Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 USSR: the everlasting union
 Zemstvo varieties
 Trans-Siberian route
 Finland to China refused by...
 Japanese and other interventions...
 Issue and usage in Russia in 1918...
 Posthorn Cancels of Imperial...
 Soviet military censorship...
 Mail of the personnel of the Soviet...
 Azerbaijani notes
 Postal and telegraphic sendings...
 May 1923 Fifth issue of the Armenian...
 Issue and usage of Telegraph Forms...
 Evident markings of the Labour...
 Latvian philatelic Tuvan cover
 Postal card from Stalineshty
 Two postal stationery envelopes...
 Two Tuvan items
 Marketing Tuvan pictorials
 U.S. diplomatic pouch mail from...
 New facts about the "dots and numerals"...
 Kolchak was a Polar explorer
 Back Cover

Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider. No. 59.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00059
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider. No. 59.
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: Russian
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 2006
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Europe -- Russian Federation
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00059
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    USSR: the everlasting union
        Page 4
    Zemstvo varieties
        Page 5
    Trans-Siberian route
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Finland to China refused by Moscow
        Page 11
    Japanese and other interventions in Siberia
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Issue and usage in Russia in 1918 of Currency Exchange Tokens in the form of Jubilee stamps
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Posthorn Cancels of Imperial Russia
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Soviet military censorship in Romania
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Azerbaijani notes
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Postal and telegraphic sendings of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway and the story of its construction
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    May 1923 Fifth issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Issue and usage of Telegraph Forms and Stamps of the St. Petersburg City Public Telegraph System
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Evident markings of the Labour Camp Censorship on mail from and to prisoners
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Latvian philatelic Tuvan cover
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Postal card from Stalineshty
        Page 98 (
    Two postal stationery envelopes from Tuva
        Page 99
    Two Tuvan items
        Page 100
    Marketing Tuvan pictorials
        Page 101
        Page 102
    U.S. diplomatic pouch mail from the Russian and Soviet areas
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    New facts about the "dots and numerals" postmarks of the Russian Empire
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Kolchak was a Polar explorer
        Page 120
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text



J 59

December 2006


Printed in Canada


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2

CSRP Website: http://www3.svmpatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-msil: postrider@sympatico.ca
"The Post-Rider" N2 59. December 2006.
2 Editorial: Suspended Animation
2 Special Notes; also at 4, 49, 85, 94, 120
3 Correspondence with Canada: Philatelic Exchanges Russia-Canada Dr. V.B. Levandovskiy
3 Correction
4 USSR: The everlasting union Anonymous
5 Zemstvo Varieties: Twentieth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
6 The Trans-Siberian Route Advised by Henry Blum
11 Finland to China refused by Moscow Alan Warren
12 The Japanese and other interventions in Siberia conclusion Edward Klempka
15 The issue and usage in Russia in 1918 of Currency Exchange Tokens in the form L.G. Ratner
of Jubilee stamps
21 The Posthom Cancels of Imperial Russia Michael M. Ercolini
32 The Soviet Military Censorship in Romania Volodymyr Babych
34 The Mail of the Personnel of the Soviet Navy (1941-1945) conclusion Meer Kossoy & V. Berdichevskiy
45 Azerbaijani Notes Robert Taylor
50 The Postal & Telegraphic Sendings of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
and the story of its construction
72 The May 1923 Fifth Issue of the Armenian SSR Dr. A,M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian
78 The issue and usage of Telegraph Forms and Stamps of the St. Petersburg L.G. Ratner
City Public Telegraph System
86 Evident markings of the Labour Camp Censorship on mail from and to prisoners Janis OzoliPs
95 Latvian philatelic literature announcements
96 Three Outstanding Romanov Items Rabbi L.L. Tann
96 Registered on Travelling Post Offices Rabbi L.L. Tann
98 A Postal Card from Stalineshty in the province of Bessarabia Gary A. Combs
98 A typical philatelic Tuvan cover Alan Leighton
99 Two postal stationery envelopes from Tuva Richard E. Clever
100 Two Tuvan items O.P. Sel'nikov
101 Marketing Tuvan pictorials Andrew Cronin
103 U.S. Diplomatic Pouch Mail from the Russian and Soviet Areas Andrew Cronin
108 New Facts about the "Dots & Numerals" postmarks of the Russian Empire in Russian .Dr. A.M. Sarkisian
120 Kolchak was a Polar explorer Anonymous
Coordinators of the Society Alex Artuchov, Publisher and Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom
Copyright 2006. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights seserved. All the
contents of this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of The
Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.

We sincerely apologise for the late appearance of "The Post-Rider" No. 59, due mainly to some persistent
computer and printer problems.
Coupled with other Society responsibilities, the advanced age of your editor (81), ever rising postal rates annually,
declining membership etc., we regret to announce that No. 60, scheduled to appear later on this year, will be the last issue
of our highly praised journal, representing 30 years of solid and original research. Refunds will be issued where indicated.
This action does not mean that the Society will close down, but rather that it will go into suspended animation.
We will maintain our Web Site, post office box, e-mail address, Expertising Service and correspondence with all our
esteemed friends around the world and we will be happy to complete your runs of our Journal at an advantageous rate. We
are also transferring the copyright of our Journal to the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and your editor has not ruled
out the possibility of contributing future articles to their Journal on occasion, but at a less heavy pace.
In conclusion, our warm thanks go out to all the fine people we have come into contact with over the years in the
wonderful area of Russian and Soviet philately and postal history. As a final thought, let us take to heart the words of the
popular Acadien (Cajun) folksong down in Louisiana: "Laissez les bons temps rouler!" ("Let the good times roll!").


CHARLES E. ("CHIP") BOHLEN (1904-1974) ; U.S. AMBASSADOR TO MOSCOW 1953-1957
He is featured as a distinguished American diplomat
S in the U.S. souvenir sheet of 6 x 39 c. stamps, issued
wished American Diplomats 30 May 2006 at the "Washington 2006" World
SPhilatelic Exhibition. He entered the U.S. Foreign
7... as Service in 1929 and by 1934 was already part of the
L first team to establish the U.S. Embassy in the USSR.
SFrom 1935 onwards, he advised U.S. Presidents from
... F.D. Roosevelt to D.D. Eisenhower on Soviet affairs
A' and became fluent in Russian, serving as an
5' interpreter at international meetings with the Soviet
SF leadership. There is an excellent photograph of him
J talking to N.S. Khrushchev and N.A. Bulganin at the
ST C i nf T,,Il 109 tir i;" MfPfsrr th

1. y ecMJep o/JnV I plll/U. VJO\^WV y i LLlV
S i book by Michael R. Beschloss: "May Day -
i Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair", Harper
& Row, New York City, 1956; i.e. the 11 t. illustration following p. 174. Charles Bohlen also wrote a book about his diplomatic
experiences, titled "Witness to History".

IIO'TOBbIE IEEJIbHtIE BEHIH N 3 (POSTAL STATIONERY No. 3, Moscow, 2006). An Almanac Of 258 pages, issued
by the Club of Postal Stationery Lovers in AS format in the Union of Philatelists of Russia (103351, MOCKBA FCII-3. yJi.
TBepcKax A. 12, crp. 2. E-mail: 146i@(phvs.msu.ru for further details).
It can basically be said that the leading collectors in the Union of Philatelists of Russia are represented in this most
comprehensive work, which keeps improving with each succeeding number under the Editor-in-Chief Professor A.S. Ilyushin. Due to
space restrictions here, we can only list each author: L. Anisov. G/ Bronshtein, A. Chukin, M. Dobin, D. Dubovik, A. Epstein, L.
Finik, P. & V. Florenskii, O. Forafontov, Dr. O. Greis, Prof. A. Ilyushin, Ya. Ilyushin, M. Kossoy, V. Lapin, Dr. V. Levandovskiy, P.
Muratov, G. Nagol'.nov, I. Nikanorov, I. Nikanorova. I. Pugichev, L. Rashkovich, V. Tyukov, V.N. Ustinovskii, E. Uspuras, V.
Venets and V. Yakobs. Our Far East Asian specialists will be especially interested in the Russian postmarks shown by V.N.
Ustinovskii from Belotsarsk (Kyzyl); Khatkhyl, Kobdo, Mondo, Tszain-Shabi, Ulankom and Ulyasutai (all in Mongolia) and
Sharasume (Sinkiang province in China). All the other articles in this Almanac, going back to the pre-philatelic period are all of the
same high standard.

December 2006

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or Xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.

~''i- -MOCs~O L'~;
"Id S i 0 V-r

ox u -f-

n~ l~ IICi4C .:~

-- rL

13'a -a:

: :.- ~/;~11\U)V~~At4

rno'3,'arpairvOmY P6me'1y CpH'10P4 v-
Meexi*a 50;, icTacI.HHCim nep, 1*


npe. *~i -N6,li~ A-- lll i I rvhiuy.
L~~m~(;O(Tah0Men~e h Ul 4
ii Ctiv, Kcsr OT 25Ix 92'i r.I
(Wi CUP Cr 24V11:-1923 r.

Here we have two covers from the same correspondence:I.I. Pastoukhoff in Moscow to G. Jaime in Hawkesbury,
Ontario. Exchanges with foreign philatelists were controlled by the Soviet Philatelic Association, using the Moscow-50
post office. In the upper cover dated 4.2.3 the reg'n "3" cachet was for internal mail and the rate was 15 kop. for a
foreign letter 1t. weight step + 20 kop. reg'n fee. The total charge paid was 48 kop. and the extra 13 kop. may have paid
for further weight steps. The exchange tax was only 5 kop.
The second cover has the correct "R" cachet for foreign mail in the 1st. weight step, totaling 35 kop. and sent on
23.6.33, with a 3-rouble philatelic exchange tax stamp on the back. That was a high fee and the sending may have
contained expensive items.
Not much work has been done on these taxed philatelic exchanges and comments would be appreciated from
CSRP members,

Correction: Re "The Post-Rider" No. 58, page 4, Zemstvo article by G.G. Werbizky, line 6: The No, of "The Post-
Rider" is 57 and not No. 17.
Dlrpgmhpr 200b;i

