mound originally over 2.5 m high (Luer and
Almy 1987:Table 2; Willey 1949a:344). The mound is
located on a ridge, and a borrow pit is present to the


86
Fuller in 1960, contained the following types: six sand
tempered plain; three Pinellas Plain; three Pasco Plain;
and one Swift Creek Complicated Stamped sherd. As with
the Wright site, this is a possible Safety Harbor
midden, but the Swift Creek sherd indicates an earlier
Weeden Island-related component.
The Narvaez Midden (8P54) is located along Boca
Ciega Bay opposite Johns Pass within the city limits of
St. Petersburg. This site was probably visited by
Wainwright (1916:144) and David Bushnell (1926:129-130).
The present owner of the site notes that J. W. Fewkes
tested it while working at the Weeden Island (8Pil) site
in the 1920s (Robert J. Austin, personal communication
1988). The site consisted primarily of shell middens,
with a possible ceremonial or "temple" mound, as well as
other possible mounds (Goodyear 1972:31-34; Luer and
Almy 1981:129, 131). A plaza area may also have been
present (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988).
The main midden measured approximately 91.4 m by 45.7 m,
with the long axis running north-south (parallel to the
shore of Boca Ciega Bay). Excavations in the midden
portion of the site in 1964 yielded large numbers of
J
sherds of Safety Harbor pottery types, including
Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, and St. Johns Check
Stamped (Bushnell 1966:Figure 2). Many of the lips of


(funded the project which resulted in the initial
discovery of the Tatham Mound); the Division of
Sponsored Research, University of Florida (provided a
graduate assistantship); the Institute for Early Contact
Period Studies, University of Florida (provided a
graduate assistantship and other funding); the
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida
(awarded a Charles H. Fairbanks Scholarship); the Tinker
Foundation (awarded a field research grant for travel to
Spain, administered by the Center for Latin American
Studies, University of Florida); the Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois (provided support
to Dale Hutchinson for analysis and transportation of
collections); and the Bead Society (awarded a grant to
study the Spanish beads). Support in the form of
equipment, laboratory space, and facilities was provided
by the Anthropology Departments of the Florida Museum of
Natural History (FMNH) and the University of Florida.
Many curators and staff members of the FMNH and
students helped with the Tatham project. These include
Nancy Aparicio, Kurt Auffenberg, Dana Austin, Gianna
Browne, Ed Chaney, Ann Cordell, Kathleen Deagan, David
Hall, Ken Johnson, Jon Leader, Elise LeCompte, Robert
LeCompte, William Maples, Mondi Mason, Ed Napoleon, Lee
Newsom, Claudine Payne, Ann Poulos, Guy Prentice, Donna
vi


586
of existing Weeden Island sites. This pattern,
demonstrated by collections described in Willey (1949a)
and in Chapter 2 of the present study, indicates that
the Safety Harbor Culture is the result of Mississippian
. ,/
influences altering the Weeden Island-related cultures
in west peninsular Florida (Milanich and Fairbanks
1980:210; Willey 1949a:477-478).
In summary, the data indicate that large, nucleated
Safety Harbor villages with platform mounds are
generally restricted to the coastal region around Tampa ^
Bay. Some of the large sites in the coastal portion of
the South Florida region may also be nucleated village
sites. Inland habitation sites and those north and
south of Tampa Bay tend to be smaller and more
dispersed. Burial mounds are present in all regions
y
(burial sites are discussed in a later section of this
chapter). Functional data on different site types are
generally lacking, but it appears that the most
important variable affecting site location is closeness
to water.
Subsistence Information
Subsistence information for the Safety Harbor
Culture is inadequate for reconstructing a valid model
of subsistence patterns. Faunal information from


386
St. Johns Check Stamped vessels consist primarily
of simple open bowls, though at least one vessel with a
restricted orifice was recovered (Figure 13). One bowl
has two rectangular rim appendages (Figure 13). The
size of the St. Johns Check Stamped vessels varies
considerably, with rim diameters ranging from 15 cm to
37 cm (Figures 13 and 14).
Few data are available regarding vessel form for
sand tempered plain pottery from Tatham. Generally,
sand tempered plain vessels were not reconstructable.
Analysis of sherds revealed that several of the vessels
had flanges on the exterior near the rim. One vessel
was reconstructed, and is a peculiar spittoon-shaped
carinated bowl (Figure 14). This bowl was recovered
from Zone C on the east edge of the mound, which
probably represents the original humus layer (most of
which was scraped away before mound construction). It
is impossible to determine whether the vessel was
deposited during precontact or postcontact times.
Spittoon-shaped vessels are known from the
multicomponent Graveline site in Mississippi (Greenwell
1984:147) and from the Buck Island site (8Hi6), a Safety
Harbor mound in Hillsborough County (FMNH #76754).
There are apparently only two sand tempered check
stamped vessels from Tatham, one a small, simple open


385


371
originally included at least one flat lug handle.
Sherds were spread over three units in the northern and
central parts of the mound.
The Alachua Tradition pottery types Prairie Cord
Marked, Prairie Fabric Impressed, and Alachua Cob Marked
were recovered from the postcontact stratum. The St.
Johns Cob Marked pottery from Tatham should probably be
considered a variant of Alachua Cob Marked. This
interpretation is supported by the fact that of the
eight proveniences from which St. Johns Cob Marked was
recovered, five also yielded sherds of Prairie Cord
Marked. Likewise, the St. Johns Cord Marked sherds, all
from a single large, deep open bowl, should probably be
considered a variant of Prairie Cord Marked. All of the
St. Johns Cob Marked sherds were part of a single
vessel. This small pot with a slightly flared orifice
(Figure 6) had been broken and spread over the northern
and southern parts of the mound. The base had been
perforated.
Sherds from a minimum of four Prairie Cord Marked
vessels were recovered. These were spread over most
sections of the mound. An almost complete simple open
bowl with a basal perforation was found in the
postcontact stratum on the western mound slope (Figure
6).


37
MPM in August, 1988, to study and photograph the
aboriginal artifacts from the mound. This study
indicated that the aboriginal ceramics from the mound
are clearly Weeden Island types. The decorated sherds
of Safety Harbor and Englewood types mentioned by Goggin
(1945) were misidentified. Furthermore, many of the
stone artifacts in the MPM collection (primarily
projectile points and ground stone objects) are not from
Florida. Specifically, many of the projectile points
appear to be quartzite points typical of the Georgia
Piedmont, and the presence of several grooved stone axes
(typical of northeastern North America) strongly
suggests that the collection was mixed with material
from many sites.
The collector, Adolph Meinecke, owned a winter home
near Lake Butler. During visits there, he and some
associates would excavate in at least two mounds
(possibly more) in the vicinity, subsequently donating
the material to MPM (Board of Trustees of the Public
Museum of the City of Milwaukee 1892:15, 41-42, 1893:12-
13, 44-45, 1894:13, 70, 1896:13, 34). The artifacts in
FMNH and MPM were excavated from these mounds, but
artifacts from other states were mixed in with the
collection at some point. The European artifacts
indicate that the major period of contact was probably
during the late sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, but


499
in the analysis of the Tatham objects (Goad and Noakes
1978; Rapp et al. 1984). Additional attempts to
identify sources may be undertaken in the future.
Postcontact Metal
As described in the earlier section on European
metal artifacts and in Table 57, Jonathan M. Leader
analyzed many of the postcontact metal artifacts to
determine (qualitatively) the types of metal. Silver
and gold objects were also tested to determine fineness.
The methodology and results are also presented in
Mitchem and Leader (1988).
Dr. Alex Lodding is also analyzing some of the
silver beads using Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy.
Results of this analysis are not yet available.
Shell Sourcing
Eight samples of Busvcon shell fragments and shell
beads from Tatham were sent to Dr. Cheryl P. Claassen of
Appalachian State University in 1986. Some of these
samples have been included in an ongoing study using
atomic absorption analysis to determine probable
sources. The project is not yet complete, but should
eventually aid in identifying probable exchange routes
in eastern North America. Very preliminary results


439
Table 56-
-continued
Provenience Count
Descriotion
517N497E, Zone B2 1
IIA2a (#40) Nueva Cadiz
Burial #17
Plain. Long, tubular:
F.S. 94
Turquoise blue/thin white/
translucent navy blue core
1
IIC2a (#50) Nueva Cadiz
Plain, faceted. Long,
tubular: Turquoise blue/
thin white/navy blue core
517N500E, Zone B2 1
IIAld (#36) Nueva Cadiz
Burial #31
Plain. Short, tubular:
F.S. 99
Translucent dark navy blue
1
IIAle (#37) Nueva Cadiz
Plain. Short, tubular:
Transparent cobalt blue
1
VIDld (#104) Wire-wound.
Donut-shaped: Transparent
pale yellow (very
patinated)
1
VIDle (#105) Wire-wound.
Donut-shaped: Translucent
green (very patinated)


99
beads, which were not described further in Goggin's
notes.
Additional excavations were conducted at the site
from 1935 to 1937, as parts of two Works Progress
Administration (WPA) projects, under the supervision of
J. Clarence Simpson and Preston Holder (Bullen 1952b:7;
Simpson 1937:111). Unfortunately, analysis of the data
gathered in these projects was not completed by the
excavators. Willey (1949a:113-125) and Bullen (1952b:7-
20) studied field notes and what remained of the
collections (many artifacts were lost), and attempted to
determine the sequence of events and periods of
occupation at the site.
When the WPA work began, the mound was
approximately 20 m in diameter and 2 m high (Willey
1949a:114). Other sand and shell features in the
immediate area were also recorded at this time (Bullen
1952b:Figure 2). The excavations yielded 208 secondary
burials, 98 primary burials (both tightly flexed and
semi-flexed), 74 isolated skulls, and three cremations
(Bullen 1952b:Table 1). In the NMNH, Goggin observed a
humerus (#384309) with a perforated shark tooth fragment
embedded in it (it should be noted, however, that this
number is attributed to the Cockroach Key site in NMNH
records). Two strata were recorded during the WPA


570
to changes in political influence and hegemony of
various leaders at different times.
The first proposed regional variant is Northern
Safety Harbor, which is bounded by the Withlacoochee
River on the north and northeast and extends south to
the vicinity of southern Pasco County. This region is
characterized by a dispersed settlement pattern, with
small residential sites and isolated burial mounds
(Mitchem 1988d).
Utilitarian pottery in the region consists almost
entirely of Pasco Plain, with sand tempered plain and
St. Johns wares also common. Decorated pottery is
relatively rare, but includes Safety Harbor Incised,
Point Washington Incised, Pinellas Incised, some
Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised, and abundant St.
Johns Check Stamped. With the exception of St. Johns
Check Stamped, these types are found almost exclusively
in mortuary contexts (Sears 1973:32). Small amounts of
Alachua Tradition pottery are recovered from some of the
sites in the northern portion, indicating exchange or
other interaction with Alachua Tradition groups
(Milanich 1971).
Almost all of the reported European material from
Safety Harbor sites in the region dates from the early
sixteenth century (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985; Chapter


80
shell middens. Wainwright (1916:144) later excavated
part of the remnants of a shell mound in the area,
possibly one of Walker's sites. Wainwright recovered
poorly preserved human skeletal remains, stone tools and
projectile points, shell tools, and bone objects. He
also indicated that the remnants of a second shell mound
were located nearby, and that both were composed of
oyster shells (1916:144). Wainwright also visited a
sand mound in the Big Bayou area (1916:143), but
apparently did not excavate it. The Big Bayou site was
later visited by Bushnell (1926:127).
The Booth Point site (8P36), a shell midden site
near Oldsmar, was recorded by William Plowden in 1952.
A small collection from the site in FMNH (#A-2617)
includes the artifacts listed in Table 10. Though the
assemblage is not absolutely diagnostic, all of the
pottery types are known from Safety Harbor sites in the
area, so a tentative interpretation of Safety Harbor
occupation can be posited. However, it is equally
possible that the site is a Weeden Island-related
midden.
The Tierra Verde site (8P51) was a Safety Harbor
burial mound located on Cabbage Key at the northern end
of the mouth of Tampa Bay. It has also been called the
Pine Key Mound, which was assigned site number 8P15.


489
legs. Six copper plate fragments were recovered from
the chest region.
Burial #58. This adult male in a supine position
with the legs tightly flexed over the chest was one of
two individuals turned opposite from the rest of the
primary burials in this stratum (head to east-southeast
instead of the more prevalent west-northwest). Around
the neck were eight drilled silver rod beads, one rolled
sheet silver bead, two small silver disc beads, and a
rolled sheet bronze bead. These were interspersed with
15 shell disc beads and four barrel-shaped shell beads.
Burial #59. This burial was a secondary (bundle)
interment, probably consisting of more than one
individual. A single shell disc bead was in
association.
Burial #60. This young adult female was buried in
a supine position with the legs tightly flexed at the
knees. A metopic suture was evident on the frontal
bone. In the neck and chest area, eight faceted chevron
beads (IVC2d) and 19 shell beads (12 disc and seven
barrel-shaped) were recovered.
Burial #66. This was an adult female buried in a
supine position with the legs tightly flexed over the
chest. This interment was one of the two primary
burials in this stratum which were positioned opposite


314
1539, had passed through this portion of Florida
(Swanton 1985:150-152). The artifacts from Ruth Smith
were believed to have come from one or both of these
expeditions, and the Tatham Mound was considered to have
excellent potential for yielding similar evidence. An
explicit part of the first season's research design
involved searching for early contact evidence.
Previous research in the region seemed to indicate
that the Cove of the Withlacoochee was at the northern
edge of the Safety Harbor culture area. No Safety
Harbor sites had been identified north of the river. An
objective of the Tatham Mound project was to collect
evidence indicating the nature of interaction between
the Safety Harbor people and different cultural groups
to the north. The archaeological evidence indicated
that Alachua Tradition groups occupied the region north
of the river (Milanich 1971). It was considered that a
mortuary site such as Tatham would potentially contain
artifactual and skeletal data to allow determination of
exchange and/or warfare with neighboring groups.
The final objective during the first season was to
disclose a continuum of occupation at the site if one
was present. Research at other sites had indicated that
many Safety Harbor sites, including burial mounds, were
constructed atop earlier Weeden Island occupations. The


379
tempered ware locally known as Pasco. This pottery,
characterized by pitted surfaces and large limestone or
other inclusions (Mitchem 1986:70-71), is ubiquitous in
habitation sites along the Florida Gulf Coast north of
Tampa Bay. At the Tatham Mound, Pasco pottery was
recovered from all levels of each stratum. However, the
most abundant Pasco Plain pottery came from Zone A and
Zone B, Level 1. The great majority of broken vessels
on the mound surfaces were Pasco Plain pots, usually
very large (rim diameters of ca. 15-30 cm) vessels
(Figure 10). These were probably used for brewing and
serving the black drink used in the ceremonies atop the
mound before its abandonment.
The St. Johns ware vessels exhibit a wide range of
vessel forms and sizes. Among St. Johns Plain vessels,
small bowls predominate, with either restricted or
flared (Figure 15) openings. Some lips exhibit lateral
projections (Figures 10 and 13). A double bowl (Figure
11) was recovered from the eastern edge, apparently
beneath the ramp on the primary mound. Several
miniature St. Johns Plain bowls were also recovered
(Figure 11). Other St. Johns Plain vessel forms include
straight-walled beakers (Figure 9), flattened globular
bowls (Figures 8 and 12), slightly flaring jars (Figure
12), and odd (boat-shaped?) forms (Figure 12).


616
Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds, Gonzalo
1973 A Narrative of de Soto's Expedition Based on the
Diary of Rodrigo Raniel. His Private Secretary.
Translated by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Reprinted. AMS
Press, New York. Originally published 1922,
Allerton, New York.
Fewkes, J. Walter
1924 Preliminary Archeological Explorations at Weeden
Island. Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections 76(13). Washington, D. C.
1928 Aboriginal Wooden Objects from Southern
Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections
80(9). Washington, D. C.
Fisher, Elizabeth A.
1979a Excavations at the Fort Brooke Site, a 19th
Century Military Reservation Located Within the
Present Area of Tampa. Florida. Unpublished Master's
thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa.
1979b Report of the 1978 Excavations at the Fort
Brooke Site. 8-H-13, Tampa. Florida. Archaeological
Report No. 9. Department of Anthropology, University
of South Florida, Tampa.
Fitzgerald, Cherry
1987 Analysis of the Faunal Remains at the Bayonet
Field Site (8C197), Citrus County, Florida. Ms. on
file, Zooarchaeology Laboratory, Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville.
Fogarty, O. Z.
1972 They Called it Foaartwille. Theo. Gaus' Sons,
Brookline, New York.
Fogelson, Raymond D.
1961 Change, Persistence, and Accomodation in
Cherokee Medico-Magical Beliefs. In Symposium on
Cherokee and Iroquois Culture, edited by William N.
Fenton and John Gulick, pp. 215-225. Bulletin 180.
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D. C.
Francis, Peter, Jr.
1986 Beads and the Discovery of the New World.
Occasional Paper No. 3. Center for Bead Research,
Lake Placid, New York.


369


the Tatham excavations. His style of teaching is to
give students free rein, if they wish. I thrived in
this environment, and Jerry has always been willing to
discuss any problems, questions, or any other aspect of
research about which I was unsure. He also made sure
that I was covered financially, and he lavished funds on
me which allowed me to travel to museums and conferences
to study collections and interact with colleagues. .For
all of this, I am overwhelmed with gratitude. It has
been good to be one of "Jerry's Kids."
I also want to express my thanks to Kathleen A.
Deagan, who was originally a member of my committee, but
her busy research schedule conflicted with my timetable
for completion. She provided thoughtful comments on my
initial proposal, and has helped me to understand many
aspects of early Spanish/Indian contact.
I must also acknowledge the support of my
relatives, who have supported much of my education, and
helped me through many rough situations. Their
patience, love, and support have sustained me, and it is
impossible to repay them. Finally, I thank Bonnie
McEwan, who understands what it is like to complete a
doctorate, and who is a beautiful woman and an excellent
scientist. Her love and support have made it all
worthwhile.
x


278
Table 41. Artifacts in FMNH from Excavation and Surface
Collection at the Indian Field Site (8LL39).
Description Count
Excavation Unit:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 16/4
St. Johns Plain 10/1
Belle Glade Plain 9/2
Pinellas Plain (rim has notched lip) 5/1
Possible Sarasota Incised 2/0
Shell:
Busvcon fragment 1
Perforated Venus shells 2
Surface Collection:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 97/95
Sand tempered plain with notched or tooled lips 5/5
Belle Glade Plain 65/60
St. Johns Plain 17/7
St. Johns Check Stamped 12/4
Pinellas Plain (2 rims have notched lips) 16/16
Glades Tooled 2/2
Safety Harbor Incised (rim has notched lip) 2/1
Sarasota Incised variant 1/1
Miscellaneous sand tempered incised 1/0


608
1896 Thirteenth Annual Report of the Board of
Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of
Milwaukee. September 1st. 1894 to August 31st, 1895.
Edward Keogh Press, Milwaukee.
Boyle, Diane, Todd Gray, and Gunnar Helgason
1986 A Preliminary Report of 8-P-19. The Sheraton
Maximo Site. 1986. Department of Comparative
Cultures, Eckerd College, St. Petersburg. Submitted
to the City of St. Petersburg Planning Department.
Bradley, James W.
1987 Evolution of the Onondaga Iroquois: Accomodating
Change. 1500-1655. Syracuse University Press,
Syracuse, New York.
Brain, Jeffrey P.
1985 The Archaeology of the Hernando de Soto
Expedition. In Alabama and the Borderlands: From
Prehistory to Statehood, edited by R. Reid Badger
and Lawrence A. Clayton, pp. 96-107. University of
Alabama Press, University.
Brinton, Daniel G.
1859 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, its Literary
History. Indian Tribes and Antiquities. Joseph
Sabin, Philadelphia.
1867 Artificial Shell Deposits of the United States.
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for
1866;356-358. Washington, D. C.
Brooks, Marvin J., Jr.
1956 Excavations at Grossman Hammock, Dade County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 9:37-46.
Brose, David S.
1984 Mississippian Period Cultures in Northwestern
Florida. In Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory,
edited by Dave D. Davis, pp. 165-197. Ripley P.
Bullen Monographs in Anthropology and History No. 5.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Brown, Ian W.
1979a Bells. In Tunica Treasure, by Jeffrey P. Brain,
pp. 197-205. Papers of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 71. Harvard
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.


294
Table 46continued
Count
nt dark cobalt blue bead with
ets several
s with marvered facets (cobalt blue,
ransparent turquoise blue, opaque
w, and purple) several
beads with 4 molded facets (probably
) 8
pendant of transparent light blue-
with attachment loop made by melting
glass and looping it around 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal (2 faceted, 1 six-lobed polished
specimen) 3
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
purple spheroid glass beads indicate a sixteenth century
date (Deagan 1987:165; Smith 1983:148, 150; Smith and
Good 1982:25). The spherical green glass bead also
probably dates to the sixteenth century, as similar
specimens were recovered at the Tatham Mound in Citrus
County (Mitchem and Leader 1988:Figure 3, Table 1). The
Florida Cut Crystal beads date to the late sixteenth
century (Deagan 1987:180; Smith 1987:46). The eye bead,


250
possibility (based on the presence of Pinellas Plain)
that there is a Safety Harbor component present.
An unnamed shell midden (8Ch60) is located on Hog
Island near the mouth of the Myakka River. This midden
extends for about 24 m along the shore, and has yielded
14 shell tools and 61/9 sand tempered plain sherds. Of
these sherds, one rim has a notched lip and another rim
has incised decoration (Luer and Archibald 1988). The
notched lip may be a variant of Pinellas Plain,
indicating a possible Safety Harbor component at the
site. Identification of such a component is impossible
based on the available data.
The Dunwody or Dunwoody Site (8Ch61) was a large
shell midden extending about 0.4 km along the shoreline
of a peninsula on Lemon Bay. Since covered with dredged
spoil, the site was excavated by Ripley and Adelaide
Bullen prior to its inundation in 1965. FMNH
collections from the site are from a burial area and a
shell ridge. Eighteen burials were recovered from the
burial area. This portion of the site also (#99678 and
99679) yielded the artifacts listed in Table 35.
The collection (#99680) from the shell ridge, which
was bulldozed, contains the artifacts listed in Table
36. Another small collection from an unrecorded part of
the site (#103789) includes 3/0 sand tempered plain


522
Table 60. Calibrated Ages of Radiocarbon Samples From
the Tatham Mound.
Lab Number
Calibrated Aces*
Beta-12678
Cal. AD 1257 (1278) 1284
(charred wood)
Beta-15496
Cal. AD 1003 (1040, 1095, 1119,
(charred wood)
1140, 1151) 1192
Beta-15497
Cal. AD 1476 (1525, 1563, 1628) 1648
(human bone)
Beta-15498
Cal. AD 1262 (1280) 1381
(charred wood)
Beta-19822
Cal. AD 775 (782, 788, 814, 816,
(charred wood)
833, 836, 868) 940
Beta-19823
Cal. AD 694 (782, 788, 814, 816,
(charred wood)
833, 836, 868) 940
Beta-19825
Cal. AD 1280 (1300, 1373, 1380) 1393
(charred wood)
* By convention, these are listed as 1 minimum (cal.
ages) 1 maximum. Charred wood and human bone
calibrations from Stuiver and Bender (1986).
Since calibrated ages are more accurate than
uncorrected radiocarbon dates from wood and bone, they
will be used in discussing the dating of the Tatham
Mound strata, along with the uncorrected shell dates.
Shell dates have proven unreliable in some cases,


644
Stuiver, Minze, G. W. Pearson, and Tom Braziunas
1986 Radiocarbon Age Calibration of Marine Samples
Back to 9000 CAL YR BP. Radiocarbon 28:980-1021.
Stuiver, Minze and Paula J. Reimer
1986 A Computer Program for Radiocarbon Age
Calibration. Radiocarbon 28:1022-1030.
Suncoast Archaeological and Paleontological Society
1981 Request from Dr. Milanich. Bulletin 13(3):7.
Swanton, John R.
1938 The Landing Place of De Soto. Florida Historical
Quarterly 16:149-173.
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States.
Bulletin 137. Bureau of American Ethnology,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
1952 De Soto's First Headquarters in Florida. Florida
Historical Quarterly 30:311-316.
1985 Final Report of the United States de Soto
Expedition Commission. Reprinted. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D. C. Originally
published 1939, U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C.
Swindell, David E., Ill
1977 Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the
Mizelle Creek One Site (8Hi374^: A Late Archaic
Habitation Site. Hillsborough Countv. Florida.
Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Florida
Division of Archives, History and Records
Management, Tallahassee. Submitted to International
Mineral and Chemicals Company, Bartow, Florida.
Tallant, Montague
n.d. Mounds of Manatee County. Ms. on file, Florida
Park Service Files, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
Tarassuk, Leonid and Claude Blair (editors)
1986 The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms & Weapons.
Reprinted. Bonanza, New York. Originally published
1979, Amoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, Italy.


465
plates were very small, some of the earlier specimens
were quite large (Stone 1961:149). stone (1961:Figure
190) illustrated a sixteenth century Spanish brigandine
from the Metropolitan Museum of Art which includes
plates on the arms. The slight curvature in the Tatham
specimen suggests that it was a plate from the arm of a
brigandine. The specimen is probably also tinned. Its
surface is well-preserved (in contrast to most of the
other iron artifacts from Tatham), and there are dark
deposits which suggest that it was coated with a non-
rusting metal.
The only other example of possible Spanish military
hardware from Tatham is a heavily encrusted and broken
iron mass (F.S. 37), which may represent two rings of
chain mail. Radiographs of this object revealed that at
least two small (0.7-0.8 cm diameter) iron rings are
present, and one appears to have a rivet. The poor
preservation of the object prevents a more positive
identification. Similar rings of chain mail have been
recovered from the Martin site (8Le853B) in Tallahassee,
one of the- probable campsites of the Soto expedition in
the winter of 1539-1540 (Ewen 1988:8, Figure 3).
Two iron chisels were excavated. The larger of
these (Figure 26) is round in cross-section, and is 14.2
cm long and 2.2 cm in diameter. This specimen was


15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
123
125
127
131
135
156
164
170
173
195
198
200
205
224
234
236
241
Artifacts from the De Shone Place Site (8H74)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the T. L. Barker Site (8H79)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Elsberry Site (8H01)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Henriquez Mound (8H1077)
in UMMA
Ceramics from Two Sites near Tampa Bay
in NMNH
Artifacts from Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Harbor Key Platform Mound
(8Mal3) in FMNH
Artifacts from the Snead Island I Site
(8Mal8) in FMNH
Artifacts from the Feeney Site (8Ma21)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715)
in SFM
European Beads in SFM from an Unknown Manatee
County Site
Glass Beads in a Private Collection from the
Myakka Area, Southeastern Manatee County....
Artifacts from the Bostwick Mound (8Hr52)
at USF
Artifacts from the Weber Burial Mound (8So20)
in FMNH
A Collection from Cayo Pelau (8Chl)
A Private Collection of European Material
from Cayo Pelau (8Chl)
Goggin's Ceramic Collection from Big Mound
Key (8ChlO)
xv


422


60
Pinellas Plain, and sand tempered plain sherds in the
collection (Ostrander 1960:77).
Griffin and Smith (1948:28) cited Bushnell
(1937:34) as identifying the glass bead recovered by
Walker as a Florida Cut Crystal specimen, but it appears
that they were in error. The bead described by Bushnell
was from the Maximo Point site (1937:33).
The Clearwater site (8Pi5) was apparently a complex
of two large (approx. 90 m long and 3-4.5 m high) linear
shell mounds with a smaller one between them, and a
graded path leading to a freshwater pond about 140 m
away (Walker 1880b:419). Willey (1949a:332-333)
classified sherds and a Busvcon pick in NMNH (#35638,
43098-43101, and 88409), which were probably from this
site. The pottery indicates a Safety Harbor occupation
with an underlying late Weeden Island-related component
(see also Table 19).
A collection in NMNH (#363066) from an island site
(midden?) known as the Boca Ciega Island site (8Pi6)
contains mixed late Weeden Island and Safety Harbor
pottery types, along with sand tempered plain sherds
(Willey 1949a:333). A single rim sherd of shell
tempered ware from the site is in FMNH (#A-2614).
Willey (1949a:333) also listed two Pensacola Plain (a
shell tempered Fort Walton type) sherds from the site.


161
The Palma Sola 3 site (8MalO) was a white sand
burial mound near the cemetery of the town of Palma Sola
(Wainwright 1916:140). Montague Tallant (n.d.:2)
recorded that the mound was originally 10.7 m in
diameter and 1.2 m high, but had been partially
excavated by residents of Palma Sola. Reported
artifacts included gold and silver beads, many glass
beads, blades, and decorated pottery.
This site is probably what is known as the Lone
Pine Mound or "Bead Mound" to local collectors. A
catalog list of artifacts from the Lone Pine Mound (in
the private Burnworth Collection) is on file at SFM.
This list mentions six copper discs, a copper gorget, a
copper cone, a small (ca. 12.7 cm) pot, miscellaneous
glass beads, and miscellaneous artifacts of silver,
copper, and gold. Local collectors also have
collections of glass beads from the site, many of which
date from the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Five majolica sherds are mounted in one of the frames
from the Burnworth collection. These sherds, identified
by Bonnie G. McEwan, include one sherd each of Columbia
Plain (probably late form, ca. 1550-1650); probable
Mexico City White (ca. 1550-1600S); Aucilla Polychrome
(ca. 1650-1700); Puebla Polychrome (ca. 1650-1725); and


48
The Pottery Hill site is a previously unrecorded
site near Dade City. The site originally had a mound
which was levelled with a bulldozer many years ago.
Local informants claimed that this mound was flat-
topped, about 2 m high, and about 12 m across (William
G. Dayton, personal communication 1986).
A habitation area is located adjacent to the
supposed mound site. Surface collections from this area
contained many projectile points, including specimens of
the Pinellas, Tampa, Hernando, Bolen, Lafayette, Newnan,
and Florida Archaic Stemmed types (Bullen 1975).
Pottery consisted of Pasco Plain, sand tempered plain,
St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Prairie Cord
Marked, and Safety Harbor Incised. Various lithic
artifacts and Busvcon fragments were also recovered.
The artifacts indicate a Safety Harbor component at the
site, with possible earlier components. Several low
burial mounds (8Pa9), which were destroyed in 1946, were
located less than .75 km north of Pottery Hill, and may
have been associated (see discussion of 8Pa9 above).
Another site, the Evans Creek site (8Pal68), is
located about 1.6 km away. Local informants report that
Pinellas projectile points and Safety Harbor pottery
types were surface-collected from this site (William G.
Dayton, personal communication 1986).


525
Alabama (Walthall 1980:238). Therefore, both ranges
appear to be invalid. It is hoped that the radiocarbon
date from the copper-covered wood baton will help to
clarify the dating of the construction of the precontact
stratum. At present, the only statement that can be
made is that the initial construction probably happened
some time after Cal. AD 775.
Three of the radiocarbon samples were collected
from contexts immediately above Feature #6. Two of
these (Beta-15496 and 19825) were charred wood, and one
(Beta-19824) was part of a large Busycon shell cup.
Calibrated age ranges for the charcoal samples were Cal.
AD 1003-1192 (Beta-15496) and Cal. AD 1280-1393 (Beta-
19825) The uncalibrated shell range is A.D. 920-1040.
These samples are difficult to interpret because it is
impossible to determine whether they were associated
with the precontact or postcontact occupation. The fact
that all of them were found atop the dark feature would
normally suggest that they were associated with the
postcontact occupation. If this is true, all three are
probably invalid.
The Beta-19825 sample may have resulted from a
visit to the mound during the interval between the two
construction episodes, however. The shell cup may have
been left atop the mound by the precontact population or


453
Table 57. European (Pre-Seminole) Metal Artifacts
from the Tatham Mound.
Field Soecimen Count
Description
F.S. 37 1
Drilled .999 silver rod (Possibly
associated with Burial #2)
1
Unidentified iron object
(Possible chain mail rings)
F.S. 55 2
Barrel-shaped .999 silver beads
F.S. 58 1
.999 silver socketed celt effigy
Burial #2
pendant
F.S. 60 1
Iron armor plate
Burial #7 1
Rolled iron bead (Made from armor
plate)
F.S. 64 1
Iron chisel (Square cross-
section)
1
Iron spike
2
Unidentified iron fragments
1
Rolled sheet 22K gold bead
33
Small silver disc beads (17 are
.925 silver)
1
Rolled sheet brass or bronze
bead*
F.S. 88 1
Iron spike or nail fragment
F.S. 90 1
Sheet brass or bronze fragment*
F.S. 93 1
Small .925 silver disc bead
Burial #27


479
immediately beneath the bones. At least one cluster of
beads was located beneath the innominates.
Burial #133. This burial consists of the remains
of at least two individuals. These were recovered from
directly beneath Feature #10, the circular copper plate.
One of the individuals was an infant, which was at least
partially articulated at the time of burial. The other
individual was apparently a juvenile. It is possible
that the juvenile remains are part of Burial #93, but
this cannot be determined based on the available data.
Discussion. All of the burials described above
were within a 2.25 m by 2.5 m area in the center of the
primary (precontact) mound. This includes the possible
trophy skulls mentioned in connection with Burial #105.
It should be noted that the copper plate (Feature #10),
along with Burial #133, was located directly between
Burials #102 and 105. It was no more than 5 cm east of
the right arm of Burial #105, and about 25 cm west of
the right humerus of Burial #102.
The burials and associated artifacts appear to have
been interred in a single episode. The spatial
arrangement of the burials is of interest, especially
when the types of artifacts are considered. The
presence of copper artifacts is particularly
significant. Many researchers have noted that copper


461
1988:53). The object covered by the gold did not
survive.
All copper and copper alloy objects from the mound
were tested for the presence of tin or zinc by Jonathan
M. Leader. A Koslow machine (Metal ID Set #1899, Koslow
Corporation) was used to determine presence or absence
of these elements. All of the copper alloy artifacts
from the postcontact stratum were found to be either
brass (zinc and copper) or bronze (tin and copper).
Several of the artifacts contained both zinc and tin.
The presence of these metals indicates that they are
made from non-native raw materials (Mitchem and Leader
1988:49), probably of European origin. Leader was able
to determine that all of the rolled brass or bronze
beads were produced by native craftsmen (Mitchem and
Leader 1988:54). Fragments of a plate recovered from
Burial #57 were the only non-alloyed copper artifacts
from the postcontact stratum.
Several iron artifacts were recovered from the
postcontact stratum. Two of these artifacts were
recovered with Burial #7 (an elderly female), and
consisted of a partial armor plate and a rolled bead
made from one end of this (Figure 25). The plate was
held in the individual's right hand, and the bead was
worn around the neck. The plate is 10 cm long and 5 cm


163
A complex consisting of a platform mound (8Mal3), a
burial mound (8Mal4), and an associated midden (8Mal5)
is present on Harbor Key near Bishop Harbor. These
three sites were investigated by Bullen et al. (1952),
who collected small artifact samples from two of the
sites. The rectangular platform mound, measuring about
6.1 m high, had a flat top measuring 29 m northeast to
southwest and 13 m west-northwest to east-southeast, and
had a ramp on the west side. The basal measurements
were 42 m by 29 m (Burger 1979:96). Two secondary
burials were recovered from the lower portion of the
ramp (Bullen et al. 1952:21).
The sand burial mound was 12.2 m in diameter, and
had been badly disturbed at the time of discovery. The
platform mound ramp may have pointed towards the
vicinity of this mound (the published description
contains contradictory information), which was southwest
of the platform mound (1952:22). A ridge-like shell
midden (8Mal5) was located adjacent to the burial mound.
Exact measurements were not recorded, but Bullen et al.
(1952:22) mentioned that it did not exceed a few feet in
height.
Two small collections (#99386 and 99467) from the
site complex are in FMNH. These are listed in Table 21.
One collection (#99467) is labeled as coming from 8Mal5,


133
beads similar to drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee
Blue) beads (#35335) were also recovered in Hillsborough
County (1937:32). These types date to the late
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Deagan 1987:171-
175, 180; Smith 1987:31-33), so the sites from which
they came were undoubtedly Safety Harbor sites. It
should be noted that the boundaries of Hillsborough
County have changed substantially since Walker's work in
the area in the late nineteenth century, so some of the
beads could have come from sites in what is now Pinellas
County, most notably the Bayview/Seven Oaks (8P7/8P8)
site (Walker 1880a:410).
Notes in Goggin's site file in FMNH include a
number of other descriptions of collections from sites
near Tampa Bay (some of these may actually be outside of
present-day Hillsborough County). In NMNH, he
identified a number of artifacts from S. T. Walker's
work in the Tampa Bay area. These were identified only
as "near Tampa Bay." The catalog numbers are 35323-
35327 and 35590-35592, and include Pinellas Incised,
Pinellas Plain, Fort Walton Incised, and glazed European
sherds with green and white designs on them.
A collection from a "shell mound on the east shore
of Tampa Bay" was also in NMNH (#45804). The artifacts
were collected by E. Ingersoll from a mound that was


96
The Madelaine Key site (8P1265) is a shell midden
from which nine sherds of Pinellas Plain, one Pasco
Plain, and one sand tempered plain sherd have been
recovered, along with a single chert flake. The
Pinellas Plain may indicate a Safety Harbor component at
the site.
Collections in FMNH from two unnumbered sites in
Pinellas County reveal additional evidence of Safety
Harbor occupation. A collection from the Bennett Mound
(FMNH #103457) was donated by George Cantlin in 1960.
The collection includes fiber tempered ware, Perico
Punctated, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Incised, sand
tempered plain, and Pinellas Plain sherds, with both
notched and plain lips. The pottery types indicated a
multicomponent site spanning late Archaic, Manasota, and
Safety Harbor time periods.
A small surface collection (#98448) from the
Carleton Estates site was donated to FMNH by Lyman 0.
Warren in 1963. Included are 6/3 Pinellas Plain sherds
and 2/1 sand tempered plain sherds. Significantly, all
three of the Pinellas Plain rim sherds have notched
lips, indicating a Safety Harbor site.
Some notes in a site file compiled by John M.
Goggin in FMNH indicate that a collection in NMNH
(#330621 and 330623) was collected by David I. Bushnell


322
Preliminary interpretations were presented in a
report authored by the field directors and field school
students (Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985). At the time,
the profile of the eastern edge was believed to
accurately reflect the composition of the mound. On the
basis of the stratigraphic evidence, it was determined
that the original humus had been scraped away, then a
small, low mound had been constructed, possibly covering
some inital burials or used as a substructure for a
charnel structure. Atop this primary mound, two
episodes of mound construction were hypothesized. As
mentioned above, the east side ramp was not recognized
at that time. Subsequent field seasons substantially
altered these interpretations of the mound's
construction. A possible ramp was observed in the
profiles of the unit on the west side. All of the
stratigraphic evidence from the mound is discussed in
detail in a later section of this chapter.
The presence of the pottery concentrations, Busycon
cups, and the vessel and associated cup suggests that
one or more ceremonies involving the use of black drink
(tea brewed from Ilex vomitoria) had been performed atop
the mound after the final construction episode, but
prior to its abandonment. The fact that many of these
artifacts were covered by only a few centimeters of


482
embossed copper plate from the mound depicts the lower
half of a dancing human figure (Goggin 1949d:Figure 11).
From Mt. Royal, a copper object was recovered which
is identical to the earspool from Burial #105 (Moore
1894b:142, Figure 7). At least one copper plume hair
ornament was recovered from a mound at Lake Jackson
(Jones 1982:18), one of the most important Mississippian
Period ceremonial centers. It can be assumed that the
Tatham population obtained copper items through exchange
with the inhabitants of one or more of these sites.
Lake Jackson was probably a manufacturing center for
such artifacts, so the objects may have been produced
there (Jonathan M. Leader, personal communication 1988).
Even if they were produced elsewhere, they probably
passed through the site in the exchange network.
If the precontact burials at Tatham represent high-
status individuals, it is unclear whether several high-
status people died at one time, or whether some of the
burials represent relatives, slaves, or other people
sacrificed at the death of an important individual.
However, the data indicate that the mound was a
patterned burial mound in which burials were interred in
a single episode, as opposed to a mass burial or
continuous use type of mound (Sears 1958a:276-277).


155
Stamped, 3/1 sand tempered plain (the rim sherd was well
smoothed), and 1/0 Belle Glade Plain were curated at
Ocmulgee National Monument (ONM) in Macon, Georgia (#41-
519/82, now at the Southeast Archeological Center of the
National Park Service [SEAC-NPS], Tallahassee).
Two small samples from the site are in the FMNH
collection, one (#82133-82134) of which was transferred
from NMNH in 1941, and the other (#99374) from FPS in
1954. It is unlikely that these were included in
Willey's (1949a:154) study. The artifacts from both
collections are listed in Table 20.
Willey (1949a:154-155, Plate 54B) also listed and
illustrated a variety of stone tools from the mound,
including Archaic and Paleo projectile points. A number
of chert flakes were present in the mound fill, and 14
Busvcon cups (many intentionally perforated) were
recovered (Stirling 1935:382; Willey I949a:155).
Several of the burials were surrounded by ochre-stained
sand.
European materials were rare. Most of them were
accompanying the single cremation, which Willey
(1949a:155) believed was an intrusive burial. However,
Stirling mentioned "a few small glass beads, mostly blue
or white in color, and a short blunt iron chisel"
(1935:382), which were apparently recovered from the


185
2/1 Safety Harbor Incised, and 1/0 Belle Glade Plain
like sherds. A cut deer metapodial and a bone pin or
point fragment are also present. B. William Burger
(personal communication 1988) made another surface
collection when the site was recently cleared, and
reported three sherds of Jefferson Complicated Stamped,
10 late style Olive Jar, a possible sherd of Columbia
Plain majolica, and numerous sherds of Pinellas Plain,
including many notched lips. Recent test excavations
recovered Olive Jar and Mission Period aboriginal sherds
(Burger 1988:5). The ceramics leave no doubt that the
site has a Safety Harbor component, probably
postcontact. The European materials may be associated
with nineteenth century Cuban fisheries, however.
In 1981, Mr. "Boots" Johnson, who lived near Boots
Point, described a mound that he called the Boots Point
Temple Mound, which was previously on the end of the
point. His father bought this in 1896 and reportedly
found five wagon wheels and a barrel of sails in the top
of the mound, which he believed were of Spanish origin
(Boots Johnson, personal communication 1981). This
description probably refers to the Boots Point Midden,
which was previously very large, as mentioned above.
These artifacts, as well as the artifacts collected by
Burger, could date from the occupation of a Cuban


11
the sherd in question is probably actually Crystal River
Incised (Willey 1949a:389), a Swift Creek type which
resembles Safety Harbor Incised.
At the Kenny Land site (8D103), they recovered one
sherd of Pinellas Incised or Safety Harbor Incised. The
other artifacts from the site clearly indicate that it
is an Alachua Tradition midden (Kohler and Johnson
1986:25), so the single sherd is probably a result of
exchange.
A third site mentioned by Kohler and Johnson
(1986:26) remains unrecorded, but local collectors found
Weedn Island, Alachua Tradition, possible Fort Walton,
and Safety Harbor pottery types on the surface. They
illustrated five sherds (1986:Figures 3 and 4) which
appear to be Safety Harbor types (Safety Harbor or
Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised), but the
failure to relocate the site and to obtain better
samples precludes assigning a cultural affiliation to
the site.
In the collections of the South Florida Museum
(SFM) in Bradenton there is an engraved bottle (#2328),
reportedly from Dixie County, with red ochre rubbed into
the engraved designs. A Safety Harbor Incised bottle
from the Tierra Verde site (8P51) in Pinellas County
had ochre rubbed into the incisions (Sears 1967:46).
However, red pigmented engraved (rather than incised)


571
3, this volume). Sites of the Bayview Phase very rare
or nonexistent, probably a result of depopulation and
displacement in the early sixteenth century.
Little is known about subsistence systems in the
northern region. Several riverine middens and small
middens deep in the swamps have been identified in the
Cove of the Withlacoochee area (Mitchem and Weisman
1987) Some maize was apparently grown in the area,
though not in large quantities (Smith 1968:37).
The identification of the Withlacoochee River as
the northern boundary of the Safety Harbor culture area
and of the Northern Safety Harbor regional variant is
supported by archaeological and ethnohistoric evidence.
Gary Shapiro (1986) discussed the fact that rivers
tended to be used as boundaries in Florida during
Mississippian times, whereas rivers in the interior
Southeast were generally centers of Mississippian
polities. He found that this model was supported by
site distributions in the Apalachee area in northern
Florida. One factor that explains the use of rivers as
boundaries is the fact that Florida rivers do not flood
and deposit alluvium annually.
In the Withlacoochee region, the distribution of
late prehistoric and early postcontact sites clearly
reflects the boundary nature of the river. South of the


229
recovered no artifacts. Since the Yellow Bluffs-
Whitaker Mound included a Safety Harbor component, the
Acacias Midden may also.
The Laurel Mound (8So98) was located near the coast
in the town of Laurel (Luer and Almy 1987). Originally
2.1 m high and 10.7 m in diameter, the sand mound was
excavated by a local resident, J. E. Moore, in 1932.
His excavations revealed four separate strata, in
addition to a submound feature covered with red ochre,
which contained burials (a similar feature was found at
the Englewood Mound [8Sol]). Extended burials were also
present in the upper portions of the mound (Luer and
Almy 1987:304).
The pottery from the site was definitely Safety
Harbor Incised and probable St. Johns Check Stamped
(Luer and Almy 1987:306). Vessel forms included
probable bottles, beakers, boat-shaped vessels, and
bowls (the presumed St. Johns Check Stamped specimen was
very large). The vessels were generally basally
perforated, and some had red paint in the interiors.
Decoration included human effigy adornos, "scroll work,"
and at least one example of a bottle with three human
hands and bent arms incised on the exterior (1987:306).
A small projectile point and a polished greenstone
plummet were also mentioned in Moore's notes (1987:306).


633
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Jonathan M. Leader
1988 Early Sixteenth Century Beads from the Tatham
Mound, Citrus County, Florida: Data and
Interpretations. The Florida Anthropologist 41:42-
60.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Marvin T. Smith, Albert C.
Goodyear, and Robert R. Allen
1985 Early Spanish Contact on the Florida Gulf Coast:
The Weeki Wachee and Ruth Smith Mounds. In Indians.
Colonists, and Slaves: Essays in Memory of Charles
H. Fairbanks, edited by Kenneth W. Johnson, Jonathan
M. Leader, and Robert C. Wilson, pp. 179-219.
Florida Journal of Anthropology Special Publication
No. 4. Florida Anthropology Student Association,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Brent R. Weisman
1984 Excavations at the Ruth Smith Mound (8C200).
The Florida Anthropologist 37:100-112.
1987 Changing Settlement Patterns and Pottery Types y'Z
in the Withlacoochee Cove. The Florida
Anthropologist 40:154-166.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Brent R. Weisman, Donna L. Ruhl,
Jenette Saveli, Laura Sellers, and Lisa Sharik
1985 Preliminary Report on Excavations at the Tatham
Mound (8-C-203). Citrus Countv. Florida: Season I.
Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 23.
Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum,
Gainesville.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and James M. Welch
1983 Ceramics. In Mitiaative Excavations at the South
Prono I Site, 8-H-418. and the Cates Site. 8-Hi-
425, Hillsborough Countv. Florida, by James M.
Welch, pp. 141-166. Archaeological Report No. 13.
Department of Anthropology, University of South
Florida, Tampa.
Monroe, Elizabeth B., Sharon Wells, and Marion Almy
1982 Historical. Architectural, and Archaeological
Survey of Sarasota. Florida. Miscellaneous Project
Report Series No. 51. Florida Division of Archives,
History and Records Management, Bureau of Historic
Sites and Properties, Tallahassee.


255
each other out in samples from this area. Uncorrected
calendrical dates of the radiocarbon determinations are
A.D. 805 50, A.D. 935 65, and A.D. 1040 60,
respectively. The dates, when combined with the
artifactual evidence, indicate that the mound is an
early Safety Harbor burial mound. It should be noted,
however, that radiocarbon dates from shell have proven
very unreliable in some cases (David Hurst Thomas,
personal communication 1987).
The state-owned Acline Mound (8Ch69) is a shell and
sand mound about 2 km south of Aqui Esta. It has two
peaks on the summit, connected on the north side of the
mound, but separated by a gully on the south side. The
mound slopes steeply on the north side, with a gentler
slope on the south side (Luer and Archibald 1988). It
is about 4 m high. At least seven shell heaps are
nearby, many along the banks of Alligator Creek. Sand
tempered plain sherds are the only pottery type
recovered from these middens (Luer et al. n.d.).
Artifacts from the Acline Mound include 52 sand
tempered plain, 22 Belle Glade Plain, and four Pinellas
Plain sherds, along with several shell tools or utilized
shells (Luer et al. n.d.). Unfortunately, no temporally
diagnostic artifacts were collected. The mound could be
either a Safety Harbor or Weeden Island-related mound,


Figure 27
Burial #60 from the Tatham Mound.


148
The Parrish Mound #1 (8Mal) was a 1.5 m high sand
mound measuring 13.4 m north-south and 11.6 m east-west.
A total of 27 secondary burials were encountered, and
the excavators were informed that the remains of at
least 16 individuals had been removed by previous
diggers (Stirling 1935:378; Willey 1949a:143).
Pottery from the mound clearly indicated a Safety
Harbor occupation, with no evidence of Weeden Island-
related admixture (Willey 1949a:144). Collections in
NMNH (#383190-383238), FMNH (#82131 and 99373), and FSU
include Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, St. Johns
Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain, Belle Glade Plain, Lamar
Complicated Stamped, and sand tempered plain sherds and
whole vessels (Willey 1949a:144). Stirling (1935:379)
mentioned that notching or ticking of lips was very
common on the rim sherds from the site.
Ten or 11 Pinellas and Tampa projectile points were
found (Willey 1949a:145, Plate 56), along with between
three and six Busvcon cups and several worked shell
objects (Stirling 1935:379; Willey 1949a:145). The
discrepancies in numbers are due to differing artifact
counts reported in the two accounts.
A large number of European artifacts were
recovered, many accompanying burials. Stirling
(1935:379) indicated that the provenience of many of the


Figure 10
Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, and Belle Glade
Plain-Like Ceramics from the Tatham Hound.
Top: Pasco Plain.
Bottom (1 to r): St. Johns Plain with rim
appendages; Belle Glade Plain-like jar.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


92
shell midden (8P225) on the shore of Tampa Bay
(Goodyear 1972:29) or to another mound (8P13 or 8P30).
The Oak Bluffs site (8P115) was recorded in 1976.
Aboriginal ceramics and lithic artifacts from the midden
resulted in a designation of Weeden Island-related
and/or Safety Harbor cultural affiliation. No other
data are available.
A site known as the Florida Presbyterian College
Midden (8P120), recorded by the Suncoast Archaeological
Society, is identified on the FMSF form as having a
Safety Harbor component. The location of the site
indicated that the middens were probably part of the
Maximo Point site (8P9 and 8P31) The site form
mentioned that Spanish artifacts have been found on the
surface. These were probably related to the Cuban
fishing operations in the Maximo Point area from 1843
until the 1860s (Williams 1979:3). No other artifactual
information is provided on the site form.
The Blossom Way midden (8P225) is listed in the
FMSF as containing Paleo, Archaic, and Safety Harbor
lithic and ceramic artifacts. The site is a sand and
shell midden. It may have been connected to the
Hirrihigua Mound (8P108) by a sand and shell causeway.
The Avoca site (8P236) is a multicomponent
artifact scatter discovered by Ric McDonnell. It


539
into category Al, as Smith (1987:119-120) has noted that
these may have replaced such sociotechnic display items
as stone celts in the interior Southeast. The primary
criterion for this category is that the artifacts were
not altered and were used in the same manner as their
native counterparts (White 1975:156).
Category B1 includes types of artifacts present in
the recipient culture prior to contact where imported
material is substituted for local materials, but no
change occurs in manufacturing techniques. At Tatham,
the silver disc beads, the drilled silver rod beads, the
silver celt effigy pendant, the rolled iron bead, and
the rolled sheet beads of gold, silver, and copper alloy
fall into this category. In the case of the silver disc
and rod beads and the celt pendant, native shellworking
techniques were used to work the metal into bead or
pendant forms (Mitchem and Leader 1988:54). Some slight
alterations of techniques may have been necessary (such
as hammering the metal before cutting into disc bead
preforms), but there is no evidence of major changes.
The rolled metal beads were produced using techniques
employed in the production of rolled sheet beads of
native copper. Again, minor changes in technique may
have been necessary.


42
assemblage is remarkably similar to those recovered from
the Ruth Smith and Tatham mounds in Citrus County
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:27-34, 1987:48-55; Mitchem,
Smith et al. 1985:204-205). The Weeki Wachee Mound was
apparently an isolated burial mound, with no associated
habitation area. This appears to be a typical pattern
in the region north of Tampa Bay (Mitchem 1988d).
A site known as Anderson's Mound (8Hel4) was
destroyed by treasure hunters. Excavations prior to
destruction yielded a beaker-shaped vessel with vertical
bands of parallel incised lines in a zigzag pattern
(probably a variant of Englewood Incised), a stone
plummet, and a ground stone celt fragment (William G.
Dayton, personal communication 1986). The FMNH site
file also records that a sherd of Englewood Incised and
a blue glass bead were recovered after the mound's
destruction. This bead was a heat-altered opaque
turquoise blue specimen (Ichtucknee Blue). These first
show up in sites in the Southeast around 1560 or 1570,
but are occasionally found on sites dating as late as
the eighteenth century (Deagan 1987:171; Goggin 1953a;
Smith 1983:150, 1987:33). Local informants claim that
many similar beads were recovered from the mound. The
scant evidence from the site suggests that it was a


600
The key to the resolution of most of the above
issues is the need for accurate data from undisputed
Calusa burial places, if such sites can be found (in
undisturbed condition). At present, there are no
excavated sites that have been identified as definite
Calusa burial mounds. Perhaps this indicates that
Widmer is partially correct, that the Calusa were using
Safety Harbor material culture items in their mortuary
sites.
Directions for Future Research
A number of aspects of Safety Harbor Culture need
to be systematically studied to further knowledge and
understanding of west peninsular Florida archaeology and
history. These are presented here as suggestions for
topics to be included in research designs of future
projects studying Safety Harbor sites or collections.
One topic which needs much work is the ceramic
typology for Safety Harbor. The entire system of types
defined by Willey (1949a:472-475, 479-486) needs to be
revised, perhaps using a type-variety system like Scarry
(1985) devised for Fort Walton ceramics. However,
Englewood and Safety Harbor types should not be included
in Scarry's system as he proposed, because this leads to
the incorrect assumption that Safety Harbor is subsumed


248
Glades Tooled sherds in the uppermost levels. A single
sherd identified as Fort Walton Incised was also
recovered from the top stratum. From an unrecorded
provenience, 5/0 Olive Jar sherds (FMNH #96159 and
96196) were excavated. A few sherds of Englewood
Incised were also present (Bullen and Bullen 1956:Table
5).
These ceramic types indicate that a probable Safety
Harbor component is present. Postcontact occupation is
indicated by the Jefferson Ware and Olive Jar sherds.
One sherd in the FMNH collection (#96159) from the site
appears to be the base of a Colono Ware vessel, shaped
like an albarelo, a Spanish drug jar form (Deagan
1987:187; Lister and Lister 1976:13). This supports
Bullen and Bullen's (1956:48) contention that the site
was occupied for a time by refugee Indians from north
Florida after the destruction of the missions in 1704.
The Cape Haze site (8Ch48), a shell midden on the
southeastern side of the peninsula, extends for about
1.2 km along the shore. It is 45.7 m wide and about 1.5
m high. A card in the FMNH site file indicates that a
large collection of water-worn sherds was collected from
the site (present location unknown). These are listed
in Table 34. The presence of Pinellas Plain and Olive
Jar, along with the late pottery type Glades Tooled,


630
Merritt, J. Donald
1983 Beyond the Town Walls: The Indian Element in
Colonial St. Augustine. In Spanish St. Augustine;
The Archaeology of a Colonial Creole Community, by
Kathleen Deagan, pp. 125-147. Academic Press, New
York.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1971 The Alachua Tradition of North-Central Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum,
Anthropology & History No. 17. University of
Florida, Gainesville.
1972 Excavations at the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound,
Sarasota, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 25:21-
41.
1973 The Southeastern Deptford Culture: A Preliminary
Definition. Florida Bureau of Historic Sites and
Properties Bulletin 3:51-63.
1979 Origins and Prehistoric Distributions of Black
Drink and the Ceremonial Shell Drinking Cup. In
Black Drink: A Native American Tea, edited by
Charles M. Hudson, pp. 83-119. University of Georgia
Press, Athens.
1987 Hernando de Soto and the Expedition in La
Florida. Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 32.
Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum,
Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T., Jefferson Chapman, Ann S. Cordell,
Stephen Hale, and Rochelle A. Marrinan
1984 Prehistoric Development of Calusa Society in
Southwest Florida: Excavations on Useppa Island. In
Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory, edited by
Dave D. Davis, pp. 258-314. Ripley P. Bullen
Monographs in Anthropology and History No. 5.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon James
Knight, Jr., Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-
Lavelle
1984 McKeithen Weeden Island: The Culture of Northern
Florida. A. D. 200-900. Academic Press, Orlando.
Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.


496
inflicted by an edged metal weapon, most probably a
sword.
During the first field season, the distal portion
of a left humerus was recovered which exhibited a
smoothly cut surface about halfway through, with the
rest of the surface broken. Dr. William R. Maples, FMNH
forensic anthropologist, looked at this specimen and
noted that the wound was typical of those produced by
edged metal weapons, such as swords. Blows from such
weapons tend to cut part way through, followed by a
wedge-like effect, causing the remaining portion to
break off. Such a wound would not be produced by an
aboriginal weapon such as a stone-tipped spear or axe.
This particular bone was probably cut by a sideways blow
toward the body (William R. Maples, personal
communication 1985; Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985:20).
During the second season, another cut bone was
recovered. This was a right scapula with the acromion
process cut cleanly off (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986:37). Such a wound would be typical of a downward
blow from behind with a sword (William R. Maples,
personal communication 1985).
Some other possible cut bones were recovered during
the excavations, but no unequivocal specimens like the
above two examples were found. It is possible that the


609
1979b Historic Artifacts and Sociocultural Change:
Some Warnings from the Lower Mississippi Valley.
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers
13:109-121.
Brown, James A.
1971a The Dimensions of Status in the Burials at
Spiro. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of
Mortuary Practices, edited by James A. Brown, pp.
92-112. Memoir No. 25. Society for American
Archaeology, Washington, D. C.
1971b Introduction. In Approaches to the Social
Dimensions of Mortuary Practices, edited by James A.
Brown, pp. 1-5. Memoir No. 25. Society for American
Archaeology, Washington, D. C.
1976 The Southern Cult Reconsidered. Midcontinental
Journal of Archaeology 1:115-135.
1981 The Search for Rank in Prehistoric Burials. In
The Archaeology of Death, edited by Robert Chapman,
Ian Kinnes, and Klavs Randsborg, pp. 25-37.
Cambridge University Press, New York.
Brown, M. L.
1980 Firearms in Colonial America: The Impact on
History and Technology. 1492-1792. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
Browning, William D.
1973 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
Florida Power and Light Company Manatee Power Plant.
Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 6. Florida
Division of Archives, History and Records
Management, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties,
Tallahassee.
1975 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
International Mineral and Chemical Company Kinqsford
Plant in Hillsborough Countv. Florida. Miscellaneous
Project Report Series No. 24. Florida Division of
Archives, History and Records Management, Bureau of
Historic Sites and Properties, Tallahassee.
Bullen, Adelaide K.
1972 Paleoepidemiology and Distribution of
Prehistoric Treponemiasis (Syphilis) in Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 25:133-174.