--Y-..~,. I

r _---lL~ -~~~- L~



31 AEKABP5l 1943 rofA, 63 ro-
ga Ha3aA, B MocKBe ceccHs BepxoBHoro Co-
seTa CCCP yTBep)KaeT TeKCT HoBoro ruM-
Ha. gO TOWl nOpbl r4MHOM CTpaHbI 6bin

~~~U s~gh IjC

Cneea Hanpaeo: 3nb-PeaucmaH,
AneKcaHdppo, MuxanKoS, ..
omono 1943 sda '
"MHTepHaqMOHan" ("BcTaBaii. npOKn1TbeM
3aKnelMeHHbli..."). C ~HBapn 1944 roga
"MHTepHai41OHan" CTaHOBiTCR flMMHOM nap-
TMM, a cTpaHa Ha14HaeT neTb "C0103 Hepy-
JMMbIW pecny6nMK CBcB60pHblX". ABTOpbl
cnOB CepreR BnaflMM14poB14 MmxanKOB 1
3nb-PerncraH (FaGpH3nb ApKarbeBM4 YpeK-
n1H, )KypHanMCT "M3BeCTHM"), My3blKa AneK-
caHApa BacunbeBM4a AneKcaHgpoBa.toc-
KOnbKy.B TeKCTe ynoM4MHajnlc CTanlH, To
nocne pa3o6naveHMfl KynbTa ero ntIMMOCTM
riiMH HaM14HaOT 14nOJnHqlTb BHeMyIO, 6e3
cnOB TOJ1bKO My3blKy. TaK npoponmBaeTcF
Ao 1977 roAa, Korga MMxanKOB ynoMMHa-
HM4e CTanJHa M3 TeKCTa y61paeT, HO ocTaB-
nfleT MMM JfleHMHa Mon, "lapTMI JleH1MHa -
clna HapopHa81 Hac K Top)KecTBy.KOMMy-
HM3Ma BegeeT!". I'oTOM nopowluen epie y6-
paTb 143 TeKCTa M KaKoro-TO n1eHMHa, M1 Ka-
Kylo-To ero napT14Ho, M KaKoe-To TopKeCTBO
KaKoro-TO KOMMyHM3Ma. flpecapeenbib Mii-
xanKOB TyT KaK Tyr B 2000 rogy nlmeT Tpe-
TM1 TeKcT r4MHa, yxe 6e3 nJeHMHa, 6e3 nap-
TMM M 6e3 KOMMyHM13Ma. "Ciny HapopHy1o"
OH TdKe y61paeT (y)enb B HeR yCOMHMIJ-
ca?), a BMeCTo clnbi BCTaBJ1neT "MygpOCTb".
/ HblHe MMXanKOBCK14 TeKCT Bbiflm14MT TaK:
"PoccuSl CBSlieHHaql Hauwa gep)aBa, Poc-
cmFl nKo6mMaFI HaLa cTpaHa. MoryraF[ BO-
ni1, BenMKafI cnaBa TBO6 pOCTOq1Hbe Ha
Bce BpeMeHa! CnaBbCq, OTeqecTBO Hawe
CBo6OQHOe, BpaTCKMX Hapo4oB C0103 BeKO-
BO0, flpeAKaMM gaHHaq MyppOCTb HapoAF-
Haf! CnaBbCA, CTpaHa, Mbt ropgi4MC1 TO-

by Anonymous.
On 31 December 1943, i.e. 63 years ago, a session of the Suprime Soviet of
the USSR ratified the text of a new National Anthem. Up to that time, the
National Anthem had been the "Internationale": ("Debout des Damnis de la
Terre"', namely: "Arise, the Damned of the Earth"...). As of January 1944,
the "Internationale" became the anthem of the Party and the country began to
sing "The Everlasting Union of Free Republics". The authors of the words
were Sergei Vladimirovich Mikhalkov & El'- Registan (Gabriel'
Arkad'evichlUreklian,a journalist at the "Izvestiya" newspaper), with the
music by Aleksandr Vasil'evich Aleksandrov. As there was a reference in the
text to Stalin, the subsequent revelation of his "Cult of Personality" led to the
anthem being performed without words; just the music. That went on until
1977, when Mikhalkov took out the reference to Stalin, but kept the name of
Lenin, hence "The Party of Lenin, the National Force, will lead us to the
triumph of Communism". Then there were affected in turn even Lenin, his
Party and the triumph of Communism. Now advanced in years, Mikhalkov
suddenly in 2000 wrote a third text of the Anthem, which was without
Lenin, the Party and Communism. He also modified the "National Force" (is
it possible that he had doubts about it?) and, instead of the "National Force",
he inserted "Wisdom". So now the Mikhalkov text is to be seen as: "Russia -
our saintly state; Russia our dear country; Mighty Will, Great Glory; Thy
Fortune for all time; Glory to our free Fatherland; Of free peoples in
everlasting union; Such National Wisdom with our Forefathers; Glory to
Thee, Oh Country, we are proud of Thee".
Editorial Comment: Shown in a photo taken in 1943 from left to right are
ElPRegistan, Aleksandrov and Mikhalkov. Please refer also below to the 20-
kopek postcard, issued by Goznak (State Printing Works) in red on 4 March
1944, with the text of the new "Anthem of the Soviet Union" added at left in
blue under Printing Order NJ 4005 and in an edition of 20 million copies (!).
It therefore cannot be rare and note the reference to Stalin in the second verse
of the Anthem. Your editor remembers seeing in 1944 a Soviet newsreel
about the new Anthem.

* * * * * * * *



Polish Philatelic Literature for the English-speaking Collector
Available on CD at USD 15.00 postpaid from Chris Kulpinski, 9350 E. Palm Tree Drive, Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA.
See Website www.kulpinski.net/philatelv and contact by e-mail at chris(,kulpinski.net. Telephone (480) 585-7414
for further details. Based on the collection of the author and with the cooperation of other specialists in the field.

December 2006

mlpef 0 _t
* /4 .w- e, cHTt -
Aoipeeu D4 Uena 30.ic ni
IT0. 00

By G.G. Werbizky.
The is a continuation of the "Zemstvo Varieties" series, started in "The Post-Rider" X2 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties from that
Zemstvo do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send to "The Post-Rider" their discoveries that have not been shown.
What is being shown is what I have in my collection.

S.Recent discovery
Flig. Gadvach Zemstvo, Poltava province..
SChuchin No 45. The abbreviated word 3EMCK-
3EMCK. has been misspelt: the first letter "3" was
replaced by the letter "C" and thus the the word
~ reads "CEMCK". This is not the result of letter
deformation, but is a genuine letter substitution.

Fig. 2. Poltava,. Poltava province. Chuchin NJo 1, Gurevich &
Co. N 1M. There is a thin vertical white line approximately
through the middle of the stamp, that can be easily
overlooked.. Chuchin does not list this variety. There are
numerous other Poltava Zemstvo varieties that are very well
described and shown in colour in the Gurevich & Co.
catalogue and I therefore refer Zemstvo collectors to that and
S especially to the booklet "The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava
District, which can be obtained through "The Post-Rider".
Editorial Comment: The white line appears to have been
caused by a creased lithographic transfer.

SNos. 8a & 9a. It is of interest that the

Sig 3, Pskov, Pskov province, Chucprovince.
Chuchin 6. Thimperforate stamp has wide spacing,
.; o s while the perforated one does not.

..corers. Note the careless

************* .*.* ... *** .* *** ***..**. handwriting that can easily be

Fig. 4 Solikamsk Perm' province Chuchin 16. Partial block of six stamps. Of interested,
are the empty spaces. A reasonable explanation of this curiosity is welcome.
Editorial Comment: The empty spaces may have been caused by the limitation in sizedenomination

of the paper on hand, or by the restricted area of the lithographic stone.in

December 2006
D 2006
!3 andritig tat an asiy U
Fie, Soikamb. Pem' povine, CuchinJI~ 6, Prtialbloc of ix saU p.O itrs
are the empty space.Araoal xlnto fti uist swloe
Editria Coment Th emty sace ma hav ben cusedby he imittio insiU
ofth apr nhad o b herstice ae oth itorahi tUe
UH OTRDR~D10kI ~ 5
Aeeme 0





Discovered by CSRP member Henry Blum.

Compiled by
The Official Booking Agents

General Foreign Passenger Agents, Pennsylvania Railroad.



SHANGHAI, Central Arcade,
Nanking Road. (A)
TIENTSIN, 63 Victoria Rd. (A)
PEIPING (Peking), Grand
Hotel de Pekin. (A)
KOBE, Oriental Hotel. (A)

HONGKONG, Queen's Building,
(A) opposite Star Ferry Pier.
HARBIN, 132 Kitaiskaya St.,
(D) Harbin Pristane; 3-5, Soon-
gary Pr., Harbin New Town.
HSINKING (Changehun), in
the Station. (D)
MANCHURIA, in the Station.

(A) Telegraphic-address "Coupon." (D) Telegraphic-addresi "Sleeping.".



Thos. Cook & Son, Ltd. (Cook-Wagons-Lits), as Official
Booking-Agents for the Trans-Siberian Route and all con-
necting Lines in the Far East and in Europe, are in a position
to make complete arrangements for travellers via Siberia.
The following pages give detailed information of the unique
facilities they are able to offer their passengers.
THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY has two termini in the Far
East, namely, Manchouli and Vladivostock. The majority of passengers
elect to commence their Trans-Siberian journey at M'ANCHOULI as
from this point the journey is shorter and, moreover, it is from
Manchouli the popular weekly Train-de-Luxe commences its journey.
If coming from SHANGHAI or HONG KONG two. main, routes
are available for the journey to, Manchouli. These are: (a) by steamer
Shanghai to Dairen (steamers every 314 days-steamer trip two days)
thence by rail via Mukden, Hsinking and Hailbin: or, (b) by train
all the way to Manchouli via Nanking, Tientsin, Shanhaikwan, Mfukden
and Harbin. Passengers from NORTH CHINA take train from
Peiping or Tientsin via Shanhaikwan and Mukden, Harbin, or may
take steamer from Tientsin to Dairen thence rail to, Manchouli.
FROM JAPAN train may be taken via Shimonoseki (ferry to Fusan)
continuing by train through Chosen (Korea) to Harbin, Manchouli.
An alternative is to take steamer from Japan to Dairen thence rail.
An alternative and shorter route from, Japan to Manchouli by steamer
to Seishin thence rail via Lafa or Hsinking, is being developed and
is expected, to operate shortly. Passengers from Japan who decide
to join the ordinary express which leaves Vladivostock weekly across
Siberia would cross by steamer from Tsuruga to' Vladivostock.
FROM MANCHOULI Trans-Siberian Expresses leave as follows:
Each week a Train-de-Luxe with accommodation only for First
Category and Second Category passengers-there is no extra charge
on this train to holders of tickets of the appropriate class. IN
ADDITION there is each week an Ordinary Express Train from
Manchouli which has accommodation for First and Second Category,
also "Soft" and "Hard" Class passengers. Later these different types
of sleeping accommodation are clearly described. NOTE: ADDI-
TIONAL Ordinary Express train (otr trains) may leave Manchouli
each week according to season of the year or as occasion requires.
Cook-Wagons-Lits offices are kept fully posted as to- the existing
The Train-de-Luxe and Ordinary Express(es) maintain precisely
the same timetable for the seven days' journey M1anchotuli to the
Polish Frontier station (Stolpce) which is reached exactly one week
later, e.g., should passengers leave Manchouli on a Monday they
would arrive Stolpce the following Monday morning and could arrive
Berlin Tuesday or Paris or London on Wednesday.
STOLPCE is the Western teminus of the Trans-Siberian route
and here passengers change to the waiting European train,. This
train has a Wagons-Lits Company operated sleeping car for Warsaw

and Berlin, also a through Wagons-Lits sleeping-car for Paris. The
cars have sleeping accommodation for both first and second-class
passengers. Passengers for Vienna, .Switzerland and Italy leave this
train at Warsaw whence Wagon-Lits cars are available for the journey
on to destination. Passengers for BERLIN or beyond (England,
Scandinavia, Holland, etc.) continue on the train to the Friedrich-
strasse Station, Berlin, but change cars at Berlin Schlesischer Station.
FROM BERLIN passengers have a variety of routes to destination
but Cook-Wagons-Lits can furnish their passengers with tickets
and reservations for any route desired.
The train from Stolpce is due Berlin in the morning and passengers
wishing to take the opportunity of spending the day sightseeing in
Berlin can, if desired, take the famous Nord Express which leaves
Berlin every evening for Cologne, Brussels, Paris and London. The
Nord Express is composed of de-Luxe sleeping cars both first and
Passengers via Siberia for Berlin or beyond may, if desired, leave
the Trans-Siberian Express at Moscow there taking train via Bigosovo
to Daugavpils where a Wagons-Lits sleeping-car is available for the
journey on to Berlin which is reached at approximately the same
hour as if travelling via Stolpce.
'Skeleton timetables for the journey from China and Japan to
various points in Europe are furnished with this booklet. These are
prepared according to the latest information available at the time
of issue. Each passenger booked with Cook-Wagons-Lits is, however,
supplied with a carefully-prepared detailed itinerary covering the
particular journey to be taken, and, moreover, every necessary
reservation is applied for beforehand.


Numbered classes (1st, 2nd, or 3rd class as in the Far East
or in Europe) do not exist on the Russian railways. The types of
accommodation provided are described below:-
FIRST CATEGORY. This is the highest grade of accommodatioMn.
It consists of two-berth commodious compartments in former
Wagons-Lits sleeping-cars, and there is a private toilet-room between
each two compartments. They provide ample space for the stowage
of hand baggage and each passenger can conveniently take two large
suitcases in addition to smaller packages. During the day the
compartment provides a full-sized settee with a facing chair-seat.
In addition there is a table with table-lamp.. A plentiful supply of
hot or cold water is available in the private toilet-room, also clean
drinking water. At each end of the corridor is a well-kept lavatory.
SECOND CATEGORY. The principal difference between this and
First Category is the-fact that there is not a private toilet room
between compartments. Lavatories are provided at the end of the
SOFT CLASS. These compartments are well-upholstered and
quite "roomy". Usually the cars have both four-berth and two-berth
compartments. Each two-berth compartment has its own toilet-basin.

Bedding is not provided in the cost of Soft Class tickets but may
be hired on the train at a cost of U.S.$1 each time changed.
HARD CLASS. This accommodation is all in four-berth com-
partments. These are very commodious and also contain table and
reading lamp. Carpets are laid in the compartments and along the
corridors. Bedding is not included in the cost of Hard Class tickets
but may be hired (including mattress) at a cost of U.S.$1 each time
changed. This class can well be recommended to travellers of limited
DINING CARS. These are well equipped and under the direction
of a dining-car manager. The food provided is essentially Russian
in style but good in quality. Menus are printed in both Russian and
English. The restaurant-car manager will explain the different dishes.
Passengers of all classes have access to the dining-cars. Complete
meal coupon-books for the entire Trans-Siberian journey may be
purchased beforehand from Cook-Wagons-Lits which afford a very
definite saving in cost (see notes under "Meals on Trains").
The Train-de-Luxe carries a member of the "Intourist" Interpreter
staff for the entire journey.
HEATING. The Trans-Siberian Expresses are well heated during
the protracted cold weather. Each car has its own independent-
heating installation.

and Facilities for Travellers

PASSPORTS & VISAS. The matter of passport and essential
visas should receive attention in the early stages of the booking.
What visas are necessary depends upon the nationality of the traveller.
Full information as to visas will gladly be furnished at any COok-
Wagons-Lits office where prospective passengers will be advised where
they may be obtained. Simply as an example we cite the following:
A British subject desiring to travel through from Shanghai to London
via Dairen, Hsinking, Harbin, Sto'lpce, Berlin thence a direct route
to London, would require: Japanese, Manchurian, U.S.S.R. and Polish
visas. These visas can all be obtained readily at the Consulates of
those Governments in 'Shanghai with the one exception of the visa
for Manchuria which is readily obtainable whilst passing through
Dairen. Should the passenger elect to travel from Moscow via
Bigosovo and Daugavpils to Berlin he would require, in addition,
Latvian and Lithuanian visas. These latter can be obtained in Harbin
during Consular office hours or at the frontier stations. Passengers
from Japan can secure practically all necessary visas before leaving
Japan. Cook-Wagons-Lits Kobe office will furnish full information.
N.B. The visas referred to above are "TRANSIT" visas. Should
the traveller wish to stop over in the U.S.S.R. the longest possible
application should be made for the appropriate type of visa to the
nearest U.S.S.R. Consulate as applications for other than "Transit"
may have to be referred to Moscow.
RESERVATIONS. Passengers are recommended to give Cook-
Wagons-Lits as much notice as possible for reservations, particularly

00 when departure is desired between the period March-July. If writing
for reservations please state required date of departure from Man-
chouli (see accompanying schedule or Cook's Far Eastern Travellers
Gazette for departure days), adding class of travel required, sex of
passenger or composition of party. Please also, advise any preference
as to route in the Far East, also after leaving the Trans-Siberian train.
TICKETS. Cook-Wagons-Lits furnish their passengers with the
necessary travel tickets and reservation orders for each stage of
the journey from starting point to destination. It may be emphasised
that such tickets and reservations purchased from Cook-Wagons-Lits
cost identically the same as if purchased from the different Railway
and Steamship Companies. Cook-Wagons-Lits give their passengers
the benefit of the most favourable combinations of tickets in operation
and this affords a definite economy as against booking from point
to point en route. Passengers need not necessarily travel in the
same class for all stages of the journey but Cook-Wagons-Lits can
furnish "Mixed" class tickets and make reservations accordingly.
Return tickets are issued at reduced rates if same are taken out in
the first place. Parties of 15 or over are accorded a substantial
reduction. Full particulars and quotations to any point will gladly
be furnished upon application.
SERVICE EN ROUTE. From China or Japan to Manchouli Cook
S-Wagons-Lits passengers are fully entitled to the services of the
Railway representatives at Dairen, Hsinking, Harbin and on the train
Harbin to, Manchouli. In addition Cook-Wagons-Lits have their
own representatives (see cover) at Hsinking, Harbin and Manchouli.
Whilst in the U.S.S.R. representatives of the Intourist Bureau will
furnish any desired advice and assistance. In Berlin The Weltrei's-
bureau are at the service of Cook-Wagons-Lits ticket-holders. In
Europe, as is generally known, Cook-Wagons-Lits have their own
offices and interpreters at all principal Cities.
LUGGAGE. Travellers via 'Siberia are recommended, whenever
Possible, to restrict their luggage to hand packages such as suitcases,
portmanteaux, etc., which can be stowed in the commodious sleeping
compartments thus incurring no expense except for porterage. 66
lbs. of "Registered" (luggage-van) baggage is allowed free on French,
Belgian and English Railways, elsewhere there is no free registered
baggage. HEAVY BAGGAGE such as trunks, boxes, crates, etc.,
are best shipped by sea. Cook-Wagons-Lits will gladly undertake
to attend to the collection, despatch and delivery to Home address
of any -such, heavy packages, and will attend to Customs, etc.,
formalities in the Far East and at destination. Quotations will be
furnished upon application.
MEALS EN ROUTE. Fares quoted do not include meals on
trains which may be purchased at nominal rates in the dining-cars
of the different trains travelled by. For the actual TRAN.S-SIBERIAN
journey Manchouli to Stolpce a complete book of meal coupons may
be purchased from Cook-Wagons-Lits. Such coupon-books are
strongly recommended as affording a considerable saving and entitling
the holders to first call upon the dining-car attendants' services.
TRAVEL FUNDS. When booking Cook-Wagons-Lits will be
pleased to advise as to the best method of carrying funds, and such

information should be sought before departure. The import and
export of Russian money is prohibited in the U.S.S.R. and for the
Trans-Siberian journey non-Russian currencies should be carried.
For safety and conveniee passengers are recommended to carry travel
funds in COOK'S TRAVELLERS C'HEQUES which are issued in
suitable denominations in Sterling and U.S. currencies. Cook's
Travellers Cheques are known and cashed throughout the World by
upwards of 12,000 official correspondents. They can, among other
places, be cashed at the State Bank of Moscow and at its branches.
All passengers entering the U.S.S.R. should obtain from the
Authorities at the frontier station of entry an endorsement on their
passports of the amounts in all currencies in their possession, in order
that they may have no difficulty in taking out with them whatever
remains at the end of their stay or their transit through the country.
HOTELS AND SIGHTSEEING. Cook-Wagons-Lits are in a
position to arrange for hotel accommodation and sightseeing excursions
-en route, including Harbin, Moscow, Leningrad, Berlin, etc. Particulars
will be furnished upon application.
CUSTOMS FORMALITIES IN U.S.S.R. Hand baggage is examin-
ed at the frontier station of entry. Books or documents on political
subjects are liable to confiscation.
IMPORTANT NOTICE. Thos. Cook & Son, Ltd., andlor The
Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, andlor their Subsidiary
andlor Associated Companies, give notice that all tickets and coupons
issued by them, and all arrangements for transport or conveyance,
for Hotel accommodation, are made by them as Agents upon the
express condition that they shall not be liable for any injury, damage,
loss, accident, delay or irregularity which may be occasioned either
by reason of any defect in any vehicle, or through the acts or default
of any company or person engaged in conveying the passenger or
in carrying out the arrangements of the tour(s), or otherwise in
connection therewith, or of any hotel proprietor or servant. Such
conveying, etc., is subject to the laws of the country where the
conveyance, etc., is provided. Baggage is at owner's risk throughout
the tour(s) unless insured. Small articles, coats, wraps, umbrellas
and other hand baggage are entirely under the care of the passenger,
who is cautioned against the risk attached to these being left in
conveyances when sightseeing.
Thos. Cook and Son, Ltd., andlor The Compagnie Internationale
des Wagons-Lits, andjor their Subsidiary andlor Associated Companies
accept no responsibility for losses or additional expenses due to
delays or changes in train, steamer or other services, sickness, weather,
strikes, war, quarantine or other causes. All such losses or expenses
will have to be borne by the passenger.
The information contained in this booklet is the latest furnished
by the different transportation companies concerned and is subject
to alteration without notice.


HARBIN. Passengers coming from China or Japan en route to
Manchouli to join the T'rans-Siberian Expresses converge upon Harbin,
the large trading centre of Manchuria, and many elect to spend a
night in Hairbin before proceeding to the Siberian train. The
Wagons-Lits Company maintains its office almost opposite Harbin
station, an office in the Pristan, also its own kiosk on the station
itself, at the service of holders of Cook-Wagons-Lits tickets. The
Grand Hotel is near to the station whilst the Modern Hotel is on the
principal street of the town-the Pristan. Harbin possesses many
up-to-date department stores where "last-minute" travellers' require-
ments may be purchased at reasonable rates.
From Harbin connecting trains bring the Siberian passenger in
twenty-two hours to Manchouli, passing en route Tsitsihar, Chaluntun
the well-known summer resort, Buchedu and Hailar.
On arrival of the train at MANCHOULI, baggage is removed to
the Customs examination room in the station and after inspection-
is placed by porters in the traveller's reserved compartment in the
Trans-Siberian Express. At the station beyond Manchouli the
baggage is examined on the train by the U.S.S.R. Customs officers
and passports are. examined. Bona fide personal effects are admitted
free of duty and Customs examination is carried out with the minimum
of inconvenience to passengers.
Now the Trans-Siberian journey proper commences. The first
important halt is at KARIMSKAYA where the line from Vladivostock
via Harbarovsk joins the Siberian main-line. Next comes CHITA
which is the regional centre of the Far Eastern section of the U.S.S.R.
and has a population of 65,000. Leaving Chita the line makes sharp
curves, turns and loops round the picturesque mountain slopes. Con-
tinuing we come to VERKHHEUDINSK, the capital of the Buriat-
Mongolian Autonomous Socialistic Soviet Republic, a raw-go'ods trading
centre of 25,000 people. From this point there is automobile connection
with Mongolia, and across the Gobi Desert to Kalgan in China. There
is also an air-service from Verkhki-Udinsk to Mongolia.
From this point to Irkutsk is encountered some of the most
picturesque scenery to be seen from a train window, the train running
for hours along the shores of beautiful Lake Baikal. The Lake is
encircled and hereabouts the train passes through no less than thirty-
nine tunnels. In the background is the Haman-Daban range of moun-
tains. Lake Baikal has a length of 600 kilometres and varies from 30
to 70 kilometres in width, whilst its depth is 1,500 metres. The rapid
and lengthy Angara River has its source in Lake Baikal. The line
continues via Angara, Polovina and Cheremchovo, after which virgin
country of seemingly endless forests is traversed in which bears and
wolves still roam. To the South can be seen the Sayansk Mountains.
This type of country continues for a thousand kilometres until the Obi
River is reached beyond which is the town of Krasnoyarsk.
KRASNOYARSK, founded in 1628, with a population of 80,000 is
situated on the Yenesei River. During the summer months freight
boat connection is maintained through from Krasnoyarsk to the Arctic
Ocean and thence to Europe.

The line continues via Achinsk and Taiga and Yurga. At YURGA
there is a branch line to the rich Kuznetsk coal basin.
The next stop of interest to the traveller is Novosibirsk, the capital
of Siberia, although the youngest Siberian City. It was founded in
1893 with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, since when
it has developed into a city of 100,000 inhabitants. NOVOSIBIRSK
stands on the Obi River which is here spanned by a bridge of half a
kilometre in length. It is the Administrative centre of the district and
the seat of the Siberian Fo'reignr Trade Department. The city is of
great interest as the starting point of Turkestan-'Siberian Railway
which passes along the Western boundary of China on its way to Alma
Ata en route to Tashkent, Samarkand and the Caspian Sea.
Proceeding onwards via Tatarskaya, thence through salt-marshy
country, Omsk is reached. OMSK, which is the centre of Western
Siberia was founded in 1717 at the junction of Omi and Irtish Rivers.
A city of 150,000, its principal industry is agricultural machinery
and implements and the fostering of agricultural pursuits.
Leaving Omsk, the line passes through fertile flat country to
Tumen after which town the train passes through the Black Soil
plain and then over the Eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains on its
way to Sverdlovsk. SVERDLOVSK, which is a large railway junction,
is the centre of the entire economic and cultural life of the Urals.
The Urals are known throughout the world for their precious stone
deposits and at Sverdlovsk station Trans-Siberian passengers may
purchase specimen stones. South of Sverdlovsk are situated the new
giant metallurgical works known as Magnitogorsk.
Leaving Sverdlovsk a rocky plain is entered on the journey to
Kunguir (which is known for its Catacomb caves and remarkable
grottos) thence the line runs close to the cliffs of the wild Urals to.
PERM, founded in 1781, is built on the Kama River, which is the
largest tributary of the Volga. The population of 85,000 is mainly
Tartar intermingled with other races. The city is an important
junction of railroads and waterways.
After Perm the line crosses an extremely long bridge over the
River Kama and after ten hours through dense pinewoods the train
approaches the slopes of the Western Urals and soon afterwards
arrives at Viatka. VIATKA is a growing trade-industrial centre. On
the platform, may be purchased carved .souvenir articles (such as
cigarette cases) of woodwork of Karelian birch and burl taken from
the giant trees of the district.
Continuing from Viatka, the line reaches its most northerly
point at Bui which was formerly the capital of a Russian principality.
At Bui the line takes a sharp turn South passing Yaroslav and
Alexandrov on. its Southern course to Moscow. MOSCOW is entered at
the Severni (North) Station which the traveller will find interesting
for its decorative paintings and architecture. The train continues
through to the Smolenski Station whence it continues its journey
some six hours later for the Polish frontier. If continuing by the
Trans-Siberian Express, most passengers occupy these six hours
visiting the many interest sights of Moscow accompanied by Intourist
Bureau guides, rejoining the train at the Smolenski Station. Advance
arrangements for guides may be made through Cook--Wagons-Lits

- Office at the time of booking. Some of the principal points of
o interest are: The Red Square, Lenin's Mausoleum, St. Basil
Cathedral, The Trading Rows, Historical Museum, 'Revolutionary
Museum, Tretyakoff Gallery, Handicraft Museum, Central Institute
of Labour, The Kremlin, Central Museum of Decorative Art, Great
Palace of the Kremlin, Bell Tower of Ivan Veliki, Tsar Bell and
Tsar Cannon.

From Moscow radiate railway lines in all directions. To the
West is the line to the Polish frontier (Stolpce) for Berlin also
an alternative line to Bigosovo with connection via Daugavpils for
Berlin. To the North is the line for Leningrad, whilst to the South
are main lines to Kharkov in Ukraine (with its Industrial centre
Dniesprostroy), to Astrakhan (whence comes caviare) and the oil
fields of Baku on the Caspian. Also South is the line to Kiev and
Odessa. Out of Moscow also leaves the motor car road to Gorki)
(formerly Nishninovgo'rod) the centre of the U.&S.R. motor-car
On leaving Moscow (Smolenski Station) the Trans-Siberian
Express continues via Mozhaisk, Gzhatsk, Viasma, Durovo, Dorogobuj
and Yartsevs to SMOLENSK, an ancient monastery city whose towers
and walls still recall the Napoleonic epoch. Continuing onwards
Minsk is reached, the centre and capital of White 'Russian S.S.R.
After Minsk comes the last stretch of the journey through Russia
which ends at the frontier station STOLPCE. Prior to reaching Stolpce
Russian Customs examination takes place at Niegoreloye. At
Stolpce, after Polish Customs and passport examination, passengers
board the Wagons-Lits cars on the waiting through train for War-
saw, Neu Bentschen (German Customs) and Berlin. For passengers
to Paris there is a through Wagons-Lits car from Stolpce avoiding
change at Berlin. Passengers for Vienna, Italy and Switzerland
leave the Berlin train at Warsaw for Southbound connections. At
Berlin the train is met by Cook's representative, the Weltreisebureau
Union, who will arrange sightseeing trips before continuing on to

OFFICES will furnish information and book return
accommodation by the Trans-Siberian route, OR BY
ANY OTHER ROUTE. If return route cannot be
decided before departure from the Far East any
Cook-Wagons-Lits office (see list on cover) in
Europe, etc., will make all necessary arrangement
by any Line or routes at exactly the same fares as
charged by the Steamship or Railway Companies,
furnishing, in addition, Cook-Wagons-Lits Service
en route.






.......3 V days

. . .

MOSCOW ............... 6


BERLIN ....... 1


Total 131/2 days




Suns. Weds. Harbin dep. 8.00 a.m.
Tsitsihar arr.
Hailar arr.
Mons. Thurs. Manchouli arr. 7.10 a.m.

Passport and Customs Inspection.


0 Manchouli . Mon.
129 Borzia . .
228 Oioviannaya .
377 Karimskaya .
473 Chita II . ,
616 Mogzon ... .Tue.
737 Hilok . .
836 Petrovsky Zavod : ,
1030 Verkni-Udinsk .
1196 Misovaya .. ... ,
1253 Sludianka ,
1522 Irkutsk .
1530 Innokentievskaya ,
1626 Polovina .. Wed.
1653 Cheremhovo .
1710 Zalari . ,
1772 Zimz . .
1912 Tulun . .
2028 Nijneudinsk .
2192 Taishet . .
2331 Ilanskaya .
2363 Kansk . .
2479 Klukvenayy .
2610 Krasnoyarsk .
2753 Chernorechenskaya Thu.
2795 Atchinsk . .
2862 Bogotol . .
2995 Mariinsk . .
3143 Taiga . .. ,
3217 Yurga I . .
.1247 Bolotnaya .
3372 Novosibirsk ,
3504 Chulimskaya .
3675 Barabinsk .
3031 Tatarskaya .. Fri.
3999 Omsk . .
4281 Ishim
4426 Vagai . .. ,.
4497 Yalutorovsk .. ,
4571 Tiumen .. ,.
4682 Poklevskaya ..
4753 Kamishlov .
4796 Bogdanovitch .Sat.
4896 Sverdlovsk .
4981 Koo.ino . .
5040 Shalia . .
5175 Kungur .... .
5276 Perm . .
5396 Vereschagino .
5518 Balezino .. ,,
5587 Glazov . .
5650 Zuevka ... ,
5755 Viatka .
5894 Svetcha . .
6011 Sharia . Sun.
6140 Niklla-Poloma .
6261 Booi . .
6354 Danilov .. .
6429 Vspolie
6549 Alexandrov .. .
6704 MOSCOW (Severny) ,
6714 Moscow (Belovuesky) ,
7133 Smolensk .. Mon.
7464 Minsk . .
7539 Negoreloye ....
7552 Stolpce . .
* *

Thu. 7.10
S 15.42
,, 20.28
Fri. 2.56
S 11.19
S 21.41
Sat. 0.26
S 4.26
S 10.12
S 14.01
S 18.04
S 23.43
Sun. 3.44
S 5.58
,, 11.49
S 13.42
S 14.23
,, 17.00
S 20.04
Mon. 2.29
S 5.47
,, 12.19
S 15.53
S 19.17
Tue. 0.03
,, 10.30
S 13.17
,, 15.55

,, 18.33
Wed. 2.10
S 4.54
S 9.41
S 17.00

Thu. 6.10
S 11.56


by Alait Warren.

To obtain
Departure time add
6.00 6 hours
.0.34 5 hours
3.52 4 hours
4.43 ,
14.33 .
2.39 3 hours
0.09 2 hours

2.23 1 hour

23.00 0 hour

* *

December 2006 11

6 oport I tc oposa

*' 'f" t*f .'.

PEECTP c_ _._ _._ _-

C -

Ao-iTSeC orp..iae.. __.(o4Mt.) P. .... P___ K

This Finnish FDC left Vaasa/Vasa 2.6.1947 for
Harbin, Manchuria, but was intercepted en route by
Moscow 12.6.47 with a note in French reading:
"Return because of absence of exchange". Why?
Editorial Comment: Mail to and from Europe and
the Far East was normally transmitted via the Trans-
Siberian Railway, soon after the Russo-Japanese War
and the transport fees were subsequently a valuable
source of foreign currency for the USSR. There was a
branch line from Manchouli to Harbin, as seen from
the Cook booklet herewith. By 1947, civil war was
raging in Manchuria between the Nationalists and
Communists, the latter having seized arms from the
defeated Japanese Kwantung Army, with the tacit
approval of the Soviet forces there.
Foreign mail exchanges were therefore out of the
question and the Soviet postal official at the
"MOSCOU ITRANGER" office used "QEopMa 11"
to return the letter to Finland.
Trans-Siberian usages are both interesting and varied
and examples advised by CSRP members would be
much appreciated. As can be seen from the adjoining
column here, it is still the longest railway in the

by Edward Klempka.


.... ." J e Families population
*. fZ '..
7 *. Ch"Japanese 12
Russian 669 3250
Chinese 250 2900
Chinese 1
------ 11500
,troops 50043

Latest recorded date for this FPO No. 8 '"L" cancel at Heng-tao-ho-tzu Garrison, Oodokashi, Siberian Exped. Force,
North Manchuria is 11.4.6 = 6 Apr. 1922. Note the tabulation of the population data.

Vr.r = *

I.- t 3.s

Military postcard with early mail from FPO No. 9 ", 33'd.
Inf. Regt., 3". Divn. at Berezovka, Transbaikal Province and
dated 7.12.18 = 18 Dec.1918.

Military postcard from 4t'. Company, 33 InfaTitry RegL, 3"'
,' "' -- i.-.,- "- _.

Military postcard from 4m. Company, 33"1 Infan'try Regt., 3",
Division at Verkhneudinsk, with postmark FPO No. 9 "+ "
8.1.13 (13 January 1919) and sent to Aichi-ken, Japan.

~~ 2 Z 7l7.- F
~ ~~~F-3t~tr 7r4~ 7
10 JrB~J 3ru:~L

J,~~~~~~L I1

r 4rlCL j- :C`I`I L~~~t
~5 ;\- \ ~ Lsj-IJ

Military postcard from a soldier in 7th Infantry Regt.. 9".
Division with postmark FPO No. 9 "Jt 10.6.17 (17 June
1921), Nibangawa, Siberia.


fl;.~ II

-. -c --a ,-= ,--~

- v-

Military letter from 5h. Company, HQ 7'/ Infantry Regt., 9h.
Division, Spasskaya, Siberia with postmark FPO No. 10 "+ "
11.7.24 (24 July 1922) to Special Duty Master Sergeant
Nakamura, Commanding Officer, 7h. Company, Tachanovka
Area Force.

december 2006

, J .'-

a.... -T T '

- --_j~------------------






Military letter from Takeabi Aoki at Spasskaya Hospital, sent
via FPO N 10 + 11.6.10 (11 June 1922)to Master Sergeant
Nakamura, Commanding Officer, 7th. Company, 7t".
Regiment, Tachanovka Area Force.

A -.-.

starkk of FO No. 12 d 10.. (19 Januar

r f 1921)... R. 1
Division ,- Ug l.-ySato _H- Mar. im P.- r o:v c w i.- t


S.. --. '. ... ....


Military letter-card from Commanding Colonel Katsuki
Maruno, 47t'. Regiment at Ushumun, Amur Province with
postmark of FPO No. 11 "-+" dated 8.1.4 (4 Jan. 1919) to
Major-General Mori, 19 Fuku-cho, Ushigomeku, Tokyo-chi.

- --- -CARTE POSTALE.- --
.- -:- ; '-,_- ._'- ---': L- i -_-

Military postcard from Kanazawa-shi, Field Artillery, 9 .
Regt., Base Office at Blagoveshchensk with postmark FPO
No,.12 = + 8.7.23 (23 July 1919). Summer Season
Greetings card.



~.~s a"X

Editorial Comment: The Treaty of'
Nerchinsk was signed here on 27 August-
1689 O.S. (6 September 1689 N.S.) to
delineate the border between the Russian
and Chinese Empires. It was drawn up in
Latin, Manchu and Russian. The Latin text
was written by learned Jesuit Fathers, who
were trying to convert the Chinese to

Russian 5-kop. postcard from 4t. Company, 6h. Infantry Regt.,5 .
Brigade, 3rd. Division at Nerchinsk, Siberia with postmark FPO
No. 21' +=" 8.7.22 (22 July 1919). Latest recorded usage from
FPO No. 21 at Nerchinsk and sent to Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken,

December 2006



~'fT)'TtMAf h FTOHLrHA~ I...
Ilrinrm.. Cii


'-,,5 ,' ..

;= ^ "^ f: '' .

" .' ,

* ...7. --r

Russian postcard from a Japanese infantryman, 1
Machine-Gun Company, 60. Field Infantry Regt
Olovyannaya, Siberia with postmark FPO No. 23 M-
7.1221 (21 Dec. 1918). Sent to Kenkichi, Hoojo, Tokoi
cho, Chita-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan.

Military Mail postcard from soldier Mukoyama, 6h. Infantry
Regt., 3rd. Division at Olovyannaya with postmark FPO No.
23 "E+-:" 9.4.5 (5 April 1920). Sent to hus daughter at Aichi-

:.. -+:, H Cn )-TO BA, K5 PTO .:,1
A .T C-..
ta noq-rTs0 \
2119 OTE LT

4 'f nzi' .)

Military postcard, with location not stated and sent by soldier
via FPO No. 24 "+ -'" 8.1.1 (1 January 1919).

I i


I -


A 3-sen letter-card from a soldier in 6t. Infantry
Regt., 3rd. Division at Pogranichnaya, Manchuria via
FPO No. 25 "5.- =" 7.12.23 (23 December 1918) to
Nagoya, Japan.

.... -^ '... ... .
--- --- i J :' "- ---

- ..^ ... "' -_L"_- _-

A reply-half 3-kop. Russian postal stationery card from a
soldier in 26h. Regt., 7t. Division at Dauriya, Trans-Baikal
province via FPO No. 26 ," 8.8.12 (12 August 1919).

i T'~ Mt LI-1
| '

:. ..

Reply-half of a 3-kop. Russian postal stationery card via FPO
26 "IT4 8.7.2 (2 July 1919) from a soldier in 6h. Infantry
Regt., 3rd. Division at Mogacha, Siberia.

December 2006


_ __ __

___ ___ ____ __

+ ,.

^*i.'. "p"3 ,"T '_)

L .- .


J, X. ,.

(A translation into English ofthr original Russian text, published in "The Post-Rider" JN 58, pp. 27-35)

In explaining the appearance in Russia in 1915 of the paper substitutes for copper and silver coins, the Director N.
Tavildarov of the Despatch Office for the Preparation of State Papers (EZGB) wrote: "As a consequence of the rapid
disappearance in the market of silver and copper coins of exchange, the Government has been obliged to place into
circulation paper tokens of exchange in two types- Treasury coupons (vouchers) in the values of 1, 2, 3, 5 & 50 kopeks
on watermarked paper..., and currency stamps in the form of the Jubilee postage stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20
kopeks on more durable psper"(1).
There is very little information in the philatelic literature about the paper coupons in the form of Jubilee stamps.
Some data may be found only in the classic article by B. Kaminskii "The Postal Rates of Pre-Revolutionary Russia"
("Soviet Collector", Manual N2 27, 1989). However, the archival documents utilised in the article on this subject stop at
the beginning of 1917, That was only the first half of the story for this issue. Also, it was also forgotten that B.
Kaminskii had fixed the date for the preparation of the 1-, 2 & 3-currency stamps as in 1915. The catalogues had
previously noted their issue in 1916. And so on and so forth.
The nomenclature of the paper exchange tokens of the kopek values in 1915-1919 differ from the designation
utilized at the present time. The issue is now named as consisting of"MapKH-geHraH"(money stamps) and they were
originally referred to by many designations, the most exact of them being "money tokens of exchange in the form of
Jubilee stamps". The issues were referred to in the article in the same way as in the official documents of those years:
the money stamps as "exchange stamps" and the paper money tokens (vouchers) as "Treasury exchange tokens".
The archival documents of the EZGB, the Ministry of Finances, the State Bank of Russia and the Main
Administration of Posts and Telegraphs (FYTIIT) utilized in the present article allow us to give a sufficiently exact
description of the issue and utilization in the 1915-1919 period of the exchange stamps and to demonstrate their right to
be used for postal purposes, thus eliminating any inaccuracies. The legality of the utilization of these stamps for postal
purposes will be demonstrated below.
To all intents and purposes, the particular interest for philatelists would be the exchange stamps which actually
went through the post, as well as postal sending, which were franked with such stamps.. However, the general data
about the story of their issue should be of general interest.
The exchange stamps were prepared and utilized at the same time as the Treasury exchange tokens (vouchers)
and it is not possible to distinguish them completely one from the other. For that reason, some data are given in the
article about the Treasury exchange tokens.
The EZGB received orders for the preparation of essays and the issue of money from the Privy Chancery for the
Credit Department of the Ministry of Finances (later, only from the Ministry of Finances), or from the State Bank of
Russia, which, in this case, was sent to the corresponding disposition of the Ministry of Finances.
The preparatory work for the production of exchange stamps and of the Treasury exchange tokens began at the
EZGB on 1 September 1915 under the direction of the Senior Artist Richards Zaria in the Graphic Arts Section.
At the beginning of September, there was not a unanimous opinion at the Ministry of Finances as to what
proportions should be devoted to eliminate completely the shortage of copper and silver coins in the kopek values. In
those days, the EZGB received orders for the preparation of essays both for the exchange stamps in the values of 10, 15,
20 & 50 kopeks and for treasury exchange tokens in the values of 5, 10, 15, 20 & 50 kopeks.
The stamps to be issued for the purpose of the exchange of money were selected on the basis of their small size.
For that reason, the EZGB could print stamps in quite larger quantities than the vouchers of the same face value (and
consequently for a larger sum for the latter). The net cost of the exchange stamps was considerably lower than for the
Treasury exchange tokens; according to the price structure as at June 1919, 1000 copies of the 10, 15 or 20-kopek values
cost the EZGB 36 kopeks; the 1- & 2-kopek values 38 kopeks and the same quantity of the 50-kopek vouchers 35
roubles, The stamp essays for the exchange tokens were prepared by utilizing the Jubilee stamps as samples, which had
been issued for the 300'h. Anniversary of the Romanov Dynasty. They were of especially convenient size and, most
importantly for the EZGB in applying the face values, there were sets ready of the stereotypes for these stamps, with
100 examples on each sheet, which sharply decreased the time in preparing them for issue.
The preparation of exchange stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks (Figs. 1-3 overleaf) began in the middle
of September 1915. There was printed on the backs of these' stamps a text, confirmed by the Ministry of Finances (see
Fig. 4). The dimensions of the outer frame line on the backs of these stamps for the exchange tokens of 10, 15 & 20
kopeks were 20 x 26mm. The handing over of the exchange stamps from the EZGB to the State Bank in those values
began in the last days of September. The "Government Gazette" announced on 30 September 1915 the emplacement of
these stamps in monetary circulation.
December 200615

"r+._=- -. -' -{ -- ---

Fie, 1. Fig.. Fi. 3 Fig. 4.
At that time in the EZGB, there were prepared samples of the exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks.
On 12 October 1915, the approved designs of the cliches for the fronts and backs of the stamps (Figs. 5-8) were
received from the Ministry of Finances with the permission to prepare such stamps. The dimensions of the frame on the
backs of the stamps issued in this type were 19 x 22mm.

i,,r "_ _______

Fig Fi. Fig. 8.
The preparation of samples and the setting up of the technological process generally took from 3 to 6 months at
the EZGB. The utilization of already prepared stereotypes shortened this work considerably.
Moreover, the legality of paying for postal sending with exchange stamps would be of interest to philatelists.
Their adoption for postal purposes had already been regarded as possible during the period of preparing the ordered
samples. On 12 September 1915, the Director of the EZGB noted, in speaking about the necessity of obtaining the
agreement of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (in the composition of which there entered the Main Administration of
Posts & Telegraphs), that: "....the stamps for special purposes (Author's note: i.e. the exchange stamps) will also be
utilized in the capacity of postage stamps (2). A series of documents is known, referring to the payment of postal
sending by exchange stamps.
On 4 October 1915, the Main Administration of Posts & Telegraphs published in the Government Gazette an
announcement to the effect that: "the exchange stamps intended for circulation in the category of exchange money and
affixing these stamps on postal sendings....should not go forward". This announcement was received as a prohibition of
the utilization of exchange stamps for postal purposes and indignant comments appeared in several newspapers. The
Main Administration of Posts & Telegraphs hastened to given explanation about this particular problem.
On 8 October 1915, the Director of the Main Administration sent by telegraph an instruction from the Postal
Administration, explaining that, in prepaying "postal sendings... with exchange stamps, issued by the Ministry of
Finances, such items were in the jurisdiction of unimpeded acceptance"
More details about the telegraphed instruction of the Director of the Main Administration are stated in an article
by D. Kuznetsov "The postal usage of the 'exchange money stamps"' in the journal "Philately of the USSR", N28, 1974.
On 14 October 1915, the Government Gazette published a new announcement of the Main Administration of
Posts & Telegraphs, namely: "....the declaration that the exchange stamps should not be affixed to postal sending had
the aim of asking the population not to use them as postage stamps...with the announcement as a consequence of not
putting at the disposal of persons, paying for postal sending with such stamps....all postal and telegraphic authorities
are directed to forward postal sending paid by exchange stamps ".
Other announcements of a similar type are known. Thus, the Director of the 3rd. Department of Conveying the
Mail along the railways ordered that: "...in the case of applying exchange stamps they should be regarded as a correct
payment. Moreover, I propose to explain to the public that affixing the exchange stamp on postal sending .../should not
take place ".
B. Kaminskii and D. Kuznetsov both write that the permission is unknown to utilize the stamps in the values of
1, 2 & 3 kopeks for postal purposes. V. Lobachevskii (see the "Soviet Collector" manual N2 17, 1979, p. 45) points out
that exchange stamps of the 1917 issue in these values: ". were not an official postal issue". The desire to find any kind
of permission for the postal usage of exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks had not been achieved.
The documents of the Postal Administration allowing for the acceptance of exchange stamps to pay for postal
sending were issued after such stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks went into circulation and during the period
of preparing for the issue of the exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks. In the texts permitting the utilization

December 2006

of these stamps for postal purposes, there are not specified the face values of the stamps, nor are there any prohibitions
whatsoever about the utilization regarding such values. The permission to use exchange stamps was extended to all
values and further instructions to the postal officials were not necessary.
The wish of the Main Administration of Posts & Telegraphs to restrict the utilization of exchange stamps on
postal sending was warranted and completely explainable. The State Treasury was not at all concerned as to how the
money was spent: in buying goods or in sending letters (i.e. for the payment of postal services). It did not suffer any loss
in the payment of postal sending. However, the Postal Administration maintained another position: in affixing
exchange stamps to a letter which had not been bought from the Postal Service, the money for transmission did not go
into the Postal Revenue. The Postal Administration could not prohibit the utilization of exchange stamps, since the word
"Postage" was on the face side of the stamps and, as was evident from what has been stated above, the exchange stamps
had the official right of going into circulation.
In the first half of November 1915, the State Bank asked the EZGB to increase the preparation of exchange
stamps with the face values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks. However, in a note of the Director of the Printing Department of the
EZGB, it was stated that: "...every day there are produced a million copies each of the stamps in the values of 3, 2 & 1
kopeks, which are printed on these machines.... increasing the production of the 10-, 15- & 20-kopek stamps can only be
carried out to the detrimental decrease in production of the stamps in the values of 3, 2 & 1 kopeks".
That note was one of the reasons which brought about a survey of the issuing policy of the Ministry of Finances.
On 22 November 1915, the State Bank turned to the EZGB as follows: "the exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3
kopeks.... will not be issued from the coffers of the State Bank...The State Bank asks the EZGB to terminate the printing
of exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks "(4).
The production of exchange stamps according to this letter in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks did not go into
circulation. What followed can be said about their utilization in 1917:
In 1915, the EZGB forwarded to the State Bank the following quantities of exchange stamps:-
1 kop. 27 million copies 10 kop, 150 million copies
2 kop. 21 million copies 15 kop. 100 million copies
3 kop, 20.5 million copies 20 kop. 100 million copies
After the adoption of the decision to freeze the issue of exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 and 3 kopeks, the
following quantities remained at the EZGB:-
1 kop. 26.750,000 copies; 2 kop. 13.420,000 copies; 3 kop. 13.375,000 copies (5)
The paper used for printing the exchange stamps would be called "card" or "thick card" stock. In the
documents of the EZGB, there is noted the preparation of these stamps on "paper .M 3" or on "thick paper". The
catalogue edited by F. Chuchin ("Catalogue of postage stamps and postal stationery. Integral Russia, Moscow, 1928)
says that the exchange stamps were printed "on very thick paper".
On the margins of the sheets and in general on portions of the issue, there is a coloured bar on the front and back
(i. 9 [Editorial Comment: Such bars are generally referred to in philately as "Jubilee Lines"]. The colour of such
bars coincides with the colour of the design on the fronts and backs respectively of the exchange stamps.
The centering of the impression on the backs of the stamps depends upon the accuracy of inserting the sheets
which have been turned over and on the settings of the printing machines. The standard of accuracy was often not high
and the designs on the backs were frequently shifted to the borders of the stamps (Fg. 10). In perforating the exchange
stamps, there were cases where the shift was rectified, as a result of which the symmetry of the design on the fronts were
also sometimes affected (Fig. 11).

I ypan T 1. cc- l
I ^ *

Fiz 9 FiD. 10. Fia. 11.
The catalogues state that the exchange stamps were printed in sheets of 100. That was actually the case and
applicable in the preparation of these stamps on the small printing machines, which were called "American". However,
the exchange stamps were also printed on large machines, which were called "Katrel"' and which were intended for the
issue of paper money. Their size was considerably larger and the printing bed on such machines took up a much larger
area. Four printing forces of 100 stereotyped cliches each had to be used in full, each of formes being joined in one
block, such that one operation printed 400 copies of the exchange stamps. The data about the preparation of large sheets
December 2006

with these stamps are also confirmed in the Account of Completed Production. Thus, the Printing Department handed
over exchange stamps for destruction as garbage. The following quantities were noted in the Notice of Receipt:-
10 kop. -4 sheets = 1600 copies; 15 kop. 8 sheets = 3200 copies 20 kop. 8 sheets = 3200 copies (6)
It is evident from the entries that there 400 copies of the stamps on each printed sheet.
In February 1917, the EZGB could not already fill all orders of paper of its own preparation. It was decided to
prepare as before at the EZGB the paper for the Treasury exchange tokens and to buy the paper for the exchange stamps.
At the beginning of March of that year, the State Bank, in turning to the EZGB with an enquiry, wrote as
follows: "....within the population....rumours are circulating about the appearance of exchange stamps on paper of
poor quality and such stamps are regarded as forgeries"
In reply, the EZGB pointed out that the exchange stamps "were originally printed on papr of our own
preparation, but subsequently ...on paper that was bought. The external appearance of the paper varies in finish and its
surface is covered with particles and other defects "(7).
SIn not rectifying the extent of the work, the EZGB proposed to replace the vouchers in the values of 1, 2 & 3
kopeks with exchange stamps by utilizing the stocks of prepared items, which had "not been put into circulation, in the
quantities of I ko. 53,750, 000 copies; 2 kop. 34.420, 000 copies and 3 ko 33,875, 000 copies"
The State Bank agreed to that suggestion. However, a problem arose about the similarity of the colours for the
exchange stamps between the 1 & 2-kopek values on the one hand and the 15 & 20-kopek values on the other, which
were already in circulation.. To solve the matter, the State Bank suggested that: "on the faces of the 1- & 2-kop. stamps
there should be printed in black ink in bold type their face values, as has been done on the 7-kopek postage stamps with
the "10" placed upon the figure "7". There is on this document a note by Richards Zarips dated 25 August 1917,
stating: "The emplacement of such an overprint on the faces of the stamps can be carried out immediately" (8)
A "Regulation of the Provisional Government" was signed on 21 September
..- --.- -. 1917 to the following effect:-
S" I. The Ministry of Finances is to put into circulation the stock on hand of the
I exchange stamps in the values of one, two and three kopeks, prepared in
Accordance with the directive dated 25 September 1915 of the previous Council
S. of Ministers...by placing on the fronts of such stamps the figures of value of
S- ;'' "1" and "2" kopeks in bold black type, being 15mm. in height and
-v corresponding with the values of the aforesaid stamps (9).
12 Fi. The actual height of the figures placed on the front side of the exchange stamps
in the values of 1 and 2 kopeks actually came to 9mm. (Figs. 12 & 13).
The State Bank returned to the EZGB the entire stock on hand of the 1- & 2-kopek exchange stamps, to be
overprinted on the front with the figures of value. A portion of the issue of these stamps printed in 1915 had been held at
the EZGB and, on 9 October 1917, the Director of the EZGB N. Tavildarov, ordered that there should be handed over
from the Warehouse of Prepared Items to the Printing Department "exchange stamps in the values of I & 2 kopeks in
order that figures of value be placed on the front side". In that way, all the 1- & 2-kopek exchange stamps, which had
been prepared in 1916, were provided with a overprint of their face values.
As a result, these stamps without the overprint of their face values are to be found quite rarely. In the article by
V. Lobachevskii: "The State postage stamps of Russia" ("Soviet Collector" Manual X 17, 1979), he attributed the grade
of rarity as "R". In writing about this subject, he stated that: "The grade of 'R' refers to clear postmarks on stamps with
dates in 1916 and 1917". On the exchange stamps which had not been issued within the confines of the State Bank,
postmarks with such dates can only have been applied artificially at a much later period. The evaluation of these stamps
on letters must be at the "RRR" level. Since the exchange stamps in the values of 1 & 2 kopeks without the overprint on
the front side with the figure of value did not go into circulation, letters with such stamps have at the very least an
artificial character.
B. Kaminskii writes in his article noted above that: "A small quantity of sheets of the exchange stamps in the
values of I and 2 kopeks went into circulation without overprints ". There are no data to that effect in the documents. It
is most likely that this is a philatelic fairy tale, explaining the appearance of such stamps among collectors. Only postage
stamps could have gone into circulation without overprints, which had been received from the EZGB in the ordinary
accounting of the quantity of sheets in packages. Money was received from the State Bank in a more serious manner;
there were taken into consideration and examined individually not only the sheets, but also the exchange stamps on the
sheets. There are preserved documents of the State Bank, describing this process and noting the return of sheets, even in
the presence of of one damaged stamp. In addition and in all financial structures, there were sent samples of processed
money and, in accordance with the rules of monetary circulation, every financial institution of Russia, in receiving
money in a non-standard way, took it out of circulation and returned it to the State Bank. For that reason, the(
appearance in monetary circulation of sheets of exchange stamps in 1 & 2 kopeks without overprinted figures of value

December 2006

is unreal. Being monetary tokens, which had not gone into circulation, they could get into the hands of collectors as of
1919, when the pilferage of exchange stamps and their stereotypes were noted at the EZGB, or after taking them out of -
circulation as waste, which had remained at the EZGB.


rj dr, Ha-

Fig. 14,

In the preparation and production of new exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks,
the EZGB recommended the replacement of the coat of arms on the backs with large figures of
value of the stamps and presented a corrected impression on the backs of these stamps. The State
Bank approved the sample of the impression and, in the second decade of October 1917, asked the
EZGB to begin printing the 1-, 2- & 3-kopek exchange stamps with new cliches applied on the
backs for all three values. See Fig. 14 for the new cliche of the 2-kopek value.
The exchange stamps of all values were perforated 13 1/4,.Imperforate copies are known, which
most likely originated from the printer's waste at the EZGB; a printed sheet which had some flaws
on various stamps would have remained imperforate and put out as garbage. In addition and at the

Fie. 15. Enlarged Fig. 16.
very least, a portion of the exchange stamps had been pilfered from the EZGB (in January 1919 10,000 copies were lost
of the 20-kopek value, etc.) .prior to perforation, thus enabling collectors to have imperforate copies.
As a consequence of the enormous quantity of products issued by the EZGB, the quality control was weakened.
There are on the fronts of some exchange stamps traces of smearing or of faded colours. Such a deficiency is also found
on the backs of stamps (Fig. 15). Moreover, exchange stamps are with poorly piercing perforations (Fig6),
V. Lobachevskii records as a variety the overprint with narrow and short figure "1" on the 1-kopek exchange
stamp. Also, all the catalogues refer to the large number of forgeries, carried out to the detriment of the monetary system
of Russia, as well as to defraud collectors. Forgeries are also known, apparently from Germany and issued for
propaganda purposes, with a corresponding text on the backs (Fig. 17).
U--- ------

Fig. 17.

At the end of 1917-beginning of 1918, there were suggestions that the 50-kopek vouchers should be replaced by
exchange stamps with the same face value (because of the appearance of large numbers of forgeries) and also that there
should be issued exchange stamps in the values of 35 & 70 kopeks, 1 and 3 roubles. Those suggestions were not carried
out. In connection with the unsteady political power in Russia, the refusal to utilize new values of the Jubilee stamps had
an ideological character.
Strangely enough, the issue of exchange stamps continued not only in 1918, but up to the middle of 1919. In that
latter year, the EZGB had handed over to the National Bank stamps in the following denominations (Author's Note: In
1918, the State Bank of Russia was renamed the National Bank of the Russian Federation):
1 kop. 8,337,500 copies 10 kop. 313,479,600 copies
2 kop. 9,468,000 copies 15 kop. 54,451,400 copies
3 kop. 3,593,000 copies 20 kop. 182,483,500 copies (10)
December 2006 19

IHmIteTb XOH4Ae-
Hie waparnd. Ch
rpa6emOMb 0 .
Manormb npaem- ;

JIMberb X01He-
Hiwe Kapastit Ca
6aHHPDT0Mb Ce- :
M pe6pwmoH MtJHe-

The preparation of money tokens of the new government began in November 1918 and their application in
March 1919. The money tokens of the previous government were also in circulation. As a consequence of great
inflation, the exchange stamps lost their purchasing power and quickly began to be replaced. As of March 1920, they
officially lost the right to be transmitted by mail in accordance with a regulation of the Council of People's Commissars
(CHK), in which it was stated: "the Imperial Jubilee stamps with the portraits of Tsars are to be withdrawn from
circulation because of their uselessness "/ However, the exchange stamps represented money and another decree in
Mrach of the Council of People's Commissars confirmed the legality of their utilisationn as money: "The money tokens
of the old types maintain their power of payment and have circulation... from now on until there is a special
regulation ". The exchange stamps were taken out of circulation in the autumn of 1922.
In concluding this article, the following inferences can be made:-
1. The exchange stamps in all values, which were in circulation had the official right to be used as postage stamps.
2. The first issue of exchange stamps was carried out in 1915 in the values of 1, 2, 3, 10, 15 & 20 kopeks. The exchange
.stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks were printed in September 1915 and went into circulation on 30
Those of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks.were printed in October-November 1915. The 1- & 2-kopek stamps were not put into
.circulation and the 3-kopek value went into circulation in September 1917.
The dates of issue for these or other postage stamps are given in the catalogues as their dates of emplacement in
postal circulation. The exchange stamps in the values of 1 & 2 kopeks did not go into circulation and the date was
apparently that of their preparation and forwarding to the State Bank, i.e. in October 1915.
3. The printing and utilization of the exchange stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks continued during 1916.
The exchange stamps in the values of 1, 2 & 3 kopeks had not been prepared and were not in circulation.
4. The second issue of exchange stamps was prepared in September-October 1917 and included as an overprint the
figures of value on the front side of the exchange stamps in the values of 1 & 2 kopeks, which appeared in 1915.
The exchange stamps of the second issue went into circulation in October 1917. At the same time, the exchange
stamps in the value of 3 kopeks, which had been printed in 1915, began to be used.
As of February 1917, the first issue of exchange stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks was printedon
purchased paper of poor quality.
5. As of October 1917, the third issue was printed of the 1- & 2-kopek exchange stamps (with the overprint of the value
on the front) and the 3-kopek value with a new design on the back; they went into circulation in November 1917.
The utilisation of the 10, 15 & 20-kopek values continued during 1917.
6. There were prepared in 1918-1919 exchange stamps in the values of 10, 15 & 20 kopeks, as well as the 1, 2 & 3
.values of the third issue.
Summing up, the following exchange stamps were put into circulation:
The 10, 15 & 20 kopeks of the 1". issue; 1 & 2 kopeks of the 2nd. & 3rd. issues; 3 kopeks of the 1t & 3rd. issues.
1 IeemrpasmmRHi rocyrapcTBeHmBrt apxas Camcr-Herep6ypra (IITA CII6), 4odn 1255, onaci 1, enjio 273
"IIepeincxa c HapoxuIM KoMnccapoM M~uHcTepcTBa 4)xaHcoB no Bonpocy HnroTBJeHB[ KpeAnRTHix 6aTeTOB
H pa3MeHHeIx Mapo", JICT 1.
2 lempamIbHmAi rocyaapcTBeHanit acTopmnecKB, apxHa CaHKr-HIeTep6ypra (IWHA CII6), Q4. 1458, on. 2,
A. 1141 "Ho BmHpa6oTKe, moroOBaeHHmo H OTnycKy oco6rx 6yMazmsix pa3MenHm x neHexax 3HaKOB", n. 11.
3 ITHA CII6, d2. 1641, on. 1, A. 404 "IJapIKyspI H Apyrae npeinmcaHmm HaqaTRHHKa 3 orTena", Ji. 41.
4 LUHA CII6, 4. 1458, on. 2, g. 1141, JL 60, 67.
5 TaM xce, n. 483.
6 IIA CII6, 4. 1255, on. 3, X. 82 "Kunra la. ByMara Ias3aqetcKBX H pasMeaHix 3HaKOB", a. 20.
7 IlHA C1I6, Q. 1458, on. 2, A. 1141, ji. 501, 504.
8 IfA CII6, (). 1255, on. 1, A. 31 "06 EHroTonBemHE pas3MeHHbx aprOK B 1, 2 H 3 con. BMeCTO KasHanetcKHax
3HaKOB", j. 11.
9 Tam wie, j. 41.
10 ITA CII6, 4. 1255, on. 3, i. 81 "KIasaeitcKHie H pa3Menmae s3aKH H io6aHiemO e MapKH", na. 81 165.
*. ** *.

December 2006

by Michael M. Ercolini.

"No. 17 (illus. 10)lwith posthoms is seldom encountered. Cities using posthoms on their postmarks
were: Odessa, Derpt, Wesenberg, Kutais, Aleksandrov-Pogranichnyj, and also the Moscow City
Post." Messrs. A. V. Kiryushkin and P. E. Robinson, in their book2state the following. "The Postal
Department wanted to achieve a uniform type of postmark, and this aim was represented by
postmarks with posthorns at the base (there being hardly any varieties among postmarks of this sort)
but the sample was not widely adopted at local post offices, which continued to use postmarks of
older types." Interestingly they show a postmark of Penza, not mentioned in Prigara's list. They also
mention that Moscow seemed to use these posthom cancels both at the chief office and town post
sub-offices. Also shown is a unique example from Kovno, which they attribute to "local 'initiative"'3.
The posthom cancel from Samara that I have found is also distinctive and probably unique to that
city. [Figures 1 &2]

So with that challenge in mind, I looked through my covers of Imperial Russia and found some of
these and also some from cities not listed so I decided to begin a search. These postmarks are found
mostly in the 1880's, though can run from the late 1870's through the 1890's. Omitting cancels from
Moscow4, I would see what I could find. It has been slow going with occasional lucky finds and so I
would like to put these out there and see what others may exist. A list is included with this paper.
All items unless otherwise noted5 are from my own collection.

Firstly, I should say that the posthoms come in three sizes, large [extends well beyond year date] and
the posthoms are either large and narrow, or large and wide. There is a small posthom variety
[extends a little beyond year date or not at all] that does not come in the narrow variety, but in
various degrees of smallness! I make these statements based on seeing numerous covers, so it is not
the last word. These types are very obvious to the eye but probably not uniform, so I have not
strained my eyes attempting measurements. Experience of seeing many of these is the best guide.
Depending on how one measures different results may be obtained, but in general large-wide, large-
narrow or small, are adequate descriptions.

These CDS's mostly contain serials, mostly numerals, on each side at the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock
positions, more or less, which in some cities, such as Odessa, go well into the 20's. I am guessing
that all the numerals are used not just the few I show, though I have no proof of this. Kiev is
another city with large serial[s], yet I have located only one type from that city. Certainly there must
be more. Occasionally something other than a numeral is found.

I also discovered that cities were not the only places that used these cancels, but at least one
steamboat line used them as well: Batum-Odessa. Finally, while posthom cancels do not seem to be
rare, they are not easy to find, but well worth the hunt.

Unless otherwise noted, the following examples are all taken from covers not stamps or pieces,
though in the interest of saving space, sometimes only the cancel is shown. Figure 1 shows a postal
reply card from Kovno, but unfortunately a stamp, which contained an essential portion of the CDS,

1 An Odessa CDS of 27 Apr. 1885 as illustrated in "The Russian Post In the Empire, Turkey, China, And The
Post In The Kingdom Of Poland", Complied by S. V. Prigara and translated by David M. Skipton and
published in 1981 from the original done in 1941, by Rossica.
2 "Russian Postmarks An Introduction and Guide published in 1989 byJ. Barefoot Jtd.
3 Since my personal cancel of Kovno is light and does not photocopy I am showing Fig. 175 from their book.
4 My choice since others were working on a listing of Moscow cancels, which list is now available from Rossica.
5 By an asterisk after the date.

December 2006


3 *.-

Fig. 2.

.-. --. c.-



December 2006

' ''

et ,
4' -,~ F i
*j 74' ,,


S 15 c


Fig. 175

Fi. 1.

;.i:i'..- ..I --. -i-i I



o :pm No.

I ] --A^7LC^Z ^.<;-y---.^.--. I
i- .CA La LCL. L

|1 L rnp ; l. t .: ar e .1. .'a. -.o. ..x.ce o.ou a r.c .-o.o
A1^ *T* *--. _________"*



,..... .. .


1. Ha N Tof. ol opoobh spo.t npe a o Aosooa oros ... o rO ;nunro pyrrnon.
i nuil.j r ri.i. ujr L }^epannIe nner.a He oTlfne-rs.


Fi. 51-



i. o o o n T .................... noM.........i a or pinn.o ....... o t.... noro.. n.. n
Sintr e IInllu u OS rpallll7 ni.
;". Ha" iTOo00"CTp oipuat np0% HIB 0'oaUrofotna 0ur0 aJ'yrgro -mcTh.

. ...... ..... 't .. r ( y

11* ^ ; nso4 Fooe. w l ts; orvi renit lemetJwi no mauaacl

December 2006


Ilir.;csr; r'r-~.~-L~

I'"-~r-csTI l hiii ji i imn n1iiiiIIin 11 1 u __ ._ _




; .~I_



has fallen off. The second hit of the CDS is even less clear. Even with the naked eye [bespectacled,
of course] it is clear that this is the posthom cancel of Kovno. I have included a drawn cancel as
mentioned above. Please note that the drawing is not exact, but I hope the idea is properly
conveyed. Figure 2 shows a cover from Samara with a rather different style of the posthom cancel.
Figure 3 [ postal cards and covers all cropped to show only the cancels] reveals some of the difficulty
in determining the size of the posthors. The cancels of Odessa serials 13, 19 and 24, show what I
term large-wide examples of the posthoms while serial 20 shows what I term a small posthom. As
stated above, this is not mathematics and other examples will show how this question of size is
somewhat confusing to state, yet obvious to see The three serials of posthom cancels from Derpt
show serial one containing the large-wide variety, while serials 5 and 6 both show the large-narrow
variety. The reader will note from the list, a small variety of serial one and I would like to have
shown it. It is a rather light cancel on a dark postal card and simply does not photograph at all.

This brings up an important point when collecting cancels. It is one thing to see them in the book
and quite another in real life. In real life, they do not often arrive before our eyes 100% filled out full
and with the correct tone all evenly stuck upon the cover. HA! That rarely happens. Of course
collectors are free to include whatever in their own collections and I do appreciate the finer cancels;
however, on rare or unusual covers and cancels one cannot be so choosy or much will be left
uncollected. Keep this in mind as you view the cancels here reproduced and understand that not all
will be able to be photocopied and shown. They reserve themselves for personal appearance, if I
may so state.

Figures 4-7 show group cancels so the reader may get an idea of differences in appearance of these
posthors. Note various distinctions of the posthorns of serial 5 over the years shown in Fig. 4, and
also compare the serial 2 posthoms that appear on the post cards. Figure 5 displays combination
cancels: Revel serial 5 large-narrow together with Derpt serial 1 large-wide; Derpt serial 2 large-
narrow [does not reproduce well] together with Vesenberg serial 1 small, and Revel serial 5 large-
narrow together with a variety of the Vesenberg serial 1 [reproduction, not the best]. While Figure 6
shows two cancels of Mariupol on the same cover: serial 1, large-narrow and serial 2, small. The
serial 1 does not reproduce well [a constant problem] as it is light and the folded letter is on blue
paper. To assist the reader I have reproduced that portion in a darker shade, hoping to darken the
posthors and clipped and pasted it in the upper right hand side of the cover. In person these cancel
are obvious enough and even the reproductions, when magnified are also cear enough to distinguish
that it is a posthorn type and not something else.

The last of the combinations [Fig. 7] shows two covers from Odessa in 1884-5. Note how serial 2 is
rather disorientated. You are free to speculate as to why! Note too the serial 24, even on this clear
cover is rather indistinct and sometimes I cannot distinguish the numerals 21 from 24.

A variety of cancels is shown in Figure 8. All have been cropped from covers to show as many of
the posthom cancels in as little space. Some represent back cancels, others transit cancels and others
cancels from stampless covers. Examples of the cancels on stamps and stationery are also shown.

Please observe that nice clear cancels do appear but as the double CDS's from the same covers at the
bottom of the page demonstrate, on the same day at the same time quite indistinct or partially
indistinct CDS's do happen. Imagine if the cover possessed only the poorer cancellation. It could
make finding the location or defining the posthom difficult, but with two, the job becomes easier.
Carefully examine the pairs to see this clearly. I should also wish to point out the Kharkov cancel
[second row, second cancel] where the second '1' in the year date is an inverted '7'! I say there is
surely enough variety to make for an interesting collection. While I personally retain the covers, even
the rattier ones, and I also tend to leave the various extraneous pencil markings on them, though
these can be both irritating and elucidating. I can well understand a collector cutting the portion of

December 2006






r -4. -'



~- J .

A' (

December 2006



i r2"

2.., .,-L.. 4.. *. : ,- ._. I- ,"'.

..- ,,, "

. -. .' .. /
.- (---' :,.

.:" "-', C,,p A..,.-.t YA _______

' '. "

* : tva.rdC0. Huff.
C'$ E.noch L-mery Esq.
Am or River. Eastern Siberia.

S- -J. ..-
Fig. 11.

December 2006



,L/ '**--

interest and retaining it alone. Stamp collecting is fun and a collector gets to make up the rules. [The
reader may note that I cannot cut straight or draw a straight line with a ruler nor do I have much
artistic design talent, which is why I do not exhibit. It would drive me crazy and spoil the fun. I am
grateful to collectors who do possess the talent and the material as I certainly enjoy viewing the
exhibits and learn a lot from them.],

For those who do enjoy covers it is also a pleasure to show some interesting and unusual intact
covers with posthom cancels. First [Fig. 9] is a stationery item going to Trieste and bearing the
Batum-Odessa steamship cancel, seriel 1. Next [Fig. 10] is a cover that eagle-eyed readers with the
memory of an elephant will recall as having appearTeT Rossica #121, October 1993 at pg. 37. It is
one of less than a handful of covers bearing the United States banknote issue known to Siberia. It
also bears the earliest date for an Irkutsk posthom cancel. The back has other information, which is
described and pictured in the article referred to above and so not repeated here. Fig. 11 contains
photos of both sides of a money letter. One seldom encounters these items this nice [money letters,
let alone with posthom cancels. ] in this condition and with such neat writing. It contained 49 rubles
and is addressed to a merchant in Odessa for transfer to a religious group. Note the intact wax seals
and the Odessa posthom cancel serial 3, together with the math that figured the postage [double
weight at 7k per lot for a total of 14k's is the meaning of "2-14"].

Lastly are some registered covers. From Vinnitsa a double weight cover paid by a strip of 3-7k
stamps, one of Imperial Russia's most common stamps, and real work horse, but looking rather
smart here [Fig. 12]. Both the front and back of this triple weight registered cover from Gusyatin is
shown [Fig. 13]. Note both the place of origin and receiving cancels are posthom types. I hope Fig.
14 can be shown in color as it is really stunning. It comes from Balta and represents a quadrupTe
weight registered cover [ (4 x 7k) + 7k = 35k]. [The 4ji in the upper left hand comer stands for 4-
lots, the form of weight measure used in Imperial Russia until the change over to the metric system
in October, 1913.] Have a good look!

Lastly, Fig. 15 is a rather wonderful, though slightly injured cover. Count them, 13 7k stamps and
not a single among them! Yes, this registered cover [front not shown as it bears no postage] is going
for 12 times the rate. If my math is correct that is nearly 180 grams or a bit under half a pound of
weight. A rather hefty cover indeed so the imperfections here can well be forgiven, though
lamented. I am ecstatic to have such an item in my collection as these large-rate covers are rarely
encountered in any condition. Few have survived.

So, why not take a look through your covers and see what you have. I would certainly be interested
in knowing of additional cities or other entities using posthorn cancels.

"? : areon p. 31.


Fie. 12.'
December 2006

Cities and other entities with Posthorn Cancels

Place of Oriin

Large or Small Var.

Balta BajTa large/narrow

Bendin BeHiaHH small
Bolderadskoye1 BoinepaACKoe H. 0.
Bolgrad Bonrpaa-b small
Chenstokhov 'eHCTOXOBL small
Derpt AepnTb large/wide

CC cc

Gapsal rancaib
Gusyatin FycaTHHI
tc cc

large/narrow 1




Illukstskoye P.O. 4HaM yKOTCKoe H. O. small
Irkutsk HpKyTCKl small

Izmail H3MaHl-h small
Jekaterinadar EKaTepmHHOapb small
Jekaterinoslav EKaTepMHocJiaB small
Jurjeff-Polskii IOpbeB---noJIbCKif large/narrow
Juzovka OK30BKa llarge/wide
Kalish Kanjimui small 1
Kamyenets-Podol'skii KaMeHeu-noA oAmbKid

Kharkov XapKOBb large/narrow

I1 do not find a listing for this office.
2 There is no serial; rather a star like figure appears in its place.

4 sm;

2 2-Mar-1879
1 7-Jul-1886
all 2-Dec-1879
*2 25-Oct-1893

December 2006


Date of use

Kiev KieBl large/narrow
Kiltya KnmIT small
Kishinyev KmMHeBe large/wide
Konin KOHHH-L small
Kovno KOBHO unique
Kronshtadt KpOHmTaATL large/narrow
S" large/wide

" large/wide
Kyakhta KaxTa small
Lodz JIoa3b large/wide
Mariupol MapiynoJr large/narrow
Nizhnii-Novgorod HI-Hixi -HoBFopoAIS small
NovayaUshitsa HoBaR Ymnua small
" small
Novocherkask HonoIepKacKI small
Nyemirov HeMHpOBnL large/narrow
Nyezhin HIb5 HH- small
c cC cc

Odessa Onecca





" large/wide


1 26-Aug-1879
21 23-Sept-1885
24 1-Jan-1883



13 29-Nov-1882


3 In this cancel the second numeral '1' is represented by an inverted '7'.
4 Considering this high serial, I would expect to find many more Kiev cancels, but I have not.
5 My system does not allow for a small size of this letter! Who knew?
6 Many of the Odessa CDS are so blurred that the digit could be a 1 or a 4, but here it is a pure guess.

December 2006


Petrokov HeTpOKOBi large/narrow
Pjatigorsk HnnTHrOpCK-L large/wide
Proskyrov HpocKypoBS small


Ruda-Guzovskaya PyAa-Fy3oBcKaa small
S" small
" small
Serpukhov CepnyxOBL large/narrow
Revel PeBeJi large/narrow
" cc

CC cc

large /wide


Samara'o CaMapa
Sergievskii Posad
Sizran CbI3paHm
Tambov TaM6oB

large/wide [unique
CeprieBcKif Hocawb sma

b small

Veysenshteyh BeiceHLrTeH' small
Vezenberg BeaeH6eprb small

] 3
ll none


7 Italics indicates 'indistinct, appears to be', in other words and educated guess..
8 On this item there appears at the 8 o'clock position, something which simply could be extra ink. There is no
such apparition at the 4 o'clock position, so I am inclined to say no design or serial exits on this one.
9 The month is spelled out in full, rather than using its 3-letter abbreviation as is almost always otherwise the
10 This cancel is substantially larger than most other posthom types, on a par with Kovno.

December 2006

cc CC

cc cc


Vinnitsa BiHHHHUa large/narrow
cc cc cc
c" small
" large/narrow
Zhitomir KXwTOMHpl small


Batum-Odessa ship cancel
(cc c, cc
cccc cc

Not from a City

small 1
large/wide 4
4C A


Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

December 2006

1 T i /V
k/y -/djisy^ 'fr^^^yir/i:^^'^
^'^^/^^^^Cz^^;^^^ -s~-

~ ~kF~wS ~:
... L

By Volodymyr Babych.
Further to the data on Romania in "The Post-Rider" No. 58, p. 104, I have received from the aechives in Moscow
a copy of the decree referring to that subject, as reproduced herewith. It translates as follows:-
"To be returned to the Secretariat of GOKO, 2nd. Section. To be disseminated.
Decree No. GOKO-6513ss of 7 September 1944, Moscow, Kremlin.
About the establishment of control over the telegraphic and telephonic, radio and postal communications on the territory
of Romania under the occupation of the Soviet Forces.
In view of the military circumstances and with the aim of blocking the utilization by foreign missions of means
of communications in Romania to the detriment of of the operating interests of the Soviet Forces, carrying out the struggle
with Germany and its allies, the State Committee of Defence decrees :-
1. that there be forbidden to the foreign diplomatic missions and consulates located in Romania the utilization of
telegraphic, radio-telegraphic and coded postal correspondence and place all the diplomatic correspondence of foreign
missions in Romania, both with their governments, as well as with the Romanian government, under the control of the
Representative of the Soviet Military Command.
2. that there be established censorship and control over international and interurban telephonic/telegraphic, radio and
postal communications in accordance with the directives of the Representative of the Soviet Military Command in
Romania. The censorship and control should be set up in the first instance in Bucharest, Constanta, Ploeyti, BraSov, Galaki
and Sulina and, where necessary, in other towns in the territory occupied by the Soviet Forces.
3. that there be established control over radio broadcasts of the radio stations in Romania. The programmes of the
broadcasts must be examined beforehand by the Representative of the Soviet Military Command and his agents on the
4. that the measures enumerated above should go into effect as of 9 September 1944.
5. Assignments: In the capacity of Representative of the Soviet Military Command in carrying out the the fulfillment of
the present decree Major-General Stakhurskii and his deputies.
For diplomatic matters: the Soviet envoy Lavrishchev.
For Communications: Majpr-General Yakovlev of the Forces of Communication.
For Censorship: Colonel Shpakov of State Security. The specified persons should place themselves at the disposition of
Major-General Stakhurskii on 8 Septermber 1944. The remaining personnel, assigned from the People's Commissariat of
Internatal Affairs, State Security and Defence for the fulfillment of the avove-mentioned measures should place
themselves at the disposition of Major-General Stakhurskii within a period of two days.
6. that Major-General Stakhurskii should inform the Romanian government about the present decree, warning about the
responsibility of the Romanian government in the observance of the established procedure and the utilistaion of the means
of communication.
7. that Comrade Molotov, the People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs, be obliged to place his representatives within the
given period at the disposition of Major-General Stakurskii, in order to put into practice the specified measures in
exercising control by diplomatic correspondence.
8. that Comrade Merkulov, the People's Commissar of State Security of the USSR be obliged in the given period to
assign to the disposition of Major-General Stakhurskii his representatives for the organization of censorship of postal and
telegraphic correspondence of international character in the first instance:, but also in necessary cases in controlling
telephonic conversations in the territory of Romania, occupied by the Soviet Forces.
9. that Comrade Peresypkin, the People's Commissar of Defence, be obliged in the given period to appoint Commanders
of Communications at all the most important junctions of communications in the territory of Romania and at the central
networks of communications in Romania. so as to ensure the operative communications of the Soviet Military Command.
To be sent to: Comrades Molotov, Beriya, Malenkov, Shcherbakov, Merkulov and Peresypkin (6 copies).
To be distributed by Comrade Antonov: Zhukov, Timoshenko, Antonov, Stakhurskii and to the Commanders of the
Forces on the 2nd. and 3rd. Ukrainian Fronts."
Editorial Comment: It appears from the decree shown here that it was not signed by I. Stalin in his capacity as President
of the State Committee of Defence. The distribution of the decree was also significant, as it designated the political status
of the various recipients. The six copies went to the inner circle of Molotov, Beriya, Malenkov, Shcherbakov, Merkulov
and Peresypkin. Of lesser political importance was Antonov, who was given the task of circulating the decree to Generals
Zhukov, Timoshenko and Stakhurskii and to the Commanders of the Forces on the 2nd. & 3rd. Ukrainian Fronts.
On a final note, the censorship cachet from Ulan Ude in the Buryat-Mongol ASSR (see "The Post-Rider" No. 58, p. 104;
last entry in the table) is in the Volodymyr Babych collection and must be rare from such a remote locality.

December 2006


IoAexAnT nosspaTy B CexpeTapa&T
roRO (If iacTr)


nOCTAHOBJIEHE Xq..........-6 ._
OT ,._7. ._.. GeQL_._..1944r. MOCKBa, KpeMnb.

06 ycTaHOBJeHH KxOHTpona sa TezerpatHo-TeaecbonoHHo,
pajgo noqToBoM CBmsbi Ha TeppHTOPHH PymaHHH, aa-

BBMviy BoeHHRIX O6CTORTeabeTB s B qgeax He8onyiqeIHHa HenOab-
soBaHxS' m HeTpaHHHnn MaeCHaiM CpeACTB OBESa B PyM mHB Bs Bpeg
onepaTHBHrM, HmHTepeaM coBeTCeoHX Bo0fl2, Befyiqnx 6opbiy e repMa-
HueGa .e 9e so1aHHmaMH, rocy-.apCTBeH HHEf RoMHI1eT 0dopoFR nOCTa-
1. SanpeT+T seJierpa#Hym, pagOTexaerpaHyM a nofqTByM
m4pnepenazcy HHOOTpaHmHM HlanoMaTxqeeaPIM MmeeasM H xoHCyjcOT-
Bma, HaxogjaIIHMe B PymaHnHH, a Taixe mocTaBBTb BeIm AnaeImaIoae-
eym nepenl6 ey f HoeTpaHHHx MHlCHLe B PymIsHHa, iax co CBOHiM
npaBHTeJIbCTBaMd, TaB H C pyMacHEBM npaBHTeaBCTBOM nof ROHTpOp b
ynOAHOM6eeHHeoPo CoBeTbHorO BoeHHoro EoMaHEgoBanHB
2. YeTaHOBsvT BeHsypy a XeOHTpoA sa MexAyHapogRHO H mek-
,gyropoAHe2 TeAneonsHO-TeerpanHo2, paflo H noHToBOg CBR8bM noO
~IasaHHsM ynoZAHOMoqeHHoro UoseTexoro BoeHHoro .OMaHnOBaRHHa B
eHsaypy H EOHTpona yCTaHosBaHT B HepayB oqepe.g B Byxape-
eTe, KOHcTaHqe, HIoemLe, Bpamoee, Panage, CyanHe H B Heofxogx-
MHx cJayaax B Apyrxx ropogax Ha reppHTopHM, saHafTo2 coBeTCEKMH
3, YCTaHOBHTa b OHTpoJa sa paaoBen~aHneu pyMEHCxHX pagMo-
eCanIHg. Nporpamis pagaonepegaql AoxaiiH npeafapHTejaHo paceuaT-
pHBaTBa C ynoaH.omoPesHuM GoBeTCeoro BoeHHoro RoMaHaoBaHHa H
ero npeAcTaBHTenaiM Ha MeoTax.
4. IepeqacajeHaHe Bame MeponpZ~nTH yCTaHOBMTb c 9 eeHTaRpa
1944 roga.
5. HasHanaTb:
YnoaHnoMoqeHsHM CoseTrcoro BoeHHoro EOManHgoBaaHa no npose-
AeHHo B aHSHb. HaeTO0nerP nOCTaHOBaeHEH reHepaz-Ma2opa OTaxyp-
eoraO a noMonqHHaMHx eMy:
no Bonpocan AHnamoMaTHqecxmL nocoaHHBEa Jaspa~eBa,
no esmsB reHepaA-magopa Bo0fl CBBSHS HoBseBa,
no gensype nonoBHEaB a rocyapcTse-BeH desofaecoCTR .Ina-





HocnaHO T.T.. MoaoTOBy, Eepza, MazeHuomy, IepdaxoBy,
pa, flP (EygoBy,TmomenHO,AHTOHOBy CTaxype OMy,
iiao3"omaHAlyrgnqM BogCxaMx 2 YupaHeo.xx
'** f^'^ Po011o0


* '* *



YxasaR Hm-gH aM npmDa T B* paonopazeHae teHaepaa-Ma-topa
CTaxy pcore 8 eeHTa6ps 194, roAa...........
8cTaJibnHus ajigaM, BRl AiaeaME OT" BKGA, 'titIRH HEO xaa
npoBeAeHaif BHfmeyHasaa HHx eponpHaTaa npH&TJfas pacOnpazeHHe
re6epaa-.atopa Cmaxypcopo B layzlHeBHa epox,
6. PesepaAx-Maeipy CTaxypcOoMy Ha~Niea yBelOMETh o Ha-
CToaiseM necTaAHOBeHmH pyMuHeaee npaBrTeBeaeTB, npe.ynpe~An
od oTBeTCTBeHHOCeT pyMsHcaoro npaBTeaebcTBa sa cod6jieHHe
ycTaHaBasn aemoro nopaAxa B acnoahsoBanxH cpeAcTB CBasH.
7. Odasab H4KA-I CCCP (TOB.MOJIOTOB) B yEasaHHH2 opox o-
MaR~mpOBaTb eBoHX npefc aB BHexe2 B pacnopseHHre reHepaa-Malo-
pa CTaxypcEoro saiR nposegeHma npaHTHa'ecEHx Meponpna THm no
ocyeeCTBJ ieH~m XHTponJ saa gnoMaTanveceHo nepenacio.
8, OdasaTb HEHB CCCP (TOB.MepyanoB) B yxasanHHa cpox
Bsaeanb B pacnopaaeHHe reHepan-Mafopa CTaxypcoro CBoax
npe9CTaBHIej ea2 za opraHaaagan geHSypU sa noqToao-TeaePpal-
aHo nepenxcxo2, B neptBy oqepegb MezyHaposoH0, a Taxxe B
Heo6xogmHx eayPaax AIa HOHTpoJa sa, TejieOpeHHH neperoBopa--
9, Odasab HKO (TmB.IIepecHnxHH) B yiasaHnn copo HasHa-
qMTb EOMeHAaHTOB CBaSH Ha Bee BaxHefimze yaas cBasa Ha Teppn-
TOepae PYMEHR.H xa eHTpaaibRse yqpezAeeHan a BaRs PyMHHHBx siaa
odecnemeHmH onepaTHBHHX CBRaeg HOMmaHgoBaHvn COBeTCXXX BOC20.

by Meer Kossoy & V. Berdichevskiy (Israel).
7. Postal forms for the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy.
The present instalment is the last in the cycle of our articles, published in "The Post-Rider" [references 8, 19 &
20]. There were demonstrated in the article [reference 8] examples of official cachets, which ensured the right to postfree
transmission of the mail of the Soviet Navy during the specified period, while in [reference 19] questions were examined
of the problems of organization of the Navy Postal Service and in [reference 20], questions of organization of the military
censorship in the Soviet Navy.
In the current installment, the present authors are showing examples of postal forms, which were issued especially
for the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy. In addition, forms are displayed, with the illustrations and texts of which
were devoted to the Soviet Navy. During the period of the War, all mail from the Soviet Navy to the rear and in the
opposite direction (except for registered items).was transmitted free of charge. For that reason, all postal forms were sent
In the initial period of the War (June 1941 to September 1942), there were differences in the postal services of the
Army on Active Service and the Soviet Navy, such that the Army of Active Service utilized the Communications Service
of the People's Commissariat of Defence and, for the Soviet Navy, that of the People's Commissariat of the Navy. That
repercussion was evident, not only on the circular date-stamps (with the text: IIOJIEBAAI IIOTTA on the postmarks of
the Army on Active Service and, for the Soviet Navy markings: MOPCKASI IIONTA), thus affecting the postal forms,
issued by the Army on Active Service and the Soviet Navy.
On the postcards and envelopes issued for the Army on Active Service, the characteristic text in the upper right
corer was "BOHHCKOE", while for the Navy, it was "KPACHOVJIOTCKOE". In addition, the texts could serve
as a supplementary indication on postcards, letter sheets or letter cards in the illustrations on the envelopes, the subjects of
which were linked with the Soviet Navy. Ships of the Fleet were basically illustrated, as well as the activities of the Soviet
marines on land (referred to as the military units formed from sailors). The Marine Infantry carried out exploits of heroism
in battle and caused horrified panic among the enemy, when they first went on the attack. Apart from the illustrations,
there was printed on most of the postcards the slogan : "Death to the German occupiers!" or other patriotic texts.
The illustrations and patriotic slogans became an indispensable part of the postal forms, after the issue of a decree
of the CC of the USSR, dated 12 June 1942, aimed at strengthening the mass political work carried out in the Forces, the
intent being to increase the patriotism in the armies.. In fulfilling that task, it resulted in the appearance of illustrations and
slogans on postal forms.. The military forms were distributed in millions of issues throughout the USSR, resulting in
propaganda on a massive scale.
1* For the convenience of readers, lists of stipulated abbreviations and literature [see reference 8] have been set
out at the end of the present instalment as additional information, with the enumeration of 20 references in the Listing of
As an example, a postcard is given in Fig. 1, in the upper right corer of which there is the designation:
"KpacHo4noTcKoe", thus confirming that this form was issued for the needs of the Soviet Navy. In contrast to most of
the known postcards, there is no illustration on this present card, but there is a slogan "Death to the German occupiers!"in
the upper left corer. In the address of the sender, the system of addressing is specified, which required the designation of
the Field Postal Station: No. 1133 and the number of the military unit: No. 13430. That system of addressing was in effect
from October 1942 to March 1943. On the basis of that information, it can be claimed that the postcard had been issued
after September 1942. The card has the dispatch postmark "IIOJIEBAJI IIOITA / N2 1133 / 26.12.42" and that Field
Postal Station served the Black Sea Fleet at the port of Poti. The arrival postmark is Moscow 7.1.43, together with the
Unified Cernsorship Marking with the fraction "1133/2".
A Soviet Navy card is shown in Fig. 2 with the designation: "KPACHOQJIOTCKOE". The card has an
illustration of fighters going on the attack.. It could be said that these fighters were Soviet marines, as they are wearing the
the navalihead.dressthe legendary "trumper". The fighters went on the attack with a banner inscribed with a popular slogan
of the wartime period: "For the Motherland, for Stalin!". There is printed on the card the final words from the speech of
22 June 1941 by V.M. Molotov about the declaration of the beginning of the war; "Our cause is just and victory will be
The point of dispatch is printed as the "Black Sea Fleet" in the address of the sender.. However, it can be affirmed
that this card was a special issue of a form for the mail of the Black Sea Fleet. Such special issues of cards for other fleets
are unknown to the present authors. There is also specified in the address of the sender the number of the Navy Postal
Station: "1133' as well as of the post office box: "50". That system of addressing lasted until October 1942. One can
therefore assert that the card was issued up to that date. There is on the card the postmark of dispatch: "MOPCKAAI
IHOTA J 1133 / 17.8.42 (?), which served the Black Sea Fleet stationed at the port of Poti, with the arrival postmark of

December 2006

L ff.lnP~e~ma

n.c;L LTh0LB,-Aq RAPT OlK

-~m r. e L,; !& ,,j~~~
a ,~T; i.c-F *h'~. 4an-'j4.'.... ,,,.. -

q- ,',-j.eq. Ujfq- .rCMi. .F

*, ~ ~ ~ Fz 1.~. y..*
__ -.


Fig 3.


1W .\Zilxf'I'!

is;; 2 Of8-A q'

AM. 2.. ...i.u~r* qpM~CH m1
*c.. FlpaCIO JIOIK pfrmpn

c~qci, )OPCM1 Ma.
.P Zct4:bwe /CO7U/Cr

Hawe oenpaBHpe~oR
.~ .- (~1 eZA $t4~c~.fl~g t

Fiz. 4.
icpac ojtoTJl0TCKHA npi T 1 lnnl

: 8 r r

r~t~Af U AN
I .'l*- J p-:.r'~-.: pr. .4

..........~ ..r Y 'i~


-. Iy4 % ? 4
-'In-'.. *. 4 4 '

A. I ~
I ~ I .' .3-

-1 L )

I'-~ -' I
H --I'~- .*

t/IMUDIK No 59 35
1Cr 2006

kpacHo(jAomck4ni npiMBem c c(poamal


3 M
I ~~~ ,*. _ _
.6i CL;~ I:~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __r