303
Putnam Countv. Moore (1894a:Plate VII[2])
illustrated part of a Sarasota Incised vessel from the
Mt. Royal site (8Pu35), a famous Mississippian site in
Putnam County. The presence of the Sarasota Incised
vessel probably represents contact with Safety Harbor
groups to the west. The Mt. Royal site also yielded a
number of copper artifacts, many with Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex designs on them, indicating that the
local residents were interacting with other
Mississippian Period populations (Goodman 1984:42-43).
According to Goggin (1952:111), Clarence B. Moore
recovered at least one sherd of Point Washington Incised
pottery from the Davenport Mound (8Pu50). This specimen
is in the RSPF collection (#39327).
Sumter Countv. A search of the site files and
examination of FMNH collections revealed only one
possible Safety Harbor site from Sumter County. This
was the Indian Hill Church Mound (8Sm65), a burial mound
which was destroyed a number of years ago. St. Johns
Check Stamped, Pasco Plain, and sand tempered plain
sherds (and possibly intact vessels) were found in the
mound, and a local informant reported seeing shell cups,
shell beads, and projectile points when the mound was
excavated (John Knight, personal communication 1985.) .
The artifact types are not diagnostic, but could


257
The Pinellas Plain with a notched lip suggests that the
site had some Safety Harbor occupation.
The A&W Mound was an unrecorded sand burial mound
about 1.5 km north of Aqui Esta (Luer et al. n.d.). It
was destroyed by construction of a restaurant, but
collectors in the 1940s reported burials, pottery, and
European glass beads from the site (Anita Jones,
personal communication 1988).
In the SFM collections, there are several vessels
from Charlotte County. Two of these are Safety Harbor
types. One is a large, flattened globular Safety Harbor
Incised bowl (#2373), and the other is a jar with an
incised design and a notched lip and flared rim
(#A7374). No record exists of the original provenience
of these vessels, though they were probably obtained by
Montague Tallant. The second vessel (#A7374) may
actually be from Marion County.
Lee County
Several sites in Lee County have yielded Safety
Harbor pottery and other artifacts. At present, the
nature of Safety Harbor occupation in the area is not
understood. This portion of Florida is generally
considered to have been occupied by the Calusa Indians
in the sixteenth century (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964;


527
The problem with Beta-15498 is especially clear,
because both this sample and Beta-15497 (the bone
sample) came from the same provenience, a cremation of a
single individual (Burial #54). This individual had
several gold and silver beads in direct association.
Some of the silver beads showed the effects of burning,
signifying that the burial was definitely postcontact.
The calibrated date range of the bone sample fits with
the known dates of the European beads.
In summary, the attempted chronometric dating of
the various portions of the mound yielded results which
were generally disappointing. It appears that the first
episode of mound construction began after A.D. 775, most
probably during the period of A.D. 1200-1450. The only
portion of the mound that can be confidently dated is
the top stratum containing the majority of the burials.
This component definitely dates after A.D. 1525, based
on the associated glass bead types (Deagan 1987:163;
Smith 1983). The location of the site and some of the
specific bead varieties enable us to cautiously suggest
a post-1539 date for the stratum.
Interpretations
Many of the interpretations based on the
archaeological evidence from Tatham were presented in


578
Englewood Incised and Safety Harbor Incised appear
to be the most common Safety Harbor pottery types
recovered from mortuary sites in the area. Pinellas
Incised, Sarasota Incised, and St. Johns Check Stamped
have also been recovered frequently. The majority of
European artifacts from the area are late sixteenth or
seventeenth century varieties, which is consistent with
the knowledge that Menndez visited the area in the
1560s (Solis de Mers 1964). However, a few early
sixteenth century European artifacts are known from
sites there.
The most important question to be resolved in this
region is what are the relationships between the known
Calusa occupation of the area in the mid-sixteenth
century and the Safety Harbor assemblages found on some
archaeological sites. Several plausible explanations
can be proposed as testable hypotheses, but problem-
oriented excavations are needed to address them. These
alternatives are discussed in a later portion of this
chapter.
Of the five proposed regional variants of Safety
Harbor Culture, the Inland and South Florida variants
are the least known and most poorly understood. This is
mostly the result of a lack of scientific, problem-
oriented archaeology in these areas until recently.


334
As in the first season, no vessels were directly
associated with individual burials.
A much wider variety of stone artifacts was
recovered during the second season. Additional Pinellas
points were excavated (bringing the total to 70), as
well as a heavily patinated Bradford projectile point, a
type generally recovered in Weeden Island-related
contexts (Bullen 1975:14). A ground stone celt and a
ground and polished pendant, both of non-Florida stone,
were also found. Two quartz crystal pendants were
excavated. These stone artifacts were not recovered
from individual burials. Many chert flakes were
recovered, as well as several core fragments.
More than 79 fragments of red ochre were recovered,
but no individual burials were surrounded with ochre.
Many miscellaneous pebbles and concretions were
encountered.
The remains of about 14 Busvcon shell cups were
recovered during the second season. As in the first
season, these were found very near the present mound
surface. Additional shell beads were excavated, most
with burials.
A secondary burial of more than one individual
(#48) had a stack of three freshwater mussel shells in
association. These were identified by Kurt Auffenberg


Figure 14
Reconstructed St. Johns Check Stamped and Sand
Tempered Plain Vessels from the Tatham Mound.
Top: St. Johns Check Stamped.
Bottom: Sand Tempered Plain.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


262
Table 37. Artifacts from Mound Key (8LL2) at UPM.
Description Count
Glass:
O Chevron beads 8
Blue beads (strung with Florida Cut Crystal beads) 2
Seed beads (blue, yellow, white, and undescribed) many
Various sizes amber beads (unclear whether these
are true amber or amber-colored glass), some
faceted, some gilded, shaped like
truncated cones 2
Teardrop-shaped melted green-blue pendant 1
"Punta Rassa" teardrop-shaped blue-green pendants,
possibly mold-made 2
Teardrop-shaped colorless pendant, flat on 1 side,
faceted on other 1
Miscellaneous broken object, shaped like a
fleur-de-lis 1
Lapidary Beads:
0 Florida Cut Crystal 4 strings
Smooth surface crystal beads 1 string
Tubular white coral bead 1
Metal:
Copper plummet pendant
1


114
lost. Descriptions of some of the pottery indicated
that punctated, red slipped, and limestone tempered
sherds were present, suggesting Weeden Island-related
and Safety Harbor occupation (1952b:29-30). The mention
of a triangular arrow point (a Pinellas point) also
indicated a possible Safety Harbor component.
The Branch Mound (8H10) was located near Cypress
Creek about 9.7 km from the Cagnini Mound. The sand
mound measured about 12.2-15.2 m in diameter, with a
maximum height of 0.6 m (Bullen 1952b:31-33; Simpson
1937:115). It was excavated by a WPA crew in 1936, and
six burials were recovered. Two secondary (bundle) and
two semi-flexed burials were present, along with a
cremation and an isolated skull (Bullen 1952b:32).
Artifacts from the mound included stone tools,
projectile points, a few sherds, a partial vessel, and
five small glass beads (1952b:32). Four projectile
points are in the FMNH collection (#102470), but these
are all Archaic types. Unfortunately, the present
location of the rest of the artifacts is not known, but
Bullen indicated that the description of one sherd as
decorated and having a lug handle suggested a Safety
Harbor type (1952b:32). This, when considered along
with the presence of glass beads, indicates a probable
postcontact Safety Harbor component at the mound. The


21
A check of the FMNH collections from these sites (#96065
and 99318; 96067; and 94676, 96071, and 99319,
respectively) yielded no definite evidence of Safety
Harbor occupation, however.
The Wash Island site (8C42) is also listed as
having a Safety Harbor component. This site was surface
collected and excavated by Bullen and Bullen (1961,
1963). Their collections indicated a primarily Deptford
occupation, but the presence of Pinellas Plain sherds,
including one rim with a notched lip (the later form of
this type) suggests a minor Safety Harbor component as
well (Bullen and Bullen 1963:84).
The Gard site (8C51), a burial mound on Rendevous
(sic) Island in the Homosassa River, was excavated by
Bullen (1951b). At least 11 burials were found, all
secondary interments (1951b:28). Few artifacts were
recovered, but the pottery included St. Johns Plain and
Check Stamped, Prairie Cord Marked, and a Lake Jackson
Plain rim with a loop handle. A greenstone celt, two
bifacial chipped tools, and a Busvcon shell bead were
also recovered. Bullen (1951b:31) thought that the
mound was Safety Harbor in date, with a possible late
Weeden Island-related component. This seems reasonable
based on the few artifacts available.
The Pumpkin Creek site (8C57), a small midden on
the Chassahowitzka River, was originally recorded as


Figure 11
St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Double bowl.
Bottom: Small bowls.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


259
The next mention of the site was by Hrdlicka
(1922:18-19). He probably did not excavate. John
Goggin visited the island, apparently on more than one
occasion. It is unclear where he made his collections,
but he described early style Olive Jar sherds and three
majolica sherds (Isabela Polychrome, Aucilla Polychrome,
and unclassified blue on white) from the island (Goggin
1954a:153, 1960:11, 1968:72).
Collections from the site are numerous and widely
scattered. The FMNH site file indicates that
collections are present at NMNH (#204798, 241185-241198,
and 340716), MAI (#11/7625, 12/273-4, and others), UPM
(#41185 and 41192-41196), Wagner Free Institute (Willcox
collection), the Alabama Department of Archives, the
Putnam Museum (formerly the Davenport Public Museum),
MPM (#24448/6770), and FMNH.
In the FMNH collection, many sherds of Olive Jar,
sand tempered plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain,
transfer ware, and green bottle glass are present. Two
body sherds of Safety Harbor Incised (#A-15015 and A-
15023) are present, as well as some possible Pinellas
Plain sherds (#A-15021). Most of the material in the
collection appears to have come from a nineteenth
century Cuban fishery. However, a rim sherd from an ^
early style Olive Jar and a sherd of Melado are also in.-'


501
plant from which these were derived has not yet been
determined.
From the precontact stratum, possible cordage was
noted in contact with two of the copper artifacts
accompanying burials: Burials #105 and #109. Among
organic material adhering to the surface of the plume
ornament (Burial #105), there is a section of what
appears to be twisted rope or heavy cordage, probably
made of some sort of grass, though this has not yet been
determined with certainty (Lee A. Newsom, personal
communication 1988).
On one side of the copper-covered "baton" recovered
from Burial #109, a mass of black fibers was noted
during cleaning. These appeared to be twisted, and
possibly represent cordage, which may have been tied to
some portion of the object. These have not been
positively identified, other than to determine that they
are plant fibers.
Carbonized and "fossilized" seeds
The "fossilized" squash (Cucrbita sp.) seed
attached to the surface of the armor plate from Burial
#7 was discussed in a previous section of this chapter.
Carbonized seeds from the mound fill were saved and have
been examined by Donna L. Ruhl and Lee A. Newsom of
FMNH. Though analysis is not complete, it appears that


144
(Soto's 1539-1540 winter encampment) in Tallahassee
(Ewen 1988; Ewen and Jones 1988).
The Florida Cut Crystal beads probably date to the
period 1550-1600 (Deagan 1987:180; Fairbanks 1968a:14;
Smith 1987:31), though recent evidence indicates that
they also occur occasionally on sites of the late
seventeenth to mid-eighteenth centuries as well (Smith
1988:9). Eye beads and the opaque turquoise blue
(Ichtucknee Blue) varieties occur during the period
1575-1625 (Deagan 1987:167; Smith 1987:31), though the
opaque turquoise specimens are occasionally found on
later sites (Deagan 1987:175). Round gooseberry beads
and Cornaline d'Aleppo beads are typical of eighteenth
century sites (Deagan 1987:168; Smith 1983:150), but
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed beads (like some of those found
at Philip) also are known from contexts dating from the
late sixteenth century and later (Deagan 1987:168).
Smith (1987:47) noted that eyed axes first appear
in New World sites during the period 1600-1630, though
they could be present in earlier sites as well. Deagan
(1987:76) indicated that San Luis Polychrome is typical
of the period 1650-1750 in the New World.
On the basis of the artifact types described above,
it is apparent that the European assemblage includes
types that date from the early sixteenth century through


431
cleaning indicated that it was shaped like a tube, made
of sheet copper, and very poorly preserved.
A radiograph of this object (Figure 22) revealed
that it is very symmetrical, with one end intact. It is
19 cm long, and is made of sheet copper covering a core
of wood. The intact end (Figure 21) has a peg-like
protrusion of wood, possibly for attachment of cordage.
This end was closest to the head of the burial. The
shape of the object suggests that it is a ceremonial
baton of some type. The end with the peg resembles the
batons or maces incised on the Safety Harbor Incised
vessel discussed earlier (Figure 5), which was recovered
from the postcontact stratum. However, the peg could
have been used for tying the object to cordage or hair,
and it might have been used as a pendant or hair
ornament. Its position when recovered also indicates
that it could have been an ear pendant.
Lee A. Newsom (personal communication 1988) of FMNH
examined samples of the wood from the core, and was able
to identify it as cypress (Taxodium sp.), based on
anatomical features of the preserved wood cells. A
portion of the wood was removed and submitted to Beta
Analytic, Inc. for radiocarbon dating. The results were
not available at the time of this writing.


Figure 15
Pinellas Projectile Points, St. Johns Plain
Vessel, and Large Side-Notched Flaked Blade
from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Pinellas projectile points of chert
and fossil coral.
Bottom (1 to r): St. Johns Plain bowl;
large chert blade.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.


77
assemblage (1958b:3-4, Chart 1). The assemblage lacked
evidence of European contact, and included no Leon-
Jefferson pottery types, which Sears (1958b:6-7)
interpreted as indicating the site was abandoned before
the contact period. This is supported by the relative
paucity (3.2% of total Pinellas Plain sherds) of
notched-lip Pinellas Plain, which tends to occur late in
the Safety Harbor period (Luer and Almy 1980:211), but
the European beads found by Walker (see above) indicate
at least some postcontact use of the site.
Salvage excavation of part of the site was
conducted several years later (Bushnell 1962). Two
large test units were placed in an area adjacent to one
of the mounds, on a projecting area connecting the mound
to a midden. The pottery recovered from this work
consisted of 99% Pinellas Plain sherds, of which less
than 1% were of the notched-lip variety (1962:Figure 3).
The few decorated wares consisted'of Pinellas Incised,
St. Johns Check Stamped, and an unidentified punctated
type. The ceramics and other artifacts indicate a
Safety Harbor occupation at the site, with a possible
late Weeden Island-related component.
Additional units were excavated at the site in 1962
by students from Florida Presbyterian College. The
artifacts form this work are housed in TMM. Notes in


336
The second season also resulted in a much clearer
understanding of the stratigraphy at the mound. As
excavations proceeded deeper in the central area, it
became apparent that the main burial concentration was
underlain by a dark, greasy layer of sand. Excavations
at the southern edge of the mound revealed that this
stratum was what had been identified as the primary
mound during the first season. This stratum was labeled
as Feature #6 in subsequent work.
Preliminary Interpretations
The most significant changes in interpretations
produced by the second season were major revisions in
the understanding of the mound construction sequence.
The stratigraphic information indicated that almost all
of the burials recovered during the first two seasons
had been buried in a single episode. The two separate
strata of mound fill (Zone B) identified at the end of
the first season proved to be a single stratum of sand.
The error in the first season evidently resulted from
differential drying, which had produced the appearance
in profile of separate matrices.
The identification of Feature #6, the dark greasy
stratum, also significantly altered interpretations. As
mentioned above, this stratum (averaging 20-30 cm thick


227
Several sand mounds in the Old Miakka area, 8So70,
8So71, 8So72, and 8So77, were listed by Almy (1976:ISO-
181) as possible postcontact burial mounds, which would
date them to late Safety Harbor times. In 1934, Harry
L. Schoff obtained a Safety Harbor Incised bottle with
four appliqu hands or bird feet on the exterior. This
was either from the Wilson Mound A (8So70) or Wilson
Mound B (8So77), and was found over a skeleton near the
center of the mound (George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy,
personal communication 1988). One of the Wilson Mounds
was later excavated by the SCHC (Fritts 1961). Glass
beads are reported from 8So72 on the FMSF form.
The Whitaker Mound (8S08I) was a burial or
ceremonial mound that was destroyed by the City of
Sarasota in 1925 (Bullen 1950:22; Monroe et al.
1982:15). This site was first described by Wainwright
(1916:140-141), who noted that at least eight burials
and plain and decorated pottery had been recovered. He
mentioned that the mound was stratified, composed of
sand and shell, and appeared to contain evidence of fire
(1916:141). He also briefly mentioned some sherds with
decorated handles (1916:141), probably referring to Lake
Jackson Plain, Pinellas Incised, or Point Washington
Incised pottery, all of which indicate Safety Harbor
occupation.


647
1987 A Cultural Resource Inventory of the Crystal
River Archaeological Site (8Cil). Citrus County,
Florida. Submitted to Florida Department of Natural
Resources, Bureau of Land and Aquatic Resource
Management, Tallahassee.
1989 Like Beads on a String; A Culture History of the
Seminole Indians in North Peninsular Florida.
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Weisman, Brent R. and William H. Marquardt
1988 Archaeology of the SWFWMD Projects: A
Comprehensive Archaeological Resource Inventory for
the Southwest Florida Water Management District.
Brooksville. Department of Anthropology, Florida
Museum of Natural History. Submitted to Southwest
Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.
Welch, James M.
1983 Mitigative Excavations of the South Prong I
Site, 8-H-418. and the Cates Site. 8-H-425.
Hillsborough Countv. Florida. Archaeological Report
No. 13. Department of Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa.
Wells, Frances M. and Thelma H. Bull
1978 An Indian Burial Site in Pasco County, Florida
(8-Pa-21). Early Man 3(l):22-25. Peninsular
Archaeological Society, Holiday, Florida.
Wharton, Barry R.
1977 Proposed Research Design for Safety Harbor
Sociopolitical Organization. Ms. on file, Department
of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
1981 The Bostwick Temple Mound Site, Hardee County,
Florida. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Meeting
of the Florida Academy of Sciences, Orlando.
1984 Archaeological Resources of the Upper
Hillsborough Flood Detention Area. Pasco and Polk
Counties. Florida. Southwest Florida Water
Management District, Environmental Section,
Technical Report 1984-2.
Wharton, Barry R. and J. Raymond Williams
1980 An Appraisal of Hardee County Archaeology:
Hinterland or Heartland? Florida Scientist 43:215-
220.


276
Table 40. Artifacts in a Private Collection from
the Pineland Burial Mound.
Description Count
Ceramics:
St. Johns Check Stamped 2
Unidentified incised and punctated >1
Stone:
Florida Archaic Stemmed projectile point 1
Drilled large shark teeth (possibly fossilized) 2
Glass Beads:
Large Nueva Cadiz Plain (layered, turquoise exterior) 1
Nueva Cadiz Plain (layered, turquoise exterior) 1
Faceted chevron ca. 7
Olive-shaped blue and white spiral striped
(IB3c or IB3e)* 1
Olive-shaped white with wide blue spiral stripes
(IB3e)* 1
Seed beads (opaque white, opaque medium blue, opaque
turquoise blue, yellow, possibly colorless and
green) many
Probable colorless Gooseberry 1
Probable drawn opaque turquoise blue 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal beads 9
Metal:
Gold ceremonial tablet 1


I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Michael V. Gannon
Professor of History
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
William H. Marqbardt
Associate Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Prudence M. Rice
Professor of Anthropology


231
These artifacts indicate that there was a significant
Safety Harbor occupation at this site.
The Myakka Valley Ranches Mound (8So401) was a
Safety Harbor burial mound which yielded pottery and
human skulls. A Safety Harbor Incised vessel reportedly
came from the site (George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy,
personal communication 1988).
The Gator Creek site (8So402) is a multicomponent
lithic scatter recorded by Marion M. Almy. The FMSF
form notes that Pinellas projectile points were
collected from the site, along with many earlier types.
The presence of Pinellas points indicates that either a
Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor component is
present (Bullen 1975:8).
In the SFM collections, there is a Pinellas Incised
bowl with seven strap handles (#A6549). This specimen
came from a site in Sarasota County, but the particular
site was not recorded. It may have been recovered by J.
E. Moore at the Laurel Mound (8So98) (George M. Luer,
personal communication 1988).
Charlotte County
Most of Charlotte County during late prehistoric
and early contact times was probably occupied by Calusa
groups (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964¡Figure 1; Widmer


423
indeterminate sex. A small amount of galena was also
present with this burial. The circular plate (Feature
#10) was immediately adjacent (to the east) to this
individual.
The plume ornament (Figure 19), found in the
shoulder area, is embossed with a design of parallel
lines. When first discovered, one intact edge of the
object was exposed, and suggested that it was originally
round or semicircular. Abundant organic material is
preserved on its surface, some of which appears to be
cordage. Examination of portions of the surface using a
magnifying glass in the field revealed possible textile
pseudomorphs on the surface as well.
Due to the extreme fragility of the object, it was
removed with the surrounding matrix. Consultation with
conservators at the Florida Division of Historical
Resources in Tallahassee indicated that it would
probably be impossible to remove the matrix without
destroying the object. A radiograph of the object
(Figure 20) revealed that it is a plume hair ornament,
missing portions of the edges and with the distal end
bent. It is 23 cm long, but both ends are missing. It
was probably originally curved. Similar copper plume
ornaments are known from the Etowah site in Georgia, the
Spiro site in Oklahoma, the Lake Jackson site in


REDEFINING SAFETY HARBOR:
LATE PREHISTORIC/PROTOHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY
IN WEST PENINSULAR FLORIDA
By
JEFFREY MCCLAIN MITCHEM
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989

Copyright 1989
by
Jeffrey McClain Mitchem

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people have helped me during this endeavor.
First, I must thank those individuals who read drafts of
Chapter 2 and/or provided me with unpublished
information on Safety Harbor sites. The contributions
of these people were indispensable, and I am extremely
grateful. They are Marion Almy, Walter Askew, Bob
Austin, Jan Bailo, John Beriault, Laura Branstetter,
Bill Burger, Mark Burnett, Bill Dayton, Joan Deming,
Albert Goodyear, Jennifer Hamilton, Laura Kammerer, Paul
Lien, George Luer, Bill Marquardt, Gus Nelson, Don Ness,
Harry Piper, Bruce Smith, Marion Smith, and Ray
Williams. Of these, I must single out Bob Austin, Bill
Burger, and George Luer for truly going way beyond
professional courtesy in providing essential data.
The Tatham Mound project has been a fantastic and
unforgettable experience. When we began working there,
I never dreamed that it would contain such interesting
and scientifically valuable objects and information. I
owe a great debt of gratitude to my colleague Brent
Weisman, who first discovered the site and co-directed
iii

the initial excavations there. Don Sheppard was also
instrumental in organizing and coordinating many of the
early aspects of the project. I also want to thank all
of the students who participated in the three field
schools at the site, sometimes under very adverse
conditions. John Marrn served admirably as field
assistant during the third season. Dale Hutchinson, the
project osteologist during the second and third seasons,
has become a close friend and sounding board for ideas
and potential interpretations of the site data. It has
been a pleasure to collaborate with such a scholar. I
look forward with anticipation to his dissertation on
the Tatham skeletal remains.
The many members of the Withlacoochee River
Archaeology Council who volunteered to help with
excavation and laboratory work on the Tatham project
were indispensable. Many of these people gave up
weekends and got up at painfully early hours to
participate. Close to 100 WRAC members volunteered on
the project, and I want to express my heartfelt thanks.
I must single out four WRAC members who faithfully
showed up: George Hamilton, Cheryl Jacob, Jean Kratzer,
and Jack Quinn.
I gratefully acknowledge the Boy Scouts of America,
including Directors George Preston and Bill Ort, for
iv

allowing us to work at Tatham, and for providing
accomodations and laboratory space on their property.
Paul Anderson, the ranger for the McGregor Smith Scout
Reservation, helped out in many ways, especially with
logistical and transportation problems. Paul and his
wife, Barbie, took on many of the tasks of scheduling
volunteers and relaying messages to us during the
fieldwork. Paul also helped us out of several bad
situations, most involving uncooperative vehicles or
septic tanks. I think I speak for the entire crew when
I express great thanks to Paul.
Funding for the Tatham project and other aspects of
my research has come from several sources. The great
majority was voluntarily provided by a single
individual, who wishes to remain anonymous at present.
His generous support of the Tatham project resulted in
the most complete and best-documented body of data from
any known Safety Harbor site. Words cannot adequately
express my gratitude, but I hope that this dissertation
will indicate that the funds were well spent.
Additional support was provided by the Division of
Parks and Recreation, Florida Department of Natural
Resources (four grants to Jerald Milanich for research
on the route of Hernando de Soto); the Division of
Historical Resources, Florida Department of State
v

(funded the project which resulted in the initial
discovery of the Tatham Mound); the Division of
Sponsored Research, University of Florida (provided a
graduate assistantship); the Institute for Early Contact
Period Studies, University of Florida (provided a
graduate assistantship and other funding); the
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida
(awarded a Charles H. Fairbanks Scholarship); the Tinker
Foundation (awarded a field research grant for travel to
Spain, administered by the Center for Latin American
Studies, University of Florida); the Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois (provided support
to Dale Hutchinson for analysis and transportation of
collections); and the Bead Society (awarded a grant to
study the Spanish beads). Support in the form of
equipment, laboratory space, and facilities was provided
by the Anthropology Departments of the Florida Museum of
Natural History (FMNH) and the University of Florida.
Many curators and staff members of the FMNH and
students helped with the Tatham project. These include
Nancy Aparicio, Kurt Auffenberg, Dana Austin, Gianna
Browne, Ed Chaney, Ann Cordell, Kathleen Deagan, David
Hall, Ken Johnson, Jon Leader, Elise LeCompte, Robert
LeCompte, William Maples, Mondi Mason, Ed Napoleon, Lee
Newsom, Claudine Payne, Ann Poulos, Guy Prentice, Donna
vi

Ruhl, Mike Russo, Fred Thompson, and Maurice Williams.
I thank them for their help. A special word of thanks
is due to Dara Silverberg.
Bunny Stafford of the UF Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences took most of the photographs
included in this study. A number of people at various
institutions also provided help in different forms, and
I would like to acknowledge their help. They are
Jeffrey P. Brain (Peabody Museum, Harvard University);
Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge Library, UF); Cheryl P.
Claassen (Appalachian State University)? Charles Ewen,
Calvin Jones, John Scarry, Margie Scarry, Jim Miller,
Herb Bump, Jamie Levy, and David Muncher (Division of
Historical Resources, Florida Department of State);
Christopher S. Peebles (Indiana University); T. M.
Hamilton (Miami, Missouri); Thomas F. Kehoe and Claudia
L. Jacobson (Milwaukee Public Museum); George Hamell
(New York State Museum); Clark Larsen (Northern Illinois
University); Alex Lodding (Chalmers Institute of
Technology, Gteborg); Fernando Martin (Real Armeria,
Madrid); Barbara Purdy (UF Anthropology Department);
Betsy Reitz and Marvin Smith (University of Georgia);
Sargento Major Ramon Sanchez Serantes (Museo del
Ejrcito, Madrid); William L. Stern (UF Botany
vii

Department); Douglas Ubelaker (Smithsonian Institution);
and Bradley Vierra (University of New Mexico).
Each of the members of my doctoral committee has
provided valuable input into my training and into this
dissertation. William Marquardt provided me with much
unpublished information on his work in southwest
Florida, and discussions with him have aided my attempts
to make sense of the complex cultural interactions going
on in that area during the late prehistoric period.
Prudence Rice first introduced me to the scientific
aspects of technological analysis of archaeological
ceramics. Her training has enabled me to investigate
many questions concerning Safety Harbor that otherwise
would have been overlooked. Pru has also provided me
with good advice on matters ranging from job
applications to the writing of grant proposals. Her
constructive comments on my writing have improved many
past papers, as well as this one. She also makes
fantastic chocolate chip cookies.
Elizabeth Wing introduced me to zooarchaeology, and
even though I chose not to pursue this avenue full time,
I can tell a fish bone from a bird or mammal., something
which I could not do previously. In fact, I probably
learned more from Liz's zooarchaeology course than from
viii

any other course in my college career. She is also the
only person I've ever known who had a pet water buffalo.
At the oral portion of my qualifying examination,
Michael Gannon asked me the only question I was unable
to answer. He asked on what evidence I based the claim
that the Tocobaga Indians (a historic group near Tampa
Bay) were a Timucuan group. I didn't have an answer,
but in trying to find out, I came across many other
obscure facts which have helped me interpret some of the
Safety Harbor sites in that area. I have also benefited
from attending and participating in several conferences
sponsored by Dr. Gannon through the Institute for Early
Contact Period Studies.
The chairman of my doctoral committee is Jerald
Milanich. Since 1974, when I took my first anthropology
course from him, Jerry has served as my inspiration and
mentor in archaeology. Though he probably does not
remember, it was he who talked me into majoring in
anthropology as an undergraduate. My first field
experience was under his tutelage in 1976. While I was
working on my Master's degree at the University of South
Florida, I mentioned him so much that some fellow
students began calling me "Little Milanich."
It was Jerry who talked me into pursuing a doctoral
degree, and it was under his direction that I supervised
ix

the Tatham excavations. His style of teaching is to
give students free rein, if they wish. I thrived in
this environment, and Jerry has always been willing to
discuss any problems, questions, or any other aspect of
research about which I was unsure. He also made sure
that I was covered financially, and he lavished funds on
me which allowed me to travel to museums and conferences
to study collections and interact with colleagues. .For
all of this, I am overwhelmed with gratitude. It has
been good to be one of "Jerry's Kids."
I also want to express my thanks to Kathleen A.
Deagan, who was originally a member of my committee, but
her busy research schedule conflicted with my timetable
for completion. She provided thoughtful comments on my
initial proposal, and has helped me to understand many
aspects of early Spanish/Indian contact.
I must also acknowledge the support of my
relatives, who have supported much of my education, and
helped me through many rough situations. Their
patience, love, and support have sustained me, and it is
impossible to repay them. Finally, I thank Bonnie
McEwan, who understands what it is like to complete a
doctorate, and who is a beautiful woman and an excellent
scientist. Her love and support have made it all
worthwhile.
x

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLE DGMENTS i i i
LIST OF TABLES xiv
LIST OF FIGURES XV
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS XX
ABSTRACT xxiii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON SAFETY
HARBOR 8
Description of Sites 10
Dixie and Levy Counties 10
Citrus County 15
Lake County 27
Orange County 31
Hernando County 3 8
Pasco County 44
Pinellas County 49
Hillsborough County 97
Polk County 137
Manatee County 147
Hardee County 202
DeSoto County 2 07
Sarasota County 213
Charlotte County 231
Lee County 257
Collier County 287
Other Counties 299
Discussion of Known Sites 3 04
xi

3 TATHAM MOUND: A CASE STUDY OF
SPANISH/INDIAN CONTACT 3 06
First Field Season 312
Research Design and Methodology 312
Description of Results 317
Preliminary Interpretations 321
Second Field Season 327
Research Design and Methodology 327
Description of Results 332
Preliminary Interpretations 336
Third Field Season 342
Research Design and Methodology 342
Description of Results 346
Summary of Tatham Mound Excavation Data 352
Ceramics 352
Lithic Artifacts 393
Shell 402
Minerals and Miscellaneous Artifacts 408
Faunal Remains 416
Precontact Copper Artifacts 419
European Artifacts 434
Seminole period or later 434
Spanish glass beads 436
European metal artifacts 452
Mortuary Practices and Burial Associations... 468
Mortuary Practices 468
Burial Associations. 474
Precontact stratum 474
Postcontact stratum 483
Cut bones 495
Ancillary Studies 498
Native Copper Sourcing 498
Postcontact Metal 499
Shell Sourcing 499
Botanical Remains 500
Plant fibers 500
Carbonized and "fossilized" seeds 501
Preserved wood and bark 502
Charred wood 502
Soil Analyses 503
Stratigraphic Data 504
Dating Methods and Results 509
Artifact Associations 509
Chronometric Dates 519
Interpretations 527
Sequence of Events 528
Interaction with Other Aboriginal
Cultures 532
xii

Spanish/Indian Contact at the Tatham
Mound. 537
The Tatham Mound in the Context of
Safety Harbor 545
4 SAFETY HARBOR: A CULTURE IN WEST PENINSULAR
FLORIDA 550
Spatial-Temporal Units 553
Phase Definition 557
Definition of Regional Variants 567
Non-Ceramic Aboriginal Artifacts 579
Site Types and Settlement Patterns 583
Subsistence Information 586
Mortuary Practices 588
Sociopolitical Organization 594
Directions for Future Research 600
REFERENCES 606
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 651
xiii

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Artifacts from Duval Island (8Ci5) in FMNH 19
Artifacts from Tiger Tail Bay Midden (8C136).. 23
Artifacts from an Unrecorded Shell Midden on
the Chassahowitzka River 28
Artifacts from 80rl2 in FMNH 34
Artifacts from the Palm Grove Gardens Site
(8He8) in FMNH 40
European Artifacts from the Safety Harbor
Site (8Pi2) 54
Beads Collected from S. T. Walker's Spoil at
the Bayview Mound (8Pi7) 62
European Artifacts from the Seven Oaks Site
(8Pi8) in FMNH 65
European Artifacts from the Bayview/Seven
Oaks Mound (8P7/8P8) Displayed in the
Oldsmar Museum 71
Artifacts from the Booth Point Site (8P36)
in FMNH 81
Glass Beads from the Picnic Mound (8Hi3) in
the Simpson Collection, FMNH.... 104
Artifacts from Mill Point 1 (8H6) in FMNH.... 118
Artifacts from Old Shell Point (8H31)
in FMNH 121
Artifacts from the Gardensville Mound (8H37)
in FMNH 122
xiv

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
123
125
127
131
135
156
164
170
173
195
198
200
205
224
234
236
241
Artifacts from the De Shone Place Site (8H74)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the T. L. Barker Site (8H79)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Elsberry Site (8H01)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Henriquez Mound (8H1077)
in UMMA
Ceramics from Two Sites near Tampa Bay
in NMNH
Artifacts from Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Harbor Key Platform Mound
(8Mal3) in FMNH
Artifacts from the Snead Island I Site
(8Mal8) in FMNH
Artifacts from the Feeney Site (8Ma21)
in FMNH
Artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715)
in SFM
European Beads in SFM from an Unknown Manatee
County Site
Glass Beads in a Private Collection from the
Myakka Area, Southeastern Manatee County....
Artifacts from the Bostwick Mound (8Hr52)
at USF
Artifacts from the Weber Burial Mound (8So20)
in FMNH
A Collection from Cayo Pelau (8Chl)
A Private Collection of European Material
from Cayo Pelau (8Chl)
Goggin's Ceramic Collection from Big Mound
Key (8ChlO)
xv

32
Partial List of Bullen and Bullen/s Collection
from Big Mound Key (8ChlO) in FMNH 242
33 Goggin's Collection from 8Ch31 24 6
34 Ceramics from the Cape Haze Site (8Ch48) 249
35 Artifacts from the Burial Area at the Dunwody
Site (8Ch61) 251
36 Artifacts from the Shell Ridge Area of the
Dunwody Site (8Ch61) 252
37 Artifacts from Mound Key (8LL2) at UPM 2 62
38 Metal Artifacts Attributed to Punta Rassa
(8LL7) in MAI, but Probably from 8LL2 2 67
39 Ceramics in a Collection from the Pineland
Burial Mound 275
40 Artifacts in a Private Collection from the
Pineland Burial Mound 276
41 Artifacts in FMNH from Excavation and Surface
Collection at the Indian Field Site (8LL39).. 278
42 Artifacts Recovered from Burials in the Main
Portion of the Pine Island 8 Site (8LL40)
by C. B. Moore in 1904 282
43 European Beads in a Private Collection from
the Galt Island Burial Mound (8LL81) 285
44 Ceramics from the Shell Point Burial Mound,
Lee County 287
45 Artifacts Removed from the Gordon's Pass Sand
Mound/Kirkland Mound (8Cr57) 292
46 European Artifacts in a Collection from the
Gordon's Pass Sand Mound/Kirkland
Mound (8Cr57) 293
47 Ceramics from the Lake Trafford Burial Mound
(8Cr80) in YPM 298
48 Ceramics from the Tatham Mound 353
xv i

49 Ceramic Types Recovered from Precontact and
Postcontact Strata in the Tatham Mound 392
50 Lithic Artifacts from the Tatham Mound 394
51 Shell Artifacts from the Tatham Mound 403
52 Minerals and Miscellaneous Artifacts from
the Tatham Mound 409
53 Faunal Remains from the Tatham Mound 417
54 Native Copper Artifacts from the Precontact
Stratum of the Tatham Mound 420
55 Seminole and Later Material from the
Tatham Mound 435
56 Spanish Glass Beads from the Tatham Mound 437
57 European (Pre-Seminole) Metal Artifacts
from the Tatham Mound 453
58 Glass Bead Inter-Site Comparisons 513
59 Uncorrected Radiocarbon Dates from the
Tatham Mound 521
60 Calibrated Ages of Radiocarbon Samples from
the Tatham Mound 522
xvii

LIST OF FIGURES
page
1 Map of Peninsular Florida Showing Pertinent
Counties 9
2 Map of Florida Showing the Location of the
Tatham Mound 307
3 Topographic Map of the Tatham Mound Prior to
Excavation 316
4 Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised Ceramics
from the Tatham Mound 359
5 Safety Harbor Incised Vessel from the Tatham
Mound 363
6 Safety Harbor Incised, St. Johns Cob Marked,
and Prairie Cord Marked Vessels from the
Tatham Mound 366
7 Point Washington Incised Vessels and Ground
Stone Celts from the Tatham Mound 3 69
8 St. Johns Dentate Stamped, Sand Tempered Plain,
and St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound 374
9 St. Johns Plain Ceramics from the Tatham
Mound 378
10 Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, and Belle Glade
Plain-Like Ceramics from the Tatham Mound.... 381
11 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound 383
12 St. Johns Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound 385
13 St. Johns Check Stamped and St. Johns Plain
Vessels from the Tatham Mound 388
xviii

14
Reconstructed St. Johns Check Stamped and
Sand Tempered Plain Vessels from the Tatham
Mound 390
15 Pinellas Projectile Points, St. Johns Plain
Vessel, and Large Side-Notched Flaked Blade
from the Tatham Mound 397
16 Quartz Crystal Pendants and Busvcon Shell Cups
from the Tatham Mound 401
17 Engraved Bark Object from the Tatham Mound 414
18 Radiograph of Circular Copper Plate
(Feature #9) from the Tatham Mound 422
19 Copper Plume Ornament (in original matrix)
and Copper Ear Spool from Burial #105 425
20 Radiograph of Copper Plume Ornament from
Burial #105 427
21 Copper-Covered Wooden Baton (in original
matrix) from Burial #109 430
22 Radiograph of Copper-Covered Wooden Baton 433
23 Glass and Metal Beads from the Tatham Mound.... 451
24 Silver Celt Effigy Pendant and Drilled Silver
Rod Bead from Burial #2 459
25 Armor Plate and Rolled Iron Bead from
Burial #7 463
2 6 Iron Artifacts from the Tatham Mound 467
27 Burial #60 from the Tatham Mound 472
28 Shell and Glass Beads with Burials from the
Tatham Mound 477
29 East-West Profile of the Tatham Mound 506
3 0 North-South Profile of the Tatham Mound 507
31 Map Showing Locations of Tatham, Weeki Wachee,
and Ruth Smith Mounds 547
xix

32 Map Showing Extent of the Safety Harbor
Culture Area 555
33 Map Showing Regional Variants of Safety Harbor
Culture 569
xx

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
A. D.
Anno Domini (refers to dates in the Christian
Era)
AMNH
American Museum of Natural History, New York
B.C.
Before Christ (refers to dates prior to the
Christian Era)
B.P.
Before Present (for dating purposes, means
years before A.D. 1950)
Cal. AD
Calibrated calendar years (used for reporting
calibrated radiocarbon dates)
FMNH
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville
FMSF
Florida Master Site Files
FPS
Florida Park Service
FSU
Florida State University, Tallahassee
HPM
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
MAI
Museum of the American Indian, Heye
Foundation, New York
MNI
Minimum number of individuals
MPM
Milwaukee Public Museum

NMNH
National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
(formerly U. S. National Museum)
ONM
Ocmulgee National Monument, Macon, Georgia
RSPF
R. S. Peabody Foundation, Phillips Academy,
Andover, Massachusetts
SCHC
Sarasota County Historical Commission
SEAC-NPS
Southeast Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee
SFM
South Florida Museum, Bradenton
SHAHS
Safety Harbor Area Historical Society
TL
Thermoluminescence
TMM
Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach
UF
University of Florida, Gainesville
UMMA
University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology,
Ann Arbor
UPM
University of Pennsylvania Museum,
Philadelphia
USF
University of South Florida, Tampa
WPA
Works Progress Administration
WRAC
Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council
YPM
Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut
xxii

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
REDEFINING SAFETY HARBOR:
LATE PREHISTORIC/PROTOHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY
IN WEST PENINSULAR FLORIDA
By
Jeffrey McClain Mitchem
May, 1989
Chairman: Jerald T. Milanich
Major Department: Anthropology
This study presents new data and a redefinition of
the late prehistoric and postcontact Safety Harbor
archaeological culture of west peninsular Florida. The
Indians of this area were the first aborigines contacted
by the early sixteenth century Spanish expeditions of
Pnfilo de Narvez and Hernando de Soto.
A complete review of known Safety Harbor sites is
presented, along with descriptions and interpretations
of previously undescribed collections, both publicly and
privately owned. A description of the results of three
field seasons of excavation at the Tatham Mound in
Citrus County, Florida, is then presented. This
previously undisturbed site yielded abundant evidence of
xxiii

early sixteenth century Spanish contact, including
evidence of a probable epidemic and at least two cut
human bones indicating violent confrontations with
Spanish explorers. Several hundred primary and
secondary human burials were recovered. The recovery of
dozens of broken pottery vessels and many Busvcon shell
cups on the mound surface indicated that black drink
rituals had been carried out prior to the mound's
abandonment.
The lower stratum of the mound yielded a small
number of precontact burials accompanied by copper
objects, ground and polished stone celts, galena, and
abundant shell beads. The circumstances of burial
suggest that these were high-status individuals.
Using the newly-obtained data, a provisional phase
sequence for Safety Harbor is presented. Four phases
are proposed: Englewood (A.D. 900-1000); Pinellas (A.D.
1000-1500); Tatham (A.D. 1500-1567); and Bayview (A.D.
1567-1725). Five regional variants of Safety Harbor are
also proposed: Northern; Circum-Tampa Bay; Manasota;
Inland; and South Florida. These units are proposed to
aid in clarifying the spatial and temporal relationships
between Safety Harbor groups and other cultures in
Florida and southeastern North America.
xx iv

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
In 1949, Gordon R. Willey published his definition
of the archaeological culture centered around Tampa Bay
in the late prehistoric and early Spanish contact
period. He referred to this as the Safety Harbor
Period, and included descriptions and illustrations of
the artifacts typically found on Safety Harbor sites
(1949a:475-488).
His definition has been used as the standard
reference ever since, and no attempts have been made to
revise his criteria to any major extent. Archaeological
research in the intervening four decades, especially
since 1970, has yielded a large data base of information
about Safety Harbor sites. In addition, with the advent
of radiocarbon dating and accurate calibration curves,
it is now possible to demonstrate that the earliest
Safety Harbor sites are much older than the A.D. 1500
suggested by Willey (1949a:488). Studies of artifacts,
especially European artifacts, have resulted in the
ability to date postcontact deposits precisely (Deagan
1987; Smith and Good 1982).
!
l

2
Because of these changes, it is time to take a
critical look at Willey's definition and to update or
alter it to include new data. In this study, a
redefinition of the Safety Harbor Culture is presented,
based on a thorough discussion of all known Safety
Harbor sites. Chapter 2 includes descriptions of many
collections which have never been published, as well as
reinterpretations of previously reported sites. Chapter
3 is a site report on excavations conducted in 1985 and
1986 at the Tatham Mound (number 8C203 in the Florida
Master Site Files [FMSF] numbering system), a previously
undisturbed Safety Harbor burial mound that contained
evidence from both precontact and postcontact
occupations. The final chapter presents a redefinition
of Safety Harbor, including a proposed phase sequence
and the identification of regional variants. In this
new definition, Willey's (1949a:470-475) Englewood
Period is subsumed as the first phase of Safety Harbor.
This study should not be considered the final word
on Safety Harbor. As originally conceived, it was to
include a completely revised ceramic classification; an
in-depth consideration of the interaction between Safety
Harbor groups and early Spanish explorers, missionaries,
and colonists; and a greatly expanded consideration of
sociopolitical organization and structure. However, the

3
volume of previously unpublished data was much greater
than anticipated, and time and manuscript length
constraints prevented a full coverage of all of these
categories. Readers of this work should remember these
factors when judging it. More refinements will be
forthcoming, and the final section of Chapter 4 presents
the topics deemed (by the present author) most important
for future research.
In describing the sites and collections in this
study, Willey's (1949a:472-475, 479-486) definitions of
ceramic types are generally followed. However, a few
minor, but important modifications are necessary.
First, Englewood Plain (1949a:474) is not considered a
valid type, because sand tempered plain wares generally
cannot be distinguished from one another. In this case,
this fact is especially important because the
identification of plain ware as Englewood Plain would be
very significant in terms of chronological
interpretation.
The second modification has already been suggested
by George M. Luer (1985:236). Willey's (1949a:474)
definition of the type Sarasota Incised should be
broadened to include sand tempered paste as well as the
chalky St. Johns paste, since specimens with Sarasota

4
Incised motifs on sand tempered paste have been
recovered.
The third modification involves Willey's
(1949a:482) definition of Pinellas Plain. He glossed
over the fact that some sherds of this ware tended to
have laminated, crumbly paste. However, when Pinellas
Plain from the village area at the type site (8Pi2) is
examined, almost all of the sherds have very laminated
paste (Griffin and Bullen 1950:10). Examination of
sherds from other Safety Harbor sites, especially those
in the area around Tampa Bay, indicates that the
laminated paste is the norm, rather than the exception,
for Pinellas Plain. This characteristic should be
incorporated as one of the main identifying traits of
Pinellas Plain.
The most drastic proposed modifications are to
Willey's definitions of Pinellas Incised (1949a:482) and
a Fort Walton type called Point Washington Incised
(1949a:463). William H. Sears (1967:37-39, 57-58)
discussed problems and proposed changes to these types,
but both his and Willey's criteria were vague and
ambiguous. It should be noted that John F. Scarry
(1985:220) subsumed both types under Lake Jackson
Incised for the Fort Walton area. He also subsumed one
variant of Pinellas Incised under the type Cool Branch

5
Incised (1985:214). However, in the Safety Harbor area,
there are enough differences in vessel form and
decorative motifs to warrant separate types for Point
Washington Incised and Pinellas Incised.
When Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised
are referred to in this study, the criteria published in
Mitchem, Smith et al. (1985:187-189) are used to
distinguish them, with minor alterations to the Pinellas
Incised definition. Point Washington Incised includes
sand tempered simple open bowls and jars with multiple
broad-line incisions on the exterior near the rim.
These usually consist of three or four parallel lines
which incorporate loops and U-shaped pendant figures.
Rim adornos and flat handles are common, often
incorporating representations of anatomical features of
birds. Bird head adornos are especially common. Loop
handles and rim nodes sometimes occur.
In contrast, Pinellas Incised as used herein refers
to simple open bowls, carinated bowls, short-collared
jars, and (occasionally) casuela bowls with broad-line
incision on the exterior. Multiple parallel lines
sometimes occur below the rim, but do not incorporate
loop elements. A single line of punctations may also be
present parallel to the rim. On the vessel body,
incised curvilinear elements are typical, sometimes

6
bordered by one or two lines of punctations, which are
typically square. Adornos and flat handles are lacking
on Pinellas Incised vessels in the Safety Harbor area,
but loop handles are occasionally present.
It is interesting to note that Pinellas Incised,
whether defined using Willey's criteria or those
presented above, is very rare on Safety Harbor sites
(Luer et al. n.d.). Specimens of Point Washington
Incised (as defined above) are much more common.
Readers should note that many of the sites and
collections in Chapter 2 were analyzed by others, and
their definitions of Pinellas and Point Washington
Incised (as well as other ceramic types) may vary.
Every attempt was made to check extant collections, but
in some cases it was impossible.
Before proceeding to the presentation of data on
Safety Harbor sites, it is necessary to explain how the
terminology of archaeological units is used in this
study. The terms "component" and "occupation" have very
similar meanings as used herein. However, there is an
important distinction which should be pointed out.
Component is used in the sense defined by Willey and
Phillips (1958:21), that there are Safety Harbor
artifacts present at a site, but that these may have
been obtained by exchange or some other means, so their

7
presence does not necessarily indicate that the makers
of the artifacts lived at the site. In contrast,
occupation is used to indicate that a Safety Harbor
group (people who made and used the artifact types)
actually inhabited or built the site. This distinction
is especially important in discussing Safety Harbor
evidence in south Florida, where distinguishing sites
associated with different cultural groups is difficult.
Randolph J. Widmer (1988:86) has noted that the presence
of Safety Harbor artifacts does not necessarily indicate
that the historically-known Tocobaga Indians occupied an
area, as Ripley P. Bullen (1978b:50) believed.

CHAPTER 2
PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON SAFETY HARBOR
In order to redefine Safety Harbor, it is first
necessary to discuss previous work (both published and
unpublished), so that the state of present knowledge and
interpretation can be evaluated. Numerous site reports
and papers dealing with various aspects of Safety Harbor
culture have been published. There are also many
collections held by private individuals and in
institutions which have never been thoroughly studied or
described in print. However, any attempt at summary is
doomed to be incomplete, due to inaccuracies in records,
incomplete survey coverage, and other factors.
This chapter discusses known sites by county
(Figure 1), following a roughly north to south course.
Sites that have been previously identified as having
Safety Harbor components, but which do not, are also
included. Collections from sites are generally not
enumerated if they have been previously published. A
section on sites outside of the Safety Harbor culture
area that have yielded small quantities of Safety Harbor
artifacts is also included.
8

9
Figure 1
Map of Peninsular Florida Showing Pertinent Counties.

10
In describing collections, a standard format is
used for sherd counts when counts of rim and body sherds
are available. This format consists of two numbers
separated by a slash (/). The first number represents
the total number of sherds, and the second refers to the
number of these which are rim sherds.
Description of Sites
Dixie and Lew Counties
As will be discussed later, Dixie and Levy counties
are outside of the actual Safety Harbor culture area.
Examination of collections has revealed that there are
no sites in these two counties that convincingly
demonstrate the presence of a Safety Harbor component.
However, there are some sites that have yielded small
numbers of Safety Harbor and Englewood sherds. These
are briefly described here.
In recent surveys of Dixie County, Kohler and
Johnson (1986:25-32) found possible Safety Harbor sherds
at only three sites. At the Lolly Creek-Butler Island
NE site (8D50), a shell midden on a low island
surrounded by salt marsh, they identified one sherd as
possible Englewood or Safety Harbor Incised (1986:25).
However, since the other ceramics from the site
consisted of Norwood, Deptford, and Swift Creek types,

11
the sherd in question is probably actually Crystal River
Incised (Willey 1949a:389), a Swift Creek type which
resembles Safety Harbor Incised.
At the Kenny Land site (8D103), they recovered one
sherd of Pinellas Incised or Safety Harbor Incised. The
other artifacts from the site clearly indicate that it
is an Alachua Tradition midden (Kohler and Johnson
1986:25), so the single sherd is probably a result of
exchange.
A third site mentioned by Kohler and Johnson
(1986:26) remains unrecorded, but local collectors found
Weedn Island, Alachua Tradition, possible Fort Walton,
and Safety Harbor pottery types on the surface. They
illustrated five sherds (1986:Figures 3 and 4) which
appear to be Safety Harbor types (Safety Harbor or
Pinellas Incised and Point Washington Incised), but the
failure to relocate the site and to obtain better
samples precludes assigning a cultural affiliation to
the site.
In the collections of the South Florida Museum
(SFM) in Bradenton there is an engraved bottle (#2328),
reportedly from Dixie County, with red ochre rubbed into
the engraved designs. A Safety Harbor Incised bottle
from the Tierra Verde site (8P51) in Pinellas County
had ochre rubbed into the incisions (Sears 1967:46).
However, red pigmented engraved (rather than incised)

12
vessels are more common from sites to the north, such as
Moundville, Alabama, where such vessels tend to be found
in Moundville I Phase contexts dating to about A.D. 1050
to 1250 (Steponaitis 1983:80, 100). The Dixie County
vessel is probably a trade item from cultures to the
north.
In Levy County, artifacts were collected from
Palmetto Island (8Lv7) in the 1880s by Decatur Pittman,
who later donated the material to the Florida Museum of
Natural History (FMNH). The site is primarily Weeden
Island-related, but one Pinellas Incised sherd was
listed by Willey (1949a:311). This could not be located
in the FMNH collections. Willey (1949a:312) also listed
two Prairie Cord Marked and two fabric impressed sherds
in the collection, which suggest an Alachua Tradition
component (Milanich 1971).
Willey (1949a:313) mentioned that three Pinellas
Plain sherds were surface collected at the Hodgeson's
Hill site (8Lv8) in 1949, and he postulated a possible
Safety Harbor occupation on the basis of this. Pinellas
Plain pottery has since been shown to occur in some
Weeden Island-related contexts, however, which is
consistent with the collection from the site (Luer and
Almy 1980:211).
A single sherd of Safety Harbor Incised and one of
Sarasota Incised were noted by Willey (1949a:313) from

13
the predominantly Weeden Island-related site of Piney
Point on Cedar Key (8Lv9). A note in the FMNH site
files also indicates that at least one Englewood Incised
sherd was present in a private collection from the site.
A collection in FMNH (#95817) from the Coulter site
on Piney Point contains two sherds of Safety Harbor
Incised (Ripley Bullen identified these as Fort Walton
Incised) and one Englewood Incised sherd. There are two
possible Pinellas Plain or Lake Jackson Plain sherds,
and many sand tempered plain, Pasco Plain, and St. Johns
Plain sherds. The collection also includes cord marked,
simple stamped, and grit tempered check stamped sherds,
which may indicate a Deptford component (Milanich 1973).
Weeden Island types are present as well. It is unclear
whether 8Lv9 and the Coulter site are the same. Notes
with the Coulter collection indicate that the sherds
were collected from the beach below the high tide level.
The site number 8Lv21 was assigned for materials
from various sites on Cedar Keys. According to Willey
(1949a:315), a small collection in the National Museum
of Natural History (NMNH) (#42481-42486) with this
designation includes Weeden Island and Safety Harbor
ceramic types.
A note in the FMNH site files mentions that one
sherd of Pinellas Incised and four sherds of Pinellas
Plain were included in collections from Manatee Springs

14
(8Lv32). A search of the FMNH collections failed to
locate these artifacts (#72920-72927), however.
Another FMNH collection (#A-11014) was gathered
from the Seahorse Key site (8Lv64) by G. L. Streib.
This small collection contains five sherds from two
vessels which have interlocking scroll designs incised
on the exterior. These are similar to what Willey
(1949a:482-485, Figure 66c) called Pinellas Incised.
Pasco Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds make up
the rest of the assemblage.
Derrick Key (8Lvl22), a multicomponent shell
midden, apparently yielded some Pinellas Incised sherds
from beach erosion. The majority of the material from
the site was from earlier periods.
Willey (1949a:315) mentioned a small collection in
NMNH (#42481-42486) from an unidentified mound on Cedar
Key. He described the pottery as mixed Weeden Island
and Safety Harbor types, but no specific details were
provided.
Catalog cards from the Cedar Key High School site
in FMNH (#97876) list a single Englewood Incised sherd,
but a check of the collection failed to turn up this
specimen. The site appears to be a single component
Weeden Island-related occupation.
As the above discussion indicates, no Levy or Dixie
County sites appear to have definite Safety Harbor

15
components. The Safety Harbor and Englewood pottery
sherds (some of which may actually be Fort Walton types)
probably resulted from exchange or other interaction
with Safety Harbor groups to the south.
Citrus Countv
Citrus County is the northernmost county where
sites with definite Safety Harbor components have been
identified. The Withlacoochee River, which forms the
northern and eastern borders of the county, was probably
a sociopolitical boundary during the protohistoric
period, and possibly earlier (Mitchem 1988a, 1989).
The Crystal River site (8Cil) is a famous
multimound site located on the north side of Crystal
River near its mouth. Clarence B. Moore (1903, 1907a,
1918) excavated in some of the mounds, and much has been
written about various interpretations of the artifacts
from Moore's work and later excavations (A. Bullen
1972:160; R. Bullen 1951a, 1953; Greenman 1938; Hardman
1971; Smith 1951; Weisman 1987; Willey 1948a,
1949a:316-323, 1949b; Willey and Phillips 1944).
In 1960 and 1964, Ripley Bullen (1965:10, n.d.)
excavated portions of a small burial mound at the site
which yielded 35 flexed burials. He believed that these
burials dated to Safety Harbor times, but an examination
of the FMNH collections from these excavations

16
(#98959-98970) indicates that there is little
artifactual evidence to support this interpretation.
There are sherds of Safety Harbor pottery types
from Crystal River, but they are few in number. Bullen
(1953:11, Figure 3) discussed and illustrated Point
Washington or Pinellas Incised sherds from the east end
of the shell midden extending east from Mound A (this
area is now under a trailer park). He noted that the
site did not appear to have been intensively occupied
during Safety Harbor times, and suggested that the site
served as some sort of ceremonial center during that
period (1953:32). Willey (1949b:43) believed that the
two truncated rectangular mounds at the site could
represent Safety Harbor constructions, but no
stratigraphic or artifactual data have been produced to
substantiate this.
The majority of the work at Crystal River has
demonstrated pre-Safety Harbor occupation (Bullen
1965:10; Willey 1949a:316-323). There does appear to be
a Safety Harbor component, but the intensity of this
occupation cannot be determined on the basis of previous
work at the site.
The Buzzard's Island site (8Ci2) is located on an
island in the Crystal River. The site apparently
consists of a cemetery (not a mound), from which Rainey
(1935) excavated an undisclosed number of secondary

17
burials and a few flexed and extended individuals. He
also noted evidence of cremation.
The artifacts from the site are of interest because
they reflect primarily Safety Harbor affiliations, but
also an Alachua Tradition connection. Rainey (1935)
illustrated several sherds and an almost complete
vessel. The sherds clearly indicate a Safety Harbor
occupation, consisting of St. Johns Check Stamped, Lake
Jackson Plain with a fluted rim, and Point Washington
Incised types (Willey [1949a:323-324] identified the
latter as Pinellas Incised). There was also a vessel
that Willey (1949a:324) identified as cob marked. This
bowl would be classified as Alachua Cob Marked, a
ceramic type associated with the later portion (ca. A.D.
1400) of the Alachua Tradition (Milanich 1971:28, 32).
Rainey (1935) also illustrated a ground stone celt,
Pinellas points, large stemmed points, a ceramic pipe
fragment, and a quartz plummet. Willey (1949a:323)
added that Rainey's collection at Yale included chipped
celts, long ground stone celts, St. Johns Plain pottery,
and stone pendants. Notes from the Yale Peabody Museum
(YPM) (#22767-22781) in the FMNH site files indicate
that at least four Pinellas Plain and nine Pinellas
Incised or Point Washington Incised sherds were also in
Rainey's collection.

18
There is a small collection of sherds from the site
in FMNH (#94677) donated by L. W. Harrell in 1958. It
includes 26/5 Pasco Plain, 10/3 sand tempered plain, 1/0
St. Johns Check Stamped, 1/0 sand tempered check
stamped, and 1/1 sand tempered plain with a notched lip.
It should be noted that the latter is not Pinellas
Plain. The types present in this collection do nothing
to alter the Safety Harbor interpretation of the site.
Moore (1903:413-414) excavated a burial mound
(8Ci3) near the Chassahowitzka River, which may have
been a Safety Harbor mound. Unfortunately, the verbal
description of the pottery encountered is too vague to
determine actual types, but it is safe to assume the
site was Weeden Island or Safety Harbor in age, possibly
both. Moore (1903:Figure 73) illustrated a rim sherd
with an effigy lug which could be classified as Lake
Jackson Plain.
A very large multicomponent habitation site (8Ci5)
is located on a peninsula known as Duval Island in Lake
Tsala Apopka. This site was mentioned by Willey
(1949a:324), who suggested a Deptford date for it.
Three collections (#85525-85527, 85977, and 92502) from
the site were donated to FMNH by Edward P. St. John of
Floral City. These collections are listed in Table 1.
More recent collections from the site have included
large numbers of St. Johns Check Stamped sherds, whole

19
Table 1. Artifacts from Duval Island (8Ci5) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain 33/8
Pasco Check Stamped 11/5
Pasco Plain with scratched surface 1/0
Prairie Cord Marked (some with Pasco paste) 27/8
St. Johns Plain 14/1
St. Johns Check Stamped 12/2
Dunns Creek Red 5/3
Sand tempered plain 5/0
Sand tempered plain tetrapod base 1/0
Perico Incised 1/1
Safety Harbor Incised 1/0
Stone:
Ovate chert biface 1
Metal:
Iron axe head 1
Busvcon contrarium shells, shell celts, and Pinellas
projectile points (Mitchem and Weisman 1987:156-158).
While test excavations have not been conducted, it
should be noted that the presence of a protohistoric
component (including Safety Harbor ceramics) and the
site size (ca. 8 ha) strongly indicate a large Safety
Harbor settlement, possibly the town of Tocaste

20
mentioned in the accounts of the Hernando de Soto
expedition, which passed through this portion of Florida
three times in 1539 (Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds
1973:65; Smith 1968:37; Swanton 1985:142).
A collection in FMNH (#77919-77933) from a site on
the shore of Lake Tsala Apopka (8Ci7) includes 3/2
Sarasota Incised and 1/1 Point Washington Incised
sherds, along with St. Johns types, Pasco types, and
Prairie Cord Marked. Deptford and Perico wares indicate
the site is multicomponent. Unfortunately, the records
do not indicate whether this was a mound or a midden.
S. T. Walker excavated approximately 150 European
glass beads from a mound (8C16) somewhere on
Chassahowitzka Bay (Willey 1949a:324). A note in the
FMNH site file describes these (NMNH #59376) as large
blue and large white seed beads, with cut tubular beads
of green, blue, opal, lavender, and colorless glass. A
large (1.2 cm diameter) dark blue bead and four brown
tubular or ovoid beads are also included. The verbal
description, though inadequate, seems to indicate that
these are probably seventeenth century types. No other
artifacts were mentioned from the site. It may have
been a postcontact Safety Harbor mound.
Three shell middens, Crystal River #3 (8C37),
Jake's Drop (8C38), and Shell Island (8C43), are
listed in the FMSF as having Safety Harbor components.