~~~1 II CjI~~kA.r

FilL c omnpo,~um q 0L

Fi- 5._

U Oil IV/- p .

____J 5M 'H57~ iii~,1 r .'n.a 46* --.i~"'"

I-I!.- ri.,

3~q :dj -3 Ef-~ ~ 'f

lc, G~w;O6Acx 4~~)_4_~~~ cBjC G~L

S- 'i.~.-' 9 ~ pacou AO.::? y 1 W~

Fii6~. ~o -* .L~d a'Pd4-iee~*L~~o, -

be ~~ ~ ~ Dcebe 2006m~y, enc
I.. a IC ro dlI~~C~~~
L11 Z~cLc : eroz rp
6yas max7,
Y''XtI~uu lvy~ ~4~~,~bYY.~ansi ~ fA Adicai

apaujkpacmu xop tal A
6os me Oatuamexpo xopa6Ax, 5K 7'ee9
Melf=Mb, 4c- Bo see

Sochi 4.9.42and also the Unified Censorship Marrking with the fraction "1121/1".
We have in Fi. 3 a postcard with the inscription: "BOEBOf HOBOFOJIHIHH / Kpacno(oJOTCKHm npmHeT
c (po ra!" (Fighting Red Fleet New Year's Greeting from the Front)). That text allows us to affirm that the postcard was
issued in a special New Year format and was intended for the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy. The issue of the
card took place at the end of 1941. It can be suggested that the organization producing the issue of the postcard either did
not know or did not take into consideration the new postal rules, which were adopted right after the beginning of the war.
It is somewhat difficult to explain that there is the upper right corer the designation of a vertical rectangle (for the space
of the stamp), within which there is the text: "Price without a stamp is 10 kop.". According to the new postal rules, all the
mail from the Soviet Navy and in the opposite direction to the rear was transmitted free of charge. Stamps were not
required for sending the card and the reminder about them was regarded as illogical.
There is printed in the left portion of the card an illustration and the slogan: "We will always follow the example
of our hero Kislyakov!". The illustration shows the exploit of V.P. Kislyakov (1919-1990), who was the Commander of
of a Marine Group (military sub-unit consisting of 6 to 12 men).. In July 1941, his Group defended one of the heights in
the Murmansk province, which had important strategic meaning. In the unequal fight with the advancing enemy, when
most of his fighters had fallen or qwere wounded, V.P. Kislyakov carried on the battle by himself. When reinforcements
arrived, they saw on the approaches to the height more than 100 corpses of the enemy. For this exploit listed of fighters on
the Northern Front, V.P. Kislyakov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
There is on the card the dispatch c.d.s. of Navy Mail No. 1001 / 17.1.42 (that Navy Post Office served the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet and was located at Kronshtadt), together with a Non-Standard Censorship Marking [see reference 20,
Fig. 8a). The card was addressed to Leningrad and there is no arrival marking.
It should be noted that there were issued, not one, but several New Year forms, intended for the mail of the
personnel of the Soviet Navy and the present authors know of two types. These postcards (see also Fig, 24 herewith) have
a similar setting and may be differentiated one from the other only by the illustrations,
A postcard is shown in Fig. 4 (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), illustrating an attack by a Marine detachment. The
text above the heads of the fighters states: "WE ARE FROM KRONSHTADT. WE ARE FROM THE POLAR RGEION,
WE ARE FROM SEVASTOPOL' and confirms that the Marine Forces boldly came to grips with the enemy at the Red
Banner Baltic, Northern and Black Sea Fleets.
There is on the card the dispatch c.d.s. of Navy Mail No. 1107 / 21.5.42 (Navy Postal Station No. 1107 served the
Red Banner Baltic Fleet, located on the island of Gogland in the Gulf of Finland), as well as the arrival marking of
Poltavskii Raion, Chelyabinsk province, 3.6.42 and the Unified Censorship Marking with number "87",
In the opinion of the present authors, the card in Fig. 1 can be definitely placed in the 3rd. category of rarity when
evaluating according to a 5-point system, while those shown in Figs. 2 to 4 should go into the 4t. Category. Because of
the presence on the card of the Navy Mail c.d.s., there should be added a plus to the evaluation, thus: "4+". The presence
in the address of the sender of a printed text specifying the Fleet (namely the Black Sea Fleet in Fig. 2) is also worth a
In addition to the postcards, envelopes were also issued. A characteristic of such envelopes is the designation
"KPACHO~ JIOTCKOE" in the upper right corer. An example is demonstrated in Fig. 5 with the dispatch c.d.s.of
Military Mail 29.7.43 and backstamped with the arrival marking of Dzhelal-Abad 10.9.43, as well as bearing a Unified
Censorship Marking with a five-digit number "12873". In addition, there is printed a patriotic slogan in the upper part of
Another characteristic of the envelopes prepared for the mail of the Soviet Navy is the printed indication in the
bottom left comer of the name of the issuing office: "BoeHMopH3JiaT" (Navy Publishing House). It apparently produced
at the end of 1941 envelopes for the needs of the personnel of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and which had an imprint
reading: "-FM 14788, 2-ai THn.BMH, 3aKa3 775". All the envelopes in that series were of a similar setting and can be
distinguished one from the other only by the illustrations of naval themes, as well as by the printed slogans.
As an example, we see in Fig. 6 an envelope in opened-out state, in the upper part of which there is shown an
attack on torpedo boats and naval craft of the enemy, together with a text of patriotic content: "We will destroy and wipe
from the face of the earth the Fascist barbarians!".
The envelope bears the dispatch c.d.s. of Military Post Office No. 995 dated 1.1.42, the transit marking of
Kronshtadt 10.12.41 and the arrival c.d.s. of Navy Mail No. 1001, dated 11.1.42, as well as the Unified Censorship
Marking with the number "171". Postal sending which bore c.d.s. markings of both the Field Postal Service and of the
Navt Mail are known in only a few examples and demonstrate especial interest.
We have in Fig. 7 the address side of a cover, in the upper part of which there is an illustration of Marines with a
ship in the background, as well as the text of a patriotic slogan: "Bypb 6eccrpamen cMejoro H nyaI 6oaHrc H IIIrIK
He 6epeT!"
The envelope has the dispatch c.d.s. of Navy Mail No. 1111, dated 8.5.42 (which served the Red Banner Baltic
December 2006

Fleet, stationed in the hamlet of Ust'-Izhora), while on the back there is the arrival marking of Moscow 15.5.42 and a
Unified Censorship Marking with the fraction: "AO/11". That censorship marking confirms that the letter had been
transmitted via a Military Postal Base with the code "AO" (the base served the 55th. Army), where it was also examined
by the military censorship.
The address side of a cover is shown in Fig. 8. in the upper part of which is set out an attack of torpedo boats and
naval craft of the enemy, together with a patriotic slogan, reading: "Beat the enemy to the finish and without mercy!".
There is on the cover the dispatch marking "Navy Mail No. 1101, 21.6.42" (Navy Postal Station No. 1101 served
the Red Banner Baltic Fleet Base in Leningrad) and, on the back, the arrival marking of Tikhvin 26.6.42 and a Uniform
Censorship Marking with the number "81".
We have in Fig. the address side of a cover, in the upper part of which there is an illustration of a sailor with
rifle, with a ship in the background and also a text with the slogan: "Be vigilant! Guard Military and State Secrets!". There
is on the envelope the dispatch marking of Aleksandr(ovskii) Poselok 17.1.42, but no arrival marking.
In addition to the postcards and envelopes, there were also issued for the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy
special sheets of paper for writing letters. Their dimensions were 190 x 135mm.and. being folded in half, could easily be
inserted in an envelope. The sheets had a characteristic feature: the inscription at upper right "The Fleet on Active
Service", as well as a line for the date of sending the letter and. at left, an illustration and patriotic text.
As an example, we note in Fig. 10 a letter sheet folded in half from the Fleet on Active Service, dated 10.6.42.
There is on the illustration at upper left an indication of a ship and torpedo cutter and below them the text of a slogan:
"Red Sailor Comrades! In going boldly on your ships, beat the Fascist scum, wipe them out!".
Fig. 11 shows the folded half of a letter sheet from the Fleet on Active Service, dated 14.6.42. A caricature is
featured in the illustration at left in the upper part of the sheet, showing a soldier and sailor with bayonets knocking down
the German occupiers from the Globe. Some lines of the poet V. Mayakovskii (1893-1930) are printed under the
illustration, reading: 'Talk to the Fascists in the language of fire, with the words of bullets and the sharpness of bayonets".
Fig. 12 demonstrates the folded halves of a letter sheet, with the dimensions 210 x 145mm.and another text. An
interesting feature is that the text with illustration are the same as on the postcard, shown in Fig. 4. The letter was sent
from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station No. 1107, p.o. box 1156, dated 7.2.42.
Comparing the postcard in Fin. 4 and the letter sheet in Fig. 12 the following observations and assumptions may
be made:
1. Both of the examined items had been sent through the Navy Postal Station No. 1107, but from different subdivisions,
designated by different post office box numbers.
2. It is obvious that they were issued by one and the same publishing house.
3. They were issued no later than the beginning of February 1942 (see the date of writing in Fig. 12).
It can be suggested that both these examined items were issued especially for Navy Postal Station No. 1107. But
that is only an assumption, since further characteristics are needed to confirm such an affirmation.
All the: letter sheets shown in Figs. 10 to 12 are from the collection of I. Bryun of Russia. Such letter sheets were
apparently issued at the same time as the envelopes shown in Figs. 6 to 9. as already stated and for the postcard in Fig. 4.
The sheets were intended for the writing of letters by the personnel of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. It is even possible that
the letter sheets and envelopes formed a "complete set" for writing letters. The present authors do not know of cases
where the designs on the envelopes and letter sheets were identical, but such a possibility cannot be excluded.
Fig. 13 demonstrates the address side of a cover, in the upper part of which there is an illustration of fighting
ships, the sea and the sky lighting up the Northern (Polar) Lights. An excerpt is printed at right from a speech by I. Stalin,
sating: "All our forces for the support of our heroic Red Army and our Glorious Red Fleet!".
There is on the envelope the dispatch c.d.s. reading "Navy Mail No. 1008 of 29.2.42"(Navy Post Office No. 1008
served the Northern Fleet, stationed at the hamlet of Polyarnyi) and, on the back, the arrival marking of Gor'kii 14.3.42
and a Non-Standard Censorship Marking [see reference 20, Fig. 38a].
In the opinion of the present authors, the presence on the envelope of such an illustration and text, linked by
subject matter and also the fact of sending the letter from the Navy, allows them to place such a type of envelope in the
category of forms, issued for the mail of of the personnel of the Northern Fleet.
We regard that the envelope shown in Fig. 5 can be placed in the 3rd. category of rarity in evaluating in a 5-point
system and those featured in Figs. 6 to 9 & 13 may be placed in the 4h. category of rarity. With the presence on the cover
of the Navy Mail c.d.s., there should be added in the evaluation of rarity also a "plus" (see the envelopes in Figs. 7. 8 &
13), while the cover in ig. 6 should have two "pluses". In the case where a cover has been found, within which a letter
sheet has been found) of the type of Figs. 10 to 12, such a sheet should be taken into consideration, with a "plus" added to
the evaluation of rarity.
It is especially interesting and very (!) rare the issue of postcards created by PUBALT (Political Administration of
the Baltic Fleet) and by besieged Leningrad. It is obvious that it was done at the end of 1941. Such an assumption is

December 2006

Mbl .MepT HeCeM Bparyl


~- IM

FipL 12.

_ __ I __

OTAe.. nfyisaar xyA. s. '4 1k J ..f.IUOnl. njrflMVRRCIEnmfln
".37 OT MwsT:%nsxwM~vl4 ST 5"TwkKx Uspuls,
Ns ad r*A-fVMVM-IfAh. &MI SlU PNKIini,u

Fig. 15.
Fig. 14.

Fig. 17. S

December 2006

Fig. 16.

0 We-W C ..a.

~- -Z--. I-.

a ct C. /ts a !

IW 3

OBAT~f I.tfc.. ,.. i
.-. T EC. !1: -7 -t r_~~;

FL-, 13.


Fig. 18.
m m1

OFh f 6 ARTHII.A 1-. A Pi BET

Fig. 19.

-. -

CMeprb HeMeLKHM OHKynaHTaMI'! ~ a. ,,

lL e

I a. 3.- M I

M' .MblMOHeM iI .onmHHL O4HCTHTL coBeTCHyIo 3 eMnio
or NrTi'iepoBecCHo .n e.IcT. '; (C.r.i -
P.uhq '---,ueK *'"*-*""S-r^ .^"-

:~' -~.* .

S3a-- 189 THp. 1.000.000 2.-No
Fig. 22.

Fig. 21.
December 2006

'Fig 2.

based on the fact that all the five postcards in the set known to us are devoted to the New Year and the inscription "New
Year 1942" is noted on two of them.
There is shown in Fig. 14 the back, which is of one type for all these cards. At upper left, there is an inscription on
them, reading: "The Red Banner Baltic Fleet on Active Service /. 1942". Below that in the centre "Issue of the
Mass-Cultural Department of PUBALG", the surname of the artist and the imprint: 'lit. "Agroplakat" zak. 737" (that was
the order number. (which was standard for the cards). It is important to say that the backs can only be distinguished by the
surnames of the artists, depending upon the designs of the illustrations on the front sides.
The front side of a postcard is given in Fig. 15 with a caricature of the artist B.I. Prorokov, showing Hitler dressed
as Father Frost and with a bag of skulls, as New Year's gifts. Below that there is the text:
"New Year's gifts for Germany / from the pilots, infantry, from the Baltic sailors / We send gifts the fronts of your
Fig. 16 shows the front side of a postcard with yet another caricature by the same artist. On it, the Hitlerite
generals hang like toys on the New Year fir-tree with small branches, shown like bayonets,. On the forage caps and
helmets there can be made out the surnames of Guderian, Strauss, von Kleist and Schmidt. The text is as follows:
"Everybody knows this fir-tree, / With it the work of the Germans is weak / All the Fascist fighters / Will soon be on the
The address side of this postcard is given in Fig. 17. There is on it the dispatch marking of "Navy Mail No. 1107" 17.3.42
and a Non-Standard Censorship Marking [see reference 20, Fig. 8a]
Fig. 18 shows the front side of a postcard with a caricature of the artist V.M. Sokolov. There is demonstrated on it
a wild boar with a Hitlerite helmet and a tablet with the text:
"1942, How irritating, shameful enemy, our Baltic Fleet is getting stronger / Victory is ours / and the grave is for you / as
the New Year comes!"
Fi. 19 has the_front side of a postcard with a design by the artist B.I. Prorokov and the text : NEW YEAR'S
Finally, in Fig. 20, we have the front side of a card with a design by the artist V.M. Sokolov. That card is an
exception in the set, as there is_shown on ita design with a patriotic theme: the profiles ofV. Lenin and I. Stalin. The New
Year's Greetingand elements of the Navy theme in the form of naval guns and the flag of the Soviet Navy are shown here.
In October 1942, the Navy Postal Service was included in a single system of the Military Postal Service of thr
Red Army. For that reason and on the c.d.s. of the Navy Post Offices and Navy Postal Stations, the text "Navy Mail" was
changed to "Field Postal Service"; The notation "KPACHO(JIOTCKOE" was removed from the postcards and
envelopes, which had confirmed that forms had been issued for the mail of the personnel of the Navy. All cards and letter
sheets (the latter now beginning to be issued instead of envelopes) received the general designation of ""BOHHCKOE"
(Military) and they were utilized for the mail, both of the Army on Active Service and of the Navy.
A letter sheet in opened-out state is shown in Fig. 21 upon which there is an illustration of a sailor, ship and the
flag of the Navy. There is below them the text: "KpacHo4njoTcKmH 6oeBofi npHieT!" (Greeting from the Fighting Red
Fleet!". The illustration and the text both confirm that this form was issued was issued for the mailofthe personnel of the
Navy. However, it bears the designation "BOH4HCKOE" (Military). There is on the letter sheet the dispatch c.d.s. of
Oranienbaum 31.3.45 and the arrival marking of Leningrad 3.4.45, as well as the Unified Censorship Marking with the 5-
digit number "10304".
As stated earlier, it was quite complicated by 1943 to distinguish the distinction of the mail of the personnel of the
Army on Active Service and of the Navy. However, in considering that the letter sheet had been sent from Oranienbaum,
it can be assumed that it was from the mail of the personnel of the Navy. As was known, Navy schools and other fleet
units were stationed in Oranienbaum.
The illustrations showing the Fleet and Marines were popular in wartime and featured on many postcards and
letter sheets. That is explained by the fact that the sailors were regarded as a symbol of steadfastness, manliness and
heroism. They always went on the attack in the front ranks, causing panic and fear among the enemy.
Fig 22 demonstrates in opened-out state a letter sheet of the "BoHHcKoe" type. There is a design on it showing
an attack, with the Marines in front. There is above the illustration an excerpt from the appearance of I. Stalin:"We can
and must cleanse the Soviet earth from the Hitlerite filth!".There is on the letter sheet the dispatch c.d.s. in red of the Field
Postal Service 26.8.43 and a Unified Censorship Marking with a 5-digit number "03804". That colour is encountered very
rarely on the postmarks.
It is interesting that this letter sheet went through the post in August 1943 and the field postal number of the
sender was specified in accordance with the rules in force in April 1943 (with a 5-digit number). However, this very same
letter sheet was printed per the old rules, which were in effect from October 1942 to March 1943. That is evident from the
fact that the inscription: LIacm- N2 ("Unit No.") is printed in the return address, in accordance with the old rules.
A letter sheet is shown in Fig. 23 in the "BOHHCKOE" type, with the exact same design as in Fig. 22. There is
December 2006

----~---L~ ~_

;~~-~. ,~
.. ~~ ,I~r r r:
:- ~ ;1;--
,I F~--li.~-; -iil-C

KP2CH04) qoT~lha aSc IIrTM CU Cyroro'.
itu-cuum Crepspow

Uc ....

;.F-~. i

FiFi 24.

Fig. 23.

t; ~-" r .;., -z --
-- L~C1 ~C~* 1111
~---- .. -I~'~;-;*I';LnT;, r;-2--~Z.
.~u : .T'c~
rA_ -'-
2' ''
i 1 `..'-.t~-~i-~; --
/ ;+- .,
t o
r, ;.-.
--lsri~lln, ~8X
;I ilr
C~pn~ -~rawyrcrrr -wnwrQPucu~;.
r' `-e s~-
r i. -

~Z~c/ ~s3~i~e~c CCiL:

11 ~t~Gr ''
h~ "
I 't
Xauy r

.~- -.; .-.~ .. e i ._; ~,-. ;._ ~~~ .I;: ~ --. r.~ c ~ rc.r.-r~;-~L~ ~CL ~L~-~ C~L~I~RI~C~L~
~?;j~L r r,,~,Irw~

.; ~:
-- ''~
5 .

~oreur. w~l.ar~J r- .bu.
,Co~od I~ywC 8rer~Fo~ w ~r~~mt X3~'IL ~Y~y~ rwlaocs~ ~'n ~
.~ ..
- -- --
--- -
-, --
.: ~" PZ

r .
~:' ;n

:~~- --i
-- -r


: r1- low"
I~ ~~. '. ."' =" .- : .: : .:i- -.

u- .' : ", '

.: ..i
IT -- -,et

Xp -- sr
rup~eftexpil i" m AC" KPO


December 2006



Fig. 25.


u~3. 29 2

/0; c %S' zH

I, I

/r n


Fi2. 24.


yy-- --~ I--yl-~ -~YPII+~-C---~~~~I~

Y Now

Fig. 26.



----L-~----- -~ _3; --~h-

-I :

'~- c
-r ~ai

the despatch c.d.s. of Field Postal Service 11.10.44, as well as a Unified Censorship Marking with a 5-digit number
"08596". These forms may be distinguished such that the second of them (Fig. 23) had already been issued, taking into
account the new rules for addressing mail, which went into effect as of 1 April 1943. The text "HoJieBaa nowra" (Field
Postal Service) is printed in the return address and the designation "Hacmb N" is absent. So it is already in compliance
with the new rules.
As an example, we see in Fig. 24 a postcard which, in its setting and subject matter in the illustration, is close to
the card in Fig. 3. It illustrates a subject linked with the Navy and is inscribed: "TO THE FLEET ON ACTIVE SERVICE.
Sailors of the Red Fleet and anti-aircraft gunners, direct your fire at the Fascist carrion". In contrast to the cards in Figs. 1
to 4, all of which were sent from the Navy, this card was from the Army on Active Service. There are on the card the
dispatch c.d.s. of the Field Postal Service No. 487, dated 19.5.42, the arrival c.d.s. of Sarapul 31.5.42 and also the Unified
Censorship Marking with the fraction "AX 22" (the Military Postal Base "AX served the 49". Army).
There are known forms (letter sheets and possibly postcards) of the "BOHHCKOE" type, issued in the "Guards"
set, as referred to by us. Ships are shown on them which, during the wartime period, were attributed to the "Guards"
designation. All these forms are characterized by the fact that on them and above the illustration of the ship there is the
"Guards" Ribbon of St. George (!).
A letter sheet is featured in Fig. 25 with the illustration pfthe "Guards" cruiser "Red Caucasus". There is on the
letter sheet the dispatch c.d.s. of the Field Postal Service, dated 4.9.44 and the Unified Censorship Marking with a 5-figure
digit "22560". The cruiser "Red Caucasus" (until 1926 the "Admiral Lazarev") was laid down already in 1913 at Nikolaev
and went into construction only in 1932. During the wartime period, it participated in the defence of Odessa, Sevastopol'
and the Caucasus. The designation of St. George was bestowed upon it in April 1942.
In Fig. 26, we have a letter sheet with the illustration of the "Guards" cruiser "Red Crimea". The letter sheet went
through the post in August 1944. The cruiser "Red Crimea"(up to 1939 the "Profintern") participated in the wartime
period in the defence of Odessa, Sevastopol' and the Caucasus. The "Guards" designation was bestowed upon it in June
1942. There is also known to us in this set a letter sheet form with the illustration i ofthe "Guards" small submarine "M-
172". It is most likely that other examples exist. It can also be suggested that the forms in this set were issued at the
beginning of 1944.
If in the initial period of the War the subjects showing the Fleet and the Marines were placed on the forms of the
"KPACHOFJIOTCKOE" type, then followed by the forms of the "BOHHCKOE" type, they were subsequently
placed also on the postcards and letter sheets intended for the mail of the public in general, but also utilized by the
There is featured in Fig. 27 a letter sheet (M. Voronin Collection, Russia), where there is an illustration of a
submarine sinking enemy ships. Below it there is the slogan: "Red Fleet men and officers of the Navy! Cleanse our seas
of the Fascist pirates! Mercilessly destroy the Hitlerite plunderers! Long live the Soviet fighting sailors!" The design and
text of the slogan on the letter sheet refer to the Navy theme, but there is not the designation "BOHHCKOE". The
possibility is therefore suggested that they were also utilized by the public in general. It is evident from the data on hand
that the letter sheet was issued in 1944 from a design by the artist A. Ermolaev. There are on the letter sheet the dispatch
c.d.s. of the Field Postal Service dated 24.10.44, the arrival c.d.s. of Moscow dated 30.10.44 and a Unified Censorship
Marking with the 5-figure digit "12108".
There is shown in Fig. 28 the frant and back of a New Year's greeting card, which was issued in blockaded
Leningrad in 1942. The illustration and the lines of the text: "In the bad books of the Marines....there must be the enemy",
thus specifying that this was a "KpacHo(JoTcOKoe" ("Red Fleet") type of card. There is not on the address side of the
card the designation "BOHHCKOE" and it looks like being an ordinary card of the prewar type. In the return address,
the sender apparently specified by chance some forbidden information, e.g. the location of the military unit. Knowing that
the military censor could return such a letter, the sender erased the information about the return address and the postcard
was sent inside an envelope.. That is why there is no c.d.s. marking on the postcard.
Fig. 29 features a postcard (M. Voronin Collection, Russia), issued in Moscow in 1943. The illustration shows a
submarine, which is sinking an enemy ship. The text above the design reads "A Fighting Red Fleet Greeting from the
Front!". The text at bottom reads "A gift for Hitler from the Soviet submarine servicemen!". The address side of the
postcard is similar in setting to that in Fig. 28, i.e. it has the appearance of being a card of a prewar type.
The present authors extend warm thanks to I. Bryun and M. Voronin of Russia and also to A. Drozdovskii of the
Ukraine for providing the possibility of advising the material in their collections and the permission to publish same.

* *

December 2006


-'; -, -~ AP ~~.

.....Y...... .. ....

fowrr~rq rpe~ee B yha Ie-eo -~ e. yr r. n .. X .. Ap....... ... I ..... ..
-~k~-~~i~ur w~~x~ ---------- -;
0- a

-.. Ami

0f MP(.dA., h0JL.$dK- 0aIM auarx: n,z.e.eTe ,o Aiy 4 ;
,a ")PT.. 0-A.41.7. Ium M.Ps 1. 7 q, j i ill T C 4 t
- ilpaTe03 !ecnoulaoe~o mcrTPen~frx e rHTJepo13eK= s3XMIT'CHe111W
ga 3ApslcmaTYgr coNercTlhie 1oeJllble MOplIClI

Fig. 27.


r5 ~ ~ .- j~--`"' ;~'

.1- ~:


.lyl It: rkiTAF, 6T CjiZET,2NR1. F117.tbC4fI JAWO

FiW. 29.
Lltieve of C.vetkomol bAbbreviaie,
Baeeee-ealopnpcrosrn NavyPostal 8w-sire
Boaeo-aopceae nooNle yoaspeae: NavyPost Oihee
Boeoaomospcc nouaoa cramgz NavyPostW Statiee
Boeeeo-oo'rraeeaa ssxdidy Postal aBai
Boeeoa-eonepaa novosraeo crarrac Field Postal Station
Boeeea~-noov a covp-oeomaAr yErn Military Postal Soetiog Point
KpacaosgwiemnA wioacraic 8 c'oo. Red Baptste Baltic Flet
Kanemapipmi moeo o pavore Ci el- datestanip ofdespatch
Kaueagapwo& mrasirawoe peias Ckel dola-w d stp ofaurivat
Hapo niKoscucapear Boappo-Mopcorno Ovrura: Feoplee Commissaoiat of the Navy
Eapomwnt Koeaaccapaar OrOqPomu People' Commissariat ofDfetnea
HapocrA goieacuaas u eisce People's Coawwissasiat of Cpaimmiaticae
Heyipmepo wimaAAa Asyspineioeo:l s tandard Caesomnhip Caeet
no'rra aaiptove Fostbcs
Ceeepiinsi for- North- Flet
Taxoooeameocuaei lsoz Paciffie Fleet
Yoa41ispomammdl tenesypei mroamp Unifed Ceesosohip Cachet
Ilena3pAri ralap: Ceesohip cachet
OeplaamopcmLe Osea Black Tea Flet


c,,,T 10 ~

..... ....

-1 iI-~E P A) VA ?.

C.A in -I.y k r

O6paITHbl aJpXq:

XYJ. SC. 6? 1r TQ e a ie 0t.
XyjX. C. Solid, TegcT B.Tumoetpeefia rT 50277 3,..1934

Fig. 28.


(IMII K), 2000, X 47, p.p.76-86.
(SIMIIrIK), 2001, 3a 48, p.p.18-45.
SOVIET NAVY (1918-1941). The POST-RIDER (SIMIIK), 2002, X 50, p.p.16-35.
(Pocca, MocmKa), 1995, 64, p.p.18-19.
6. HFPOXHHM. I OJIEBAS IIOHTA. 55 n~r BemnKor IIoSesL. Bcepocc9cxaoa
4QmarreamcinecKax BucrasB. Karanor. Mocisa. 265. 25.6.2000r.
7. NaglAnction 18, Bambog, II October 2003.
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (AMIl~g), 2005, X 56, p.p.54-67.
1941-1945. O .arema (Poccei,MocKaa), 1995, ?7, p.p.45-47.
KOUIEKI]WOHEP X38- 39, Moca, 2003, p.p3-29.
OTEGECTBEHHOaBO'H1IL QOm'armena CCCP, 1981, ?9, p.p.45-46.
13. A.OC5ITHHCKH. MOPCKAJI IIOqTA XAHKO. Qmuiarenmu CCCP, 1977, W7, p.p.10-
OTEHECTBEHHOMf BOIOMITL ennreima (Poccm, Mocma), 2003, X7, p.p.33-35.
OTEqECTBEHHOa BOlHL. (fnaraemo (Pocmn, MocKaa), 2003, 8, p.p.35-37.
X112, p.p.17-41.
Rossica, 1992, ? 118, p.p.45-52.
MILITARY POSTAL SORTING OFFICES. Rossica, 1996, ?127, p.p.61-64.
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (JIMIIHK), 2005, M 57, p.p.42-71.
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (MIvgHK), 2006, ? 58, p.p.63-84.

December 2006



by Robert Taylor.
Aleksander Epstein's recent article on Transcaucasian rates ("POCHTA" No. 19, January 2006) got me thinking
about some of the more obscure postal doings in Azerbaijan and, of course, their effect on determining rates. Voikhanskii
published whatever he could find in the archives, but they generally referred only to the domestic charges. We should
remember that Azerbaijani rates prior to May 1922 applied to both domestic and foreign mail and it was only in mid-May
that foreign rates were established separately more or less in line with their Soviet counterparts, the Azerbaijani rouble
being equal to the old Soviet rouble.
The above statements are a brief prelude to the intent of this srticle, which is to look at provisional revaluations of
Azerbaijani stamps without any other identification, either in the form of rouble overprints or of Postmaster Provisionals
with pre-established rouble rates. There follow in date sequence some of these fascinating examples which, of course, can
only make sense on covers, relating to the rates then in effect. Most of them are from smaller towns, where the stock of
current stamps was obviously ,more limited.

- a,

Fig. 1.

Figure 1: A cover dated 9 Nov. 1921 from Akstafa, Elisavetpol' province via Moscow to Siauliai, Lithuania, franked with
a 1000-r. charity stamp, which, as issued, was supposed to be supplemental to the regular franking; i.e. it had no franking
value. The foreign rate at that time were very obscure, but most likely 1000 r. for an ordinary letter, being thus equal to
the RSFSR rates. If that is correct, then this cover is franked by giving full postal validity to the charity stamp. Note the
pencilled "T" marking for postage due, but no such charges are identified or applied. The 1000 r. charity stamp is also
noted in multiples on a couple of parcel cards from Kusary just about that same time.

e2~:) C. L, i i i

'*^^ ?,<

t/3 -. '..* !"C..:" ". v ..," :...r .

,-.H-. ,,, ."

,, 'V. ., _

;" ; %' : ,. ..- ....

'" atiT if,
..i~t-- ~'; k


Fig. 2.

December 2006

- -r


7 -

Jo. i. .
,t(L,,'l.. ,c3i '*

Figure 2: A cover dated 5 April 1922 from Chernyi Gorod via Moscow to Berlin, franked with a single 4000-r. pictorial,
with no Postmaster Provisional overprint. The foreign (and domestic) letter rate was 17,500 r., set on 15 January, at which
time the first Postmaster Provisionals were authorized, with the 400-r. stamp to have a franking value of 17,500 r. The
post office at Chernyi Gorod simply used the 400-r. stamp with a handwritten note below of the Post & telegraphic
employee (review).

.-Uler 'rcnil ^ al Pt a wi ..lp.pOIi. -f... -.
-. O T- a i .,/ ,- ,

1 'iT0 roBMy G j
Y et.... !J..
., ..- .r ... .,

: i -
- -. '- -' --

Fig. 3.

t I/osi
." : .

.;- l. t .-_ -:+.
;; &t* i.*T ..%''

Figure 3: Disregarding the printed Lbdi address, this is a cover dated 21 April 1922 from Kazakh, Elisavetpol' province
to Baku, franked with a gutter block of 15 of the 15-r. pictorial. The internal (and external) letter rate had been increased
to 33,000 r. on 15 April. The 250-r. pictorial had been authorized for Postmaster Provisional usage, valued at 33,000 r.
However, no such usage applied to the 25-r. stamp and, as far as we know, the 25-r. stamp was never released to post
offices until November 1922 and only with a 200,000-r. overprint. However, the post office at Kazakh clearly had these
stamps on hand. Did they revalue them at 2200 r. each to meet the 33,000-r. rate?

I _. ...- :?:

Fig. 4.
December 2006

Figure 4: A cover dated 4 July 1922 from Belyi Gorod, Baku province via Moscow to Latvia, franked with a block of
nine 2000-r. pictorials without overprints. The foreign letter rate established on 1t. July was 450,000 r., equal to the
RSFSR rate. The 2000-r. stamp had been overprinted at 66,000 r. in May to equal the domestic letter rate. The 3000-r.
pictorial had been overprinted 50,000 r. and we often see large multiples of that stamp to make up the foreign rates in the
June to November period. However, it appears that the Belyi Gorod post office had available only the 2000-r. stamps and
decided to use them at 50,000 r. each to make the correct 450,000-t. rate.

- 7 ''I c'

*1 '


Fig. 5.
Figure 5: A registered cover dated 6 December 1922 from Surakhany, Baku province to Kryukov in Poltava province and
returned, franked with 200,000 r. on 25 r. and 2 x 50,000 r. on 3000-r. pictorials. However, the domestic registered letter
rate rate was 800,000 r. and, indeed on 15 November, 3000-r. stamps were overprinted 300,000 r. and a few remaining
50,000-r. on 3000-r. stamps were again overprinted 300,000 r. Obviously, the Surakhany post office had only the old and
well-used 50,000-r. on 3000-r. stamps and simply used them at 300,000 r. each to meet the correct rate. That same usage
is noted on other covers from Eleneno, Elisavetpol' and Bibi-Eibat in Baku province.
In January 1923, with the formation of the Transcaucasian Federated Republic, each of the member states
converted to the TSFSR rouble, which was equal to 1/100th. of the old Azerbaijani roubles and thus required a new set of
overprints on the old pictorial issue. The only values generally seen are the 5000-r. (TSFSR) on 2000-r. (Azerbaijani)
pictorial and 15,000 r. on 5000 r. These values are used in multiples on all correspondence noted in the February to May
period until the release in mid-May of the Transcaucasian Star overprints on old Imperial Russian issues.