21
A check of the FMNH collections from these sites (#96065
and 99318; 96067; and 94676, 96071, and 99319,
respectively) yielded no definite evidence of Safety
Harbor occupation, however.
The Wash Island site (8C42) is also listed as
having a Safety Harbor component. This site was surface
collected and excavated by Bullen and Bullen (1961,
1963). Their collections indicated a primarily Deptford
occupation, but the presence of Pinellas Plain sherds,
including one rim with a notched lip (the later form of
this type) suggests a minor Safety Harbor component as
well (Bullen and Bullen 1963:84).
The Gard site (8C51), a burial mound on Rendevous
(sic) Island in the Homosassa River, was excavated by
Bullen (1951b). At least 11 burials were found, all
secondary interments (1951b:28). Few artifacts were
recovered, but the pottery included St. Johns Plain and
Check Stamped, Prairie Cord Marked, and a Lake Jackson
Plain rim with a loop handle. A greenstone celt, two
bifacial chipped tools, and a Busvcon shell bead were
also recovered. Bullen (1951b:31) thought that the
mound was Safety Harbor in date, with a possible late
Weeden Island-related component. This seems reasonable
based on the few artifacts available.
The Pumpkin Creek site (8C57), a small midden on
the Chassahowitzka River, was originally recorded as

22
Hd-7 (Hernando County) by Florida Park Service (FPS)
archaeologists. The FMNH site file lists this as a
possible Safety Harbor site, but the meager FMNH
collection (#99364) contains no diagnostic sherds to
support the contention.
Burtine Island D (8C61), a shell midden near the
mouth of the Withlacoochee River, was excavated by
Bullen (1966). Pottery types indicated occupation from
Deptford through Safety Harbor times, the latter being
represented by a few Sarasota Incised and Pinellas Plain
sherds. The relatively small number of Safety Harbor
artifacts suggests only a light occupation of the site
by Safety Harbor peoples (Bullen 1966:16). A small
number of Alachua Tradition types were also recovered,
evidence of interaction with groups north of the
Withlacoochee.
According to notes on the FMSF form, a marine shell
and dirt midden on the Homosassa River, the Tiger Tail
Bay Midden (8C136), yielded the artifacts listed in
Table 2. The site appears to be a mixed Weeden Island-
related and Safety Harbor midden.
An extremely large flat-topped shell mound, known
as the Withlacoochee River Platform Mound (8C189), is
located on the bank of the Withlacoochee. The site has
never been excavated, but its configuration is
reminiscent of truncated "temple mounds" associated with

23
Table 2. Artifacts from Tiger
Description
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain
Weeden Island Plain
Sand tempered plain
Pinellas Plain
Safety Harbor Incised
St. Johns Check Stamped
Lake Jackson Plain
Miscellaneous:
Chert flakes
Faunal remains
Tail Bay Midden (8C36) .
Count
12
12
9
1
1
1
1
2
count unrecorded
many Safety Harbor sites in the Tampa Bay area (Luer and
Almy 1981). No artifactual information is available,
but the site could be a possible Safety Harbor mound.
An extensive multicomponent shell midden on the
Withlacoochee River, the Bayonet Field site (8C97) ,
was partially excavated in 1985 (Mitchem, Weisman et al.
1985:44-47). Analysis has revealed that a Safety Harbor
component is present at the site, as indicated by Safety
Harbor Incised sherds. Abundant Prairie Cord Marked
sherds were also recovered from the midden, indicating
interaction with Alachua Tradition groups across the
river. Three radiocarbon samples (charcoal) from two

24
probable hearths (Features #7 and 13) yielded dates of
1000 + 60 B.P. (Beta-12679) and 630 50 B.P. (Beta-
12680) from Feature #7, and 1050 90 B.P. (Beta-12681)
from Feature #13 (Mitchem 1985b). When these dates are
calibrated using the computer programs CALIB and DISPLAY
(Stuiver and Reimer 1986), they yield calibrated date
ranges of Cal. AD 984-1150; Cal. AD 1282-1393; and Cal.
AD 891-1146, respectively. Artifacts in this part of
the midden consisted of mixed Weeden Island and Safety
Harbor types. The midden may represent one of the
habitation sites occupied by people buried in the Tatham
Mound (8C203).
A multicomponent artifact scatter known as the Wild
Hog Scrub site (8C198) is located a few hundred meters
from the Tatham Mound, and probably contains some
artifacts associated with the builders of the mound
(Weisman 1986:12-15, 1989:142; Weisman and Marquardt
1988), though the Safety Harbor component appears to be
minor. The site was probably used on a short-term basis
during Safety Harbor times.
The Alligator Ford site (8C199) is located in the
Cove of the Withlacoochee, a wetland area of eastern
Citrus County. Weisman (1986:12) excavated two units at
this site, which appeared to be a habitation site
occupied from Weeden Island through Seminole times.
Safety Harbor occupation was suggested by a possible

25
Pinellas Incised sherd and a Savannah Fine Cord Marked
sherd. The site may have been occupied by some of the
people buried at the nearby Tatham mound (8C203), but
further testing of the site is necessary to determine
this.
The Ruth Smith Mound (8C200) is also located in
the Cove of the Withlacoochee area. This site was
vandalized for many years, culminating in its
destruction by bulldozer early in the 1970s (Mitchem and
Weisman 1984:100). Test excavations of the site in 1984
revealed that no portions of the mound were intact
(Mitchem and Weisman 1984).
A number of collectors with material from the site
were contacted and loaned artifacts to FMNH for study.
They reported that many burials were excavated from the
mound, but no records on numbers or positions were kept.
Decorated pottery types from the site included Safety
Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Point Washington
Incised, and St. Johns Check Stamped, clearly indicating
a Safety Harbor occupation (Mitchem, Smith et al.
1985:198). Alachua Tradition types were also present in
small numbers.
The most significant artifacts from the site are
Spanish objects dating to the first half of the
sixteenth century. These include 30 glass beads, 51
silver beads, two gold beads, an iron chisel, a rolled
\

26
iron bead, brass rings (possibly representing chain
mail), and a sherd of Green Bacn pottery (Mitchem,
Smith et al. 1985:202). The glass beads included Nueva
Cadiz and faceted chevron varieties, indicating an early
sixteenth century date (Deagan 1987; Smith and Good
1982) Two additional glass beads, one Nueva Cadiz
Plain and one faceted chevron, were recently collected
from the surface of the site and donated to the FMNH
(Walter H. Askew, personal communication 1988). The
location of the site and the assemblage of Spanish
artifacts suggest that the people buried in the mound
made contact with one or both of the expeditions of
Pnfilo de Narvaez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539.
A few kilometers away is the Tatham mound (8C203),
excavated by FMNH archaeologists in 1985 and 1986
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986, 1987). This protohistoric
site is discussed in detail in Chapter 3.
An artifact scatter known as the Weaver site
(8C213) yielded St. Johns Check Stamped and Prairie
Cord Marked sherds, as well as Pinellas projectile
points. While the evidence is scant, these artifact
types suggest a Safety Harbor designation for the site.
Weisman (1989:116) stated that the Zellner Grove
site (8C215) had a possible Safety Harbor component
represented by a light scatter of artifacts. As he

27
noted, this was probably related to the larger Duval
Island site (8Ci5), which is located nearby.
A collection from an unnumbered site known as the
"shell midden half way down the Chassahowitzka River on
the right" is in FMNH (#104968). The artifacts in this
collection are listed in Table 3. A note with the
collection indicates that many Pinellas projectile
points were found on the site, to the virtual exclusion
of other point types. The collection seems to indicate
a multicomponent site, with Safety Harbor occupation
possibly represented by the Pinellas points.
Several unrecorded middens are located on the north
bank of the Homosassa River. Pinellas projectile points
and Safety Harbor Incised pottery have been collected
from eroding beaches adjacent to these middens (Walter
H. Askew, personal communication 1988).
Lake County
Lake County, located east of Sumter County, is
outside of the Safety Harbor culture area. A few sites,
however, have yielded evidence which may indicate
interaction with Safety Harbor groups.
In the late nineteenth century, C. B. Moore
(1896:536-539) excavated a previously disturbed mound
west of the town of Tavares (8La52). The sand mound
yielded many secondary burials, shell beads, galena,

28
Table 3. Artifacts from an Unrecorded Shell Midden
on the Chassahowitzka River.
Description
Ceramics:
St. Johns Check Stamped
Sand tempered plain
Deptford Cross Simple Stamped
Complicated stamped (faint concentric circle
Jefferson Ware?)
Stone:
Pinellas projectile points
Chert biface fragment
Bone:
Polished bone pin fragment
Count
9/2
4/3
1/0
1/0
5
1
1
plain and red painted pottery, stone celts, projectile
points, and pendants of stone and shell (1896:536-538).
One illustrated sherd (1896:Plate LXXXVI[4]) is typical
Weeden Island Incised. He also made brief mention of a
smaller sand mound (8La53) nearby, which purportedly had
yielded objects of brass or bronze in the past. Though
Moore did not dig in the smaller mound, he noted the
presence of glass beads on its surface (1896:539).
The sites, consisting of the two mounds and a
habitation area, were rediscovered by Sleight (1949),
who excavated in the smaller mound (8La53) and screened

29
previous workers' backdirt. His work yielded 366 glass
beads, a teardrop-shaped glass pendant, and three
pottery vessels.
The glass beads were primarily seed beads, of a
wide variety of colors. A tubular blue bead with red,
white, blue, and green longitudinal stripes was also
recovered. The pendant (2.5 cm x 1.3 cm) was of light
blue glass (Sleight 1949:27-28), and had a perforation
made by looping the molten glass. He noted the
similarity of this assemblage to that from the Goodnow
mound (8Hg6) in Highlands County (Griffin and Smith
1948) .
The three vessels from the mound were of the types
St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, and Sarasota
Incised (Sleight 1949:28-30). The Sarasota Incised
vessel suggests either a very early Safety Harbor
component for the site or interaction with Safety Harbor
groups during this time period. However, since the site
is located on the edge of the St. Johns culture area,
the vessel could merely be a St. Johns paste vessel with
designs that coincidentally match those used to define
the type Sarasota Incised (Willey 1949a:474). The glass
beads indicate a much later occupation, but the cultural
affiliations of the postcontact component are not
evident from the available data.

30
The Mound near Old Okahumpka (8La57) was also
excavated by Moore (1896:542-543). This sand mound
yielded many burials, all of which were apparently
secondary (bundles). Eight stone celts, shell beads,
plain and red-painted sherds, and three copper objects
came from the mound.
One of the copper objects was a plate fragment with
a repouss design embossed on it (Goggin 1949d). The
design consisted of the lower portion (the top had been
broken away) of a human figure in profile. The method
of depiction of this individual is clearly reminiscent
of motifs associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex (Hamilton et al. 1974:153-161; Waring and Holder
1968). Such motifs are common on Mississippian period
(ca. A.D. 1200-1450) ceremonial objects (Knight 1986),
and the copper plate from Old Okahumpka dates the mound
to this period. Copper and pottery objects with
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex motifs have been found
at the Tatham Mound in Citrus County (Mitchem and
Hutchinson 1987; see also Chapter 3, this volume).
Moore (1896:Figure 91) illustrated a sherd from the
site which bears a striking resemblance to a sherd from
the Briarwoods site (8Pa66), a Safety Harbor burial
mound in Pasco County (Mitchem 1985a, 1988b). The
artifactual evidence suggests that the site was probably
occupied by people who interacted with Safety Harbor

31
groups, though collections from the site are too scant
to allow determination of whether or not the mound
should be considered a Safety Harbor site. ,
Another site (8La62) in Lake County, known as the
West Apopka site (or Burial Mound on the West Shore of
Lake Apopka), was described by Kunz (1887:222). His
discussion focused on description of two metal objects
(American Museum of Natural History [AMNH] #1/4662) from
the site, one of cast gold (Goggin 1954b:Figure la) and
one of silver (Kunz 1887:Figures 4 and 5). He also
mentioned that the mound contained a stone celt and a
large number of decomposed bones representing hundreds
of individuals. No information on pottery types or
other artifacts was included. The FMNH site file
designates this as a Safety Harbor site, but presently
available data do not allow confirmation of this
interpretation.
Orange Countv
A note in the FMNH site file (apparently written by
John Goggin) indicates that the East Shore of Lake
Butler site (80rll) was a Safety Harbor mound. However,
the only artifacts recorded from the site are two
artifacts of European metal, one of silver and one of
gold (Kunz 1887:221-223, Figures 2 and 6). There is no

32
evidence to indicate that the site was a Safety Harbor
mound.
A site known as the Mound West of Lake Butler
(80rl2), or the Gotha Mound, was excavated in the late
nineteenth century by Adolph Meinecke, a trustee of the
Milwaukee Public Museum (MPM). Material attributed to
this site came from at least two mounds in the area
(Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of
Milwaukee 1892:15, 1893:12-13). One of these mounds may
also have been dug in 1896 by Thomas Featherstonhaugh
(1897, 1899). One of them may have been 80rll.
John Goggin studied the MPM collection in 1945, and
obtained many of the European artifacts from there in
1961. Goggin's notes on the collection were probably
used by Smith (1956:52) to write his brief discussion of
the site, which he incorrectly referred to as 80rll.
Goggin's (1945) notes indicated that Weeden Island
Punctated, Wakulla Check Stamped, Englewood Incised,
"Englewood Punctated," Safety Harbor Incised, Fort
Walton Incised, and St. Johns pottery types were in the
collection. An intact Seminole vessel was also present
(Goggin 1953b:Figures la and 7a).
The European artifacts, most of which are now in
FMNH (#A-20117), consist of a wide variety of glass
beads and metal objects. Several of the metal items
listed in the notes in the site file have disappeared,

33
including a tanged iron knife blade, a perforated iron
celt, and an iron chisel. The FMNH collection from the
site is listed in Table 4.
The European artifacts from 80rl2 provide some
evidence for the date of contact. The glass beads are
most useful for this purpose. The Nueva Cadiz bead and
the oblate transparent purple specimens are early
sixteenth century varieties (Smith and Good 1982), but
most of the collection is later, suggesting that the
early beads were curated items. The opaque turquoise
blue (Ichtucknee Blue), aquamarine, medium blue, heat-
altered compound, and Cornaline d'Aleppo beads probably
all date to the late sixteenth or seventeenth centuries
(Deagan 1987:Table 4, 168, 171, 175; Smith 1983:150,
1987:46). The Gooseberry beads are spheroid, which
indicates a probable eighteenth century date (Deagan
1987:168; Smith 1983:150).
The rolled sheet silver bead is a 4.15 cm long tube
weighing 5.9 g. Beads of this type have been recovered
from many sixteenth and seventeenth century contact
period aboriginal sites in Florida (Mitchem and Leader
1988:54). The brass disc, originally about 11 cm in
diameter, is of a type found on sites in the interior
Southeast dating from the late sixteenth century or
later (Smith 1987:37-38). The two iron 'awls" measure
20.3 cm and 20.6 cm in length, are square in cross

34
Table 4. Artifacts from 80rl2 in FMNH.
Description Count
Glass Beads:
Opaque white seed 98
Transparent light blue-green seed 71
Transparent medium blue seed 19
Opaque turquoise blue seed 10
Transparent light purple seed 2
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed 2
Spheroid translucent dark purple seed 1
Large Nueva Cadiz Plain, faceted (transparent
medium aquamarine blue/thin white/transparent
medium blue core) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 27
Drawn oblate or barrel-shaped transparent
aquamarine blue 21
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium blue 6
Colorless Gooseberry (1 is oblate, other is double) 2
Drawn barrel-shaped opaque white 4
Heat-altered compound spherical (translucent
turquoise blue/possible thin white/transparent
medium aquamarine blue core) 5
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent medium green 4
Oblate transparent purple (IBlg)* 2
Drawn barrel-shaped translucent dark burgundy 2
Oblate Cornaline d'Aleppo
1

Table 4continued
Description Count
Small olive-shaped medium transparent purple with
marvered facets 1
Oblate translucent yellow 1
Barrel-shaped transparent medium aquamarine blue
with 4 longitudinal red-on-white stripes 1
Barrel-shaped transparent light blue with 9
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent cobalt blue 2
Spheroid medium transparent blue with 4 longitudinal
opaque white stripes 3
Small oblate transparent medium blue with 4
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Large drawn translucent dark brown with 3
longitudinal opaque white stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped opaque dark burgundy with 1
longitudinal thin white stripe 1
Blue metallic-finish faceted spherical (5 rows of
facets, mold-made, probably modern) 1
Metal:
Rolled sheet silver bead 1
Broken circular brass disc 1
Miscellaneous flat brass fragments 2
Iron "awls" 2
Iron scissors fragments (from a single pair) 2

36
Table 4continued
Description
Unidentified iron fragment
Count
1
Stone:
Polished stone bead (probably hematite)
1
Shell
Barrel-shaped beads
2
Disc beads stained with red ochre
3
Small disc beads
3
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
section, have tapered ends, and are 0.7 cm thick at the
widest point. The identification of these items as awls
is speculative. Similar iron awls have been recovered
in seventeenth century Onondaga contexts in New York
(Bradley 1987:141-142, 202) and in eighteenth century
contexts at Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan (Stone
1974:155-159). But specimens from these areas are much
smaller than those from 80rl2, and are probably of Dutch
or French origin rather than Spanish (Bradley 1987:142).
Dan and Phyllis Morse (1986) have suggested that these
objects were raw material for blacksmiths accompanying
the early Spanish expeditions. Present evidence is
insufficient to determine their function.
Because of the location of the site outside of the
apparent Safety Harbor culture area, a visit was made to

37
MPM in August, 1988, to study and photograph the
aboriginal artifacts from the mound. This study
indicated that the aboriginal ceramics from the mound
are clearly Weeden Island types. The decorated sherds
of Safety Harbor and Englewood types mentioned by Goggin
(1945) were misidentified. Furthermore, many of the
stone artifacts in the MPM collection (primarily
projectile points and ground stone objects) are not from
Florida. Specifically, many of the projectile points
appear to be quartzite points typical of the Georgia
Piedmont, and the presence of several grooved stone axes
(typical of northeastern North America) strongly
suggests that the collection was mixed with material
from many sites.
The collector, Adolph Meinecke, owned a winter home
near Lake Butler. During visits there, he and some
associates would excavate in at least two mounds
(possibly more) in the vicinity, subsequently donating
the material to MPM (Board of Trustees of the Public
Museum of the City of Milwaukee 1892:15, 41-42, 1893:12-
13, 44-45, 1894:13, 70, 1896:13, 34). The artifacts in
FMNH and MPM were excavated from these mounds, but
artifacts from other states were mixed in with the
collection at some point. The European artifacts
indicate that the major period of contact was probably
during the late sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, but

38
there is no evidence to support a Safety Harbor
component at the mound.
Hernando County
The Bayport mound (8Hel) was excavated by Moore
(1903:415-424). This oblong burial mound yielded about
40 burials, most of which were secondary interments,
along with a few cremations (Willey 1949a:325-326).
Though most of the pottery consists of Weeden Island
types, Moore illustrated what appears to be a sherd of
Englewood Incised (1903:Figure 66), and a Safety Harbor
Incised bottle form (1903:Figure 71). A cast of the
bottle is in FMNH (#A-3068). These latter types suggest
a minor Safety Harbor component at the site.
Moore also excavated a mound known as Indian Bend
(8He2), from which he recovered check stamped sherds and
at least one sherd from a St. Petersburg Incised bottle
(1903:Figure 65). Willey (1949a:442) noted that St.
Petersburg Incised is primarily a late Weeden Island
type, but probably also occurs in Englewood contexts.
Therefore, it is possible that this site had an early
Safety Harbor component.
The multicomponent Johns Island site (8He4), first
mentioned by Heilprin (1887:4), was tested by Antonio
Waring in 1948 (Willey 1949a:327-328), who found mostly
Weeden Island pottery types. Bullen and Bullen (1950)

39
also worked at the site, recovering a small number of
Pinellas Plain sherds in the top stratum of the midden,
along with shell tempered wares (1950:44). These types,
in addition to Pinellas points surface-collected nearby,
would suggest a possible minor Safety Harbor occupation
of the site, though these could also represent a Weeden
Island-related component. A collection in FMNH (#30350)
also includes a Spanish Olive Jar sherd, indicating some
habitation or contact after the early sixteenth century.
A collection in the NMNH (#59368), apparently collected
by S. T. Walker (Goggin thought it was from the Johns
Island site), also includes one sherd identified as
European by John Goggin.
The Bayport II site (8He7) is apparently a
habitation site about 1.6 km south of 8Hel. Notes in
the FMNH site file indicate that a surface collection at
the site produced 73 sherds, supposedly all Safety
Harbor types. Only two decorated sherds were noted,
both of which were Pinellas Incised. The collection is
housed in the Temple Mound Museum (TMM) in Fort Walton
Beach.
A collection in FMNH (#98449) was obtained in 1963
from the Palm Grove Gardens site (8He8). The artifacts
are listed in Table 5. The Pinellas Plain pottery

40
Table 5. Artifacts from the Palm Grove Gardens Site
(8He8) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pasco Plain 46/6
Pasco Check Stamped 3/2
Pasco Cord Marked 1/1
Sand tempered plain 39/6
Pinellas Plain 10/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 6/2
St. Johns Plain 4/1
Stone:
Utilized chert flake 1
suggests a Safety Harbor component, though this could
represent a late Weeden Island-related occupation.
A multicomponent site (8HelO) known as the First
Gardens or Weekiwachee site (not to be confused with the
Weeki Wachee Mound [8Hel2] discussed below) was
collected by Ferguson (1976). This midden, which had
been vandalized, yielded material indicating continuous
occupation from Deptford through Seminole times. The
probable Safety Harbor component was represented by
Pinellas Plain sherds, Pinellas projectile points, and a
Tampa projectile point. Ferguson (1976:Figure 1[3])
also recovered an incised sherd, which he identified as

41
Ocmulgee Fields Incised, but is Point Washington
Incised. Fifty Olive Jar sherds were also collected,but
these may have been associated with the Seminole
component (1976:76).
The Weeki Wachee Mound (8Hel2) was excavated in
1970 by Robert Allen. Located near the springs of the
same name, the mound yielded 63 burials, many of which
consisted of more than one individual. Pottery from the
mound included typical Safety Harbor types with some
Alachua Tradition types present (Mitchem, Smith et al.
1985:185). Shell artifacts were numerous, including
Busvcon cups, unaltered whelk shells, beads, and
freshwater mussel shells (as necklaces). The mussel
shells are of interest because they were identified as
Shepard's Filter Clam (Elliptio sheoardianus Lea), a
species that occurs only in the Altamaha River drainage
of Georgia. Shells of this species were also recovered
at the Tatham mound in Citrus County (Mitchem and
Hutchinson 1986:17-18, 1987:23).
In addition, the excavations yielded between 123
and 127 glass beads, 151 silver beads, and one spherical
true amber bead. The glass beads consisted of many
varieties of Nueva Cadiz, faceted chevron, and striped
beads, all of which are early sixteenth century types
(Deagan 1987; Smith and Good 1982). The European bead

42
assemblage is remarkably similar to those recovered from
the Ruth Smith and Tatham mounds in Citrus County
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:27-34, 1987:48-55; Mitchem,
Smith et al. 1985:204-205). The Weeki Wachee Mound was
apparently an isolated burial mound, with no associated
habitation area. This appears to be a typical pattern
in the region north of Tampa Bay (Mitchem 1988d).
A site known as Anderson's Mound (8Hel4) was
destroyed by treasure hunters. Excavations prior to
destruction yielded a beaker-shaped vessel with vertical
bands of parallel incised lines in a zigzag pattern
(probably a variant of Englewood Incised), a stone
plummet, and a ground stone celt fragment (William G.
Dayton, personal communication 1986). The FMNH site
file also records that a sherd of Englewood Incised and
a blue glass bead were recovered after the mound's
destruction. This bead was a heat-altered opaque
turquoise blue specimen (Ichtucknee Blue). These first
show up in sites in the Southeast around 1560 or 1570,
but are occasionally found on sites dating as late as
the eighteenth century (Deagan 1987:171; Goggin 1953a;
Smith 1983:150, 1987:33). Local informants claim that
many similar beads were recovered from the mound. The
scant evidence from the site suggests that it was a

43
Safety Harbor burial mound, used well into the
postcontact period.
In the files of the FPS (housed in FMNH), a letter
written by Harry L. Schoff (dated December 12, 1935)
includes a basic description of artifacts recovered from
a mound near Istachatta in northeast Hernando County.
The small sand mound yielded 14 pecked and ground stone
celts, projectile points, and "a few silver, stone and
shell beads" (Schoff 1935). Because of the location of
the mound and the presence of silver beads, the site
probably had a postcontact Safety Harbor component.
In the SFM collection in Bradenton, an iron celt
(#35-11, 2120) is identified as having been found in
Hernando County, probably by Montague Tallant. The celt
is 24.2 cm long, 6.0-7.5 cm wide, and 0.7-1.0 cm thick.
Similar iron artifacts have come from sixteenth century
Spanish sites elsewhere in the Southeast (Smith 1975;
1987:34-36, 45-46). It is assumed the celt was
recovered from a postcontact Safety Harbor site. There
is also a large scalloped-rim Safety Harbor Incised bowl
in SFM (#2324) which was found somewhere in Hernando
County. It should be noted, however, that the
boundaries of many Florida counties have changed over
the years.

44
Large numbers of Pinellas projectile points have
been collected from a site on the Chassahowitzka River
by collectors who screened material eroding into the
water (J. Raymond Williams, personal communication
1988) The site is apparently unrecorded, and no other
information is available. The Pinellas points could
indicate either a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor
component. It is possible that this could be the same
site mentioned in the Citrus County discussion above
(Table 3).
Pasco Countv
S. T. Walker (1880a:392-394) and C. B. Moore
(1903:426-433) both excavated at the Pithlochascootie
River site (8Pa2). This site was described by Walker
(1880a:392) as consisting of two mounds about 90 m
apart. One of these was a flat-topped mound of
alternating shell and sand strata, and the other was an
oval-shaped sand mound with a small projecting ridge.
Walker recovered no artifacts from the first mound, but
encountered numerous primary and secondary burials in
the sand mound (1880a:394). An iron spike, a projectile
point, and decorated sherds were also recovered during
Walker's work.

45
Moore excavated flexed, extended, and secondary
burials from the sand mound, representing a total of
probably 150 individuals (Willey 1949a:329). Evidence
of cremation was also found. Many artifacts of stone,
bone, and shell were recovered (Moore 1903:426-433;
Willey 1949a:329).
Pottery from both Walker7s and Moore's excavations
consisted mostly of Weeden Island types, but Moore
(1903:Figure 83) illustrated a vessel which appeared to
be Sarasota Incised. Willey's (1949a:330) analysis of
Walker's collection included a sherd of St. Petersburg
Incised. These suggest a minor early Safety Harbor
component at the site. If there is indeed a Safety
Harbor component at the site, it represents the
northernmost occurrence of the Mississippian-style
Safety Harbor village site consisting of truncated
mound, plaza, and burial mound, as described by Bullen
(1955:60-61, 1978b:51).
Several low burial mounds (8Pa9) were destroyed
while clearing land for an orange grove near Dade City
in 1946. FPS files indicate that numerous Busycon shell
fragments were present, as well as human bones from
burials. Two small collections in FMNH (#99658 and
104902) contain chert flakes, St. Johns Check Stamped,
and Pasco Plain sherds, along with a partially

46
reconstructed sand tempered vessel with a brushed
exterior. Though the latter vessel suggests Seminole
occupation (many Seminole sites are known in the area),
the rest'" of the pottery types are not inconsistent with
a Safety Harbor date. The presence nearby of a large
Safety Harbor habitation site (the Pottery Hill site)
increases the probability that the mounds were Safety
Harbor burial mounds.
At the multicomponent Grace Memorial Gardens site
(8Pa21), excavations by amateur archaeologists revealed
Archaic, Weeden Island-related, and Safety Harbor
occupations. The Safety Harbor component was indicated
by sherds of Pinellas Plain pottery with notched lips
(Wells and Bull 1978:23).
Members of the Suncoast Archaeological Society
reported an artifact scatter (8Pa37) in 1978 which
yielded aboriginal ceramics, lithic artifacts, and
faunal remains. On the FMSF form, the site was dated to
late Weeden Island and Safety Harbor times, but the
artifacts were not described.
Another multicomponent artifact scatter (8Pa54),
known as the Upper Hillsborough 9 site, also contained
ceramics and lithic artifacts. Though artifct types
were not described on the FMSF form, the site was

47
classified as occupied from Deptford through Safety
Harbor times.
The Briarwoods site (8Pa66) was a small Safety
Harbor burial mound salvaged in 1980. Two flexed
burials were recovered, with many secondary remains
above them. Some of the burials were surrounded by sand
stained with red ochre (Mitchem 1985a:162). Artifacts
included a ground stone celt, a shell gorget, a flaked
stone celt, shark teeth, shell beads, and aboriginal
ceramics. Pottery types indicated that the site was a
Safety Harbor mound (1985a:163-164). Attempts to locate
an associated habitation site were unsuccessful.
Four artifact scatters (8Pal23A, 8Pal25G, 8Pal26E,
and 8Pal29) were located in 1983 (Wharton 1984). The
FMSF forms indicate that aboriginal ceramics and lithic
artifacts were recovered at each of these sites, and
they were dated to Weeden Island and Safety Harbor
times. Pinellas points were recovered at 8Pal23A,
8Pal25G, and 8Pal29 (Wharton 1984).
The River Road Site A (8Pal58A) is a lithic scatter
that yielded a single Pinellas projectile point base
(Wharton 1984). The site is identified as a Safety
Harbor site on the FMSF form based on this artifact, but
it could be a late Weeden Island-related site.

48
The Pottery Hill site is a previously unrecorded
site near Dade City. The site originally had a mound
which was levelled with a bulldozer many years ago.
Local informants claimed that this mound was flat-
topped, about 2 m high, and about 12 m across (William
G. Dayton, personal communication 1986).
A habitation area is located adjacent to the
supposed mound site. Surface collections from this area
contained many projectile points, including specimens of
the Pinellas, Tampa, Hernando, Bolen, Lafayette, Newnan,
and Florida Archaic Stemmed types (Bullen 1975).
Pottery consisted of Pasco Plain, sand tempered plain,
St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Prairie Cord
Marked, and Safety Harbor Incised. Various lithic
artifacts and Busvcon fragments were also recovered.
The artifacts indicate a Safety Harbor component at the
site, with possible earlier components. Several low
burial mounds (8Pa9), which were destroyed in 1946, were
located less than .75 km north of Pottery Hill, and may
have been associated (see discussion of 8Pa9 above).
Another site, the Evans Creek site (8Pal68), is
located about 1.6 km away. Local informants report that
Pinellas projectile points and Safety Harbor pottery
types were surface-collected from this site (William G.
Dayton, personal communication 1986).

49
A Safety Harbor Incised bowl with a restricted neck
and a flared rim is in the SFM collection (#2325). The
lip is also notched. The vessel came from an unknown
site in Pasco County.
Neill (1978:224-225) indicated that Safety Harbor
sites are abundant in Pasco County, primarily in inland
areas which have recently been developed. Though he did
not mention any specific sites, he noted that at least
three Safety Harbor cemeteries (as opposed to mounds)
had been found in the county, and that majolica had been
recovered from some of the area's larger Safety Harbor
sites.
Pinellas Countv
Pinellas County, along with Hillsborough and
Manatee Counties, is the region of the greatest
concentration of Safety Harbor sites. Unfortunately, it
is also an area that has undergone very heavy
development with consequent destruction of numerous
archaeological sites (Williams 1975).
One of the most famous sites in Pinellas County is
the Weeden Island site (8Pil), which was partially
excavated by archaeologists from the Smithsonian
Institution in 1923 and 1924 (Bushnell 1926:129-132;
Fewkes 1924; Willey 1949a:105-113). Though this was the

50
type site for the Weeden Island period, there was a
minor Safety Harbor component at the site, as evidenced
by some of the pottery types recovered. Willey
(1949a:109-111) listed a small number of Englewood and
Safety Harbor sherds in the NMNH collection from the
site. Their exact provenience is unknown. Bushnell
(1926:131-132) collected and illustrated part of a
Sarasota Incised vessel (NMNH #330622) from the surface
of the burial mound. A collection from the site in FMNH
(#A-2612) contains some Safety Harbor Incised sherds
mixed with a predominantly Weeden Island assemblage. A
collection in YPM (#4572) also includes some Safety
Harbor Incised and probable Pinellas Incised sherds, as
well as a sherd with a notched lip (possibly the late
variety of Pinellas Plain).
The Safety Harbor site (8Pi2), on the west side of
Old Tampa Bay, is the type site for the Safety Harbor
archaeological culture. It was first mentioned in print
by Daniel Brinton (1859:118, 171). Several decades
later, S. T. Walker (1880a:410-411) visited the site,
then known as Phillippi's Point, but was refused
permission to excavate. Twenty years later, C. B. Moore
(1900:356) was also refused permission to dig at the
site.

51
Two mounds were present, one a low sand burial
mound located at the northern end, and the other a large
truncated "temple" mound at the southern end. At the
time of Walker's visit, part of the truncated mound had
been eroded by storm action, and he was able to observe
that it was composed of alternating sand and shell
layers (1880a:411). Habitation areas were apparently
located around the latter mound, close to the bay shore
areas (Griffin and Bullen 1950:Figure 1).
Several major episodes of excavation have been
undertaken at the site during the twentieth century.
Stirling (1931:171-172) excavated the burial mound in
1930, removing about 100 secondary burials, along with
aboriginal and European artifacts. Fifty of the crania
were studied by Hrdlicka (1940:339-340, 373), but
apparently most of the skeletal remains were discarded
(B. William Burger, personal communication 1986). A
contemporary newspaper account indicates that over 1400
burials were removed during these excavations (Anonymous
1930) .
Willey (1949a:138) listed the sherd counts and
types from the burial mound (NMNH #351513-351525) and
from the habitation area between the mounds (NMNH
#351526-351536, 362378-362386), which was also tested by
Stirling. Stone, shell, bone, and European materials

52
from both contexts were also described. The ceramic
assemblage from these excavations consisted almost
completely of Safety Harbor types, with no earlier
Weeden Island types present.
In August, 1948, the FPS excavated in the top of
the large truncated mound and in portions of the
presumed habitation area (Griffin and Bullen 1950). The
artifacts recovered from this work (FMNH #97199-97225,
97231-97234) consisted of Safety Harbor and
Leon-Jefferson (Mission Period) types, with no Weeden
Island materials. Great quantities of Pinellas Plain
sherds were recovered from the presumed habitation area,
indicating that this was the primary utilitarian ware at
the site.
A small collection of faunal remains collected
during these excavations is housed in the FMNH
Zooarchaeology Laboratory (#91). The collection is
heavily biased toward large elements because the
material was not screened, and only those bones noticed
during excavation were kept, As would be expected from
a coastal site, the assemblage consists primarily of
marine fauna, with some terrapins, birds, and mammals
(Kozuch 1986:Table 1).
Additional excavations were conducted at the site
in the late 1960s by several local groups of amateur

53
archaeologists (Gustave A. Nelson, Sr., personal
communication 1986). The results of this work have not
been published, but material from the excavations
displayed in the Oldsmar Museum and in the Pinellas
County Courthouse in Clearwater includes Pinellas
projectile points and sherds of Safety Harbor Incised,
Pinellas Incised, Point Washington Incised, Englewood
Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, and Pinellas Plain pottery.
Some bird head adornos from the site were illustrated by
Gorges (1979).
The site has been surface collected many times in
the past, and some of these collections are housed in
FMNH (#3041-3373, 5202-5218). They contain typical
Safety Harbor sherds and lithic artifacts, as well as a
surprising number of Archaic projectile points. A
possible stone tool was collected from the site by
Armistead (1949).
The European items found at the site are of great
interest, because most researchers feel that the Safety
Harbor site is the town of Tocobaga visited by Pedro
Menndez de Avils in 1567 (Bullen 1978b; Solis de Meras
1964:223-229). European artifacts from the site in
FMNH, NMNH, and other places are listed in Table 6.
Goggin (1953:11, 1954a:152-153) indicated that the
sherd of Yayal Blue on White majolica and the Portuguese

54
Table 6. European Artifacts from the Safety Harbor
Site (8Pi2).
X"
X
/
X
Description Count
Ceramics (all in FMNH, except where noted):
Olive Jar (includes 2 strap handles) 43/2
Melado 2/1
Green Lebrillo 1/0
Unglazed red coarse earthenware 1/0
Unglazed coarse earthenware strap handle 1
Yayal Blue on White majolica (Florida State
University [FSU]) 1
Metal:
Portuguese copper ceitel coin (location unknown) 1
Iron axes (NMNH #351513 & 384087) 2
Rolled sheet silver bead (NMNH #351514) 1
Sheet silver ornament 1
Other:
Clay pipe fragments (1 is a green-glazed human head
effigy) (NMNH #351536 and 362386) 3
coin were collected from the beach adjacent to the site.
The iron axes, rolled sheet silver bead, and sheet
silver ornament were recovered during the burial mound
excavations (Goggin 1953:11; Stirling 1931:172; Willey
1949a:139). Willey (1949a:Plate 57) illustrated the
three European pipe fragments from the site, and noted

55
that they came from excavations or surface collections
in the village area (1949a:139). The green-glazed pipe
fragment matches a reproduction of a Moravian pipe in
the type collection at FMNH. The 8Pi2 specimen was
probably associated with the early nineteenth century
homestead of Count Odet Phillippi on the site (Griffin
and Bullen 1950:7-8).
The Olive Jar handles are from early style Olive
Jars, indicating a date of 1500-1570 or 1580 (Deagan
1987:33; Goggin 1960:23, 27). The copper Portuguese
ceitel (identified by Sydney P. Noe of the American
Numismatic Society in 1952) could have been minted any
time during the reign of John III of Portugal
(1521-1577) (Goggin 1954a:153). Melado is generally
found in early sixteenth century contexts, while Yayal
Blue on White majolica and Green Lebrillo date from the
late fifteenth to the early seventeenth centuries
(Deagan 1987:Table 4-1). The diversity of these
artifacts, along with the presence of Leon-Jefferson
wares (Griffin and Bullen 1950:11), suggests the
possibility that several different episodes of contact
may be represented at the site. However, it is likely
that some of the artifacts were obtained by exchange
with other aboriginal groups in the area, or as tribute
from subordinate settlements.

56
The description of the town of Tocobaga and its
location, provided by Solis de Mers (1964:224),
strongly suggests that the Safety Harbor site was indeed
the cacique Tocobaga's town, which was visited by
Menndez. The town was 20 leagues inland (this
apparently means 20 leagues from the mouth of Tampa
Bay), "and one could sail up close to the side of his
house by a channel of salt water" (Solis de Mers
1964:224). The account also mentions steering north
from the mouth of the bay to reach the town. Once
contact was established, Menndez left 30 soldiers and a
captain (1964:228), who then constructed a blockhouse in
the town (1964:242).
The Jesuit priest Juan Rogel, along with Pedro
Menndez Marquz, visited the garrison some months later
and found things going well (Lyon 1976:202; Zubillaga
1946:276). However, when they returned in January,
1568, they found the town deserted and that all of the
Spaniards had been killed (Lyon 1976:203; Zubillaga
1946:295-296). The European artifacts from the Safety
Harbor site could represent material evidence of this
garrison, as none of them dates solely to a post-1568
period. The Leon-Jefferson wares could also be from
this episode of contact.

57
The Safety Harbor site is remarkable because it
appears to be a single component site with two mounds
and a large habitation area, representing an intensive
Safety Harbor occupation with no underlying Weeden
Island-related component (Griffin and Bullen 1950;
Willey 1949a:137, 141). Many Safety Harbor sites in the
Tampa Bay area are multicomponent, and unmixed
habitation or midden areas are rare.
The Safford Mound (8Pi3) near Tarpon Springs was
excavated by Frank H. Cushing (1896:352-354), who
provided only a brief general description of his
findings. W. H. Holmes (1903) illustrated some vessels
from the mound. Moore (1903:433) claimed that this was
the Ormond Mound excavated previously by Walker
(1880a:396-399, Plate III), but the evidence is
inconclusive. Walker's description was of a sand mound
29 m in diameter and 1.5 m high, which yielded secondary
burials, cremations, and sherds (1880a:396-399).
Using Cushing's notes and photographs along with
the collection (now housed in the University of
Pennsylvania Museum [UPM] and FMNH), Bullen et al.
(1970) and Smith (1971:131-133) published descriptive
reports on the excavations and the recovered artifacts.
The reports included descriptions and illustrations of
pottery and other artifacts from the mound. The pottery

58
types revealed occupation from Deptford through Safety
Harbor times. The Safety Harbor component was
represented by Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised,
Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, Lake Jackson Plain,
and Safety Harbor Incised sherds and vessels (Bullen et
al. 1970; Smith 1971:131-133). Unfortunately, exact
provenience information was not recorded, so very little
is known about associations.
The mound was originally roughly circular in shape,
with a diameter of approximately 39 m, and a maximum
height of 1.8 m. It was surrounded by borrow pits. Two
pottery caches were noted on the east side, and Cushing
identified at least three strata of burials (Bullen et
al. 1970:84). More than 600 burials were excavated,
consisting mostly of secondary interments with a few
primary extended burials (Cushing 1896:353).
The Johns Pass Mound (8Pi4), located on a small
island along the Gulf coast, was first excavated by
Walker (1880a:401-403). He described an oval-shaped
sand mound measuring about 15 m by 7.6 m, with a height
of less than 1 m. He mentioned a large number of
sherds, apparently concentrated beneath extended
burials, many of which were subadults. An undescribed
glass bead (NMNH #35643) and a well-made rolled sheet

59
silver bead (#35642) were recovered from the mound
surface.
Moore (1903:434-436) excavated at the site several
decades later, removing flexed burials and discovering a
large secondary bone deposit. He mentioned staining
from red ochre and 10-12 Busvcon cups, but generally the
burials were not accompanied by artifacts. His
illustration of sherds (1903:Figure 88) reveals that
Safety Harbor Incised and Pinellas Incised wares were
abundant. Check stamped sherds and fragments of a
single shell tempered vessel were also mentioned. This
may be the site mentioned by Bethell (1914:54-55), who
dug part of the mound (he encountered no artifacts), and
collected some human bones which he intended to send to
the Smithsonian Institution. Whether or not these
reached the Smithsonian is not known. Additional
collections from the Johns Pass site are in YPM (#21582)
and the R. S. Peabody Foundation (RSPF) (#38978 and
39319).
A collection of sherds from the site was
illustrated by Ostrander (1960). These sherds represent
vessels of Pinellas Incised, Safety Harbor Incised,
Point Washington Incised, and (according to William
Sears) Fort Walton Incised. Sears also identified Lake
Jackson Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,

60
Pinellas Plain, and sand tempered plain sherds in the
collection (Ostrander 1960:77).
Griffin and Smith (1948:28) cited Bushnell
(1937:34) as identifying the glass bead recovered by
Walker as a Florida Cut Crystal specimen, but it appears
that they were in error. The bead described by Bushnell
was from the Maximo Point site (1937:33).
The Clearwater site (8Pi5) was apparently a complex
of two large (approx. 90 m long and 3-4.5 m high) linear
shell mounds with a smaller one between them, and a
graded path leading to a freshwater pond about 140 m
away (Walker 1880b:419). Willey (1949a:332-333)
classified sherds and a Busvcon pick in NMNH (#35638,
43098-43101, and 88409), which were probably from this
site. The pottery indicates a Safety Harbor occupation
with an underlying late Weeden Island-related component
(see also Table 19).
A collection in NMNH (#363066) from an island site
(midden?) known as the Boca Ciega Island site (8Pi6)
contains mixed late Weeden Island and Safety Harbor
pottery types, along with sand tempered plain sherds
(Willey 1949a:333). A single rim sherd of shell
tempered ware from the site is in FMNH (#A-2614).
Willey (1949a:333) also listed two Pensacola Plain (a
shell tempered Fort Walton type) sherds from the site.

61
The Bayview site (8Pi7) was a mound excavated by S.
T. Walker (1880a:410). He described it as a sand mound
14 m in diameter, and less than a meter high at its
summit. Burials were deposited in three strata. Most
interments were apparently secondary, though his
description suggests that some primary burials may have
been present. In association with burials in the upper
two strata, Walker (1880a:410) found large numbers of
glass and metal beads, brass and copper ornaments, a
pair of scissors (NMNH #35313), and a looking glass
fragment (#35314). The large collection in NMNH also
contains a Flushloop bell (#35318), an early style Olive
Jar neck (#35320), and the basal portion of a majolica
vessel (#35327). This latter specimen is of particular
interest. It appears to be part of an albarelo, or drug
jar (Lister and Lister 1976:13). It is sloppily
decorated with dark green enamel over a gunmetal gray
glaze. There is a carefully executed round hole in the
base, suggesting that the aborigines "killed" the vessel
prior to interment. Willey (1949a:334) identified four
of the aboriginal sherds from the site as Safety Harbor
types.
A card in the FMNH site file indicates that the
beads listed in Table 7 were collected from Walker's
spoil dirt. The present location of this collection is

62
Table 7. Beads Collected from S. T. Walker's Spoil
at the Bayview Mound (8Pi7).
Description Count
Glass:
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 9
Drawn transparent dark blue 12
Yellow oval 2
Spherical yellow 1
Spherical colorless 1
Ovate royal blue with 3 spiral white stripes 1
Gooseberry (spherical) 1
Gooseberry (ovate) 9
Cornaline d'Aleppo 1
Short royal blue cane with 3 groups of 3 red stripes 1
Chevron (undescribed) 5
Transparent dark blue seed 7
Drawn transparent dark green 2
Fragments of opaque turquoise blue unknown
Metal:
Spherical silver coin beads 4
Rolled sheet silver 2
Shell:
Disc beads 12
unknown. However, it may have been catalogued as part
of the Seven Oaks (8Pi8) collection (see below). A

63
silver tablet (NMNH #35343) was also recovered from
Bayview by Walker (Allerton et al. 1984:28).
The NMNH collection (#35334-35345) includes many
strings of glass beads from the mound. These have not
yet been analyzed, but a cursory inspection revealed the
presence of tumbled chevrons, faceted chevrons, opaque
turquoise blue, eye beads, transparent green spheroid,
barrel-shaped gooseberry, Florida Cut Crystal, spheroid
Cornaline d'Aleppo, a few faceted transparent blue
(typically found on Seminole sites), and a diverse
collection of seed beads.
Willey (1949a:333) noted that the exact location of
the Bayview mound was uncertain. It is probable that
this is the same site as the Seven Oaks mound (8Pi8),
said to be "located about one-half mile west of Seven
Oaks" (Willey 1949a:334). This statement suggests that
there was a town or settlement called Seven Oaks at one
time. However, a local resident who directed
excavations at the site in the 1960s noted that Seven
Oaks was merely the name of a U. S. Post Office
southwest of Alligator Lake in Pinellas County (Gustave
A. Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). He
produced a map which had the locations of the Seven Oaks
Post Office, the town of Bayview, and the excavated
mound plotted. From this, it appears that both sites

64
are the same, a single mound south of Alligator Creek.
The location matches both Walker's (1880a:410)
description of Bayview and Willey's (1949a:334) location
for Seven Oaks.
In addition to Walker's excavations, a number of
episodes of excavation and collecting have occurred at
this site, which is now completely destroyed. A
sizeable collection of material from the site is curated
at FMNH, some of which was identified by Willey
(1949a:334-335). His identifications indicate a Safety
Harbor mound with both a Weeden Island-related component
and substantial evidence of European contact.
Most of the FMNH artifacts were obtained during the
first two decades of the twentieth century by T. Van
Hyning. Local residents obviously knew of the site,
because three of them donated many artifacts to FMNH,
including an extensive collection of European beads. In
addition to the aboriginal pottery reported by Willey
(1949a:334) and a large collection of shell beads, the
FMNH collection includes the European items listed in
Table 8.
The FMNH catalog lists 228 glass beads from the
site, but only 147 are present in the collection.
Goggin (1954b:Figure lb) illustrated a brass or bronze
plummet from the site, but it is not in FMNH. The FMNH

65
Table 8. European Artifacts from the Seven Oaks Site
(8Pi8) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Columbia Plain majolica (early variety) 5/2
Lead-glazed coarse earthenware (probably Spanish
Storage Jar) 2/0
Glass Beads:
y/~ Faceted chevron (olive/barrel-shaped: navy blue/
white/red/white/transparent light blue/white/
thin transparent light blue core) 2
/ Faceted chevron (barrel-shaped: cobalt blue/white/
red/white/transparent medium blue/white/
transparent medium blue/thin white core) 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 1
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain (transparent medium blue)
(IIAlf)* 1
Opaque white seed 5
Translucent dark purple seed 3
Wire-wound transparent light-medium blue seed 24
Drawn medium transparent blue seed 5
Patinated translucent yellow or amber-colored seed,
possibly wire-wound (VIDlc?)* 1
Transparent light green seed 1
Spherical transparent medium green seed 2

66
Count
Table 8continued
Description
Oblate colorless seed 1
Opaque turquoise blue seed 2
Olive-shaped/spheroid opaque turquoise blue seed 2
Donut-shaped opaque turquoise blue large seed 2
Oblate transparent medium aquamarine blue large seed 1
Spherical drawn opaque turquoise blue 8
Barrel-shaped drawn opaque turquoise blue 2
Drawn spherical translucent navy blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped medium translucent blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped medium transparent blue 3
Drawn barrel-shaped medium translucent cobalt blue 2
Spherical transparent light/medium blue 6
Spherical translucent cobalt blue 1
Drawn barrel-shaped transparent aquamarine blue 1
Spherical/oblate transparent aquamarine blue 9
Oblate transparent yellow 2
Olive-shaped transparent yellow 1
Olive or barrel-shaped translucent cobalt blue with
marvered facets 4
/
\/ Spherical transparent purple (IBlg)* 2
/ Olive-shaped colorless Gooseberry 1
Spherical/barrel-shaped colorless Gooseberry 3
Small oblate colorless Gooseberry 1

67
Table 8continued
Description Count
Spherical colorless l
Spherical transparent emerald green 1
Small short tubular medium transparent blue 1
Small heat-altered tubular transparent cobalt blue 1
Small spherical colorless 2
Small olive-shaped opaque medium blue (VIDlh)* 2
Small olive-shaped/spheroid transparent medium blue 3
Small olive-shaped/spheroid transparent cobalt blue 1
Small olive-shaped transparent medium green 3
Small olive-shaped/spheroid translucent medium blue
with marvered facets 7
Small oblate transparent medium blue with marvered
facets (large seed size) 2
Small spherical transparent medium green with
marvered facets 2
Small spherical transparent medium emerald green
(large seed size) 3
Drawn tubular opaque medium blue 1
Small barrel-shaped opaque turquoise blue/thin
white/turquoise blue core 1
/
Small spherical Cornaline d'Aleppo
1

68
Table 8continued
Description Count
Spheroid transparent light green with 2 opaque white
and 2 opaque brick red alternating longitudinal
stripes 1
Tubular transparent emerald green with 3 opaque white
on wide brick red stripes 1
Drawn olive-shaped transparent yellow-green with
2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes (a double bead) 1
Spherical transparent medium blue-green with 2 wide
opaque red and 2 thin opaque white alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium blue with 2 opaque
white and 2 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 2
Large drawn olive-shaped transparent medium blue
with 2 opaque white and 2 opaque brick red
alternating longitudinal stripes 1
Small olive-shaped translucent yellow with 3 opaque
white and 3 opaque brick red alternating
longitudinal stripes 1
Spherical transparent medium green (large seed size)
with gilded exterior 1

69
Table 8continued
Description Count
Olive-shaped molded colorless or pale transparent
yellow with gilded exterior 1
Large olive-shaped spiral flute molded pale
transparent yellow with gilded exterior 1
Olive-shaped opaque medium blue Eye bead with
4 chevron insets 1
Tubular composite bead (translucent cobalt blue/thin
white/translucent cobalt blue core): 3 sets of
3 opaque red spiral stripes on exterior 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, faceted) 3
Florida Cut Crystal (oblate, spiral faceted) 1
Spherical smooth polished colorless quartz 1
Large spherical true amber 1
Faceted garnet (12 linear facets, olive-shaped, sharp
equatorial ridge, 6 facets on each hemisphere) 2
Clay:
Large spherical clay bead with gilded exterior 1
Metal:
Drilled silver rod bead 3
Barrel/olive-shaped silver bead 3
Spherical/oblate silver bead 3
Silver coin bead 3

70
Table 8continued
Description Count
Hammered silver object with engraved design 1
Perforated copper or brass disc 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
catalog also listed a musket ball in the collection, but
this could not be located.
In the late 1960s a group called the Safety Harbor
Area Historical Society (SHAHS) excavated what was left
of the mound. Though a report has not been completed,
they reportedly excavated 76 secondary burials, with
many aboriginal and European artifacts (Gustave A.
Nelson, Sr., personal communication 1986). Some of
these objects were on display at the Oldsmar Museum, and
are listed in Table 9. Many other glass beads similar
to the ones in the FMNH collection were also excavated
by SHAHS. Several Busvcon cups and shells, and a large
number of sherds of Safety Harbor and Weeden Island
pottery types were also on display at the Oldsmar
Museum.
Many of the glass beads from Seven Oaks (and those
attributed to Bayview) are early sixteenth century types
(Smith and Good 1982), but a large percentage are late
sixteenth or seventeenth century or later types (Deagan

71
Table 9. European Artifacts from the Bayview/Seven Oaks
Mound (8P7/8P8) Displayed in the Oldsmar Museum.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Olive Jar (some with handles) many
Lead-glazed coarse earthenware many
Columbia Plain majolica (early variety) 3
Glass Beads:
Faceted chevron 5
Olive-shaped white with 3 wide spiral blue stripes on
exterior (IB3e)* 1
Colorless Gooseberry (shape not recorded) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue 6
Metal:
Drilled silver rod bead 2
Spherical silver bead 4
Iron scissors 1
Possible spoon 1
Possible knife 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
1987). The Columbia Plain majolica, Olive Jar sherds
with handles, and early style Olive Jar neck suggest an
early sixteenth century contact (Deagan 1987:33, 56-57;
Goggin 1960, 1968). These data indicate at least two
episodes of European contact. This interpretation is

72
supported by ethnohistoric accounts of early sixteenth
century and later contacts in the area (Solis de Meras
1964; Swanton 1985). The mound may have been used by
people occupying the Safety Harbor site (8Pi2) during
the protohistoric period. Other protohistoric
habitation sites have not been recorded in the immediate
vicinity.
The Karlton Street Mound (8P13) is about 200 m
south of the Hirrihigua Mound (8P108), near the
southern end of the Pinellas peninsula. It is
apparently the same site known as the Circle Drive site
(8P30), which Walker (1880a:406-407) called Pinellas
Point 1 (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988).
Local informants report that a sand and shell causeway
previously connected this site to the Hirrihigua Mound
(Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). The
site is described as a midden or mound of sand and
shell, measuring 30 m across and 1.5-1.8 m high. The
proximity of this site and the Hirrihigua Mound suggests
that they are contemporaneous, but a collection in FMNH
(#A-2616) from 8P30 contains a single Busvcon shell,
some quartzite pebbles, and sherds of sand tempered
plain and Norwood pottery. The Norwood pottery
indicates a late Archaic date (Phelps 1965), and no

73
diagnostic Safety Harbor artifacts are known from the
site.
The Mullet Key site (8P16), consisting of a shell
midden and two possible sand mounds, was recorded by
John Griffin (1951b), who collected eight sherds of
Pinellas Plain from the surface (FMNH #99708). Based on
these, he assigned a Safety Harbor date to the site.
However, it should be noted that Pinellas Plain also
occurs in late Weeden Island-related contexts in the
region (Luer and Almy 1980:211).
Private collections from a site recorded as 8P105,
east and south of 8P16, include Pinellas Plain (with at
least one notched lip), possible Pinellas Incised, sand
tempered plain, Pasco Plain, St. Johns Plain, grog
tempered sherds, faunal remains, and a chert flake
(Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). These
materials probably came from part of the same site, and
indicate that a Safety Harbor component is present.
The Dunedin Temple Mound (8P7) is listed in the
FMSF as a Safety Harbor mound, but Walker (1880a: 399)
recovered no artifacts in his excavations there. The
rectangular, flat-topped mound, now destroyed, measured
24 m x 48 m, with a height of 2.7 m (Luer and Almy
1981:130).

74
The site called the Point Pinellas (sometimes
spelled Pinellos) Mound (8P18) presents a problem in
interpretation. This is recorded in the FMSF as a
large, flat-topped mound composed of sand and shell, and
was first described by Walker (1880a:407). He assigned
No. 10 to the mound, and noted that it was oblong, 7.6 m
high, had a ramp on the west side, and was steep-sided
(1880a:407). His excavations yielded burials, pottery,
projectile points, and tools, but these were
subsequently lost in an accident.
The problem involves the location of the site.
Walker's (1880a:406) map was not very accurate, and he
seems to have confused cardinal directions in some of
his descriptions. Two decades later, C. B. Moore
(1900:355-356) visited the site and excavated part of
it, encountering plain pottery, a bone tool, and a chert
point fragment. He also mentioned a sand and shell
causeway extending about 34 m to the south. The same
site was described some years later by Bethell (1914:51-
52) and Wainwright (1916:142-143).
This site is probably the Hirrihigua Mound
(8P108), which is still preserved in a residential
neighborhood of St. Petersburg (Goodyear 1972:29; Luer
and Almy 1981:131). This mound originally had a shell
causeway extending out from the south side (Goodyear

75
1972:29). Recent research suggests that 8P18 is indeed
the Hirrihigua Mound (Robert J. Austin, personal
communication 1988) The truncated pyramidal
configuration of the mound suggests that it is a Safety
Harbor mound, but the possibility exists that it is a
Weeden Island-related site.
On the southwestern end of the Pinellas peninsula,
the Maximo Point site (8P19 and 8P31) is located.
This large multicomponent site was first recorded by
Walker (1880a:404-405, 1880b:419), who explored the site
and excavated a few test pits. He described the site as
consisting of a 4.6 m high mound, flat on top, which
extended for several hundred feet in length. He also
noted a ramp on the south side. In addition, Walker
mentioned other earthen and shell features at the site,
which he was unable to record accurately due to
extremely heavy underbrush (1880a:405). His excavations
produced only a few sherds and a wooden post which had
been sharpened at one end. A collection in NMNH
(#35775) includes a Florida Cut Crystal bead and some
small Cornaline d'Aleppo beads collected by Walker at
the site (Bushnell 1937:32-33). These beads probably
date to the second half of the sixteenth century or
later (Deagan 1987:168, 180; Smith 1987:31).

76
C. B. Moore visited the site about two decades
later, and produced a map of the most prominent mounds
and causeways at the site (1900:Figure 1). He also
noted that many other earthworks and shell middens were
present, but not included in the map. Though the
landowner refused permission to excavate, one sand mound
was tested and yielded some poorly preserved human
skeletal material (Moore 1900:354).
The extensive earthworks were later described by
John Bethell (1914:53), who had a ranch and fishery at
the site for a few years before the Civil War. The next
mention of the site was a commentary by R. D. Wainwright
(1916:142). He evidently did not excavate, but
described some of the earthworks and shell middens.
John K. Small also mentioned a "serpentine
aboriginal mound running east and west for about a
quarter of a mile" at Maximo Point (1929:41). He did
not investigate the site.
The first excavations at the site directed by a
trained archaeologist were conducted by William Sears in
the late 1950s (Sears 1958b). His research revealed
that the midden and mound area tested was a Safety
Harbor occupation. Over 92% of the pottery from the
excavations was Pinellas Plain, with other common Safety
Harbor types comprising the rest of the ceramic

77
assemblage (1958b:3-4, Chart 1). The assemblage lacked
evidence of European contact, and included no Leon-
Jefferson pottery types, which Sears (1958b:6-7)
interpreted as indicating the site was abandoned before
the contact period. This is supported by the relative
paucity (3.2% of total Pinellas Plain sherds) of
notched-lip Pinellas Plain, which tends to occur late in
the Safety Harbor period (Luer and Almy 1980:211), but
the European beads found by Walker (see above) indicate
at least some postcontact use of the site.
Salvage excavation of part of the site was
conducted several years later (Bushnell 1962). Two
large test units were placed in an area adjacent to one
of the mounds, on a projecting area connecting the mound
to a midden. The pottery recovered from this work
consisted of 99% Pinellas Plain sherds, of which less
than 1% were of the notched-lip variety (1962:Figure 3).
The few decorated wares consisted'of Pinellas Incised,
St. Johns Check Stamped, and an unidentified punctated
type. The ceramics and other artifacts indicate a
Safety Harbor occupation at the site, with a possible
late Weeden Island-related component.
Additional units were excavated at the site in 1962
by students from Florida Presbyterian College. The
artifacts form this work are housed in TMM. Notes in

78
the FMNH site file indicate that the excavated
assemblage was composed primarily of "typical Safety
Harbor" artifacts, also containing some limestone
tempered ware, some sand tempered brushed, a crude bird
head rim adorno, and what was identified as a potter's
tool made from a fragment of quahog (Mercenaria sp.)
shell (Lazarus 1963).
In 1973, excavations were conducted as mitigation
for Interstate highway construction on the western part
of the Maximo Beach site (8P31). These excavations and
radiocarbon dates revealed that the western portion of
the site was primarily occupied during Archaic through
Weeden Island times, with no evidence of Safety Harbor
occupation (Williams 1979). However, recent work on
this portion of the site revealed Pinellas Plain
(including rim sherds with notched lips), sand tempered
plain, and St. Johns Plain sherds, indicating that a
Safety Harbor component is present (Robert J. Austin,
personal communication 1988).
A field school was conducted by Eckerd College in
1986 on the remaining western portion of 8P9, known as
the Sheraton site (Boyle et al. 1986). The excavated
area was part of a sand and shell mound. Sherds
recovered in this work included Safety Harbor and Weeden
Island types, as well as a limestone pendant shaped like

79
a duck head (Robert J. Austin, personal communication
1988) .
The work conducted at Maximo Point indicates that
there was Safety Harbor occupation of the site.
Unfortunately, it is unclear which site features are
associated with this component, and which are related to
earlier occupations. The degree of site disturbance and
vandalism prevents further interpretation.
Some Spanish artifacts have been reported from the
beach at Maximo Point. However, these are presumed to
be from the 1843-1848 fishing rancho of Antonio Maximo,
who was the first non-aboriginal settler at the site
(Austin and Hardin 1987:271; Bethell 1914:7). Olive jar
and majolica sherds, as well as early nineteenth century
Spanish coins, have reportedly been found at the site
(Suncoast Archaeological and Paleontological Society
1981). Another artifact is a late style Olive Jar neck
in the FMNH collections (#103460) from Frenchmans Creek,
which is adjacent to the site. This style dates to
after 1780 (Deagan 1987:34-35; Goggin 1960:23).
The Big Bayou site (8P22) was first mentioned by
Walker (1880a:407, 1880b:419) as consisting of three
very large shell mounds (7.6-9.1 m high and 91-122 m
diameter), composed primarily of oyster shells. Bethell
(1914:10, 50-51) also described these mounds and nearby

80
shell middens. Wainwright (1916:144) later excavated
part of the remnants of a shell mound in the area,
possibly one of Walker's sites. Wainwright recovered
poorly preserved human skeletal remains, stone tools and
projectile points, shell tools, and bone objects. He
also indicated that the remnants of a second shell mound
were located nearby, and that both were composed of
oyster shells (1916:144). Wainwright also visited a
sand mound in the Big Bayou area (1916:143), but
apparently did not excavate it. The Big Bayou site was
later visited by Bushnell (1926:127).
The Booth Point site (8P36), a shell midden site
near Oldsmar, was recorded by William Plowden in 1952.
A small collection from the site in FMNH (#A-2617)
includes the artifacts listed in Table 10. Though the
assemblage is not absolutely diagnostic, all of the
pottery types are known from Safety Harbor sites in the
area, so a tentative interpretation of Safety Harbor
occupation can be posited. However, it is equally
possible that the site is a Weeden Island-related
midden.
The Tierra Verde site (8P51) was a Safety Harbor
burial mound located on Cabbage Key at the northern end
of the mouth of Tampa Bay. It has also been called the
Pine Key Mound, which was assigned site number 8P15.

81
Table 10. Artifacts from the Booth Point Site (8P36)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 29/5
Pasco Plain 13/6
St. Johns Check Stamped 9/0
St. Johns Plain 1/1
Pinellas Plain 5/1
Belle Glade Plain-like 1/1
Stone:
Bone fossils 3
Chert scraper 1
Chert fragment 1
Shell:
Busycon shell 1
Melonqena corona shell 1
The Tierra Verde (8P51) designation is considered
correct. It consisted of white sand, and measured
approximately 30.5 m by 22.9 m horizontally and about
2.5 m high (Sears 1967:25). Originally, an extensive
shell midden was nearby, which covered 1.2-1.6 ha. Both
features have now been destroyed by development.
The site may have been visited by Walker
(1880a:404), who described a mound 41.1 m in diameter

82
and 1.5-1.8 m high. It was built on a sand ridge, and
he also made reference to extensive shell middens on the
eastern side of the key. He excavated in the top,
recovering four human crania and a bone ornament inlaid
with copper (1880a:404). The description of the mound
seems to indicate that it was indeed Tierra Verde,
though Walker's discussion of the geography of the keys
was somewhat inaccurate.
Clarence B. Moore (1900:355) also visited the site,
recording dimensions of 18.3-25.9 m diameter and 1.8 m
high. He mentioned that borrow pits were evident
adjacent to the mound. His excavations in the mound
yielded tightly flexed burials, large shell beads, and
sherds with incised and punctated decoration. Several
shell hammers from his excavations are in NMNH (#204747-
204750). Both Moore (1900:355) and Walker (1880a:404)
noted an artificial canal or pond to the west or north
of the mound.
The next published reference to the site was a
short discussion and illustration of Safety Harbor
Incised sherds with human hand designs on the exterior
(Warren et al. 1965). These sherds were among the
artifacts recovered by "thirty or forty amateurs over a
period of 18 months" (Warren et al. 1965:235), who

83
worked at the site before professional archaeologists
conducted salvage excavations there.
Sears (1967) directed the final excavation of the
mound before its destruction by development. He first
removed about one third of the eastern portion of the
mound, cutting away profiles with a bulldozer. No bones
or artifacts were observed in this soil, and Sears
decided that the mound was a small ceremonial mound with
no interments (1967:27). However, amateur
archaeologists from the area continued digging at the
site after Sears left and recovered burials and large
quantities of pottery. Sears returned, and further work
indicated that burials and some sherds were located near
the center of the mound, and an extensive deposit of
Safety Harbor pottery vessels was found outside the
periphery of the mound on the east side (1967:27).
Most of Sears' fieldwork was conducted in 1961.
The excavation yielded flexed burials which Sears
believed were secondary (bundle) interments (1967:31).
Adelaide Bullen (1972:160) identified four bones from
the mound (FMNH #99683) as syphilitic. Sherds in the
mound fill fit with vessels recovered from the east side
cache, suggesting that the mound was constructed in a
single episode rather than used over a long period of

84
time. All of the vessels in the cache were broken and
incomplete.
Sears' report on the site (1967) included the
results of a major attempt at revising the typology of
Safety Harbor ceramics. The pottery included many
different decorated types, and Sears believed that many
did not fit into Willey's (1949a:479-486) typology. His
primary changes involved limiting Willey's definition of
Point Washington Incised and subdividing Pinellas
Incised into three subtypes (Sears 1967:56-62). He also
attempted to relate the ceramic styles to other areas of
the Southeast, suggesting possible direct contacts with
the Caddoan area (1967:69).
The Tierra Verde site yielded the best known
collection of Safety Harbor decorated ceramics. Pottery
from the site also demonstrated continuity with the
earlier Weeden Island-related cultures, due to the
Weeden-Island-style east side pottery cache, prefired
"kill" holes in some Safety Harbor vessels, and the
inclusion of some Weeden Island type vessels in the
cache. Sears (1967:62, 66) indicated that the Weeden
Island specimens were worn and fragmentary, suggesting
that they had been kept for long periods as heirlooms or
relics.

85
There were originally many middens located on
Cabbage Key and Pine Key, as well as some sand mounds.
Many of these were never recorded, and Safety Harbor
ceramics were reportedly collected from some of them
(Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988). They
were probably occupied by the builders of the Tierra
Verde Mound.
The Wright site (8P52) is a circular shell midden,
1.5 m high with steep sides. It is located in a
mangrove swamp, and is listed in the FMNH site file as a
Safety Harbor midden. A collection of sherds in FMNH
(#95812), donated by Walter Fuller, includes 104/3
Pinellas Plain, 41/3 sand tempered plain, 9/0 Pasco
Plain, and 1/0 Belle Glade Plain sherds. The lips of
the Pinellas Plain rims were not notched. All of the
pottery types in this collection are found in Safety
Harbor sites, but they are not solely diagnostic. The
site must therefore be considered a possible Safety
Harbor shell midden, but it could be a Weeden Island-
related site.
Another shell midden, known as Dan's Island
(8P53), is located in another part of the mangrove
swamp, and measures 64.0 m by 21.3 m, with the longer
axis running north-south. It is 1.1 m high. A
collection of sherds from the site, collected by Walter

86
Fuller in 1960, contained the following types: six sand
tempered plain; three Pinellas Plain; three Pasco Plain;
and one Swift Creek Complicated Stamped sherd. As with
the Wright site, this is a possible Safety Harbor
midden, but the Swift Creek sherd indicates an earlier
Weeden Island-related component.
The Narvaez Midden (8P54) is located along Boca
Ciega Bay opposite Johns Pass within the city limits of
St. Petersburg. This site was probably visited by
Wainwright (1916:144) and David Bushnell (1926:129-130).
The present owner of the site notes that J. W. Fewkes
tested it while working at the Weeden Island (8Pil) site
in the 1920s (Robert J. Austin, personal communication
1988). The site consisted primarily of shell middens,
with a possible ceremonial or "temple" mound, as well as
other possible mounds (Goodyear 1972:31-34; Luer and
Almy 1981:129, 131). A plaza area may also have been
present (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988).
The main midden measured approximately 91.4 m by 45.7 m,
with the long axis running north-south (parallel to the
shore of Boca Ciega Bay). Excavations in the midden
portion of the site in 1964 yielded large numbers of
J
sherds of Safety Harbor pottery types, including
Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, and St. Johns Check
Stamped (Bushnell 1966:Figure 2). Many of the lips of

87
the Pinellas Plain rims were notched. A bone fragment
with an incised design possibly representing a hand
motif was also recovered from the site (Gamble and
Warren 1966). A stone object resembling a "ceremonial
tablet" reportedly came from the surface (Allerton et
al. 1984:45).
The notched Pinellas Plain rim sherds, in
combination with Jefferson Ware sherds, Olive Jar
sherds, and iron nails indicate a late Safety Harbor
component at the site (Bushnell 1966:Figure 2). Other
Spanish artifacts, including a small iron chisel (square
in cross-section) and an unidentified metal object, have
also been found there (Albert C. Goodyear, personal
communication 1987). The FMSF form indicates that two
iron sword blade fragments were recovered.
Some local residents claim that this is the landing
site of the 1528 expedition of Pnfilo de Narvez
(Fuller 1972:13, 17, 21; Goodyear 1972:33), but no
diagnostic early sixteenth century artifacts have been
recovered from the site. The additional number 8P731
was assigned to the site in recognition of its being the
possible Narvez landing site.
The report on Bushnell's (1966) excavations
included some information on the faunal remains
recovered from the site. Turtle bones represented the

88
largest number of specimens, followed by fish
(1966:Figure 3). Terrestrial species consisted
primarily of deer (Odocoileus viroinianus), with one
bone each from opossum (Didelphis virainiana) and
raccoon (Procvon lotor). The faunal list, though basic,
is important because very little faunal information is
available for Safety Harbor sites (Kozuch 1986).
The Narvaez Midden was at least 1.8 m thick
(Goodyear 1972:34), and probably represents a major
Safety Harbor settlement. A burial mound (8P100, the
Jungle Prado Mound) was located nearby. This and the
Johns Pass Mound (8Pi4) may have served as burial places
for the residents of the Narvaez site. Goodyear
(1972:34) mentioned other sites in the area that may
have been contemporaneous satellite hamlets, which would
fit with his interpretation of the site as a major town
with a large ceremonial ("temple") mound.
The Canton Street site (8P55) was designated a
possible Safety Harbor site when first recorded because
a number of Pinellas Plain sherds were collected from
the surface. However, subsequent excavation of the site
(Bullen et al. 1978) demonstrated that it dated
primarily to the Florida Transitional period (pre-500
B.C.). Some Weeden Island artifacts were recorded on
the original site form, suggesting that the Pinellas

89
Plain sherds represented a Weeden Island-related
occupation rather than a Safety Harbor one. A single
possible sherd of Englewood Incised was recovered during
the excavations (Bullen et al. 1978:Table 1), but no
other evidence of Safety Harbor occupation was
recovered.
A note in the FMNH site file indicates that the
Ross Island site (8P56) may be a Safety Harbor site.
It is a sand and marine shell midden (or possibly a
"temple mound, according to the site form) measuring
30.5 m in diameter. It may be a ramped mound. Walter
Askew (personal communication 1988) recovered Pinellas
Plain sherds with notched lips from the site. Two
mounds with associated shell middens were later recorded
on the island by members of the Suncoast Archaeological
Society (Robert J. Austin, personal communication 1988).
The Abercrombie Park site (8P58) is located about
2 km north of the Narvaez site (8P54). It was
mentioned by Wainwright (1916:141). The site consists
of a partially destroyed mound and midden, and is listed
in the FMNH site file as a Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor site. The only possible Safety Harbor
artifacts recorded from the site are six Pinellas Plain
sherds and Pinellas projectile points (Goodyear
1972:34). When compared to the 200 Weeden Island Plain

90
and Wakulla Check Stamped sherds recorded, it becomes
apparent that the site was probably a late Weeden
Island-related site rather than a Safety Harbor site.
This is especially probable in light of the fact that
Pinellas Plain pottery (lacking notched lips) is
sometimes found in Weeden Island contexts (Luer and Almy
1980:211).
The Tenth Street site (8P61), also called the
Pinellas Point site, is an extensive midden along the
beach on the southern tip of the Pinellas peninsula
(Goodyear 1968). The materials from this site (both in
the FMNH collections and in private collections)
indicate occupation from Paleo through historic times.
Generally, the evidence for Safety Harbor occupation is
scant (Goodyear 1968:79), but the FMNH collection
(#104998) includes three Olive Jar sherds and a green
lead-glazed coarse earthenware sherd from a carinated
bowl (escudilla), suggesting Spanish contact. However,
the latter artifacts may be from nineteenth century
Cuban fishing settlements in the area. The FMSF form
indicates that clay pipe stems and glass beads were also
recovered from the site.
The Jungle Prado site (8P100) was a sand burial
mound, probably associated with the Narvaez Midden site
(8P54). The mound was destroyed in 1923-1924 by

91
construction of the Jungle Prado Restaurant (Fuller
1972:21). No artifacts were recorded, but its proximity
to the Narvaez site strongly suggests that it was a
Safety Harbor burial mound, possibly postcontact.
The Arrowhead Park midden (8P105) is located in
the park of the same name in St. Petersburg. It is
identified on the FMSF form as a Safety Harbor midden
and mound dating to the sixteenth through eighteenth
centuries, but no artifact types or other data to
support this dating are recorded. (C1
Q qr P>Sls J ? ~ 1 /
The Hirrihigua Mound (8P08) is a rectangular,
flat-topped mound of shell and sand located in a
residential neighborhood in St. Petersburg. This mound
was mentioned earlier in the discussion of the Point
Pinellas Mound (8P18). It was probably visited by
Walker (1880a:405-407) and Moore (1900:355-356).
Bethell (1914:52) mentioned that three borrow pits were
located nearby. Bushnell (1926:126-127) also visited
the site and published a description, including a
photograph. Present measurements are 46 m long, 14 m
wide, and 4.9 m high. The site is listed as a Safety
Harbor "temple" mound in the FMSF, but no artifacts are
recorded. According to local informants, a shell
causeway originally extended south from this site to a

92
shell midden (8P225) on the shore of Tampa Bay
(Goodyear 1972:29) or to another mound (8P13 or 8P30).
The Oak Bluffs site (8P115) was recorded in 1976.
Aboriginal ceramics and lithic artifacts from the midden
resulted in a designation of Weeden Island-related
and/or Safety Harbor cultural affiliation. No other
data are available.
A site known as the Florida Presbyterian College
Midden (8P120), recorded by the Suncoast Archaeological
Society, is identified on the FMSF form as having a
Safety Harbor component. The location of the site
indicated that the middens were probably part of the
Maximo Point site (8P9 and 8P31) The site form
mentioned that Spanish artifacts have been found on the
surface. These were probably related to the Cuban
fishing operations in the Maximo Point area from 1843
until the 1860s (Williams 1979:3). No other artifactual
information is provided on the site form.
The Blossom Way midden (8P225) is listed in the
FMSF as containing Paleo, Archaic, and Safety Harbor
lithic and ceramic artifacts. The site is a sand and
shell midden. It may have been connected to the
Hirrihigua Mound (8P108) by a sand and shell causeway.
The Avoca site (8P236) is a multicomponent
artifact scatter discovered by Ric McDonnell. It

93
yielded Deptford and Safety Harbor ceramics and lithic
artifacts. The site form did not specify what types
were present.
The Tarpon Lake Village 4 site (8P849) is a
multicomponent artifact scatter. Test excavations
yielded two St. Johns Plain, four Weeden Island Plain,
five Pasco Plain, two Pinellas Plain, and 47 sand
tempered plain sherds. Utilized flakes and debitage,
red ochre, and modern debris were also recovered. The
major occupation periods of the site were identified as
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor on the basis of
these artifacts.
The Bayview Indian Midden (8P855), a sand and
shell midden, was recorded in 1980. Also known as the
DeMar site, it is identified as a Safety Harbor midden
in the FMSF. However, no artifacts are known from the
site (Gluckman et al. 1980:4-13), so this interpretation
is unsupported.
The Cobb Mound (8P879) was recorded in 1984. This
multicomponent burial mound, excavated in 1986, was
located near Lake Tarpon. The salvage excavations
yielded St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,
Wakulla Check Stamped, Weeden Island Plain, Weeden
Island Punctated, Tucker Ridge Pinched, St. Petersburg
Incised, Ruskin Dentate Stamped, Pinellas Plain, Safety

94
Harbor Incised, and Leon Check Stamped pottery.
Projectile points included several Archaic types and
Pinellas points (Joan Denting, personal communication
1988). The artifact types indicate that the site was
utilized by Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor
groups, with an Archaic component.
Some distance south from the Cobb Mound, a
collection of sherds was gathered, including 10 Pasco
Plain, two sand tempered plain, two notched lip Pinellas
Plain, two burnished-surface St. Johns Plain, and a
notched-lip rim sherd which looks like Pinellas Plain
with spiculite paste (Robert J. Austin, personal
communication 1988). The presence of Pinellas Plain
with notched lips indicates a Safety Harbor component,
probably associated with the Safety Harbor component at
the Cobb Mound.
The Sawgrass Lake #2 site (8P902) is a
multicomponent lithic scatter. In addition to a number
of Archaic and Weeden Island projectile point types,
Pinellas projectile points have been recovered from the
site, suggesting the presence of a Safety Harbor
component (Bullen 1975:8), though these could be from
the Weeden Island-related component.
Collections from the Taylor Mound (8P1204), a
mound measuring 45.7 m in diameter and 2.5-3.0 m high,

95
have yielded a single stemmed projectile point, a sherd
of Pinellas Plain, and a sherd of sand tempered plain.
The Pinellas Plain indicates either a Weeden Island-
related or a Safety Harbor component.
The Baker Midden (8P1210), a shell midden, has
yielded Pinellas Plain and Pinellas Incised pottery,
indicating that it is a Safety Harbor site. Lithic
remains are also reported from the site.
An unnamed artifact scatter (8P1221) yielded
Pinellas projectile points and unidentified aboriginal
ceramics. On the basis of the Pinellas points, the site
is listed as a Safety Harbor site in the FMSF. However,
it is possible that the site is a Weeden Island-related
midden, as Pinellas points occasionally occur in Weeden
Island contexts.
Four shell middens, Jungle Shores (8P240) Villa
Park Estates (8P1241), Googe Island (8P1247), and
Cabbage Key Midden (8P1264), are listed in the FMSF as
probable Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor sites.
A nearby shell mound, the Pelham Road Mound (8P1242) is
also listed as a probable Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor site. However, no diagnostic artifacts
are recorded from any of these sites, so they cannot be
dated with accuracy.

96
The Madelaine Key site (8P1265) is a shell midden
from which nine sherds of Pinellas Plain, one Pasco
Plain, and one sand tempered plain sherd have been
recovered, along with a single chert flake. The
Pinellas Plain may indicate a Safety Harbor component at
the site.
Collections in FMNH from two unnumbered sites in
Pinellas County reveal additional evidence of Safety
Harbor occupation. A collection from the Bennett Mound
(FMNH #103457) was donated by George Cantlin in 1960.
The collection includes fiber tempered ware, Perico
Punctated, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Incised, sand
tempered plain, and Pinellas Plain sherds, with both
notched and plain lips. The pottery types indicated a
multicomponent site spanning late Archaic, Manasota, and
Safety Harbor time periods.
A small surface collection (#98448) from the
Carleton Estates site was donated to FMNH by Lyman 0.
Warren in 1963. Included are 6/3 Pinellas Plain sherds
and 2/1 sand tempered plain sherds. Significantly, all
three of the Pinellas Plain rim sherds have notched
lips, indicating a Safety Harbor site.
Some notes in a site file compiled by John M.
Goggin in FMNH indicate that a collection in NMNH
(#330621 and 330623) was collected by David I. Bushnell

97
from an exposed cut in a shell mound on the beach, eight
miles northwest of St. Petersburg. Goggin's list
included one Weeden Island Incised, one Wakulla Check
Stamped, one Belle Glade Plain, four Pinellas Plain, and
two sand tempered plain sherds. At least one of the
sand tempered plain specimens exhibited a notched lip.
If this was a variant of Pinellas Plain, it would
indicate a mixed Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor
occupation at the site.
A number of other Safety Harbor sites were
undoubtedly present in Pinellas County. Unfortunately,
development has obliterated many of these, and the early
descriptions of sites in the county are often inadequate
for determining their locations. A large number of
sites, particularly in the Pinellas Point area, were
mentioned by such early writers as Stearns (1869:462-
463, 1872), Walker (1880a), Moore (1900, 1903), and
Wainwright (1916). Many of these were probably Safety
Harbor sites, but cannot be accurately located.
Hillsborough County
The archaeological resources of Hillsborough County
have suffered much destruction due to extensive
development and phosphate mining (Deming 1980:43-46).
Many Safety Harbor sites have been recorded in the

98
county, and a relatively large number have been
excavated.
The Thomas Mound (8Hil) was first recorded by C. B.
Moore, who referred to it as the "Mound Near Little
Manatee River" (1900:358-359). He described the
unstratified sand mound as being circular, about 17.7 m
in diameter and 1.8 m high. An aboriginal canal ran
from the southwest edge of the mound to the Little
Manatee River (1900:358). His excavations yielded 112
burials, most of which were very tightly flexed. It was
Moore's opinion that these burials had been partially
defleshed and then wrapped prior to interment
(1900:358). A number of secondarily deposited bones
were also recovered.
Moore (1900:359) described a number of stone tools
and pendants from the mound, as well as a shell cup and
a shell bead. He mentioned that plain sherds
predominated, though incised, punctated, and stamped
specimens were present. He also found a number of blue
glass beads and two "lookingglass" fragments.
Unfortunately, the glass beads were not illustrated or
described, preventing any further interpretation. John
Goggin located some of Moore's material from the site in
the Davenport Public Museum (now known as the Putnam
Museum). Included in the collection were 11 blue glass

99
beads, which were not described further in Goggin's
notes.
Additional excavations were conducted at the site
from 1935 to 1937, as parts of two Works Progress
Administration (WPA) projects, under the supervision of
J. Clarence Simpson and Preston Holder (Bullen 1952b:7;
Simpson 1937:111). Unfortunately, analysis of the data
gathered in these projects was not completed by the
excavators. Willey (1949a:113-125) and Bullen (1952b:7-
20) studied field notes and what remained of the
collections (many artifacts were lost), and attempted to
determine the sequence of events and periods of
occupation at the site.
When the WPA work began, the mound was
approximately 20 m in diameter and 2 m high (Willey
1949a:114). Other sand and shell features in the
immediate area were also recorded at this time (Bullen
1952b:Figure 2). The excavations yielded 208 secondary
burials, 98 primary burials (both tightly flexed and
semi-flexed), 74 isolated skulls, and three cremations
(Bullen 1952b:Table 1). In the NMNH, Goggin observed a
humerus (#384309) with a perforated shark tooth fragment
embedded in it (it should be noted, however, that this
number is attributed to the Cockroach Key site in NMNH
records). Two strata were recorded during the WPA

100
excavations, and the pottery types indicated a Weeden
Island-related burial mound with a relatively minor
Safety Harbor component (Bullen 1952b:15-19; Willey
1949a:119-121).
Evidence of European contact was also recovered
during these excavations. An embossed^silver plate, a
rolled sheet silver bead, a sheet copper (or copper
alloy) object, and one or two incised metal tablets (one
of copper, brass, or bronze and one of silver) were
mentioned in the descriptions (Allerton et al. 1984:30;
Bullen 1952b:17; Willey 1949a:123). In addition,
approximately 200 blue and white glass seed beads were
mentioned by Willey (1949a:123).
The site has attracted interest recently because of
its location near where some scholars believe the
Hernando de Soto expedition established its camp in 1539
(Milanich 1987:9). However, the seed beads do not
indicate an early sixteenth century episode of contact,
and the Safety Harbor occupation at the site is
apparently minor. The description of the town
arrangement of Ugita (Swanton 1985:124) also does not
seem to agree with the sit:e map presented in Bullen
(1952b:Figure 2).
The Cockroach Key site (8Hi2) is located on a small
island south of the mouth of the Little Manatee River.

101
The site was probably first recorded by Walker
(1880b:418-422), who referred to a complex of shell
middens as Indian Hill, though he did not mention the
fact that the site was an island. The first definite
reference to the site was Moore (1900:359-360), who also
used the name Indian Hill. The island is almost totally
covered with shell mounds. Moore excavated portions of
the site, recovering several burials. He did not
mention any diagnostic artifacts (1900:360).
The WPA project also excavated at this site
(Simpson 1937:113-114). Willey (1949a:165) suggested
that Pinellas Plain sherds from the site might indicate
a Safety Harbor component. However, as Bullen
(1952b:24-25) pointed out, the lack of notched lips and
of other Safety Harbor artifact types indicates that the
Pinellas Plain sherds probably resulted from a Weeden
Island-related occupation.
The Picnic Mound (8Hi3), sometimes referred to as
Picknick or Thatcher, was also excavated during the WPA
project (Bullen 1952b:61-71; Stubbs 1940:267-268; Willey
1949a:335-336). Located adjacent to a creek which runs
into the Alafia River, the mound had been badly
disturbed prior to the WPA work. It was composed of
black soil and measured 18.3-21.3 m in diameter, with a
height of about 1.2 m (Simpson 1939:60-61). It was

102
apparently built on an artificially constructed ridge,
and had adjacent borrow pits (Bullen 1952b:62-63).
At least two strata were recorded, but prior
disturbance had mixed much of the material. Screening
of the disturbed portion yielded human bones, various
types of glass beads, and nearly 100 Pinellas projectile
points (Bullen 1952b:63). A total of 77 burials were
encountered in the lower portions of the mound,
including one cremation, 22 secondary (bundle) burials,
33 flexed burials, 18 isolated skulls, 2 indeterminate
burials, and an infant buried in a Busvcon shell cup
(Bullen 1952b:64).
Artifacts were associated with 11 burials,
including Busvcon cups, broken pottery vessels, shell
beads, copper-covered wooden ear spools, a stone ear
spool, copper-covered bone objects, a bead made of
fossil manatee bone, copper and iron fragments, and two
large blue glass beads (Bullen 1952b:64-65). The
pottery from the mound consisted primarily of Safety
Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas Plain, and
various plain types. Included in the FMNH collection
from the site are an excellent example of an incised
bottle with hand motifs on a punctated background and a
prefired "kill" hole (#76661), and a cast of a unique
Safety Harbor Incised frog effigy vessel (#76660).

103
Several sherds of Weeden Island pottery types were also
recovered (Bullen 1952b:67; Willey 1949a:336).
Artifacts from the mound fill included stone tools
and pendants, galena fragments, mica sheets, shell and
bone artifacts, glass beads, an iron celtiform axe, a
silver claw or fang effigy (4.1 cm long, probably a
Spanish amulet [Hildburgh 1906:455-457]), a centrally
perforated silver disc, a silver pendant decorated with
embossed designs, an undescribed silver pendant, and the
cover of a tobacco pipe (considered recent) (Bullen
1952b:67-69). A molded-glass bottle stopper was also
recovered, which probably dates to the nineteenth
century or later.
Unfortunately, most of the European artifacts from
the mound have been lost. However, a small collection
of glass beads was apparently kept by Simpson (a note in
the box indicates that he originally had 250-350), and
these are now in the FMNH collection (#102466). They
are listed in Table 11.
The glass bead assemblage generally does not
resemble a typical early sixteenth century assemblage.
The green wire-wound seed beads and the marvered blue
bead could date from the early sixteenth century (Smith
and Good 1982). Also, the translucent dark purple seed
beads strongly resemble 10 seed beads recovered from an

104
Table 11. Glass Beads from the Picnic Mound (8Hi3)
in the Simpson Collection, FMNH.
Description Count
Drawn seed beads of several shades of blue, white,
colorless, and transparent yellow many
Wire-wound translucent green seed (VIDle?)* 3
Translucent dark purple seed 4
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed 2
Small barrel-shaped translucent cobalt blue with
marvered facets (similar to ICla)* 1
Spherical translucent very dark burgundy (looks
black) 1
Spherical transparent aquamarine blue 1
Faceted transparent yellow 1
Heat-altered translucent light blue (square cross
section with indented sides) 1
Fragments of opaque turquoise blue and translucent
aquamarine blue many
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
early sixteenth century burial at the Tatham Mound
(8C203) in Citrus County (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:64). But the drawn seed beads, opaque turquoise
blue, aquamarine blue, and faceted beads suggest a late
sixteenth century or seventeenth century date (Deagan
1987:170-171). The assemblage could be associated with

105
the 1567 visit of Pedro Menndez de Avils to Tocobaga
(Solis de Mers 1964:224-229). The Picnic Mound may
have been the burial mound of one of the caciques
subject to Tocobaga, who assembled at the town of
Tocobaga during Menndez's visit (1964:228).
Another site excavated during the WPA project was
the Jones Mound (8Hi4), located on the east bank of
Pemberton Creek near Lake Thonotosassa (Bullen 1952b:42-
61; Simpson 1939:57-60; Willey 1949a:337). The sand
mound was 21.3-24.4 m in diameter, with a height of 0.9
m. It was partially surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped
ridge of sand with its open end to the east (Simpson
1939:57). Two features consisting of dark, greasy soil
mixed with ash and charcoal were noted, and each had an
associated firepit (Bullen 1952b:45). These were
interpreted as structure floors (though no postmolds
were observed), most probably associated with charnel
structures (1952b:59). The 179 burials consisted of 135
very tightly flexed individuals, four secondary (bundle)
burials, 13 infant or young child burials, a single
cremation, 12 indeterminate interments, and 14 isolated
skulls. Many of the burials were accompanied by
artifacts (1952b:47).
Some burials were in red ochre-stained sand. A
total of 54 polished stone pendants (or plummets) were

106
recovered from the mound, most with burials (adults).
Some of these were carved to represent bird or deer
heads, and several were shaped like spoonbill or duck
heads (Bullen 1952b:48-50; Simpson 1939:56, 60). In
most cases, they were worn on the neck. Other
aboriginal artifacts included stone celts, shell beads
and pendants, limestone pendants, coral pendants,
Busvcon cups (most were intentionally perforated),
fossil shark teeth, stone tools, and pottery vessels
(1952b:50-55). The pottery types indicated a mixed
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor occupation
(Bullen 1952b:55; Willey 1949a:337). Most of the
pottery was apparently broken intentionally before being
placed in the mound. Simpson (1939:59) noted that most
sherds were randomly distributed throughout the mound
fill.
European items were rare in the mound. A single
broken green glass bead and a broken trade pipe were
recovered, in addition to a bead and several fragments
of sheet copper or copper alloy. One of the sheet
copper fragments was analyzed and found to contain a
relatively large amount of nickel, indicating probable
European origin (Bullen 1952b:57). Unfortunately, the
descriptions of these items do not allow the

107
determination of a date for contact, and the present
location of the artifacts is unknown.
The Jones Mound had two characteristics which are
of interest for comparative purposes. The two floor
like features may have represented the floor(s) of one
or more charnel structures. Two other Safety Harbor
sites have yielded possible charnel structure evidence:
the Parrish Mound #2 (8Ma2) in Manatee County (Willey
1949a:146-152) and the Tatham Mound (8C203) in Citrus
County (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:42-43). The Tatham
Mound example was especially similar to the Jones Mound
case because an extensive deposit of black, greasy soil
was found at Tatham which lacked associated postmolds.
However, no firepits were present at the Tatham Mound.
The Parrish Mound #2 had remains of a substantial
structure with heavy wooden post walls. The dark,
greasy soil was not noted at this site.
Another interesting aspect at the Jones Mound was
the presence of a number of freshwater mussel shells in
the pelvic region of the flexed burial (#63) of a child
(Bullen 1952b:51; Simpson 1939:60). Simpson (1939:60)
noted that these were unio shells. Unionid mussel
shells from Shepard's Filter Clam rElliptio shepardianus
(Lea)] were recovered from burial contexts at the Weeki
Wachee (8Hel2) and Tatham (8C203) sites, both of which

108
are Safety Harbor burial mounds (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:23-24; Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:193).
Unfortunately, the species of the Jones shells was not
identified, and they are no longer available for study.
This information would have been useful, as the
specimens from Tatham and Weeki Wachee are a non-Florida
species.
The Snavely Mounds (8Hi5 and 8H42) were a pair of
mounds about 0.9 m high located along the Hillsborough
River (Bullen 1952b:39-41; Simpson 1937:116; Willey
1949a:337). Excavated by the WPA, the mounds yielded
only one secondary burial (from Mound A), and Mound A
contained a large number of stone tools, partially
finished tools, and debitage, suggesting that the site
was the home of a stone tool maker (Bullen 1952b:39). A
chert quarry (8H43) located nearby supports this
interpretation (1952b:41). Discolored zones of ash and
charcoal in both mounds may have represented house
floors (1952b:39). Pottery from the mounds was not
described, but on the basis of the presence of Pinellas
projectile points, Bullen (1952b:41) assigned a Safety
Harbor date to the site. The validity of this
interpretation is dubious. The only artifacts from the
site in FMNH (#102468) are two projectile points, a

109
Bolen Plain and an Archaic Stemmed Point, which date to
late Paleo and Archaic times (Bullen 1975:32, 51).
Another site excavated by the WPA project was the
Buck Island site (8Hi6), an island located in dense
cypress swamp near Cypress Creek, north of Tampa. The
site consisted of sand ridges which yielded evidence of
habitation and an irregular, badly disturbed burial area
or mound. The description indicated that the burial
area was the result of the Indians digging a large hole
and covering burials around the margin with sand from
the hole (Bullen 1952b:75).
Twenty-eight secondary burials were recovered, some
of which apparently had artifacts accompanying them.
Three stone beads (ca. 2.5 cm long), a Busvcon shell,
sherds, and two gold objects reportedly came from
burials (Bullen 1952b:77). The pottery and a large
number of Pinellas projectile points from the site
clearly indicated a mixed Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor occupation (Bullen 1952b:78; Willey
1949a:338). A number of Archaic projectile points and
other stone tools (FMNH #102469) reveal that a
preceramic component was also present. The field notes
indicated that most pottery and associated artifacts
near the burial area occurred in a zone about 30-60 cm
below the surface, while most debitage and the Archaic

110
projectile points apparently occurred at a depth of 0.9-
1.5 m (Bullen 1952b:77).
Several artifacts from the site indicate
postcontact Safety Harbor occupation. The gold objects
mentioned previously consist of two discs, one of which
has a bent cross or swastika design embossed on it.
Apparently, the other disc (undecorated and much smaller
than the embossed one) was originally attached to the
center of the embossed one, forming a single ornament
(Bullen 1952b:Figure 24a). A note in John Goggin's site
file in FMNH says that another gold ornament was
recovered from the mound by Montague Tallant. The
presence of many Pinellas Plain notched-lip rim sherds
also indicates a late Safety Harbor component at the
site.
In the FMNH collection (#102469) from 8Hi6, there
is a gunflint of honey-colored flint. This was sent to
T. M. Hamilton, a gunflint expert, for identification.
He noted that it was a standard French gunflint with two
edges, both severely worn. It was his opinion that it
was used in a French style lock, which would date it to
after 1630 (T. M. Hamilton, personal communication
1988). Since there was much activity in the area
(including a fort) during the Second Seminole War (1835-
1842), the flint probably dates to that time period.

Ill
A few artifacts from the site indicate an early
sixteenth century component. A looter reportedly
excavated a Nueva Cadiz bead (with human bones) from the
site in 1978 or 1979 (B. Calvin Jones, personal
communication 1988). Also, in the Buck Island
collection at the Department of Anthropology of the
University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, there are
two faceted chevron beads (IVC2a and IVC2d in the Smith
and Good [1982] typology), a rolled sheet silver bead,
and a drilled silver rod bead.
The Rocky Point site (8Hi7) was first recorded by
Stearns (1869:458-459). He mentioned a number of shell
middens and ridges, as well as a shell mound which
covered an area of approximately 0.2 ha and was 4.6m
high. He noted (1869:459) projectile points, a plummet
of coral or chert, and a shell celt or spoon (NMNH
#97172-97180).
Shepard (1886:903-904) later visited the site,
noting a large shell mound (or midden) which extended
completely across the southern end of the peninsula
known as Rocky Point. He indicated that the site had
been dug into previously, and his surface collections
produced projectile points and other stone tools. He
also found shell and bone tools and pottery, some of
which was decorated with shell impressions (1886:904).

112
Willey (1949a:338-339) classified a small
collection of sherds from the site in the NMNH
(#3246632-3246663) as consisting of mixed Weeden Island
and Safety Harbor types, primarily the former. Plowden
(1955) surface collected sites on the peninsula and
produced a rough map of the site concentrations,
assigning numbers I-V to differentiate the various
middens. His collections yielded mostly undiagnostic
plain sherds, with one Olive Jar sherd (1955:19).
Neill (1968) noted that much disturbance had
occurred at the site since Plowden's visits.
Specifically, many of the shell middens had had portions
removed for use as fill. He collected from several of
the site areas, and recovered sherds of Pinellas Plain,
sand tempered plain, and unidentified aboriginal pottery
types (some of the descriptions sound like Colono Ware).
He also found many Spanish sherds, of Olive Jar,
unglazed coarse earthenwares, and glazed coarse
earthenwares (1968:108-110). Other artifacts included
sherds of worked glass, utilized shells, metal, and
bricks. Based on scant evidence, he believed that the
site was occupied only during the Safety Harbor period
and later, and that a Cuban and Tocobaga Indian fishing
village was located on the peninsula during the period
1710-1763 (1968:115-116). However, previous work at the

113
site indicates that the area was occupied by Weeden
Island-related groups, and an Archaic component is
present nearby (Joan Deming, personal communication
1988). The interpretation of a Cuban/Indian fishing or
shellfishing rancho is probably correct, but Neill's
ethnic identification of the Indians is not justified by
the available data.
The Cagnini Mound (8Hi9) was excavated by the WPA
project in 1936 (Bullen 1952b:26-30; Simpson 1937:115).
The mound, located on a ridge next to a grassy pond
north of Tampa, measured 24.4 m by 30.5 m, with a height
of about 0.8 m. It contained 94 secondary burials, and
may have had a prepared submound base (Bullen 1952b:28).
Several probable firepits were present in the mound
fill. Burials included a single urn burial (very
unusual for this area), two cremations, 58 bundle
burials, and 33 isolated skulls. Most interments were
located in the southern and eastern portions of the
mound, while the isolated skulls tended to occur in the
center. The urn burial consisted of a secondary burial
of a child in a large, undecorated vessel (1952b:29).
Artifacts from the mound included a variety of
stone tools and plummets, a shell bead, a shell awl,
pottery sherds, and three complete vessels (Bullen
1952b:29). Unfortunately, the collection was apparently

114
lost. Descriptions of some of the pottery indicated
that punctated, red slipped, and limestone tempered
sherds were present, suggesting Weeden Island-related
and Safety Harbor occupation (1952b:29-30). The mention
of a triangular arrow point (a Pinellas point) also
indicated a possible Safety Harbor component.
The Branch Mound (8H10) was located near Cypress
Creek about 9.7 km from the Cagnini Mound. The sand
mound measured about 12.2-15.2 m in diameter, with a
maximum height of 0.6 m (Bullen 1952b:31-33; Simpson
1937:115). It was excavated by a WPA crew in 1936, and
six burials were recovered. Two secondary (bundle) and
two semi-flexed burials were present, along with a
cremation and an isolated skull (Bullen 1952b:32).
Artifacts from the mound included stone tools,
projectile points, a few sherds, a partial vessel, and
five small glass beads (1952b:32). Four projectile
points are in the FMNH collection (#102470), but these
are all Archaic types. Unfortunately, the present
location of the rest of the artifacts is not known, but
Bullen indicated that the description of one sherd as
decorated and having a lug handle suggested a Safety
Harbor type (1952b:32). This, when considered along
with the presence of glass beads, indicates a probable
postcontact Safety Harbor component at the mound. The

115
small number of burials, and their arrangement in a
semicircle, suggests that the mound represents a single
episode of interment (1952b:33).
The Fort Brooke Mound (8H3) also known as the
Vodges Mound, was located east of Fort Brooke in what is
now downtown Tampa. The mound was shown on the first
map of Fort Brooke, drawn in 1824 (Ste.Claire and Bailo
1984:6). Now completely destroyed, it was mentioned by
many writers (Calkins 1878; McCall 1974:200; McKay 1949,
1952, 1956; Shepard 1886:906; Vogeles 1876, 1879:9-11;
Walker 1880a:411-413; Willey 1949a:339; Williams 1981:9-
10). Descriptions of size and shape varied, but Luer
and Almy (1981:132) indicated that it was roughly
rectangular in outline, measuring about 31 m north-south
and 33 m east-west, with a height of 2.5 m. It was
composed of alternate layers of sand and shell, and a
single primary burial was recorded (1981:132). Some of
the writers indicated that two or three mounds
originally existed in the immediate area (Shepard
1886:906; Vogeles 1879:9-10). Artifacts were apparently
rare, though Vogeles (1876, 1879:11) mentioned
projectile points, plain and decorated (stamped?)
pottery, and animal bones. He also described fire pits,
possible cremations, and miscellaneous human bones
(1879:11). Unfortunately, the vague artifact

116
descriptions do not allow confident identification of
cultural affiliation, though the mound has been assumed
by previous researchers to date from Safety Harbor times
due to its truncated pyramidal shape. Safety Harbor
artifacts have been found in midden deposits at the Fort
Brooke site and in the general vicinity (Deming 1978;
Fisher 1979a, 1979b; Hardin and Austin 1987:233;
Ste.Claire 1986).
Excavations in 1920 at the Grantham Mound (8H14),
located in the vicinity of the town of Lutz, yielded a
single Nueva Cadiz Twisted glass bead (Smith and Good
[1982:49] classified this specimen as IIIA2a in their
typology, but the interior is dark translucent purple
rather than navy blue). The only other artifacts
recorded from the site were shell beads and a St. Johns
Plain rim sherd (FMNH #15069-15073). Because of the
glass bead, the site can be assumed to be an early
sixteenth century Safety Harbor site, probably a burial
mound.
A complex of mounds on the north bank of the Alafia
River, collectively known as Mill Point (8H16, 17, 18,
19, and 20) was recorded by C. B. Moore (1900:356-357).
These features consisted of shell and sand ridges and
mounds, one of which (8H17) may have been a truncated
"temple" mound (Luer and Almy 1981:133). This mound

117
measured 19 m by 45 m at its base, with a height of
about 3.4 m (1981:133). It included a ramp on the
western side, and Moore (1900:357) noted a borrow pit to
the northwest. Moore's (1900:Figure 2) map and
description of the site indicate that it was probably a
Mississippian-style town, with a flat-topped mound and a
burial mound at opposite ends of a plaza, with linear
shell middens to the sides of the plaza. Moore
(1900:357) noted that human bones were present on the
surface around the disturbed burial mound (8H18). He
also noted two other mounds (8H19 and 8H20) within a
kilometer of the main complex. A few artifacts from one
of the shell ridges alongside the plaza (8H6) are in
FMNH (#A-2570). These are listed in Table 12. The
pottery types indicate either a Weeden Island-related or
Safety Harbor component. Based on the site plan, it was
probably a Safety Harbor town.
The Mt. Enon site (8H24) was a sand burial mound
near Plant City which was destroyed in 1927. The site
form in the FMNH site file notes that glass beads were
recovered from the mound. A note in John Goggin's site
files in FMNH indicates that these consisted of opaque
white, light blue, yellow, transparent dark blue, and
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed beads, along with opaque medium
blue and blue striated types. The opaque medium blue

118
Table 12. Artifacts from Mill Point 1 (8H16) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 8/2
Pinellas Plain 1/0
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Stone:
Whetstone fragment (probably recent) 1
Shell:
Melonqena corona shells 5
Busvcon columellae 2
beads are probably drawn opaque turquoise blue beads
(sometimes referred to as Ichtucknee Blue beads), which
are most commonly recovered from late sixteenth and
seventeenth century contexts (Deagan 1987:171; Smith
1987:46). The seed beads would also be expected to be
found on sites of this period. The Mt. Enon site is
presumed to be a late Safety Harbor mound, possibly
occupied around the time of Menndez's visit to the
Tampa Bay area in 1567 (Solis de Meras 1964:224).
The Sellner Shell Middens (8H30), located on the
south bank of the Little Manatee River (opposite the
Thomas Mound), were excavated by WPA crews in the mid-
1930s (Bullen 1952b:71-75). The work indicated that the

119
site had at least two components, and possibly some
recent disturbance. Pottery was mostly plain, but check
stamped and other decorated types were mentioned in the
field notes. Various shell and stone tools were
recovered, along with large numbers of animal bones.
Unfortunately, the collections from the site are not
available.
Three finds mentioned in the field notes are of
special interest. A long glass bead is mentioned, as
well as bones of a pig and of a horse (or possibly cow)
(Bullen 1952b:72-73). These bones had reportedly been
intentionally split. These objects could be very
significant, because they might be evidence of early
Spanish contact. The long glass bead might have been a
Nueva Cadiz bead, and the horse and pig bones are
definitely postcontact in age. Some researchers believe
that the Soto expedition camped near this spot, and the
expedition had both pigs and horses (Swanton 1985).
However, the absence of the excavated artifacts prevents
interpretation. If there was occupation at the site
during the early sixteenth century, it would have been
by Safety Harbor groups.
The Old Shell Point site (8H31) was a shell mound
on the north bank of the Alafia River. It was recorded
in 1952 by William Plowden, who noted that much of it

120
had been hauled away. At the time of his visit, it was
about 1.2 m high and covered about 1.2 ha. A collection
from the site in FMNH (#A-2576) contains the artifacts
listed in Table 13. The collection, though small,
strongly suggests a postcontact Safety Harbor component
at the site, though the Olive Jar and unglazed coarse
earthenware sherds could represent the remains of
occupation by Cuban fishermen.
The Gardensville Mound (8H37) was recorded in 1951
by William Plowden. It was a shell midden on the north
side of Bullfrog Creek (not to be confused with 8H12,
the Bullfrog Mound). A surface collection in FMNH (#A-
2582) includes the material listed in Table 14.
Generally, the pottery types are not very diagnostic,
with the exception of the Orange Micaceous Ware sherd.
This Spanish type is most commonly recovered from New
World contexts dating to the period A.D. 1550-1650
(Deagan 1987:41). This, in combination with the
presence of Pinellas Plain sherds, suggests that a
postcontact Safety Harbor component was present at the
site.
The Lanier Mound (8H61) is described in the FMNH
site file as a post-Columbian sand mound that was
discovered by J. Clarence Simpson. Unfortunately, no
artifacts were recorded to substantiate the postcontact

121
Table 13. Artifacts from Old Shell Point (8H31)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 57/6
Pinellas Plain 12/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Unglazed coarse earthenware (European) 3/2
Probable Olive Jar 1/0
Stone:
Chert fragments 3
Silicified coral nodule 1
Shell:
Melonqena corona shell 1
Bone:
Unidentified fish bone 1
dating. This site can be considered a possible
postcontact Safety Harbor mound.
An artifact scatter on the south bank of the Little
Manatee River, the De Shone Place site (8H74), was
recorded by William Plowden. A collection from this
site in FMNH (#A-2586) is listed in Table 15. The
Safety Harbor Incised sherd indicates the presence of a
Safety Harbor component. In addition, the several
sherds of pearlware, creamware, and glass indicate a

122
Table 14. Artifacts from the Gardensville Mound (8H37)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 6/2
Perico or Pasco Plain 5/1
Pinellas Plain 2/0
Unclassified heavy grit tempered 1/0
Orange Micaceous Ware 1/0
Stone:
Chert tool fragments (probably projectile points) 2
Secondary decortication flake (silicified coral) 1
Fossil bone fragment 1
separate component, probably dating to the late
eighteenth or nineteenth centuries (Nol Hume 1976:129-
130) .
The T. L. Barker site (8H79), a sand and shell
field, was recorded by William Plowden in 1952. He made
a collection, which is housed in FMNH (#A-2592). It
is listed in Table 16. A note in John Goggin's site
file in FMNH indicates that there was also originally a
sherd of San Luis Blue on White majolica in the 8H79
collection. The majolica types date within the period
of about 1550 to 1650 (Deagan 1987:64, 70, 74).
Jefferson Ware is found on mission sites in north

123
Table 15. Artifacts from the De Shone Place Site
(8H74) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pinellas Plain (one lip is notched) 17/4
Sand tempered plain 3/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 2/0
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Pasco Plain 1/0
Safety Harbor Incised 1/1
Unclassified incised 1/0
Transfer-printed pearlware or creamware 2/2
Undecorated creamware 5/2
Undecorated pearlware 1/0
Glass:
Opaque white glass with impressed floral design 1
Colorless/light blue fragment 1
Dark green fragment 1
Stone:
Chert flake 2
Chert tool fragment 1
Shell:
Marine shell columella 1
Marine shell fragment 1

124
Florida after about 1630 (Milanich and Fairbanks
1980:227), suggesting that the contact at the T. L.
Barker site probably occurred in the first half of the
seventeenth century. The lack of any diagnostic Safety
Harbor pottery types may indicate that the site actually
post-dates the dissolution of Safety Harbor culture.
The Elsberry site (8H101), a buried shell midden,
was recorded by Ripley P. Bullen and Lyman O. Warren in
1965. A collection in FMNH (#101665) is listed in Table
17. This site is recorded as a Safety Harbor site in
the FMSF, but the ceramic assemblage could also indicate
a Weeden Island-related occupation. It is unclear
whether or not the indented-lip decoration on the
Pinellas Plain rim is temporally diagnostic.
The multicomponent Fish Creek site (8H105)
consisted of dredged fill from the creek. Recorded in
1967, surface collections from the site included 4/2
Pinellas Plain sherds, one of which had a notched lip
(Karklins 1970:64). These sherds (especially the rim
with a notched lip), plus the recovery of a Pinellas
projectile point at the site, indicate that a Safety
Harbor component was represented in the dredged
material.
Test excavations were conducted at the Palm River
Midden (8H08) in 1967 and 1968 (Karklins 1968) The

125
Table 16. Artifacts from the T. L. Barker Site (8H79)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 24/1
Pinellas Plain 23/2
Belle Glade Plain 12/4
St. Johns Plain 7/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 1/1
Sand tempered podal support (fabric impressed?) 1/0
Perico Plain 1/0
Unclassified grog tempered 1/0
Olive Jar 6/0
Jefferson Ware or San Marcos Stamped 1/0
Sevilla Blue on Blue (possibly Ligurian Blue on Blue)
majolica 1/0
Miscellaneous glazed redware 2/0
Stone:
Tampa projectile point 1
Culbreath projectile point 1
Utilized chert flake (scraping) 1
Chert tool fragments 2
Chert flakes 2
Shell:
Busvcon shell fragment 1

126
Count
Table 16continued
Description
Miscellaneous:
Colorless glass fragment 1
marine shell midden contained abundant faunal remains
and pottery (1968:69), but few nonceramic artifacts.
The pottery from the excavations consisted of only a few
types, the majority identified as Pinellas Plain. Lip
notching was absent. Belle Glade Plain, Lake Jackson
Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, and Pasco Plain sherds
comprised the rest of the identifiable types (1968:71).
On the basis of the Lake Jackson Plain and Pinellas
Plain ceramics, the site had a Safety Harbor component.
No evidence of European contact was recovered. Other
collections from this site are in the University of
Michigan Museum of Anthropology (UMMA), Harvard Peabody
Museum (HPM), and NMNH (#35352-35375).
The Colding site (8H346) was discovered in 1974
(Hemmings 1975). The site consisted of a scatter of
sherds and chert flakes. The sherds (FMNH #A-4497) were
probable Belle Glade Plain and Pinellas Plain (Hemmings
1975:46). The site is located about 0.8 km south of the
Picnic Mound (8Hi3), and may be the habitation area for
the people buried in the mound. Pinellas projectile

127
Table 17. Artifacts from the Elsberry Site (8H101)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pinellas Plain (1 rim has hemispherical
indentations on lip) 16/9
Sand tempered plain 4/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Belle Glade Plain 1/0
Unclassified limestone tempered 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon fragments 3
points surface collected from the site support a Safety
Harbor component, but there are no unquestionably Safety
Harbor artifacts.
The predominantly Archaic site of Mizelle Creek One
(8H374) also yielded a single Pinellas projectile point
(Swindell 1977:41). This may indicate a Safety Harbor
component at the site, but the point could also be from
a Weeden Island-related context.
The Halls Branch 4 site (8H376) was recorded by
William Browning (1975). A collection from the artifact
scatter yielded 15 chert flakes, an oyster shell
fragment, and two sherds of possible Pinellas Plain
(1975:14). The site was identified as a probable Safety

128
Harbor site. However, since Pinellas Plain can also
occur in Weeden Island-related sites, the cultural
affiliation of Halls Branch 4 cannot be determined on
the basis of the collection.
The South Prong I site (8H418) was discovered in
1976 (Martin 1976). It was later excavated by Welch
(1983). Pottery types recovered during the excavations
included sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, Pasco
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, Pinellas Plain, Norwood Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, St. Johns Incised, and St.
Johns Red on Buff (Mitchem and Welch 1983:148). On the
basis of the Pinellas Plain pottery and Pinellas
projectile points, a possible Safety Harbor component
was identified at the site.
The South Prong II site (8H419) was also recorded
by Martin (1976). Located about 400 m east of the South
Prong I site, it was a lithic scatter which yielded two
Pinellas projectile points and 101 chert flakes. On the
basis of these, it was identified as a probable Weeden
Island-related and/or Safety Harbor site.
While conducting excavations at the nineteenth
century Barrio de Ascerrin site (8H426) in the Ybor
City section of Tampa, Ellis (1977:140-145) encountered
an aboriginal component. Ceramics from this component

129
indicated that it had been occupied by people of the
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor cultures.
The Hendry Ranch (8H432) and Brener (8H435) sites
were discovered on a survey in 1976 (Denting 1976). The
Hendry Ranch site was a lithic scatter that yielded
projectile points indicating Archaic and Safety Harbor
components. The Brener site was an artifact scatter of
chert and ceramics. A Florida Archaic Stemmed point, a
Citrus projectile point, drills, stone celts, and
incised pottery were recovered. Archaic, Weeden Island-
related, and Safety Harbor components were present.
The Eastside Nursery Mound (8H440), near Lake
Thonotosassa, was recorded in 1976. It was 0.9 m high,
and had been badly disturbed. The site is listed in the
FMSF as a mixed Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor
site, based on a surface collection.
The Max Cherbonneaux site (8H458) was recorded
during a survey of a proposed park site near Tampa
(McCullough and Fisher 1978:15-16). This site yielded
sherds from a single vessel identified as "Spanish
earthenware," dating to the post-1700 period. It was
suggested this was from a survey of the Hillsborough
River in 1757 by Francisco Maria Celi of the Spanish
Royal Fleet (1978:15). If this is correct, the site was
probably occupied by a post-Safety Harbor group or

130
represents a single component campsite associated with
the Spanish expedition.
A nearby site, the Parking Lot site (8H462),
yielded a single Pinellas projectile point (McCullough
and Fisher 1978:17-18). St. Johns Plain ceramics were
also found nearby. These artifacts could be from either
a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor occupation.
A probable habitation mound, the Curiosity Creek
site (8H480), was excavated by Marion Almy (1981).
Among remains from this site, 97/0 Pinellas Plain sherds
were recovered, which Almy (1981) thought represented an
early Safety Harbor component. No other artifactual
evidence from the site supports this interpretation.
A burial mound in western Tampa, sometimes referred
to as the Henriquez Mound (8H1077), was partially
excavated by Ulysses Parodi and George Henriquez in 1928
(Hall 1929; Williams 1983). Between 34 and 39 burials
were recovered (Williams 1983:18). John Goggin looked
at the collection from the site in UMMA (#2855-588), and
recorded the artifacts listed in Table 18. This
collection clearly indicates a late Weeden Island-
related and Safety Harbor occupation. The three rolled
iron tube beads demonstrate the presence of a
postcontact component.

131
Table 18. Artifacts from the Henriquez Mound
(8H1077) in UMMA.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 18
Pasco Plain 10
Pasco Check Stamped 1
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (late variety) 8
St. Johns Check Stamped 7
St. Johns Plain 3
Safety Harbor Incised 5
Pinellas Plain rims with notched lips 2
Keith Incised 1
Metal:
Short rolled iron tube beads 3
The Deborah Lynn site (8H1080) is an artifact
scatter from which a single Pinellas Plain sherd and
some chert flakes were collected. Though it is listed
as a probable Safety Harbor site in the FMSF, it could
also be Weeden Island-related.
The 138th Street site (8H1084), near Cypress
Creek, is listed in the FMSF as a Safety Harbor site. A
single Pinellas projectile point came from the lithic
scatter, which could also be from a Weeden Island-
related component.

132
The Bay Cadillac site (8H2398) is a multicomponent
site in downtown Tampa (Hardin and Austin 1987).
Pinellas Plain (including rims with notched lips) sherds
were recovered, along with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, Wakulla Check Stamped, sand tempered
plain, and fiber tempered wares (Robert J. Austin,
personal communication 1988). The notched-lip Pinellas
Plain sherds indicate a Safety Harbor component was
present.
Many unnumbered sites with Safety Harbor components
have been excavated or surface collected in Hillsborough
County. Most of these are probably now destroyed due to
development and mining in the county.
George F. Kunz (1887:223) described and illustrated
three silver ornaments which had been found in a mound
or mounds near Tampa. These resemble silver artifacts
that have been recovered from early contact sites
elsewhere in west peninsular Florida, and were probably
made from small silver ingots. The sites from which
they came were probably Safety Harbor burial mounds.
Bushnell (1937:32-35) mentioned a number of beads
from Hillsborough County in NMNH, collected by S. T.
Walker. Fourteen Florida Cut Crystal beads (#35334-
35344) had been recovered from burials near Tampa Bay in
Hillsborough County (1937:33). One or more blue glass

133
beads similar to drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee
Blue) beads (#35335) were also recovered in Hillsborough
County (1937:32). These types date to the late
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Deagan 1987:171-
175, 180; Smith 1987:31-33), so the sites from which
they came were undoubtedly Safety Harbor sites. It
should be noted that the boundaries of Hillsborough
County have changed substantially since Walker's work in
the area in the late nineteenth century, so some of the
beads could have come from sites in what is now Pinellas
County, most notably the Bayview/Seven Oaks (8P7/8P8)
site (Walker 1880a:410).
Notes in Goggin's site file in FMNH include a
number of other descriptions of collections from sites
near Tampa Bay (some of these may actually be outside of
present-day Hillsborough County). In NMNH, he
identified a number of artifacts from S. T. Walker's
work in the Tampa Bay area. These were identified only
as "near Tampa Bay." The catalog numbers are 35323-
35327 and 35590-35592, and include Pinellas Incised,
Pinellas Plain, Fort Walton Incised, and glazed European
sherds with green and white designs on them.
A collection from a "shell mound on the east shore
of Tampa Bay" was also in NMNH (#45804). The artifacts
were collected by E. Ingersoll from a mound that was

134
91.4 m long, 18.3 m wide, and 4.6 in high. Fourteen
Olive Jar sherds and six green on white majolica sherds
were present.
A collection from a "sand mound near Tampa" was
also described in Goggin's files, but the location of
the collection was not listed. It included 54 Pinellas
Plain, 33 Lamar-like Complicated Stamped, 18 Pinellas
Incised, three Belle Glade Plain, and one Pasco Plain
sherd. The note included the notation "F. W. P. 1899,"
which might stand for Frederic Ward Putnam as the
collector. If so, the collection was probably in HPM,
as Putnam was the Curator of this museum from 1875 to
1909 (Willey and Sabloff 1980:43).
In NMNH, Goggin recorded a collection made by J. W.
Milner (#35638) from two sites near Tampa Bay (records
in NMNH indicate that this collection was made by S. T.
Walker near Clearwater, possibly at 8Pi5). It included
the sherds listed in Table 19. The collection was
clearly from two mixed Weeden Island-related and Safety
Harbor sites.
Goggin's notes also included mention of two other
collections from mounds near Tampa, which he identified
as Safety Harbor sites. One was in UMMA and the other
was in HPM. No numbers or descriptions were included,
so there is no way to check Goggin's identifications.