Fig. 6.

December 2006




Figure 6: A cover dated 8 March 1923 from Elisavetpol', franked with a block of six 2000-r. stamps without overprint.
The internal letter rate on 1". March was30,000 r., so it is clear that the Elisavetpol' post office used 2000-r. stamps at
their presumed 5000-r. overprinted value to make the correct rate. That use of unoverprinted 2000-r. stamps is noted also
from Eleneno, Annenskoe, Nikolaevka and Bozhii Promysl, all post offices of which presumably had never received a
distribution of the 5000 r (TSFSR) on 2000-r/ (Azerbaijani) overprints.
Figure 7: It is not shown here, but it is a cover dated 23 April 1923 from Eleneno to Dresden, franked with a block of 25
x 3000-r. pictorials without overprints. Note that those stamps were never part of the TSFSR overprint series. The correct
foreign letter rate was 75,000 r., so the Eleneno post office simply took old 3000-r. pictorials denominated in Azrebaijani
roubles (now useless) and allowed their usage in TSFSR roubles to meet the current rate. That usage is also noted from
Ordubat and covers from the Wilfried Nagl collection may be seen in Ceresa, Azerbaijan C-I, pp. 562 & 573.


,ig .-."- .8 "' -.

Figure 8: A cover dated 3 May 1823 from Baku via Moscow to Berlin, franked with nine copies of old 5000-r. pictorials
without overprints. We know that, within weeks, there stamps were released revalued (without overprint) to the face value
of 5000 r. TSFSR roubles, rather than Azerbaijani roubles. However, in this case and with the foreign letter rate at
125,000 r., 9 x 5000 r. would only come to 45,000 r., being far short of the correct franking.. It appears that the Baku
G.P.O. already had the stamps on hand and chose to use them at 15,000 (TSFSR) which, if we recall, was the
Transcaucasian rouble surcharge in January 1921. Thus, the franking would be 125,000 r., an excess of 10,000 r. probably
not being charged to the sender. No other examples are noted of the 5000 r. used as 15,000 r. (TSFSR), as those stamps
were probably not on hand at post offices other than at the Baku G.P.O.


Fie. 9.
December 2006
.. -? '' d
.. .. .. ... .. -.l' .
'_, ,' .'. ., ,-' .

Figure ~~ ~ ~ BE 8: A oe atd3My 83fomBk ia Moco toBrifakdwt iecpe od50-.pcoil
wihotovrrits e nw htwihn eks hee tmp er elasdreaue wihotovrrit t tefaevau
of 00 r TFSRroblsraherthn zebaian rubes Hoevrinthi csean wth hefoein lttr at a
125,000~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ r. 00r ol nycoet 500rbigfrshr ftecretfakng.I per htteBk
G.PO.alrad ha te tams n hndandchseto sethe a 1,00 (SFS) hic, f e rcal, asth
4n8 u... ,rul urhrei aur 91 Thus OthRIe frankiKng wol e15 ,00ra xesof1,0 .poal
notbengchrgd o hesede. o thr xapls renoedofth 500r.usd s 5,00r.(TFS),asthsestmp

Figure 9: A cover dated 9 June 1923 from Baku to Bulgaria and registered at the May-June rate of 350,000 r.. The cover
is franked by Imperial stamps with Star overprints of 3 x 1 r. (100,000 r. each) and of 35 kopeks (note the postal value of
only 30,000 r. ), plus a block of four old Azerbaijani 5000-r. pictorials (as in (Figure 8 above) but, in this case, revalued
to the face value in TSFSR roubles. Covers make it clear that the Azerbaijani Central Postal & Telegraphic Department
officially released these remainders to the Baku G.P.O. (they are not known used elsewhere), to be used in conjunction
with the Star overprint issue. They are seen in various numbers on almost every cover posted from the Baku G.P.O. from
late May until early July and occasionally thereafter as late as September. The Postal & Telegraphic Administration
presumably accomplished their purpose and used up a large quantity of those stamps.

-'? ', l-^LJ


/&iL -- \ .

Fig. 10.

Figure 10: A cover dated 19 July 1923 from Baku to London, being forwarded to Berlin and franked with an old 2-r.
Musavat stamp without overprint. The Musavat overprints of 25,000 r. to 500,000 r. were released at just that time in mid-
July with the 2-r. value overprinted 300,000 r., which would have more than covered the 250,000-r. foreign letter rate in
effect. Exactly how this unoverprinted stamp came to be used remains a mystery.
One can see from the above the rate confusion caused by these unidentified revaluations. They certainly add to the
already confusing postal history of Azerbaijan. If any readers have additional information, corrections etc., I would be
most pleased to be in communication. My e-mail is et4456(earthlink.net.
SPECIAL NOTE: Soviet Mail to "Amtorg" in New York City.
The cover shown here is one of five identical envelopes
sent from Moscow on 2, 7, 10 &16 April 1939, being
tnQoIA handled mainly by the Krasnaya Presnya Junction post office
S and franked with the 50-kopek Papanin Polar Expedition
i -u X. J/i- stamp. All the envelopes are in the same handwriting and
addressed to a person in the Amtorg Trading Corporation in
D a/ituu New York City. "Amtorg" was a Soviet "telescopic" word
for the phrase "Amerikanskaya Torgovlya"(= "American
"TMW ayi- Trade") and the name of the recipient has been thoroughly
Sf crossed out on all five covers. The Great Purge was still
( 33301, going on at that time and the deletion of the name was
Undoubtedly a precautionary measure, taken to guard against
being branded an "enemy of the people".
By the way, the late Norman Epstein once told your
editor that he was an employee of rhe Amtorg Trading
Corporation during that tragic period and he said that the general atmosphere then was terrifying, especially when a
typewriter disappeared from the Corporation office and was never found!

December 2006

The early mails of the Transcaspian Military Railway and the story of its creation
The present article is devoted to the story of the founding of the Transcaspian Military Railway (3BX1 ) and to
the postmarks on letters and telegrams (from the collection of the author), having gone through its postal & telegraphic
The story of the question
By the end of the 1870s and on the basis of the active construction railway lines in Russia, the question arose
about the erection of a Central Asian railway, with the project going ahead of the Syzran,-Batraki-Orenburg Line. Its
continuation naturally involved the solving of the question for extending the route to Tashkent. However, the strategic,
military and political aims of the Russian Government led to the necessity of constructing an integral Transcapian
Railway Line fron Uzun Ada to Kizil Arvat, Chardzhui and Samarkand, with a total length of 1435 km. (897 miles),
linking the Mikhaolvskii Gulf with Central Asia.
In setting up this line, a problem which had never been encountered before, had to be solved of traversing large
areas in conditions of shifting sands, especially in the KaraKum Desert. The methods of constructing the line and the
tempo of its execution evoked at that time an enormous impression in Russia, as well as abroad.
The construction was met with sandstorms, exhausting summers, heat and absence of water. First of all
and in the desert conditions, the sleepers were smeared in great quantities with oil, which saved them from
destruction by termites. To protect the route from shifting sands, the local standing forests were utilized to make
protective shelters and hedges, also using clay and salt mixtures, which strengthened the slopes of the hollows
and embankments [1].
For historical and geographic support of the readers, the present author was able to find some maps of
the 1892-1897 period, to show with their help how they filled in the T-C Rlwy and also to illustrate in timely
sequence the process of transferring the original station of the railway line from the station at Uzun Ada to
Krasnovodsk. An analysis of the transformations in these cards shows that:
(1) On the 1892 map (Fig ,. the line began from the station at Uzun Ada.
(2) On the 1894 map (Fig.2), the section is shown of the tine from the start to Krasnovodsk.
(3) On the 1895 map (ig. 3), the names of the stations have already been designated in the constructed section
of the lines: at Krasnovodsk-Yangodzha-Kara Tengir-Belek-Yagman-Dzhebel'-Mulla Kary.
(4) On the 1897 map Fig. 4, the section of the railway line from Uzun Ada to Mulla Kary with a section of 48
versts (30 miles) was still not there.

----' -- I ... .. .' -

:_ '-.-Y 1

50 T I POST-RDER/--:M -K 5
IP '^ ]^ -- .: .... "-I 'S +" '
-* ..... ,li ,--' >I- r II I -' .-.:- ..

Map of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line.
December 2006

n-fl -

December 2006

4:~ t:'~;'~'""
C~~kn; .
ii I
~' r ,~"'
r ; r~~r"'"''
j :
~ .----~

i m- i" -

Fig. 2...

Fig. 3.

Fig. 5a.

Fig. 4.


;a. ~~'c.'C~ ~LLIAP
~C~L~II, ';f rr7~".~, ~z~:'
~I'~~ 1!;
jF III ..
'I 'k ,
!.'.: r .
~ ~-
~~ 4 rr~~i II'
i' I
;. "1:1'4
II ':
i. '.
;k J1.
t;~l:~(i I',

At the end of the 1870s, Russia was preoccupied un this region with subduing the rapacious Turkmenian tribes,
while the expeditions of 1877-1879 under the leadership of Generals Lomakin, Lazarev and Tergukasov were not
completely successful because of the absence of communications in the Trans-Caspian deserts. The movement of all
military freight in these expeditions was based exclusively on camels, which were the irreplaceable method for
transmitting goods in such deserts. That was the case at that time for all localities lying between the Caspian Sea and
from Krasnovodsk to Kizil Arvat, Geok Tepe and Ashkhabad, where a separate section of the Central Asian Railway was
situated. However, for large contingents and for long distances, transportation was insufficient for individual camels and
it was necessary to utilize also other methods of communication.
With the distances of contingents from Krasnovodsk and the Caspian Sea at 300 to 400 versts (189 to 250 miles),
communications with the rear were made more difficult by the slow movement of transportation by camels, being cut off
from their bases. Such a situation was taken into account by the Turkmenians and their attacks were directed mainly
against communications in the rear. Caravans could not get to the contingents and, because of the lack of supplies, they
had to return willy-nilly to their bases. In view of all these circumstances and upon the organisation in 1880 of a new
expedition under the command of General Skobelev, attention was especially directed to the setting up of
communications. As the result of a consultation about that question with the General Staff in January 1880, a decision was
taken to extend the railway line to Kizil Arvat.
The starting points for the railway line were designated as Krasnovodsk or the Mikhailovskii Gulf.. Kizil Arvat
was noticeably closer to the latter : 220 versts/ 137 miles, while from Krasnovodsk it was 320 versts/200 miles However,
because the Mikhailovskii Gulf was shallow, ships could enter it only if they were lightly loaded. In view of such
distances, the construction of a wide-gauge railway line would take at least two years. For that reason, there were examined
variations in the laying down of narrow gauge railways for steam locomotives, at the same time as the construction of a
wide-gauge line. It was also proposed to to transfer the narrow-gauge line of 250 versts/160 miles of the Novgorod and
Livny* railway lines and, in their place, lay down new rails for wide-gauge lines. In addition, it was suggested in a
proposal by the engineer Okunev to utilize a horse-drawn narrow-gauge line [6].
Note:The first known narrow-gauge railway line was opened for general use in 1871 [7]. It ran between the stations of
Verkhov'e and Livny (now in Orel province) with a length Of 57 versts/37 miles and wheels with a diameter of 32 feet (1067
mm.). By 1898, that narrow-gauge railway was transformed into a line of normal gauge.
There is shown in Fig.5a an 8-kopek postal stationery envelope, sent to Riga on 11 September 1878 by means of a postal
wagon of the Livny narrow-gauge railway line with the circular date-stamp reading: POCHT. OTD.VAGONA
LIVENSK. UZKOKOLEIN. ZH. D. (Fig. b ). It should be noted that this is the earliest known letter with this rare
postmark. There is on the back of the cover (Fig. 5c) a transit PW marking of the first type with the number of the station
where the letter was handed in at the postal wagon, together with the date for the Route Nos. 35-36 Tsaritsyn-Orel (Stop
No. 9 = Verkhov'e) on the same day and also PW Nos. 7-8 Orel-Dinaburg (Stop No. 3 = Orel), dated 12 September and
arriving at Riga on 14 September.
Fin. 6 demonstrates a 3-kop. postal stationery card, sent on 31 January 1880, from the station at Livny to Riga
and cancelled with the marking of the PW Livny narrow-gauge line (Fig.6b). It is interesting to note that the year is
missing in the strike of this marking. Specifically in 1880, a decision was taken to construct the first section of the Trans-
Caspian railway line, using the rails of the Livny narrow-gauge line.
Taking into account the communications by rail with the Trans-Caspian railway line, the present author thought it
important to show a block of eight 7-kopek stamps (Fig. 7s), cancelled with the earliest strike of the second type of
marking for the Livny Narrow-Gauge Line, reading POCHT. VAGON / LIVENSK. UZKOKOL. ZH. D. (Fig. 7b):
shown for clrity in magnified form) with the date Of 7 September 1880.
Attention is directed to the Novgorod Narrow-Gauge Line, (with a length of 157 versts /98 miles [11] between
the stations of Chudovo and Staraya Russa), the rails for which were handed over for the construction of the Trans-
Caspian Railway Line. The Novgorod Line is confirmed by a postcard, (Fig. 7) franked with a 3-kop. stamp with the rare
c.d.s. of dispatch, reading: STARO-RUSSKOE P.O. / NOVGORODSK. UZKOKOLEIN. ZH. D. /1 of 16 July 1901,
addressed to the Pushkino station of the Moscow-Yaroslavl'-Arkhangel'sk railway line.
Estimates were made for all the projects of setting up the communications of the rear, which were presented for
confirmation to the Director of the Expedition, General Skobelev (1843-1882). In his opinion, all these means of
communication were necessary, but only for the gradual security of the rear. Regarding the first priority and for swift
movement forward, it was necessary to return to the old method, i.e. communications by means of transportation by
camels. In his opinion, it was necessary to act decisively and immediately, devoting all present means for the
construction of communications. What he decided was carried out in full, A total of 5000 camels was purchased for the
beginning of the expedition and at the same time, it was finally decided that the Mikhailovskii Gulf be selected for the
original station of the railway line, using the stocks of the Narrow Gauge Decauville* transferred railway line, which it
was proposed to pack up immediately from the Mikhailovskii Gulf.
December 2006

'Fig. ". -A .
--.. _t_____- .y'4.t.t ....2 .a _

X1 6b.
... .. ... ...-_._ ,,:_ ... .. .. .. ..
,-- I I

FFiS. 6.

b 2 0

.Fi, b.

--' ". -, '1
...'*, _-.--,-,, ,- .*. ,.r

/iN rO S-ALE .. ... __ -- -'
I, -.,_. i ..

: December 2006 53
.... C. .t .

L. December 2006

(*Note. The transferred relief railway rails were devised in the name of the French engineer Decauville. During the First World War,
both for the Russian, as well as for the hostile armies relief lines were laid down with wheels of 600 mm. diameter, thus being named
as "of the Decauville type"; [7,8].
In installing the first inner lining of the links, it was evident from the sandy hillocks that on all the stretches
totalling 23 versts/15 miles from the Mikhailovskii Gulf to the Mulla Kara station, it was completely impossible to utilize
the narrow-gauge railways, as they were covered every day with sand; while the sandy hillocks in almost the entire stretch
came to 25 sazhens (1 sazhen' = 7 feet) in height. As a result, the first versts of distance from the Mikhailovskii Gulf
were quickly served by wide-gauge wheels and from the station of Mulla Kara onwards there was laid down a narrow-
gauge railway line of the Decauville type to the Aidin station, a distance of 90 versts/50 miles from the Mikhailovskii
From the first days of the operation of this line, it became apparent that the narrow-gauge railways, which ran for
long stretches developed very many difficulties. For that reason and, at the end of 1880, the narrow gauges began to be
replaced by the wide-gauge type and it became possible, thanks to a decision taken by General Skobelev to concentrate at
the Mikhailovskii Gulf not only stocks of the narrow-gauge railways, but also rails from the warehouses of the Reni and
Ungeni stations in Bessarabia, where there were rails stacked and left over from the express construction of the railway
line during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. Fi. 8 herewith shows a letter sent in 1878 to Bendery from the Military
Bendery-Galati Narrow-Gauge railway line. The envelope has been closed in the form of a blue and white paper seal,
graphically reminiscent of an oval railway marking with the text between two ovals, reading in sentry-with-arrow style :
VOENNAYA BENDERO-GALATSKAYA ZHELEZNAYA DOROGA (the height of the letters being 1.5 mm.) set out
lengthwise in a large axis of the oval together with the date in one line. The seal has dimensions of 37 x 26 mm.,
extending to 36 mm. with the surrounding perforations along the perimeter of the oval and bearing an ornament in the
segments of the seal [9],
All the work in the construction of thr narrow- and wide-gauge railways was entrusted to General of the Infantry
M.A. Annenkov (Fig. 9 herewith), at whose disposition there was given the First Reserve Railway Line Battalion, as well
as assigned engineers of Ways of Communication, among whom was Engineer- Lessar, being subsequently a known
investigator of Central Asia and then became the Russian ambassador to China.
There was produced at the same time as the rails a convoy with mobile content, including the delivery by sea of 4
locomotives, 25 covered coaches and 75 platforms. The conveyance by sea was carried out by the "Kavkaz I Merkurii
Shipping Co."
The entire construction of the railway to Kizil Arvat was carried out in sections, gradually replacing the narrow-
gauge with the wide-gauge, while at the same time coming up with structural materials along the railway and also military
loads with their final delivery at the contingent of the Expedition., besieging at that time the fortress of Geok Tepe, being
carried out with the help of camel transports. Such a combination with a different type of communications secured the rear
and was successful, which of course had to be obtained, since the whole plan of the expedition was based absolutely on
the strict decision to consolidate each step on the occupied territory with a powerful weapon of war: the railway line. At
the critical moment of seizing by storm, the fortress of Geok Tepe (Den'gil' Tepe) on 12 January 1881, the wide-gauge
railway line was extended only to the station ofBala Ishem at a distance of only 57 versts/55 miles from the Mikhailovskii
Later on, the narrow-gauge operated, but nevertheless, the building of the railway line gave complete security to
all the forces of the Expeditionary Contingent, such that their rear was guaranteed and that sooner or later the railway line
would be extended to the besieged fortress.
This strengthened the known extent of morale in such surroundings and secured the success of the Expedition for
the entire subjection of that desert from where three expeditions previously had returned not only without success of any
kind, but even with defeat.
The conquest of Akhal Tepe (Geok Tepe) was the last and most remarkable exploit of Skobelev, for which he was
promoted to General of the Infantry and received the Order of St. George, 2nd, grade. Upon returning from that expedition,
the General spent a few months abroad. On 17 January 1882 he gave a speech before a meeting of officers, who had
gathered together to celebrate the first anniversary of the capture of Geok Tepe, making at that time a great impression:
and indicating in it the oppression suffered by our Slavs of one faith. This speech had a sharp reaction and caused a strong
irritation in Germany and Austria. When Skobelev was subsequently in Paris, the Serbian students there presented to him
for the above-mentioned speech an address of thanks. He replied to them with a few words, but of very passionate
character, in which he expressed his vivid political ideas snd he named the enemies ofthe Pan-Slavic movement. That
speech evoked a real storm in the press, with the result that Skobelev was recalled from abroad, with an earlier
termination of his period of leave. On the night of 26 July 1882 he suddenly died and Tsar Alexander II, in wishing that
military valour should link the Military Forces and the Fleet with a mutual remembrance, ordered that the
corvette"Vytyaz'" be henceforth named "Skobelev" [10].

December 2006

In spite of the obvious influence of the railway system on the Expedition, there were also opinions expressed,
which were completely opposite, e.g. by General Terent'ev in his book "The History of the Conquest of Central Asia"
(Vol. 3, p. 223), describing as follows the intent of the railway system: "In reviewing all the well-endowed projects to
ensure the success of the Expedition, we must say that the railway line to Mulla Kary was begur too late and not only did
: not bring relief, but even caused harm. A mass of ships was formed to transport on the Caspian Sea the equipment for the
Railway, while there were delays in supplying bread and fodder. It then drew off a large number of camels, of which the
best were obtained from Mangyshshlak and the Orenburg area. They asked for up to 1000 horses, and all those at a time
when the Contingent needed means of transportation.
Thanks to that and for the forces besieging Den'gil' Tepe (Geok Tepe), there did not arrive at all the well-known
and requested "Maritime Provisions". People were fed with some biscuits and lean mutton, obtained by contractors from
far away. Fodder was also not delivered to the horses and the hopes for foraging in the local areas turned out to be illusory
until the fortress was taken and our cavalry was weakened considerably. The horses feasted on each other's tails....The
railway line fed its 1000 horses with fodder, which would have been very useful for the cavalry. In addition, the Railway
Battalion was taken off construction work and for the escort of the works, while 4 companies went off from the
Contingent, where every bayonet had to be accounted for".
The variance of such an opinion did not require special confirmation, as its author had completely forgotten the
story of the three pervious expeditions, which came to a sad end, mainly for the reason that the communications in the rear
of the Expedition Contingents were not secured by the Railway Line. In the then current circumstances the railway line by
itself could feed only the area of the sandy desert and without that, all the previous expeditions were reduced to nothing.
All these local conditions and circumstances were taken into consideration by General Skobelev. Nevertheless and in
setting up the Plan of the Expedition, there was no agreement about the slow advance to Kizil Arvat and for the necessity
of waiting for the end of the construction of the railway line, he clearly realized that, without such a line, he could not go
forward in such a desert as the Trans-Caspian one.
As a result, this method of construction for railway lines with a wide gauge in the theatre of military activities,
even on a small scale and with complete relief demonstrated the enormous importance of railways in all the flows of
military operations. In addition, the railway line rendered priceless services for the further strengthening for Russia of the
newly-conquered Trans-Caspian region, when its forces gradually advanced forward from 1881 onwards to the town of
Merv itself, during the peaceful conquest of all this area. There is demonstrated here the necessity of setting out the
history of the further development of small military lines within the complete network of the Central Asian Railway
System. The rapid development of the line went on in the following order:-
(1) After the fall on 12 January 1881 of Geok Tepe, the railway line was extended to Kizil Arvat, i.e. at 217 versts/136
miles from the station at the Mikhailovskii Gulf.
(2) With the movement of the Russian forces to Merv in 1883, the necessity of extending the line further from Kizil Arvat
to Merv was regarded as urgent and, for that reason, work was begun again in 1885 to construct the railway. All the work
was entrusted to the energetic General Annenkov. By 1885, the section had been completed of 205 versts/124 miles from
Kizil Arvat to Ashkhabad and then in 1886 a further 322 versts/201 miles from Ashkhabad (Fig. 10) to Merv. At the same
time,there was assigned work for the construction of a 25-verst/16-mile stretch from the Mikhailovskii Gulf to Uzun Ada,
to where a seaport was transferred, as the Mikhailovskii Gulf was almost completely too shallow.

-- ---". .p j L 1 il .lu .. I' |. 'iu...i

Ashkhabad Station Fi. 10. Mer Station Fi. 11.
December 2006 55

3. With the extension of the line to Merv (Fig. 11 on the previous page), the imminent task was to continue the railway
line either to Chardzhui or to Herat. The Merv-Chardzui stretch of 223 versts/19 miles featured a series of uninterrupted
sandy hillocks and going along them appeared then to be completely impossible. There were opinions that the line should
go from Merv south to Herat for any future Russian movement to the Indian Ocran and on to India, whereas extending the
line to Chardzhui and further onwards to the Bukharan Oasis presented no basis whatsoever, either for commercial or for
strategic reasons, all the more so since the passage of the railway along the sandy hillocks for the length of 200 versts/125
miles would be technically impossible, as the line would be covered daily by sand. There appeared in the periodical press
a whole series of articles under the heading of "The Academic Line", in which there was set out the complete infeasibility
of the project for a railway line along the sandy hillocks. A special article was written byColonel Engineer Voronets titled
"An Appeal for the strategic necessity (the line to Heart) and its economic inadviseability (the line to Chardzhui)".
In spite of all these polemics, it was decided by General Annenkov to extend the line to Chardzhui and, at the
end of 1886, the line was continued to the banks of the abundant and turbid Amu Dar'ya river.

Figs. 11ab) may serve bemb

back (Fig. 1b), the letter is franked with 3 x 7-kopek stamps postmarked with the c.d.s. :"MERV ZAKASP. OB. /

POCHTOGO. TELEGR. KONT./1" and along the edge at the bottom there is a notation in black ink in Swedish, which
many Finns know and reading "Banas oppnande till Chardjui", which translates as "Opening of the railway line to
4. From 1886 to 1888, work was carried out to construct the final section to Samarkand, amounting to 345 versts/215
miles. At the same time, a wooden bridge on piles was built across the Amu Dar'ya river with a length of 3 versts/1.9
In that way, the first stretch of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line Uzun Ada-Kizil Arvat went into
operation in December 1881. The section qfKizil Arvat-Amu Dar'ya (from 15 June 1900 renamed as the Chardzhui
Station) became active in December 1886 and the section Amu Dar'ya-Samarkand in December 1888. Some what later,
the original stretch of 217 versts/135 miles of the Military Railway was developed into '- the large Trans-Caspian
Military Railway Line with a total length of 1342 versts/838 miles.
A photograph is shown of the laying of the rails (Fig. 12) at 969 km./605 miles of the Trans -Caspain Military
Railway Line in 1885 [1].
Such a rapidity of construction and development of a small line into a huge railway line should be entirely
bestowed on the energy and persistence of Lieutenant-General of the General Staff Mikhail A. Annenkov. As a reward for
his services, a statue was erected to him. However, with such a length of 1442 versts/838 miles, the development of the
Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line was not stopped and in 1890 to 1894, tasks were carried out for the construction of a
railway from Samarkand to Tashkent with a length of 322 versts/200 miles, with a branch line of 306 versts/191 miles to

December 2006
_____ ____ _____ ____ i~ j 1 2~?


c C*- ---- -- --------- 1-~-' i.Ia

December 2006

__ _I_

Andizhan. Subsequwntly in 1894 to 1896 and instead of the Uzun AdaJr ulla-Kary stretch, the Krasnovodsk section was
built from the Dzhebel station to Krasnovodsk with a length of 126 versts/78 miles since the Uzun Ada Bay became
markedly shallow, such that it came about that the port was transferred to Krasnovodsk. The stretch from Uzun Ada to
Dzhebel with a length of 55 versts/34 miles was dismantled.
A line was subsequently built from Merv to Kushki with a length of 294 versts/183 miles All these newly
constructed lines comprised the entire network of the Central Asian railway lines.
It is interesting to note how the fate of Krasnovodsk was decided [13]. In setting up the Trans-Caspian Military
Railway, Uzun Ada was chosen as the starting point (Figs, 13. 14, 15), which was judged to play an importatant role
temporarily as a port town,.
The importance of Krasnovodsk decreased and the town was close to a complete collapse. However, the
circumstances then changed drastically. As a result of the shallowness of the port of Uzun Ada, the steamship agents
announced the impossibility of proceeding thereto and there was an agreement reached with them to shelve the old port
and transfer the starting point of the railway line to Krasnovodsk. Such a transfer quickly boosted the town and, were it
not for the shortage of fresh water, it would have been hoped in the passage of time, that Krasnovodsk as a port (Fig.16)
would have been transformed into one of the foremost ports of the Russian Empire. However, with the shortage of fresh
water, it makes one wonder to speak about the possibility of the development of the port and even more urgently about the
collapse of the town. All the water, which was here in abundance, came from the Caspian Sea and from the nearest wells
in the steppes, but they differed from each other by the bitter and salty taste and they were so repugnant that they were not
even tolerated by the camels. With regard to the camels (Figs. 18, 19), which had already been introduced to operate along
the stretch of the railway line, they constituted a specific obstacle. That situation is also described by travellers [13].
A train, leaving about half a verst/133 of a mile from the station at Dushak would be going at full speed with
rumbling wheels and would suddenly give out frightening squeaks, such that all of us as one would wonder at the strong
jolts and the passengers would call out: "What is going on?", "What happened?", popping out of the windows of the
carriages. The train would decrease its speed and the soothing reply would come out as: "Nothing, don't worry, it's the
camels"; not as a joke to alarm the public. In the same matter and in the turning of the line at 20 sazhens (140 feet) from
the train, two enormous camels would be going along slowly across the rails in a somewhat stately manner. Neither the
squeaking nor the the noise of the wheels or the steam would permit the driver to pass specifically, so as to scare these
ships of the desert. Nothing visible could disturb their stately procession and, in stolidly looking at the train, they went on
slowly moving forward. From second to second, we waited for the train to deal with them, but fortunately that did not
happen. It could be shown that the collision of the trains with the camels was far from being a rarity. The truth is that, in
the majority of cases, camels were killed in the collisions and it also happened that the trains went off the rails. A meeting
of a military train with camels could result in a complete wreck, It is strange, but the camels, on seeing a train, rarely got
out the way; they either stayed put or kept going along the railway line. The driver did not have the possibility of driving
them off and so the camels were threatened with imminent death under the wheels of the train. Such a meeting with two or
three camels did not constitute a great danger for the train, but with the large numbers of such incidents they had to be
taken into account seriously.
After a successive destruction of a train, the local authorities would direct their necessary attention to the free
pasturing of the animals, which was carried out there and, at the very most, the necessity was recognized of gathering the
camels and, in general, the other animals found along the line. The animals rounded up were sorted by origin, but only on
payment of a specific fine; otherwise the animals were sold by auction and the collected money used for the benefit or the
railway line.
With the transfer of the port from Uzun Ada to Krasnovodsk, 2000 labourers arrived there from Russia to work on
the line. Upon the termination of the tasks on the railway line, all of them cast about to ask for work on the piers, but they
could not serve as wharf workers. Those unfortunate people begged for work for a crust of bread, but not even one agency
would alter its policy towards their eastern carriers and porters. Without any hope of work, the starving men began to rob
the new arrivals and there were even some killings. After that, the administration turned its necessary attention to them
and began to repatriate them back to their homeland.
The description is interesting of the Krasnovodsk station and of its moveable components [13]. Krasnovodsk
became a charming port town, small and pretty and picturesquely situated in a valley with high perpendicular dimensions
framing that section of the Caspia river (F. 19). One could see scattered small dwellings here and there with flat roofs
and all of one storey; the main reason for the construction of such buildings was because of earthquakes which, while not
very rarely, disturbed the peace of the inhabitants of Krasnovodsk.. The more or less solid buildings would be regarded as
those of the Krasnovodsk railway station of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway (Figs. 20, 21). Their architecture was
doubtless original and the strict Moorish style was completely supportive. The station itself was built as a terrace, leading
down by the stairs to the railway platform. The view opened out from the terrace to Krasnovodsk Bay with its piers where
December 2006 57

Y3manAKa pencoe na 969-M M M 3aKacnHm CKcO >ee3HOs AoporH. 1885 r. ,

e i e so r
Fig 115.

Fig 16. Fig. 17.

-lapAy, ,yxap -A. .a Kapa-a% sep6 -- o
Br. craparo rop. KKpacHBoAcwC es, FInoRft croponh.

a -

SFig,. 18. .Fig. 19.
December 2006

____~____ _~

Fi. 20.

Fig. 22.

Fi. 23c. Fi. 23 d.

Fig. 23 e.

Fig. 21.

Fir. 23a.

.- l...- -

Fig. 23b.


December 2006


^ j / *
-.-- 2.0 tt-:

Apc^t^--i^^ 9 P -..- -- 9nLh'

the steamers were tied up, the embankment of the railway line, which ran along the seashore and was hidden beyond the
mountains. The construction of such a building under local conditions required much work and expense. Its curves were
built in such a way that the building could completely withstand an earthquake. However, one could hardly be sure that a
strong subterranean shock would not completely destroy this architectural building.
The coaches of the Krasnovodsk station were daubed with only one colour of paint. One did not see there the dark
blue, yellow and green carriages, which one noticed on the railway lines of the Russian Empire. The preferred colour of
the coaches there was white or red. The white carriages (see the last coach in white in Fi. 15 ) were in the external view
exactly the same as those noted in European Russia under the designation of "choleric", being intended for the
conveyance of passengers, while the red ones did the same for freight. Cisterns were also there for transporting oil and
even large barrels with water on telegas (Fig. 2). There was on the Trans-Caspian Railway Line a special name for the
trains, composed of the carriages and barrels noted above. Such trains were called "water trains".
They went out on specific days and times from particular stations, where there were fresh wells and springs and
they transported water, uncoupling one or more barrels at the stations,to give out tthe required amount of fresh water at
sentry boxes located among the sands and situated at great distances from the stations. Within the composition of the
water trains, there was generally entered an ordinary freight carriage with the designation of a "coach stop", providing the
railway line workers with all kinds of provisions, delivered against payment.
The painting of the passengercoachesin white was regarded as necessary because of the terribly high temperatures
which reign in the Trans-Caspian region. The temperature there went up to 52' R6aumur (65' C [author] or 149' F),
makmg the carriage red hot, such that staying inside was literally unbearable. The coaches were provided inside with
strips of felt, as for example in a 2nd. class carriage (no 1t. class coaches existed there) and, after sundown, no relief of the
temperature was felt; a coach receiving external heat during the day would transmit its temperature during the evening
upom the cooling of the walls and through the felt within the coach. For the carriages of the Governor-General and other
high personages, usage was made of a special method of cooling: the coach was covered at the top with thick felt and, at
a specific interval of time, it would be drenched with water. Such a watering definitely decreased the internal temperature
of the coach and, in that way, it fell to 47' R6aumur (46' C [author] or 115' F).
With the construction of the railway to Tashkent, the commercial importance of this entire network grew
considerably and, instead of the railway running a deficit, the system showed a clear positive income. The admitted
advantage of a main railway line became more and more insufficient for commercial purposes and, in the 1897-1899
period with the transfer of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line from the Ministry of War to the Ministry of Means
of Communication, the following questions were also examined at the same time: the construction of a second line on the
Tashken-Krasnovodsk section, should Tashkent be linked with the European Railway Network via Orenburg. or extend
the line from Chardzhui via Khiva to Kungrad, Kolmykovo to Aleksandrov-Gai (a station on the Ryazan'- Urals Railway
Line. In order to avoid haulage on the Caspian Sea, it was decided that, instead of a second line, a railway should be
constructed from Orenburg to Tashkent via Aktyubinsk to Kazalinsk.Reconnoitering investigations for that line were
carried out in 1900. The chosen route was approved by His Majesty and, in 1901, the movement took place for building
that line.
The entire network of the Central Asian Railway Lines amounted to a total distance of 4000 versts/2500 miles,
starting from 217 versts/136 miles of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line and playing the main role in the peaceful
development of the entire fundamental Turkestan area. That, in short, was the unusual story of the Trans-Caspian Military
Railway Line.
The correspondence of the Agent of the Kolomna Factory assigned to Uzun Ada and providing the carriages for
the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line in the 1887-1888 period
Regarding the philatelic assembly of this section, it is supported by covers (Figs.23 to 29) in the 1887-1888 period
and they are addressed to the Agent Aleksandr Semenovich Shurupov of the Kolomna Factoey at the Uzun Ada station..
The Kolomna Factory was designated as assigned with its representative at Uzun Ada in the specified period, preparing
and setting up the coaches of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line. All those covers were sent from Kolomna and
posted on TPO/RPO Route Nos. 13-14 at the Golutvin station (a railway line junction, located 3km./1.9 miles from the
centre of Kolomna and at 120 km./70.5 miles from Moscow) on the Moscow-Ryazan' Railway Line. Judging from the
postmarks, all those covers were transmitted subsequently by the following mail coaches: PW No. 13---PW No. 51---PW
No. 65---PW No. 96 and they may be distinguished by the contents and the route numbers of the PW postmarks on the
backs of the covers.
These postmarks are described in chronological order in Table 1 setting out the markings of the postal wagons on
the cover sent on 1 Sept. 1888 (Figs. 23a, b), the name of the tailway line, the areas where the postal wagons ran, and the
periof of utilization of the postmarks [15]. The "pointing finger" sign indicates that the present author hss found the
earliest or latest dates for the application of the markings (the corresponding year is underlined). In the column at the right

December 2006

of Table 1, the_distance in km. is designated by the capital letter_"S" which the cover travelled in the relevant postal
wagon. To fill out
Table 1. Ta6nHra 1
ffiTeMuedlh 0, Ilepaoz
Tremne 0_';; M aTa HepMapmpyr IB Ha3nanae ma. S, CM
SIIB N 13 (6) pHc.23B 26,5 01.09 1888 Moscow-Kursk 780
0 lB J 51 (5) pc.23r 26 02.09 1882-1888 < H RB XN 65 (2) pHc.23A 26 03.09 18884 BJIa aBKaBSacica 690
IrB XN 96 (10)- pac.23e
SiHoieToBmi 26,5 06.09 1887-1896 < 3aKaBia3cKas 550
SKOHTOPA/I4 26 07.09 1887-1888 -3aiaBKa3CKa -
SHOqTOBO-TEJIErP. 26,5 10.09 1887-1888 -3B)KI

To fill out the picture in Table 1, there are included without details the postmarks, which do not refer to the
railway types: the transit markings of Baku and of the arrival at Uzun Ada. That envelope formed part of the contents of
the exhibit of the present author, shown at international exhibits. Including at Sydney in 2005, where it was awarded a
Large Gold medal.
Note: Taking everything into account and upon arrival, the word "Depo" was written in violet ink (Fig. 23a) in the upper right comer
of the address side, while at the edge at left, there is a blot in the same violet ink.
Below in Tables 2 to 6, there are described in short a further five covers, addressed to Uzun Ada. The earliest
cover was sent on 39 November 1887 (Figs. 24a, b), franked with a 7-kopek stamp and it is described in Table 2

Table 2.