135
Table 19. Ceramics from Two Sites near Tampa Bay
in NMNH.
Description Count
Site A:
St. Johns Check Stamped 43
St. Johns Plain 1
Sand tempered plain 24
Perico Plain 17
Wakulla Check Stamped 14
Ruskin Dentate Stamped 3
Pasco Check Stamped 3
Weeden Island Plain 2
Carabelle Incised 1
Tucker Ridge Pinched 1
St. Petersburg Incised 1
Safety Harbor Incised 2
Pinellas Incised 1
'European plain" 2
Sand tempered brushed (gritty paste) 1
Unclassified sand tempered cord marked (gritty
paste)
Site B:
Unclassified Pinellas Plain-like
Safety Harbor Incised
Pinellas Incised
St. Petersburg Incised
1

136
Table 19continued
Description
Count
St. Johns Plain
1
Unclassified sand tempered cord marked (gritty
paste)
Unclassified smooth plain
1
1
Robinson (1979:3-4) noted that a number of Pinellas
projectile points were recovered during excavations by
amateur archaeologists at an apparently unrecorded site
known as the Keese site. This site may have a Safety
Harbor component, but associated artifact types have not
been reported.
In a collection owned by Don Gray are glass beads
from a site near Lake Thonotosassa in eastern
Hillsborough County. Included are heat-altered drawn
opaque turquoise blue glass, transparent medium blue
spherical, a spheroid transparent purple (IBlg in the
Smith and Good [1982] typology), and many seed beads of
white, blue, and turquoise blue glass. Some Cornaline
d'Aleppo seed beads are also present. Most of these
beads date to the late sixteenth or seventeenth
centuries (Deagan 1987:168, 171; Smith 1987:46), though
the transparent purple bead could date to the early
sixteenth century. The provenience of their discovery

137
is not known, but if the site was aboriginal, it was
undoubtedly a Safety Harbor site.
Polk Countv
The archaeology of Polk County is very poorly
known. Very little scientific archaeological work has
been conducted in the county, so it has generally been
glossed over in discussions of Florida archaeology.
This is particularly unfortunate because significant
aboriginal cultural boundaries may have been present in
the county in the past (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:22).
The paucity of archaeological data makes
delineating the easternmost extent of the Safety Harbor
culture area especially difficult. There is some
evidence of Safety Harbor occupation in the county, but
interpreting the available data is difficult.
The Lake Marion I site (8Po2) was a 1.8 m high sand
burial mound located near Lake Marion in the eastern
part of the county. The mound, which has probably been
destroyed, was dug into by many different individuals.
The site form indicates that many burials were removed
and that at least one gold pendant was recovered
(however, this gold pendant may have actually come from
the Lake Marion II burial mound [8Poll]). In 1947, John
Goggin was shown a private collection that was probably

138
from this site. It included one or more ceremonial
silver tablets, two silver objects, a copper object,
globular light blue glass beads, a large chevron bead,
some large seed beads, and a Florida Cut Crystal bead.
There is also a drawing of what may be a Nueva Cadiz
bead in Goggin's notes (1947a).
Allerton et al. (1984:32) indicated that all of
these artifacts were found with one burial. They also
described the silver and copper objects. The silver
objects included a kite-shaped sheet silver pendant with
embossed decoration and a convex silver disc with
embossed decoration. The copper object was a
rectangular sheet pendant with embossed dots along the
edges and four hemispherical (circular) bosses along the
central length. It should be noted that this could have
been made of brass or bronze.
Though this mound clearly dated from the
postcontact period, no cultural affiliation can be
determined due to the lack of descriptions or
collections of diagnostic aboriginal artifact types.
The glass beads indicate a probable late sixteenth
century date for contact, possibly earlier. However,
the question of whether or not this was a Safety Harbor
mound remains unanswered.

139
A similar situation exists in terms of the
Frostproof Mound (8Po7) in the southern part of the
county. This mound, which was originally about 30.5 m
in diameter and at least 1.2 m high, was dug into by
many different individuals over a long time period. A
note in the FMNH site file by William C. Sturtevant
indicates that local people had recovered extended
burials, glass beads (either seed bead size or about the
size of peas), and a triangular silver pendant. A small
collection in FMNH (#A-2622) includes 13/2 St. Johns
Plain, 8/2 sand tempered plain, 4/0 Belle Glade Plain,
and 2/0 Dunns Creek Red sherds. A marine shell fragment
is also in the collection. The only possibly diagnostic
pottery in the collection is Dunns Creek Red, which most
commonly occurs in early Weeden Island-related contexts,
but may occur later (Goggin 1948:7-8). Once again, it
is impossible to determine whether or not the mound had
a Safety Harbor component.
The Singletary site (8Pol3) may be a postcontact
Safety Harbor site. The site form indicates that an
Olive Jar was plowed up at this site in 1915.
Undescribed aboriginal remains were also found. The
site is called a mission on the form, but there is no
evidence to support this.

140
The Nalcrest site (8Pol5) was a multicomponent,
partially submerged site alongside Lake Weohyakapka in
southeastern Polk County (Bullen and Beilman 1973). In
the FMNH collection (#A-6989) from the site are many
Pinellas projectile points, indicating a Weeden Island-
related or later component. There are also several lead
objects, including two possible beads and several flat
lead discs that have perforations (probably for
suspension) and appear to have been intentionally
decorated by impressing a check stamped design on one or
both faces. Unfortunately, the sparse pottery from the
site is undiagnostic, so the site can be considered to
have a possible Safety Harbor component.
The Hart Hammock Quarry site (8Pol22) yielded a
single Pinellas projectile point (Piper 1980). This may
indicate that a Safety Harbor component is present
(Bullen 1975:8).
A site in northern Polk County, known as the
Raulerson Mound (8Pol23), was partially excavated by a
group of amateur archaeologists. This site, which was
also referred to as District Site No. 1, yielded a large
number of stone tools and ceramic sherds, indicating
occupation from late Paleo-Indian to at least Weeden
Island times (Pilcher 1976; Piper 1980). A number of
Pinellas projectile points were recovered, as well as

141
St. Johns Check Stamped, Weeden Island Incised or
Punctated, and fiber tempered wares. The illustrations
and descriptions do not allow identification of all the
pottery types present, but there could be a Safety
Harbor component at the site, based on the presence of
Pinellas points.
The Philip Mound (8Po446) was a burial mound
located near Lake Marion (Benson 1967; Karklins 1974).
Originally about 1.2 m high and 12.2-15.2 m in diameter,
the mound had an attached ramp or causeway which
extended about 60 m toward the east to a circular borrow
pit. This feature then extended back toward the mound,
stopping about 1.5 m from the southern edge of the
mound. The feature was 3.7-4.6 m wide, with a height of
1.2 m (Benson 1967:118-119).
The mound was vandalized over a long period, but
excavations nevertheless yielded a large and diverse
collection of aboriginal and European artifacts. Benson
(1967) recovered 16,328 glass beads, at least 12 silver
and copper (or copper alloy) beads, and five Florida Cut
Crystal beads. The glass bead types included eye beads,
faceted chevrons, striped ovals, gooseberry beads, Nueva
Cadiz Plain, Cornaline d'Aleppo, opaque turquoise blue
(Ichtucknee Blue), Seven Oaks Gilded Molded, striped,
and a wide array of seed beads. The metal beads, of

142
silver and copper, included "coin" beads (Fairbanks
1968b), rolled sheet metal beads, and drilled rod beads.
Benson also recovered metal discs and pendants, a
silver thimble, miscellaneous metal objects, iron
scissors, an iron knife blade, an iron eyed axe, an iron
celt, various stone tools, and aboriginal and European
ceramics (1967). Allerton et al. (1984:38) indicated
that a sheet silver ceremonial tablet may also have come
from the mound, but Benson (1967:130-131) specifically
mentioned that to his knowledge no such artifacts had
been recovered there. The single European sherd was
identified as San Luis Polychrome majolica. The
aboriginal ceramics recovered by Benson (1967:129-130)
indicated a Safety Harbor component with heavy Belle
Glade influence. Identified types included Sarasota
Incised, Englewood Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, and possible Gordon's Pass Incised.
Karklins' (1974) work at the site produced a
deposit of pottery near the western edge of the mound,
consisting of Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain, St.
Johns Check Stamped, and Pinellas Incised sherds and
vessels, all of which had been broken or perforated.
From other parts of the mound, he recovered sherds of
Pasco Complicated Stamped, Ocklawaha Incised, Papys

143
Bayou Punctated, Indian Pass Incised, and three
miniature vessels of Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain,
and Sarasota Incised (1974:2).
He also found a perforated iron fragment
(interpreted as part of a collander), 35 glass beads,
two Florida Cut Crystal beads, and a lead bead (Karklins
1974:3-6). Several shell beads and pendants, a coral
bead, and red ochre were recovered as well. The glass
beads found by Karklins included Nueva Cadiz Plain (some
were faceted), tubular, striped, faceted (both from
cutting/grinding and marvering), wire-wound, and one
blown glass specimen (1974:3-5).
The aboriginal artifacts from the Philip Mound
indicate that it was constructed primarily by a Safety
Harbor group, with a minor late Weeden Island-related
component. The large number of European artifacts
presents more of a problem in interpretation, as the
types present seem to represent a long time span. The
Nueva Cadiz beads are the only bead type dating solely
to the early sixteenth century, though at least some of
the faceted chevron specimens could also date from this
period (Smith and Good 1982). The blown glass specimen
could also be an early sixteenth century type, as
similar specimens were found at the Governor Martin site

144
(Soto's 1539-1540 winter encampment) in Tallahassee
(Ewen 1988; Ewen and Jones 1988).
The Florida Cut Crystal beads probably date to the
period 1550-1600 (Deagan 1987:180; Fairbanks 1968a:14;
Smith 1987:31), though recent evidence indicates that
they also occur occasionally on sites of the late
seventeenth to mid-eighteenth centuries as well (Smith
1988:9). Eye beads and the opaque turquoise blue
(Ichtucknee Blue) varieties occur during the period
1575-1625 (Deagan 1987:167; Smith 1987:31), though the
opaque turquoise specimens are occasionally found on
later sites (Deagan 1987:175). Round gooseberry beads
and Cornaline d'Aleppo beads are typical of eighteenth
century sites (Deagan 1987:168; Smith 1983:150), but
Cornaline d'Aleppo seed beads (like some of those found
at Philip) also are known from contexts dating from the
late sixteenth century and later (Deagan 1987:168).
Smith (1987:47) noted that eyed axes first appear
in New World sites during the period 1600-1630, though
they could be present in earlier sites as well. Deagan
(1987:76) indicated that San Luis Polychrome is typical
of the period 1650-1750 in the New World.
On the basis of the artifact types described above,
it is apparent that the European assemblage includes
types that date from the early sixteenth century through

145
the eighteenth century. Since there is no record of
European expeditions to the immediate area during that
time period, the European artifacts from the Philip
Mound are considered to be the result of exchange or
tribute coming from coastal areas and/or the St. Johns
River area, where contacts and shipwreck salvage
occurred.
The mound is extremely important in terms of
interpreting the nature of Safety Harbor culture in this
part of Florida. It is the easternmost known definite
Safety Harbor site, and the large and diverse assemblage
of European artifacts indicates that the group whose
members were buried in the mound resided there for
several centuries, and were quite likely very powerful
and/or heavily involved in exchange with coastal groups.
The high percentage of Belle Glade Plain pottery
suggests cultural influences from the Okeechobee Basin
as well, and much of the European material may have
reached the site via the Okeechobee area. But the
predominance of Safety Harbor pottery types leaves no
doubt that it was a Safety Harbor burial mound.
The mound is also important in interpretations of
nearby sites. The Lake Marion I site (8Po2), located
near the same lake, produced European artifacts which
are probably contemporaneous with Philip, so this may

146
also be a Safety Harbor site. John Goggin (1947a)
recorded a collection from a sand mound near Lake
Hatchineha (southeast of Lake Marion) which included
shell beads, a Hernando point, and blue globular beads.
This site may also have been contemporaneous with
Philip, though it is impossible to determine without a
better description of the glass beads.
Unfortunately, the artifacts from the Philip Mound
have been dispersed to many different locations. Most
of the artifacts from Benson's (1967) excavations have
been sold, and are in a number of different private
collections. Two of the Nueva Cadiz beads from his
excavations are in the collections of the Florida
Division of Historical Resources in Tallahassee.
Karklins donated some of his artifacts to a small museum
in the Sulphur Springs area of Tampa, and a large number
of partial pottery vessels, a human femur, and a Busvcon
cup to the FMNH. The rest of his artifacts are still in
his possession. It should be noted that many other
individuals excavated at the site, so the artifacts
mentioned above are only a small percentage of what was
originally contained in the mound.
The Rock Ridge Levee C site (8Po452C) is located in
the northwest corner of the county (W. Johnson 1986).
The site is a lithic scatter which yielded two Pinellas

147
projectile point fragments and a St. Johns Plain sherd,
and could have either Weeden Island-related or Safety
Harbor components.
In the FMNH collections, there is a Safety Harbor
Incised vessel (#15243) which was reportedly found in
the vicinity of Bartow prior to 1920. It was donated by
0. J. Moore, and has a "stepped" or terraced conical
shape with three bands of incised and punctated
decoration.
Manatee Countv
Manatee County was heavily occupied by Safety
Harbor groups. Many Safety Harbor sites are recorded in
the county, and several have been excavated or tested by
trained archaeologists. In addition, Montague Tallant,
an amateur archaeologist, recorded and excavated many
sites (mostly mounds) in the county, and provided much
information on locations and artifacts to archaeologists
in the 1930s and 1940s.
The Parrish Mounds #1-5, located in the vicinity of
Parrish in the northeast part of the county, were
excavated by archaeologists from the Smithsonian
Institution in 1933 and 1934, under the direction of
Lloyd Reichard (Stirling 1935:378-383; Willey 1949a:142-
158). Three of these were Safety Harbor burial mounds.

148
The Parrish Mound #1 (8Mal) was a 1.5 m high sand
mound measuring 13.4 m north-south and 11.6 m east-west.
A total of 27 secondary burials were encountered, and
the excavators were informed that the remains of at
least 16 individuals had been removed by previous
diggers (Stirling 1935:378; Willey 1949a:143).
Pottery from the mound clearly indicated a Safety
Harbor occupation, with no evidence of Weeden Island-
related admixture (Willey 1949a:144). Collections in
NMNH (#383190-383238), FMNH (#82131 and 99373), and FSU
include Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, St. Johns
Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain, Belle Glade Plain, Lamar
Complicated Stamped, and sand tempered plain sherds and
whole vessels (Willey 1949a:144). Stirling (1935:379)
mentioned that notching or ticking of lips was very
common on the rim sherds from the site.
Ten or 11 Pinellas and Tampa projectile points were
found (Willey 1949a:145, Plate 56), along with between
three and six Busvcon cups and several worked shell
objects (Stirling 1935:379; Willey 1949a:145). The
discrepancies in numbers are due to differing artifact
counts reported in the two accounts.
A large number of European artifacts were
recovered, many accompanying burials. Stirling
(1935:379) indicated that the provenience of many of the

149
beads indicated they had been used as necklaces,
bracelets, and as decoration on such things as bags.
Willey (1949a:145-146, Plate 58) described and
illustrated many European artifacts in the NMNH
collections, including a "Punta Rassa" type glass
pendant (1949a:Plate 58f). Two "bone or tortoise shell"
(Stirling 1935:381; Willey 1949a:146) comb fragments
(NMNH #383199) may have also been of European origin.
Undescribed glazed sherds are in the NMNH collection
(#383194). Stirling (1935:379) also mentioned that two
Florida Cut Crystal beads were recovered, one faceted
with flat planes and the other cut with long spiraling
facets. In NMNH, there are 18 Florida Cut Crystal beads
(#383197-A) which apparently came from this site.
Some of the glass beads are now in the FMNH
collections (#82132). These include a large number (ca.
1100) of seed beads, mostly opaque white, but also
including various shades of blue, amber, green, black,
yellow, brown, and colorless specimens (FMNH records
indicate that these were transferred from NMNH in 1941).
There are also two larger glass beads, including a large
faceted Nueva Cadiz Plain specimen of (from exterior to
interior) translucent turquoise blue/thin
white/translucent turquoise blue core. This is a
previously undescribed variety (it is not in the Smith

150
and Good [1982] typology). The second bead is a unique
olive-shaped striped bead of opaque brick red with three
spiral white stripes over a core of translucent burgundy
red which appears black unless light is shined directly
through it. The latter specimen is similar to beads
from the Tatham Mound (8C203) and the St. Marks
Wildlife Refuge Cemetery site (8Wal5) (Mitchem and
Leader 1988).
Most of the European beads from the site suggest a
late sixteenth or seventeenth century date for contact,
but the Nueva Cadiz and olive-shaped striped beads
indicate early sixteenth century contact. These
artifacts, in combination with the aboriginal
assemblage, indicate that the mound was a post-contact
Safety Harbor site.
The Parrish Mound #2 (8Ma2) was a sand mound
measuring 19.2 m north-south and 19.8 m east-west. It
was 1.8 m high (Stirling 1935:380; Willey 1949a:146).
Borrow pits were present to the south and west of the
mound. Though previous digging had disturbed the
summit, the circular mound may have originally been
flat-topped (Willey 1949a:147).
The Smithsonian excavations yielded Pinellas
Incised, Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain, and sand
tempered plain pottery (Willey 1949a:150). A previous

151
excavation had uncovered an owl effigy bottle near the
central portion of the mound (Stirling 1935:380; Willey
1949a:149-150). Stirling (1935:380-381) and Willey
(1949a:150-151, Plate 59) listed and illustrated the
artifacts from the mound curated at NMNH, including many
perishable organic objects.
Excavation of the mound produced much information
about Safety Harbor burial practices. Beneath the mound
(1.7-2.1 m below the summit) a large circular crematory
pit (about 0.5 m deep) was found, which was filled with
charcoal, burned human bones, and artifacts (Willey
1949a:147). A mound of sand covered this feature, and
contained secondary burials, and both primary and
secondary cremations at various depths.
Near the mound surface, remains of a wooden
structure were encountered. Postmolds of charred and
decayed wood were located about 12.7 cm apart, forming
the walls of a trapezoidal building. Many of the posts
had pointed bottom ends, but some had been cut square
(Stirling 1935:380, Plate 3(1); Willey 1949a:147-148).
One corner of the structure had a reinforced wall made
of a staggered, double row of posts extending for 1.8 m
along one wall and 2.1m along the adjacent one. In
this corner, a thick deposit of charcoal, ashes, and
burned human bone was encountered, suggesting that it

152
was where cremations were performed (Willey 1949a:148,
Map II).
In the interior area of the structure, charred
timbers were found, which could represent fallen wall
posts, roof beams, or portions of a floor. Within the
structure, 32 secondary cremations and two secondary
subadult burials (unburned) had been interred (Stirling
1935:380; Willey 1949a:148). Outside of the structure,
five secondary cremations were recorded, and two primary
cremations had been burned in small pits. These pits
had been lined with logs, then flexed corpses had been
placed inside and burned, after which they were filled
in with sand (Stirling 1935:380; Willey 1949a:148).
The structure represented either a crematorium or a
charnel structure for storing corpses prior to cremation
or burial. It may have served both functions. The
depths of the postmolds indicated that the structure had
stood atop the mound after the last mound construction
episode. The postmolds were covered by a thin stratum
of sand, and it appears that the structure was burned
(perhaps intentionally) immediately prior to
abandonment.
Stirling (1935:381) and Willey (1949a:151, Plate
59) also mentioned that a small (2.2 cm long) brass
ornament (NMNH #383218) was recovered, in addition to

153
three glass seed beads (#383219, two light blue and one
white). They did not indicate whether these were
recovered with burials or in the mound fill. A bone or
tortoise shell comb (which was recovered with a burial)
may also have been of European origin (Willey
1949a:151). Unfortunately, these artifacts are not
temporally diagnostic.
The aboriginal artifacts indicate that Parrish
Mound #2 was a Safety Harbor mound. It was used as a
crematorium, possible charnel structure platform, and
burial mound. It was probably in use during the
postcontact period.
The Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3) was a circular sand
mound, 20.7 m in diameter and 2.1 m high, located on the
north bank of Gamble Creek. Previous excavations were
evident on the mound summit. It was partially
surrounded on the south, west, and east sides by a
horseshoe-shaped embankment that extended about 46 m
north of the mound. The embankment was 9.1 m wide and
0.9 m high, and was separated from the mound by a
depression which followed the inside edge of the
embankment. The depression (probably a borrow pit) was
5.2 m wide and 0.6 m deep (Stirling 1935:381; Willey
1949a:152). Two additional small circular mounds were
also excavated, 22.9 m and 30.5 m southeast of Parrish

154
Mound #3. No burials or artifacts were found in these
(Willey 1949a:153).
Excavation of 8Ma3 yielded 211 secondary interments
(carefully placed bundles of long bones with skulls
placed at the west or south end of the bundles) and one
cremation. Willey (1949a:152-153) noted that the
extreme decomposition of many of the bones indicated
that there were probably many more burials present
originally. Five complete or nearly complete vessels
were recovered (all intentionally perforated), along
with many sherds. The complete vessels included two
Safety Harbor Incised, one Lamar Complicated Stamped,
one sand tempered plain, and one Pasco Red (1949a:Plate
54A, Figure 64). Willey (1949a:154) also listed sherd
counts from the NMNH collection, including Safety Harbor
Incised, Pinellas Plain, Pinellas Incised, St. Johns
Plain and Check Stamped, sand tempered plain, Belle
Glade Plain, Lamar Complicated Stamped, Papys Bayou
Punctated, and some miscellaneous types.
In addition, he mentioned a collection of sherds
curated at FSU, which included 3/0 St. Johns Check
Stamped, 7/5 Belle Glade Plain, 4/0 sand tempered plain,
and 1/0 probable Jefferson Complicated Stamped
(1949a:154). A note in John Goggin's site file in FMNH
indicates that 5/0 St. Johns Plain, 3/1 St. Johns Check

155
Stamped, 3/1 sand tempered plain (the rim sherd was well
smoothed), and 1/0 Belle Glade Plain were curated at
Ocmulgee National Monument (ONM) in Macon, Georgia (#41-
519/82, now at the Southeast Archeological Center of the
National Park Service [SEAC-NPS], Tallahassee).
Two small samples from the site are in the FMNH
collection, one (#82133-82134) of which was transferred
from NMNH in 1941, and the other (#99374) from FPS in
1954. It is unlikely that these were included in
Willey's (1949a:154) study. The artifacts from both
collections are listed in Table 20.
Willey (1949a:154-155, Plate 54B) also listed and
illustrated a variety of stone tools from the mound,
including Archaic and Paleo projectile points. A number
of chert flakes were present in the mound fill, and 14
Busvcon cups (many intentionally perforated) were
recovered (Stirling 1935:382; Willey I949a:155).
Several of the burials were surrounded by ochre-stained
sand.
European materials were rare. Most of them were
accompanying the single cremation, which Willey
(1949a:155) believed was an intrusive burial. However,
Stirling mentioned "a few small glass beads, mostly blue
or white in color, and a short blunt iron chisel"
(1935:382), which were apparently recovered from the

156
Table 20. Artifacts from Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3)
in FMNH.
Description Count
FMNH #82133-82134:
Ceramics:
St. Johns Plain 5/3
St. Johns Check Stamped 4/3
Sand tempered plain 2/1
Pasco Plain 2/0
Belle Glade Plain 2/0
Pinellas Plain I/O
Shell:
Busycon cups 3
FMNH #99374:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 7/3
St. Johns Check Stamped 4/0
Belle Glade Plain 2/1
Pinellas Plain-like 2/1
Sand tempered check stamped 1/0
mound fill. Willey (1949a:155) indicated that the
chisel was 6 cm long. This object is in NMNH (#383236),
and is flat (0.9 cm thick), rectangular, and has a
beveled bit end.

157
The cremation included a 14.7 cm long iron chisel
(square in cross-section), a 13.2 cm knife or sword
blade fragment (this object might be a barrel hoop
fragment), a possible gun barrel, and five small
miscellaneous iron fragments (Willey 1949a:155).
Several of the iron objects have preserved wood attached
to them, suggesting that they were originally parts of
wooden barrels. Stirling (1935:382) also mentioned five
small glass beads (one of which was melted) (NMNH
#383235), two stemmed projectile points (burned), and a
sandstone abrading stone (#383236), to which iron
fragments were attached. He believed that the iron
fragments were parts of a gun.
Lacking illustrations or accurate descriptions of
the glass beads, they are of little use in interpreting
the period of contact at the site. The catalog card in
NMNH indicates that the glass beads included blue,
white, red, black, and other colors of beads, but no
counts or shape descriptions are included. The iron
objects are of interest because of their possible
similarity to objects found at the Tatham Mound (8C203)
in Citrus County. A 14.2 cm long iron chisel was
recovered from an early sixteenth century context at
Tatham (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:63). The possible
gun barrel from Parrish #3 is also of interest because a

158
rolled iron bead (5 cm long) from a burial at Tatham was
made from a plate of Spanish armor. The possible gun
barrel from 8Ma3 is 5.4 cm long, but it is too corroded
to determine whether it was rolled into its present
shape. Rather than being a gun barrel, this object may
have been a rolled iron bead like specimens known from
Tatham and Ruth Smith Mounds (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:59; Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985:205; Mitchem and
Weisman 1984:104).
Based on the artifactual evidence, the Parrish
Mound #3 was probably used around the time of initial
European contact. The aboriginal artifacts indicate
that it was constructed by a Safety Harbor group, and
that they probably collected or reused earlier
projectile points. The sherds of Papys Bayou Punctated
apparently represented a single vessel, which was
probably a curated specimen.
The Shaw's Point site (8Ma7) was first described by
Brinton (1867:357), who briefly mentioned stratification
seen in a shell bluff at the mouth of the Manatee River.
Jeffries Wyman (1875:40) made brief mention of a shell
mound at the mouth of the river, and a note in Goggin's
site file in FMNH identified sherds in a collection from
the site now in HPM (#74-26/12522-12525). Included were
34 sherds of sand tempered plain (one lip was notched,

159
which may mean that some of these should have been
classified as Pinellas Plain), 25 St. Johns Plain, four
Wakulla Check Stamped, two St. Johns Check Stamped, and
one Perico Plain.
Walker (1880b:416-418, Plates I-III) later visited
the site, mapping the various shell works and recording
stratigraphic information. The site consists of a
number of shell mounds and other works on a point on the
south shore of the mouth of the Manatee River, now
partially included in the National Park Service's De
Soto National Memorial. Walker indicated that the site
covered a large area extending more than 170 m along the
shore, and that some of the shell mounds were as high as
4.6-6.1 m (1880b:416). He was able to record some
features from an eroded wall of one of the mounds, and
described fire pits and faunal remains evident in the
profile (1880b:416, 418). He apparently did not
excavate.
Later collections clearly demonstrate that the site
is multicomponent, including Deptford, Manasota, Weeden
Island-related, Safety Harbor, and nineteenth century
homestead components (Pierson 1965; Willey 1949a:341-
342). Willey (1949a:341) listed NMNH collections
(#317078-317432, 329771-329774, and 341237-341244) from
the site, which included Safety Harbor Incised, Pinellas

160
Incised, Leon Check Stamped, Pensacola Plain, and shell
tempered fabric impressed pottery types. These clearly
indicate a Safety Harbor component, with some possible
Fort Walton influence, possibly as a result of exchange.
The NMNH collection also contained large numbers of
shell and stone tools and ornaments from the site. A
large (3.5 cm sides) square gunflint (#317128) was also
present (Willey 1949a:341). Goggin recorded other
collections from the site in YPM (#122981-123011?) and
FSU. FMNH collections include 5/2 sand tempered plain
sherds (one is Belle Glade Plain-like) collected by
Ripley Bullen in 1963 (#98049). Also in FMNH are
collections transferred from NMNH (FMNH #82129 and
82130), FPS (FMNH #99466), and the University of Florida
(UF) (FMNH #A-2601). These collections include
specimens of Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St.
Johns Plain, Perico Plain, and sand tempered plain
pottery, along with some Busvcon shell tools. The
Tallant collection at SFM (#400-471) also contains blue
glass beads, which have unfortunately been mixed with
beads from other sites. A private collection from the
site includes Pinellas and Tampa projectile points, two
faceted blue glass beads (Seminole types), and a 3-5 cm
cube of galena (Don Ness, personal communication 1988).

161
The Palma Sola 3 site (8MalO) was a white sand
burial mound near the cemetery of the town of Palma Sola
(Wainwright 1916:140). Montague Tallant (n.d.:2)
recorded that the mound was originally 10.7 m in
diameter and 1.2 m high, but had been partially
excavated by residents of Palma Sola. Reported
artifacts included gold and silver beads, many glass
beads, blades, and decorated pottery.
This site is probably what is known as the Lone
Pine Mound or "Bead Mound" to local collectors. A
catalog list of artifacts from the Lone Pine Mound (in
the private Burnworth Collection) is on file at SFM.
This list mentions six copper discs, a copper gorget, a
copper cone, a small (ca. 12.7 cm) pot, miscellaneous
glass beads, and miscellaneous artifacts of silver,
copper, and gold. Local collectors also have
collections of glass beads from the site, many of which
date from the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Five majolica sherds are mounted in one of the frames
from the Burnworth collection. These sherds, identified
by Bonnie G. McEwan, include one sherd each of Columbia
Plain (probably late form, ca. 1550-1650); probable
Mexico City White (ca. 1550-1600S); Aucilla Polychrome
(ca. 1650-1700); Puebla Polychrome (ca. 1650-1725); and

162
Puebla Blue on White (ca. 1675-1830) (Deagan 1987:56-57,
74, 77, 82, 84).
Another private collection from the site includes
two Florida Cut Crystal beads, three rolled sheet silver
beads, six small silver disc beads, and many glass seed
beads of blue, white, green, turquoise blue, yellow,
colorless, and Cornaline d'Aleppo glass (Don Ness,
personal communication 1988).
The site probably represents an example of a Safety
Harbor mound used during the late sixteenth century and
later. It is interesting to note that this site is
within 2 km of the previously discussed Shaw's Point
site (8Ma7), the location of the DeSoto National
Memorial. The mound could be an early contact site, but
the private collections have not been adequately studied
to determine this.
Burger included the Tidy Island site (8Mal2c or
8Ma24) in his list of Safety Harbor sites (1982:Table
34). Tallant's (n.d.rl) notes mentioned only a few
shell and bone artifacts from the site, which is a large
shell midden. Burger (personal communication 1988)
indicated that the midden is primarily late Weeden
Island-related, but Pinellas Plain sherds with notched
lips were collected from the surface of the site,
indicating the presence of a Safety Harbor component.

163
A complex consisting of a platform mound (8Mal3), a
burial mound (8Mal4), and an associated midden (8Mal5)
is present on Harbor Key near Bishop Harbor. These
three sites were investigated by Bullen et al. (1952),
who collected small artifact samples from two of the
sites. The rectangular platform mound, measuring about
6.1 m high, had a flat top measuring 29 m northeast to
southwest and 13 m west-northwest to east-southeast, and
had a ramp on the west side. The basal measurements
were 42 m by 29 m (Burger 1979:96). Two secondary
burials were recovered from the lower portion of the
ramp (Bullen et al. 1952:21).
The sand burial mound was 12.2 m in diameter, and
had been badly disturbed at the time of discovery. The
platform mound ramp may have pointed towards the
vicinity of this mound (the published description
contains contradictory information), which was southwest
of the platform mound (1952:22). A ridge-like shell
midden (8Mal5) was located adjacent to the burial mound.
Exact measurements were not recorded, but Bullen et al.
(1952:22) mentioned that it did not exceed a few feet in
height.
Two small collections (#99386 and 99467) from the
site complex are in FMNH. These are listed in Table 21.
One collection (#99467) is labeled as coming from 8Mal5,

164
Table 21. Artifacts from the Harbor Key Platform Mound
(8Mal3) in FMNH.
Description Count
#99386:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 49/6
Pinellas Plain 15/7
St. Johns Plain 2/0
#99467:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 2/0
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Stone:
Sandstone fragment 1
Small flattened sphere of limestone 1
Shell:
Mercenaria shell (battered) 1
Busvcon shell fragment 1
Utilized Fasciolaria shell 1
the midden area, but the description in Bullen et al.
(1952:21) indicates that these artifacts also came from
the platform mound (8Mal3). The small flattened sphere
of sandstone, reported by Bullen et al. (1952:21), is
actually made of limestone. Based on the site
configuration and presence of Pinellas Plain, Bullen et

165
al. (1952) suggested that the complex represented a
Safety Harbor village site.
A note in the FMNH site file indicates that a small
collection of sherds and stone objects was collected
from the surface of the site by G. A. Spence, and
donated to TMM. The description of this collection
indicates that there is probably a Manasota component at
the site (Luer and Almy 1982). Some of the very thick,
sand tempered sherds from the FMNH collections also
support this interpretation.
Burger (1979) surveyed and excavated at the Harbor
Key sites over a period of several years. His
investigations revealed that there were more extensive
features than those recorded by Bullen et al. (1952),
including midden deposits in the supposed "plaza" area
(Burger 1979:Appendix 2:2). He also recorded two narrow
shell ridges to the north and south of 8Mal4, the burial
mound (1979:Appendix 2:Figure 1).
Through interviews with local informants, Burger
found that a local resident named Harry Walling had dug
into the burial mound in 1939 or 1940, excavating a
burial in shell that was surrounded by slabs of coquina
rock (1979:Appendix 2:1). Pottery, projectile points,
and "jewelry" were recovered with this interment. The
story was corroborated by Burger's 1970 excavations,

166
which yielded a single skull interment surrounded by
small limestone slabs (1979:Appendix 2:1). Another
informant claimed that he had watched excavations at the
site as a child (ca. 1914) and had seen numerous large
blue glass beads removed, along with many isolated skull
interments.
Excavations in the mound by Burger yielded 127
burials, along with 14 Pinellas Plain sherds, two
Busvcon shell cups (one perforated and one carved), and
several worked or broken shell objects (1979:98).
Additional St. Johns Plain and Pinellas Plain sherds
were collected from spoil dirt left by previous diggers.
The burials included 15 secondary (bundle) interments;
one flexed, three semi-flexed, and 14 "semi-extended"
primary burials; 65 single skull interments; and 29
indeterminate. Some infant interments were present
(1979:99).
Burger also tested the Harbor Key platform mound
(8Mal3), which yielded Pinellas Plain, sand tempered
plain, Belle Glade Plain, Pasco Plain, and sand tempered
red pottery (1979:Table 10). Excavations in the midden
ridge (8Mal5) produced Pinellas Plain, sand tempered
plain, sand tempered red, unidentified plain, Belle
Glade Plain, Pasco Plain, and Weeden Island Red sherds

167
(1979:Table 11). In both sites, Pinellas Plain
comprised the bulk of the pottery recovered.
The Harbor Key sites appear to represent a mixed
Safety Harbor/Weeden Island-related/Manasota occupation.
The complete lack of diagnostic decorated ceramics is
unusual for sites that have been excavated as
extensively as these, and without such artifacts it is
impossible to identify a definite Safety Harbor
component at the site. The "Mississippian-like"
arrangement of the sites is not sufficient evidence.
The purported recovery of blue glass beads from early
work at 8Mal4 strengthens the argument for a Safety
Harbor component, but the lack of beads from later
excavations calls the validity of such claims into
question.
The Port Avant (also known as Portavant or
Poitevant) Mound (8Mal7) is a shell and soil platform
mound about 4.6 m high. The basal dimensions are 75 m
by 45 m, with the longer axis running west-northwest to
east-southeast. The summit measures about 46 m long and
24 m wide, and a lower platform is attached to the
northwest edge. This lower portion measures about 30 m
square, and is about 1 m high (Luer and Almy 1981:134).
B. William Burger (personal communication 1988) believes
that the supposed lower platform is actually part of a

168
midden ridge that abuts the large mound. This may be
the same site listed as 8Ma84 and 8Ma88 in the FMSF
(Burger 1982:Appendix 2).
The site is located on Snead Island between the
Manatee River and Terra Ceia Bay. It is considered a
Safety Harbor site by some researchers due to its
"temple" mound shape (Burger 1982:Table 34). This site
was probably visited by Ripley Bullen in 1950. A note
in the FPS files at FMNH indicates that Bullen collected
nine Pinellas Plain, an eroded stamped sherd, and six
sand tempered plain sherds from the surface. These
sherds could represent either a Weeden Island-related or
Safety Harbor occupation.
Luer (1986:140) mentioned several shell artifacts
from the adjacent shore. Sherds collected from the site
by Luer and Almy include Pinellas Plain, Pinellas
Incised, Point Washington Incised, Lake Jackson Plain,
Lake Jackson Incised, and some types which resemble Fort
Walton or Rood Phase (Georgia) types (George M. Luer,
personal communication 1988). These latter sherds
include Fort Walton Incised var. Blalock (Scarry
1985:215) and other varieties, and Columbia Incised
(Schnell et al. 1981:173-175). The types represented in
this collection indicate that a substantial Safety
Harbor component is present.

169
The Port Avant site was probably associated with
the Snead Island I (or Fertilizer Plant) site (8Mal8),
an extensive shell ridge located on the extreme
southwestern shore of the island. When recorded in
1953, the ridge was 15.2 m wide and 0.6 m high, and
about 0.4 km long. Two collections from the site are in
FMNH. One (#99470) was transferred from FPS, and the
other (#A-2603) was transferred from the UF Department
of Anthropology. The contents of both collections are
listed in Table 22.
A note in the FPS files describes a private
collection from the site owned by a Bradenton resident.
Included were a melted glass fragment, 30 Spanish
sherds, a green glazed Spanish sherd, an unidentified
black and white glazed sherd, three Mission Red Filmed,
eight possible Miller Plain, an indented rim sherd, and
seven Belle Glade Plain-like sherds. Unfortunately, the
description of the European sherds is inadequate for
determining which types are represented.
Another private collection from the site includes
2/2 Pinellas Incised sherds, both with handles (one loop
and one lug handle). There is also a rim sherd from a
Safety Harbor Incised carinated bowl (Mark Burnett,
personal communication 1988).

170
Table 22. Artifacts from the Snead Island I Site
(8Mal8) in FMNH.
Description Count
#99470:
Ceramics:
Olive Jar 1 56/0
Green and white tin-enameled coarse earthenware
(shallow open bowl form) 10/2
Sand tempered plain 7/0
Pinellas Plain 1/0
#A-2603:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 22/0
Pinellas Plain 16/4
Stokes Brushed 3/2
Unglazed coarse earthenware (lebrillo form) 2/2
Blue transfer-printed whiteware 3/2
Underglaze blue Oriental porcelain 2/1
White porcelain with gilding (teacup form) 1/0
Small porcelain bowl base with underglaze blue and
overglaze (red, green, yellow, and brown)
designs (Imari Ware?) 1/0
Unclassified glazed gritty ware 1/0
Glass:
Dark green bottle glass (including a kick base) 4

171
Table 22continued
Description Count
Light green bottle neck with a flattened string-rim
(no mold marks) 1
Light purple bottle kick base fragments 2
Stone:
Chert flakes 2
Mano fragment 1
Shell:
Fragmentary Busvcon shells 3
Metal:
Lump of copper alloy slag 1
The site has a Safety Harbor component, based on
the presence of Pinellas Incised, Safety Harbor Incised,
and Pinellas Plain sherds with notched lips (B. William
Burger, personal communication 1988). A mixed Weeden
Island-related and Safety Harbor occupation is probably
present. The Leon-Jefferson types Mission Red Filmed
and Miller Plain may represent a post-1600 Safety Harbor
occupation (Willey 1949a:488).
The European materials from the site appear to date
from the eighteenth century or later. The whiteware
probably postdates 1820 (Noel Hume 1976:130-131), and
the possible Imari Ware would probably not predate the

172
eighteenth century (Aga-Oglu 1955:107; Noel Hume
1976:258). These dates fit with the Stokes Brushed
sherds, which are a Seminole type (Goggin 1953b:2-1, 2-
2). The postcontact materials from Snead Island are
probably related to the fishery established at the mouth
of the Manatee River by Captain William Bunce in 1834,
which was burned in 1837 (Covington 1959:127; Dodd
1947:249, 252; Goggin 1960:34). Cuban fishermen and
Seminole Indians were employed at such fisheries.
Two other shell midden sites (8Mal8 or 8Mal9, and
8Ma20) are recorded on Snead Island. The cultural
affiliations of these sites are unknown.
The Feeney site (8Ma21) was discovered by Montague
Tallant. The site was a small shell midden, measuring
8.6 m in diameter and about 0.5 m high. A collection in
FMNH (#A2605) contains the artifacts listed in Table
23. The notched-lip Pinellas Plain rim sherds indicate
a Safety Harbor component at the site.
Burger (1982:Table 34) listed 8Ma22 as a Safety
Harbor site. Montague Tallant (n.d.:l) noted that bone
needles, pendants, chert blades, shell celts, and other
artifacts had been recovered from the large shell
midden, but these are not available for study, and there
is no definite evidence for a Safety Harbor component at
the site.

173
Table 23. Artifacts from the Feeney Site (8Ma21)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 29/3
Pinellas Plain (both rims have notched lips) 5/2
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Stone:
Bone fossil fragment 1
Unidentified rocks 2
Shell:
Utilized Busvcon shells 2
The Pillsbury site, west of Shaw's Point,
apparently consisted of two mounds, a platform mound
(8Ma31) and an adjoining burial mound (8Ma30), both of
sand (Luer and Almy 1981:134; Tallant n.d.:2). The
rectangular platform mound, mentioned by Stirling
(1930:186), measured about 26.5 m by 34 m at its base,
with the longer axis oriented north-northeast to south-
southwest (Luer and Almy 1981:134). The height was
about 3.7 m, and a ramp was present on the east-
southeast side (1981:134). Tallant (n.d.:2) reported
that the burial mound had been partially excavated, and
that many skeletons had been removed from it, but no
artifacts were encountered. He recorded its

174
measurements as 25.9 m diameter and 1.1 m high (Tallant
n.d.¡2).
Ripley and Adelaide Bullen excavated a large
portion of one of the mounds in 1963, recovering 134
burials and much pottery (FMNH #98050-98282). The FMNH
collection is labeled 8Ma31 (the platform mound), but B.
William Burger and George M. Luer (personal
communication 1988) indicate that it was the burial
mound (8Ma30) that the Bullens excavated. Most of the
ceramics are Weeden Island types. The Safety Harbor
component at the burial mound appears to be minor. Of
the 5619 sherds in the FMNH collection, only 12 are
definite Safety Harbor types. These include Point
Washington Incised (#98056), Safety Harbor Incised
(#98053, 98102, and 98116), Sarasota Incised (#98062,
98085, 98104, and 98126), Pinellas Plain with notched
lips (#98091 and 98135), Pinellas Incised (#98110), and
possible Englewood Incised (#98106). There are many
examples of Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns
Plain and Check Stamped, and sand tempered plain sherds
in the collection, any of which could date from Safety
Harbor times, but the overwhelming majority of the
decorated sherds are unmistakeable Weeden Island types.
The catalog list in SFM of the private Burnworth
Collection lists ten vessels or partial vessels from the

175
mound, though they are not well described. A note in
this list indicates that Mr. Burnworth participated in
the Bullen work in the 1960s.
A private collection from the platform mound
(8Ma31) has been viewed by George M. Luer (personal
communication 1988). He noted many notched left valves
from quahog clams (Mercenaria camoechiensis Gmelin) and
several loop-handled vessels resembling Lake Jackson
Plain, the latter suggesting a Safety Harbor component.
The Glazier Mound, a sand burial mound (8Ma32) on
4th Avenue in the settlement of Manatee, was destroyed
by early settlers. It yielded gold, silver, and glass
beads (Tallant n.d.:2), and measured 18.3 m in diameter
and 1.4 m high. Some of the beads are in the SFM
collection (#9998), but are evidently mixed in with
beads from other sites. Though the artifacts are
unavailable for study, the geographical location
suggests that this was probably a postcontact Safety
Harbor burial mound.
Another sand burial mound, the Musgrave Mound
(8Ma34), was dug by local residents many years ago.
Tallant (n.d.:3) noted that the mound was still 24.4 m
in diameter and 1.7 m high after being dug. Gold
objects and glass beads were recovered from the mound.
He claimed that one person "found three pieces of gold

176
shaped like an arrow head and having [a] hole for
stringing" (Tallant n.d.:3). Another digger "found one
gold bead open wire work" (n.d.:3). This latter bead
was about 0.95 cm in diameter. These objects, while not
available for study, were undoubtedly from shipwreck
salvage, which would date the mound to the postcontact
Safety Harbor period.
Burger (1982:Table 34) classified the Redding Mound
(8Ma37) as a Safety Harbor site. Montague Tallant
(n.d.:3) excavated this sand burial mound in 1938,
recording its dimensions as 22.9 m diameter and 1.8 m
high. He recovered 28 burials, including two
cremations. Four of the burials were described as
children. Artifacts were sparse, consisting of nine
"medium size" shell beads and a small projectile point
(probably a Pinellas point). No pottery was recovered.
It is possible that the mound was a Safety Harbor site,
but it could also have been constructed by Weeden
Island-related groups.
A burial mound known as the Ellenton Mound (8Ma44)
was excavated by J. E. Moore in 1936 (Moore 1936). It
has also been called the Frog Creek #2 site (Burger
1982:193). According to Moore, this stratified sand
mound was 8.5 m east-west, 8.2 m north-south, and was
1.8-2.1 m high at the time of his work, though previous

177
digging was noted. Local residents had removed human
skeletons from the mound. A borrow pit was located to
the south. The mound had a gray sand base covered by a
layer of white sand. This stratum was covered by a
layer of yellow sand with charcoal lenses, and a gray
sand humus layer was on top.
Montague Tallant (n.d.:5) also trenched the mound,
recovering 22 poorly preserved burials and 10 shell
cups. He described the mound as composed of white sand,
with a diameter of 18.3 m and a height of 1.4 m.
Tallant's work occurred after Moore's excavation.
Moore (1936) recovered a number of artifacts,
mostly pottery, but also encountered whelk shells, a
Pinellas projectile point, and a fossil sand dollar. He
noted that burials were restricted to the center of the
mound, and described three poorly preserved burials with
heads to the south at a depth of about 45 cm below the
surface. The sand dollar is in the SFM collection.
Moore mentioned a vessel with flat handles and a
scroll design around the rim (probably Point Washington
Incised), a small incised red beaker, a vessel with
raised decorations and a prefired basal perforation, a
"cone-shaped" Safety Harbor Incised vessel with a
prefired basal perforation (SFM #1830), a large
decorated bowl with handles, and a pop-eyed bird head

178
adorno (Moore 1936). All of these objects were
recovered from the top 75 cm of the mound.
Moore (1936) also described a bowl with scroll
designs and a large flat handle. At the base of the
mound, atop the gray sand, he found a ceramic bird head,
painted black, except for the eyes and bill, which were
cream-colored. He identified this as a vulture effigy,
and noted it had originally been on the rim of a vessel
facing inward. Similar bird head adornos are known from
Weeden Island-related sites elsewhere in Florida
(Milanich, Cordell et al. 1984:Figures 5.8 and 7.16).
A Sarasota Incised bottle recovered by Moore (1936)
is in SFM (#2334). It has a basal perforation. He also
mentioned considerable plain pottery. The mound was
definitely a Safety Harbor burial mound, with a possible
late Weeden Island-related component. It probably dates
to the earlier phases of the culture rather than later,
based on the types of pottery recovered.
The Myakka River #1 or Wingate Creek Mound (8Ma57)
was excavated by Harry L. Schoff, probably in the 1930s
(Tallant n.d.:6). Burger (personal communication 1988)
believes that this is the same site as 8Mal27, the
Stanley Mound. Located in scrub near the Myakka River,
it was constructed of yellow and white sand, was 15.2 m
in diameter, and about 1.4 m high. It was encircled by

179
a 0.6 m high ridge of sand (Tallant n.d.:6). Schoff
reportedly recovered glass beads, silver objects, and
undescribed pottery sherds or vessels (n.d.:6). Burials
were encountered, but were poorly preserved.
A private collection from the mound includes a
Florida Cut Crystal bead and seed beads of blue, white,
green, yellow, and colorless glass (Don Ness, personal
communication 1988). The Florida Cut Crystal bead dates
from the late sixteenth century, and the seed beads
probably also date to this period or later (Deagan
1987:170, 180). Based on the artifacts recovered, the
site was probably a Safety Harbor burial mound
constructed in the late sixteenth century.
Montague Tallant (n.d.:6) excavated a cemetery
site, the Mobley Scrub site (8Ma58), that yielded 77
burials, some as deep as 1.4 m. A subadult burial was
accompanied by a string of blue glass beads, of several
different sizes. The only other artifact recovered was
a tortoise shell comb found with a "female" burial
(n.d.:6). The site probably represents a postcontact
Safety Harbor cemetery (or one that was used over a long
period, including after contact). Safety Harbor
cemeteries are exceeding rare, with only two, Buzzard's
Island (8Ci2) and Pool Hammock (8So3) previously
recorded (Willey 1949a:476). The tortoise shell comb is

180
of interest because similar artifacts were recovered at
the Parrish Mounds #1 and 2 (8Mal and 8Ma2), along with
European artifacts (see description above).
The Albritton Field site (8Ma61) was a sand burial
mound 18.3 m in diameter and 0.9 m high, though it had
been extensively plowed at the time of discovery
(Tallant n.d.:7). At some time early in the twentieth
century, large glass beads, a copper bell, and
projectile points were removed from the site. Based on
the available information, the site was probably a
postcontact Safety Harbor mound. Willis and Johnson
(1980:K29) were unable to locate this site and inferred
that Tallant may have mistaken a spoil pile for a mound.
A yellow sand burial mound, the Duette #1 Mound
(8Ma67), was recorded by Tallant (n.d.:7), who gave
measurements of 15.2 m diameter and 1.2 m high. The
mound had been excavated by treasure hunters years
before, who had reportedly removed glass beads and a
pottery vessel from the central portion. The presence
of glass beads suggests that the mound was a postcontact
Safety Harbor burial site.
A yellow and white sand mound, the Ogleby Creek #1
Mound (8Ma70), was partially excavated by Montague
Tallant (n.d.:7). It was 24.4 m in diameter and 1.5 m
high, and contained many poorly preserved burials. Some

181
red ochre was present, but no artifacts. Some years
before, a gold object had reportedly been removed from a
burial near the surface in the center of the mound
(n.d.:7). If a gold artifact was indeed found, the
mound probably had a postcontact Safety Harbor
component.
Burger (1982:Table 34) listed a small shell midden
(the Bayshore site) on Terra Ceia Island (8Ma77) as a
Safety Harbor site. A small collection from the site in
FMNH (#99468) includes 6/4 Pinellas Plain and 1/0 sand
tempered plain sherds. The lips of the Pinellas Plain
rims are not notched, so the site could date from either
Weeden Island or Safety Harbor times.
From a small shell ridge on Terra Ceia Island,
known as Sea Breeze Point (8Ma78), Ripley P. Bullen
(1951c:35) collected a single Olive Jar body sherd, 6/0
sand tempered plain, 3/0 Pinellas Plain-like, and 1/0
St. Johns Plain (with some sand inclusions) sherds (FMNH
#99469). The presence of Olive Jar and probable
Pinellas Plain sherds suggests that the site had a
postcontact Safety Harbor component. However, the Olive
Jar sherd could have come from one of the eighteenth
century Cuban fisheries in the region (Dodd 1947).
Glass beads were reported by a local informant to
have been found at the Palm View site (8Ma82) (Burger

182
1988:3). According to Tallant (n.d.:4), this small sand
mound was excavated by Clarence B. Moore before being
leveled by the owner. A local resident apparently found
a stone effigy pipe prior to Moore's work. Moore
recovered artifacts, but no description is extant
(Tallant n.d.:4). The site could be a postcontact
Safety Harbor burial mound.
A complex of mounds and middens is present on Terra
Ceia Island. Swanton (1938, 1952, 1985:138) believed
that these features comprised the aboriginal town of
Ugita mentioned in the narratives of the Soto expedition
(Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds 1973:52; Smith 1968:23-
24). Bullen (1951c) tested a number of the sites,
recovering some evidence of Safety Harbor occupation,
but he did not agree that Ugita was located on the
island (1951c:36-37, 1952a, 1978:51).
The Abel Shell Midden (8Ma83A) was a very extensive
shell midden along the western side of the island,
extending for at least 0.4 km, with a width of at least
69 m and a height of 3.7-4.6 m (Bullen 1951c:ll). At
the time of Bullen's visit, he estimated that 85% of the
midden had been removed for road and building fill. He
dug two test units in the midden. The artifacts (FMNH
#99471-99494, A-2606) from this work seem to indicate
primarily a Manasota and Weeden Island-related

183
occupation, with the possibility of some Safety Harbor
occupation. However, these interpretations could be
incorrect due to sampling bias (Bullen 1951c:13).
The Bickel Mound (8Ma83B) is a platform mound in
Madira Bickel Mound State Monument on Terra Ceia Island
(Griffin 1951a). The site was first mentioned by C. B.
Moore (1900:360), who noted that it was a large, oblong
mound with the long axis running north-south, and had a
ramp on one side. Bullen (1951c:18-20) visited the site
during his work on Terra Ceia and placed a small test
unit in a treasure seeker's pit, which yielded only sand
tempered plain sherds and other non-diagnostic
artifacts. He indicated that it was constructed of
alternating layers of sand and shell (1951c:19). Luer
and Almy (1981:133) mentioned that the mound is about 6
m high, with basal dimensions of 30.5 m by 52 m. The
long axis runs north-northeast to south-southwest, and a
ramp is centered on the west-northwest flank (1981:133).
This mound has been assumed to be a Safety Harbor mound
due to its truncated pyramidal shape, but there is no
artifactual evidence to support this.
The Prine Mound (8Ma83C) was a sand burial mound
located north of the Bickel Mound. Bullen (1951c:20-35)
excavated the remnants of the mound and recovered flexed
and secondary burials. The mound had been repeatedly

184
disturbed prior to his investigations (1951c:20-21).
Bullen's work indicated that there was a substantial
Safety Harbor component in the mound. Collections in
FMNH (#99514-99619) include Sarasota Incised, Lemon Bay
Incised, Englewood Incised, Safety Harbor Incised, Point
Washington Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, Pinellas Plain
(some with notched lips), St. Johns Plain, Pasco Plain,
cob marked, and sand tempered plain sherds. The bulk of
the ceramics from the mound, however, are Weeden Island
types.
Bullen (1951c:29) noted that the Safety Harbor
sherds were generally found in the top 15 cm, with
Englewood types occurring stratigraphically below this
level. Weeden Island types were found throughout the
mound. The artifacts indicate that the mound was a
Weeden Island-related burial mound reused by Safety
Harbor groups. It is possible that it was a
continuously-used site.
The Boots Point Midden (8Ma83D) is a shell midden
on a point of Terra Ceia Island. Originally, this
midden was huge, covering about 1 ha and rising to a
height of 6 m (Bullen 1951c:9). Bullen made surface
collections from this site, which are now housed in FMNH
(#99633). The collection includes 16/4 sand tempered
plain, 3/2 Pinellas Plain (one rim has a notched lip),

185
2/1 Safety Harbor Incised, and 1/0 Belle Glade Plain
like sherds. A cut deer metapodial and a bone pin or
point fragment are also present. B. William Burger
(personal communication 1988) made another surface
collection when the site was recently cleared, and
reported three sherds of Jefferson Complicated Stamped,
10 late style Olive Jar, a possible sherd of Columbia
Plain majolica, and numerous sherds of Pinellas Plain,
including many notched lips. Recent test excavations
recovered Olive Jar and Mission Period aboriginal sherds
(Burger 1988:5). The ceramics leave no doubt that the
site has a Safety Harbor component, probably
postcontact. The European materials may be associated
with nineteenth century Cuban fisheries, however.
In 1981, Mr. "Boots" Johnson, who lived near Boots
Point, described a mound that he called the Boots Point
Temple Mound, which was previously on the end of the
point. His father bought this in 1896 and reportedly
found five wagon wheels and a barrel of sails in the top
of the mound, which he believed were of Spanish origin
(Boots Johnson, personal communication 1981). This
description probably refers to the Boots Point Midden,
which was previously very large, as mentioned above.
These artifacts, as well as the artifacts collected by
Burger, could date from the occupation of a Cuban

186
fisherman named Miguel Guerrero, who lived in the area
in the 1840s (Fogarty 1972:46-50).
Moore (1900:360) excavated part of a burial mound
on the island, recovering a few flexed burials, but no
artifacts. Bullen (1951c:10) referred to this as the
Johnson burial mound (8Ma83e), and noted that it had
been leveled by the land owner in 1930. A black dirt
and shell walkway connected this mound with the Boots
Point Midden (8Ma83D), which suggests that the two were
contemporaneous. Artifactual data are not available for
the burial mound.
Other sites, especially shell middens, were
reported from the island by Bullen (1951c:35). A small
collection from the island is in NMNH (#419227-419229),
but has not been described. Some of these sites were
probably associated with the other Safety Harbor
occupations on the island.
The Horton site (8Ma88) is a midden in an oak
hammock on Snead Island which may have been excavated by
Clarence Simpson. This may be the same site recorded as
the Portavant Mound (8Mal7) or 8Ma84 (Burger
1982:Appendix 2). The FMNH site file indicates that 300
sherds (mostly Pinellas Plain), five Olive Jar sherds,
two columella pendants, and a bone pin or projectile
point were collected from the site. The present

187
location of these artifacts is unknown, but the presence
of both Olive Jar and Pinellas Plain strongly suggests a
postcontact Safety Harbor occupation.
The West Grove site (8Ma92) was a multicomponent
artifact scatter on a ridge along the Little Manatee
River. It was tested by Browning (1973:26-31), and
yielded two sand tempered plain sherds, a Pinellas
projectile point, and various lithic tool fragments and
debitage. On the basis of these artifacts, Browning
suggested that the site possibly had a Safety Harbor
component (1973:28). The artifacts could also have come
from a Weeden Island-related occupation.
The Gates site (8Ma93) was also tested by Browning
(1973:32-35). It was an artifact scatter on a ridge
along the South Fork of the Little Manatee River, and
yielded a single plain sherd (possibly Pinellas Plain),
an unidentifiable projectile point fragment, a chert
drill base, and chert debitage (1973:34). Browning
(1973:34-35) thought that the site could have a Safety
Harbor component, but the available evidence does not
support this interpretation.
The Point Hill site (8Ma96) was another artifact
scatter located by Browning (1973:44-47). Test units
yielded a single sand tempered plain sherd and a
possible Pinellas projectile point. Like the West Grove

188
site, the Point Hill site may have a Safety Harbor
component, but it is impossible to determine with
certainty on the basis of available data.
A small sand mound called the "B11 Mound (8Ma97) was
tested by Browning (1973:48-50). A test unit in this
mound produced several chert flakes and a rusted iron
object, apparently some sort of buckle (1973:49, Figure
10). The depth of the iron object indicated that the
mound was postcontact in age, but it is not possible to
determine whether it had a Safety Harbor component from
this evidence.
The Long site (8Mall4) was an artifact scatter
along the South Fork of the Manatee River, consisting of
two aboriginal ceramic sherds and the distal end of a
chert knife (McMurray 1974:45). One of the sherds was
sand tempered plain, and the other was possible Belle
Glade Plain. Though this site is listed in the FMSF as
a Safety Harbor site, the available data do not support
this.
The Carruthers Mound (8Mall9) is a small sand
mound, about 10 m in diameter and 50-60 cm high, located
along the North Fork of the Manatee River (McMurray
1974:42). No artifacts were discovered during
McMurray's surface collection or test excavation of the
site. Further testing was later performed to determine

189
National Register eligibility, and also yielded no
diagnostic artifacts (Piper et al. 1980:7-8). It is
listed in the FMSF as a Safety Harbor mound, but there
is no evidence to support this interpretation.
The Hogpen site (8Mal20) is a small artifact
scatter of chert debitage and a single sand tempered
plain sherd located along the East Fork of the Manatee
River (McMurray 1974:44). This site is also listed as a
Safety Harbor site in the FMSF, but the data do not
support this interpretation.
The Rawls site (8Mal21) was a lithic scatter on a
bank of the East Fork of the Manatee River. McMurray
(1974:44-45) believed that it might have been associated
with a destroyed sand mound (8Ma69) some distance to the
east. A stemmed projectile point fragment, a Belle
Glade Plain sherd, and a sand tempered plain sherd were
recovered from the site. Again, the site is listed as a
Safety Harbor site in the FMSF, but there is absolutely
no evidence to support this interpretation.
The Keen Cemetery (8Mal22) is an artifact scatter
of chert debitage and a single sand tempered plain sherd
located on a slope along the bank of the South Fork of
the Manatee River (McMurray 1974:45). Like the previous
sites, this one is listed as a Safety Harbor site in the
FMSF, but no evidence supports this.

190
The Pizo 113 site (8Mal25) was recorded by Padgett
(1974:17-19). The site covers 1-2 ha on a ridge
adjacent to Long Branch, and consists of a lithic
scatter concentrated in a zone 40-60 cm below present
ground surface. Surface collections and test
excavations yielded mostly chert debitage, along with a
few tool fragments and utilized flakes. A single
Pinellas projectile point was excavated, on the basis of
which Padgett (1974:17) assigned the site a Safety
Harbor affiliation. However, the lack of other
diagnostic tools indicates that the site could represent
either a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor
occupation (or both).
The Stanley Mound (8Mal27) was recorded as a Weeden
Island-related burial mound by Deming (1975:26).
However, blue and white glass seed beads, small silver
disc beads, and a silver tablet have since been reported
from the site (Allerton et al. 1984:34), demonstrating
that it also had a postcontact component. Deming
(1975:26) recovered a single blue glass bead, which she
assumed dated to the nineteenth century. It is an
olive-shaped blue glass bead with pressed facets, type
ICla in the Smith and Good (1982) typology. This type
is known from sites dating to about 1600-1630, though it
may occur in earlier contexts (Smith 1977:156, Figure

191
4). The collection (curated at USF) includes a tiny
fragment of glazed pottery which may be Columbia Plain
majolica. The late component indicates probable Safety
Harbor occupation. Some of the sherds mentioned on the
site form and illustrated by Deming (1975:Figure 4) are
possible Safety Harbor types, especially a notched-lip
plain sherd (probably a Pinellas Plain variant).
A collector found a lead plate in the mound which
indicated that Harry L. Schoff had partially excavated
it in 1931 (B. William Burger, personal communication
1988). Burger (personal communication 1988) believes
that this site is the same one recorded as the Myakka
River #1 or Wingate Creek Mound (8Ma57).
A shell midden known as Hell's Halfacre No. 1
(8Mal47) was considered by Burger (1979) to have a
Safety Harbor component (in addition to at least two
earlier components). This was based on the presence of
Pinellas Plain-like sherds. However, since these can
date from either Weeden Island or Safety Harbor times,
Safety Harbor occupation cannot be demonstrated.
Another shell midden, Hell's Halfacre No. 3
(8Mal49), was also proposed by Burger (1979) as having a
Safety Harbor component. However, the only artifacts
recorded on the site form are a single sand tempered
plain sherd and several shell tools. There is no

192
evidence to support the interpretation of a Safety
Harbor component.
The Northeast Head site (8Mal50) is a shell midden
at the eastern end of Bishop Harbor which formerly
included a shell mound 4.6-6.1 m high, according to a
local informant (Burger 1979). In addition to animal
bones, worked shell, and a late Archaic projectile
point, the following pottery types are recorded on the
site form: Weeden Island Plain, Weeden Island Plain
(with red paint), St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check
Stamped, Belle Glade Plain, sand tempered plain, Pasco
Plain, Pinellas Plain (some have notched lips), and
Safety Harbor Incised. These types indicate mixed
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor occupations of
the site.
A badly disturbed shell midden at the southern end
of Bishop Harbor, the Moses Hole Roadside Midden No. 1
(8Mal52), is listed as a mixed Weeden Island-related and
Safety Harbor site on the FMSF form. The artifacts
recorded include a single Pinellas Plain sherd, two sand
tempered plain sherds, animal and shell remains, and a
fossil shark tooth fragment. The Pinellas Plain
indicates that the site could be either Weeden Island-
related or Safety Harbor (or both), but it is impossible
to determine on the basis of the present evidence.

193
The Southeast Head site (8Mal54) is a
multicomponent shell midden on the south side of Bishop
Harbor. Artifact types listed on the FMSF form indicate
that Weeden Island-related and Seminole components are
present. However, even though a Safety Harbor component
is listed on the form, there is no conclusive proof of
this in the artifact types recorded.
The Moses Hole Exit Canal Midden (8Mal56) is a
shell midden with scattered artifacts (Burger 1979). A
single Pinellas Plain sherd, two grog tempered, a Belle
Glade Plain, and two sand tempered plain sherds were
recovered, along with worked shell and glass fragments.
Though the site is listed in the FMSF as a Weeden
Island-related, Safety Harbor, and historic site, there
is no definite evidence of Safety Harbor occupation.
The Airstrip Village site (8Mal81) was tested by
Willis and Johnson (1980:K43-K46) and Piper and Piper
(1981). The site was a multicomponent habitation site.
One of the artifacts recovered was a Pinellas projectile
point, which may indicate a Safety Harbor component, but
could also represent a Weeden Island-related occupation.
Pottery sherds from the site were undiagnostic sand
tempered types.
The Mariposa Key site (8Ma302) contains a number of
components of various periods, both prehistoric and

194
historic in age (Burger 1979). The site form indicates
that a Safety Harbor component is present in the midden
area at the southwestern end of the island, but no
artifactual evidence is recorded to substantiate this.
The island may have served as a habitation area for the
builders of the Harbor Key sites (8Mal3, 14, and 15).
A mound known as the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715) was
located near the banks of the Manatee River. It was
evidently dug over a long period during the early
twentieth century. A sizeable collection of European
artifacts from the mound was amassed by Ralph W.
Burnworth. These materials were sold by his family
after his death. A general list of the Burnworth
Collection is located in the SFM, and indicates that
four frames of artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound were
present (#H-865, H-866, H-868, and H-879). Most of the
artifacts were undescribed, but H-879 consisted of glass
beads.
A small collection of glass and silver beads from
the mound is housed in SFM. The types present are
listed in Table 24. While the silver beads are
undiagnostic, the glass beads appear to indicate two
episodes of contact. An early sixteenth century date
(1500-1550) is indicated by the Nueva Cadiz beads
(Deagan 1987:163; Smith and Good 1982). The seed beads

195
Table 24. Artifacts from the Rye Bridge Mound (8Ma715)
in SFM.
Description Count
Glass Beads:
Large seed beads (opaque turquoise blue, white,
and Cornaline d'Aleppo) many
Heart-shaped several
Cornaline d7Aleppo several
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 3
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short translucent navy blue/
thin white/translucent navy blue core) (IIA2e)* 1
Complex oval (3 or 4 wide blue longitudinal stripes/
opaque white/transparent blue core) (similar
to IB4b)* 2
Silver Beads:
Small disc 31
Spheroid 2
Donut-shaped 1
Olive-shaped 1
Drilled rod (1.85 cm long) 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
and Cornaline d'Aleppo specimens probably date to the
second half of the sixteenth century or later (Deagan
1987:168-169). Though no description of aboriginal

196
artifacts from the mound is known, it is assumed to be a
postcontact Safety Harbor burial mound because of its
location, possibly used over a long time period.
The Preston site (8Ma716) is a large shell midden
on Terra Ceia Bay. Burger (1988:5) noted that a late
Safety Harbor component is present.
Charles Rau (1878) described an incised gold
crested bird ornament (probably representing an ivory
billed woodpecker) that had been excavated from a mound
in Manatee County. However, Manatee County was much
larger in the 1800s than it is today, encompassing area
as far as Lake Okeechobee (B. William Burger, personal
communication 1988). This object was about 23 cm in
length, and was recovered from the center of the mound.
Unfortunately, the location of the mound was not
mentioned, but it contained burials and pottery
(1878:301). Goggin (1947b:Figure 75f) illustrated an
almost exact replica of this specimen (but made of sheet
copper with a gold eye) measuring about 28 cm in length
from the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge Cemetery (8Wal5) in
northwest Florida. He also noted that seven crested
bird ornaments (presumably including the one described
by Rau) had been found in the circum-Glades area of
southern Florida (1947b:275, Figure 74). The fact that
the specimen illustrated by Rau (1878) was made of

197
European-derived metal indicates that it came from a
postcontact mound. If the site was within the
boundaries of present-day Manatee County, it was
probably a Safety Harbor mound.
In SFM, there are two strings of glass beads which
were recovered from a site in Manatee County (the exact
site was not recorded). The types present on these
strings are shown in Table 25. The tumbled chevron bead
on the first string dates to the seventeenth century
(Deagan 1987:165), and the seed beads probably also date
to this time period, though they could date as early as
the late sixteenth century (Deagan 1987:168-169). The
Nueva Cadiz beads are strictly an early sixteenth
century type (Deagan 1987:163; Smith and Good 1982), and
are not normally found along with the other types on
this string.
On the second string, those beads listed as being
included in the Smith and Good (1982) typology are
probably sixteenth century types (especially the faceted
chevron specimen), but the seed beads are more commonly
found in seventeenth century contexts. The smooth
crystal bead is probably a variant of the late sixteenth
century Florida Cut Crystal beads (Deagan 1987:180).
If both strings came from the same site, it
probably represents a site occupied during the sixteenth

198
Table 25. European Beads in SFM from an Unknown
Manatee County Site.
Description Count
String #1:
Glass:
Tumbled five-layer chevron (not facetedcolor
layers not recorded) 1
Seed beads (of several shades of blue, opaque white,
transparent green, and Cornaline d'Aleppo) many
Nueva Cadiz Plain (short transparent cobalt blue)
(IIAle)* 2
String #2:
Glass:
Olive-shaped transparent blue (IBlc)* 1
Spherical colorless (IBld)* 2
Faceted chevron (Cobalt blue/white/red/white/
colorless/white/colorless core) (IVC2p)* 1
Olive-shaped transparent amber-colored (VIDla)* 1
Small olive-shaped colorless (VIDlj)* 1
Donut-shaped opaque white with 5 opaque brick red
longitudinal stripes 1
Large seed beads (blue, white, and Cornaline
d'Aleppo) many
Lapidary:
Oblate smooth-surfaced rock crystal 1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.

199
and seventeenth centuries. No other artifactual
information is available, but sites from that time
period in Manatee County would have been occupied by
Safety Harbor groups.
A large number of European beads were recovered
from the Myakka area in southeast Manatee County,
including some from the Wingate Creek Mound (8Ma57)
(Burger 1988:4; Mark Burnett, personal communication
1988). It is possible that some of the material
actually came from Sarasota County. The collection
contains many diverse bead types, representing more than
one period of contact. Table 26 lists the beads in the
collection.
All of the beads in this collection included in the
Smith and Good (1982) typology are probably early
sixteenth century types, with the exception of the
olive-shaped gooseberry beads, which generally date to
the late sixteenth century or later (Deagan 1987:168).
The barrel-shaped gooseberry beads tend to be found on
eighteenth century sites (Smith 1983:150).
The beads not in the Smith and Good (1982) typology
appear to date primarily from the late sixteenth century
and later (Deagan 1987:171-177). Some of the beads,
especially the mold-made varieties, may represent
Seminole occupations. However, the early sixteenth

200
Table 26. Glass Beads in a Private Collection from
the Myakka Area, Southeastern Manatee County.
Description Count
Oblate transparent purple (IBlg)* 5
Spherical blue/thin white/blue core (IB2a)* 2
Olive-shaped colorless Gooseberry (IB4a)* 2
Barrel-shaped colorless Gooseberry 5
Nueva Cadiz Plain (small navy blue) (IIAld)* 22
Nueva Cadiz Plain (small cobalt blue) (IIAle)* 3
Nueva Cadiz Plain (translucent blue/thin white/
navy blue core) (IIA2c)* 11
Nueva Cadiz Plain (translucent navy blue/thin white/
translucent navy blue core) (IIA2e)* 1
Oblate wire-wound transparent yellow large seed
(either VIDlc or VIDld)* 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue with 3 opaque white
longitudinal stripes 1
Spheroid transparent aquamarine blue 4
Barrel-shaped transparent medium navy blue 3
Spheroid translucent cobalt blue 37
Spheroid transparent green 3
Mold-made hexagonal faceted translucent medium blue 1
Mold-made hexagonal faceted translucent burgundy 1
Barrel-shaped colorless 3
Small olive-shaped transparent medium blue
1

201
Table 26continued
Description Count
Small olive-shaped translucent purple 1
Oblate translucent purple with marvered facets 2
Cornaline d'Aleppo (brick red over opaque white core) 1
Olive-shaped colorless with many spiral opaque white
stripes on exterior 1
Spherical opaque black 1
Barrel-shaped opaque white 51
Transparent green with marvered facets 1
Seed beads (opaque white, transparent blue, opaque
white over colorless core, opaque turquoise blue,
transparent green, translucent burgundy, colorless,
light transparent purple, transparent yellow, and
Cornaline d'Aleppo [brick red over colorless]) 209
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
century varieties probably came from one or more Safety
Harbor sites. Unfortunately, lack of accurate records
and subsequent mixing of the assemblages precludes any
more accurate interpretation.
Many other Safety Harbor sites undoubtedly are
present in Manatee County. In the eastern part of the
county, some of these have probably been destroyed as a
result of phosphate mining activities. Those in the

202
coastal zone have suffered from heavy development and
vandalism (Burger 1982:143).
Hardee Countv
The archaeological resources of Hardee County are
poorly known relative to the counties along the Gulf
coast. The first site recorded in the county was the
Davis Mound (8Hrl), a burial mound excavated by Ripley
Bullen (1954) before its destruction during planting of
an orange grove. The sand mound was originally 1.2 m
high, with a diameter of 12.2 m. Though the mound had
been disturbed prior to excavations, Bullen recovered
the remains of about 12 individuals, which consisted of
secondary burials and one cremation (1954:98). One
burial was in sand stained by red ochre.
Artifacts were not numerous. A small collection in
FMNH (#92623) includes 6/2 sand tempered plain, 1/0 sand
tempered plain with contorted paste, 1/1 sand tempered
plain sherd with red paint on the exterior, and a
projectile point fragment, probably a Pinellas point.
Bullen (1954:101) assumed that the site dated from the
early Safety Harbor period, but the artifacts could also
represent a late Weeden Island-related occupation.
The Carlton Ranch #1 site (8Hr5) was discovered
during a survey in 1975 (Milanich and Martinez 1975:8-

203
9). Test excavations revealed a buried midden stratum
covering an area of 54 m by 17 m (1975:8). Artifacts
(FMNH #A-6776) included 9/2 sand tempered plain, 5/0
sand tempered plain with contorted paste (possible
Pinellas Plain), a fragment of a sand tempered handle or
vessel appendage, 10 chert flakes, three secondary
decortication flakes, a utilized flake (scraper), and a
fragment of red-colored stone. On the basis of this
assemblage, Milanich and Martinez (1975:8) suggested
that the site dated to about A.D. 200.
More extensive excavations were conducted at the
site by Piper et al. (1982). Pottery types recovered
included sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns
Check Stamped, Belle Glade Plain, Pinellas Plain, grog
tempered, and Wakulla Check Stamped. A number of
Pinellas projectile points were also recovered (Piper et
al. 1982:40-41). An uncorrected radiocarbon date of
1060 50 B.P. was obtained from charcoal in a feature
containing a Pinellas point (1982:43). When this is
calibrated (Stuiver and Becker 1986), it yields a date
range of Cal. AD 900-1018. These data indicate that the
site had an early Safety Harbor component, and probably
had a late Weeden Island-related component as well.
David Batcho (1978:31) and Wharton and Williams
(1980:218) suggested that a burial mound known as the

204
Little Payne Mining Tract #7 site (8Hr48) might have an
Englewood component. However, the artifact types from
Batcho's test excavations in FMNH (#A-8402 through A-
8412) do not support this interpretation.
About 0.4 km from the Davis Mound (8Hrl) is a very
large truncated mound known as the Bostwick Mound
(8Hr52). This multicomponent sand mound measures 109.7
m by 70.1 m at its base, with a height of 5.2 m. Borrow
pits and a possibly associated midden area are located
nearby. Limited excavations were conducted in the mound
in the early 1980s by members of the Central Gulf Coast
Archaeological Society (Wharton 1981; Wharton and
Williams 1980:217). These excavations yielded human
bone fragments and the artifacts listed in Table 27
(curated at USF).
The Pinellas Plain and possible Safety Harbor
Incised sherds indicate a probable Safety Harbor
component at the site, though most of the artifacts
indicate earlier occupations. The proximity of the
mound to the Davis Mound (8Hrl) suggests that the two
sites are at least partially contemporaneous, and may
represent parts of a single nucleated village site
/
(Johnson 1981:22-24).
An unrecorded site, the Keene Mound, is located in
the southwest part of the county. In addition to lithic

205
Table 27. Artifacts from the Bostwick Mound
at USF.
(8Hr52)
Description
Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain
502/36
St. Johns Plain
129/8
St. Johns Check Stamped
8/0
St. Johns Simple Stamped
6/0
St. Johns Cord Marked
3/0
St. Johns Punctated
1/0
Norwood Plain
51/6
Belle Glade Plain
26/12
Miscellaneous sand tempered punctated
7/0
Pinellas Plain
6/0
Sand tempered check stamped
5/0
Dunns Creek Red
4/0
Pasco Plain
3/1
Possible Safety Harbor Incised
3/1
Miscellaneous sand tempered incised
3/1
Weeden Island Punctated
2/1
Stone:
Chert and silicified coral tools
many
Chert and silicified coral debitage
Stemmed projectile points
several
Red jasper bead
1
1

206
Table 27continued
Description Count
Shell:
Busvcon shell fragments several
objects, a single incised red sherd is noted from this
site (Wharton and Williams 1980:218). The mound is
surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped embankment (Luer et al.
1987:144), similar to the Jones Mound (8Hi4) in
Hillsborough County and the Parrish Mound #3 (8Ma3) in
Manatee County, which are both Safety Harbor burial
mounds (Bullen 1952b:43; Willey 1949a:152). Data from
this mound are insufficient for determining whether it
contains a Safety Harbor component.
Safety Harbor occupation of Hardee County appears
to have been sparse on the basis of presently available
data. However, as several researchers have pointed out
(Bailo 1981:4; Wharton 1977:21-22; Wharton and Williams
1980), there are many sites in the county which have not
been adequately tested to determine their cultural
affiliation. Further research on these sites should
yield a much clearer picture of Safety Harbor occupation
in the area.

207
DeSoto Countv
The archaeology of DeSoto County is also poorly
known relative to the coastal counties. However, a
significant Safety Harbor burial mound in DeSoto County,
the Arcadia site (8Del), yielded an impressive
assemblage of Safety Harbor Incised vessels. Willey
(1949a:Figure 63a-b, d-f) published drawings of some of
these, which consisted of bottle and collared jar forms
and had basal perforations. Stirling (1936:353)
referred to these vessels as Arcadia Ware. Willey
(1949a:346) noted that the designs on these specimens
were generally better-executed than most examples of
Safety Harbor Incised, but did not see enough difference
to classify them as a separate type. Casts of two of
the vessels illustrated by Willey (1949a:Figure 63a,
63e) are in FMNH (#A-3069 and A-16842).
Unfortunately, nothing is known about the other
contents of the mound. It is described as a sand burial
mound by Willey, but he provided no additional details.
A site known as Pine Level or the Keen Mound (8De2)
was first mentioned by Wainwright (1918:43). This white
sand mound is located in a pasture, and was measured by
Wainwright at 26.8 m by 22.9 m, with a height of 4.6 m.
He noted that the mound had previously been much higher,
and that skeletons had been removed from the top which

208
had glass beads accompanying them (1918:43). A
collection in FMNH from this site (#A-2530) includes 2/0
St. Johns Plain and 2/0 Pinellas Plain sherds.
During a survey in the area, Willis and Johnson
(1980:K59-K71) excavated part of a burial mound they
identified as 8De2. They recovered several sherds and
vessels, a Pinellas projectile point, Busvcon fragments,
and chert flakes. The pottery types included sand
tempered plain, incised and punctated sherds (probably
Safety Harbor Incised), St. Johns Plain, and check
stamped (1980:Table K.l-9). Four broken vessels and the
Pinellas point were found in the same level, and these
were interpreted as having originally accompanied a
burial in a shallow log tomb (though no bones were
present). The vessels included a small Safety Harbor
Incised bowl with a prefired basal perforation
(1980:Figure K.l-23), a Sarasota Incised bottle or
flattened globular vessel with a prefired basal
perforation (1980:Figure K.l-24), the lower portion of a
deep bowl with prefired and postfired basal
perforations, and a plain, sooted vessel (1980:Figure
K.1-25). Beneath this level, a deposit of charred wood
was encountered, along with the remains of at least five
Busvcon shells, probably representing shell cups
(1980:K63-K69).

209
Radiocarbon samples were taken from the charred
wood and yielded uncorrected dates of 1830 80 B.P. and
880 65 B.P. (Willis and Johnson 1980:K71). When
calibrated (Stuiver and Becker 1986), these yield date
ranges of Cal. AD 72-320 and Cal. AD 1033-1223,
respectively. Though the first of these appears to be
much too early, the second indicates an early Safety
Harbor date, which corresponds with the artifact types
recovered.
The excavations revealed that the mound was
constructed on a prepared ground surface, with the
initial mound composed of yellow sand. This was
partially covered with a secondary mound of white/grey
sand, and the entire mound was then capped with a layer
of white sand (1980:K63). Willis and Johnson (1980:K7l)
placed over 200 test units in areas adjacent to the
mound, but found only sparse midden deposits, suggesting
that the mound was an isolated burial mound, which is
typical of Safety Harbor practices (Mitchem 1988d).
There is some doubt about the identification of
this mound as 8De2. Willis and Johnson (1980:K59,
Figure K.l-20) measured the mound at 40 m long and 36 m
wide, with a height of 2 m. They also noted that local
residents claimed the mound had only been disturbed once
by a bulldozer operator, who exposed some burials in

210
ochre-stained sand, which were then reinterred. This
does not agree with the description by Wainwright
(1918:43), who noted a much higher mound from which
several skeletons had been removed. However, the site
locations from the FMSF form and Willis and Johnson's
(1980:K59) report indicate that the two descriptions
refer to the same place. The lack of postcontact
materials in Willis and Johnson's excavations is also
puzzling, in light of Wainwright's (1918:43) report that
glass beads had been recovered previously. Perhaps the
entire postcontact portion had been removed several
decades prior to Willis and Johnson's work.
The Pine Level 2 site (8De3) is another sand burial
mound mentioned by Wainwright (1918:43). This mound had
been heavily plowed, and skeletons with glass beads had
been removed from it. The presence of glass beads
indicates that it was probably a postcontact Safety
Harbor mound.
Willis and Johnson (1980:K46) located a midden site
called Brandy Branch Village (8De4), from which they
recovered sand tempered plain pottery, lithic remains,
and marine shell. This site was identified as a Safety
Harbor midden, but there is no evidence to support this
interpretation.

211
The Mizell Mound "A" (8De31) is a sand mound
measuring 40 m north-south and 30 m east-west, with a
height of 1 m (Willis and Johnson 1980:K73). Borrow
pits are located to the east and west of the mound.
Test excavations yielded sand tempered plain sherds,
utilized chert flakes, a chert scraper, and debitage
(1980:Table K.l-10). On the basis of these materials,
Willis and Johnson (1980:K79) suggested that the site
probably represents a post-A.D. 500 domiciliary mound,
possibly with a Safety Harbor component. No definite
Safety Harbor evidence was present.
The Mizell Mound "B" (8De32) is a sand mound 30 m
in diameter and 0.6 m high. Borrow pits are located to
the immediate north and south. Test excavations in the
mound produced an assemblage similar to that from Mizell
Mound "A," with sand tempered plain sherds, undiagnostic
chert tools, and flakes. Willis and Johnson (1980:K83)
likewise suggested that this was a post-A.D. 500
domiciliary mound, meaning it could possibly have a
Safety Harbor component. However, the artifacts do not
indicate Safety Harbor occupation.
The Mizell Mound "C" (8De33) is a similar sand
mound, 70 m long and 37 m wide, with the long axis
running north-south. Its height is 0.8 m. Borrow pits
are located on the northwest and northeast sides. Test

212
excavations yielded a collection of sand tempered plain
sherds, a single sherd of St. Johns Plain, a chert
drill, a utilized chert flake, and debitage (Willis and
Johnson 1980:Table K.l-12). Once again, the mound
appeared to be domiciliary in nature, and Willis and
Johnson (1980:K88) suggested that it dated to after A.D.
500, possibly utilized by a Safety Harbor group. As was
the case with the previous two sites, the data do not
allow the identification of a Safety Harbor component.
The Cunningham Mound (8De34) is a 50 m by 45 m,
roughly circular sand mound with a height of 1.4 m.
Borrow pits are located on the southern, eastern, and
northeastern margins. Test excavations yielded sand
tempered plain sherds, a St. Johns Plain sherd, chert
flakes, conch or whelk shell fragments, and some
unidentified bone fragments (Willis and Johnson
1980:Table K. 1-13). Willis and Johnson suggested that
the site was a burial mound dating from sometime after
A.D. 500, possibly used as a domiciliary site on
occasion (1980:K97). The site could have a Safety
Harbor component, but this cannot be determined on the
basis of the known artifacts.
An unrecorded site known as the Prairie Creek site
is located somewhere in the southern part of the county.
Montague Tallant collected a Safety Harbor Incised

213
bottle from this site, which may have been a mound
(George M. Luer, personal communication 1988). The
vessel (#23/8050) is in the Museum of the American
Indian (MAI). It is similar to some of the vessels from
the Arcadia Mound (8Del), and the sites are probably
contemporaneous.
In the FMNH collections (#92503), there are some
sherds from a mound located along Horse Creek near
Arcadia. This could be 8De2, but the exact location is
unknown. Included are 2/0 sand tempered plain sherds,
and 9/0 sherds of a Safety Harbor Incised collared jar
or wide-mouthed bottle form vessel. These sherds were
found with human bones in a mound sometime prior to
June, 1952. The site was undoubtedly a Safety Harbor
burial mound.
Sarasota Countv
A number of sites with Safety Harbor components are
known from Sarasota County. Probably the most famous of
these is the Englewood Mound (8Sol), which was excavated
by Marshall T. Newman of the Smithsonian Institution in
1934 (Stirling 1935:383-385; Willey 1949a:126-135).
Located near Lemon Bay in the town of Englewood, the
sand mound was originally 33.5 m in diameter and 4.0 m
high, though it had been somewhat disturbed previously

214
(Stirling 1935:383). Borrow pits were located north and
east of the mound.
Excavations revealed that a pit had been dug into
the old ground surface, into which burials had been
placed and covered with a thick stratum of red ochre and
ochre-stained sand (Stirling 1935:384; Willey
1949a:128). A low primary mound of dark brown sand Was
placed over this pit and a thin cap of white sand added
to its top. At some later time, another thick stratum
of sand was added over the entire mound, increasing
height and diameter. Burials were found throughout the
mound, as well as in the submound pit (Stirling
1935:384; Willey 1949a:127-128).
A total of 263 burials were recorded, 124 from the
pit and 139 from other proveniences. The submound pit
included secondary and single skull interments, while
the rest of the mound included secondary burials and at
least 16 flexed primary burials (Willey 1949a:130).
Skeletal remains were poorly preserved.
Artifacts consisted primarily of sherds and
intentionally perforated vessels. A large number of
conch or whelk shells and cups, many perforated, were
also recovered. Shell tools, a few chert flakes and
nodules, shark teeth, and iron oxide pellets were also
recovered, some of which may have been associated with

215
individual interments (Stirling 1935:384; Willey
1949a:130-135).
Willey (1949a:131-134) noted Weeden Island,
Englewood, and Safety Harbor pottery types in the
collections from the site. The material from the site
was used in his definition of the Englewood Period
(1949a:470-475). He classified collections from NMNH
(#383165-383189), FMNH (#82145 and 99659), and FSU
(Willey 1949a:132-134). A small collection was
transferred from the UF Department of Anthropology to
FMNH (#A-2624), and includes 5/0 Pinellas Plain, 39/4
sand tempered plain, 4/2 Belle Glade Plain, 1/1 St.
Johns Check Stamped, and 2/0 St. Johns Plain sherds. A
collection seen by Goggin at ONM (#41-523/82, now at
SEAC-NPS) included 7/4 St. Johns Plain, 2/1 St. Johns
Check Stamped, 1/0 Papys Bayou Punctated, 7/2 sand
tempered plain, 1/0 shell tempered plain, 1/1 possible
St. Petersburg Incised, and 1/0 sherd tempered plain.
An Englewood Incised cylindrical beaker in the
collections of the Sarasota County Historical Archives
(#GRAN 3) closely resembles a vessel from the Englewood
Mound which was illustrated in situ by Stirling
(1935:Plate 3.2, lower). Although this vessel is
accessioned as having come from the Whitaker Mound
(8S08I), George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy (personal

216
communication 1988) feel that it may actually be the
vessel illustrated by Stirling from the Englewood Mound.
In the same collection, a flattened globular St. Johns
Plain bowl with a restricted orifice (#GRAN 6) is
probably also from the Englewood Mound (George M. Luer
and Marion M. Almy, personal communication 1988). Both
vessels have basal perforations.
Predominant decorated types from the mound included
Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised, Lemon Bay Incised,
and Safety Harbor Incised. Pottery was located
throughout the secondary mound, apparently as caches in
some instances, and was especially abundant on the
original ground surface beneath the mound (Stirling
1935:384; Willey 1949a:130-131) .
Willey (1949a:135) noted that it appeared that the
Englewood ceramic complex was chronologically and
stylistically intermediate between Weeden Island and
Safety Harbor pottery types. This appears to be the
case on the basis of the scant evidence available.
Willey's Englewood Period is now considered the earliest
phase (Englewood Phase) of Safety Harbor, as the
archaeological evidence seems to indicate that Englewood
pottery is more often associated with early Safety
Harbor occupations than late Weeden Island-related

217
occupations (Luer and Almy 1987:311, Figure 5; Mitchem
and Hutchinson 1987).
Willey also noted an apparent "Glades influence" at
the site, a now-obsolete concept which was used to
separate occupations in southern and central Florida.
This concept was based particularly on the presence of
gritty sand tempered plain pottery, which he referred to
as Glades Plain, and by the presence of Belle Glade
Plain and Miami Incised pottery (1949a:133-134).
However, it is now apparent that many sherds originally
assigned to the types Englewood Plain and Glades Plain
are probably indistinguishable from body sherds of other
sand tempered plain varieties, so all of the sherds he
classified in these categories should be subsumed under
a general sand tempered plain designation (Luer and Almy
1980:207-209).
The Englewood Mound yielded a very significant
assemblage of early prehistoric Safety Harbor pottery,
and demonstrated continuity with the preceding Weeden
Island-related culture in the region. Willey
(1949a:470-475) defined his Englewood Period primarily
on the basis of data from this site. Since the
excavation of the site, most evidence of Englewood
occupation has been found in south Florida, but possible
evidence has also been found in Citrus County (see

218
Chapter 3 > this volume), within the northernmost
boundaries of the Safety Harbor culture area.
At the town of Osprey, there are several shell
middens located along Little Sarasota Bay. Willey
(1949a:342-343) classified a collection (NMNH #238493-
238502) possibly obtained from one of these sites by
Ales Hrdlicka (1907:60-61). The catalog in NMNH
indicates that the collection was made by T. W. Vaughan.
Willey believed that the artifacts came from the midden
known as the Osprey site (8So2), but more recent work on
the sites indicates that Hrdlicka probably collected
them from one of the other middens (Marion M. Almy and
George M. Luer, personal communication 1988). The
collection included pottery types indicating Weeden
Island-related and Safety Harbor occupations.
Also in NMNH is a small collection (#238488-238491)
of marine shell tools from Osprey, also obtained by Mr.
Vaughan. Willey (1949a:343) mentioned another
collection in NMNH which he assumed also came from
Osprey. Included in this latter collection were Olive
Jar sherds (Shepard Associates 1980:A17-A18). If this
collection indeed came from the Osprey site, it would
indicate that a postcontact component was present,
though it was probably a Cuban fishing rancho. Recent

219
research by Luer and Almy (1988) supports the presence
of such a component.
Also in Osprey is the multicomponent Palmer site
(8So2A), which consists of a number of mounds, middens,
and other features (Bullen and Bullen 1976; Luer and
Almy 1988). Though the occupation at this site was
primarily earlier, an early Safety Harbor component is
suggested by small amounts of Sarasota Incised from the
burial mound (1976:Table 5).
The Pool Hammock site (8So3) was excavated by Harry
L. Schoff in 1932 or 1933 (Almy 1976:112; Willey
1949a:343-344). Apparently, Montague Tallant was also
aware of the site, though it is not known if he
excavated there (Luer and Almy 1987:301). The site was
a black dirt midden habitation (village) area covering
about 0.8 ha, with a depth of about 46 cm. Artifacts
housed in NMNH (#367994-368000) include sherds, shell
tools, triangular projectile points, bone points, and a
sandstone grinding slab. Shallow burials, apparently
representing an aboriginal cemetery, were encountered at
the eastern end of the site. The pottery types listed
by Willey (1949a:343) indicate that the site had late
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor components.
The Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound (8So4), also known
as Whittaker Estate, was excavated by Milanich (1972).

220
Originally 3.0m high and 18.3 m in diameter, the mound
had been previously investigated by Harry L. Schoff
(Willey 1949a:344), who presented a small collection of
Safety Harbor Incised, Pinellas Incised, Pinellas Plain,
and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds to NMNH (#364695-
364696).
Milanich's excavations uncovered 10 burials, five
of which were flexed and two extended. The rest were
probably secondary (1972:32). A number of bone and
lithic artifacts were recovered during the excavations,
and the pottery indicated that the site (or the mound
fill) was multicomponent. Late Archaic, Deptford
(Manasota), Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor ceramic
types were present (1972:Tables 2 and 3). The Safety
Harbor component was represented by Pinellas Plain
sherds with notched lips. The archaeological evidence
recovered by Milanich indicated an apparently minor
reuse of an earlier mound by Safety Harbor people.
Possible postcontact occupation was represented by what
may have been a cow bone (1972:37).
The True Mound (8So5), possibly the same site as
the Deer Prairie Creek or Blackburn Mound (8So403), is a
sand burial mound originally over 2.5 m high (Luer and
Almy 1987:Table 2; Willey 1949a:344). The mound is
located on a ridge, and a borrow pit is present to the

221
southeast. Notes taken by David 0. True in 1934 (now in
the FPS files, FMNH) indicate that about 50 human
skeletons were removed from the mound, some very near
the surface. Included was a central burial, which was
reportedly covered with some sort of nuts (possibly
shell beads?). Flexed burials were described, and many
apparently had conch or whelk shells accompanying them.
Artifacts recorded by True included glass beads
(including a large chevron), a copper cone-shaped disc
(ca. 3.8 cm diameter) with a central perforation, a
possible pair of metal shears, and a decorated vessel
(apparently a collared jar or wide-mouthed bottle form)
with a perforated base (Luer and Almy 1987:311). Willey
(1949a:344, Figure 63c) indicated that this vessel was
Safety Harbor Incised.
A number of artifacts from the site are in the
Tallant collection at SFM. These include a stone bead
(#4241), undescribed glass beads1(#4243), an iron lance
head (#4255, 35-00), and an iron chisel (#4256, 35-26).
The chisel is 13.5 cm long, with a width varying from
1.9-2.2 cm and a thickness ranging from 0.9-1.2 cm.
There is also a Florida Cut Crystal bead from the mound
in FMNH (#A-19998). Information on the FMSF form for
8So403 indicates that an Englewood or Fort Walton-like

222
vessel, Pinellas projectile points, and glass beads,
including seed beads, were recovered from the site.
On the basis of the artifacts, the site is
definitely a Safety Harbor burial mound with one or more
postcontact components. The chevron bead (assuming it
is faceted and has seven layers) and the iron chisel
indicate a probable sixteenth century date for contact
(Smith 1987:46). The Florida Cut Crystal bead dates to
the late sixteenth century (Deagan 1987:180).
The Midnight Pass Midden (8So7), a shell midden on
Siesta Key, has yielded Manasota, Weeden Island, Safety
Harbor, and historic period artifacts (George M. Luer,
personal communication 1988). Safety Harbor materials
consist of Pinellas Plain sherds, including rim sherds
with notched lips.
Two sites, a shell midden (8Sol3) and a sand mound
(8Sol4) were located within 0.5 km of the Englewood
Mound (8Sol). These sites were not investigated at the
time the Englewood Mound was excavated, but their
proximity suggests that they were constructed by the
builders of the Englewood Mound (Monroe et al. 1982:15;
Willey 1949a:126). They could also be associated with
the Paulsen Point/Sarasota County Mound (8So23) (Almy
1976:123).

223
The Casey Key site (8Sol7) consisted of a sand
burial mound and associated midden which were severely
vandalized (Miller 1974:9). This site is part of the
Palmer site complex discussed above. Bullen and Bullen
(1976:48) mentioned that a private collection from the
site contained sherds of Englewood Incised/ along with
Weeden Island decorated types. There is a small
collection from the site in FMNH (#A-2633) which
contains some Pinellas Plain sherds/ but the decorated
sherds are all Weeden Island types.
The Weber Burial Mound (8So20), near Whitaker
Bayou, was partially excavated by Bullen (1950:22-27).
The contents of a collection in FMNH (#99731) are listed
in Table 28. The projectile point (resembles a Beaver
Lake point [Bullen 1975:47]), grinding stone, and
probable Englewood Incised sherd were illustrated by
Bullen (1950:Figure 5). Human skeletons were also
uncovered. The site represents a mixed late Weeden
Island-related and Safety Harbor occupation (Monroe et
al. 1982:15, 84).
A shell midden known as Paulsen Point or the
Sarasota County Mound (8So23) was excavated by members
of the Sarasota County Historical Commission (SCHC) and
other groups in 1965 and 1966 (Bullen 1971). The
recovery of Englewood Incised, Sarasota Incised, and

224
Table 28. Artifacts from the Weber Burial Mound (8So20)
in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 77/11
Pinellas Plain 7/0
St. Johns Simple Stamped 2/0
St. Johns Plain 1/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 1/0
Probable Englewood Incised 1/1
Stone:
Chert projectile point 1
Sandstone grinding stone 1
Pinellas Plain sherds (at least one sherd of the latter
had a notched lip) indicates that the site had a Safety
Harbor component, even though the bulk of the artifacts
were from the Weeden Island or Manasota Periods (Bullen
1971:8-9).
Bullen's (1971:7) classification of the bulk of the
plain pottery from the site as Englewood Plain is not
valid, and the sherds should be considered undiagnostic
sand tempered plain (Luer and Almy 1980:207). However,
the site may have been a satellite village associated
with the Englewood Mound (8Sol) or 8Sol4 (Almy 1976:129;
Monroe et al. 1982:14).

225
The Venice Beach site (8So26) is a partially
submerged complex of shell middens and at least two
mounds on the beach south of Venice Inlet (Rupp
1980:36). The site form in the FMSF indicates that this
site has a Safety Harbor component, but the scant
published data demonstrate that it dates securely from
Manasota times (Almy 1976:135; Rupp 1980:42). No data
are available to support the interpretation of a Safety
Harbor component.
The Boylston Mound (8So35) is one of the large
shell mounds at the Whitaker site. Limited artifactual
data indicate that the midden has an early Safety Harbor
component (George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy, personal
communication 1988; Monroe et al. 1982:82).
The Alameda Way Shell Midden (8So39), part of the
Whitaker site complex, may represent a habitation area
associated with the Weber Mound (8So20) or other sites
in the immediate vicinity (Almy 1976:148; Monroe et al.
1982:15; Wainwright 1916:140). Tests at this midden or
an adjacent one (Bullen 1950:27-28) indicated that the
occupation was most likely Manasota Period, though later
components were represented in some of the associated
mounds. Monroe et al. (1982:82-83) thought that
Bullen#s excavations suggested that the major occupation
of the site was during Safety Harbor times.

226
The Sarasota Bay Mound (8So44) was salvage
excavated by Ripley Bullen in 1968 (Almy 1976:153;
Monroe et al. 1982:89-90). Though no records or
collections from the site could be located in FMNH,
copies of correspondence and Bullen's field notes are in
the possession of George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy
(personal communication 1988). Extended burials and
decorated pottery were recorded when the site was
disturbed in 1920 (Grismer 1946:12; Monroe et al.
1982:89). The FMSF indicates that the mound had both
Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor components, but
the accuracy of this cannot be determined.
The Old Oak site (8So51) was investigated by George
M. Luer (1977). This complex of at least two shell
middens and a possible sand burial mound is located near
the shore of Sarasota Bay (Luer 1977:37-40; Monroe et
al. 1982:93). Surface collections and excavations at
the site yielded sand tempered plain, Belle Glade Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain, fabric
impressed, probable Prairie Cord Marked, Indian Pass
Incised, sand tempered check stamped, Pinellas Plain,
and unclassified incised sherds (1977:40, 46). This
assemblage indicates a late Weeden Island-related and
possible Safety Harbor occupation.

227
Several sand mounds in the Old Miakka area, 8So70,
8So71, 8So72, and 8So77, were listed by Almy (1976:ISO-
181) as possible postcontact burial mounds, which would
date them to late Safety Harbor times. In 1934, Harry
L. Schoff obtained a Safety Harbor Incised bottle with
four appliqu hands or bird feet on the exterior. This
was either from the Wilson Mound A (8So70) or Wilson
Mound B (8So77), and was found over a skeleton near the
center of the mound (George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy,
personal communication 1988). One of the Wilson Mounds
was later excavated by the SCHC (Fritts 1961). Glass
beads are reported from 8So72 on the FMSF form.
The Whitaker Mound (8S08I) was a burial or
ceremonial mound that was destroyed by the City of
Sarasota in 1925 (Bullen 1950:22; Monroe et al.
1982:15). This site was first described by Wainwright
(1916:140-141), who noted that at least eight burials
and plain and decorated pottery had been recovered. He
mentioned that the mound was stratified, composed of
sand and shell, and appeared to contain evidence of fire
(1916:141). He also briefly mentioned some sherds with
decorated handles (1916:141), probably referring to Lake
Jackson Plain, Pinellas Incised, or Point Washington
Incised pottery, all of which indicate Safety Harbor
occupation.

228
Measurements of the length and width of the mound
were not recorded, but height was recorded as 15.2 m
(Wainwright 1916:140) and 10.7 m (Bullen 1950:22; Monroe
et al. 1982:85). A ramp evidently extended from the
west side of the mound to nearby habitation areas
(Bullen 1950:22; Luer and Almy 1981:134). Collections
from the mound are preserved at the SCHC (Almy 1976:190;
Monroe et al. 1982:15). On the basis of the limited
description of artifacts and the configuration of the
site, it was probably a platform mound dating to Safety
Harbor times, with a possible Weeden Island-related
component (Bullen 1950:22).
The Ralston or Indianola Mound (8So83, 8So446) is a
burial mound associated with a shell midden (8So69).
The mound is oval-shaped, with dimensions of 41.1 m
north-south, 29.0 m east-west, and 1.5 m high. Two
borrow pits are located west of the mound (Luer
1986b:Figure 6). No artifacts are recorded on the FMSF
form, but a possible Weeden Island or Safety Harbor date
is suggested on the basis of nearby sites (George M.
Luer and Marion M. Almy, personal communication 1988).
The Acacias Midden (8So97) is located near several
other middens and the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound
(8So4) (Monroe et al. 1982:87). Milanich (1972:23) put
a backhoe trench through part of the midden, but

229
recovered no artifacts. Since the Yellow Bluffs-
Whitaker Mound included a Safety Harbor component, the
Acacias Midden may also.
The Laurel Mound (8So98) was located near the coast
in the town of Laurel (Luer and Almy 1987). Originally
2.1 m high and 10.7 m in diameter, the sand mound was
excavated by a local resident, J. E. Moore, in 1932.
His excavations revealed four separate strata, in
addition to a submound feature covered with red ochre,
which contained burials (a similar feature was found at
the Englewood Mound [8Sol]). Extended burials were also
present in the upper portions of the mound (Luer and
Almy 1987:304).
The pottery from the site was definitely Safety
Harbor Incised and probable St. Johns Check Stamped
(Luer and Almy 1987:306). Vessel forms included
probable bottles, beakers, boat-shaped vessels, and
bowls (the presumed St. Johns Check Stamped specimen was
very large). The vessels were generally basally
perforated, and some had red paint in the interiors.
Decoration included human effigy adornos, "scroll work,"
and at least one example of a bottle with three human
hands and bent arms incised on the exterior (1987:306).
A small projectile point and a polished greenstone
plummet were also mentioned in Moore's notes (1987:306).

230
On the basis of the ceramics, the site was definitely a
Safety Harbor burial mound.
The APLS #3 site (8So396) was originally recorded
as 8Ma65 (Willis and Johnson 1980:K41-K43). It is a
mound (or possibly two mounds) located near the Airstrip
Village site (8Mal81), which yielded dubious possible
evidence of Safety Harbor occupation (see above
discussion of this site). APLS #3 was trenched by
Montague Tallant, who recovered only one burial. No
artifacts are known from the site, but it is listed as a
Safety Harbor mound in the FMSF. It is impossible to
determine its cultural affiliation on the basis of
present knowledge.
The Myakkahatchee site (8So397) is a multicomponent
site consisting of several activity areas, including two
mounds, a curved sand earthwork, midden areas, a borrow
pit, and a non-mound burial area (Luer et al. 1987).
One of the mounds has a curved embankment similar to the
Philip Mound (8Po446), a Safety Harbor burial mound in
Polk County (Benson 1967). Artifacts from this burial
mound at Myakkahatchee include whelk shell cups, shell
beads, human bone, sand tempered plain sherds, and parts
of Sarasota Incised and Safety Harbor Incised vessels
(Luer et al. 1987:147-148). Pinellas projectile points
were recovered from one of the midden areas (1987:147).

231
These artifacts indicate that there was a significant
Safety Harbor occupation at this site.
The Myakka Valley Ranches Mound (8So401) was a
Safety Harbor burial mound which yielded pottery and
human skulls. A Safety Harbor Incised vessel reportedly
came from the site (George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy,
personal communication 1988).
The Gator Creek site (8So402) is a multicomponent
lithic scatter recorded by Marion M. Almy. The FMSF
form notes that Pinellas projectile points were
collected from the site, along with many earlier types.
The presence of Pinellas points indicates that either a
Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor component is
present (Bullen 1975:8).
In the SFM collections, there is a Pinellas Incised
bowl with seven strap handles (#A6549). This specimen
came from a site in Sarasota County, but the particular
site was not recorded. It may have been recovered by J.
E. Moore at the Laurel Mound (8So98) (George M. Luer,
personal communication 1988).
Charlotte County
Most of Charlotte County during late prehistoric
and early contact times was probably occupied by Calusa
groups (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964¡Figure 1; Widmer

232
1988:Figure 1). Other influences appear to have come
from interior Belle Glade groups. However, several
sites have yielded Safety Harbor materials. In many
cases, it is unclear whether these artifacts represent
true occupation or articles received through exchange
with Safety Harbor groups to the north. Other
possibilities, such as intermarriage and diffusion of
decorative styles, also exist. However, as Willey
(1949a:345) pointed out, Weeden Island-related sites are
present as far south as Charlotte County, so there is no
reason to believe that Safety Harbor groups, especially
early ones, were not inhabiting the county. During
protohistoric times, some of these sites could be the
result of shifting sociopolitical boundaries between the
Calusa and their neighbors to the north.
The Cayo Pelau site (8Chl), which has also been
referred to as Cayo Palu and Carapileu, has been dug
into by numerous persons, including Montague Tallant
(Willey 1949a:344-345). It was a sand burial mound 27.4
m in diameter and 1.8-2.5 m high, located on an island
in Charlotte Harbor. Collections and information about
this site are scattered. In NMNH, a collection
(#378302-378310) donated by Tallant and described by
Willey (1949a:345) contains solely Weeden Island pottery

233
types, while a note in the FPS files in FMNH indicates
that NMNH #364698 includes Safety Harbor sherds.
John Goggin's field notes and a card in the FMNH
site file indicated that the artifacts listed in Table
29 were collected at the site in 1953. The present
location of this collection is unknown.
A small collection (#A-7987) from the site in FMNH
includes 5/0 sand tempered plain sherds and a Busvcon
columella. A spiral faceted Florida Cut Crystal bead is
also in FMNH (no number). In the Simpson collection in
FMNH, there is a partially reconstructed Dunns Creek Red
vessel (#103718) from the site, which the late J.
Clarence Simpson obtained from Montague Tallant.
Allerton et al. (1984:36, 38) mentioned that two
ceremonial tablets, one of silver and one of brass or
copper, were excavated from the site. They also
indicated that a large number of European materials were
found at the site, including a sheet silver alligator
effigy and a silver shark tooth effigy recovered with
the silver tablet (1984:36). Also reportedly recovered
were rolled sheet silver and sheet gold beads, drilled
silver rod beads, silver and gold coin beads, white and
blue glass seed beads, large and small Cornaline
d'Aleppo beads, a fluted green melon bead, an amber
bead, a Nueva Cadiz bead, Ichtucknee Blue beads, a Seven

234
Table 29. A Collection from Cayo Pelau (8Chl).
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 46/4
Sherd tempered plain 13/1
Belle Glade Plain 7/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 3/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Pinellas Plain 3/0
Orange Plain 1/0
Glades Red 1/0
Limestone tempered plain (Pasco?) 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon hammer 1
Perforated Busvcon cup 1
Oaks Gilded bead, an unidentified cane bead, a chevron
bead, an undescribed red glass bead, a faceted crystal
pendant, a "pumpkin-shaped" crystal bead, a "figa"
crystal pendant, an "evil-eye ward-off" crystal pendant,
a Spanish "man-in-the-moon" silver pendant, and drilled
fossil shark tooth pendants (1984:36). The location of
this collection was not recorded, but if it exists, it
contains a remarkable assemblage of sixteenth and
seventeenth century European artifacts.

235
Another private collection (Don Ness, personal
communication 1988) from the site includes the artifacts
listed in Table 30. This collection apparently dates to
the late sixteenth century or later, based on the
Florida Cut Crystal beads and barrel-shaped gooseberry
bead (Deagan 1987:168, 180). The silver bell is a
unique specimen, constructed of sheet silver rolled into
a cylindrical shape and soldered to a small dome of
silver which has an attachment loop pushed through it.
The carefully made bell originally had a clapper inside.
Two parallel ridges encircle the portion where the dome
was attached to the body. The bell is 1.7 cm long, with
a diameter of 1.15 cm at the top flaring to 1.5-1.6 cm
at the bottom. The soldering was very carefully done.
This type of bell is not included in the typology by
Brown (1979a).
In a photograph of a private collection from the
site (William H. Marquardt, personal communication
1988), the following European materials were recorded:
four Florida Cut Crystal beads, a Florida Cut Crystal
pendant, a silver coin bead, a long rolled sheet silver
bead, two oblate silver beads, and two possible small
silver disc beads. Original contexts of these materials
are unknown.

236
Table 30. A Private Collection of European Material
from Cayo Pelau (8Chl).
Description Count
Glass:
Spherical colorless bead with gilded exterior 1
Light blue teardrop-shaped pendant with loop
attachment made by melting and looping glass 1
Drawn opaque turquoise blue beads (Ichtucknee Blue) 3
Transparent medium blue beads 6
Spherical colorless bead 1
Mold-made green bead 1
Cornaline d'Aleppo beads 8
(j Barrel-shaped colorless Gooseberry bead 1
Spheroid translucent dark blue bead with 4 opaque
white longitudinal stripes 1
Spheroid translucent dark blue bead with 2 opaque
white and 2 red alternating longitudinal stripes 1
Seed beads (opaque white, turquoise blue, medium
blue, and green) many
Lapidary Beads:
0 Florida Cut Crystal 2
Smooth olive-shaped rock crystal 1
Smooth teardrop-shaped rock crystal pendant 1
Oblong true amber 1
Metal:
Small oblate gold bead with square hole
1

237
Table 30continued
Description Count
Small silver disc beads several
Silver coin beads 2
Oblate silver beads 2
Rolled sheet silver beads 3
Silver bell 1
Other:
Barrel-shaped galena bead 1
Faceted hemispherical yellow glass or semiprecious
stone setting from a ring or other jewelry (2 small
holes) 1
A surface collection from the site in FMNH
(#A27596) includes 2/1 Safety Harbor Incised (one rim is
part of a red-painted bottle neck), 1/0 sand tempered
plain, and 1/0 St. Johns Plain. This collection was
made by FMNH archaeologists in the mid-1980s (William H.
Marquardt, personal communication 1988).
Luer and Almy (1987:311) mentioned that decorated
loop or lug handles are known from 8Chl. These items
would have come from Lake Jackson, Pinellas Incised, or
Point Washington Incised vessels, all of which are known
from Safety Harbor sites. George M. Luer (personal
communication 1988) has seen pottery with Mississippian-

238
style decorations from the area. The Cayo Pelau site
definitely had a Weeden Island-related component (Goggin
1947c:119; Willey 1949a:345), and probably had a Safety
Harbor component, including a postcontact one. The
island was also occupied by Cuban fishermen in the early
nineteenth century (Gibson 1982:18-19).
The Gasparilla Sound Mound (8Ch2), a sand burial
mound located on a key at the southern border of
Charlotte County, was excavated by Clarence B. Moore
(1905:302). He noted that it had been badly disturbed
prior to his excavations, but he recovered 15-20 flexed
burials, with one burial were three Busycon cups (two
of which were perforated), and two perforated cups were
with another burial. Some red ochre-stained sand was
noted, and Moore indicated that most of the pottery was
poorly made plain ware (1905:302). He illustrated two
decorated sherds, a Safety Harbor (or possibly Pinellas)
Incised variant (1905:Figure 4) and a Pinellas Incised
rim with a loop handle (1905:Figure 5). These sherds
indicate that the mound had a Safety Harbor component
(Bullen 1969:418; Willey 1949a:345).
The Hickory Bluff Mound (8Ch5) was also excavated
by Moore (1905:302), who noted that it had been
previously disturbed. He found a few sherds, three of
which he illustrated. One was a Safety Harbor Incised

239
sherd with an incised hand and arm design (1905¡Figure
1). The other two were part of the rim of a Pinellas
Incised bowl and a rim sherd from a Point Washington
Incised bowl with two loop handles (Moore 1905¡Figures 2
and 3). The pottery types definitely indicate a Safety
Harbor occupation (Willey 1949a:346).
The Cedar Point Shell Heap (8Ch8) is a shell midden
measuring about 90 m by 45 m, with a height of 2.1-2.5
m. A small collection in FMNH (#96104) from the site,
obtained by Ripley Bullen, includes 3/0 sand tempered
plain, 1/0 Pinellas Plain, and 4/0 Olive Jar sherds. A
note in the FMNH site file describes another small
collection from the site, which consisted of 21/3 sand
tempered plain and 5/1 Pinellas Plain sherds, along with
a heavily patinated bottle glass fragment and an opaque
turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) glass bead. The
location of this collection is not known. The site has
a possible postcontact Safety Harbor component, which
would date to after 1600 (Deagan 1987¡171). However,
the material could have come from a Cuban fishing site.
The Big Mound Key site (8ChlO) is actually a
complex of shell mounds covering 4-6 ha and reaching a
height of 7.6 m. From the air, the middens form a
pattern which has been likened to a spider (Luer et al.
1986¡98). Unfortunately, the state-owned site has been

240
the focus of groups of treasure hunters who have caused
extreme damage by using bulldozers to cut huge trenches
through parts of the midden (Luer et al. 1986:98-103;
Marquardt 1987b).
John Goggin and some of his students surveyed and
collected at sites in the Cape Haze area (including Big
Mound Key) in the early 1950s (Goggin 1954c), and Bullen
and Bullen (1956:50-51) also made a surface collection
from the site. George M. Luer salvaged some data from
one of the episodes of vandalism in 1980, obtaining
radiocarbon dates which indicate that one of the mounds
was constructed during the period A.D. 800-1000 (Luer et
al. 1986:103).
There is some confusion regarding Goggin's
collection from the site. It is not in FMNH, and cards
in the site file seem to contain contradictory
information about the artifacts. Table 31 lists ceramic
counts from a summary card in the FMNH site file. Some
of the Pinellas Plain sherds apparently had notched
lips, other artifacts listed include Busvcon tools and
a cup, a Broward projectile point (Bullen 1975:15), a
quartz fragment, and various shell and stone objects.
The artifacts from the Bullens' work are in FMNH
(#94950). Some of these were illustrated in their Cape
Haze report (Bullen and Bullen 1956:Plates II and III).