Ta6niua 2

lTeMneji, mapmpyr 1IB 0aTa 0, MM Hepnoa
__________ unpmeHHHm
0 nB M 13 (3), MocKBa-Boponexc 30.11.1887 26 1885-18884
SniB JN 51 (?),BopoHexc-PocToB H/, 1.12 26 61882-1888
SHRB XN 65 (1), POcTOB H/n-BjaaHKiBKa3 2.12 25 18877
o IIB N 96 (3), BaTyM-Baicy 5.12 25 18874
0 BAKY/ HOTOBAI KOHTOPA / 4 6.12 26 1887-1888
KH3 -APBATh 3AKAC.J 9.12 26,5 1887-1888
HOqT.-TEJIErP. KOHTJ 1 2 17-18
S33T-TI-A 3AKACO-.O TJ./ 12.12 26,5 1887-1888

That cover was addressed as "By the Trans-Caspain Military Railway Line to Kizil Arvat", from where it was
readdressed (in violet ink) to Poste Restante/General Delivery at Uzun Ada.
Table 3. Ta6nri a 3
mUTeMneji6, Mapmpyr HB IaTa 0, MM lepHoA
0 niB XM 13 (2), MocKBa-BopoHex 22.12.1887 26 1885-18884
SIB XJ 51 (?)Boponexc-PocTOB H/A 23.12 26 41882-1888
SHIB NM 96 (3), BaTyM-BaKy 27.12 25 18876
O BAKY/ IOqTOBASI KOHTOPA / 2 28.12 26 1887-1888
SnOqTOBO-TEJIErP. KOHT./1 Y1 1.01.1888 26,5 1887-1888

A cover sent on 22 December 1887 (Figs. 25a, b) and franked with a 7-kopek is described in Table 3.
A heavy letter sent on 21 January 1888 from the Office of the Kolomna Factory (Fig. 26a) and franked with 4 x
14 kopek stamps (Fig. 26b) is described in Table 4.
A cover sent on 26 Feb. 1888 (Fig. 27a) and franked on the back with a 7-kopek stamp (Fig. 27 b) is described in
Table 5,
A cover sent on 14 Mar. 1888 (Fig. 28a) and franked with a 7-kopek stamp (Fig. 28b) is described in Table 6
December 2006

Ta6jmua 4
Table 4.
mTeMnem., MapmpyT IIB AaTa 0, MM lepo
0 IIB M 13 (2), MocKBa-BopoHexc 21.01 26 1885-1888_
0 FlB MN 51 (?),BopoHex-PocToB H/A 22.01 26,5 1882-1888
SIIB N2 65 (4), POCTOB H/f-BJaaHKaBKa3 23.1 25,5 18884
FIB NM 96 (?),BayM-Bay 26.1 25 1887-1896
O 11 t '*o e"onta 26.1 25 1887-1896
SHOJieTOBMH _________ ____________
BAKY/ IOrTOBAAI KOHTOPA / 4 27.01 26 1887-1888
Y3YH-AAA 3AKACI.OB./ 31.01 26,5 1887-1888

Table 5. Ta6mnwa 5
mTeMneim, mapmpyT nIB maTa 0, m lepo
0 IB .N 13 (2), MocKBa-BopOHex 26.02 26 1885-18884
[IB N2 51 (?),BopoHexc-PocToB H/A 27.02 26,5 41882-1888
IIB XJ 65 (4), POCTOB H/,-BIaaHKCaBKa3 28.02 25,5 18884
O BAKY/ IIOTOBAAI KOHTOPA /2 9.02 26 1887-1888
SY3YH-AA3AKACOB./ 14.02 26,5 1887-1888

Table 6. Ta6.rma 6
IIITeMneji, Mapmpyr IIB ,aTa 0, MM IepnoA
0 IfB N 13 (1), MocKBa-BopoHexK 14.3 26 1887-18884
SIB 9M 51 (4), BopoHeXa-PocTOB H/A 15.3 26 18884
SIIB Ns 65 (3), PocroB H/f/-BjiaAmHKKca3 16.3 26 18874
0 BAKY/ IIOTOBA5I KOHTOPA / 4 203 26 1887-1888
SIIOqTOBO-TEJIErP. KOHT./ 1 22.3 26,5 1887-1888

December 2006

/; r,,'?
?_-^''<^'cd &C~Pbi<-rc^.<'*-"^A"f
^^'^/^^ *----7^-

Fig. 24a.

Fi!. 24b.


.3~i' ~~j---zA

Fig. 25a.

Fig. 25b,

Fig. 26a. Fig. 26b.

Fig. 27b.

Fig. 28b
December 2006

' "-f .t.--c-- ----

^ Jf,-:-~- T_
,,.. ,, ,.. ,/-/ ... C
,... .Z ,,,

~-L'Z 4L94ir r.04S

FiP. 28a.

............ another rprett.y a c.ver a. .- -st lh o f "-he K Machn.e-

n F y (- H2 Marc ,1 8 via P No o 4 N -P 9f ro
B aku toUizun tAda (8Mrch)tl. hiuildnrl bIit thilat oi.t..h hbcoftaiHht ce F Fi2b 29r i t earliest

know ..tma ...d, -- -,"'<, :*-6 Mc 8 .u
S-" '" Fi. 291 b.. 1,

rilSv-r' I 'i EiiJ C;^ --

.- __ --. --," .'-_ *,.,.,
Yet another pretty cover franked with a 7-kopek stamp bears a typeset heading of "The Kolomna Machine-
Building Factory" (Fig. 29a) was sent on 21 March 1888 via PW No. 14-PW No. 41--PW No. 65-PW No. 96 from
Baku to Uzun Ada (28 March). It should be noted that, on the back of that cover (Fig. 29b) there is found the earliest
known postmark "POCHTOVYI VAGON No, 96 (3)",dated 26 March 1888. The following letter (Fig. 29c) under the
heading of the factory is in this envelope:-
"To Mr. Aleksandr Semenovich Shurupov at Uzun Ada: The Director of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line,
regarding No. ...of 4 February has declared that, at the Kizil Arvat Railway Warehouse, there have been received the
following quantities, surplus to those ordered:-
Springs for the spiral buffer carriages 14 pieces
Barrels for the buffer carriages 14 pieces
Plates for the buffer carriages 16 pieces
According to Order No.....31 July 1887, it is necessary to install:-
Buffer plates with xcrews and cotter pins 20 pieces
Buffer barrels 50 pieces
Buffer spiral springs 100 pieces
Any quantity whatever to be in accordance with a bill of lading and our accounts to be prepared and sent exactly. We
respectfully ask for rectification at the warehouse at Uzun Ada, so that a misunderstanding does not take place there and
please inform us of the results of your request, Manager of the Office (signature)".
[, ',: j .

.1... --.. .. .. ..

iFie. 30a.
-.. .. F 30b.


ha. 20c.

December 2006

In the Immediate vicinity of the Golutvin station, from which the letter was sent described above, on the left bank
of the Oka river and almost at the same confluence with the Moscow river, there was constructed the Kolomna Machine-
Building Factory (Fig. 30a). The founder of the Factory was the Military Engineer A.E. Struve (1835-1898), a
Russianised German, an emigrant from an impoverished Court family, who had experience and knowledge in railway line
affairs and bridge construction In 1865, he invited in the capacity of a partner his elder brother G.E. Struve, who was also
a Military Engineer. In 1866, the Kolomna Factory began to be called the "Factory of the Struve Engineering Brothers" A
partner of the Factory was a citizen of Bavaria, the Moscow merchant of the !st. Guild, A.T. Lessing. His capital and links
with foreign firms, especially with Germans, were very much to the purpose.
The Factory at Kolomna was the first in Russia to begin constructing bridges for railway lines and urban
transport. Next came the emergence of freight trains and platforms. By the end of the 1860s, the Factory was the 3rd
enterprise in importance in Russia for the manufacture of carriage construction. In 1869, the Kolomna Factory presented
the first freight train and, already four years later in March 1873 had built 100 locomotives. In the 1870s, the factory
(Figs, 30a, b) issued as a precedent the third portion the third portion of Russian locomotives [14].

0 EO.UCAfd. At .- .l 0 A J

h r .T~ o os 0 6hT 0 F A
1i rpe0WU Y-C Fdi t a ? tooNo 4 &ndOEHcAro MAmHHO -CTPOTEJDbHnArO 3ABOmA.

i IOlIJE CIII 31OA1. .-
A' s.---f .c / cohe r Railway Lin B e

The D director of the Office (signature".

detail) was filled out on a form (Fi ) as follows:

withAs the Kolon a Fatory supplied coaches for the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line, e docents could serve as
-Senterest / ing illustrations with a colorful ransmitilway content, inclun Ada /ded in one of the enevopes addressed to theagreement of 5 Sept. 1887 / Pf-same Mr.
Shurupov. The text of the letter written on the notepaperNo. of the Factory Gauge:reads as follows (F2 items.

=Ditto witMr. Shurupov, Agent of the No. of the Kolomna Machine-Building Factory atGauge : 2 itemsAda:
undwith the complete internaltch to Uzurimming and lanterns / in washing each coach) for the Railway Lconsistine and materials jug for thepainfusting the oaches"r,
Keys for the doors of the coaches: 4 items. The Director of the Office (signature)"".
One of verythe Bills of Lading referred postal and telo above concerning the completion n of the coaches (right up towhich the Trsmallest
s the Kolon a at o s lie oahes fo the Trans-Caspian o 1 yar Railway Line ee then doc cents co se
-Sent erectingg illustrations with a colorful ransmiway content, included in one of the agreemenevlopes addressed to the sekf-same Mr.
Shucpov. The textaches of the 2nd,/ Class on three axels without / brakes for the No.notepaper of the Factory Gauge:reads as follows 2 items.g:-
Di"To witMr. Shurupov, Agent of the No. of the Kolomna Machine-Building Factory at Uzun Ada:items
undwith the complete internaltch to Urimming and lanterns / in washipassenger each coachilway Lconsine and materials jug for thepainfusting the oaches"r,
= Keys for the doors of the coaches: 4 items. The Director of the Office (signature)"".
One of verythe Bills of Lading referred postal and telo above concerning the cfrompl the Uzun Ada station of the coaches (right up towhich the Trsmallest

with the following text:-"To the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Linebegan over a period of 15 years is very rare and interesting. For that reason the present

December 2006


5 -^Y
F i,

u lkPs~A::~

OqauuH'..... .
IU .O -.OB ....,

Tw.,a.rpaBM, ... .,i.o" .---

Fig. 33.

Fig 34. 'Fig. 35.
author also shows here the telegraphic receipts (Figs. 30 to 35) about the transmission in the 1887-1888 period of official
and personal telegrams mentioned by the Agent of the Kolomna Factory from the telegraph stations at Uzun Ada and
Kizil Arvat. Those receipts were intended for the telegraph offices of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line with the
abbreviation of the office given as "Telegraf Z.V.Zh.D" printed on the uppermost line.
On the first receipt (Fig. 33), with the word "CTraiii" in the second line, a single-line handstamp was applied in
blue and measuring 48 x 6 mm., reading "ST. UZUN ADA" (Fig. 33a). That receipt was handed to the sender for
telegram No. 73. going to Kolomna on 3 December 1887 with a text of eleven words, for which the sum of Ir, 25k, was
received by the telegraphist.
On the second receipt (Fig. 34), there is in the second line a handstamp in violet with a rectangular frame
measuring 40 x 8 mm. and reading "UZUN-ADA" (Fig. 34a). It was given to the sender for telegram No. 443 to
Kolomna, being issued on 27 January 1888 for a text of 19 words and for which the telegraphist received 2r. 5k.
The third receipt (ig. 35) was handed over to the sender for telegram No. 11, issued at the atation of Kizil Arvat
and written in black ink, being sent to Uzun Ada on 6 April 1888, with as total of 8 words.
Letters sent via the postal wagons of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line from East to West

XaApKH HjaxHi6axmr b [ejnyjb ..- .. -. ..,
-. .- .,' ..- ,' \
'-- ":'p-. /, .* ..^'

Hajee Illahibaksh A hmed e: d "

-Y < l c.t vr,- n/ i-,yT,, -- *r '/t t .: .. "",-1 r.'. ".
^ ,. ] W, t- ..
r~~7n~ iha 4Lt Jul, '

Fia. 36a.

Fig. 36b.

A cover (in the N.F. Mandrovskii collection, Russia) with an already printed address (Fig. 36a) is franked on the
back with a 10-kopek stamp, being cancelled with the c.d.s. "POCHT. VAGON / SAMARKAND-CHARDZHUI / 1" on
30 Sept. 1890 which, by the way, is the earliest date of application of that c.d.s. [15]. That cover was sent from Bukhara.
December 2006

Fie. 33a.


Fig.34a ---.

65 ~ iI
L //A6

via Baku, Batum, Constantinople, Suez and thenceforth by steamer to Peshawar (21 November) Eastern India, which is
confirmed by the backstamp (Fig. 36b).

adrse s^^t! cn .l on2 Feb 1 Fie. 37a. V -

A ,,A-> w f 71-- F.) 35 M3.. r ; 3 5 -
Sa i TL .

S. 3. .~~_ ie. 37b. .

Yet another cover (in the N.F. Mandrovskii collection, Russia) with a 10-koprk stamp in blue (Fig. 37a) and
addressed to TFrance was cancelled on 22 Feb. 1893 O.S. with the c.d.s. "{POCHT. VAGON / CHARDZHUI-UZUN
ADA / 1" was sent to Baku (24 Feb.) and received in Paris on 35 March 1893 N.S. by the French TPO/RPO "Avricourt a
A letter sent in July 1895 tp Staraya Bukhara voa the initial stretch of the Trans-Caspian Military Tailway Line.
i.e. in the same year that it was dismantled ..

.," .'-! "2 7 2 .

? /:- .... w- .: : ,,",'.^ /

Fig. 38a. Fie. 38b. Fig. 38c.
There is yet another interesting cover (Fig. 38a) in the collection of the present author,
1A sent on 7 July 1895 to Staraya Bukhara via the initial stretch of the Trans-Caspian
Military Railway Line in the same year that it was dismantled, being the Uzun-Ada-
Dzhebel section of 55 versts/ 34.2 miles, after the transfer of the port from Uzun-Ada to
Krasnovodsk. That cover was franked on the back with a 7-kopek stamp (Fig. 38b) and
S18-95 rn addressed to Staraya Bukhara, the street for which did not thenhave a name [13] and
'P proceeded in the Eastern direction via two postal wagons of the Trans-Caspian Military
Vil Railway Line along routes without numbers, namely "UZUN-ADA---CHARDZHUI"
and "CHARDZHUI-SAMARKAND". The stamp was cancelled with the c.d.s. of 7 July
1895 (Fig 38c), reading "POCHT/ VAGON / CHARDZHUI---UZUN ADA / 2"; its
controlling but incomplete strike was applied at right on the address side of the cover. It
Fig. 38d. should be noted that this is the latest known strike of that postmark [15]. There is also a
c.d.s. on the back of the cover with the postal wagon marking dated 8 July 1895, reading "POCHT. VAGON /
CHARDZHUI-SAMARKAND/ 1" (Fig. 38d) and of the arrival: "Bukhara / Pocht. Tel. Kont. / 2" of the same day. In
addition, this cover is especially interesting for the present author as it has a mystic date: exactly 100 years had gone by
since the dispatch of this letter, namely on 7 July 2005 when the present author was writing this article and when his son
Kirill was exactly three years old.
Timetables of the trains of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line
The present author has in his collection Summer and Winter Timetables of the trains of the regular schedules of
the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line in 1887. The colourful soft cover of this small brochure [16] is shown in Fig
39a) On the basis of that timetable, approved on 15 April 1887 and together with the Director of the Trans-Caspian
province Lieutenant-General Komarov, the present author has been able to compile a Comparative Table No. 7,- in which
there are set out data on the movements along the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line of postal, freight, passenger and
December 2006 67

Fig. 39a.

-3711 "h:m


AafiICAJ IVR ION YeaindAOpurb.


fl noc-1-r;m-:Id- o!.- r~4a
oi :B IK BrH

C~ O-z Mva 2 ~i.'~

B'p~~~hU~ 1~cBb

1'..I.1, '7


Ta6nmua 7

THn noe3zIa IIoqToBo-ToBapo-naccaxHpcKHiW BoHHCKHir
3 X24 2 21 N 22
N nioe3a, Y3yH-AAa AMy-JPapb Ysyn-Aga AMy-Aapa -
Mapmrpyr Ay-ap YayH-AAa AMy-Aap bsI Y3yH-Aa

no BTopHIKaM H H1o BocKpeceHbiM
cy66oTaM H qerepraM
PacnrcaHHe IIO SiM e)KceHeAeJMbHO noe3A OTnpaBwaeTCa c
HeCeJIH lno'TTOi H RnaccaxHpaMH
B ocTraJbHbIe HH-Ie HeaeJIm c rpy3so
H naccaxHpaM
Bcero noe3a Ha xoffy 58 q. 30 MHH. 53 s. 53 MHH. 79 q. 10 MHH. 71 a. 55 MHH.
BpeM ocTHOBO11 q. 04 MHH. 12 q. 02 MHH. 29 q. 59 MHH. 21 ,. 48 MHH.
BpeM B npo6ere 42 q. 26 iac. 41 q. 51 Mkn. 49 q. 11 MHH. 50 q. 07 MHH.
CpeHRAA CKOpocrT c 18,6 BepcT/s. 18,5 BepcT/s. 12,6 BepcT/a. 12,5 BepcT/A.
Cpeu acKopocT 6e3 23,5 BepcT/q. 23,8 BepcT/q. 20,3 BepCT/s. 19,9 BepcT/q.

military trains. It is curious to note that the average speed of movement of the postal, freight and passenger trains was
noticeably higher than for the military trains.
The following interesting information is given in this timetable about the work of the postal & telegraphic offices
of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line.
As at 1887, postal and telegraphic offices and sub-offices were opened at the stations of Uzun Ada, Kizil Arvat,
Ashkhabad, Dushak, Tedzhent, Merv and Amu-Dar'ya. A postal route went to Serakhs from the station at Tedzhent.
There was made available at all stations of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line the acceptance of private dispatches
of internal mail, as well as to Bukhara, but only in the Russian language;
The Head Office of the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line was located at Kizil Arvat. Because of its
geographic position, the Khanate of Bukhara was regarded as a state within a state; it was not fully independent and it

December 2006

came under the protection of the Russian Empire.. In that particular situation, Russia did not allow it to have diplomatic
relations with any other state at all, apart from itself. If the Bukharan Government had any dealings with foreign states,
then such actions had to be conducted exclusively through Russia. The Bukharan Administration was of a despotic
character. At the head of the State stood the Emir of Bukhara, the ruler with unlimited powers, in whose hands were held
the life ans death of his subjects. The Emirs of Bukhara were guided by and ruled their subjects by the precepts called
"Dzhonab-i-Aliya, i.e. "Majestically". However, that title was not recognized immediately by the Russian Empire until
they ruled as "Persoanges of High Rank" and finally as a "SereneHighness;,'In the capacity as a Sovereign and Ruler, the
High-Born Emir of Bukhara Seid-Abdul-Akhat-Khan (Fig. 39b) was presented with two changes of titles: the "Personage
of High Rank" was changed to "His Highness" upon the coronation of of the Russian Emperor Aleksandr ffl and then to
"Serene Highness" on the occasion of the coronation of the then "Serene Reigning Lord" (Emperor Nikolai II in 1894; -
Author's note)
There is shown in Fig. 40 a copy of a timetable (N.F. Mandrovskii collection, Russia), headed: EKSTRENNAGO
passage of His Highness the Emir of Bukhara"), from Uzun Ada to Staryi Chardzhui. Knowing now the story of the titles
of the Emir, it becomes possible to claim that this timetable for His Highness was compiled up to 1894, but after
December 1886, when traffic was opened on thr Trans-Caspian Railway Line up to the Amu-Dar'ya station. An
inscription is set out in black ink in the upper field of the timetable, reading: "Depot Dushak of the Assistant Driver of
T(rain) No. 1"
In Fig. 41 which follows, yet another Timetable (this time from the collection of the present author), headed:
from the office or origin at Uzun Ada to Samarkand, the final station of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line, the traffic for
which was opened in December 1888, In the upper field of this second timetable and in the same ink and by the same
hand, there is an inscription reading: "Merv, Assistant to the Driver ofT(rain) No. 1"/
Since the timetables have the same signatures, reading: "For the Director of the Traffic Service, Colonel Voinov"
with the issued data: "Russian Printery of K.M. Fedorov in Ashkhabadt and the proposal, as well as taking into
consideration the dates noted above for the opening of the corresponding section of the railway, it can be stated with
certainty that these timetables refer to the 1889-1894 period.
With regard to the Emir, who preferred to live at the town of Kermin, situated at 9 versts / 6.6 miles from a station
of the same name on the Trans-Caspian Railway Line and 70 versts / 44 miles from the town of Bukhara, which he looked
upon as a capital, preferably in winter, where his ministers normally lived in the main Bukharan palace.
All in all, the Emir of Bukhara was not at ease with the fine trains, which can be confirmed by the diverting
episode of his palace at Kermin [13]: "In the half section for ladies, we directed attention to the small rooms demonstrated
by the first-class sleeping-coaches. It is manifest that this story originated with the Emir himself; after his first trip on the
railway line, he liked the coaches so much that he wished to impress his harem with the memory of them". And finally,
yet another detail: the Head Doctor and closest advisor of the Emir was the Military Physician Semen Kuz'mich
Pisarenko, who carried out at the same time his responsibilities as the Section Doctor of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line.
For the current multifaceted article, the present author called it quits and also appropriate to top off the outspoken
known persons of that time concerning the achievements of the Russian builders, military and scientific personnel in
laying the Trans-Caspian Railway Line.
The Polish scientist and investigator of Asia N.M. Przewalski wrote: "In two weeks, we flattened 5000 versts /
3012 miles from Moscow to Samarkand. We went from the start via Nizhnii Novgorod, then down the Volga, the Caspia
and the Trans-Caspian line". The last stretch is a real wonder in the deserts there, in relating the story of placing
the wagon along the quicksands or in the barren plain....In general, the Trans-Caspian Railway Line....is an
engineering structure, bold and with great significance for the future [17].
In 1882, Jules Verne published his novel "Claudius Bombarnac,' having as its subject the escort in which the
erection of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line served for some time. The hero of the novel went on a trip along the line..
Jules Verne rated highly vocally the work of the Russian builders: "They often speak about the unusual rapidity with
which the Americans laid down the railway across the plains of the Far West. However, to become known in this regard
the Russians would by no means concede, even if they did not surpass, both in the rapidity of construction, as well as in
the boldness of the industrial projects" [18].
1. A review has been made of the story and of the details of establishing the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line, giving
an evaluation of its significance as the main stretch of the future Central Asian Railway Line in the foundation and
development by Russia of the entire conquered Turkestan area.
2. The communications by rail have been shown between the Livny and the Bendery-Galafi Narrow-Gauge Railway Lines
and the Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line on account of the repeated utilization of their rails.

December 2006

. L u.

"**3 fe--

'3 I'\ llllll\ I ,il\.4 X.1 I, H il flll,.,li 11A 111 U1 1. J1 L : i I
9 B P & B I c A P E &A r O
.j' ): .i-'j ii a:f mlFu uIf',y.i.

H.T A H i J I i U
'UI TIr hian use n_ _I___ _____________
,.,. ,.i.~ t

la. "'2 M )i id-l., iui --- i '. .i. ,2 nli i
Y-allb-A a I

-i I 1a -
112' S) AiUIH S 2 725
127: f1 nepe n-b .. 22ai 21 1'
143 16 Asa-KyiiMla a8 --- !47 x
174! 31 Ka3aHAKUK-b 1. liii I i.l: 4 i 51 HBeX.
191): 16 .YsyH .-Cy t,3 -\ 2 Hi'-. 52 i
213; 23 yuaiK 611 -! ll: 24'
243 30 H3a) n-ApBarT i -12 -'
27fl 27 KemO n . 11
i 4 l! r -i 3
Low K11 41Jd A I
,5 i t) ApF .mi, . 43 llil 27 U-1i 5;
;j 4 .1ll ri p AA 4. I 1 I Y V. '3 H. -\..l
,3, ; h4 ,, ... I 1 3 2 1

7A1 '. AcBliAp .-A u -' A I (1 3
4btU 22 Fiji NA 43-a h6 *b),

531i 1 Apipea-L .... It.o -- I, J.: 2
3ll ; 121 Ka W-1 5:.' 2 Ii 4 H .
45 17 hF1j, r. ... 1- 5 6,1 i 411

.6 I v ApBmta -Ur.u u 7- 2 -6 i 4 P) u
11 ii J1 Wait W -b 910 I 9s20
627 20 Taliip-b i... I"u 5 l1116
651 24 'Amm e I. -! 1t: .I 'f I z. ,
67li 22 eK -ipL. I.! 01 -U 12 1 36 22 Ukappa.
698 25 Awy-Xnji--KA3.Ix 1 1 -.13 119 4
723 25 AoprKyto . ll -'l 2U
7: 2V1 Kapal Ta ,. 2 5-, i 3 U.
77: 24 Mepsi .... .... -5 .21- 1 7 4!21 B
796; 26 Eafpawb-A. 12 -. 8 i21
81:1 17 Kyp6a .-Kana 5.611 P
b3 i 18 re.A,,uK i ..... ...l. --, 'll 518 I.e XA .
853; 22 4 -l: 1 .2 72 2
'872 19 -*2qL-An w I- 1
6*.1 29 5cC '1 9 I 1 4
931. 31 PeurarmCKIbI, 1 I
954 23 Kap ay -Kyo .... "1-- 'i
976B 22 Tapalia . ...2 2 5 5 132.2 2. 1 !,
l 1 CTap j apA- ly 1 i3h I 2 2i 4 I. 5 a1.
998, 22 A" y-Alapl ...... .' -i -|- 22 "j 5 .22 C-iiiii..i


Fig. 40.

3. The reasons have been set out for the
transfer of the beginning of the Trans-
Caspian Military Railway Line during
the 15 years of its operation from Uzun
Ada to Krasnovodsk.
4. The details are given of the traffic
composition of the line, served under
climatic conditions.
5. A short review has been given of the
establishment of the Kolomna Factory
(Moscow province) and its participation
in the fitting out of the carriages of the
Trans-Caspian Military Railway Line.
6. A description has been set out of the
postal and tekegraphic mail of the Agent
of the Kolomna Factory, assigned to
Uzun Ada in the 1887-1888 period.
7. A description has been given of the
latest usage of the known covers served
by two postal wagons of the Trans-
Caspian Military Railway Line and of
the unnumbered routes "Chardzhui-
Uzun-Ada" and "Chardzhui-
Samarkand", sent in July 1895 to
Staraya Bukhara, via the initial stretch
of the Trans-Caspian Railway Line, up
to the year when it was dismantled.
8. The unrecorded c.d.s. markings
described for the first time:
on the Moscow-Voronezh route dated 1
September 1888.
on the Rostov/Don-Vladikavkaz route
dated 3 September 1888.
on the Rostov/Don-Vladikavkaz route,
dated 23 Jan. and 28 Feb. 1999.
on the Batum-Baku route, dated 27
December 1887.

9. The determined earliest dates of the c.d.s. applications:
"POCHT. OTD. / VAGONA LIVENSK. UZKOKOLEIN. Zh. D., dated 11 September 1878.
"POCHT> VAGON / LIVENSK. UZKOKOL. Zh. D.,, dated 7 September 1890.
"POCHT.VAGON / SAMARKAND-CHARDZHUI / 1", dated 30 September 1890.
10. The determined earliest c.d.s. applications:-
"POCHTOVYI VAGON No. 51 (5)", dated 2 September 1888 (the present author avails himself of the occasion to state
that there is in his collection a sending with this c.d.s. with the earliest known date of 8.7.1882).
"POCHTOVYI VAGON No. 13 (2)" on the Moscow-Voronezh route, dated 26 February 1888
"POCHT. VAGON / UZUN ADA-=CHARDZHUI / 2", dated 7 July 1895.
11. The c.d.s. "POCHTOVYI VAGON No. 96 (10)" has been determined on the Batum-- Baku route in violet on 6
September 1888.
12. Two types are recorded for the first time of a single-line cachet (unframed and framed), applied at the telegraph office
ofUzun Ada in the 1887-1888 period.
13. There are demonstrated timetables of the postal, freight, passenger, military and special trains of the Trans-Caspian
Military Railway Line.
70 w ///

3d H,l.tutjd a. ij, ^lM'ennl ujtofniib OdHo6Bt..


. l;i 'i lli~ l iT flli, i iri.]T .'*.' i 'I ( 1 1llIfgiill 'I itii \ i i ll ii 1.

-:-"--. uil u- r a -I i- --
SCTAH U H iT mi 11 ,I lpnimato ie
| gig3 __il '. !8 __
VYib AAa 1 '' P I* .r
V. .. "h I ..ii ..' A -, I
481 22 Myal-Kapa 42 --: 2 44 a,
82, 34 Ba.-a-HmeM 532 -10 1 42
112 30 A m~. 42-1 3 645 '- Rea.
127 15 llepenan 7:15 2 7 17
143; 1Bf Ax-Kyliina. 807- 3 810
174, 31 laaaarimn. 9 22- 20 9 142 4 i
1!10 16 Yayn~y-Cv... 111211-: 2 122 : ;
213 23 Ymap... 15 5a 1121)
243' 30 Hanai-Ap-an. .12'32--18102;5 -- 1 no'm 30 Ceurlips.
270: 27 Ko . 1i44- 2 146
29!4 24 Baxn. .. 2434 240
324' 31) ApHqaum ... ..340- j 3 1'45 -
354 31) Basapjein 445- 5 4' *
381 27 Ke~aTa. ... 544- '
406i 25 reour-Tene 640 yrpa. .
428 22 Bieeirr;. ; 11 2 722 I
448 20 Acxa6aa 0. i1 )0 400 1 3 021 ;i:1 30 )1,Crrfipi.
I458 10 Aiay'. ...... 420-! 2 4'221
480( 22 lnypo ..... 5.50 5 i
504 24 Axcy..... 143- 2 4 i esepa. :
518: 14 Ba6a-,iypaan. 7:13 2 7!15 i "
536: 18 ApTr,... .... 753- 7 8 .01
551 15 Kaynmyr 8i28 2 830
5(18 17 KaaxKa.... 06 *I :I 1 10
586 18 AplianK-Oarasa 51 4
607' 21 iymuan .. 11)37 -1310510 24
627 20 TaKup.. ..1130- 21132
651, 24 Textein . I' :i iu I i, 5' .j -- o I H 1 OTrraipH.
673i 22 rea-Clop0p. ; 1, 4-' 'l 4
6l98 25 aysnzyay 2'55 2 2157 *..
723 23 j.opr -Kyo 3'47 5 352
746' 23 Kapa6Ta. 438- 2 4!40 .
770 24 Mepal ... -1 5:40 -
791' 26 E6Ranou.-Aun ** -

T Typ Literature.
1. HcmpmxeMneHoAopox'oromTpnenopraPoccn T.I: 1836-1917rr,.C.-lexepqypr, 1977.
2. Kapia napoxoAnmu coo6u enmH XenH.so noqronBux a oporPoccHICKO HunipHH 1892 r.
Kaprorpaa cime saMeexme A.IHusa, C.-reremp6ypr, 1892.
3. CxeaaPocc~ awx uenemaenxAopor. Ha.H. .3aypa, 1894.
4. Kapra napoxoaux eooS0gemadl xnesax a norromrux opor Pocc icoil HMnepHH 1895 r.
Kapmrpa4mnecroe s3aeamen A.Hrmu.a, C.-rI ip6ypr, 1895.
5. HyMepHanaR ra no~ronoMuyopoxmmxy Y manum 1897r.Kaprorpa4,H.cQcoe anencHR e
A.Hi ua, C.4lcnrp6ypr, 1897.
6. B.Be r, Boeamo- esaonopomcoeneno (Hcropma aMHHi Tpauj), Kosemu.
nTHorpaiiuH H KxauMKHHaH 'ena, 1912.
7. BonameHno C~. Y3sKoone lxniae a nmeopor. r. )KXe3HnoAopooMa 2004.
8. X)KnesoDAopoxHtnT pancnopr. 3mnanonenau, MohKB, Haymnoc as seaMn o nolEomaU
PoccaMcxam msaHoloneamu 1994.
9. VJ.vandovskiy. Letters ofthe railway post from the theatre of the Russo-Turkish war of
1877-1878. The Post-Rider, No 51,2002.
10. BpoM-ay a 34poa. 3Hmunonegmu, C.4IcTp6ypr, 1890-1907.
11. Hontil nyreaowmrin no PoeRa. Jlemee xcneiHOAopoxaoc anam ae 1895 r. Hb. HJ.
mHramna, Mocaa, 1895.
12. CnpaBosHHxK aM ne uoaopomwn x cramacnrMecCo oarnenon (CnHCKH cTRM HH
poccHlceax axnesnHx opor a an4aazmoM x reorpa4)HicCou nopsAce ax pacnonoxceal ,
canelz o nepemHenosammH cramaim, o6 orxporru HoaU mos H n po.), C.-IrCmp6ypr,
13. AA. Oncy~yes a B.L riaaces, no 3azacniHcmon BOCeHoll enmSofl aopore. flyreaue
anevarrnm C.-IIerep6ypr, 1899.
14. EMpersea n.H. Hcoroa Knoueroro sa~oa (1863-1973), max .Mjcmn, MocKBa, 1973.
15. A.V.Kiyushkin and P.E.Robinson "Russian Railway Postmar", 1994 & Addenda and
Corrigenda 2005.
16. HopMan.noe nermee a suaHee pacancamne noeano no noroiHamoM y rparm4 y
3axcacnllcoa BoenmoB nenmoll opora, Acxa6aA, 1887.
17. PoXcnEa AM. Iepsax pyccKar aMesanu opora a Cpceaell A3 .-CII6,1891.c.44.
18. Beplp X n.I oyc EoM6aplar.-TamlxeuT,1961.-c39.