241
Table 31. Goggin's Ceramic Collection from
Big Mound Key (8ChlO).
Description Count
Sand tempered plain 677/60
Sherd tempered plain 139/13
Sherd tempered decorated 26/15
Pinellas Plain 102/10
Belle Glade Plain 29/10
Olive Jar 28/0
St. Johns Plain 8/2
St. Johns Check Stamped 5/0
Pasco/Perico Plain 3/0
Glades Tooled 2/2
San Marcos Plain 2/0
Miscellaneous "Glades" (?) 2/0
Shell tempered 2/0
Pinellas Incised 1/0
"Early American Earthenware" 1/0
Several of the pottery types indicate Safety Harbor
occupation. The pertinent types and counts are listed
in Table 32. Most of these types indicate a very late
Safety Harbor component, probably seventeenth century.
However, some of the ceramics could be remains from
Cuban fishing operations in the area. Bullen and Bullen
(1956:51) thought that the Leon-Jefferson and associated

242
Table 32. Partial List of Bullen and Bullen7s
Collection from Big Mound Key (8ChlO) in FMNH.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Pinellas Plain (5 rims have notched lips) 70/8
Olive Jar 13/0
Jefferson Ware 6/5
Leon Check Stamped 5/0
Possible Lemon Bay Incised 2/1
Unglazed coarse European earthenware 2/0
Possible Safety Harbor Incised 1/1
Possible Ocmulgee Fields Incised 1/1
types indicated the presence of post-1704 refugees from
northern Florida missions.
The evidence from Big Mound Key indicates that
there is a Safety Harbor component at the site. It was
occupied during postcontact times, but the nature of the
occupation is presently unclear.
Bullen and Bullen (1956:12) suggested that the
Vanderbilt site (8Chl2) was occupied during Weeden
Island,and Safety Harbor times. However, the artifacts
from the site are not diagnostic, so a Safety Harbor
occupation cannot be demonstrated.
An unnamed state-owned shell midden, 8Ch20, located
north of the John Quiet Mound (8Ch45), yielded a heat-

243
altered drawn blue bead (FMNH #A-19995) which probably
dates to the late seventeenth or early eighteenth
century (Deagan 1987:175). A note in the FMNH site file
indicates that 9/1 sand tempered plain and 1/0 St. Johns
Check Stamped sherds also came from the midden. This
site was probably related to the John Quiet Mound
(8Ch45), and may have a postcontact Safety Harbor
component.
In the FMNH collection, there is a small assemblage
(#A-7989) labeled as coming from either 8Ch22 or 8Ch61.
Included are 26/7 sand tempered plain, 3/1 Pinellas
Plain, 2/1 St. Johns Plain, and 1/0 Olive Jar sherds.
Three Busvcon shell fragments and a Conus sp. shell are
also present. The 8Ch22 site is a sand mound measuring
61.0 m by 15.2 m, with a height of 1.8 m. The Dunwody
(or Dunwoody) site, 8Ch61, will be discussed below. The
pottery types in the collection suggest that the site
has a postcontact Safety Harbor component, though these
may have come from a Cuban fishing site.
The federally-owned Fish Camp site (8Ch23), a shell
and sand midden, measures 30.5 m by 30.5 m, and rises to
a height of about 0.6 m. This site was tested by Bullen
and Bullen (1956:12-15). A collection from the site in
FMNH (#96121-96122) includes 26/3 sand tempered plain,
1/0 St. Johns Plain, 2/0 stoneware with cobalt blue-

244
glazed interior, and 3/0 Olive Jar sherds. A sharpened
bone fragment, two Mercenaria shell fragments, and a
partial Busvcon shell are also present. This material
represents the results of the Bullens' test, but some
has evidently been lost since their work. Their
identification of fiber tempered sherds (1956:13-14) was
in error, unless these have since been lost. The
assemblage suggests a site with some Spanish contact,
but as Bullen and Bullen mentioned (1956:15), the Olive
Jar sherds could represent remains from eighteenth or
nineteenth century Cuban fisheries. Safety Harbor
occupation cannot be demonstrated on the basis of this
collection.
A large shell midden on Cayo Pelau (8Ch28), about
180 m south of 8Chl, was investigated by William Plowden
and John Goggin. The site covers 1.6 ha, and is about
1.5 m high. A note in the FMNH site file indicates that
Plowden and Goggin collected 145/10 sand tempered plain,
2/1 Belle Glade Plain, 2/0 Pinellas Plain, 1/0 St. Johns
Plain, and 1/0 unclassified plain sherds, along with
five Busvcon shell tools. The present location of this
collection is unknown. This site is undoubtedly related
to 8Chi, and may have a Safety Harbor component, based
on the presence of Pinellas Plain (though this could
indicate Weeden Island-related occupation). Another

245
shell midden (8Ch29) is located about 90 m to the east
of 8Ch28, but no artifacts are recorded from this site,
so its cultural affiliation is unknown.
On the beach on the west side of Cayo Pelau is
another shell midden (8Ch31), from which a collection
was made by Goggin and others. This midden is 180 m
long, and varies from 3 m to 30 m in width. The
collection is not extant, but a card in the FMNH site
file indicates that the artifacts in Table 33 were
collected.
It is difficult to determine what types of European
wares were present at 8Ch31 based on the descriptions,
but stoneware would probably have to date after the mid
seventeenth century (Noel Hume 1976:281), and transfer-
printed ware dates after 1750 (Noel Hume 1976:128).
Therefore, the site is apparently multicomponent,
exhibiting an aboriginal occupation, as well as a
postcontact one. The later occupation was probably
either a Cuban fishery or a homestead. It is possible
that one of the aboriginal occupations was a Safety
Harbor one, based on the presence of Pinellas Plain and
the untyped incised and punctated ware, though these
could be Weeden Island types.
An unnamed midden on the north side of Charlotte
Harbor (8Ch33) was recorded by Goggin, who collected

246
Table 33. Goggin's Collection from 8Ch31.
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 28/3
Sherd tempered plain 9/1
Sherd tempered incised and punctated 1/1
Olive Jar 7/0
St. Johns Plain 2/0
Glazed red ware 2/0
Glades Tooled 1/1
Blue transfer-printed 1/1
Blue painted ware 1/1
Pinellas Plain 1/0
Grey salt glazed, blue painted (stoneware?) 1/0
"Crock" ware .1/0
Glass:
Dark green bottle fragments 6/0
Medium green "demijohn" bottle fragments 2/0
Shell:
Busvcon hammer 1
some artifacts from it (present location unknown). This
midden is about 90 m long, 15.2-22.9 m wide, and 1.5 m
high. Goggin's collection contained 62/9 sand tempered
plain, 1/0 Pinellas Plain, 7/2 sherd tempered plain, 1/0

247
sherd tempered complicated stamped (concentric circle
design), 1/0 Olive Jar sherds, and two shell hammers.
The complicated stamped ware is probably Jefferson Ware
(Smith 1948:317; Willey 1949a:492-493), which dates from
the seventeenth century or later. This, in combination
with Pinellas Plain and Olive Jar, could indicate a very
late possible Safety Harbor component, but more probably
relates to Cuban fishing operations in the area.
The federally-owned Cash Mound (8Ch38) is an
extensive shell midden covering 1.6 ha and rising to a
height of 4.6 m. Bullen and Bullen (1956:15-25) tested
the site, recovering large numbers of sherds and objects
of stone, bone, and shell. In one of their tests, they
found sherds which resembled Pinellas Plain (1956:18).
Additionally, they recovered a sherd of Glades Tooled,
which dates to a period coeval with Safety Harbor
(Goggin 1947c:120; Widmer 1988:82). They determined
that the site had a late prehistoric component, but
Safety Harbor occupation could not be demonstrated.
The federally-owned John Quiet Mound (8Ch45) was
partially excavated by Bullen and Bullen (1956:30-48).
The site consists of several shell middens and ridges
covering 2.4-3.2 ha, rising to a height of 3.0 m in some
places. The excavations yielded Pinellas Plain sherds
with notched lips, Jefferson Complicated Stamped, and

248
Glades Tooled sherds in the uppermost levels. A single
sherd identified as Fort Walton Incised was also
recovered from the top stratum. From an unrecorded
provenience, 5/0 Olive Jar sherds (FMNH #96159 and
96196) were excavated. A few sherds of Englewood
Incised were also present (Bullen and Bullen 1956:Table
5).
These ceramic types indicate that a probable Safety
Harbor component is present. Postcontact occupation is
indicated by the Jefferson Ware and Olive Jar sherds.
One sherd in the FMNH collection (#96159) from the site
appears to be the base of a Colono Ware vessel, shaped
like an albarelo, a Spanish drug jar form (Deagan
1987:187; Lister and Lister 1976:13). This supports
Bullen and Bullen's (1956:48) contention that the site
was occupied for a time by refugee Indians from north
Florida after the destruction of the missions in 1704.
The Cape Haze site (8Ch48), a shell midden on the
southeastern side of the peninsula, extends for about
1.2 km along the shore. It is 45.7 m wide and about 1.5
m high. A card in the FMNH site file indicates that a
large collection of water-worn sherds was collected from
the site (present location unknown). These are listed
in Table 34. The presence of Pinellas Plain and Olive
Jar, along with the late pottery type Glades Tooled,

249
Table 34. Ceramics from the Cape Haze Site (8Ch48).
Description Count
Sand tempered plain 152/3
Pinellas Plain 29/4
Sherd tempered plain 19/0
Sherd tempered complicated stamped (bottle form) 1/0
Belle Glade Plain 4/2
Wheel-turned earthenware (some are glazed) 4/0
St. Johns Plain 3/0
St. Johns Check Stamped 2/0
Olive Jar 3/0
Glades Tooled 1/1
Perico Plain 1/0
Perico Punctated 1/0
indicates that there is a possible postcontact Safety
Harbor component at the site, though it is by no means
definite.
A shell midden on Cattle Dock Point (8Ch51) yielded
81/10 sand tempered plain, 38/9 Belle Glade Plain, 6/0
Pinellas Plain, and 2/1 sherd tempered plain sherds.
Two possible Busvcon tools, two human bone fragments,
and some fossil bone fragments were also recorded from
the site. The data are insufficient, but indicate the

250
possibility (based on the presence of Pinellas Plain)
that there is a Safety Harbor component present.
An unnamed shell midden (8Ch60) is located on Hog
Island near the mouth of the Myakka River. This midden
extends for about 24 m along the shore, and has yielded
14 shell tools and 61/9 sand tempered plain sherds. Of
these sherds, one rim has a notched lip and another rim
has incised decoration (Luer and Archibald 1988). The
notched lip may be a variant of Pinellas Plain,
indicating a possible Safety Harbor component at the
site. Identification of such a component is impossible
based on the available data.
The Dunwody or Dunwoody Site (8Ch61) was a large
shell midden extending about 0.4 km along the shoreline
of a peninsula on Lemon Bay. Since covered with dredged
spoil, the site was excavated by Ripley and Adelaide
Bullen prior to its inundation in 1965. FMNH
collections from the site are from a burial area and a
shell ridge. Eighteen burials were recovered from the
burial area. This portion of the site also (#99678 and
99679) yielded the artifacts listed in Table 35.
The collection (#99680) from the shell ridge, which
was bulldozed, contains the artifacts listed in Table
36. Another small collection from an unrecorded part of
the site (#103789) includes 3/0 sand tempered plain

251
Table 35. Artifacts from the Burial Area at
the Dunwody Site (8Ch61).
Discussion Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 73/10
Miscellaneous sand tempered punctated 3/0
Belle Glade Plain 1/1
St. Johns Plain 1/0
Pinellas Plain 1/0
Pasco or Perico Plain 1/0
Shell:
Busvcon celt 1
Strombus celt 1
Busvcon fragments 5
Perforated Oliva shell 1
sherds and a perforated oyster (Crassostrea viroinica)
shell. The artifacts from both areas indicate that the
site was multicomponent, with at least late Archaic and
Safety Harbor components. Safety Harbor occupation is
indicated by the Pinellas Plain with notched lips, and
the miscellaneous punctated sherds could be from one or
more Safety Harbor Incised vessels. As mentioned
previously, there is a collection in FMNH (#A-7989) that
may be from this site (or 8Ch22). If it is, it would
not alter the interpretation presented here.

252
Table 36. Artifacts from the Shell Ridge Area of
the Dunwody Site (8Ch61).
Description Count
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 71/12
Sand tempered plain with red interior 1/0
Pinellas Plain (2 rims have notched lips) 5/3
Norwood Plain 5/0
St. Johns Plain 3/1
St. Johns Incised 1/0
Pasco Check Stamped 1/1
Possible Matecumbe Incised 1/0
Shell:
Perforated Noetia ponderosa shell 1
The Aqui Esta site (8Ch68), also known as the
Alligator Creek Mound, was vandalized for many years
prior to excavations conducted in 1962 (Luer 1980; Luer
et al. n.d.). This site may have been visited by
Wainwright (1918:46-47), who excavated five burials with
the heads together, and noted many sherds and secondary
burials. The mound was recorded by Miller (1975:13) as
the Alligator Creek Mound, with measurements of 24.4 m
east-west, 42.7 m north-south, and a height of 2.1 m.
Miller collected human bone and marine shell fragments,
two sand tempered plain sherds, two St. Johns Plain

253
sherds, and part of a Sarasota Incised vessel from the
surface (1975:16).
Other published references are the brief mentions
by Ripley Bullen (1969:418), Luer (1985), and Luer and
Almy (1987:311-317), and the description and
interpretation of two pathological tibiae (FMNH #97485)
by Adelaide Bullen (1972:160-162). A draft report on
the 1962 excavations is in preparation (Luer et al.
n.d.), from which the information presented here is
gleaned.
The sand mound was circular before it was
disturbed, and had a diameter of about 24 m with a
height of 2.3 m. It is about 2 km from the nearest
contemporary midden. Four strata were recorded during
excavations. A 15-25 cm thick layer of charcoal and
sand was the basal stratum (which was reportedly located
deeper than the original ground surface), with three
separate sand strata above it. Artifacts in the mound
included Busycon shell cups, Safety Harbor Incised, Lake
Jackson Plain, Point Washington Incised, Fort Walton
Incised, Dunns Creek Red, Belle Glade Plain, Pasco
Plain, sand tempered plain, St. Johns Plain, and
unclassified pottery types. Vessel forms included
bottles, beakers, funnels, collared jars, bowls, and
composite forms. A ceramic gourd-effigy ladle was also

254
recovered (Luer et al. n.d.). John Goggin recorded a
Safety Harbor Incised bottle in MAI (#20/1192) which was
probably from this site. This vessel may have been
obtained by Mr. Turbeyfill in the 1930s, who excavated
at other sites in the vicinity (Willey 1949a:345-346).
Approximately 100 burials were recovered during
excavations, but many more were removed by vandals. An
extended burial was present near the base in the center
of the mound, and flexed burials were recorded
elsewhere. The majority of burials were secondary,
including single skull and long bone interments. The
excavators believed that the mound was a continuous-use
type burial mound (Sears 1958a:276-279). Red and yellow
ochre and Busvcon shells and cups accompanied some
burials, and at least one vessel appeared to be
associated with an individual burial. A mass burial,
reportedly of 35-40 individuals, was located in one
portion of the mound (Luer et al. n.d.).
Three Busvcon shells were submitted for radiocarbon
dating. These yielded uncorrected dates of 1145 50
B.P., 1015 65 B.P., and 910 60 B.P. (Luer 1980).
According to Jerry Stipp (personal communication 1989)
of Beta Analytic, Inc., it is best not to calibrate
radiocarbon dates on shell from Florida waters because
the reservoir effect and isotopic fractionation cancel

255
each other out in samples from this area. Uncorrected
calendrical dates of the radiocarbon determinations are
A.D. 805 50, A.D. 935 65, and A.D. 1040 60,
respectively. The dates, when combined with the
artifactual evidence, indicate that the mound is an
early Safety Harbor burial mound. It should be noted,
however, that radiocarbon dates from shell have proven
very unreliable in some cases (David Hurst Thomas,
personal communication 1987).
The state-owned Acline Mound (8Ch69) is a shell and
sand mound about 2 km south of Aqui Esta. It has two
peaks on the summit, connected on the north side of the
mound, but separated by a gully on the south side. The
mound slopes steeply on the north side, with a gentler
slope on the south side (Luer and Archibald 1988). It
is about 4 m high. At least seven shell heaps are
nearby, many along the banks of Alligator Creek. Sand
tempered plain sherds are the only pottery type
recovered from these middens (Luer et al. n.d.).
Artifacts from the Acline Mound include 52 sand
tempered plain, 22 Belle Glade Plain, and four Pinellas
Plain sherds, along with several shell tools or utilized
shells (Luer et al. n.d.). Unfortunately, no temporally
diagnostic artifacts were collected. The mound could be
either a Safety Harbor or Weeden Island-related mound,

256
but it is impossible to determine on the basis of the
available evidence.
The Muddy Cove Number 2 site (8Ch72) is a shell
midden measuring about 7.6 m by 3.7 m, with a maximum
height of 0.9 m. In addition to shell tools, 33 sand
tempered plain sherds and a rim fragment of a Lake
Jackson Incised or Point Washington Incised vessel were
collected from the surface (Luer and Archibald 1988).
The latter fragment probably indicates Safety Harbor
occupation.
The Wrecked site (8Ch75), as its name implies, was
a sand burial mound destroyed by vandals in 1982-1983
(Luer and Almy 1987:Figure 1). Sarasota Incised vessels
were recovered from the site (Luer 1985:Figure lg), and
cylindical beakers and collared jars with Safety Harbor
Incised designs are also known (Luer and Almy 1987:Table
2). Portions of two Pinellas Plain vessels from the
site had notched lips. A bird head adorno was also
found (George M. Luer, personal communication 1988).
The site was a Safety Harbor burial mound.
The state-owned Cameron Island site (8Ch87) is a
shell midden and artifact scatter. The FMSF form
indicates that several decorated Glades pottery types
were recovered, as well as one Pinellas Plain rim sherd
(with a notched lip) and St. Johns Check Stamped sherds.

257
The Pinellas Plain with a notched lip suggests that the
site had some Safety Harbor occupation.
The A&W Mound was an unrecorded sand burial mound
about 1.5 km north of Aqui Esta (Luer et al. n.d.). It
was destroyed by construction of a restaurant, but
collectors in the 1940s reported burials, pottery, and
European glass beads from the site (Anita Jones,
personal communication 1988).
In the SFM collections, there are several vessels
from Charlotte County. Two of these are Safety Harbor
types. One is a large, flattened globular Safety Harbor
Incised bowl (#2373), and the other is a jar with an
incised design and a notched lip and flared rim
(#A7374). No record exists of the original provenience
of these vessels, though they were probably obtained by
Montague Tallant. The second vessel (#A7374) may
actually be from Marion County.
Lee County
Several sites in Lee County have yielded Safety
Harbor pottery and other artifacts. At present, the
nature of Safety Harbor occupation in the area is not
understood. This portion of Florida is generally
considered to have been occupied by the Calusa Indians
in the sixteenth century (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964;

258
Solis de Mers 1964:139-140; Widmer 1988:97), and it is
probable that Calusa groups used Safety Harbor ceramics
in mortuary contexts (Widmer 1988:85-86).
The Mound Key site (8LL2) in Estero Bay is an
extensive network of shell middens, shell works, and a
canal. The island was visited by Andrew E. Douglass in
1885, though he did no digging (Douglass n.d.:130).
Cushing (1896:347-348) also visited the key, which was
also known as Johnson's Key. He described an extensive
complex of courts and mounds reaching heights of over 18
m. A local resident told Cushing that many European
artifacts had been found atop the features, including
glass beads, copper sheets, ornaments of silver and
gold, and a copper-gilt locket which contained a Spanish
letter written on parchment (Cushing 1896:348).
Clarence B. Moore (1900:366-368) visited the island
a few years later. He measured the height of some of
the mounds, and found that the highest was 9.4 m high,
less than half the estimated height given by Cushing
(1900:367). Moore (1900:367) excavated in some of the
canals and "courts" on the island, finding only a few
sherds and a shell tool (NMNH #204798). He also
excavated in the burial mound (8LL3), which will be
discussed below.

259
The next mention of the site was by Hrdlicka
(1922:18-19). He probably did not excavate. John
Goggin visited the island, apparently on more than one
occasion. It is unclear where he made his collections,
but he described early style Olive Jar sherds and three
majolica sherds (Isabela Polychrome, Aucilla Polychrome,
and unclassified blue on white) from the island (Goggin
1954a:153, 1960:11, 1968:72).
Collections from the site are numerous and widely
scattered. The FMNH site file indicates that
collections are present at NMNH (#204798, 241185-241198,
and 340716), MAI (#11/7625, 12/273-4, and others), UPM
(#41185 and 41192-41196), Wagner Free Institute (Willcox
collection), the Alabama Department of Archives, the
Putnam Museum (formerly the Davenport Public Museum),
MPM (#24448/6770), and FMNH.
In the FMNH collection, many sherds of Olive Jar,
sand tempered plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain,
transfer ware, and green bottle glass are present. Two
body sherds of Safety Harbor Incised (#A-15015 and A-
15023) are present, as well as some possible Pinellas
Plain sherds (#A-15021). Most of the material in the
collection appears to have come from a nineteenth
century Cuban fishery. However, a rim sherd from an ^
early style Olive Jar and a sherd of Melado are also in.-'

260
the collection (#101670). Melado is almost always found
in pre-1550 contexts (Deagan 1987:48), while early style
Olive Jars date from pre-1570 contexts (Deagan 1987:33;
Goggin 1960:23).
Notes with the site form in the FMNH file
identified some of the material from the various other
collections. Gold coin beads and a gold tablet were
recorded from a private collection. Two sherds with
notched lips, a Pinellas Plain sherd, and four Fort
Walton Incised (Safety Harbor Incised?) sherds were
recorded from the Wagner Free Institute collection.
Englewood Incised and Fort Walton Incised (Safety Harbor
Incised?) sherds were present in UPM (#41192 and 41193).
Two bird head adornos were present in MAI (#17/273-274),
along with a thin gold bead (#13/6059). Allerton et al.
(1984:30) indicated that an incised silver tablet was
recovered from a shell mound on the key in 1937.
r Research by Luer (1984:274) revealed that many
\ artifacts in MAI and UPM (#6869-6879 and 8182-8280)
j recorded by Goggin as coming from Punta Rassa (8LL7)
actually came from Mound Key (8LL2). Two incised silver
tablets (MAI #1/7964 and 1/7965 [formerly UPM #8191 and
8192]) were excavated by local residents in 1890
(Allerton et al. 1984:28, Figures 7d and 7e; Luer
1984:273). The copper and lead plummet pendants

261
illustrated by Goggin (1954b:Figure lc and Id) were from
Mound Key. So were the silver coin beads (UPM #8193)
illustrated by Fairbanks (1968b:Figure 1). Notes in the
FMNH site file record the items listed in Table 37 in
the Mound Key (8LL2) collection at UPM (#6872, 6879,
8188, 8195-8198, 8201, 8203, 8204, 8206-8208, 8211-8213,
8215-8217, 8219-8221, 8223, 8228, and 8233).
The artifacts indicate that there was a Safety
Harbor component on the island, but the extent of the
occupation is unknown. It is interesting that Englewood
pottery was present, indicating a very early Safety
Harbor component, as well as the abundant European
material. Unfortunately, lack of provenience
information limits our ability to interpret the extent
or duration of the Safety Harbor component.
There is a sand burial mound on the island, which
has been assigned the site number 8LL3. Many of the
objects mentioned above may have come from this mound.
Moore (1900:367-368) excavated portions of it, recording
measurements of 19.8 m diameter and 3.3 m high. He
reported finding "nothing of particular interest" (Moore
1900:367), but did mention that many objects, including
European artifacts, had been previously removed from it.
The locket containing a letter mentioned by Cushing
(1896:348) apparently came from this mound. Schell

262
Table 37. Artifacts from Mound Key (8LL2) at UPM.
Description Count
Glass:
O Chevron beads 8
Blue beads (strung with Florida Cut Crystal beads) 2
Seed beads (blue, yellow, white, and undescribed) many
Various sizes amber beads (unclear whether these
are true amber or amber-colored glass), some
faceted, some gilded, shaped like
truncated cones 2
Teardrop-shaped melted green-blue pendant 1
"Punta Rassa" teardrop-shaped blue-green pendants,
possibly mold-made 2
Teardrop-shaped colorless pendant, flat on 1 side,
faceted on other 1
Miscellaneous broken object, shaped like a
fleur-de-lis 1
Lapidary Beads:
0 Florida Cut Crystal 4 strings
Smooth surface crystal beads 1 string
Tubular white coral bead 1
Metal:
Copper plummet pendant
1

263
Table 37continued
Description Count
Rolled sheet silver beads (1 is incised or stamped
with geometric design or bars and dots surrounding
a cross) 2
Large rolled sheet silver beads (up to 3.8 cm long,
1.1 cm diameter) 2
Silver coin beads 2
Brass bells (apparently cast, 1.1 cm diameter, 1.5 cm
height, small attachment loop, perforations in
upper hemisphere only) 9
Lead musket balls 2
Iron key 1
Bone:
Carved bone bird 1
Spiral-incised bone pin 1
Bone "slide" 1
Incised bone bead 1
Stemmed bone projectile point 1
(1968:36-38) indicated that portions of this letter were
translated, and the name Mercer Espindola was
prominently mentioned. Schell believed this referred to
a captain under Soto's command, called Micer Espindola
in the relation by Garcilaso de la Vega (Varner and

264
Varner 1951:22, 534). However, as Schell (1968:37)
noted, the validity of the presence of this name in the
letter is questionable. He stated that the locket was
found with a single skeleton in the top of the mound,
along with two crosses (one gold and one silver), a gold
finger ring, three small bells connected with a silver
chain, a small gold bar, gold beads with square holes,
brass shields, broken sword hilts, musket parts, iron
cannon balls, fencing shields, Spanish coins, and an
English coin (Schell 1968:37). He did not identify the
present location of these materials.
A note in the FMNH site file indicates that a
collection from the mound was made by Goggin, but the
collection could not be located. The card notes that
sand tempered plain, Belle Glade Plain, Dunns Creek Red,
St. Johns Plain, and unclassified plain sherds were
present, along with shell objects, grinding stones, and
human bones. Unfortunately, these types are
undiagnostic, with the possible exception of Dunns Creek
Red, which is a Weeden Island type (Goggin 1948:7).
Safety Harbor Incised sherds have been reported from the
burial mound.
The Mound Key sites (8LL2 and 8LL3) are very
important because the island is thought to be the site
of Calos, the principal town of the sixteenth century

265
Calusa Indians and the residence of their paramount
chief, Carlos (Goggin and Sturtevant 1964:182-183? Lewis
1978:36-43; Schell 1968:36; Voegelin 1972:59; Widmer
1988:5). This town was visited several times by Pedro
Menndez de Avils in 1566 and 1567 (Solis de Mers
1964:139-151, 219-229). Many of the European artifacts
from the island do indeed date from the late sixteenth
century, including the Florida Cut Crystal beads (Deagan
1987:180? Smith 1987:46), true amber beads (if those
listed in Table 37 are true amber) (Deagan 1987:181;
Smith 1987:46), Isabela Polychrome majolica (Deagan
1987:59; Goggin 1968:128), early style Olive Jars
(Deagan 1987:33; Goggin 1960:23), and possibly the
chevron beads (Deagan 1987:166; Smith 1987:46). These
artifacts could have been associated with Menndez's
visit. The single Melado sherd (an early sixteenth
century type) from 8LL2 is probably anomalous, as the
rest of the European assemblage appears to be later.
Seventeenth century European contact is indicated
by Aucilla Polychrome majolica (Deagan 1987:77; Goggin
y
1968:163) and coin beads (Fairbanks 1968b:102). The
cast brass bells are not in Brown's (1979a) typology,
but similar cast bells are generally found in eighteenth
century contexts in North America. These artifacts, as
well as many of the Olive Jar sherds, are probably

266
associated with Cuban fishing activities lasting until
the nineteenth century (Covington 1959; Dodd 1947;
Hammond 1973).
A large number of European artifacts, as well as
Englewood Incised and Safety Harbor Incised pottery,
have been attributed to the Punta Rassa site (8LL7). It
is uncertain whether material attributed to this site
came from a now-unknown site in the Punta Rassa area or
from the Shell Creek site (8LL8). Research by George M.
Luer (personal communication 1989) has revealed that
many of the objects in MAI and UPM actually came from
8LL2, and were purchased by a Mr. Willcox and ended up
in the two museums. Notes in the FMNH site file
indicate that a number of artifacts from the site are
curated at MAI (#1/7969-7979), but George M. Luer
(personal communication 1989) has noted that they
probably came from 8LL2. They are listed in Table 38.
The perforated gold disc (#1/7969) was reportedly
recovered by Cushing (this also probably came from 8LL2,
as there is no evidence that Cushing visited Punta
Rassa).
From UPM are a chert projectile point (no number)
and a silver ornament (#6863), which, according to
George M. Luer (personal communication 1989), came from
8LL2. There are Englewood Incised sherds (#340718) and

267
Table 38. Metal Artifacts Attributed to Punta Rassa
(8LL7) in MAI, but Probably from 8LL2.
Description Count
Perforated gold disc, very dented 1
Gold coin beveled discs 9
Gold coin beads 4
Undescribed gold bead 1
Hollow gold beads (1 is embossed) 3
Rolled sheet gold bead 1
Gold seed beads 2
Small barrel-shaped coin bead (material not
identified) 1
a Safety Harbor Incised sherd (#340718) in NMNH which
are recorded as coming from Punta Rassa. Allerton et
al. (1984:46) indicated that two incised wooden tablets
may have come from the site (Fewkes 1928; Griffin
1946:297), but George M. Luer (personal communication
1989) now notes that these came from Kinzie Cove. A
note in the FPS files in FMNH notes that a metal crested
bird ornament (like the one described by Rau [1878]) was
recovered from Punta Rassa, but this was actually
recovered from 8LL2 (George M. Luer, personal
communication 1989).
Because of the confusion regarding artifacts
attributed to Punta Rassa, it is difficult to determine

268
what type of occupation was present there. An early
Safety Harbor occupation can be posited based on the
Englewood Incised sherds in NMNH, but evidence for
postcontact occupation is lacking.
The Shell Creek site (8LL8) was first visited by C.
B. Moore, who referred to it as a "Mound near Punta
Rassa, Lee County" (1905:308-309). The circular sand
mound was 4.4 m high and 27.4 m in diameter, with a flat
projection (ramp?) extending into the surrounding swamp.
Moore (1905:Figures 11-14) illustrated four sherds of
Safety Harbor Incised pottery from the mound, one of
which (1905:Figure 12) was from a collared jar or
beaker. Three shell causeways led from the mound toward
adjacent middens. Moore excavated seven flexed burials,
and noted that many glass beads had been recovered by
previous diggers (1905:309). He found one glass bead in
spoil from a hole dug prior to his work, and mentioned
that several check stamped sherds were encountered
(1905:309). Hrdlicka (1922:16) mentioned the mound, but
did not excavate.
Allerton et al. (1984:40) described four sheet
silver incised tablets recovered from the site in 1972.
They also indicated that the following artifacts had
been recovered: 12 crystal beads; two crystal pendants;
two incised rolled silver beads; black twisted pressed

269
beads; dark blue glass cane beads; faceted diamond
shaped red or yellow glass beads; faceted pressed
colorless glass beads; faceted Florida Cut Crystal
beads; Ichtucknee Blue beads; white and blue glass seed
beads; and Cornaline d'Aleppo beads (1984:40).
A private collection from the site includes Busvcon
cups, Safety Harbor Incised, possible Englewood Incised,
Sarasota Incised, Point Washington Incised, Lake Jackson
Plain, cord marked, and Carrabelle Incised pottery
(George M. Luer, personal communication 1988). A
classic Safety Harbor Incised collared jar with four
human head adornos is also in this collection (Robert J.
Austin, personal communication 1988). An anonymous
informant indicated that a crystal "figa" pendant
reportedly came from the site.
The artifacts indicate that the mound is a Safety
Harbor burial mound, with a postcontact component and a
probable late Weeden Island-related component. The
information on European materials indicates that the
period of contact was probably the late sixteenth
century or later. Florida Cut Crystal beads are found
on sites dating to 1550-1600 (Deagan 1987:180), as are
some examples of Cornaline d'Aleppo and of heat-altered
drawn opaque turquoise blue glass beads (Ichtucknee
Blue) (1987:168, 171). However, these latter two types

270
of beads are more common on seventeenth century sites
(Deagan 1987:168, 171).
Pinellas Plain sherds were observed in the
excavated collection from the Galt Island shell mound
(8LL27), which was tested in 1987 by FMNH archaeologists
(Marquardt 1988). A card in the FMNH site file
indicates that William Plowden collected 349/27 sand
tempered plain, 15/4 Belle Glade Plain, 3/1 St. Johns
Plain, 2/1 St. Johns Check Stamped, and 13/1
unclassified sherds from the site. Also recorded are
5/0 Olive Jar sherds, a slipware sherd, and a green
bottle glass fragment. The present location of
Plowden7s collection is unknown.
Limited survey and testing of the site by Robin S.
Futch (1980) revealed that many glass sherds, as well as
a mocha pearlware sherd, a salt-glazed stoneware sherd,
one Olive Jar sherd, and a "hand painted whiteware"
sherd were present. These were in addition to a large
number of aboriginal artifacts.
The Pinellas Plain sherds from Marquardt7s
excavations suggest that there may be a Safety Harbor
component at the site. He obtained five radiocarbon
dates on shell samples from various proveniences
(Marquardt and Beriault 1988). These samples yielded
uncorrected dates of 720 70 B.P., 1320 60 B.P.,
1150

271
60 B.P., 1480 70 B.P. and 1610 60 B.P. (Beta-
24165 through 24169, respectively). Since isotopic
fractionation and the reservoir effect cancel each other
out in shell from Florida waters (Jerry Stipp, personal
communication 1989), the dates are not calibrated here.
They convert to uncorrected calendrical dates of A.D.
1230 70, A.D. 630 60, A.D. 800 60, A.D. 470 70,
and A.D. 340 60, respectively. The first of these
adds some minor support to the possibility of a Safety
Harbor component.
The Olive Jar and other European ceramics and glass
from the shell mound indicate that European contact was
late. The mocha pearlware dates from the nineteenth
century (Noel Hume 1976:131), and the salt-glazed
stoneware dates from after 1720 (Noel Hume 1976:114).
These remains suggest that Cuban fishing ranchos or
homesteads were present.
The Demorey Key site (8LL31), which has also been
referred to as Demere Key, Demerey Key, and Demerest's
Key, is a small island in Pine Island Sound. Cushing
(1897:337-341) described and illustrated features on the
island, including several major shell and earth mounds.
C. B. Moore (1900:363-366) also visited the island,
excavating in several areas. It was his belief that
some of the features were of recent origin. The results

272
of his excavations supported this interpretation
(1900:366).
Collections from the site are in NMNH (#241215-
241218, 293057-293060, and 299988), UPM (#41216 and
123043-123065), MAI (#10/5679), and YPM. Most of these
specimens were undiagnostic, but notes in the FMNH site
file indicate that one sherd in NMNH was identified by
Goggin (1949a:290) as Pinellas Incised (#293059). Part
of a Lake Jackson Plain vessel with lug handles on the
rim is also in NMNH (#299988). Collections by William
Plowden in 1952 included Pinellas Plain, Jefferson
Complicated Stamped, sand tempered plain, Belle Glade
Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Glades
Tooled, Olive Jar, and other miscellaneous pottery
types, both aboriginal and European.
If there is a Safety Harbor component at the site,
it is apparently minor. Most of the European material
is probably of recent origin, either from Cuban
fishermen or other early nonaboriginal settlers.
The Pineland site (8LL33) was visited by Cushing
(1897:341-342), who referred to the site as Battey's
Landing. The site is a complex of shell middens and
features covering several hectares on Pine Island.
Notes in the FMNH site file indicate that small
quantities of Englewood Incised, Safety Harbor Incised,

273
and Pinellas Incised came from the site (NMNH #241219-
241222). A single sherd of Safety Harbor Incised is in
the UPM collections (#41221). Other types mentioned
from the site include sand tempered plain, St. Johns
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,
possible Pinellas Plain, Papys Bayou Punctated, and
possible San Marcos Stamped. Olive Jar and recent
crockery were also noted.
Four test units were excavated in the midden by
FMNH archaeologists in 1988 (William H. Marquardt,
personal communication 1988). Pottery types recovered
by this work included sand tempered plain, Belle Glade
Plain, St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,
Pinellas Plain, several decorated Weeden Island types,
and incised types typical of the circum-Glades area.
One possible Pinellas Plain sherd had a notched lip.
Minor Safety Harbor influence was indicated by 1/0
possible Sarasota Incised, 1/1 Englewood Incised, 1/1
Safety Harbor Incised, and 1/0 Pinellas Incised sherds.
The data from the Pineland site indicate that a Safety
Harbor component is present at the site, though
apparently not a major one.
The Pineland Burial Mound is east of 8LL33. The
site was probably visited by Douglass (n.d.:135) in
1885. There is some confusion concerning the correct

274
site number of this mound. George M. Luer (1986a:285,
personal communication 1989) feels that the burial mound
was originally numbered 8LL35 (now assigned to the
Bokeelia Beach midden), but was changed by Goggin to
protect the site. Luer believes that 8LL36 refers to
the "shapely" mound visited by Cushing (1897:342). A
ramp spiraled around this mound from the southern side
to the summit. The mound stood in the middle of a large
artificial lake (1897:342). However, the FMSF lists
8LL36 as the Pineland Burial Mound (Austin 1987¡Appendix
A). To avoid further confusion, neither number will be
used here.
Descriptions in the FMNH site file by Goggin and
Plowden indicated that the height of the Pineland Burial
Mound was 6-10.7 m in 1950, with a diameter of 61 m.
The western half had been removed. The most recent
description also indicates that the west half is gone
(Luer 1986a:Figure 3). Pottery types from a collection
made in 1952 are listed in Table 39. This collection
(present location unknown) indicates that the site was
probably a Safety Harbor mound.
Photographs of a private collection from the mound
revealed that many artifacts were excavated there in the
late 1960s. Those artifacts which could be identified
from the photographs are listed in Table 40. These

275
Table 39. Ceramics in a Collection from
the Pineland Burial Mound.
Description
Sand tempered plain
Count
54/4
Belle Glade Plain
10/0
St. Johns Plain
8/0
St. Johns Check Stamped
3/0
St. Johns Simple Stamped
Safety Harbor Incised
Unclassified incised on gritty paste
2/0
3/0
1/0
artifacts indicate that an early sixteenth century
contact is probable, based on the Nueva Cadiz, faceted
chevron, and olive-shaped striped beads (Smith and Good
1982). At least one later episode of contact can be
inferred from the presence of the Florida Cut Crystal,
seed, and coin beads.
The Indian Field site (8LL39), also known as Indian
Old Hill, is a shell midden covering 1.2 ha. The site
was tested by Plowden and Goggin in 1952. Their test
unit (FMNH #98551) and surface collection (#98550)
yielded the artifacts listed in Table 41. There is also
a Cornaline d'Aleppo glass bead (#A-19935) in the FMNH
collection, but no provenience information is available
for this artifact. The pottery types clearly indicate a
Safety Harbor component at the site. The FMNH site file

276
Table 40. Artifacts in a Private Collection from
the Pineland Burial Mound.
Description Count
Ceramics:
St. Johns Check Stamped 2
Unidentified incised and punctated >1
Stone:
Florida Archaic Stemmed projectile point 1
Drilled large shark teeth (possibly fossilized) 2
Glass Beads:
Large Nueva Cadiz Plain (layered, turquoise exterior) 1
Nueva Cadiz Plain (layered, turquoise exterior) 1
Faceted chevron ca. 7
Olive-shaped blue and white spiral striped
(IB3c or IB3e)* 1
Olive-shaped white with wide blue spiral stripes
(IB3e)* 1
Seed beads (opaque white, opaque medium blue, opaque
turquoise blue, yellow, possibly colorless and
green) many
Probable colorless Gooseberry 1
Probable drawn opaque turquoise blue 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal beads 9
Metal:
Gold ceremonial tablet 1

277
Table 40continued
Description
Gold disc (ca. 2.5 cm diameter)
Probable gold beads
Silver cross (with incised decorations)
Probable silver coin beads
Count
>1
>1
1
1
Oblate silver beads
>1
Small silver disc beads
>1
Probable copper or brass beads
>1
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
includes notes on a private collection of 58 European
beads from the site. The descriptions indicate that 19
of these were faceted blue glass beads, typical of
Seminole sites. There were also 22 faceted black glass
beads, three faceted "crystal" beads (it is unclear
whether these were Florida Cut Crystal or faceted
colorless glass), two faceted yellow or light brown
glass beads, and 12 globular colorless glass beads. All
of these apparently date from the nineteenth century,
and probably resulted from occupation by Seminles
associated with the Cuban fishing trade.
The Pine Island 8 site (8LL40) was a sand burial
mound on Pine Island about 1.2 km from 8LL39. The mound
was completely excavated by C. B. Moore between 1900 and

278
Table 41. Artifacts in FMNH from Excavation and Surface
Collection at the Indian Field Site (8LL39).
Description Count
Excavation Unit:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 16/4
St. Johns Plain 10/1
Belle Glade Plain 9/2
Pinellas Plain (rim has notched lip) 5/1
Possible Sarasota Incised 2/0
Shell:
Busvcon fragment 1
Perforated Venus shells 2
Surface Collection:
Ceramics:
Sand tempered plain 97/95
Sand tempered plain with notched or tooled lips 5/5
Belle Glade Plain 65/60
St. Johns Plain 17/7
St. Johns Check Stamped 12/4
Pinellas Plain (2 rims have notched lips) 16/16
Glades Tooled 2/2
Safety Harbor Incised (rim has notched lip) 2/1
Sarasota Incised variant 1/1
Miscellaneous sand tempered incised 1/0

279
1904 (Moore 1900:362-363, 1905:305-308). Before
excavation, the mound was 18.3 m in diameter, with a
height of 1.5 m. It was unstratified except for a layer
of black sand at the base, and was constructed of gray
sand on a sand spit (Moore 1900:362).
During the first season of work, Moore noted that a
thick deposit of pottery sherds was encountered, along
with Busvcon shell cups and shells (1900:362). This
deposit was in the northeast part of the mound near the
surface. At least 38 burials were excavated, including
loosely flexed, very tightly flexed, and secondary
interments. Some of the primary burials showed evidence
of disturbance from later interments. Burials were
located at the base of the mound, in the submound soil
below the base, and in the body of the mound. Moore
(1900:363) noted that those burials at and below the
base were generally tightly flexed and not accompanied
by artifacts. Burials from the body of the mound were
generally loosely flexed, and dated from the postcontact
period, as several were accompanied by European
artifacts.
Artifacts found with burials during the first
season included three iron celts, glass beads, two
rolled sheet silver beads, a kite-shaped sheet silver
pendant decorated with a repouss cross (Moore

280
1900:Figure 5), a "lance-head" of hornstone, three
projectile points (one spear, two arrow), and a
perforated fossil shark tooth (1900:362-363). The
descriptions of these finds are inadequate for
determining whether a Safety Harbor component was
present.
The 1904 excavations revealed that a number of
flexed and bundle burials were in the black sand deposit
at the base of the mound. There was also a great mass
of disarticulated secondary bones. The black layer was
only a few centimeters thick at the mound edge, but
increased to about 82 cm in thickness near the center
(Moore 1905:305). Two tightly flexed interments were in
graves dug beneath the mound base. Flexed and secondary
burials were recovered from the body of the mound. A
total of 219 individuals were represented in the second
season's excavations (1905:306).
Only one complete vessel was found, a plain bowl
with a diameter of about 17.8 cm. It was not associated
with an individual burial. Sherds were encountered in
various parts of the mound, and Moore (1905:306-307)
mentioned check stamped, notched lips, and loop handles.
He also illustrated a Fort Walton Incised, var. Sneads
sherd (1905:Figure 6), noting that three or four
fragments of this ware were present. Though the

281
collection was not examined for the present study, the
notched lips may represent Pinellas Plain, and the loop
handles are probably from Lake Jackson Plain, Pinellas
Incised, or Point Washington Incised vessels.
Moore (1905:307) noted that the burials at the
mound base had no accompanying European artifacts except
for a slab of pine wood which appeared to have been cut
with a metal axe. Also found at the base were several
stone and shell artifacts (1905:307). From burials in
the body of the mound, Moore (1905:307) reported the
artifacts listed in Table 42.
This site is very important, because it yielded a
complete sample of a postcontact mound. The
descriptions of the European materials suggest that the
episode of contact occurred in the last half of the
sixteenth century or later. The pottery descriptions
are vague. Based on Moore's (1905) illustrations,
Goggin (1949a:298) mentioned that Safety Harbor Incised
pottery had been recovered from the mound, but it was
actually Fort Walton Incised, var. Sneads (Scarry
1985:219, Figure 5b). The presence of Fort Walton
pottery at the site is interesting, and suggests contact
with groups from northwest Florida, possibly refugees
from early Spanish efforts to establish missions. A

282
Table 42. Artifacts Recovered from Burials in
the Main Portion of the Pine Island 8 Site
(8LL40) by C. B. Moore in 1904.
Description Count
Glass:
Undescribed bead 1
Small beads (probably seed beads) many
Cross pendant (with a burial) 1
Worked teardrop-shaped pendant (with a burial) 1
Metal:
"Early" iron axes (with burials) 5
Iron knives (with burials) 3
Iron pruning knife (with a burial) 1
Pairs of scissors (with burials) 3
Broad chisels (with burials) 2
Chisel or "caulking-knife" (with a burial) 1
Iron implement (71.1 cm long, 1.9 cm thick, square
cross-section) (with a burial) 1
Rolled sheet silver beads (with or near burials) 3
Sheet silver pendant (concavo-convex, 12.7 cm long,
2 holes in 1 end) 1
Ceramic:
Teardrop-shaped earthenware fragment 1
Stone:
Large hammerstone 1
Sandstone hone
1

283
Safety Harbor component may have been present, but it is
impossible to tell on the basis of present information.
The Buck Key site (8LL55) was tested by FMNH
archaeologists in 1986 (Marquardt 1987a). Among the
remains (#A27562) from the midden were 1/1 Sarasota
Incised sherd and a fragment of a handle from a pottery
vessel (the type found on Lake Jackson Plain, Point
Washington Incised, and Pinellas Incised vessels). -Some
Pinellas Plain-like ware was also recovered. A minor
Safety Harbor component may be present, but the Safety
Harbor types are more likely the result of exchange with
groups north of this area. Two small collections irom
the site are in NMNH (#204926-204927 and 293061), but
have not been analyzed.
A sand and shell burial mound known as the Captiva
Mound (8LL57) is located on Captiva Island. This site
was first visited by Wainwright (1918:47), who noted
that there was a lot of broken pottery in the area.
Collins (1929:153-156) later excavated the mound,
recovering at least 70 flexed and secondary burials.
Sherds were carefully placed around many of the skulls.
A pavement of sherds was also present on one side.
Collins did not describe or illustrate the pottery, but
a note in the FMNH site file (apparently by Goggin)
indicates that some possible Englewood Incised was

284
recovered. However, there is no other evidence to
suggest that the mound had a Safety Harbor component.
The Galt Island Burial Mound (8LL81) is a sand
mound measuring 36.6 m by 30.5 m, with a height of 3.7
m. At the time of its recording in 1952, it had been
badly disturbed. William Plowden recorded the following
pottery types: 33/5 sand tempered plain, 1/1 possible
Fort Drum Incised, 1/0 Safety Harbor Incised, and 7/1
Belle Glade Plain. He also noted that human bones were
present. Since Plowden#s work, the mound has continued
to be vandalized. Collections from disturbed areas were
made by Futch (1980) and Marquardt (1988). In
Marquardt's collection in FMNH (#A20402), there are 1/0
Pinellas Incised and 6/2 Pinellas Plain sherds. Both of
the rims have notched lips. These data indicate that a
Safety Harbor component is present.
There is a postcontact Safety Harbor component at
the site, based on photographs of a private collection
from the site (William H. Marquardt, personal
communication 1988), which include those European
artifacts listed in Table 43. The Nueva Cadiz bead
suggests an early sixteenth century contact, but the
Florida Cut Crystal, barrel-shaped Gooseberry, and blue
beads indicate a late sixteenth to eighteenth century
period of contact (Deagan 1987:168, 180).

285
Table 43. European Beads in a Private Collection
from the Galt Island Burial Mound (8LL81).
Description Count
Nueva Cadiz Plain, faceted (layered) 1
Barrel-shaped Gooseberry (double beads, 1 pair
colorless, other pair unknown color) 2
Translucent aquamarine blue 1
Translucent navy or cobalt blue 1
Large spherical transparent aquamarine blue 3
Spherical brown (possible VIDlp)* 5
Large spherical frosted colorless glass or Florida
Cut Crystal 2
Seed beads (opaque white, opaque turquoise blue,
several shades of blue, Cornaline d'Aleppo) many
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
A site known as Dr. Wilson's Sanctuary #3 (8LL111)
was discovered in the J. N. "Ding" Darling National
Wildlife Refuge on Sanibel Island in 1978 (Kennedy
1978:41). It is a shell midden covering 0.4 ha, with a
height of 1.8-3.0 m. According to the FMSF form,
surface collections yielded 61 sand tempered plain
sherds, a Safety Harbor Incised sherd, 32 Pinellas Plain
sherds (including three rims with notched lips), one
undescribed Spanish majolica sherd, one St. Johns Plain
sherd, and an unidentified sherd. The artifacts

286
indicate a postcontact Safety Harbor occupation.
Because the majolica was not described (and cannot be
located in the collections at Florida Atlantic
University), it is impossible to determine the period of
contact.
An unrecorded site, the Shell Point Burial Mound,
was discovered in 1983. A collection in FMNH (#A-16874)
from the site includes the sherds listed in Table 44.
The Safety Harbor Incised vessels include bottles,
collared jars, and shallow open bowls. Some rims
exhibit appliqus. Several of the sand tempered plain
sherds in the collection are undoubtedly fragments of
Safety Harbor Incised vessels. Some of the sherds
classified as Englewood Incised may actually be Safety
Harbor Incised. In some cases, the sherds were too
small to differentiate. The assemblage indicates that
the site is a Safety Harbor burial mound. The single
glazed earthenware sherd may indicate a postcontact
component. Unfortunately, virtually nothing is known
about the site or its location. The only provenience
information indicates that the materials were found at a
depth of about 1.8 m, approximately 3 m from the
northeast periphery of the mound.

287
Table 44. Ceramics from the Shell Point Burial Mound,
Lee County.
Description Count
Safety Harbor Incised 58/14
Sand tempered plain 24/4
Sand tempered plain basal fragments with prefired
perforations 2/0
Pinellas Plain (rim has a notched lip) 7/1
Englewood Incised 7/1
St. Johns Check Stamped 5/1
Grog tempered plain 2/0
Miscellaneous gritty incised 2/0
Belle Glade Plain 1/1
Pasco Plain 1/1
Unclassified green lead-glazed earthenware 1/0
Collier Countv
A few Safety Harbor sites are present in Collier
County, though interpreting them, as in Charlotte and
Lee Counties, is difficult. Once again, it is possible
that they are Calusa sites with Safety Harbor artifacts
obtained by exchange.
Chokoloskee Key (8Crl) is an island covered with
middens, mounds, and other features of shell. C. B.
Moore visited the island several times (1900:377-380,
1905:312-314, 1907b:461-462), recovering artifacts of

288
shell, stone, and wood. Local residents knew of the
very extensive shell deposits covering most of the
island (Simpson 1920:65-66). Hrdlicka (1922:35-36) also
visited the island, pointing out its great potential for
yielding preserved organic remains.
Three sherds of possible Englewood or Sarasota
Incised pottery are in the FMNH collection from the site
(#98467 and 98477). Other researchers have also
reported variants of Englewood Incised from the island
(John G. Beriault, personal communication 1988). In
addition, there is a "terraced" bottle (similar to the
Georgia type Nunnally Plain [Schnell et al. 1981:Figure
4.1]) from the island in the collection of the Museum of
the Historical Society of Southern Florida in Miami
(John G. Beriault and George M. Luer, personal
communication 1988). However, the overwhelming majority
of decorated types consist of such types as Key Largo
Incised, Matecumbe Incised, Miami Incised, Surfside
Incised, Ft. Drum Punctate, St. Johns Check Stamped, and
Ft. Drum Incised (Goggin 1944b). The possible Englewood
or Sarasota types could be a variant of Ft. Drum
Punctated, but the evidence suggests that a variant of
Englewood/Sarasota Incised is indeed present on
Chokoloskee Island. The few sherds and the single

289
vessel are most probably a result of exchange with
Safety Harbor groups to the north.
Sears (1956:55, Figure 4) identified nine sherds
from the Turner River site (8Cr2) as possible Englewood
Incised. The materials from his excavation are in FMNH
(#93046-93047). The sherds he identified as possible
Englewood Incised appear to more closely resemble Ft.
Drum Punctated (Goggin 1944b:5).
The Wiggins Key site (8Crll) was first mentioned by
C. B. Moore (1900:377, 1905:311). Pinellas Plain
(including notched-lip specimens), Jefferson Complicated
Stamped, and Glades Tooled pottery has been recovered
from the site (John G. Beriault, personal communication
1988). Present information is insufficient to determine
whether this represents a Safety Harbor component or
material obtained by exchange.
John Goggin (1949b) made a number of surface
collections from different parts of the Goodland Point
Midden (8Cr45) in 1949. In the FMNH collection (#98494)
from the site, a body sherd of possible Englewood
Incised is present. Goggin (1949b:Figures 19x and 19z)
also illustrated two sherds which may be Sarasota
Incised. He believed that these represented local
variants of Surfside Incised (1949b:74). The possible
Englewood and Sarasota Incised sherds are either local

290
variants which resemble these types, or portions of
vessels obtained by exchange.
The Key Marco site (8Cr48) was made famous by
Cushing's (1897) work on an adjacent site (8Cr49), which
yielded many spectacular preserved wooden artifacts.
Large collections of materials from sites on Key Marco
are in many repositories around the country.
C. B. Moore excavated on Marco Island, finding
nothing. He obtained several artifacts from a local
resident (1900:369-371). Notes in the FMNH site file
indicate that a Lake Jackson Plain sherd (#4990) and a
possible Englewood Incised sherd (#40277) are in the
collection from the site at UPM. They may have been
obtained by Moore, and probably represent vessels that
the aborigines acquired by exchange.
Nine sherds identified as Englewood Incised (but
more closely resembling Sarasota Incised) were recovered
during excavations by Van Beck and Van Beck (1965:6,
Figure 2h). They also identified five sherds as "Fort
Walton-Influenced", but this identification is very
dubious (1965:10). The Sarasota or Englewood Incised
sherds were probably obtained by exchange, as the
overwhelming majority of sherds from the site are of
typical south Florida types (1965:Table II).

291
Hrdlicka (1922:20) mentioned an oblong sand mound
east of Gordon's Pass, from which local residents had
removed human bones and "cement." This mound is
recorded as the Gordon's Pass Sand Mound (8Cr57), but is
also known as the Kirkland Mound or the Holly Avenue
site. The site has been dug into for many years by a
large number of local residents. Originally, the mound
was 3.0-3.7 m high. It had at least two strata, and
there was a brownish, greasy stratum 1.8-2.1 m below the
surface.
Many European artifacts have been recovered, as
well as aboriginal pottery. Local residents, who wish
to remain anonymous, indicated that the materials listed
in Table 45 were removed from the mound.
The following pottery types from the site were seen
by the present author: Glades Tooled, Point Washington
Incised, a Safety Harbor Incised bottle neck decorated
with a herringbone and scroll design, burnished
Englewood Incised, St. Johns Check Stamped (some with
sooted exterior), sand tempered plain sherds, and a sand
tempered human face adorno. A large variety of European
materials were also observed by the author. These are
listed in Table 46.
The European beads allow possible dates for contact
to be suggested. The Nueva Cadiz, faceted chevron, and

292
Table 45. Artifacts Removed from the Gordon's Pass
Sand Mound/Kirkland Mound (8Cr57).
Description Count
Ceramics:
Safety Harbor Incised >1
Englewood Incised >1
Point Washington Incised >1
St. Johns Check Stamped >1
Metal:
Silver disc 1
Silver cup with script engraved on the exterior 1
Silver coin beads 20-30
Rolled sheet silver beads 2
Thin sheet silver pendant representing a leaf or
feather 1
Small silver disc beads 2
Gold coin beads 2-3
Coin bead of tumbaga ("red gold": a gold/copper
alloy) 1
Copper fragments 2
Glass Beads:
Faceted blue 2
Lapidary Object:
Possible crystal figa 1

293
Table 46. European Artifacts in a Collection from the
Gordon's Pass Sand Mound/Kirkland Mound (8Cr57).
Description Count
Glass:
Small Nueva Cadiz Plain bead (IIAle)* 1
Faceted chevron bead (cobalt blue/white/red/white/
medium transparent blue/possible white
core [eroded]) 1
Spheroid dark purple bead (IBlg)* 3
Colorless Raspberry bead 1
Olive-shaped molded yellow bead with gilded exterior 1
Spherical colorless bead with gilded exterior 3
Drawn opaque turquoise blue bead (Ichtucknee Blue) 2
Large spheroid transparent ultramarine blue bead 1
Large drawn barrel-shaped transparent ultramarine
blue bead 1
Small spheroid transparent ultramarine blue beads 2
Drawn olive-shaped light blue bead 1
Spherical transparent medium green bead 1
Spherical transparent yellow bead 2
Eye bead (body is opaque turquoise blue) 1
Barrel-shaped very dark brown bead 1
Small spheroid/olive-shaped medium translucent blue
bead with 6 opaque white longitudinal stripes 3
Seed beads (opaque white, blue, Cornaline d'Aleppo,
and yellow)
2 strings

294
Table 46continued
Count
nt dark cobalt blue bead with
ets several
s with marvered facets (cobalt blue,
ransparent turquoise blue, opaque
w, and purple) several
beads with 4 molded facets (probably
) 8
pendant of transparent light blue-
with attachment loop made by melting
glass and looping it around 1
Lapidary Beads:
Florida Cut Crystal (2 faceted, 1 six-lobed polished
specimen) 3
* Designation in the Smith and Good (1982) typology.
purple spheroid glass beads indicate a sixteenth century
date (Deagan 1987:165; Smith 1983:148, 150; Smith and
Good 1982:25). The spherical green glass bead also
probably dates to the sixteenth century, as similar
specimens were recovered at the Tatham Mound in Citrus
County (Mitchem and Leader 1988:Figure 3, Table 1). The
Florida Cut Crystal beads date to the late sixteenth
century (Deagan 1987:180; Smith 1987:46). The eye bead,

295
opaque turquoise blue glass (Ichtucknee Blue) beads, and
transparent ultramarine blue glass beads date from the
late sixteenth or early seventeenth centuries (Deagan
1987:167, 171; smith 1982, 1983:148, 152, 1987:33, 46).
The gilded and rosary beads are probably seventeenth
century types (Deagan 1987:176, Figure 7.11c-d; Smith
1983:Table 1), while the coin beads probably date to the
late seventeenth or early eighteenth centuries
(Fairbanks 1968b:102). The colorless raspberry bead is
normally found on early eighteenth century sites (Deagan
1987:178). These data, when combined with the presence
of both Englewood and Safety Harbor Incised pottery
types, indicate that 8Cr57 was used as a burial mound
for a long period, from earliest Safety Harbor times
through late postcontact. Most of the European
artifacts suggest contact beginning in the late
sixteenth century, but lack of intrasite provenience
information prevents a better interpretation of the
nature or sequence of contact. On the basis of present
knowledge, it can be considered the southernmost
definite Safety Harbor site.
The Gordon's Pass Midden (8Cr58) is a-shell midden
located on the north side of Gordon's Pass. Measuring
about 183 m long, 69 m wide, and 1.8 m high, the site
was investigated by Goggin (1939), who used material

296
from the site to formulate a ceramic sequence for the
area. Notes by Goggin in the FMNH site file indicate
that a variant of Englewood Incised was recovered from
the site. Unfortunately, it is not clear what
percentage of the total collection was constituted by
this type, but it was probably a minor part. The
proximity of the site to the Gordon's Pass Sand Mound
(8Cr57) suggests that the two may have been associated,
at least during the Englewood Phase.
A shell midden known as the Doctor's Pass Midden
(8Cr64) originally measured 76 m long, 31 m wide, and
2.5 m high. Though the site had been badly disturbed
prior to his visit, a note by Goggin in the FMNH site
file indicates that Englewood Incised pottery was found
here, along with typical southwest Florida types. A
pottery human face adorno and a variant of possible
Jefferson Ware have also been reported from the site
(John G. Beriault, personal communication 1988). The
paucity of information does not allow a confident
interpretation to be made concerning the nature of the
presence of Englewood pottery at the site.
A note in the FMNH site file indicates that a
single sherd of possible Englewood Incised pottery is in
the NMNH (#340733) collection from the Fort Simon Drum
site (8Cr78). Other pottery types from the site

297
indicate contact and possible cultural affinities with
the west coast, so the Englewood sherd is probably a
result of exchange.
The Lake Trafford Burial Mound (8Cr80) is an
enigmatic site west of Lake Trafford near Immokalee in
northern Collier County. According to notes in the FMNH
site file, Montague Tallant excavated there, and
recorded the following dimensions for the white sand
mound: 53 m north-south, 27 m east-west, and a height of
4.9 m. The highest elevation was at the north end.
Tallant noted that treasure hunters had extensively
disturbed the top 0.9-1.2 m, recovering a large quantity
of gold objects which were melted down and sold for
their metal content. Tallant recovered some gold beads
from the treasure hunters' spoil dirt. He believed that
the lower part of the mound dated from precontact times.
A collection of sherds from the site presented to
YPM in 1947 by Tallant included the types listed in
Table 47. This collection was only a sample of the
material Tallant had from the site, but apparently
accurately represented the range of diversity, in the
assemblage. Goggin (1949a:319-320) noted that typical
Belle Glade and Glades types of pottery were absent.
Tallant's suspicion that the lower stratum of the
mound was precontact in age was apparently correct, as

298
Table 47. Ceramics from the Lake Trafford Burial Mound
(8Cr80) in YPM.
Description Count
Pinellas Incised 5
St. Johns Check Stamped 4
St. Johns Plain 1
Safety Harbor Incised 1
Sherd with prefired basal perforation 1
Crude Papys Bayou Punctated (possible Sarasota
Incised?) 1
Carrabelle Punctated 1
Wakulla Check Stamped 1
Unclassified incised Belle Glade 1
the pottery types indicate a late Weeden Island-related
and Safety Harbor occupation for the mound. Loop
handles, rectangular lug handles, collared jars, a human
head adorno, and a pop-eyed bird head adorno on a Point
Washington Incised rim came from this site (Goggin
1949a:319-320; Luer 1986a:285; Luer and Almy 1987:Table
2). The Lake Trafford Mound is a classic Safety Harbor
site (probably a burial mound).
Four sherds of Englewood Incised pottery were
excavated from the Turner River Jungle Gardens site
(8Cr95) (Laxson 1966:127, Table 5, Figure 2). The rest
of the assemblage was composed of typical south Florida

299
types (with a few Weeden Island sherds), indicating that
the Englewood sherds were probably the result of
exchange.
Other Counties
Isolated occurrences of Safety Harbor materials are
known from sites in other counties in Florida. In every
case, their presence appears to be the result of
exchange, and should not be interpreted as evidence of
movement of Safety Harbor groups. These sites and
artifacts are discussed below, in alphabetical order by
county.
Brevard County. A miniature Sarasota Incised bowl
is in the FMNH collection (#29913) from the Grant Mound
(8Br56). This Malabar II culture site was a large shell
mound south of Melbourne (Rouse 1951:168-170). As Rouse
(1951:169) noted, the Malabar II culture was coeval with
Englewood occupation of the west coast. Therefore, it
can be assumed that the Sarasota Incised vessel was
obtained by exchange with early Safety Harbor groups.
Rouse (1951:193, Plate 3e) illustrated a sherd from
the Burns Mound (8Br85) on Cape Canaveral that he
identified as Sarasota Incised. The identification of
this specimen (NMNH #384064) is open to question. Rouse

300
identified it as a trade specimen from the Gulf coast
area (1951:169).
Broward County. At the Deerfield Midden (8Bd9),
Goggin (1949a:463) noted that Sarasota Incised pottery
had been found. The number and context of sherds was
not recorded.
Dade County. Excavations conducted at the Surfside
midden (8Da21) in the early 1930s yielded four
"Englewood Series" sherds and a single sherd of Safety
Harbor Incised (Goggin 1949a:463, 465; Willey 1949c:81,
100). The description of the Englewood Series sherds
indicates that both Englewood Incised and Sarasota
Incised sherds were present (Willey 1949c:100).
Two decorated sherds from the Grossman Farms 1 site
(8Da30) were classified as Englewood Incised (Brooks
1956:Figure le, If). One probable Safety Harbor Incised
sherd (1956:Figure lg) and two possible Englewood or
Sarasota incised sherds (1956:Figure lh, li) were also
excavated from the site.
At the Opa Locka 3 (8Da44) site, a single sherd of
Sarasota Incised was recovered during excavations in the
1930s (Goggin 1949a:463; Willey 1949c:89, Plate 14m).
Another Sarasota Incised sherd was recovered at the Opa
Locka 1 (8Da48) site (Goggin 1949a:463; Willey 1949c:85,
Plate 14n).

301
At the 202nd Street site (8Dal646), Laxson (1962:6,
8) recovered a sherd of Englewood Incised and one
Sarasota Incised sherd. There were also Weeden Island
types present at the site.
Duval County. Goggin (1952:Plate 5f) illustrated
part of a Sarasota Incised vessel from the Beauclerc
Midden (8Du45). This midden was associated with two
mounds (8Du43 and 8Du44), both of which yielded large
amounts of Weeden Island material (Moore 1894b:196-200).
The Sarasota Incised vessel could be from the late
Weeden Island-related occupation or may represent a
slightly later trade item.
Glades County. At the Fort Center site (8G112 and
8G113), Sears (1982:150, Table 3.1) recovered a few
sherds of Safety Harbor Incised from the disturbed
portion of the Mound B mortuary complex (8G112). Nine
Pinellas Plain sherds were also recovered from contexts
dating to the protohistoric period (1982:31-32).
Hendrv County. At the Pepper Mounds site (8Hn4),
Goggin (1949a:334-335) noted that a single rim sherd of
Safety Harbor Incised pottery had been found. Other
pottery types included Belle Glade and St. Johns types.
Marion County. A search through collections and
published accounts of research in Marion County revealed
that only one or two sherds of Safety Harbor Incised

302
pottery are recorded from the county. Both are from the
MacKenzie Mound (8Mr64), a Weeden Island-related burial
mound on Bird Island (Sears 1959:18, 25). The report is
unclear, but apparently, one was surface collected and
the other came from the top level (15 cm). Sears
(1959:18-19) believed that at least one of these (FMNH
#93987) was associated with a badly disturbed, intrusive
burial (#23), which had a fragment of an opaque
turquoise blue (Ichtucknee Blue) glass bead (FMNH
#93996) in association. The bead would indicate a late
sixteenth century (or later) date for this burial
(Deagan 1987:171).
Monroe County. Excavations at the Key Largo 1 site
(8Mo25) yielded a single sherd of probable Sarasota
Incised pottery (Goggin 1944a:23, Figure 2g, 1949a:463).
Some Safety Harbor material has also reportedly been
recovered from Stock Island in the Florida Keys (John G.
Beriault, personal communication 1988).
Palm Beach County. From excavations at the Belle
Glade site (8Pb40) in the 1930s, Willey (1949c:32, 66-
67) identified a single rim sherd of Safety Harbor or
Pinellas Incised (1949c:Plate 5n). He also noted a
sherd of Englewood Incised (1949c:Plate 5j) and one of
probable Sarasota Incised (1949c:Plate 5k).

303
Putnam Countv. Moore (1894a:Plate VII[2])
illustrated part of a Sarasota Incised vessel from the
Mt. Royal site (8Pu35), a famous Mississippian site in
Putnam County. The presence of the Sarasota Incised
vessel probably represents contact with Safety Harbor
groups to the west. The Mt. Royal site also yielded a
number of copper artifacts, many with Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex designs on them, indicating that the
local residents were interacting with other
Mississippian Period populations (Goodman 1984:42-43).
According to Goggin (1952:111), Clarence B. Moore
recovered at least one sherd of Point Washington Incised
pottery from the Davenport Mound (8Pu50). This specimen
is in the RSPF collection (#39327).
Sumter Countv. A search of the site files and
examination of FMNH collections revealed only one
possible Safety Harbor site from Sumter County. This
was the Indian Hill Church Mound (8Sm65), a burial mound
which was destroyed a number of years ago. St. Johns
Check Stamped, Pasco Plain, and sand tempered plain
sherds (and possibly intact vessels) were found in the
mound, and a local informant reported seeing shell cups,
shell beads, and projectile points when the mound was
excavated (John Knight, personal communication 1985.) .
The artifact types are not diagnostic, but could

304
represent a Weeden Island-related or Safety Harbor
component. However, on the basis of present evidence,
the mound should not be considered a Safety Harbor site.
Discussion of Known Sites
The preceding review of known Safety Harbor sites
indicates that the cultural phenomenon called Safety
Harbor was present over a large part of west peninsular
Florida. It is also clear that Safety Harbor material
culture is not solely associated with Tocobaga or any
other historically-known group (Bullen 1978b). Of
particular interest is the relatively large number of
sites with Safety Harbor pottery types in the southwest
Florida area occupied by the Calusa in late prehistoric
and early postcontact times. As Widmer (1988:85-86) has
noted, the Calusa (and possibly their ancestors) were
apparently using Safety Harbor decorated pottery, at
least in mortuary contexts.
Many of the data presented above were previously
unpublished, and this chapter will be a useful
compendium of baseline data for future research on
Safety Harbor. What emerges from the review is the fact
that many interpretive problems exist with Safety Harbor
as an archaeological entity, and clarification of
several chronological and taxonomic questions must be

305
achieved before this exhaustive data base can be used to
its full potential. The chronology of Safety Harbor is
a major problem which needs to be addressed with
radiocarbon dates from secure contexts. Definitions of
pottery and other artifact types need to be refined and
standardized. Other topics that need investigation are
what constitutes Safety Harbor in different regions and
what sort of diachronic changes (both precontact and
postcontact) are reflected in the archaeological record.
Once these basic taxonomic categories are refined,
broader anthropological issues concerning Safety Harbor
can be addressed.
While research on a single site cannot answer all
of these questions, the Tatham Mound (8C203) in Citrus
County afforded an excellent opportunity to address
questions of chronology and to study the effects of
Spanish contact in an undisturbed Safety Harbor mound.
The following chapter consists of a detailed description
of excavations at this site. Extensive archaeological
research at Tatham yielded data that enable a better
understanding of some of the sites and problems
described above.

CHAPTER 3
TATHAM MOUND:
A CASE STUDY OF SPANISH/INDIAN CONTACT
The Tatham Mound (8C203), an aboriginal burial
mound in eastern Citrus County, was discovered in May,
1984 (Figure 2). It was located by Brent R. Weisman
(then a UF graduate student), along with members of the
Withlacoochee River Archaeology Council (WRAC), a local
chapter of the Florida Anthropological Society.
Weisman was involved in a search for the location
of Powell's Town, one of the Second Seminole War (1835-
1842) encampments of the famous Seminole leader Osceola.
Using a diary written by Lieutenant Henry Prince, a
cartographer who mapped portions of the region during
the war, Weisman had been able to identify several
topographic features which Prince had included in
sketches and verbal descriptions in his diary. His
research led Weisman to believe (correctly, as later
research proved) that the site of Powell's Town was
probably located in a relatively high piece of land in
the Cove of the Withlacoochee area known as Wild Hog
Scrub.
306

307
Figure 2.
Map of Florida Showing the Location
of the Tatham Mound.

308
Along with WRAC members, Weisman searched this
scrub area in May of 1984. Soon after penetrating the
dense underbrush, the researchers encountered a large
mound of sand, which was almost totally obscured by
vegetation. Weisman placed a small shovel test in the
top of this feature, and immediately encountered pottery
sherds and human skeletal material (Mitchem, Weisman et
al. 1985:3). The unrecorded mound appeared to be
undisturbed, and some of the sherds encountered were of
the type Point Washington Incised, indicating that the
mound had a Safety Harbor component.
The discovery of a Safety Harbor component was
believed to be very significant. Very little was known
concerning the nature of Safety Harbor occupations in
the area. Prior research on a mound 8.95 km to the
northwest, the Ruth Smith Mound (8C200), had
demonstrated that Safety Harbor groups in the area had
encountered Spanish explorers during the early sixteenth
century (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985; Mitchem and Weisman
1984). However, the Ruth Smith Mound had not been
carefully excavated, but was vandalized by many people
over a long time period. The undisturbed nature of the
Tatham Mound implied that it would be a potentially
excellent site for learning about the nature of Safety

309
Harbor culture and the effects of Spanish/Indian contact
in the northern Safety Harbor area.
The present author had been studying the Safety
Harbor culture for several years, and was particularly
interested in the nature of Safety Harbor occupation
north of Tampa Bay. Weisman extended an invitation to
investigate the site if sufficient funding and other
resources could be obtained. At that time, interest was
also increasing in locating the route of the 1539
expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto
through western peninsular Florida. The mound was
located in the area considered by most researchers to
have been traversed by members of Soto's expedition
three times in 1539.
r
Jerald T. Milanich, Curator in Archaeology at FMNH
(which was then called the Florida State Museum) and
chair of the present author's doctoral committee, agreed
that the mound would be an excellent case study to
investigate early Spanish contact and Safety Harbor
culture in the area. Milanich was particularly
interested because he was spearheading efforts to locate
and mark Soto's route in Florida, in conjunction with
UF's Institute for Early Contact Period Studies and the
Florida Department of Natural Resources (Hudson and
Milanich 1988).

310
Due to the undisturbed nature of the site and its
potential importance, it was recognized that a large-
scale project would be necessary to collect the maximum
amount of data and to adequately address research
questions. The need for a complete, carefully excavated
sample from a Safety Harbor mound was apparent, so a
decision was made to obtain funding to allow as complete
an excavation as possible.
Proposals to various granting agencies were being
considered when an unexpected funding source appeared.
After an illustrated talk at a WRAC meeting, in which
Weisman spoke of the mound's discovery and plans to
undertake a major excavation project, he was approached
by a local resident who expressed interest in
underwriting a major portion of the project. After
further discussions, the individual agreed to make a
sizable donation to the University of Florida Foundation
to support the project. At the time, the total cost of
such a program was considerably underestimated, but the
individual made a commitment to fund the major part of
the project to its completion, a promise which he kept.
Once funding was secured, an agreement was worked
out with the landowners concerning excavation
objectives, curation, ownership of artifacts, and other
aspects of the project. The landowners very graciously

311
provided laboratory space, and accomodations on their
property were rented for the duration of the project.
This situation proved especially advantageous, as access
to the site was restricted.
When these details had been worked out, an
archaeological field school was scheduled beginning in
January, 1985. Using UF students and WRAC members,
initial excavations were conducted at the mound,
followed by brief excavations at two other sites in the
area: the Wild Hog Scrub site (8C198), the Powell's
Town Seminole locality in the scrub a few hundred meters
from Tatham (Weisman 1986:12-15); and Bayonet Field
(8C197), a multicomponent habitation site near the
Withlacoochee River (Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985:44-
47). A preliminary report detailed the initial findings
from the Tatham and Bayonet Field excavations (Mitchem,
Weisman et al. 1985). The results of this initial field
season at the Tatham Mound clearly demonstrated that
much more time would be necessary to adequately excavate
the site, and also signified that an osteologist was
needed to most efficiently deal with the skeletal
remains.
An additional two field schools were conducted at
the mound (fall, 1985 and fall, 1986), both of which
included an osteologist (Dale L. Hutchinson of the

312
University of Illinois) as an integral part of the crew.
Interim reports were prepared presenting preliminary
results of these excavations (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986, 1987).
First Field Season
Research Design and Methodology
The initial field season at the mound, in winter
and spring of 1985, was planned to address several
specific objectives. These site-specific objectives
were framed in the larger perspective of investigating
Safety Harbor culture in the Withlacoochee Cove area,
concentrating on the period of initial Spanish/Indian
contact.
A basic aim of the excavations was to obtain east-
west and north-south profiles through the mound so that
the sequence of mound contruction could be determined.
This information was essential for making inferences
about the human behavior resulting in the specific
contexts of burials and other features.
Another objective was to collect data regarding
burial practices at the site. These data would be
useful for comparative studies with other Safety Harbor
sites, as well as providing an opportunity to observe

313
diachronic changes (or the lack thereof) in Safety
Harbor mortuary practices.
More basic data were also needed concerning the
material culture of these northern Safety Harbor groups.
Artifact collections from the Ruth Smith Mound were so
incomplete that it was impossible to determine the
composition of a typical northern Safety Harbor
assemblage. It was hoped that the Tatham Mound would
yield an assemblage large enough to allow the
development of a basic typology for the area.
Another initial objective was the collection of
charcoal or other organic materials suitable for
radiocarbon dating. Very few radiocarbon dates are
available for Safety Harbor sites, and these data would
be helpful in identifying chronologically sensitive
artifact types, to facilitate chronological placement of
other Safety Harbor sites. The lack of chronological
controls has hampered processual studies of the Safety
Harbor Culture.
The studies of the assemblage from the Ruth Smith
Mound (Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985; Mitchem and Weisman
1984) had demonstrated that Spanish/Indian contact had
occurred in the region during the early sixteenth
century. At least two early Spanish expeditions, those
of Panfilo de Narvez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in

314
1539, had passed through this portion of Florida
(Swanton 1985:150-152). The artifacts from Ruth Smith
were believed to have come from one or both of these
expeditions, and the Tatham Mound was considered to have
excellent potential for yielding similar evidence. An
explicit part of the first season's research design
involved searching for early contact evidence.
Previous research in the region seemed to indicate
that the Cove of the Withlacoochee was at the northern
edge of the Safety Harbor culture area. No Safety
Harbor sites had been identified north of the river. An
objective of the Tatham Mound project was to collect
evidence indicating the nature of interaction between
the Safety Harbor people and different cultural groups
to the north. The archaeological evidence indicated
that Alachua Tradition groups occupied the region north
of the river (Milanich 1971). It was considered that a
mortuary site such as Tatham would potentially contain
artifactual and skeletal data to allow determination of
exchange and/or warfare with neighboring groups.
The final objective during the first season was to
disclose a continuum of occupation at the site if one
was present. Research at other sites had indicated that
many Safety Harbor sites, including burial mounds, were
constructed atop earlier Weeden Island occupations. The

315
undisturbed nature of the Tatham Mound provided an
excellent opportunity to observe this sequence and to
investigate the processes of cultural change.
The methodology employed was designed to address
the above objectives. After extensive clearing of
vegetation on and around the mound, a grid of 3 m
squares was superimposed over it in conjunction with the
drawing of a topographic map by Brent Weisman (Figure
3). Large excavation units were chosen because burials
were expected. Large units would probably reduce the
number of burials extending between two units. A datum
point was set on a tree adjacent to the mound for
establishing vertical control.
The topographic map indicated that the mound
measured approximately 17 m across, with a roughly
square shape. Borrow pits were evident northeast and
southeast of the mound. The height was about 1.7 m,
though this varied somewhat (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:4).
The initial excavation unit was placed on the east
edge of the mound. This location was chosen because it
would provide a profile of the natural soil stratigraphy
as well as defining the edge of the mound. Previous
research had also indicated that caches of vessels were
sometimes placed at the eastern edge of Safety Harbor

Contour interval 20 cm except for 10 cm (1530 cm)
on summit. Measurements are above mean sea level.
Drawn from a 1985 map by Brent R. Weisman.
316

317
burial mounds (Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:207; Sears
1967). Subsequent units were excavated in 20 cm levels
adjacent to this initial unit, eventually cutting away
the entire eastern edge of the mound, revealing
stratigraphy from the subsoil to the humus layer atop
the mound. A second row of units was excavated to the
west of the first row, cutting further into the mound.
At the western edge of these units, the first human
burials were encountered.
Three units were begun on the mound top. It
quickly became apparent that cultural material was
present directly on the mound's surface beneath only a
few centimeters of modern humus. This slowed progress
considerably, as excavation using trowels and other hand
tools was necessary. Burials and scattered human bones
were encountered approximately 20 cm beneath the
surface.
One unit was excavated on the western slope of the
mound. It was excavated to sterile subsoil, and
provided stratigraphic information. No burials were
recovered from this unit.
Description of Results
Initial excavations revealed that the mound was
stratified. From the east side excavations, an upper

318
humus layer (ca. 5-10 cm thick) was noted, beneath which
were initially identified two strata of gray sand mound
fill. It was later determined that these two apparent
layers were actually a single stratum. The appearance
of separate strata was due to differential drying.
Beneath this thick stratum of mound fill, two
additional gray sand strata were recorded. The upper
one of these was darker than the overlying mound fill,
and the lower was a lighter gray sand. These strata
were originally interpreted as representing separate
episodes of mound construction, but subsequent work
indicated that they were not present on the west side of
the mound, and east side profiles revealed that both
strata were localized features, only a few meters wide
(north-south). Later study of the profiles from the
east side excavations revealed that these two strata
represented a short, wide ramp on the eastern side of a
primary mound.
A very dark layer was noted beneath these two
strata. This dark stratum was assumed to be the edge of
a low primary mound. The same dark layer was observed
on the west side of the mound, reinforcing the
interpretation of a low primary mound. Lack of a
submound humus layer beneath this stratum indicated that
the original surface had been scraped clean before mound

319
construction. This interpretation was supported by the
discovery of an intact portion of the submound humus
layer at the northeast corner of the mound.
To facilitate recording, strata were divided into
zones. Zone A was assigned to the modern humus layer,
Zone B was used to refer to the gray sand mound fill
(including the two gray strata above the presumed
primary mound, which at the time were not recognized as
a ramp), and Zone C identified the dark sand primary
mound. Within each zone, excavation levels of 20 cm
were used to provide vertical control. Vertical control
was further maintained by measuring (using a transit)
depth below a datum point established on a tree adjacent
to the mound.
On both the eastern side and central area of the
mound, masses of broken pottery were found within and
just below Zone A. These masses were not part of a
ceramic cache, but represented broken vessels on the
surface of the mound. Many of these consisted of single
vessels broken in place, with most sherds concentrated
in a small area. To make later reconstruction easier,
these clusters were mapped and photographed, and
assigned pottery concentration numbers within each unit.
On the mound summit, in addition to broken vessels,
several Busvcon shell cups were recovered aligned

320
roughly north-south. Excavation of adjacent units
during the second season indicated that at least 10 cups
were originally present. These artifacts were generally
within the modern humus layer (Zone A) or just below it,
strongly suggesting that they were intentionally left
atop the mound when it was abandoned.
Another shell cup was recovered from within an
upright, almost intact vessel during the first season.
These artifacts were located in Zone A.
As excavation proceeded in the units atop the
mound, human bones were encountered in Zone B. Both
primary burials and secondarily deposited bones were
present, making accurate maps and recording imperative.
Nine individual burials were identified during the first
season, with a tenth given a number after parts of it
fell out of the eastern edge after work was stopped.
Six of these burials were primary flexed
interments, three were extended, and one was secondary
(bundle). In general, associated grave goods were not
present. Items of personal adornment, including shell
beads and European artifacts, were worn by some
individuals, however. These artifacts are discussed in
a later portion of this chapter.
Between and on top of these burials, hundreds of
loose bones were scattered. These were apparently the

321
result of cleaning out a charnel structure and
depositing the loose bones after primary burials had
been placed on the surface. One of these secondary
bones was especially interesting, as it exhibited a
wound produced by an edged metal weapon, such as a sword
(Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985:20-21). This was the
distal end of a left humerus, with a smooth cut
extending about halfway through its diameter, and the
remaining portion snapped off. Consultation with
William R. Maples, the FMNH forensic anthropologist,
confirmed identification of the nature of the wound.
This bone, in combination with the presence of European /
materials with some burials, strongly indicated direct ^
contact between Spanish explorers and the burial
population.
Preliminary Interpretations
At the end of the first field season, the eastern
edge of the mound had been successfully excavated, one
unit had been completed on the west side, and three
units had been begun on the summit. Unfortunately,
because of prior commitments to work at other sites
during the field season, the site had to be left until a
subsequent season. Open units and the eastern wall were
stabilized to protect them in the interim.

322
Preliminary interpretations were presented in a
report authored by the field directors and field school
students (Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985). At the time,
the profile of the eastern edge was believed to
accurately reflect the composition of the mound. On the
basis of the stratigraphic evidence, it was determined
that the original humus had been scraped away, then a
small, low mound had been constructed, possibly covering
some inital burials or used as a substructure for a
charnel structure. Atop this primary mound, two
episodes of mound construction were hypothesized. As
mentioned above, the east side ramp was not recognized
at that time. Subsequent field seasons substantially
altered these interpretations of the mound's
construction. A possible ramp was observed in the
profiles of the unit on the west side. All of the
stratigraphic evidence from the mound is discussed in
detail in a later section of this chapter.
The presence of the pottery concentrations, Busycon
cups, and the vessel and associated cup suggests that
one or more ceremonies involving the use of black drink
(tea brewed from Ilex vomitoria) had been performed atop
the mound after the final construction episode, but
prior to its abandonment. The fact that many of these
artifacts were covered by only a few centimeters of

323
humus supported this interpretation. Ethnohistoric and
archaeological evidence indicates that such rituals
involving the use of black drink were performed by many
Southeastern Indian groups, especially as purification
ceremonies after burial or other contact with corpses
(Merrill 1979; Milanich 1979). Archaeological evidence
suggests that the breaking and discard of utensils used
in the ceremonies was common (Milanich 1979:113).
With respect to the research design questions posed
at the beginning, the first season was partially
successful. The excavations on the eastern side yielded
a north-south profile as described earlier. An east-
west profile was not completed because of the abundance
of burials in the central portion of the mound.
Some insight into burial practices was provided by
the discovery of both primary and secondary burials.
Primary burials consisted of both extended and flexed
burials. Use of a charnel structure was indicated by
the large numbers of loose bones interred between and on
top of primary burials. Orientation of primary burials
generally consisted of supine interments with the head
to the west-northwest and the body extended to the east-
southeast. As noted earlier, grave goods other than
items of personal adornment were not included with
individual burials.

324
The aboriginal artifacts recovered in the first
season consisted primarily of typical Safety Harbor
decorated ceramics, including Safety Harbor Incised,
Point Washington Incised (identified as Pinellas Incised
in the preliminary report), St. Johns Check Stamped, and
Englewood Incised. The presence of Englewood Incised
indicated either an early Safety Harbor component or
curation of early vessels. Several sherds identified as
Papys Bayou Punctated in the report (Mitchem, Weisman et
al. 1985:40) were later found to be sherds of Sarasota
Incised, an early Safety Harbor type often associated
with Englewood Incised.
Undecorated pottery consisted primarily of Pasco
Plain, the limestone tempered ware ubiquitous in the
region. Most of the pottery concentrations consisted of
Pasco Plain vessels. St. Johns Plain and sand tempered
plain sherds were also present. Some sherds of Prairie
Cord Marked, Alachua Cob Marked, and fabric impressed
pottery were recovered, and were considered the result
of exchange with Alachua Tradition groups to the north
(Milanich 1971).
Shell artifacts consisted of a single celt
(apparently made from a Busvcon shell), eight Busycon
cups, a shell gorget, and numerous shell beads. Two
unworked Busycon shells were also recovered. All of the

325
cups and the unworked shells were found very near the
surface, suggesting they were used in the black drink
ceremonies mentioned previously. The gorget was
undecorated, and had three holes in a line along one
edge. This was not directly associated with any burial.
Most of the shell beads were recovered from burials,
including 132 on the neck of Burial #2, which also
included European artifacts (Mitchem, Weisman et al.
1985:13).
Stone artifacts recovered during the first season
consisted of 49 Pinellas projectile points and a number
of chert debitage flakes. Of the projectile points, 37
were recovered from an approximately 2 m by 2 m area on
the eastern mound edge. These may have been the result
of thrusting or shooting arrows into the mound edge
during or after mound construction. Such practices are
recorded for protohistoric Eastern Timucua groups
(Lorant 1946:115). The triangular Pinellas points are
commonly found on Safety Harbor and Alachua Tradition
sites in Florida (Bullen 1975:8).
A single sample of charred wood and two sherds with
associated soil matrix were submitted for chronometric
dates from the first season. These will be discussed
along with samples from the other two seasons in a later
part of this chapter.

326
The search for evidence of Spanish contact was
successful during the first season. Several items
indicating Seminole presence at the mound were also
recovered from the humus layer. This is not surprising,
as the Wild Hog Scrub site (8C198), the apparent
location of Osceola's Powell's Town, was located several
hundred meters away (Weisman 1986:12-15). There was no
evidence that the Seminole visitors disturbed or used
the mound. All of the European items will be discussed
in detail later in this chapter. Spanish materials were
found both with burials and in the mound fill between
burials. Four of the glass beads recovered during the
excavations were Nueva Cadiz Plain types, indicating
probable early sixteenth century Spanish contact
(Mitchem, Weisman et al. 1985:36; Smith and Good 1982).
The cut humerus suggested that at least some of the
Spanish contact had been violent.
Evidence of interaction with neighboring groups was
provided by the Alachua Tradition sherds mentioned
previously. The nature of this interaction is not
definitely known, but was probably exchange of some sort
rather than intermarriage or actual movement of
populations.
The search for a continuum of occupation at the
mound was inhibited by the lack of deep excavations in

327
the central portion. However, the presence of Englewood
pottery types suggested that the mound had been used
over a long time period. The sequence of occupation was
clarified by later work at the site.
In summary, the first field season indicated the
need for further excavations at the site. At the end of
these initial excavations, plans were formulated for at
least one more season.
Second Field Season
The second field season at the Tatham Mound was
conducted in fall of 1985. As the earlier work had
revealed the presence of large numbers of human burials,
an osteologist was added to the crew. Dale L.
Hutchinson of the University of Illinois joined the
project in this capacity. Another field school was
organized, including participation by volunteer members
of WRAC. Preliminary results and interpretations were
presented in an interim report (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986).
Research Design and Methodology
The second season's work continued to address the
objectives expressed during the initial season, along
with several more specific questions raised by the

./
328
results of the first season. A main objective was to
better determine the period(s) of Spanish contact.
While Nueva Cadiz Plain beads had been recovered, most
of the glass beads found in the first season were
spherical types considered later varieties by most bead
researchers (Marvin T. Smith, personal communication
1985). It was hoped that more diagnostic bead types
would be found in secure contexts during the second
season. The Nueva Cadiz Plain beads excavated earlier
were not associated with individual burials.
Another objective was to determine whether the
aborigines abandoned the mound immediately after Spanish
contact or continued to use it for some time afterwards.
This objective included searching for separate strata
containing Spanish artifacts of different periods, as
well as investigating whether some sort of battle or
epidemic had caused a large number of deaths during a
short time period. The primary burials discovered in
the first season had apparently all been buried at the
same time, and the cut humerus suggested possible
Spanish/Indian warfare. In order to investigate these
possibilities, a decision was made to open a large area
of the central portion of the mound to uncover as many
burials as possible. This would allow separate burial
episodes to be revealed, and the European artifacts

329
could be compared to determine whether the mound was
reused or abandoned after initial Spanish contact.
Since the first season's excavations had revealed
that many secondary bones were interred, it was
determined that a charnel structure must have been
present. A third objective during the planned
excavations was to search for structural evidence atop
the mound. The Busvcon cups lined up on the summit had
suggested the presence of such a structure on the mound,
as had the general square shape of the mound and the
parallel orientation of the primary burials. Postmolds
or postholes from a dismantled structure would indicate
a probable charnel structure.
The original contour map of the mound (Figure 3)
had indicated that an anomaly was present on the west
edge. This feature appeared to be a possible ramp. It
was also noted during the excavations on the western
edge in the first season. Further excavations were
planned in this section to investigate this possible
ramp.
The fifth objective was to obtain burials from
deeper strata in the mound. The aims of this objective
overlapped with several of the other questions being
investigated. All of the previously excavated burials
were from the uppermost stratum, and it was imperative

330
to excavate earlier burials if they were present to
answer diachronic questions.
The final objective of the second season was to
obtain radiocarbon samples from a deep context
associated with the Englewood Incised pottery recovered
during the first season. Such samples would not only
answer questions concerning the sequence and duration of
use of the mound, but would provide valuable data
regarding the dating of Englewood contexts elsewhere.
No radiocarbon dates had been obtained from any
Englewood contexts, and this information would be
important for investigating time periods involved in the
evolution of Englewood pottery into later Safety Harbor
types, as well as providing a secure date range for the
initial appearance of Safety Harbor culture in Florida.
Field methodology during the second season included
several changes. A major change was the use of shading
and polyvinyl acetate solution to aid in preservation of
the human bones encountered. The sand composition of
the mound resulted in the bones retaining moisture,
which caused roots to grow into openings. The
combination of warpage by rapid drying and root damage
had resulted in the loss of potential osteological data
from the first season. Slowing drying by shading bones

331
from the sun and use of preservative applied in situ
aided in preserving skeletal elements for further study.
The discovery of European beads, including very
small silver specimens, had necessitated the use of fine
(window mesh) screen during portions of the first
season/s work. A system of consistent use of fine mesh
screens for all burial contexts was instituted in the
second season, along with the continued use of 0.6 cm (h
inch) mesh screen for other areas. This slowed
excavation, but resulted in the collection of many
artifacts which would have been lost otherwise.
The mapping procedures were also altered during the
second season. Previously, single field maps of each
level had been maintained for each 3 m by 3 m unit.
However, the dense concentrations of secondary bones
between and on top of primary burials meant that finer-
scale maps were necessary. A decision was therefore
made to map each unit in quadrants to better depict
positions of individual bones.
Excavation units during the second season were
placed in the central portion of the mound, as well as
at the southern and western edges. Two of the central
units opened in the first season were continued, while
one of these was left until the third season.

332
Description of Results
The second season of excavations at the Tatham
Mound yielded many more human burials, artifacts, and
important stratigraphic information. A total of 21
primary burials were excavated, and secondary bones were
present in all parts of the mound. A cremation (Burial
#54) was discovered at the end of the field season, but
was carefully covered so that it could be removed in the
third season. Primary burials were generally supine,
with legs tightly flexed over the chest or tibiae under
femora (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:18). This latter
burial position was common in the mound, and is
apparently unique to this site. All but two of the
interments were aligned on the same axis as the primary
burials from the first season, and were in rows. One of
the exceptions was a tightly flexed burial (#16) lying
on the left side, with the head to the northwest. This
individual was very well preserved, and was outside of
the main burial area, possibly the result of a later
interment. The second exception was a supine flexed
adult male (#58), turned directly opposite of the other
burials, with the head to the east-southeast and the
body trending west-northwest. It was in a row with
other burials, and the reason for the different
orientation is not known.

333
The presence of an osteologist aided in field
determination of age, sex, and pathologies present for
many of the burials. This resulted in tentative
identification of 12 females, five males, and 36
indeterminate sex individuals among the burials (primary
and secondary) exposed during the season. Age
determinations were made for 16 of these, resulting in
14 adults, one juvenile, and one younger adult (Mitchem
and Hutchinson 1986:20-21).
Pathologies identified included enamel hypoplasia,
carious lesions, premortem tooth loss, possible
periodontal disease, periosteal reactions,
osteomyelitis, fractures, and a cut (severed) element
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:21). This last bone was a
portion of a right scapula from which the acromion
process had been cleanly cut off. This was a
secondarily deposited bone, and the interpretation of
having been cut, again by an edged metal weapon, was
supported by William R. Maples of FMNH.
Aboriginal artifacts recovered during the second
season included the pottery types recovered during the
first season, along with Sarasota Incised, Lake Jackson
Plain, and many decorated sherds on St. Johns paste.
These latter included simple stamped, cord marked,
punctated, cob marked, brushed, and incised specimens.

334
As in the first season, no vessels were directly
associated with individual burials.
A much wider variety of stone artifacts was
recovered during the second season. Additional Pinellas
points were excavated (bringing the total to 70), as
well as a heavily patinated Bradford projectile point, a
type generally recovered in Weeden Island-related
contexts (Bullen 1975:14). A ground stone celt and a
ground and polished pendant, both of non-Florida stone,
were also found. Two quartz crystal pendants were
excavated. These stone artifacts were not recovered
from individual burials. Many chert flakes were
recovered, as well as several core fragments.
More than 79 fragments of red ochre were recovered,
but no individual burials were surrounded with ochre.
Many miscellaneous pebbles and concretions were
encountered.
The remains of about 14 Busvcon shell cups were
recovered during the second season. As in the first
season, these were found very near the present mound
surface. Additional shell beads were excavated, most
with burials.
A secondary burial of more than one individual
(#48) had a stack of three freshwater mussel shells in
association. These were identified by Kurt Auffenberg

335
of the FMNH Malacology Department as Shepard's Filter
Clam, Elliotio shepardianus (Lea). This species occurs
only in the Altamaha River drainage of Georgia. Many
specimens of this species were recovered from the
contemporaneous Safety Harbor site of Weeki Wachee
(8Hel2) in Hernando County (Mitchem, Smith et al.
1985:193).
A few nonhuman bones were recovered in the mound
during the first two seasons (primarily during the
second season). These included elements from raccoon
(Procvon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis),
gopher tortoise (Gopherus Polyphemus), soft-shell turtle
(Trionvx ferox), unidentified snake, and unidentified
fish. They were found in the mound fill, and did not
appear to be associated with particular cultural
contexts.
A great number of European materials, primarily
beads of glass or metal, were recovered during the
second season. Most of these were found in direct
association with burials, and will be discussed in
detail in a later section of this chapter.
Significantly, several Nueva Cadiz Plain and faceted
chevron beads were recovered in situ with burials,
suggesting an early sixteenth century episode of
contact.

336
The second season also resulted in a much clearer
understanding of the stratigraphy at the mound. As
excavations proceeded deeper in the central area, it
became apparent that the main burial concentration was
underlain by a dark, greasy layer of sand. Excavations
at the southern edge of the mound revealed that this
stratum was what had been identified as the primary
mound during the first season. This stratum was labeled
as Feature #6 in subsequent work.
Preliminary Interpretations
The most significant changes in interpretations
produced by the second season were major revisions in
the understanding of the mound construction sequence.
The stratigraphic information indicated that almost all
of the burials recovered during the first two seasons
had been buried in a single episode. The two separate
strata of mound fill (Zone B) identified at the end of
the first season proved to be a single stratum of sand.
The error in the first season evidently resulted from
differential drying, which had produced the appearance
in profile of separate matrices.
The identification of Feature #6, the dark greasy
stratum, also significantly altered interpretations. As
mentioned above, this stratum (averaging 20-30 cm thick

337
in most places) was beneath the burials in the uppermost
stratum (all burials recovered in the first two seasons
were in the uppermost stratum, above Feature #6) Some
of the interments were lying directly in contact with
this feature.
The high organic content of this feature and its
greasy consistency led to its interpretation as
containing residue from a charnel structure originally
on the mound (before the addition of the final stratum).
The absence of charcoal in the feature supported this
interpretation. The possibility of its merely
representing an old humus layer was rejected because
portions of submound humus had been detected at the
southern mound edge, and it was both much lighter in
color and did not have the distinctive greasy
consistency.
The large number of primary burials (n=21), along
with the secondary remains, resulted in a calculation of
minimum number of individuals (MNI) of between 145 and
198 individuals recovered from the uppermost stratum
during the first two seasons (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1986:24-25). In the second season report (1986:23-24),
five hypotheses were proposed to explain this large
number of burials in a single stratum (which apparently

338
represented a single episode of interment). Briefly,
these were:
1. Normal charnel house mortuary storage for
several years with a larger contemporary death event (a
large number of people dying in a short time period)
resulting in the burial of both primary and secondary
remains.
2. A large mortality event of some duration, with
secondary burials representing individuals whose bodies
had decomposed due to disruption of normal mortuary
activities. This would assume that a large number of
deaths occurred over a time period long enough for
decomposition of the earliest victims to occur, with the
primary burials representing the later victims (e.g., an
extended disease epidemic).
3. A large contemporary mortuary event, with some
corpses defleshed before interment (secondary) and
others not defleshed (primary). The reasons for
differential treatment could be cultural (e.g., status
or kin group differences) or due to circumstances (e.g.,
survivors not able to provide normal mortuary treatment
for all corpses due to exceptionally large number).
4. Due to dispersed settlement pattern, primary
burials represent individuals who died in the vicinity
of the mound, and secondary interments represent those

339
who died far away and were brought for burial (probably
defleshed before being transported). This hypothesis
would be especially applicable if each burial mound was
used exclusively by a single kin-based (or other type)
group. It should be noted that the Ruth Smith Mound
(Mitchem and Weisman 1984; Mitchem, Smith et al. 1985),
a contemporary Safety Harbor burial mound, was located
only 8.95 km northwest of the Tatham Mound. It is
possible that membership in a particular kin group or
similar criteria determined where a person would be
interred.
5. Normal charnel house mortuary activity (normal
death rate) over a long time period with no large
contemporary death event. All of the remains from a
charnel structure buried in a single episode or within a
short time span. The relatively large number of
articulated burials argues against this hypothesis.
These hypotheses were tested using the excavation
data gathered during the third field season. The
interpretive results are discussed in a later section of
this chapter.
The second season was successful in addressing most
of the research objectives proposed at the beginning of
the field season. The many additional European beads
recovered from burials indicated that the period of

340
contact was the early sixteenth century. This time
period was clearly indicated by the Nueva Cadiz Plain
beads in direct association with several of the burials.
These distinctive glass beads are found in New World
sites dating prior to 1550 (Deagan 1987:163; Smith and
Good 1982). The early date was further supported by the
recovery of nine faceted chevron beads, which are also
useful sixteenth century time markers (Deagan 1987:165;
Smith and Good 1982). Other than the very late
(nineteenth century) Seminole artifacts, none of the
European materials indicated any European contact later
than 1550.
The second research question concerned whether the
mound was abandoned or continued to be reused after
European contact. All evidence pointed to abandonment
rather than reuse. The contemporaneity of the European
artifacts and the apparent single episode of postcontact
interment provided no evidence to argue for any
significant reuse after contact. The single exception
was Burial #16, which may represent a later interment,
though there is no reason to believe that a significant
amount of time had passed between the major burial
episode and this isolated event. The copious evidence
of one or more black drink ceremonies atop the mound

341
after the final stratum was added likewise supports the
abandonment interpretation.
The question of presence or absence of a charnel
structure on the mound was not definitively answered.
The presence of Feature #6 strongly suggested the
existence of such a structure, but no postmolds or
postholes were identified. If such a structure was
present, it was atop the earlier mound.
Excavations on the western edge of the mound
indicated that a short, wide ramp had been constructed
of sand after the addition of the final stratum of sand
capping the mound. This ramp pointed directly westward.
Excavation data from all three seasons revealed that it
was about 40 cm thick (vertically) at its thickest
point, which was toward the center of the mound. Width
(north-south) was approximately 3.6 m, and length (east-
west) was approximately 4 m. The bulk of the ramp was
actually on the mound itself: it did not extend more
than 1 m past the western edge of the mound.
The objective to excavate burials from deeper
strata was not achieved. The concentration of remains
in the top stratum prevented major excavations in the
earlier portions of the mound during the second season.
The sixth objective, to obtain carbon samples from
the Englewood stratum of the mound, was also not

342
achieved. Excavations which reached this level
(primarily on the west and south edges) did not yield
any suitable carbon samples. However, three radiocarbon
samples from the top stratum (two of charcoal and one of
bone) were submitted for analysis. The results are
discussed in a later section of this chapter.
Third Field Season
Research Design and Methodology
The objectives of the third season were primarily
the same as the first two seasons, with some new
objectives and questions based on the earlier findings.
Seven main research objectives were identified for the
third season.
Since the stratigraphic composition of the mound
had been clarified during the second season, the first
objective was to obtain skeletal and burial data from
the precontact portion of the mound (the primary mound).
If a continuum of burials could be obtained from
Englewood through postcontact times, it would allow the
examination of diachronic health changes. The lack of
skeletal remains from any Englewood site other than the
type site (8Sol) made the recovery of these early

343
skeletal remains especially desirable (Willey 1949a:130-
131) .
The second objective was to obtain radiocarbon
dates for the lowest stratum. As mentioned before,
chronometric dates for the Englewood Phase have never
been obtained, though the early Safety Harbor placement
of the phase has been demonstrated stratigraphically
(Willey 1949a:475). Such dates would be valuable for
identifying the beginning time period of the Safety
Harbor Culture in general, as well as in the Citrus
County area.
The third objective was to search for structural
evidence in the mound. Though no definite structural
evidence had been recovered during the first two
seasons, it was hoped that further excavations would
reveal postmolds in the lower strata, indicating that a
charnel structure or some other type of building had
been atop the mound at some time. Such evidence was
recovered at the Parrish Mound #2 (8Ma2) in Manatee
County (Willey 1949a:147-148).
Completion of uninterrupted profiles through the
mound was the fourth objective. Complete north-south
and east-west profiles through the mound were especially
important for interpreting the sequence of burial
deposition and mound construction. Determining

344
stratigraphic locations of each burial would be very
important for the physical anthropological study.
The fifth research objective was to clarify the
sequence of burial episodes in the mound. It was
important to determine how many episodes of burial
occurred and in what order. These data would be
essential for reconstructing past events at the site, as
well as in analyzing the demographic and osteological
information. This task could only be addressed by
careful excavation and recording methods, continuing to
map individual bones and to record profiles.
The sixth objective was to obtain the most accurate
demographic data possible from the mound. This overlaps
with the previous objectives. The ultimate aims were to
arrive at population estimates for each time period, as
well as information on the age and sex structure of the
populations using the mound. As complete a sample as
possible was needed to achieve such goals. Therefore, a
large crew of field school students and WRAC volunteers
was assembled, so that the mound could be excavated as
completely as possible during the field season.
The final objective was to explain the large number
of primary and secondary burials in the top stratum. As
noted earlier, five hypotheses were proposed at the end
of the second season as possible explanations for the

345
presence of the large number of burials in the uppermost
stratum (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1986:23-24). In order
to test these hypotheses, the largest possible sample of
burials from the stratum would be necessary, preferably
a complete sample. By careful excavation and recording
of proveniences and burial orientation, it would be
possible to determine the sequence of events in the
mound. When combined with such data as animal gnaw
marks, artifact association, and physical
anthropological data, each of the hypotheses could be
tested.
Methodology employed in the third season generally
continued the methods used in the second season.
Excavation methods had to be modified somewhat due to
the depth of the units and unstable sand walls. This
required a stepped method of excavation in some cases.
To prevent rapid drying of bones, a cargo parachute was
hung over the site, augmented by smaller tarps.
Soil samples were collected from most primary
burials for use in conjunction with planned chemical
analyses of bones. These would aid in determining
whether stable isotope ratios might have changed due to
diagenetic processes (DeNiro 1985:808).

346
Description of Results
The entire central portion of the mound was
excavated to sterile subsoil during the third season.
By the end of the season, approximately 90-95% of the
total mound volume had been excavated (during the three
seasons combined). As far as could be determined, all
of the burials contained in the mound were removed. The
only possible exception was in the extreme northeast
portion, which was not excavated due to time
constraints. However, excavations in adjacent units
indicated that burials were concentrated more toward the
central portion of the mound.
A total of 50 primary burials (representing 67
individuals) were excavated from the postcontact portion
of the mound during the third season. The predominant
burial position (n=27) was supine, with arms extended or
partially flexed, and legs tightly flexed over the
chest. The total includes two cremations, each of which
was presumed to consist of a single individual.
Secondary burials (n=13) representing 17 individuals
were also recovered (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:36).
All but two of the postcontact burials were
recovered from the stratum above Feature #6. These two
individuals (Burials #125 and 128) were buried in a
poorly defined pit dug into the north central portion of

347
the mound after part of Feature #6 had been scraped away
from the summit area. This pit extended almost to the
submound soil. Burial #125 was a probable primary
burial in a supine position with the head to the south
and the body extending to the north. Burial #128
consisted of a cranium and associated cervical
vertebrae, with a necklace of two shell beads and one of
brass or bronze. It is unclear why these two
individuals were interred in this fashion and not
included with the other postcontact burials. It should
be noted that stratigraphic evidence indicates that
these burials were deposited prior to the mass burial in
the upper stratum.
The precontact portion of the mound (beneath
Feature #6) yielded 13 burials. Eleven of these, all
primary interments, were recorded in the field (Mitchem
and Hutchinson 1987:36-37). An additional two (at
least) individuals were discovered in the laboratory
during cleaning of a copper plate (Feature #10), which
was removed with underlying sand matrix attached.
Beneath the plate was a partially articulated infant
interment. Bones from at least one other individual, a
juvenile, were also present in the matrix.
Hutchinson calculated the MNI recovered from the
precontact and postcontact strata during the third

348
season (Mitchexn and Hutchinson 1987:37). Using counts
of the most numerous element (left femur), he determined
that approximately 148 individuals (both primary and
secondary remains) were recovered from the postcontact
stratum during the third season. From the precontact
portion, a MNI of 22 was obtained by counting crania.
The infant discovered in the laboratory raised this to
23 individuals. The juvenile discovered in the
laboratory did not include cranial elements, so is not
included.
Among the postcontact burials, sex determination
revealed 21 females, 13 males, and 33 whose sex was
indeterminate. Age determination was possible for 34 of
the postcontact individuals, and resulted in an estimate
of four preadults and 30 adults (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:39).
Among the precontact burials, four females and one
male were identified. Seven (which includes the infant
discovered in the laboratory) were of indeterminate sex.
Nine of the precontact individuals, including the
infant, were assigned age estimates, resulting in three
preadults and six adults (Mitchem and Hutchinson
1987:39).
Artifacts from all three seasons are discussed
together in a later section of this chapter. The third

349
field season resulted in the recovery of a large number
of aboriginal ceramics from both strata. Generally,
these were of types found during the previous two
seasons. Stone artifacts were also of types recovered
previously, with the addition of a great number of chert
debitage flakes. Three additional ground stone celts
were recovered, all from the precontact stratum.
Several burials in the precontact stratum were
accompanied by large numbers of shell beads, worn as
personal adornment in most cases. Several copper
artifacts were recovered in association with these
burials. Pottery vessels and Busvcon cups were also
recovered from the precontact stratum, but were not
associated with individual burials.
Small amounts of faunal remains were recovered in
the third season (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:30-32).
These generally included the taxa identified during the
first two seasons, with a few additional taxa, many of
which were probably commensal animals that died in
gopher tortoise burrows in the mound. This is
especially true of one striped skunk (Mephitis
mephitis), the articulated bones of which were found in
a burrow. Deer and fish bones from the mound may have
been deposited by animals hunting or scavenging nearby,
though it is possible that they were brought by humans.

350
Two wapiti (Cervus canadensis canadensis) teeth
were recovered from the mound fill, at least one
apparently from the precontact stratum. They have not
been previously recorded in Florida. Since many items
from the mound were obtained by exchange from areas to
the north, it is possible that the wapiti teeth were
obtained in this way. If not, this is the first record
of their presence in Florida. The lack of other
skeletal elements argues against the latter possibility,
however.
European artifacts from the third season supported
the earlier interpretation of an early sixteenth century
date for Spanish contact. These objects will be
discussed in a later section of this chapter.
The third season greatly clarified understanding of
the Tatham Mound stratigraphy. Profiles revealed that
Feature #6 was present on all slopes of the mound,
providing a convenient way to demarcate the precontact
and postcontact strata. Near the center of the mound,
profiles of Feature #6 showed a bifurcation, and the
feature was completely absent from an area on the
summit. This indicated that the dark soil had been
scraped away from the central area twice, adding a thin
cap of clean sand after the first time.

351
The pit in which Burials #125 and 128 were interred
was dug into the area where Feature #6 had been scraped
away. Because of this fact and the homogeneous nature
of the sand used in building the mound, the intrusive
nature of these burials was not recognized until tests
of the metal bead from Burial #128 revealed that it was
made of brass or bronze, indicating European origin
(Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:64-65; Mitchem and Leader
1988:Table 2). Rechecking of the notes and maps
revealed that puzzling amorphous soil stains had been
noted around these burials as they were excavated, but
could not be positively identified as pit features at
that time.
The stratigraphic and burial evidence indicated
that the postcontact stratum was added in a single
episode, covering a mass burial of many individuals.
The only probably intrusive postcontact burials were
Burials #16, 125, and 128. The stratigraphic evidence
from all three seasons is discussed in detail in a later
section of this chapter.
Because the interpretations at the end of the third
season represent summary interpretations, these are
presented in a later section of this chapter rather than
a preliminary interpretations section. The research

352
objectives proposed at the beginning of the third season
are also dealt with in a later section.
Summary of Tatham Mound Excavation Data
In this section, counts of various classes of
artifacts are presented, along with discussions of
description, typology, and provenience. Other
categories of data from the mound are also discussed.
Ceramics
The great majority of artifacts recovered from the
Tatham Mound were aboriginal ceramics. Continuing the
method used previously, sherd counts in this section are
presented as two numbers separated by a slash (/),
representing the total number of sherds/the number of
these which are rim sherds.
The total counts for the various types are listed
in Table 48. Complete or nearly complete vessels are
listed separately in the table.
The ceramic type names used in this study generally
follow those defined by Goggin (1948), Milanich (1971),
and Willey (1949a). A major exception is the type Point
Washington Incised, originally defined by Willey
(1949a:463), which is here used for bowls or jars with
three or more parallel broad line incisions located

353
Table 48. Ceramics from the Tatham Mound.
Description Count
Pasco Plain 7538/1261
Complete vessels 2
Pasco Check Stamped 89/23
Pasco Incised (miscellaneous) 4/4
Pasco Painted 2/1
Pasco Red 2/0
St. Johns Plain 1408/237
Complete vessels 10
St. Johns Check Stamped 493/115
Complete vessel 1
St. Johns Dentate Stamped 28/7
St. Johns Simple Stamped 21/2
St. Johns Cob Marked 11/5
St. Johns Cord Marked 6/0
St. Johns Punctated (miscellaneous) 2/0
Dunn's Creek Red 16/0
Sand tempered plain 758/147
Sand tempered incised (miscellaneous) 64/9
Sand tempered check stamped 43/9
Sand tempered fabric impressed (Dunlap-like) 30/0
Sand tempered punctated (miscellaneous) 1/0
Safety Harbor Incised 44/4
Complete vessel 1

354
Table 48continued
Description
Point Washington Incised
Count
57/25
Sarasota Incised
46/10
Complete vessel
1
Englewood Incised
45/9
Prairie Cord Marked
56/15
Prairie Fabric Impressed (plain twined openwork) 1/0
Alachua Cob Marked
4/2
Belle Glade Plain-like
15/3
below the rim, often incorporating loops and U-shaped
figures. Most of these Mississippian-style vessels
include zoomorphic rim adornos and flat lug handles,
usually representing features of bird anatomy. This
definition varies somewhat from Willey's typology, which
would probably include most of these vessels in the type
Pinellas Incised (Mitchera, Smith et al. 1985:187; Scarry
1985:227-230).
Several of the other names used in Table 48 are not
formally defined types, but merely descriptive terms
used for convenience. Examples include Pasco Painted
and St. Johns Dentate Stamped. Each of these categories
is represented by sherds from a single vessel at Tatham,

355
and they do not justify the creation of a new formal
type.
With the exception of the Englewood and Sarasota
types, the ceramic assemblage from Tatham is typical of
assemblages from other northern Safety Harbor mounds.
The Ruth Smith (8C200) and Weeki Wachee (8Hel2) Mounds
yielded pottery types consisting primarily of Pasco and
sand tempered plain sherds, with large amounts of St.
Johns ware. Both sites also resemble Tatham in the
relatively small amounts of decorated wares and the
presence of some Alachua Tradition types from north of
the Withlacoochee River (Milanich 1971; Mitchem, Smith
et al. 1985; Mitchem and Weisman 1984).
With one exception, all of the vessels at Tatham
were either broken or had a hole knocked out of the
bottom. This was a widespread practice in the
Southeast, and probably reflects beliefs associated with
death and mortuary ritual. Failure to recover the
sherds broken from the bottoms indicates that this
activity was not performed on the mound, or care was
taken to remove the broken out portions. The
unperforated, unbroken vessel was a small, poorly-made
(F.S. 308, P.C. #17) St. Johns Plain bowl, which had
defects resulting from imperfect bonding of the coils.
To the Tatham population, perhaps these imperfections

356
obviated the need for perforating or breaking the
vessel.
Those specimens listed as complete vessels in Table
48 were either recovered intact or had been broken in
place and were easily reconstructable. Many more
vessels have been reconstructed from the excavated
concentrations of pottery, especially the many broken
examples which were recovered from the mound slopes and
summit. A total of 249 such pottery concentrations were
recorded.
Most of the intact vessels were recovered from
directly atop the dark, greasy stratum designated as
Feature #6. This feature demarcates the division
between the precontact and postcontact portions of the
mound, indicating that the vessels were placed atop the
existing primary mound before addition of the final
mound cap (and placement of the majority of the
burials).
Pasco Plain, Pasco Check Stamped, St. Johns Plain,
St. Johns Check Stamped, sand tempered plain, and sand
tempered check stamped sherds were found in all strata
of the mound. Surprisingly, both Englewood Incised and
Sarasota Incised sherds were also recovered from all
strata.

357
Crossmending and analysis of designs indicate that
a minimum of three Englewood Incised vessels were
excavated from Tatham (Figure 4). Sherds from one of
these were recovered from contexts directly on top of
and within Feature #6. Horizontally, most of the sherds
were found on the east edge of the mound, while several
came from the west edge. These provenience data suggest
that the vessel was broken atop the primary mound after
its construction, with some sherds possibly disturbed
during subsequent activities.
Sherds of the second Englewood Incised vessel were
recovered from beneath and within Feature #6. These
sherds were considerably dispersed, recovered from units
in the southern, western, and central portions of the
mound. This vessel was also probably intentionally
broken and interred during construction of the primary
mound.
Sherds from the third Englewood vessel were
concentrated in the northern half of the mound, and were
all recovered from the postcontact stratum (above
Feature #6), with the exception of one within Feature
#6. One of the sherds was recovered from near a burial
(#42), but this was probably not intentionally included
with the burial. This vessel was undoubtedly curated

Figure 4
Englewood Incised and Sarasota Incised Ceramics
from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Englewood Incised.
Bottom: Sarasota Incised.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.

359
CENTIMETERS

360
(probably in a charnel structure), and was broken and
interred during the final episode of mound construction.
Crossmending and study of the Sarasota Incised
sherds indicate that probably no more than four vessels
of this type were present. One of these closely
resembles Papys Bayou Punctated, but the design was
rectilinear rather than the curvilinear form typical of
Papys Bayou and Weeden Island Punctated (Willey
1949a:419, 443). Only three sherds of this vessel were
recovered, and all were from the postcontact stratum in
the south-central portion of the mound. The sherds
could represent a curated vessel, or might have been
included in surrounding soil used in mound construction.
A second Sarasota Incised vessel was a miniature
bowl with a very crude design on the exterior. Sherds
from this vessel were recovered from the precontact
stratum at the southern end of the mound.
An almost complete vessel (Figure 4) was recovered
from a unit on the west side of the mound. This
flattened globular bowl was located just beneath Feature
#6, indicating that it was interred in the precontact
primary mound.
Sherds of a fourth Sarasota Incised vessel were
recovered from units located in various parts of the
mound. Most sherds were from postcontact contexts, but

361
at least four were from the precontact stratum. This
beaker-shaped vessel may have been broken and partially
interred during the construction of the primary mound,
with portions of the vessel left on or near the surface.
Additional breaking and scattering of the vessel remains
during the postcontact construction episode would best
explain the distribution of sherds.
St. Johns Cob Marked, St. Johns Cord Marked, Safety
Harbor Incised, Point Washington Incised, Prairie Cord
Marked, Prairie Fabric Impressed, and Alachua Cob Marked
were concentrated in the postcontact stratum.
Crossmending of sherds indicates that a minimum of
four Safety Harbor Incised vessels were present. One
partially reconstructed vessel (Figure 5) is a flattened
globular bowl (or possibly a bottle with the neck
removed) with incised and punctated designs illustrating
four human hands alternating with four "baton" or "mace"
symbols. Such designs are typical of Mississippian
iconography, sometimes referred to as the Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex (Waring and Holder 1968:20). The
vessel was made with a hole in the bottom (Figure 5),
indicating that it was never meant to be used as a
utilitarian vessel. This hole may have allowed the
mounting of the object on a pole, as has been suggested
for some Weeden Island effigy vessels (Milanich, Cordell

Figure 5
Safety Harbor Incised Vessel from the
Tatham Mound.
Top: Side View.
Bottom: View of Base Showing Prefired
Basal Perforation.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.

363
INCHES
CENTIMETERS
Afife
0 1 2 3 4 5
CENTIMETERS

364
et al. 1984:99, 166). The design elements on this
vessel are quite similar to those on portions of a
Safety Harbor Incised bottle from the Tierra Verde Mound
in Pinellas County (Sears 1967:Figure 8.1).
A second Safety Harbor Incised vessel is a small
carinated bowl with incised and punctated designs on the
exterior and a ticked lip (Figure 6). This broken
vessel was recovered from a unit on the extreme eastern
edge of the mound, and was located in the postcontact
stratum just above Feature #6. Similar vessels from the
Fort Walton site of Lake Jackson (8Lel) have been
identified as Fort Walton Incised, var. Crowder (John F.
Scarry, personal communication 1985).
The third vessel is a small beaker with very faint
incised decoration consisting of at least three vertical
rows of three zigzag parallel lines. This vessel was
made with a neat round hole in the bottom, and was
apparently broken prior to or during interment. Most of
the sherds were recovered from the west side of the
mound, but one basal sherd was found near the northeast
periphery. All were very near the surface.
Two sherds from a fourth Safety Harbor Incised
vessel were excavated from the eastern side. These were
from the basal portion of a small beaker or bowl, with

Figure 6
Safety Harbor Incised, St. Johns Cob Marked, and
Prairie Cord Marked Vessels from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Safety Harbor Incised.
Bottom (1 to r): St. Johns Cob Marked; Prairie
Cord Marked.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.

366

367
decoration consisting of two zigzag incised lines
bordered by a single row of punctations.
The fact that all of the Safety Harbor Incised
sherds clearly came from the postcontact stratum is of
interest. The decorations on the first Safety Harbor
Incised vessel, if they indeed represent severed human
hands and maces or war clubs, would fall within the
warfare/cosmogony complex of Mississippian iconic
families, as defined by Knight (1986:677-678). As he
noted (1986:682-683), a trend toward communalization of
such iconography by its inclusion on pottery is evident
among many late Mississippian and protohistoric cultures
in the Southeast. Earlier in Mississippian times, such
iconography tended to be limited to sacra representing
chiefly cult institutions. The context of the vessel at
Tatham (within the postcontact stratum, and apparently
not associated with any particular individual or group
of burials) agrees with Knight's interpretation.
Point Washington Incised was also recovered solely
from the postcontact stratum. Most of the sherds came
from units in the central and northern parts of the
mound. In each case, the vessels had been broken and
the sherds dispersed before interment. Crossmending
revealed that a total of three Point Washington Incised
vessels were present. One of these (Figure 7) is an

Figure 7
Point Washington Incised Vessels and Ground Stone
Celts from the Tatham Mound.
Top: Point Washington Incised. A bird head rim
adorno was attached to the left vessel after it
was photographed.
Bottom: Four stone celts.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.

369

370
almost complete simple open bowl with seven parallel
incised lines around the rim. A crested bird head
adorno (facing the interior) is present on the lip.
Opposite this, the lip is thickened into a vestigial
flat lug handle, with six round punctations on the lip.
On the exterior beneath each of these features, the
incised lines dip in a U-shape. Sherds of this vessel
were recovered in the very first shovel test in the
mound summit in 1984, and additional sherds were
scattered over four units in the northwest and central
parts of the mound. The adorno was found on the eastern
mound edge. The vessel had been basally perforated
before being broken.
A little over half of the second vessel was
recovered. This open bowl (Figure 7) has four parallel
lines incised around the rim, which loop down in four
places. An incised flat lug handle is on the rim, and
either another lug handle or an adorno was originally
present on the opposite rim. The base had been
perforated. Sherds from the vessel were spread over
three units in the central and western portions of the
mound.
Only four sherds of the third vessel were
recovered. This small open bowl has three sloppily-
applied parallel incised lines just below the rim, and

371
originally included at least one flat lug handle.
Sherds were spread over three units in the northern and
central parts of the mound.
The Alachua Tradition pottery types Prairie Cord
Marked, Prairie Fabric Impressed, and Alachua Cob Marked
were recovered from the postcontact stratum. The St.
Johns Cob Marked pottery from Tatham should probably be
considered a variant of Alachua Cob Marked. This
interpretation is supported by the fact that of the
eight proveniences from which St. Johns Cob Marked was
recovered, five also yielded sherds of Prairie Cord
Marked. Likewise, the St. Johns Cord Marked sherds, all
from a single large, deep open bowl, should probably be
considered a variant of Prairie Cord Marked. All of the
St. Johns Cob Marked sherds were part of a single
vessel. This small pot with a slightly flared orifice
(Figure 6) had been broken and spread over the northern
and southern parts of the mound. The base had been
perforated.
Sherds from a minimum of four Prairie Cord Marked
vessels were recovered. These were spread over most
sections of the mound. An almost complete simple open
bowl with a basal perforation was found in the
postcontact stratum on the western mound slope (Figure
6).

372
A single Prairie Fabric Impressed sherd was
recovered, which had been decorated with a plain twined
openwork fabric (Milanich 1971:Plate VI). The Alachua
Cob Marked sherds are all part of a single large pot.
The Alachua Tradition vessels represent interaction with
groups to the north of the Withlacoochee River, probably
the result of exchange systems operating during the late
prehistoric and protohistoric periods.
The two sherds of Pasco Painted are part of a
single simple open bowl. The surfaces of this vessel
had been burnished, and the bottom of the exterior had
been painted with black paint, then burnished. Traces
of red paint were noted elsewhere on the exterior.
Unfortunately, too little of the vessel is present to
determine the overall design. These specimens were
recovered from the precontact portion of the mound.
The St. Johns Dentate Stamped sherds were part of a
single large open bowl. This well-made vessel (Figure
8) has a smooth, burnished body, with a 4.0-4.5 cm wide
band of carefully-executed dentate stamping on the
exterior below the lip. Viewed from above, the opening
has a rounded square shape, with each corner slightly
peaked. The vessel was recovered from the precontact
stratum in the north central portion of the mound.

Figure 8
St. Johns Dentate Stamped, Sand Tempered Plain,
and St. Johns Plain Ceramics from
the Tatham Mound.
Top: St. Johns Dentate Stamped.
Bottom (1 to r): Sand tempered plain; St. Johns
Plain.
Photographs by Bunny Stafford.

374

375
Sherds from a sand tempered plain everted-rim jar
were recovered from the postcontact stratum in the
northeast corner of the mound. This vessel (Figure 8)
has a loop handle attached to the rim. Based on vessel
form and the presence of a handle, the vessel would be
classified by some researchers as Lake Jackson Plain