Fig. 41.

The present author expresses his warmest gratitude to Aleksei for having collected view cards of the Trans-
Caspian Region and to N.F. Mandrovskii, the possessor of a very extensive collection of the postal history of Central
Asia, who kindly supplied illustrations and letters for the present article, as shown in Figs. 13 to 19, & 22, as well as 36a,
36b,, 37a, 37b & 40.
In addition, the present author would be grateful for any further information for the amplification of the

Editorial Comment: Apart from other matters, the present article by Dr. Levandovskiy gives us an intere sting, picture of
the Imperial Russian expansion into Turkestan (Central Asia) during the 19h. century. The area covered by the article
consists of three of the present-day "stans": Kazakhstan, Tfirkmenistan and Uzbekistan, where the native population spoke
various languages and dialects in the Turki family. Those languages and dialects were generally mutually understandable
and also influenced the place-names of the area, as referred to in the article above. Here are some examples:-
Kara Kum = Black Sand; Kizil = Red; Tepe = Hill; Uzun Ada = Long Island.
In the early Soviet period, the Turki-speaking "auls" or villages were provided with numbered cancellers in
bilingual Russian and Arabic script. Due to the low rate of literacy at that time, such markings are rare and well worth
looking for. They were listed in a publication of the NKPiT (People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs). around 1931,
formerly held by the late W.E.C. Kethro of England. It would be most helpful if a CSRP member could locate the Listing.

* *,

December 2006

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian.
Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Rouble surcharges on Erivan set
overprinted by single rubber and metal handstamps in black, violet and red ink.
Being in circulation up to September 30, 1923

10,000 surcharges by a rubber (Type 1) handstamp on 50 Rouble

Type 1 in violet
Double perforated between

Type 1 in purple-black
Double strike in pair with normal

50 R. bearing 10,000 Type 1 in blackish-red postally used on a Money transfer form from Karavansaray, 31.07.1923
to Delizhan, received on 31.07.1923 franked at total 310.000 R. rate which constitute 1.7% of the transferred amount.

December 2006

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Roubles surcharges on Erivan set

15,000. surcharges by a rubber (Type 1) handstamp on 300 Rouble

Type 1 in black

Type 1 in dense red

Type 1 in deep reddish purple


- -I

""/'x.. \,



7.7 ~ ~ j:7. ,}


~ F



S I-
-~ ;J;.t .





Type 1 in violet
on thick paper

Type 1 in rose
on thick paper

300 R. bearing 15,000 Type 1 in light brown-rose postally used on an Ordinary
foreign letter from Alexandropol, 5.05.1923 to Boston, USA, franked at 175,000 R.

December 2006


~Y''` :.

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Roubles surcharges on Erivan set

25,000. surcharges by rubber (Type 1) and metal (Type 2) handstamps on 400 Rouble

A pair, perf.missing between

Varieties of the basic 400 R. stamp

Set off

Type 1 in violet,

Type 2 in black
in a strip of three, one missing

400 Roub. bearing 25,000 Type 1 in violet postally used on a Ordinary intercity
letter from Djelal-Ogly, 15.06.1923 to Erivan, franked at the correct 100,000 R. rate

December 2006

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Roubles surcharges on Erivan set

50,000. surcharges by rubber (Type 1) and metal (Type 2) handstamps on 1000 Rouble

Unsurcharged Type 2 in purple-black
Variety of the basic 1000 R. the 63-rd stamp
Error in the sixth letter of the word
" rPLbuLPrbbr" instead of 9PnLbSUPr'bbP (.f)

Type 2 in black
double strike

IPLSburhr5P niLfp

Type 1 in violet


U .k. 4.

lpHfloQ)KOtHa ut. rraeTe..,,I paGK ia f axapb"' (ifflpaKH Paqnup),

SHmKa--l-ro jia

1000 Rouble bearing 50,000 R. Type 1 in red postally used on a underfranked Ordinary intercity wrapper
from Alexandropol. 4.05.1923 to Erivan, franked at 50,000 R.rate (effective period: April 21 May 1.1923)
The earliest recorded postally used entire with the Fifth Issue adhesive (.,.':)

December 2006

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Roubles surcharges on Erivan set

30,000. surcharge by a metal (Type 2) handstamp on 500 Rouble
75,000 surcharge by a metal handstamp and in manuscript on 3,000 Rouble

The proof without a background in issued color
printed on a buff paper

75,000 in black
double strike

75,000 in manuscript.
in violet ink
L .
:76 ...

- I 6 c



'ntuuimlim qjnnpwnlia
.. .-o

500 Roub. bearing 30,000 Type 2 in black and 3,000 Roub. bearing 75,000 (the only type used) in black
postally used on a Ordinary intercity wrapper from Gyrjusy 1 08 1923 to Envan franked al 105 000 Rouble rate

December 2006

C~iuL em13 1':



-Yl'1 ItlJ'U

(Lw quu up3

~----- -r~pr~--,. _. --~C--.

May, 1923. Fifth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Transcaucasian Federation (T.S.F.S.R.) Rouble surcharges on Erivan set

2,000 Rouble basic stamp varieties and postally used in unsurcharged condition

The "Broken face" The "Left braid missing"

A pair with no background
and perforation missing between

Error in the sixth letter of the word
" IrnPLbSLPjbbP" instead of 9PnLbSU.P'bbP" .d.W/:


Unlisted regular use of unsurcharged 2,000 Rouble basic stamp. RR
Copies without any distinctive alterations postally used on Money transfer
forms franked mixed with the surcharged Fifth Issue stamps. The recorded
period of use at Mikhailovka P.O. from 26.08.23 up to 18.09 1923
probably due to a lack of surcharged stock of 100,000 / 2000 R. stamps.
Considered as Mikhailovka P.O. postal clerk's interim measure forced
to use unsurcharged stamps regularly for about a month period. (.,..)
Seven postally used copies are known, all with Mikhailovka cancellations

(to be concluded).

December 2006

The network of telegraph offices expanded markedly in Russia in the middle of the 1860s. Among other things,
Emperor Aleksandr II approved on 22 May 1866 a "Temporary Condition of the St. Petersburg City Public Telegraph
System". It was stated on the Condition that:-
#1. The St. Petersburg City Public Telegraph System is intended for the transmission of governmental and private
dispatches both in the district of a telegraph office, as well as in the general telegraphic network of the Empire.
#7. The dispatches are accepted and transmitted on the basis of the general telegraph regulations.
#9 .The dispatches are accepted in the Russian, French and German languages"! [1]
Note: The designation "Public" is bestowed on this Telegraph System,to distinguish it from the other Official City Telegraph
Service, confirmed in St. Petersburg in 1858 and serving the Military and Police Authorities.
For the dispatches (telegrams), specially designed forms are to be utilized in the stations of the telegraphic
network of the country. It was decided to set up special forms for the City Telegraphic Service. At the end of July 1855,
the Director of the Telegraphic Department, K. Lyuders, suggested the introduction: for a trial period of one year" the
payment for telegrams be carried out "by means of frankedforms and stamps [2]`The project sent by him to the Minister
of Posts and Telegraphs, N. Tolstoi, regarding the Condition about the acceptance and transmission of dispatches
contained blank telegraph forms, stamps and envelopes. N. Tolstoi agreed to the project but, in his report to His Majesty
confirmed in August 1866, only the telegraph forms and stamps were mentioned. The envelopes of the City Telegraph
Service did not bear any distinguishing features of any kind.
The envelopes were intended for the fee in delivering the telegrams to the addressees.
In the report confirmed by the Emperor, there is a penciled note about the receipt as specimens of four forms for
the Despatch Office for Preparing State Papers (EZGB). The design of these forms was described in the set of rough drafts
of 17 August 1866, intended for the EZGB: "In forwarding the specimens approved by His Majesty of stamps in the value
of 20 kopeks and various forms, necessary for the establishment here in St. Petersburg of the City Public Telegraph
1. A telegraph form on thin white paper of the finest grade with a watermark in the value of 40 kopeks and set up
as a sample with inscriptions and a frame in rose.
2 .Square-shaped stamps per the approved sample.
3.Incoming forms on thin white paper of the finest grade with a frame in pale blue without watermark and with
the inscription 40 kopeks on the sides.
Note a: In the telegraphic terminology, the incoming telegrams were those referred to as having arrived from: the forwarding
station to the accepting one. The accepting station (sometimes the station of the address) ensured the delivery of the incoming
telegram to the addressee.
Note b: The handwriting of the official writing up the project of the application is practically unreadable in this area. As can
be judged from isolated words, it was proposed ro prepare two versions, having insignificant differences in the text (for the
city telegrams and those arriving from other points).
4.Telegrams proceeding on yellow paper....
5. Official telegrams on rose-coloured paper.
6.Telegraph envelopes... "[3],
Judging by everything, the EZGB prepared from this set the technological samples, from which the entire issue
was printed. With an application dated 6 September 1866, the Telegraphic Department ordered from the EZGB the
following quantities of forms for the City Telegraph Service:-
Franked telegrams for city dispatches 60,000 copies
Delivered telegrams 60,000
Telegrams passing through 20,000
Official telegrams 12,000
Envelopes 60,000 [4j
Forms for incoming telegrams with a face value of 40 kopeks, delivery forms and envelopes were ordered for
preparation in an identical quantity, which was quite understandable: whatever the amount of city telegrams handed in, an
equal amount of forms had to be delivered. Applications for the preparation and details about the issue of telegraph
stamps with a face value of 20 kopeks were not found in the archival documents of those years..
In October 1866, the Director of the Telegraphic Department ordered the printing on the back of the 40-kopek
forms excerpts from the "Temporary Regulations for the acceptance and handing out of despatches..."
On 30 November, the Director of the Telegraphic Department sent out on the telegraph lines Circular No. 8855,
containing the "Temporary Rules for the acceptance and handing out of despatches at the stations of the St. Petersburg
Pulic City Telegraphic Service".
It was mainly stated in those Regulations that:-

December 2006

"6. Payment to be charged: for handing over a dispatch in the district of a city telegraph station and containing
20 words: forty (40) kopeks; up to 30 words: sixteen kopeks and so on, adding twenty (20) kopeks for every 10 words.
9.For the payment of a dispatch handed over personally in the district of a city telegraph station, special franked
forms and stamps are to be prepared, the former in the face value offorty and the latter in 20 kopeks. Stamps will serve to
pay the arrears for dispatches exceeding the face value of the forms.
Note: Official telegrams and also prepaid reply telegrams are to be written on ordinary forms and not on franked
10: Franked forms and stamps are to be obtained from the Despatch Office for the Preparation of State Papers.
12: Forms and stamps are to be soldfor cash at the stations of the City Public Telegraph Service... 1[5].
The activity of the St. Petersburg City Public Telegraph Service is planned to begin on 1 January 1867 at 16
telegraphic stations.
For the telegrams addressed to places far away from the stations, the Telegraphic Department suggested that they
be delivered by the City Postal Service. For that reason, the sender had to affix postage stamps on the telegraphic form
handed in and, for forwarding and delivering such a dispatch, it had to bear the notation "franked".The Postal Department
did not agree with such a proposal and the postal authorities did not participate in the delivery of city telegrams.
It should be noted that the Postal Authority transmitted and delivered telegrams of the general telegraphic network of Russia,
but on other conditions: "Telegrams destined for further dispatch by mail...are to be handed over at a post office against a
receipt....the station of the address is to charge the payment required by the Postal Service" ("Regulations of Telegraphic
As of 1 January 1867, the acceptance of dispatches began at seven stations of the City Telegraph Service. Station
No. 1 was situated on Post Office Street in the building of the Main Telegraphic Station. The remaining stations were
opened in the period from January to March. Private and official city, interurban and international telegrams were
accepted at most of the stations. There was also opened the acceptance and transmission of city dispatches at the
telegraphic stations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and at the Winter and Anichkov Palaces.


December 2006

Figure 1;

ropocesoi 066meeTeamut TexerpaD.

flpeoxomqi~a Texerpanma

... ..... ~ --- -

ffo e1p...w..... f........

Z~ ~ -- ----

~ TenirparIeT .f-ea T-exeKCi -- TeerpancTl...

_PcyHOK 2a Figure 2a

TeI r- pa____________ Texpa4Tu !-

PHcyHOK 2 Figure 2

Interurban and international telegrams were accepted on special forms of the City Postal Service (Fig. 1), printed
on straw-coloured paper without watermark. Those telegrams were handed in at one of the stations of the General
Telegraphic Network and some times at one of the stations of the City Telegraphic Service. The private interurban and
international dispatches were expensive since, in accordance with #11 of the "Temporary Regulations", there was charged
for them payment for passage by the City Telegraphic Service and the stations of the General Telegraphic Network: "For
dispatches, addressed to other towns and places there is a tariff over and above the ordinary rate ofpayment, levied for
the transmission of dispatches also by the City Telegraphic Service [6]. The outgoing telegrams were paid for in cash.
"the payment for handing over of telegrams for the General Network of the Empire...are to be charged to the sender in
cash ".
The official city telegrams were accepted from the senders and delivered to the addressees on forms (ig. 2
prepared on rose-colouredl paper without watermark. There are handwritten changes to be seen in the lower part of the
form (Fig. 2a). The time is specified by the forwarding telegraphic station, as to when the dispatch was handed in,
utilizing a form with a printed text; of acceptance as stated by the handwritten notation and when the dispatch was
accepted. Official telegrams were free of charge.
The most interesting telegrams are the private city ones.. They were accepted only on franked forms with a face
value of 40 kopeks, designated in the documents of that time as "stamped forms". The Ascher catalogue and also later
publications note that, at the present time, there are no data about the presence of such forms.
The author of the present article has found in the documents of the Telegraphic Service of Russia one example of
a franked form. The form shown in that setting in (Fig. 3) is in the state of preservation in the Archival Section of the
Telegraphic Department in the Russian State Historical Archives in St. Petersburg.

December 2006

ropoAcxoit 06mecTBemant Texerpa~pi.
C|ram1ra J -_l-_
CayKe6Has Teaerpa a ........ .......
C-. -..........

Tem,,a, u.o.w: a. ....... .....- ...
F - _________---- ________- --- -- --- -- -~~-~


|ima cma_/ ....

TejrerpaHCGT ......................................


SrcyHnoK 3Figure 3
The frame on the front side of the franked form is in carmine-rose, with dimensions of 195 x 240 mm. The
"Temporary Regulations" were placed on the back of the form (Fi 4. The text of these regulations does not completely
match that of the "Temporary Regulations" set out by the Circular of the Director of the Telegraphic Department dated 30
November 1866.
The form was printed on watermarked white paper. The watermark takes up the greater part of the form from the
Arms of the Telegraphic Authority (the State Arms of Russia with the telegraphic arrows below) with thick letters and
dots: C. H. in the upper part of the form and r. 0. T. in the lower portion. The height of the letters C. I. 24 mm.;
r,O.T. = 21 mm. The letters C. H. are placed on both sides of the printed official symbol of the St. Petersburg City Public
Telegraphic Service on the front side of the form, showing the Arms of St. Petersburg with telegraphic arrows and with a
framed oaken garland. Dark stripes are shown in the bright background of the capital letters and dots.
The "Catalogue of postage stamps and postal stationery" edited by F. Chuchin (Moscow 1928, p. 74) states that,
there is printed the approval date of the forms. However, the blanks were approved in August 1866 and the date specified
on the form as 22 May 1866 was the date of approval of the Temporary Condition of the St. Petersburg City Telegraphic.
In buying a franked form, the sender could send a dispatch with 20 words. A large quantity of words was paid for
by adding telegraph stamps (Fg. 5), by reckoning 20 kopeks for a text of 10 words inclusive. In addition, stamps could
also be used to pay for telegrams with a paid reply transmitted in the City Telegraph Service, as well as those sent to
several addressees with the same text and also those presented with a requirement to verify the text before delivery.
The catalogue under the editorship of F. Chuchin also specifies the usage of stamps for the payment of telegrams
handed in on ordinary paper and thus invalid. For those reasons, the telegraph stamps were not utilized.
Telegraph stamps were affixed to a franked form and cancelled with crosses. "If the cost of the dispatch exceeds
the cost of the form, then the necessary number of stamps should be affixed and crossed out with ink".
Telegrams on the forms of the City Telegraph Service are unknown with stamps affixed. The reason was simple.
"The Regulations for internal and international telegraphic correspondence" stated "Genuine dispatches are to be
destroyed upon the expiry of one year"..
December 2006





"-'~~_ ~~ I
~i*a .F-~ ~-c~lr




-- i._.m




.. C.

BpexeHnara ripa a o uplei t 3 lrepegak A eenemr xa cnmarmds C. UTTeep-
6ypretaro .06neceHmaro ropoA i aro Tezerpas4a.
1-c. Poen3ae1e eraHIift. I as IToinar u)i uat, rs un" I'rasui Texerpn-4i rrTramai
Sn 1I 1ac1eateanol Iaera, NI 3xaniu rabaol 4Ia0iiauck Uter-Pe.Oipu (4c1 %i.lerA rBvriT aCTd (sl -
X: III Bucanaueacxol ac, asslX.a BEupIr. fY Baeune..csoB I acr, asi i launi, juns 7 XI n'-.
repfyprcaoar macne, GiaitaoB spocnenmn BonU A 41. -- 1 TI BiSG.psiieu 'itrt, t .o ..ia t my Caci..,is.uca..
vpower~Tr, xo0s 220. -- A YD sa rart, aes rIay llupuoibuacl yr"n a 6-l.eABaro pocBfer, I-n 50b -
A VIIT A.IretliTaoIr ac. s MO xai Cya4a.nrs rurar..aa.,T:l MI ii Is iaa x.Iatiacuqe.-aro nnrnarylisan i
A.t am nCTTyarTra). 6 X sI il-,et jepediui, .2-1t pacr. rs, AOuw 89. A XI An M Laalro ct,. Isnrt..
as rocr-nnal t rieA. A XII An B.HU1U BHEoPwae :,drr at ~a ipors 110 l Jxareikol sac, aI. Ka
pornopi yungt, xauoI ; 32. X1 SV I. BPousa Baa.r o n-l autr'ol lstu.a. u ST Ms d.A -at Lha.
ceocee~snol selaaniO Xaoporn. 1 XI .o AJealAa svolI Mjsit*axTypt, ias 3ias.I uarow.I 4sa1api
2-e. Epieo a nepeganr rejerpawrr. Ba r-c.*oAi, 4.psmnr' T arn a' is nuMA, A Bctnh
cramnaia (aneumae II) exex~ahio ori 9 &ac. yrpa to 9 ac. 1.i-pL
Texerpran nepexaure as paBico rop.ero ar ea erpag4, a rami s Its xUtcocxr liu-ria
3-e. fIfnar. us Teaerpax n. TeaerpBaux XOAniH an euetiaptHo BaIEcaunuas rac-teueBa **
mrTenneissan 6jassaax, ItfiHocTrfn s 40 s., u Ateneas m3aosIoaniaX as ce6t Ee Boloe 20J .,as .Lur.iai
aapech, reactn a O nHCL ..
AXpecs Xenesms xom e .. ar. .0G-l a G=1i', Irl) u aps eM joIU clteamei E si .jo i ri a aL.aOrn I .l .i
ayntuifi. Bet aociAtcrsiT x tei.orTO aun aerot u aocr pca p crTarc uA s B uvTareuTrmTen.cM BuTi a.
,ka. xranaro AoOoert. a ulo 0 iAd IO Ior ieua ap aL Ia's ) L, r Tran u& la9E.na J-0 cBRs re i-.
60 o.n., xo 40 oaio I 80 n50. a T. L. FI'i. a IT Mapil ria p iM i a ll 6 a Bk CraMl0l.0 .i reiy-uaL ti i.e- "I
oerpaxas, aa 3aaiarosapeeae.i. a .aiift ;rojso craen r FoporCua OCrmer.narc.i rTaerpi.^. Bi io aBAONws
cniRat AeuemiA rI:.:ral (r uaprcmia BDa s iasU m *aaucainam us o aiun a Ba n duerainsu TwU a pan.
Upa nioant i a..Bi...u o rr.3T riar.-r. arpesi EorpeTrM.as mapons A) Ja Snat.. r lu I -, 1-l.a.
COBs A. a T l.i.1 -..p easL 3MJr n l, uI j i Bpofpi l TerurpuuM Tau K, e aTr un j Ca&ijrF. YTUrpuaJh lipr
nox Irt W AenemI aUpecontBmaU S i sb.&a.. L.rl IuIIs Q..aun-r.J 'I WluaP tu ii u U s..l. II apuLAJ -
3a nepeoasy "a pyri cr-Tuiua BIL.-iI M *k eua.tdo TJCMerFaMr5* I p C-r1.;. i --a e ian; '
c.s noron, acrag4eTro, Uaal b.a.pJa puiaaUmatc ,aau.icU n IUran. IM
Bs pierk teerpaumu a ,,.,- .L aera ri .sui. PHcyHox 5 Figure 5
4-e. O e s eIonl. B's ve utec nuors as pec (Bsar~i c.~n4tri 0. Ti. -pa efia ,l u-rt.
cM 3UcTa eroM ain Haponaxrl. I iCT Iil .AT f 'UA r c arT .' y.I a-rsr u-' s oT' p.,tt.p -, F a B ,iuc ri UtA pr40 s-Tm
Coosi, aihr-aI So-601- i CJu.ro c7Thelncz 4 2 UaiL Cai-mi.a cte upaL iraUsB rocrarIPn..a.u
ciuewrcamu on cuae'- (e-,ra Is a r as G6.-e 7 uoroij). Ciami, crcEsjaseBse npra ilm uoi"po~r.m
cirVcUTMa o BXXt OTijiHO i A. Lsaa fptl.wia HE il-.UaT is c%ra cr.1- daA.U& frfitiasG crTO.nuj IJUi rIP
auimpa c"Traeca :ia Csono. ts ci .. *.ca a cj -j 6 r ai pnS ctiTram.cA j.a calMu, otlrarcn, orA I..
CocroaS noa oxaoaft u pa, i.rBc5ia ma atrc.s e cu.11. 3. ar.ia i KpycE '16 al i'p-i".al'B ntly apqlptk,.
a Trase leplr aBs po6ax i-i itiKr.i AL .4-U. Ba up.S 17616- I CaJO), 139r. 0 msn 171,, 15-2 cI oasr.,
611 I ciaosy, B 2 i 2 o sr.
5-e. luospars Ran aIT. 3a .iaCiirTLa uir.-.as npua Uepexart, Trapi. tu jiipeAJ-i.a '-DIEs an
.naxa orstterafnelaot Be apanpkaie.ea. ijia siaeceLnma sa lenel ty souplpattmecJI uupfltl a) e.Ul it-unra
no ulnt r Maerpa. cr..;: cna ru-B> .saS.oBTm, a) eta us AeirtEb As yulateRa arnt<.pGo Cttari
omB6Eu iax.aoaauc e- i.atEs, an Drn jirnue..a ou.aynaretot MeAeeate, sn iora a au i jyR A ii1
ropoxcoft north.
TpeofioDaH ao Bsoapar ri aT paneo t Ia o6st ta ueBaCpauaynD epeXlo' 1a -rat.i l, e le.IBr- A o-
laturc as Teaerpayani AenRapTaetrs ust npocrol 6yxart.

PHCYHOK 4 Figure 4
For telegrams delivered by the City Telegraph Service to the addressees, forms were utilised printed on
white paper without a watermark and with a bright blue frame. Fig. 6 shows a sample of such a form. Similar forms may
be encountered in the archival documents of various administrations.
Note: 1.Delivery forms were also used, differing somewhat from the sample shown; upon the delivery of an interurban telegram, it
was stated thereon from where it was received etc.
2.The utilisation of delivery forms began as of 1 January 1867. However, as stated by M. Kossoy (Israel), he knows of two such
forms, delivered to the addressee in April 1866. According to what he says, the forms were received from a private archive. There can
'be no doubt of their genuineness. In accepting the genuineness of the forms, it is impossible to regard as genuine the year specified on
them. For example, in the space for "Official Notes", it is evident that the dispatch, handed in by the sender at the 6m. telegraph station
was accepted for delivery at the 8t. station. However, these stations began working as of 1 January 1867; numerous documents
confirm that. On the forms utilized in April 1866, there could not be the line: "Approved by His Majesty 22 May 1866". In April,
nobody knew the date when the Emperor approved the "Temporary Condition...". A form with such an inscription could be printed
only after May 1866. The archival documents, and they are not few, allow us to construct a clear link: the samples of the forms of the
City Telegraph Service were first demonstrated in the report of L. Lyuders in July 1866 and approved in August and, in September of
that same year, there was directed an application to the EZGB for their preparation. On the forms known to M. Kossoy, the
telegraphist set the time, day of acceptance and the month. The year in the space for "Official Notes" was not specified (it was
normally not inserted). The notation "1866"is to be found in the upper part of the of the form, i.e. not done so by the telegraphist. It
can even be suggested that the owner of the archive, placing it in turn with the passage of time had renumbered it and placed it on the
forms by memory with an incorrect date. These are doubtless very rare and interesting forms, but they were utilized by the Te legraph
Service no earlier than 1867. There can be no other way as, in April 1866, these forms did not exist in the St. Petersburg City Public
Telegraph Service.
Report:Up to the beginning of 1867, the unofficial (private) telegrams were accepted and delivered only to the Main Telegraph
Station andto the station of the Winter Palace to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Nikolaevskii, Warsaw, Tsarskoe Selo and
Petergof railway lines. Those telegraph stations used the typical forms of 1864.
In the "Regulations for Telegraphic Correspondence", it is stated that: "The preparations for the delivery
according to the address, the telegram is inserted in an envelope, which is closed with the application of a seal or of a
postmark". Envelopes for the delivery of telegrams of the City Telegraph Service were prepared with the dimensions 145
x 117 mm., made from bright blue paper of ordinary quality. The word "Telegram" is to be printed in large type on the
front side of the envelopes.. The address of the recipient is to be placed on the envelope together with the time of handing
over of the telegram for delivery.
The delivery of the telegrams is to be undertaken by messengers. "The telegrams are to be distributed from the
station of the St. Petersburg City Telegraphic Service on foot and, from the Main Station where convenient, by horses or
messengers on foot" (."Regulations for delivering telegrams in the city of St. Petersburg and its surroundings" for 1867).
fapaxnbase 7001

The activity of the City Telegraphic Service in the first year of operations turned out to be ineffectual. From
January to October 1867, the following quantities were handed in at the stations of the City Telegraphic Service:
City telegrams 2675
Internal telegrams 4301
International telegrams 1189
Total 8165 [7]
As an example> Only at the Main Telegraph Station in St. Petersburg, including in the General Telegraphic Network of Russia and for
that period of time, there were accepted 97957 telegrams.
The statistics set out here allow us to evaluate, the quantity handed in during 1867 for city telegrams, namely
3300-3400 pieces. As some of these were official, the franked forms with a face value of 40 kopeks amounted to no more
than 3000 telegrams.
The Telegraphic Department was obliged to recognize that "...the restricted utilization of the City Telegraphic
Service and the insignificant collection testifies to the fact that the rate established is too high on the basis of experience".
In the report presented to the Emperor on 3 December 1867, the Administrator for the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs
Ur I


CA.. ;
a *.. .. _. "


0s~ .'3~'-
rimuC W B- m *- JitfdCmwEB B

* OBhjWcrBtmHliflTEFBErPAV...


Figure 6

December 2006

Figure 7

licyHOK 8

Figure 8




0 -
0. 4



F. -

PHcyHOi 6


N. Laube noted that the utilization "of stamped forms and stamps in an insignificant quantity could not explain their
advantage ". N. Laube asked for permission "to continue the usage of stampedforms and stamps and the tarifffor the City
Telegraph to be reduced by half'. There was suggested in the report that:-
#1. In handing over to the telegraph station a dispatch of 20 words in the district of the telegraph, 20 kopeks
should be charged, with a further 10 kop;~;for all subsequent groups of 10 words.
#4. The reduced rate of the St. Petersburg City Telegraph Service to go into affect as of l January 1868" [8].
The Emperor Aleksandr II approved the new tariff, as well as other proposals of the Telegraphic Authority.
On 12 December 1867, the Director of the Telegraphic Department informed the Manager of the Administration
of the St. Pewtersburg City Telegraphic Service, Major Ispolatov, about an agreement with the EZGB regarding the
preparation of a die for stamping unsold forms with a face value of 40 kopeks and also about the application of the die on
the telegraph stamps. The Department instructed Major Ispolatov that: "upon the preparation of the die to be obtained
from the EZGB, it is directed to apply the die for that stamping on the relevant forms and, regarding the unsold ones on
hand, they are to be given to the EZGB to apply the new price on them... ".
That arrangement allows us to affirm that the overprint on the franked forms of the new price of 20 kopeks (Fig. 7was
made and entrusted to the Main Telegraphic Station, where all the stocks of the forms were held. The overprint of the new
price "10k." (Fig.8) on the telegraph stamps was carried out at the EZGB. It is stated in the report on the monies spent for
the projects during 1868 that:-
Quantity Money disbursed
"For overprinting the new price on telegraph stamps for the
Telegraphic Department 196,711 196r. 71k."[9].
A new form was prepared in 1868, inscribed with the face value of 20 kopeks along the perimeter of the frame.
On the franked form of Fig. 3 herewith and in the portion at right there is seen a handwritten correction "20k. (Fig. 9 in
enlarged state) applied on the original "40" value. It can be assumed that it was applied during the period of issue of the
forms with the new face value. The documents allow us to specify the printing of those forms: 6000 examples.
It is noted in the literature that the utilization of the franked forms and stamps was terminated at the end of 1868.
Such an affirmation is erroneous. By 22 June 1869 and in the report to His Majesty by the Minister of Internal Affairs,
A. Timashev, (then being subordinate to the Telegraphic Department) it is stated that: "the experience of three years...of
the utilization offorms and stamps for the payment of dispatches has shown" the lack of success within the public and that
it did not facilitate the checking for the correct collection of money. A. Timashev proposed that "At the City stations in St.
Petersburg and in using up the stocks of stamped forms and stamps, once again they did not prepare them, but utilized
ordinary dispatch forms, intended for other stations". At the same time, he asked to permit the Minister of Internal
Affairs about the necessity "to introduce the stamped forms and stamps and resume their utilization". There is on the
report a note by the Emperor: "Co--b", i.e. "Agreed".
In that manner, it can be affirmed that, in 1869, the stamped forms and stamps continued to be used at the stations
of the City Telegraphic Service.
The utilization in 1867-1869 of franked telegraphic forms had a clearly expressive, local and administrative
character, as they were only used in St. Petersburg and only at the stations of the City Telegraph Service.
The continuation of this story refers to the year 1880. There was in the Terlegraphic Authority a note by Baron
Kene, proposing new variations of payment for telegraphic dispatches, setting out the superiority of the telegraph stamps
utilised in several countries. Preparation commenced in 1880 for setting up the conditions for the introduction of
telegraph stamps in Russia.
In October of that year, the Director of the Telegraphic Regions proposed to pay attention to a new system of
paying for telegrams. For that reason, the Manager of the St. Petersburg City Telegraphic Service wrote as follows: "...I
feel it is my duty to speak about the disadvantages of this system...in all places where this method of payment of
dispatches was introduced and even for us here in 1867,1868 and 1869, it resulted in being completely disadvantageous ".
In Russia, the rates of payment for telegrams differed according to regions. The complexity of balancing accounts
was the main reason for not permitting the introduction of telegraphic stamps over the entire country. In January 1881, the
Minister of Internal Affairs ordered the termination of working up that project, noting in the report presented by him that
the introduction of stamps "for the payment of telegrams under the existing system of tariffs" was impossible [11].
The catalogues state about the appearance of reprints of the franked forms with a face value of 40 kopeks on paper
without a watermark, as well as of telegraph stamps, noting that they were issued in 1881. One such form is to be found in
the State Collection of Postage Stamps at the Central Museum named after A.S. Popov, where it is also entered under the
year 1881. However, it is more likely that the reprints were prepared around the end of 1880-beginning of 1881, as
illustrative material for preparation by the Department of a new system for the payment of telegrams.
That which has been stated above allows us to fix the date of issue for putting into circulation franked forms and
stamps of the St. Petersburg City Public Telegraphic Service. In accepting as a given, with the original issue and time of

December 2006

placing in circulation, the date for the first issue can be assigned to 1 January 1867, when these forms and stamps began to
be utilized in the City Telegraphic Service. New face values were confirmed in December 1867 for the franked forms and
telegraph stamps, but their circulation began on 1 January 1868. The second issue of the telegraph stamps should be
assigned to that year (with the overprint of the new price), as well as the second (from the die with the new value) and the
third (specifying the new value on the left and right sides of the frame) in issuing the franked forms for telegrams.
The franked forms of the telegrams of the St. Petersburg City Public Telegraphic Service, referring to whoever
were the fathers and founders of Russian Philately with regard to Postal Stationery belong in this class up to now.
However, such forms had no connection whatsoever with the Postal Service. All the activities linked with the
establishment and utilization of franked telegraph forms were handled by the Telegraphic Administration; the documents
preserved about this subject are to be found in the archival affairs of the Telegraphic Department.
By way of discussion. The process of collecting and laying the foundation for this method of cataloguing is not only
important in practical philately. In describing material for collecting, systematization has great significance. Such
systematization is impossible without the clear differentiation of this or that understanding in such a manner with a clear
view of its execution.
At the present time, there exists a group of collectable objects, which demonstrate interest for philatelists, but not
falling under the stipulation required for Postal Stationery, namely: "issued by the Postal Department". The details can be
placed in this category, of the Address Bureau on the forms of postcards and envelopes, franked forms of the St.
Petersburg Public Telgraphic Service, private commercial forms with a designation of prepayment, etc.
New documents, which became known from previous times must be reevaluated for the attributes of specific
items. The wish was completely justified that this group should receive its designation in its own place in the hierarchy of
collectable material. Such forms should be catalogued without doubt, but they should be ranked in a separate block of
postal stationery and not pell-mell with it.
And finally: Some superfluity of information included in the present article has been set out and the interest of
collectors for telegraphic forms has recently become evident. The specifics of telegraphic operations are such that they are
known at the present time, but restricted to only forms for delivering telegrams. Other forms, as well as the regulations
for supervising telegraphic mail are a huge subject, which has not been investigated so far.

1 eHTrpanmaHbI My3eA CBII3H HMeHH A.C. HonoBa (ItMC HM. A. IIonoBa), 4)onH 3 (Tenerpa4)), onuch 1, Aejio 146
"BcenolaamHHenme AoInaAi MmmHCTpa nor H Tenierpa4)oB 3a 1866 roA", macTbI 128, 129.
2 POCCHfiCKia rocygapcTBeHmua acTopmecKHri apxHB (PFHA), Q4. 1289, on. 1, A. 2542 "O cocTaaJieRH
noJroxcemHH o Camcr-IIeTep6yprcKOM ropoAcKoM o6IrecTBeHHOM Tejierpa4)e", J. 1.
3 1AerpanminH rocyaapcTBeiHHuI HcTop'ecKIv apxaB Camcr-HIerep6ypra (IWIHA CII6), Q. 1341, on. 3, A. 150
"...o6 OTKprTrHH eicTBarA Ha nepBux 16 CTaImwI x", n. 196.
4 ITHIA CII6, 4). 1458, on. 2, A. 2461 "O npeAcraaiieHH OTqeTOB o AelicTBHax 3KcnemeAHIni 3a 1866 roA", nJ. 52.
5 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A. 2542, n. 23, 24.
6 "KaiIeHHapbh IIOT H TeJierpa4QoB Ha 1867 rof", C-IIerep6ypr, 1867.
7 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, .2542, Ji. 95.
8 IMC HM. A. Honosa, Q4. 3, on. 1, A. 147 "BcenopA aHHine Inne AOKRfloIa MHRHCTpa nowT H TeJnerpaonB 3a 1867
roA", aJ. 216, 217.
9 IHA CII6, Q). 1458, on. 2, A. 2466 "O npefcrarieHan oTqeTOB o Ae~iCTBHax 3KcneMKIMna 3a 1868 rol", n. 260.
10 LIMC HM. A. IIonoBa, Q4. 3, on. 1, A. 150 "BcenoaanaHefhme 0OKna~lm MiHmcTpa BHyrpenHnX AeJ 3a 1869 roA",
JI. 95 97.
1 PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 1, A. 5230 "O BBejemmn Tenierpaq4Hib MapoK B PoccHH", J. 163.

The overprints on Imperial Russian stamps and cards made by the 1.
o c T io, w K A Polish Corps in what is now Belarus' were treated in detail in "The Post-Rider"
SnO4ITEAF .A KAPTOCIHKA No. 8, pp. 22-32. With the advance of the German 10O. Army into the western
:^ -.^ areas of the former Russian Empire in February 1918, the Corps under the
-, command of Lt.-General J6zef Dowb6r-Muinicki also became subordinate to
Sthe German occupiers. The overprints are known used from 24 March to 2 July
S- 1918 and especially on 3.5.18, as shown here from the files of your editor. The
E, card is addressed in Polish to a priest in Kotomyja (now Kolomyya in Western
_/ .~ (7 Ukraione) and yet it also bears a Warsaw Local Post 10 fen. marking at upper
Left. The illustration is from an auction catalogue, which did not state if there
was a message on the back or any obligatory censorship indication. In short, it is
most doubtful that the card ever went through the post and it makes no sense in
its presumed "improved" state. Further comments from CSRP members would
be most welcome.
December 2006

by Janis Ozoins.
The devastating mail of the captives in the camps is encountered as letters with cachets bearing various numbers
in a square, in a circle, in rhomboid form, or with the inscriptions "IIpocMoTpeRo" ("Examined") or "KoHTpoJb"
("Checking Point"), etc. Such cachets are not to be found on all the mail from the camps and not in all years. That gives
us the opportunity to conclude that evident markings of the censorship were not introduced at all camps and, above all,
that they were initiated by a local camp authority, but not by a camp administration. However, those are just assumptions
and only a greater range of material can lead to specific deductions.. We will therefore begin with what we have and, with
the kind help and support of other colleagues, we will complete this investigation. Now for some examples:-
--A triangular letter sent to Karaganda province, Zharik station, p.o. box 246/11, The censorship marking (Fig. 1) was
prepared from metal and applied to the inner side of the letter. The letters (there are several of them, dating from 1944)
also bear the marking of the official military censorship (Fig 2).
--A podtcard from the Reshota station on the Krasnoyarsk railway line, p.o.b. 235/5. It was prepared from birch bark. The
stamp of the internal censorship is in the form of a double circle and there is a second marking of the military censorship
(Figs 3 & 4).
--Letters from the Karaganda province, Dolinskoe postal station p.o.b. LK 246/ 203952 were sent on 24.3.47, 31.4.47
and 24.6.47 to the town of Madona (Latvia). There are on the back of the covers initials reading: "V.D.Zh." (Figs. 5 to 10)
There was sent in 1946 a letter to that same address, but with a different censorship cachet of Censor No. 3 (Figs-. 11,12).
--Apostcard sent to the town of Karaganda, Churbai-Narynskoe postal station p.o.b. 16/9. There is on the back circular
markings with the text: "Censor No. 3" and :Censor No. 4". (Figs. 13 to 15).
--Letters to the Karaganda postal station, Zhano-Arkinskoe postal station, p.o.b. 246/M/1. to the prisoner P. Grinvalds in
the period from 1952 to 1954 Such letters are found with markings of the censorship in rectangular form, with a rhombus
enclosing a number "13" or "23" (Figs. 16 to 18). There was sent to the same addressee a letter in 1952 (the_envelope was
not preserved) with a triangular censorship marking, seen with a a weak strike (Fig. 19).
--A postcard sent from the town of Vel'sk, Arkhangel'sk province, p.o.b. LK 32 (Central Infirmasry). There is on the back
of the card a rectangular marking of the camp censorship, with the inscription "No. 14 Examined") with dimensions 36
x 8 mm. On other letters of 1947, the following camp infirmaries were specified: LK 32/31, LK 32/9, LK 32/15, LK 21
and there are on them strikes of the camp censorship in the same type, but with other numbers (Nos. 6 & 10).
--A postcard to the Arkhangel'sk province, Ertsevo postal station, p.o.b. LK No. 233/19 with the marking in the form of a
rectangle (dimensions of 27 x 22 mm.), together with "No. 8" and unreadable letters. Such cards were sent in 1946 and
1947 (Figs. 23 & 24).
--The second postcard from this same camp dated 24.10.46 has a censorship marking in the form of a hexagon with the
number "K 19" in the centre (Figs. 25 & 26).
--A triangular letter sent to the Komi ASSR, town of Ukhta, p.o.b. 226/11 (postmark of Chib'yu). There is a censorship
marking in hexagonal form with thr number "8" in the centre (Fig. 27).
--A postcard from the Komi ASSR, Inta-2, Kozhvenskii district, LK 274/9-4 (postmark of Inta 15.1.52), with an octagonal
censorship marking with the number "3" (Figs. 28 & 29).
--A postcard sent 16.5.52 to thr town of Inta, p.o.b. 226/24, with a hexagonal marking and the number "30" (Fig. 30)..
--A postcard sent from the town of Inta p.o.b. 388/17 in 1954 with a strike of the censorship number "2" (Figs. 31 & 32).
--A letter sent from Sverdlovsk province, town of Ivdcl', district of Tamida, p.o.b. 232/6-1 (postmark of Ivdel', dated
11.4.52). The censorship cachet is the form of a triangle with the number "9" in the centre (Figs. 30 & 34).
--A letter to the Sverdlovsk province, town of Verkhnyaya Tavda, p.o.b. "H" 299 4/1 (postmark reading VERKH.
TAVDA 28.19.54) The censorship marking is in the form of a hexagon with the number "4" (Figs. 35 & 36).
--A postcard from Irkutsk province, town of Taishet, p.o.b. LK 215/40, with the postmark of Taishet 15.11.46 and a
partial strike of the camp censorship marking (Figs. 37 & 38).
--A triangular letter from the Molotov prov. :-, Polovinka postal station LK 5/1 (postmarked Polovinka 15.11.57). The
censorship marking reads "NKVD / Examinor 5" (Figs. 39 & 40)..
--A letter with a rectangular censorship marking (dimensions of 20 x 10 mm.) and reading "Examined No. 3". The letter
was written in 1951 and sent from the Molotv province, but the envelope was not preserved (Fig.41).
--A postcard from the Mordovian ASSR, town of Yavas, p.o.b. 285/18 (postmark of Yavas in 1953). The censorship
marking is in rhomboid form, enclosing the number "18" (Figs. 42 & 43)
In conclusion, we have a "Confirmation about the delivery of a postal parcel from the Komi ASSR, Kozhvinskii
District, Inta, p.o.b. 388/12" with an affirmation that the parcel was handed over to the addressee (Figs. 44 & 45). The
sending in Fig. 44 requires some comment. After the capitulation of the Germans in the Baltic areas, all the soldiers were
held in camps and the relatives knew nothing about the fate of their loved ones. Letters came in various instances to the
Public Prosecutor of the USSR and there were even special postcards printed in order to reply to the complaints but one
had to wait a long time; see the illustrations of a reply postcard of the Public Prosecutor of the USSR dated 10.11.45
(Figs. 46,47). THE POST-RIDER/aIMIINHK N_ 59
86 December 2006


1 ,' 414/0

7L0 f ..A. (L

e- t, 4,- 4- -

9C %?r~. .. d b~C.s


.i, .

IFiI 1,.
Fig, L, Ale

.- ~ ;-
--.- -r;
`, --II --~.-.

l-a- --i~ .i -T' .-.*i-.-

L-- -- ~ .

fr., 1-..-I
I~* I

Fig. 4,

December 2006

Fig. 2..

Fig. 5,

+.^Fe ... +i6.

Fig. 6.

.ivda / r ef
A-*-Cf- i *0.4. -_"

S. l.. a. -.

C .t e A.. *....... ..CI..

A .4..i o.p.u
.., ,, a ;-. ,, .. ,, *,,, .. ',

o,: ^ r om np um -.... ...... .
"t i e ,.'r^- v -.?. ;^^k'-- -".-- :
* ',* I j, *' '
..... ~ ~ ~ -- ,,,..-"

.-,- -..:

-- -. .. e. &1, 4 W

.. '. ." .; i

.k : -.-. -... ..., -.. i.. .
,S.' .I .'- "." .. -' ..'. -


Fir. 9. Fit 7.

7, ,-b

,- -, ". ,, ,,4
_". A .4 .
/~ '-a?/

$ i-ra

..- 3',. -. .' N.
*-. -N,. ,- t. -
.,- # + ,. -. -, .,,,
,. .: -. ./ :.....
." "' ,' '"i r '.-," t ,'. :
r -,,, .,,t --. .-. ,'-

; .., .:, .:= ,.. I. l.r -- +' ...# 1

December 2006

Fi. 8.



Fig. 11.

Fig. 12


.6 m. ,n .. .
--,..,a .,... I -i -.?. -^ S t'. o,...
.k w a *. J; ,*: ,^

U -.... ',. "-, : 5.
~ ~ '* o' 7 t
*< V yK M ~ j^ --- ...; -., :-I^.^

-Fig. 14.

.. A i..

1. 1. dot;: AA 4
+ .^ ...... (.....
.- JIO~. & P Mo.-

..M o -.. ,.
.;"'. *-. -."

Fig. 16..

S* r4 .x v / 7/ '

ftNfi.L .w~

~fr bo-- /ffO ,.-p
f~ot~tbL ah^^c' o*^_, jyMt^ ~utC- t au

* -amooS1 *x tu eo^ '^ff LO< hcSLUm^.fPtW

/MW^.ttK *M-- ^&L9b /

Fig. 18.

I ".r ./.. -... ..... -. .. ..

Ko.iy :-

n O/ b 3Y a T EC b A B HMA n o T 0 i

onpa 1 c .... ....... ............. ..
Adresge ? ?.
d P
'U i.~ h

,,l -_' --'* -. .' -* ,'t _-** ,. M a~ .... i' '.r
^ ^ -^ -^ ^ "IV;-- *j'.2.
!..^ .'7* .. .' '7 d. : '-** -^ ^ ;'.-; -J ..... ,'
,--. ,..C
I"^, ".V-'^ j ^aca'-'5 ; ".:.-' ,- *, '-'. -. <7 $ ^ ^ <,., ^. ". ,
".;-1' .'-,... o .v -

'^^.'-:., .. -.:..q ... ._ ,
a-. ... < I-r .. .
e \m? i o --.** 1 *' *:

-_t *- "1*.; .- -: -
, -.. .- .
. o. .: .;.;1 ,; ; .. -1 --'.". :
.~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~0 Qrc .-" r- .mr_ '.,,e W... ,'..
:.. .,., .:-;:": .,< ,, = -;' .- "'--- r
.=;-.-- -.'". "' ,.f = "..: -- -, '".. ....

Fig. 13.

Fig. 15.

Fig. 17.

"LL- -. .

yo ; foar.- .

..... .- < ,-= _


December 2006

d -1~~~~----~ ~---'"3h ._~-----S~a~4

;- ii

g&,rne LAC& t #.. t-&'

Fig[. 19.

Fig. 22.

r~ j 4r *,zg 1 t*4 --
7~ O ." 0&7q1- --- 92

ov %Av -7 t0 Ta C t;

1; ~.- c C'--:! .

~~~~- 4Li.,J' i
--Li 'yLI~.-9L~Or 4-' tI il-9

Ax. .S.LLIr I~LO

~~ca u~I Lk
XcorR ~L CCCC~~~~CCC~~~CCC~~~7CC



Ao.Mv --..- i

'- "7'y
IAEHtrH M1(AtilU OTfiPA&Bjiflib In]oqiO I II ri~ A41OM H 4ororijrJEPA.0o

Fia. 20.

ICT lnbyu..a: "f 3o ,-~i

~Kr"~iq hO7 x'~-~Q ~ nCiqghP,~~~

.t4b"L 'C'OA~p( Cb ~1J7 ~ Ad
L ft U t4-7

.?r/707, /'&t "!6 Z7Fi2.Wj. 21.
%rFLq lIL IP P-

hob~rr r~he PVhiu~r,
m~resveC~l~b "Sew'-,~p eL
P~ hCLff 4411~ ~,r "'L 3r'
~:~9 /Y hn~gFia. 21. bl?

THE POST-RIDER/aMImHK Ni 59 Fig. 23.
December 2006

Fig. 24.


..(:..c.4: ..'* ,,,&ro=,R"-- "" .



c.n P7., .3 [

Fig. 25.

Fig. 26.

S .......... ..................... ...... ... ..................
I .].-/ v .j ,_ f ............. Si

I..a ... .. ..... ... .. .... .... ...... ..,...
PL7;e<-l4t Fg 28.
I .. / .. ....... ........ .... :.. ...... ........... ..... I
c.,, "w'

Q '-- v *
~t~~c ~Rc B~~~fI~~~4_P_1n ;F "'y~~__ ~ n~ r

I k;, ti- v 0 I
.. v,,,.s,,
[, 0 it -. i I.' l vs
PIrIa., Ila .IowI0aX no roxp?.o.ltoy Koalr oiy 5
. 11oro B. 0A00ocai2a

4.I. 226/24-

December 2006

Fig. 30.

0 1.. r. .0 *A R -1
'/ ""

. --" ., "'*, '*<
. '. ,, "" L .. "/ :," .
^^ ^^ .-N

- l -
-i(AxA l^ne Flai df is e~ww

t'i^Yc tl~cZRtoide4 ~ i^
L^- aiZa.^i^Ss^ j~cu, tTitu-

H.I i CCy~e f wjL vwi~ *:^*
W^Ultw4 Qh. QaLt- M".eii-iA1

K*Vic ~ A^ (loutae jgs^ IQLr:--

sn; y ad9U^A,,fesa
~d2 4nfW, t~iScPAM1 fffcL
1 t-I42aG aL$-dt ,-iIA< 2l, t<:-o A

jlzetI c? R *l 't-(^i~o L (^A<^ J-vc^
k 3aAA- cf ~t -e'fP. t ?u4 A2wcwVrgsL
bC3pru1~~U~~L~ eky

Fig. 29.


'w& ?"'/. :~.t.* ***^^^72' '-'':
....-.- ...f.. -. "

d L2Ct1. L
t il4a4 m wer a.-- .

l- ,., ,J ,,.'
. r "" :
-.1s f- f
f~ ~ ~ ~ 10 tnpll'~ f" e '

Fig. 31.

. ... .. I ,=

-~._-ra~-sll__..~ _~_~~ _~_;


----------- ---

Fig. 34


O' 2 .2 2 ,

a&--; ,- ,
ML, wz -V;e

2 er, ^ ^ a^^ '- '- t

4'ffe-f, "/ a .-,
~i~r ~~4~b Zgi~~bat~C


.** -itI '"-1& sg E.,..:

..**.- :" .- '/'-d ^ .'.. -< e,- ti'- ^'. .F: '.-'''-..a--:."!,
g c~ tcLe -t/PJA*fy~
.' "" '^ ". ", "" "'";'''; ." .' -
... '. ".-/ '"e:i:."
>r .; ". '* .V- .""- .*

* *4i .V / 4-

S ," .< A -I ^^^. -

lfi ~c. fittr\4 i ,r
' .'*.*- ; Ij,/- 'n" '* 1 '. ,- ^h^ '' ^ ""s"-:
..'' /*-*t ^ 1^ -- .(y i- -ri- :-W,"- l U
.:.;, '' ****" '' "*'*-'. X 'tc ~ ,y J u
*4-^ -<^t4. '< -i-- ':& '^ A, f, il
.. '. ./ *

Fig. 35.

Fig. 37.

Fig. 38.

December 2006

,/c;'. c ,

C A "

f 4. }'7h, 6,,1ey; '
-' .: (., CYe7 'ev

,. ::. ..

Fig. 33.

9 OR...n

-X 1 99 4l-1

W, &, CAi- t

o^b ^^c y

Fig. 36.


- ----




xL L

eX4 eX- -e- -. te

(j -nO1. 4 C Fil.40.
*c ?~- ~E' r.

eA, oj-- c, e

7~/eJL ee c o- I

W;eeeaeL, 1Zee~p__ __ __ __ __ __
'3 ~ e-0 /oCTUF~ 320ci

Adpec' -f ee C C:50

LUOa :t cU~g4#-jFia. 42.

Fig. 41. j

December 2006



1,e j 4


i j. 'YaeOo MAeu e
o BpyYeHMM nOITOBOg nocbinHx
SIIonTBepr amai noioayOeHe IIoc1JIKH M r" oI VS aea
E Ot iO&eHBOCTLbD: P P. Ion.
B JIB^HOfl -IfloniICtbD:

a 45- -

Fig. 45.

..................... ....... .. .... ...... ............. .............
.......... '... ^^. .. ............. /-
( A d r eiiae "i .u pi, p u B"*,
Ko~fy ....................... i4fz(4.: .......
..sy..... .......
nOA b Y H T E C b A BH A n 0l4 T OA

.,'dfe A4 ;.x ,d tfi ., : ,- ...................................................................... ....................................
dressed. 46.

FiL. 46.

Fie. 47. Fig. 48.
Editorial Comment: Linked with the above sad subject is a commemorative envelope for the 4 t. Latvian Song Festival
28 to 30 May 1965 in Toronto (Fig. 48), but sent on 31 December 1965 with the following address in Russian::- "To any
person of Latvian origin, sentenced as a colonist or to work in a punishment camp in the area, Nizhne-Kolymsk, Kolyma
province, USSR". The letter was handled by the Moscow International Post Office 20.1.66, with the Russian address
crossed out and a red two-line cachet applied in French: "RETOUR/ Adresse inexacte", being returned to Box 154,
Station "E", Toronto-4.

The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even.
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) pos(pidl, payable to the Canadiin n Society of
Russian Philately, at (he Society address.

December 2006




Handbook of Philately and Postal History

The Postgebiet Ob. Ost in the territory of the later

Latvian Republic 1915 1920

by Harry v. Hofmann RDP (AIEP, BPP, FRPSL), published on behalf of the Latvia Study Group (Bund Deutscher
Philatelisten), translated by Philip E. Robinson (FRPSL).
408 pages 16.9 x 24 cm with nearly 270 illustrations, bilingual German and English, softbound, 6 68.00 plus postage.

Chronicle and Documentation.

Stamps: "Postgebiet Ob. Ost" overprinted issue; Emergency issue for Libau; Stamps from the German Reich; The
Bermondt-Avaloff "stamps"; Bermondt-Avaloff cash rankings.
Postal stationery and postcards: Postal stationery cards overprinted "Postgebiet Ob. Ost"; Reply-paid postcards
"Postgebiet Ob. Ost"; "Postgebiet Ob. Ost" overprinted private postal stationery cards, envelopes and wrappers; Mail
from inhabitants to America; Charity cards of the Mitau Command Headquarters.
Postmarks: German postmarks; Postmark errors; Forged and Fantasy Postmarks.
Special types of dispatch: German registration labels; Provisional registration markings; Registration with advice of
delivery; Travelling Post Office "Libau-Koscheda..."; Postal exchanges with Austria-Hungary and Bosnia-Herzegovina;
Offices of German Chambers of Commerce; Book-post within and from the Ob. Ost postal area; Book-post to the
Postgebiet Ob. Ost; Civilian Workers' Mail; The "Free Workers" mail; Prisoner-of-War Mail; The Riga town post;
Official Post Office mail sent free of postage; Official mail sent post-free by civilian offices; Postal exchanges with
Russia; Returning Migrants' Mail; The Handover of Postal Authority; "Ob. Ost" Stamps in the Soviet Period; Latvian-
German Co-Operation in 1919; The German Legation to the Latvian and Estonian Governments; Telegrams and Field
Telegraph Postmarks.
Censorship: The Censorship of Private Mail within the Ob. Ost; The Censorship of Mail to Germany; The Censorship
of Mail to Austria-Hungary; Objections raised during Censorship; Chemical censorship; Field Post Censorship.
Field Post: German Field Post Offices in the Latvian area; Imperial German Naval ship Mail; Field Post Censorship;
Field Post via German post offices; Soldiers' mail to neutral foreign countries; "Heeressache" or "Marinesache" ;
"Heeressache" and "Marinesache" to Austria-Hungary; "Heeressache" to abroad; Mail from German civilians sent via
the Field Post service; The so-called "Field Post small packet cancellations.; Air Mail for the 8th Army; Field Post
addresses including the word "Osten"; 8th Army Relay Messenger Post; Mail from the Baltische Landeswehr; Eiserne
Division; Field Post from the Russian West Volunteer Army; Field Post money orders; The forwarding of money orders
for former Russian prisoners; British and French prisoners of war in Kurland; British Military Mission Baltic States.
Special procedures: Investigations; Returned Mail; Delayed for Military Reasons; Additional frankings in Riga;
Additional Cancelling in Riga; The "Eesti" marking.
Postal forms: Receipts; Money orders; Investigations; Field Post money orders; Letter bundle slips; "Letter pouches";
The Ob. Ost Postal Area as a Foreign Country.
Forgeries and dubious items: Buhr's frivolities; Forged and Fantasy Postmarks.
Documents: Currencies and Postal Tariffs; Postal Service Handbook; Sources and Documents; Literature

Third Symposium on the Postal History of Latvia in Cesis/Wenden, 12 Aueust 2006.
This is a 64-page brochure, 235 x 160 mm., richly illustrated and with the text in German and Latvian. The
subjects covered include the Philately and Postal History of Cesis/Wenden; the Development of Postal Services in
Vidzeme/Livonia; Kurzeme/Kurland and South Livonia during the Postgebiet Ob. Ost period; the Stamp of Northenn
Livonia and, finally, Latvian Postal Communications 1918/1920.
Available from the Harry v. Hofmann Verlag, Postfach 56 01 56, D-22551, Germany at 12 Euros postpaid.

December 2006

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
The following three items have recently come into my collection, but it is my pleasure to share them with
YAMSHCHIK readers:
1. As written in the Rossica Journal, and I confess to being the one whp raised the question to begin with, covers and
cards which have a dual franking of Romanov and Zemstvo stamps are very rare. There were two types of Zemstvo mail:
(a) mail incoming to a Zemstvo, that could have any of the valid stamps on paying the Imperial mail rate and then the
local Zemstvo stamp paying the local delivery rate, and (b) Outgoing mail from a Zemstvo, bearing a local Zemstvo stamp
and then stamps added for onward transmission from the local Imperial post office.. In the first case, the postmark of
dispatch would of course be different from the Zemstvo arrival location. In the second case, the local Zemstvo and the
Imperial post office were in the same locale. In this case, the sender in the Zemstvo district had to frank the cover with
both the local Zemstvo stamp and Imperial postage. As the Zemstvo post offices that connected with the Imperial Post
only had Arms stamps of the various issues, but no Romanov or War Charity issues, the only way that this type of mail
could have Romanov stamps was if the sender actually had some and utilized them. That was the only way that mail
dispatched from a Zemstvo could have had Romanov frankings. There are a few covers bearing Romanov and Zemstvo
dual rankings and, in a few extremely rare cases, dual franking with a Zemstvo stamp on Romanov imprinted stationery
This cover in Figs. la & lb is from the Glazov Zemstvo issue, bearing a 2-kopek Glazov Zemstvo issue with
large mauve oval postmark GLAZOVSKAYA / ZEMSKAYA POCHTA 18 November 1913. It bears 2 x 7-koprk
Nicholas II stamps paying the onward registered rate, with Glazov postmarks of the same date. There is alongside the
Vyatka arrival postmark of 20.11.13. The front of the cover is shown addressed to Vyatka, with the Imperial post office
registration label "GLAZOVSKAYA / PTK Vyat. G." at bottom right. A beautiful example of a Romanov-Zemstvo
2. We know well of mail carried by ships in the Baltic Sea.. Quite a lot of mail was carried on ships in the waters of the
Finnish Gulf and from Finland to adjoining countries Sweden aand Denmark, sometimes to Germany. They usually bear
"PAQUEBOT" cachets or, on arrival in Sweden/Denmark a cachet reading "FRAN FINLAND" (from Finland),
validating the Russian stamps used for ex-Finland mail. The cover in Fig. 2 originated from Riga, as per the logo in the
lower left corer. It is franked with a 2-kopek Romanov stamp, being the concession rate for simple advertising leaflets.
The cover bears a FRAN FINLAND cachet. i.e. carried by ship from Finland and the stamp is postmarked STOCKHOLM
20.10.13. Although such ship mail is not common, very few items are known with Romanov franking. We will not debate
here whether Romanov stamps were on sale in Finland or mostly brought in by visitors.
In the 1890s, there was a FR. RYSSLAND (from Russia) cachjet applied to mail, but that is very scarce indeed.
The FRAN FINLAND in the 1900s and 1910s is more common. However, the item here comes from Riga in the Baltic
provinces of the Russian Empire and I wondered why it did not have the more logical FR. RYSSLAND. I am grateful to
our Post-Rider editor Andrew Cronin for elucidating the point. It is extremely likely that the ship had left Riga, sailed
across the Gulf of Finland to Helsingfors/Helsinki or/and Abo/Turku, before traveling on to Stockholm in Sweden. As far
as the Swedish Postal Service was concerned from the last port of call, the ship had come from Finland, so the FRAN
FINLAND cachet was applied. But truly, Romanov frankings with the ship cachet and Stockholm/ Copenhagen etc.
cancelling postmarks are very noce and far from common.
3. The item in Fi. 3 is truly breathtaking: Romanov franking on a Finnish money-transfer order!. I can testify that, having
been a specialist in Imperial Russia for over 40 years and equally in time a specialist in the Romanov issues, I had never
seen Romanov rankings on Finnish omney orders! The form itself is on pink stock with black print. It is postmarked
NYSTAD 16.11.14, with the trilingual postmark tying the two Romanov 7-kopek stamps with the Finnish franking of
20+5 pennia for the sum of 75 Finmarks and it is backstamped on receipt at Sorsakoski 18.111.14. In my opinion, the
sender undoubtedly had the two Romanov stamps from the post office counter. Extraordinary and a rare usage of the
Romanov issue.

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
Imperial Russia provided facilities for registration on its TPOs/RPOs. The letter had to be correctly franked and
handed to the clerk on the TPO/RPO. The clerk entered the cover on his register, handed the sender a receipt and wrote on
the cover the rout6 (PV = Postal Van) and either (a) the number for the day, or (b) the next number in his register. These
items are extremely scarce.
The cover in Fi. 4 was addressed to Moscow and franked with 3 x 7-kop. Nicholas II stamps a paying double-
weight rate plus 7 kop. for registration. Very fine oval postmarks of ARKHANGEL'SK-194-VOLOGDA 20.5.14. The
top left corer bears the notation of the postal clerk on the TPO/RPO, with No. 5 (item for the day) / Postal Van 194.

96 December 2006

n~eo~ ~1ntlbj JABOJ~b
pplon~ae~r rL-E c on vi ji u Ft bi k -%I A BOA b: -
UHaumcua~rro I uIOPPOdJ1I TondowmaCTR MI AAUTT HIE TbHRObH'

V.l ______ r;i) ~ A H '

~'~~ -.-; -~,.-*: .,.i*

=- r


Postetunni ostkoti Post_ Wrskotts-Adressk ort.
--b 1 .P _H-

-L Fig I

R a *,Fi. 4 .

Fi.2 TEPSTRDRstiMItainHK JoL e 59 i2. 3.s 9'sotsArssot
Dcb 2006
c dl



SFig. 2.TEPS-IERME a 99

December 2006I~

by Gary A. Combs.

.. or uto nIaw h iT onB nO/ U ai r 1t 51

..- ..... ... 0
IT 7
.- ,.-... 7" "^ .f ..l U

This 3-kopek card is correctly franked and sent from Stalineshty (!) on 4 December 1885 O.S.; it was recorded in
the 1881 Listing as handling all classes of mail. It proceeded via Novoselitsa the next day in the Khotin region, being
addressed to France and handled on RPO/TPO Avricourt A Paris, where it arrived on 20 December 1886 N.S., hence four
days in transit. In the 1916 Postal Listing, Stalineshty was downgraded to a "BonocrHoe IlpaBieiie" (District
Editorial Comment: An interesting feature is the unusual place-name of Stalineshty. This is a sheer coincidence
reminiscent of I.V. Stalin, who would have been 7 years old in 1886 and still under his original surname of Dzhugashvili.
The Khotin district is now part of the Ukrainian Republic and Stalineshty no longer appears in postal listings, If it still
exists, it must have been renamed at some point. Who else has strikes from this small office?

by Alan Leighton.


This registered cover was cancelled with the "KbZbL 8.4.41 ThBA "a"marking in the type known to have been
'applied in Kyzyl and it was safely received in Denver, Colorado on 7 June 1941. Please bear in mind that the Soviet
Philatelic Association in Moscow had a duplicate "a" postmarker for cancelling to order the stamps of the 1936 Jubilee
Editorial Comment: Although grossly overfranked at 6 tug. 40 kop., the cover is still interesting, as it provides a clue to
the routing. It was sent offto Tuva during WWII.and before the Japanese.attack on Pearl Harbour, 7 December 1941. The
now serviced and returned registered cover was presumably transmitted overland from Kyzyl to Vladivostok. From there
it went across the Pacific Ocean by ship to San Francisco 5 June 1941, arriving in Denver two days later e
days in transit in the 1916 Postal Listing, Stalineshty was downgraded to a teBo stocpHoe fIpaJte19e" Juistrict

Editorial Comment: An interesting feature is the unusual place-name of Stalineshtv. This is a sheer coincidence
reminiscent ofI.V. Stalin, who would have been 7 years old in 1886 and still under his original surname ofDzhugashvili.
The Khotin district is now part of the Ukrainian Republic and Stalineshty no longer appears in postal listings. If it still

Do any of our other Tuva specialists have examples of similar usages, proceeding along this assumed routing?
December 2006

by Richard E. Clever.
I have added a mint copy of K4 postal stationery (per the Ustinovskii Handbook). The man who sold it to me is in
,Moscow and said he had all six of the postal stationery items in his collection. I am asking him if he will provide me with
colour copies;, of all the examples in his collection. Hopefully, he will agree.
I can now show two other pieces of postal stationery herewith, which I presently own. I would also like to help in
locating other pieces of stationery, to try to get together an inventory of what still exists. The envelope in Fig. 1. shows a
yak being milked and has a face value of 20 kopeks. It was sent in January 1937 from Kyzyl to Moscow, where it was
backstamped three times on 19 January 1937.
The second envelope, in Fig. 2 has the same face value of 20 kopeks in the "sable" design. It is addressed to the
Soviet Ten-Classes School in Kyzyl, but the dispatch postmark is unreadable. It was backstamped "KbZbL TbBA
21.?.42 and there is also a 30-kopek "Jubilee" uncancelled reissue without year dates and with the colour altered to
maroon on the back.


13 1

1 ^
0( 131"

December 2006

* *2. -


(koinun azh z(jaTj)
I Miiim aBzU kndLrncu)
(ImiD talalq ma paLn, Bred MJ
'Kfmga Ov of W *. At:,

Pizeen kizlnin turar ceri -polgad adb: II4,4e

et ~7..af. efbaii^d!

x 'i


; .


IC-LI ---~C--



7. Mooj* cu -


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs