Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: History is repeating...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - sixteenth...
 Genuine mail and postal fraud in...
 Postal fraud in the Osa Zemstv...
 The ROPit postal service in the...
 The tale of two stamps, the Windward...
 The postal and customs services...
 The mail of the personnel of the...
 Soviet improvisation in 1940, 1941...
 Pre-Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
 An item from Bessarabia in the...
 Postmarks of the suburban trains...
 Convoys to the Soviet Arctic in...
 The third famine relief issue in...
 A comprehensive tabulation of missing...
 Matters Mongolian (III)
 "Multiwagon" postal sendings
 The Gor'kii automobile factory
 Here come some more railways
 The Volga famine issue of 1921
 Usages of the Volga famine issue...
 Some features of the mail service...
 Private commercial blank forms...
 A review of Volga-German postal...
 Philatelic shorts

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00055
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: June 2005
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00055
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00056 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: History is repeating itself
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - sixteenth instalment
        Page 4
    Genuine mail and postal fraud in the Gadyach' Zemstvo
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Postal fraud in the Osa Zemstvo
        Page 9
    The ROPit postal service in the Middle East: Initial period 1857-1874 (Russian text)
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The tale of two stamps, the Windward and the Polar Bear, from expeditions to Franz-Josef Land at the turn of the century
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The postal and customs services in the USSR
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The mail of the personnel of the Soviet navy (1941-1945)
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Soviet improvisation in 1940, 1941 and 1944
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Pre-Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
        Page 70
        Page 71
    An item from Bessarabia in the period of troubles
        Page 72
    Postmarks of the suburban trains of St. Petersburg with the designation of their times of dispatch 1876-1900
        Page 73
    Convoys to the Soviet Arctic in the Second World War
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    The third famine relief issue in May 1922 of the Armenian SSR
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    A comprehensive tabulation of missing perforations on Tuvan stamps
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Matters Mongolian (III)
        Page 85
        Page 86
    "Multiwagon" postal sendings
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The Gor'kii automobile factory
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Here come some more railways
        Page 96
    The Volga famine issue of 1921
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Usages of the Volga famine issue of 1921
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Some features of the mail service in Blockaded Leningrad 1941-1944
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Private commercial blank forms with a preliminary postal marking
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    A review of Volga-German postal history
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text



?i_ 56

June 2005


Pnnted in Canada



P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider(@svmpatico.ca
"THE POST-RIDER" MN 56. June 2005.
2 Editorial: History is repeating itself
2 Special Note; also at 3, 8, 48. 67, 69, 101, 106 & 118-120
3 Correspondence with Canada: A registered airmail express letter to Winnipeg Natalie Krasheninnikoff
4 Zemstvo varieties: Sixteenth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
5 Genuine mail and postal fraud in the Gadyach' Zemstvo Edward Klempka
9 Postal Fraud in the Osa Zemstvo Edward Klempka
10 The ROPiT Postal Service in the Middle East: Initial Period 1857-1874 (Russian text) L. Ratner
40 The tale of two stamps, the Windward and the Polar Bear, from Doctors G. Adolph Ackerman & Hal Vogel
expeditions to Franz-Josef Land at the turn of the century
49 The Postal and Customs Services in the USSR Meer Kossoy
54 The Mail of the Personnel of the Soviet Navy (1941-1945) Meer Kossoy & Vladimir Berdichevskiy
68 Soviet Improvisation in 1940, 1941 and 1944 Dr. Ivo Steijn
70 Pre-Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail Alexander Epstein
72 An Item from Bessarabia in the Period of Troubles Alexander Epstein
73 Postmarks of the Suburban Trains of St. Petersburg with the designation of their Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
times of dispatch 1876-1900; Revision of Fig. 15 in the "P-R" Xo 55, pp. 106-107
74 Convoys to the Soviet Arctic in the Second World War: Salvador Bofarull
78 The Third Famine Relief Issue in May 1922 of the Armenian SSR Dr. A.M. Sargsyan
82 A comprehensive Tabulation of Missing Perforations on Tuvan Stamps O.P. Sel'nikov
85 Matters Mongolian (Il) V.N. Ustinovskii, Richard Clever, Norman J.D. Ames & A. Cronin
87 "Multiwagon" Postal Sendings Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
94 FopbKOBCKHIf ABT03aBOg The Gor'kii Automobile Factory Andrew Cronin
96 Here come some more Railways Rabbi L.L. Tann
97 The Volga Famine Issue of 1921 Alex Sadovnikov
102 Usages of the Volga Famine Issue of 1921 Andrew Cronin
102 Obituaries: V.S. Rozov and L. Ya. Mel'nikov
104 Some Features of the Mail Service in Blockaded Leningrad 1941-1944 Meer Kossoy
107 Private Commercial Blank Forms with a Preliminary Postal Marking Professor A.S. Ilyushin & Dr. A. Ryss
112 A Review of Volga-German Postal History Dr. Ivo Steijn, Robert Taylor & Vitalii Yu. Malov
116 Philatelic Shorts Michael Ercolini, Herberts Dreimanis & A. Cronin

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

Copyright 2005. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily
those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.


On 25 July 1934, the Chancellor of Austria Engelbert Dollfuss was brutally murdered by Austrian Nazis and
a 10-Schilling mourning stamp was issued exactly two years later in his memory (see above at right). Beautifully
engraved and issued in a limited quantity, it soon become popular and rose in price, even after the Anschluss of 13
March 1938. As a result, German album page publishers were obliged to insert in the printed space allotted for that
stamp a notice that "The German philatelist does not put this stamp in his collection", but that did not affect its
However, the aftermath of WWII left Austria impoverished and the stamp became a drug on the market If
one bargained hard enough, it could have been bought for US $25-50 in the early 1950s. That situation changed on
27 July 1955 when the "Staatsvertrag" (Austrian State Treaty) was signed and all occupation forces left the republic.
The country slowly recovered and is now very prosperous. The Dollfuss 10-Schilling Mourning stamp is back in
favour and is now catalogued in Europe at 1300 Euros.
The moral of the story is that economic and political circumstances affect the price levels of philatelic
material. With the dissolution of the USSR, many valuable items in our areas of collecting came onto the
international market and bargains could be had. That is no longer the case, as economic conditions in the Russian
Federation are noticeably improving and a lot of the better material is going back to the mother country. That trend
will inevitably continue and it would be wise to complete the items one still lacks before prices go out of sight
He/she who hesitates is lost.
Greek maritime contacts with the Black Sea area
tA 9 go back at least four millennia and the period from
/ J1 October 1861 to 28 February 1875 (all dates O.S.)
is especially relevant to us for the application of the

'.. on mail, mainly sent by Greek merchants along the
t shores of the Black Sea. An analysis of the letter
y/ ) shown here brings some interesting facets to light
S' Posted at Taganrog 7 June 1870 and prepaid to
r Greece at 30 kopeks, it went via Odessa on the 14'.
and reached the Greek Exchange Post Office
a Abroad in Constantinople, Turkey on 16t. June.
Regardless of prepayment, it was subject there to
Greek internal postal charges, in this case amounting to 45 lepta as shown. That was the rate for transmission by a
French ship from Constantinople to the island of Hydra, where the two Greek stamps were applied as postage due.
Depending upon availability, the internal fee would have been 40 lepta by an Austrian or Greek ship. If the foreign
mail arrived overland at the Greek border, it was subject to the Greek internal letter rate of 20 lepta per weight step.
A further category was partially-unpaid incoming foreign mail, which was sometimes treated as being completely
unpaid and Large Hermes Head stamps were affixed to recover the entire cost of transmission. The whole point of
the exercise is the wide range of franking combinations of Russian and Greek stamps, as practically every example is
different in some way. Another variation was the introduction of specific Greek postage due stamps on 1 March 1875
and the subsequent entry of Greece as one of the original signatories of the UPU Convention on 19 June 1875. That
action greatly simplified the prepayment of foreign mail.
In summing up, CSRP members are kindly requested to send in details of their pre-UPU combination rankings,
which we will be happy to analyse in detail.
June 2005

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear Xerox copy of the
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

by Natalie Krasheninnikoff.

This interesting letter has a relatively high franking to pay for its transmission by registered express airmail,
being sent from Bryukhovichi, L'viv province 17.10.59 to Winnipeg, Manitoba. The rates at that time were 60 kop.
for a foreign surface letter, 80 kop. for registration and 1 trouble airmail surtax, leaving 2r. 60k. for the express fee.
Can anyone confirm that last charge? The envelope is addressed in English and Ukrainian to Judge W.A. Molloy,
leaving us to wonder about the legal implications of this sending!

w wwww 1wwwwwwwww vy SPECIAL NOTE:
7.GeorgeeBalanchine- choreographer(1896-1983
This interesting letter has a relatively high ranking to pay for its transmission by registered express airmailked

as a choreographer under S.P. Dyagilev until the latter died
being sent fom Bryukhovihi, L'viv province 17.10.59 to Winnipeg, Manitobally The rates at that time U.S., were 60 kop.

co-founder of the New York City Ballet and of the School
for a foreign surface letter, 80 kop. for registration and 1 rouble airmail surtaxllet, choreographing 2r. 60kdist for ctlye express fee.

U.S. style of dance. He was not favoured by Soviet
leaving us to wonder about the legal implications of this sending!line
in George Balanchine- choreographer (1896-1983
'J |-B^ Born Georgii Melitonovich Balanchivadze of Georgian

1 m his choreography. The tastefully designed U.S. stamp
2pashown here was part of a series issued in 2004 to honour
I& ~AA kaAAAAAA &AA merican choreographers.

June 2005

By G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. Where a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties do not
exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is shown here is what
I have in my collection. .. -.-
ORGEEV. Bessarabia province.

'- ..' .,I
',' ": ",, Cl, ', ,''B E ':

Chuchin No. 20 Pair with vertical perforation
... ,' No. 6 i er f -at

Chuchin No. 6: Pairs imperforateshifted to the right and with additional
vertically and horizontally. horizontal perforation.
r- tl ~horizontal perforation.-

OSA, Perm' province: (see also p. 9 herewith).

Chuchin No. 5: Left-hand pair has additional horizontal perforation. Left stamp shows
separation at top along additional perforation, with the right-hand stamp intact. Right-
hand pair imperf vertically. Both pairs used, indicating that all available stamps were
used by the Zemstvo clerks. Osa also used bisected and quartered stamps.

Chuchin No. 14: Used pair,
imperforate vertically.

Chuchin No. 15:
Block of 6 and pair
imperf. vertically.

Chuchin No. 22: Vertical
pair with additional
horizontal perforation.

June 2005

by Edward Klempka.
(a) Genuine mail, ex Faberge:


^ v-'L ^c'

^z ^^*^So^^^

-^^a^ ^&a^-<^? ^^rt^^'^3^

*/ "
'. ~ c -**>- ." .-^ : Pi
S' ;-- -
r-;/ A -t
r?^ /- ,

Addressed to the Gadyach' District Court Session and handed in by a peasant at Rusanovka village, Marian
Andreevich Klimenko. Judging by the Imperial postage of 14 kop., this was a second weight-step letter.
Franked by Gadyach' 3 kop. blue, green and carmine at Rusanovka Zemstvo P.O., it was forwarded to the
Lipovaya Dolina Zemstvo P.O., then handed over to the Imperial P.O. there 7.XII.1895 to affix the required 14-
kop. postage and received the same day at the Gadyach' Imperial P.O. (Schmidt 37).
June 2005




LY~?YfJ' apr~

C .;'. h-

(b} Genuine mail, ex Faberge:


'.': .. .- C-." ,-

All, :: .- i

Being addressed to the Gadyach' District Zemstvo
Administration for the peasant proprietor Petr Ivanovich
Borchak (?), it was presented on 16 Feb. 1898 at the
Andreevka Zemstvo P.O. to be franked with Schmidt No.
38, forwarded to the Lipovaya Dolina Zemstvo P.O. and
then handed over to the Imperial P.O. there to affix 7 kop.
Imperial postage on 17 February, arriving finally at the
Gadyach' Imperial P.O. the same day.

June 2005


.' \
^*., ,-Tl '


(c) Postal Frauds:

This example is taken from
the back of a registered cover, the
Zemstvo rates being 3 kop. simple
letter + 3 kop. registration. Two 3-
kop. stamps had originally been
applied and one of them removed
(gum stains evident). The postmark
on the front and on the original
strike both dated 6 July.....The
Gadyach' postmark applied later is
dated 4 Feb. 18....The right-hand
3-kop. value was removed and the
c.d.s. applied to conceal the portion
of the original strike. The removed
stamp was available for further use.
(Chuchin 22, Schmidt 23).

'. i
11.7 ;--

..'' ,b~S
Ir :






: 1

.-V \



This example has been taken from the back
of a local registered cover, in which the right-
hand 3-k. value (Chuchin 22, Schmidt 23)
has been removed. Original date 14 AUG. 18...
and c.d.s. 4 FEB. 18...applied to hide removal.

Another case from the back
ofa reg'd cover. Original
date 19 AUG. 18 & c.d.s.
18 FEB.94 applied to hide
.missing 3-k.(Chuchin 22).

The same again with 2 x
3k. removed (gum stains
evident). Untied pen-
cancelled 3k affixed
(Schmidt 25) with c.d.s.
Gadyach' 4 FEB. 18....

Here the stamps have been removed
from a local reg'd cover and an untied
pen-cancelled 3k. affixed (Schmidt 26).
Letter was mailed on 29 OCT. 18 and
postmark on stamp is dated 4 FEB. 18..

This is a reg'd letter from peasant Yakov Kirichenko of Veprik, Poltava prov., to the judge in Gadyach'. Letter posted 14 NOV.
18...and two 3-k. stamps removed (original gum stains visible). Untied pen-cancelled 3k. value affixed (Chuchin 25; Schmidt
27) and cancelled Gadyach' 14 FEB. 18... T POST-R E56 7
June 2005

/f -Wt.2

.I >1 Y

W-~ 4''w

I _L


---L--- ,

~~2~2~7 :-.- i

Local letter correctly paid at 3k., but original value Local reg'd letter paid at 6k. rate, but postage
removed and untied pen-cancelled 3k. lilac stamp removed and untied pen-cancelled 3k. value
affixed (Chuchin 25; Schmidt 27). It was cancelled affixed (Schmidt 41). Original date 17 NOV.
with Gadyach' c.d.s. 4 FEB. 18... 18...on front, but stamp cancelled 4 FEB. 18..

This hand-made cover is from Lyuten'ka with same day Gadyach' arrival on the front. An untied pen-cancelled 3k_ value
(Schmidt 41) received a Gadyach' c.d.s. of 4 FEB. 18... (several months apart). Ex Fabergd.
Editorial Comment. The substitutions in the postal frauds detailed above were all so blatant, that one wonders how they could
have been transmitted without the connivance of higher officials in the Gadyach' Zemstvo Postal Service. Comments, please.


This title by Yurii Grekov and advised by our member V. Babich consists of a 400-page paperback in AS
format, issued wholly in Russian by Editura Prut Internaional, str. Ion Creanga nr. 59, CHIINAU MD 2051,
Republic of Moldova; E-mail: pmt(),moldtelecom.md whom kindly contact for price and other details.
A well-illustrated work, this book gives extensive biographical data about the topic "Women on Stamps",
with additional pictures of those not honoured on stamps. Three CSRP members are credited at the bottom of p. 396
with supplying data, namely Volodymyr Babych/ V. Babich, Salvador Bofarull and Andrew Cronin- What better
recommendation could one have than that?

June 2005

by Edward Klempka.

i- 'V\
\ J
"- *: *+

This example shows the 8-kopek value (Chuchin/
Schmidt 3), bisected for the 4-kop. heavy letter
rate: and used 17 MAR. 92 on the back of a cover.
Much surplus glue was used to affix the stamp,
thus pointing to a postal fraud.

SThe same stamp bisected for the 4-kop. heavy letter
rate is shown on the back of an envelope. The
original 8-kop. stamp had been used previously with
an Osa c.d.s. and pen cancellation. The clerk tried to
overlay a darker impression of the oval c.d.s. 1 MAR.
92 to cover up the postal fraud

Here we have a previously used stamp
(Chuchin/Schmidt 3, bisected) on the
back of a cover, with the cancelled
portion at bottom torn away and a
similar piece affixed underneath to
give the appearance of an unused item.

Previously used
stamp (bisected).
Piece of stamp
replaced o

I ,' h b


K P. M CA PC K- r4 M .-,.j r ,
ni I ". .C


KPA r PC~ ..o e ,O CT7rH ,
FU2A;l 5 '

As indicated by the arrow, we have here a previously postmarked 8-kop. stamp (Chuchin 18, Schmidt 19), which received a
further Osa c.d.s. on 19 JUN. 99 on this money letter. Note in the centre the wax seal of the Kambary District Administration in
the Osa county and private wax impressions of the sender in all four covers on the back of the envelope.
Editorial Comment: Re the first example shown above and dated 17 MAR. 92, our Zemstvo specialists are kindly requested to
report any other instances of heavy applications of glue in affixing stamps to carry out a postal fraud.
June 2005

: .. .

JI. PaTHep L. Ratner
CamcT-nIeTep6ypr, PoccuI S-Petersburg, Russia

(see also the Editorial Comment in English on p. 39 herewith)
HpeJcnonBHe. JIHTepaTypa o nowre PyccKoro O6mecrBa ITapoxoAcTBa H Top-
roBan (POIIHT) Ha BOCTOKCe MHorotHCAeHHa. Ho usyqeHne pagsa neqaTHaix pa6oT noHa3a-
no, tro AeficTBHe noqTrb POfIHT c 1857 r. Ao cepelHHui 1870-x roAoB ocBemeno cna6o, a
onncanHH 3Toro neprnofa coAepKaT HeTo'HoCT H H omH6KH, qacTo nepexosanmI e H3 o0aoi,
ny6nHKair HH B apyryio. HanpHMep, "BoJimori lH-uIaTenHcTmrecKHii CioBapb" (MocKBi.
1988, c. 243 244) nHmeT: POIuT PoccufcKoe (OnmiGo6H. IIpaBHsaHo: Pyccroe) 06-
uyecmeo Hapoxoacmea u Topeoe.u. B 1863 (OmH6o60H. IlpaBHanbHo: B 1857) nodmucaio
coHmpaKm c normosof adMunucmpazuefi Poccuu o normoeix nepeeo3Kax. ...B 1865 cpoK
KoumpaKma ucmeK (Omu6oHio. IlpaBHJibHO: Aei'TBHe AoroBopa 1862 HncreKno B 1864), HO
06u&ecmeo npo6doicamlo ceaoo oesmebiwocmb u bo 1867 (Onm6omHO. IIpaBiuaHo: no
1868) ebinyclano co6cm6eHHe e MapKU. B Mae 1868 notma nepeutZa 6 pyhRu zocyapcmea
(Nonsense. Be3 KoMMeHTapHi).
go HacToraero BpeMeHH npn onrcaHHH noiTr POTIHT AoKyMeHrajnHse MaTe-
pHaJIb Hcnojnb3oBajImcb MaJIO. B. MorunAJIbmH B CTaThe "143 nacopIm novim POIINT"
(c6opHHK "CoBeTCKHii KOJNIeK~HOHep", KN 25, 1987) nican: "06 opzeaiuaquu noqrm~
POHuT ceeenuuii ne maK yc MnoZo. ....ITucK maIKux boKy.Meimoe cojiceH".
OgHaKO AOKyMeHTbi no STOli TeMe ecTh H HX AOCTaTOqHO, HTro06b IIOHSITE cneuHH-
Ky normi pyccKoro JIeBaHTa, a Taoe opraiHH3aumo B3a~HMoeHcTBHera IIorroBoro enapTa-
B AaHHOr cTaThe oco6eHHocTrH rnpiea H nepecbuira BOCTo'IHOH KOppecno=neH-
UAHH, nopao1K H TapH4hb ee onuaTb npIeeHBeAHbl B COOTBeTCTBHH c apxHBumiMH MaTepHajia-
MH norTOBoro BeaOMCTBa H POnHT. Bee cBeAemia aaioTca, KaxK npaBHmo, npn ycnioBHf
IOATBepxPAeHHR HX He MeHee meM B ),IByX AoKyMeHTax. BMecTe c TeM, B apxHBax oTMeqeHMi
MHoronqHcneHHie HapymeHH l nopAraa nepecmuncH, a, pecoBaHa n R4pamHKpoBKH norIEI.
Hy)aHo yqHTTIBaTb, HTO o4)opMjieHHe KOppecnoHAeCHHH, nepecbnaeMoi c OTKrOHeHReM OT
aoroBopeHHOCTeri HoTroBoro AenapTaMeHTa H POIHT, He saBmercSa npaanioM.
KpoMe Toro, HeKOTOpaA qacTb BOCTOTIHOH norTm HMIeer HCKyccrBeHHMiH xapaxJrep.
B 3TOM cayqae areHTa POIHT no npoci6e oTnpaBiTrejee HaH KonJJeKIHOHepoB cosna-
TejnoH oTCTynajH OT HOWTOBbIX npaBnH. H. HoCHnOB B cTaTbe "lIowTa eBponeiicKHx rocy-
AapcTB Ha BJmiaiKeM BocroKe" QKypHan "CoBercKHi KonjieIKHOHep", No 8, 1931), roBopA o
HaaneqaTKax Ha 10-TH KoneeqIbix MapKax BbmycKa 1890 r. pyaHuMH nomauHHnMnIH rraM-
namun HMHHNanOB "8" H "7", nmmeT: "3mo jzo6e3nocmb saeeylioufezo KoHmopoi POIuT
6 KoncmanmuHnonwe, orasaanaHH uM obHo.y y pyccro.y qbuamenucmy, nonyvuewe. y om
nezo )ecamKa c6a maKux MapoK... BecbMa o603M03CHO, nmo ...npe)cmaeumenu POHuTa
orKa3sbeanu marue nto6e3Hocmu u apyzuM .jutya, u no 6eny ceemy pa36pocano He Ma.7oe
KOuwiecmeo no)oeworK, npoucxo)iazux om nojiunHHbx utme.mneneu'".
CC1JmKH Ha TC HrJI HHIne cBeCJeHHH H3 4QHjIaTej~HITHqeCKOH jmrreparypbx Aaiorca B
craTbe, B OCHOBHOM, no pyccKOa3MbHbIM H3AaHnIM. AHanIH3 HeKOTopbIx neleaTHbI X TCKCTOB,
BbmomnHeHHbX Ha ,Apyrux a3bMKaX, noKa3bIBaeT, rTO B HHX HeT npHHuHImajitHbI OTJIrnm
OT pyccKO3bI9H I pa6o0r TrpaKroBKe AeiicrTBs noTmi POHIIT.

IlepBas nomnrrKa opraHH30BaTh nepeBo3Ky norTbi Ha napoxoAax Me~iy Oaeccoii H
KOHCTaHTHHuonoieM OTHOCHTCa K 1833 r., HO B 3TO BpeMA ycraHOBHrfI nocToaHHoe coo6-
merHHe He y~anocb. KaK pe30HHO OTMeTHi I. W. Roberts B craTbe "The Rise and Fall of the
Russian Steam Navigation and Trade Company (ROPiT) 1856 1920" (BJRP, No 64, p. 33):
June 2005

"... the company's capital was so small that it did not prosper and from 1843 the government
was forced to provide the company with two naval frigates to maintain the service".
Peryjipnoe MopcKOe coo6mieHe Meacy PoccHeii H Typnweii 6bmuo ycTraHOBenoj B
1843 r. B BblcoHaiime yTBepwIceHHOM 23 4eBpans 1843 r. "IIpoecre 06 y'peceHHem no-
cTOrHHblX coo6iueHHi nocpeACTBOM napoxoAOB Meexay OAeccoii H KOHCTaHTHHOInoieM" o
nroaOBofi KoppecnoIHemimI cKa3aHo: "a) IlpueM nuceM, omnpaenireMbIx Ha napoxooax,
npou36ocdumcs no o6u4uM noqmo6bzM npaeuAam a Odeccroit nozpanumnoiu noqmoeou Kon-
mope u e PoccuiicKofi normo6oi Konmope e KoncmaHmuononoe. ...u) PaccbwuKa nuceM,
nojyweaeMbix na napoxooax 6 Odecce u KoucmaHmunnooAe, eo3azaemcA Ha maoourmue
normoebre Konmopbi".1 IIraTa 3a nepecK uny KoppecnOHieuHIm Ha napoxoaax ocTaBaniac
B pacnopsxmera IIoroTBoro BeaoMcTBa.
MapmpyT o6cjiy-mBanJH ABa napoxoaa-4peraTa "OAecca" H "KpiM". B nepBbig
peiic napoxoa "Oaecca" Bmnnen 10 MaS 1843 r. H npH6b u B KoHCraHTHHonojH 12 Mar Toro
xce roAa.
I-InaTa, noJiyaeMaA c oTnpaBHTejeir nuceM, 6muia o6s~aBneHa IuHpKynJIpOM THoWo-
Boro genapTaMeHra OT 12 moJ I 1843 r. No 6:
-30 KoneeK cepe6poM 3a JOT Beca nnciMa 3a nepecu IKy Ha napoxofe;
10 KoneeK cepe6poM 3a nOT 3a cyxonyTHyio nepecmuncy Ao Ogeccl.
KOHTOpM 4poaHar uHcajI, Tro nouTOBHHi c6op B KOHTOpe 6epeTca He pOCCHnrCKHMH AeHf-
raMH, a TypeitKHMH (nHacTpb H napa). B CBa3H c 3THM, I-OHTOBbAIM enapTaMeHT pacnopi-
AHncas B3bICKHBaTb IIIaTy 3a IEHCbMa, oTupaBJaaeMe B Poccmo, no ycTaHOBneHHOMy
Tapiny, HO B nnacTpax H napax, c yqeTOM Kypca BamoT.
Ho3~fee 3Ta oco6eHHocTb KoHCTauTHHonojIbCKOi KOHTOPM 6bSua nogrBepwaeHa B
nojnoMceHMH o 3arpaHHlHblxb KOHTOpax, Bbicoqaime yTBepwAeHHOM B AeKa6pe 1843 r.
3geci roBopluoci,, wro 3a InCbMa, OTnpaBJIeMIe Ha napoxoaax B OAeccy, Mo)aH 6paTb
nnary "mypezjKoii Monemoi".
KpbIMCKaa BoiHa (1853 1856) pa3pymrna ycTanHoBneHHLe panee CBa3H; MOpCKoe
coo6mreHHe Mexmy PoccHeri H BOCTOKOM npHnJOCb HajIaRcHBTa 3aHOBO.
Ileimio co3aaaHoro B 1856 r. PyccKoro OG6ecTBa napoxonacra H ToproBna saBjim-
nocb pa3BHTHe, xaK CKa3aHO B YcTaBe OGnecTBa, "mopzoesu owcuHOo Kpan Poccuu u napo-
XOoHnbX, KaK mopzoeabx, maK u noimoeblx coo6uGeHuii 3moZo Kpaa c pyccrumu u
unocmpaHHblu nopmaMu". OAHOrI H3 ero o633aHHocTeHi 6bmua 6ecnnaTHaa nepeBo3Ka non-
TOBOfi KoppecnoHmemHnH "c co6modenueM nommoebix npaeuw". IIpaBJneiHe POlHT Haxo-
ALHocb B CaHcKr-neTep6ypre, Ha HeBCKOM npocneKTe. rjiBHana KOHTOpa B OAecce (no
AaHHIM cnipaBoMHHKa POrIHT, 1869, Ha KapaurTHmm M cnycKe). KoHTopbi (are]TCTBa)
06muecTa pa3MeIganIcHCb B 6OJi0rnHHCTBe HHOCTpaHHblX H BHyTpeHHHX IIOpTOB, B KOTOpbie
ImaHOBO 3axoanmm napoxolbi POIINT. AreHTCTBO B KoHCTaHTHHonone, pacnoInoxcernoe B
pafioHe FanaTB, c"HTajiocB rFaBHbI aMreHTCTBOM 06mecTBa Ha BOCTOTHIIX JuHH{ x.
B CBa3H C OmH6IKaMH, AOrTymmeHHbMH B HeKOTopbx craThaIX, HeO6XOfHMO
yToRmHTh: OaeccKaa KOHTopa O6mecTBa 6buia FraBHoMg KOrropofl POITmT, a OfeccKas
noTrrBas KOHropa norpaHW~HOi nOHTOBOi KOHTopoi, noJaLHHBimenlcsa oqTOBOMy
15 anpen~ 1857 r. npeAcTaBHTeH j OTr IorroBoro genapTaMeHTa (A. HapycoBCKH i,
HaMrJIbHHK ynpaBJIeHHA nepeB03KH nowT no mKene3HbIM AoporaM) H POHIT (H. HoBocejm-
cKHii, nipeKTop 06mecTma, OWIH H3 ero yqpearTeiieii) HaqajI noroTOBBKy cornameuHH o
nepecumine nouTOBoi KxoppecnonHeHIHH. 25 anpena A. MapyKOBCKHii npeaCTaBZn B rioTro-
Bbmi AenapTameHT "IpoeKT npasan aLns nepeoB3KH inor Ha napoxoaax POIlHT".
B TOT xe AeHb IIpaBneHHe POIHT coo6mnHao 06 yTBepxAeHHH 3THx npaBHI.
"1. POIluT o6s3yemcx nepeeosumb 6ecnlJamno nomy u Kypbepoe no nJununa
cpo.ozeo naaeanuw (OT aBTopa: no CjoBapio B. Ranu, cpowHblif vemy cpor onpe)enen.
June 2005

B aaHHOM cjiyqae, ninaaaHHa no MapmpyTy B ycTaHOBjieHHbIe cpOKH, T.e. peicoBOro mLaBa-
HHa no pacnmcaHmo).
41. Bcs KoppecnoHnenufiu, nepeeo3uMaal Ha napoxobax o6utecmea, dooicna 6bzmb
npunuuae.a u3 nonmoGbix KOHmop pyccKuxu wuu uocmpaHHbix u ca6ae.~ia ma0e s no6 -
moeble KoHmopbl.
44. 3aepanutmbie Konmopbt POHuT o6r3biea6omcf npuntaramb ece nepeba6aeafble
u3 UHOcmpaHHblX nonmo6blX Konmop nucbMa u naKembi &nA omnpaasiemu c napoxobadfu
06tuecmea, apaeno npunuuamb c 3mux napoxoboe u nepedaeamb 6 unocmpanuie nonmo-
6ble Konmopbi ece nucbAMa u naKembi, uM a)pecoeanHbze".2
KaK BHMHO H3 IlpaBHsj, upHeM H OTnpaBjeHHe KoppecnoHfaeHinH Bosn3arajiHCb Ha
noITOBbe yqpe)KeHMa, a napoxoa.I H 3arpaHuHHm e Korropb (areHTCTBa) POIInT MOrn.
TOJImKO nepeganaTb norly.
C 21 MaA 1857 r. HaHanIHCb nocToaHHbIe peiicbi napoxoaoB POIIHT no BHSyrpeH-
HHM jMHHHIM B KpbmM, ropoga XepcoH H HHnKojaeB, H Ha BOCTOK B KoHcTrHTHHononm.
B Haqajie HIOHa 1857 r. 1o-OTOBbni AenapTaueHT noJryqHan AoJaA no-rMericTepa
< 202-Mu nucbmaMU npupeecmpe ObeccKoi nozpanuHormo notmoeol Konmopu om 21 .ta,".3
Tap4H Ha nHCbMa, noAaBaeMbie Ha noTry Axns oTnpaBjieHH B KonHraHTHHOUnojb,
ocTacaS TaKHM xce, KaK o6iaBsneHiHit iHpKyJapoM rHrrowooro aenapTaMeHrra OT 12 mo:M
1843 r. NX 6.
3a HncbMa, npHHmmaeMse B OAecce, oTnpaBHTejim njian no 30 KoneeK 3a JIOT Be-
ca nHCbMa, TOJEbKO 3a nepecbuncy MopeM. HIHcMa, noaaHHbe Ha nowry B ApyrTx qacTrx
PocCM, onjnaIHBmaMC H3 pacieTa 40 KoneeK 3a JOT: 10 KoneeK BHyrpeHHae secoBIe (3a
nepecbucy cyxonrTHbIM nyTeM) H 30 KoneeK 3a nepecsbury MopeM.
OTnpaBKa nnrmca H3 KoHcTraHHHonoJI B Oaeccy cTroma anajornMHo: no 30 KO-
neeK 3a JIOT AJ II ocbUIaeMbIx Ao Oeccb H 40 KoneeK 3a JIOT HarpaBnjeMUix B npyrne
MecTa HmnepHn. 3Ta unaTa Morna 6paTmca B nnacTpax H napax, HO c y'eTOM Kypca BamOT.
HHCbMa onnaqHaanJIHC npH npneMe H JIHrHbiMH eHEraMH.
B aeKa6pe 1857 r. rHorrOBbii nienapTaMeHT corniacoBan c POI-HT yroaeiHHe e
ycJOBHas nepeBo3KH KoppecnoHgAeHIjnH. 3TO 6LuI He6oJIbnm oH lAoKyMeHT, KacalommHica, B
OCHOBHOM, O6MeHa notr B BBHyTpeHHHX nopTax lepHoro H A3OBCKOrO Mopei. B HeM rOBO-
pHJocb, wro fo oco6oro corJiameHHR Ha napoxoAax OS6mecTa 6yxer nepecmuaTcs TOJIbKO
upocTaa KoppecnoHIeHAHIa.
C HmoaJ 1858 r. Haianci npneHM nmceM AnS oTnpaBneHHSI Ha napoxoAax POlIHT B
Tpane3yHa H CMHpHy. TapH) omnaTi ocTajncs npecxmM. BuAaia normb nopyanjaec, areH-
TaM OG6ecTBa. Te me areHTbl MOFJIH npHHHMaTb rHCbMa, aApecoBaHHiIe B PocCHmo, HO
norosbIe 4yHKn HH (yqer npHHTrrbx nHceM H nonyqeHHe 3a HHX IInaTm nocraHOBKa IoN-
TOBBIX mrreMnejie H T.n.) B areHTCTBaX He BbmOJIHaIJHCb. B aiHHOM cnyRae areHTbi, KaK H
napoxoAbi, AmBHua ib nepenaTo'uIM 3BenoM. lnaTa a 3a ncbMa B Poccmo H3 Tpane3ynaia H
CMHpHbI 6pajiacb npH Bbiitae B noTroBbux yqpea.KeHHMX MecTa Ha3HaqeHHa c noIJysaTe-
neil. BeIHmqHHa nInaTeKeir onpeaenmiaac, no HaAIcaIM, cAenJaHHbM B noTITOBbI KOHTOpax,
unpHHMnuaJOHX notry c napoxoAOB POIIHT. B npHKa3e no FJIaBHOMy YnpaBneHmo lnorr
OT 22 monsi 1858 r. N2 155 yKa3aIi Ase TaKHe KOHTopbI: B Oaecce H Penyr-Kane (Ha KaB-
Ka3e). IpHeM nHceM C B3bCKaHHeHM HnaTbi 3a HHX C InoJIyraTeinei B TO BpeMa npHMeHaUICX B
3arpaHHniOM o6MeHe.
B KOHne 1850-x Ha'ane 1860-x rooaB TaKHM iCe o6pa3oM HHorga npmnmiarmc
nHmcba H B 21pyrIx nopTax BocToKa. Cya no1 3aMeqaHHnM OAeccKOii norpaHHlmHO noIIro-
BOf KOHTOpbi, nopoil npeacTaBHTejm OS6uecTBa cnaaarm iHCbMa Ha rocyAapcTBeHHyio
noUry nacTHbM nopAIO KOM H ormiaHHBami ee noAo6HO mo6oMy apyroMy oTIIpaBHTremo. Ha
KoppecnoHAeHIAHIO, npHHHMaeMyro areHTaMH OG6mecTBa, MormH HaJIaraTbca cayxe6Hbie
urreMnejia POIHT. TaKme xme ImreMneia HcnoJnO3oBaJmcCh .Ji o6o3HaqeHHa Mecra OTrpaB-
jeHHa Ha cnywe6HLIx rmcIMax, nepecbuaeMux O6mecTBOM Ha CBOHX napoxoaax caMo-
June 2005

cTosffreJnHo, 6e3 yqacTH3 nIIOTOBorO BeAoMcTBa. Ha pHc. 1

18 I c59 HonoJIe.
18 Co BpeMeHeM B03HmKJia Heo6xotHMOCTL B H3Me-
o nepeBo3Ke BOCTOTlHOf KoppecIIoHnAeHHH H nogroTOBKe
HOBbMX AOKyMeHTOB B KOHue 1860 r. B Ogeccy 6bum HanpaBieH OTCTaBHOH KlanHTaH-
inelTeHaHT B. Ilynbjn.
B msBape 1861 r. OH npeACTaBHJ IIororBOMy AenapTaMerry npoeKTM HeCKOJThKHX
AOKyMeHTOB no nepecbuixe KoppecnoHnAeHIHH Megay PoccHeii H BOCTOKOM Ha napoxoAax
POIIT. B HHx npeAnaranocE pa3penmT nepecbuiry Ha BOCTOK H o6paTHO nog 6aHAepo-
jiio ra3eT, HOT, nepnonsEecKHX H Apyrux neqaTHix H3AaHHii, a TaKme CHH3HTb nnaTy 3a
nepeBo3Ky inMeM no Mopio go 20 KoneeK 3a JIOT. 3Aecb BnepBbe noAsBHJIOC BbIpaaeHHe
<. TaiOKe IllIyjib xoTen InopyIWnT, Bnmojmeane noITroBbix
onepalHii B BOCTOHbIX niopTax areHTaM POrInT H BBeCTH oco6 ie KOHTp-MapKH HOMHHa-
nOM 20 KoneeK c JoTa AJIS BOCTOtIHOi KoppecnoHAeHlmH.
KoHTp-MapKaMH B TO BpeMa 066biHO Ha3bIBaJHCb MapKH, KOTOpbie cefiqac OTHOCaTCa K 4)HC-
B anpene 1861 r. IlolroBDI t aenapTaMeHT HarpaBIm Ha paccMoTpeHne HMnepaTo-
pa npegioaeHHLa nowoBoro BeAOMCTBa, yIHTHIBamoinHe MHOrHe peKoMeHAalUHH IIIynbHa:
"3. KpoMe nucem nepecwuamb ua BocmOK omnpameHznu a 6anHcepoAax, Komopbie
nacmoAquee epeMU nepecbwuaomcA myIna vepe3 AnaHlwo u Ipanyuio.
5. Paspeutumb 06utecmey Hapoxoccm6a u Topzoanu eo3noicumb Ha c6oux aenH-
mo6e )eJonpou36odcmeo no npueMy, omnpaaenue o u ebli)ae Koppecnond)eHnuu 6 mex nop-
max, Ky)a 3axod)m napoxoi)z.
6. B eo3Hazpamcienue 3a npunumaemyo 06uOGecmeoM o6saunocmb npou3eo6umb
6e ocmovHblx nopmax bldia)ay u omnpaeneHue Koppecnoncemituu tepe3 ceoux azeumoe,
omvucjLmb 6 no Zb3y 06uOecmea 25% c mozo c6opa, comopzii 6y)em nocmynamb e nov-
moeubl oxo6 3a nepecbunry Koppecnoudemnuu mopeM".4
TacOKe noqTOBoe BeAOMCTBO 3anpocHno B flpeAnoxceHHax... pa3pemeHne BBeCTH
ana 6amleponeii, "ecau oKawtcemcA ybo6nblM", no-roBie MapKH. Ho go nocineHero MO-
MeHTa cTapajocb H36emxaTi npHMeHeHHa AJ~i oniaTbi 6aHAepOJIbHb x oTnpaBjeHHfi HOBbIX
HMnepaTop OoG6pmia lpeAioaceHHIa IoTrOBorO AenlapraMeHTa. C 3Toro BpeMeHH
Hatanacb pa3pa6oTKa HOBoro noroBopa Mexay noqTOBBIM BenOMCTBOM H POInHT, npoAon-
xasmacas ngo cepegaHmu 1862 r.
2 anpenI 1862 r. O6mecTBo npeAocTaBms o IIoTrOBOMy genapTaMeHTy "rpoeKT
ycJnoBHri...", rae BnepBEae roBopHjiocI, rro areHTai POHIT gnonmIiH HMeTb nonyqaeMue OT
noWroBoro BeAoMcTBa rreMnen~ ana o6o3Hanaemi Ha HIIHCbMaX MeCTa noga'E H gaTHi
npHeMa nHceM. 3gecb Tax~ce yKa3bIBajnocb, rro gan oTnpaBjieHHi B 6auHgeponJ x 6yayT
BBeAeHbI oco61ie MapKH.
B OKOHwaTeJiBHOM BaplaHTe AoroBopa, InoAgcaHHOM InoTTOBbM AenapTaMeHTOM
H HaIpaneiHHOM B POIIT 28 mOHA 1862 r., dpa3a o BBegenHH oco6rIx MapOK AflI 6aHAre-
poneH oTcyTcTBoBana.
rpaBneHHe OG6necTBa noAnHcano AoroBop a npeanoiMuno BBecTH ero B AeiCTBHe
c 1 amsapA 1863 r.
3TOT aoroBop HeOAHOKpaTHO neiaTaJICa B HJmaTeJIHCTwHecKOii niHTepaType. Ho B
paae ny6jmHcarHi OH AaeTcS c cepe3HmIMH HCKaxeCHHIMH. IIoMJIHHbIHj TCKCT AoroBopa (c
KymopaMn) ecT B yKa3aHHOii paHee cTaTbe B. MorMHIbHOro "13 HCTOPHH no'Tmj POI1HT".
geicTBHe C 1 xHBaps 1863 r.:
1. IpHeM H nepecuKnca 6aigepoJmnmix oTnpaBnerimi.
.Tunp 2OIW

2. OnnaTa a) niceM: 20 KoneeK 3a JOT 3a nepeBo3Ky MopeM;
10 KoneeK 3a JIOT 3a nepecbuncy no cyme;
6) 6aHaeponei: 6 KoneeK sa nOT 3a nepeBo3Ky MopeM;
4 KonefiKH 3a JOT 3a nepecumcy no cyme.
3. YCTaHOBKa Ha napoxoAax 06iuecTBa nouTOBbIX MIHmKOB.
-lorToBiue SrIHKH, npHMenaeMb e Ha napoxoAax, 6bum aBOinAme: B na-
pyaKHbHi anHK BCTaBJISIICi BHyTpeHHHHi. nHo npH6briHH napoxoAa B nopT, BHyr-
penHHHE amIxK C rHCMaMH BmHHManic H C~aBajICA B areHTCTBo 06mecTBa, a na
ero MecTo ycTaHaBjiHBanca nyciTO BHyTpeHHHi IanI TaxIM o6pa3oM, B 3TOT ne-
pnoa BpeMeHH nowra Ha napoxonax He o6pa6aTbmanacb.
4. OGasaTeJmiHaa 4paHKHpoBKa IIHCeM H 6aHAlepojei noTaOBbIMH MapxaMI (3a HC-
KmoeqeHHeM aHIruioMaTnecKOH KOppecnoHaenHan H cjnyae6HoiH nepenncKH 06mecTBa,
nepecbuiaeMori Ha napoxoAax 6ecnjiaTHo H 6e3 y"acTHA noTrOBoro BegOMCTBa).
-IHcEMa 6e3 MapoK, BbmyTbie H3 nOqTOBbIX IIaRKOB, ycraHoBjieHHbx UPH
areHTcTBax 06mecTBa HJH nrpH nOqroBbIX KOHTOpax B liH epHn, He
oTnpaBnsJIub. TaKHe InHbMa, onymeHHne B noqTOBbIe SIanIH Ha napoxoaax,
aocTasBJancb no Ha3HareHHmo, HO npH ax BbIMaqe c nojiyqaTejreH B3 ucKHBaJIac
rniaTa no YABOeHHOMy TapHuy 3a nepeBo3Ky MopeM, T.e. no 40 KoneeK c JoTa.
5. Bo3nomenie Ha areHTOB POIHiT o6a3aHocTreii no npneMy, oTnpaBneHmo H
Bgaaqe KoppecnoHAeHInHH c npaBOM IIpoaiXM MapOK H nIpHMeHeHHIs nHOTOBbIX mIre~ne-
6. OT-HCieHHe B HOJR3y 06imecTsa 25% c6opa, nocrynaiomero 3a nepeBo3Ky
noImT no MOpio (3a HCKJInoeHHeM c6opa 3a nepeBO3Ky MopeM notTOBBIX oTnpaBjienHH
Mexvy KoHCTaHTHHonojieM H PoccHnei, noJnocTmI nocTynaBmero B OnorTOBLi Aoxon).
KpoMe OAecca, c 1863 r. B nepnog HaBHraunH napoxolbi POIHT npHaHHman oT-
npaaBJieMyio Ha BOCTOK KoppecnonHeHntlo H3 nOqTOBbln KOHTOP B TaraHpore, Keptm,
EicKe, Mapnynone, BepAIHcKe H PocToBe-Ha-IoHy, a TaKie flocTaBjaiH anpecoBa myIo B
Ha3BaHHble ropoaa norqy H3 BOCTO'qHbx nopToB. no3sHee B 3TOT nepeqeHb 6bum BKrnoqe-
HbI XepcoH H HHnoJIaeB.
B. UIlynji npeAnaran pa3pemnneHr IpeM noTroBOi KoppecnoHlemHIH B 21 BOC-
TOqHblii nopT. Ho B AoroBope 1862 r. oTAeJLbHO Ha3BaH KOHCTanHTHHonoJm, a 3aTeM yKa3ia-
HI: BaTyM, Tpane3yiA, MeTHneHa, CMHpHa, MepcHHa, AjneKcaH~perra, Beripyr, 5144a,
AnexcaHpuHa, C.AQOH, CaJIOHHKH. B 3TH TnpTbI KoppecnoHoemiuHna ocTraBjaInac] npH
coaeHCTBHH noqoTOBorO BeOMCTBa. OcTajnUrmJ e nopTr (Xafi4a, Kepacyna H T.A.) B Aoro-
AeiiCTBHe AorOBopa 1862 r. He pacnpocTpaHiioch Ha norry KaBKa3a, InoaHHRB-
myiocH FjnaBHOMy ynpaBnemuo HaMecTHHKa KaBKa3cKoro. TIo oTneJIbHOMy aoroBopy,
3aKnoqeHHOMy no3aHee AenapTaueHToM 06n x IAen 3Toro ynpaBneHHn H POTInT, no-ra
nepeasaanacB Ha napoxoA, OG6mecTBa H npaHHHManach c HEX floTHicKOli niorpanHaofi
noqTOBOii KOHToPOii H CyxyM-KajincKHM noqTOBbIM OTAeejeHHeM. 3TOT AOrOBop 6bUI BBe-
aeH B aeticTBHe C 31 aHBapA 1864 r.
B 1863 Haqane 1864 rr. OzeccKan 3arpaHHR~Haa no'TOBa o KOHTOpa peryiapno
AoiaKoIamana IIoTrOBOMy aeniapTaMeHTy o nOCTOSIaHHx HapymeHemix B nepecbunle nowri c
4paHKHpoBKH MapKaMH (qTO, BIpoqeM, He YAnHBHTeJIbHO, B 3TOT nepHolA BpeMeHH 3arpa-
HH'IHbIe oTnpaBjneHHa MapKaMH euie He onriatHBanHcb). HeoHioKpaTHo H3 OAeccu nur
gorKinam, 06 aapecoBaHHH KoppecnoH ieHnaH H3 PocCHH B InopT, He yKa3animIIe B ioroBo-
pe: "TaKuM o6pa3o. omnpaea6omcA nucbMa ... CaMcyn, Xuoc, Poboc, JIama'ue u Opyzue
nopmbl". MHoro pa3 roBopHnoc,, wro HeKoTopue areHTcTBa Ha BocroKe H KoHCTaH-
KHpOBaHHbIe niHCbMa, HO H HanpaBJiSHoT IIHciMa B nopMTB, He yKa3aHHime B oroBope.
June 2005

CornacHo noroBopy 1862 r., noTra cIaBaniacb na napoxoAbI B nocTnaieTrax. Jsx
yqera ornpaBJieMofi KOppecnOHetACHHH B BOCTOMHbMX areHTCTBax BeJHCb oCO6iMe KHHrH.

In E . ... a b . .
trhO, tOcnrs., TO..i
ia wapoxoa0 E ............

^*S?) K (lr e.C O s nl s UBr
.se........... 0

ApoMutn oMn'peuetiJ. 00 00

ero ... 00 00

IIn poox...... .......
| K .. n A . ..

Ifa r .ipox.. E .......... .

f. .......... 10

ianreoILrs.M omnpazenit. i 00 o

Beere..... 0. 0 00

I(Ooolw .~owuot

In ...... . . .
mauo, iemu, ros.
11H napoxot E ..............

SO PI? C UO ff AE1 0 I 0 *.

IaeO ........ 00 00
BarepoPnau ornpauenia 00 00

cero ...... 00 00
(Ocoffn sahmfo)

Rna 1 ....... n ........
rao, lton reo,.
lia apoxoi E ..............

OOPe^rflnOiT. iu. *oo

: :
Baeporii.nx r .pam it. 00 o 0

Bo.r....... 00 00
(OooJwi *auJmme

3 eaiuimB m v Spaten*i B. Ul3u p.


KaK CKa3aHO panee, InoTOBoe BeAoMCTBO
He xoTejno BBOAHTb MapxKH Ana 6aimepoinTHix
oTnpaBJneHnH Ha BOCTOK. BaeHepoJm B 3TO BpeMs
IIOCbIaaJIHCB TOJIbKO 3a rpaHtIry. -IJiaTa 3a
BecoBBIx AeHer H nopTa (T.e. InaTbI 3a nepecbuiKy
sa rpaHneHii), B He 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TOrO, rAe
lpHHaIro OTinpaBjieHHe: B MocKBe, B Ofecce HJIH B
MapHynoje. BmHxMO, noqTOBbie oHHOBHHKH
co6Hpajmci UHpKyjispHo ycTaHOBHnT oriiary
6aHaepoJnHuxI oTnpaneHfiii Ha BOCTOK no 10

I__ ___ ~I __l__r 1_1 ~1_____ 7

Nice. m eoira

n.e................... -t=y .Z
Ba0aepoIa. OTpajeait .... /

- A .1

IIepeox. naocers ........ .
Ilepex. 6aKepobn. oTropa..

Ea8eHHNrT natetOB. .... .*

rpeqecna toppeewoo .. '

nlepexo. 1.. II ........ .
& -


PncyHOK 3

KoneeK 3a JIOT He3aBHCHMO OT MecTa npHeMa 6aHaeponefi. JlmHj B aHBape 1863 r. nofroBoe
BaeOMCTBO noAfrTOBHJIO 06HB.IBeHHe o TOM, qTO 3a 6aHAeponH, noflaaaeMble Ha nowry B
OAecce, 6epeTca no 6 KoneeK c njoTa.
Ho 6aHAeponj, HanpaBjieMbmi H3 BOCTOIHbx IIopTOB B OAeccy, TaraHpor H T.n.,
ipHHImManiHC areHTaMH POIIHT, a I HHX iopHHanqecKy1o crTay HMen AoroBop.
14 aBrycTa 1862 r. POIHHT 3anpocHJI IIoqTOBOe Be2OMCTBO: "TaK KaK noLmoeble
MiapKcU 6 KoneeK He 66eeeHbl 6 Poccuu, mo KaKUMU MapKamU OqpanKupoeamb 6anHepo0.b-
Hbie omnpaeaenus, cocmaaueMabte MopeM Meaicby socmovHblu nopmanu u O)eccoi4, Kep-
TblO, TazanpozoM u m.n., 3a Komopbze ciieOyem esumamb no 6 KoneeK c noma 3a .MOpcKyo
nepeSo3Ky... ".
June 2005

Ha KaxMaof cTpanHne KHHTH
neqaTamnnc nonapno peecTp H
Ayy6jmaT peecTpa. B HHX 3a-
H 6anHepojmIbix oTnpaBneHHn,
noc uiaeMiux B noCTnaKeTe. gy6mnKaT
peecTpa ocTaBaJnc B KHHre, a peecTp
nocTnaxeT BMeCTe C oTnpaBJiaeMoi
noTOft. (DopMa peecTpa (KHHTH) 6bina
noMemena B npHJnoXCeHHH K AoroBopy
(pHE. 2).
Ha pHc. 3 peecTp Gonee
nos~nero nepnoAa BpeMeHH.


rorfAncaB AorOBOp, lIOrTOBbIr AenapTaMeHT He MOr OTKa3aTbCa OT BBeAieHRl HO-
BOit MapKH. B OTBeTe Ha 3anpoc POITHT, AaHHOM TOJILKO B KOHIe oKTr6pa 1862 r., roBopn-
nocb, Trro nsi qbpaUHKupo6aHUu 6aHoepojbHbix omnpaejenuut sazomaenueaomcR oco6ble
6a=6epoau, yenoio e 6 KoneeK". Ha caMOM aene 3aKa3 Ha H3rOTOBjiHHe MapoK 6iuI caejia
3HarqTeJIbHO no3aHee.
B unpKyjape rloTroBoro enapTaMeHTa OT 12 Hno6pa 1862 r. JNo 5 cKa3ano:
"...Hnaemcz c 1 sueapA 1863 zooa nepecbwuKa u3 Odeccbt Ha napoxobax O6ujecmea Kop-
pecnondeniuu 6 BocmovHble nopmbi.... HepeoinaajbHO 6ybym nepecb rambCA ... npocmue
nucbM.a u omnpaeienus nod 6aHcepo.rnwu. Kar nucbMa, maK u 6anHepoibnwie omnpaawe-
Hiu C)bonMicub 6blmb onjtlaueaeMbl notmogblau MapraMu...".
Hcxofl H3 TeKCTa uHpKyjispa, HaqaJIOM noiTOBoro o6panIeHfflH 6-TH KoneeqHIX
MapOK ~m 6aHfaeponHmix oTnpaBneHMi Ha BOCTOK Ha3bIBaeTCq qIHBaps 1863 r. Ho npmNe-
HHTeJnHO K 3THM MapKaM coo6meHHe IAHpKyjipa aBJanoch "saRaieHHeM o HaMepenHHx".
IlpeABI~a 3aeepX oy BbmycKa MapoK xJa 6aHgeponeii, IHoTroBiAH enapaMeHTrr
8 AeKa6pa 1862 r. cooGHnu OfeccKoi norpaHHMHOIHo noNrBOH KOHTope, -TO nocJie noniy-
ieHHua MapoK BrmieTr Hx "6 OteccKyio normo6eyo Konmopy KarK &M co6cmeenuozo ynom-
pe6aeHnu, maK Amj paccbLJKU 6 1auwu nopmbi u dci nepe6alu e Oeccxyto Konmopy POIuT,
o6R3anHHyo cua6)umb UMU ceoux azeHmog 6 60ocmoHbix nopmax. jo npuCb lKU 3muxLT apOK
Heo6xo)uMoo ozpainuuUmbci nepecbJKotf MeaIc)y nopmaMu o)nux nucem".
YKa3aHHn o Haqane npHeMa 6aHAeponeii TOJIbKO noc.ne noJyqemHHi cneiHarlaHix
MapOK 6bI~MH aaHbI H ApyrIM norTOBbIM KOHTOpaM, nogAepxiaBaIonmM no'rrOBoe coo6me-
H3 3THX pacnopaaceHHM BHAHO, wro isA nepecDumKH napoxoAaMH POTIHT npneM
6aHnepoJefii B Oecce, Taranpore H T.n., a Tarioe B BOCTOHbMIX noprax X iM HanpaeBJiHHa B
aaHHbIe ropoAa Hanancs nocne nojnyeHHs HMH MapoK Awi 6aigeponsbHIX oTnpaaeHiHH.
3aKa3 Ha H3rOTOBneIHHe MapOK 3KcIneAH~uI 3aroToBJaeHHl rocyAapcTBeHnix By-
Mar (33rB) nojiymjna 12 AeKa6pa 1862 r., wro nofTrBepxacaeT 3anncb B "BeaoMocrH o
aeHbrax ...3a npnroTOBJIeHe pa3Hmix 6yMar"7 B 1863 r.:

Cnieayr c'MM
Ham4eHoBaHHe Korna 3aKa3 cAeniaH KonirecTBO y T
py6ner KoneeK

OpaHKHpOBOWHb M MapoK xa 12 aeKa6ps 1862 r. 3000 30
6aHnepojianHx ornpaBieHmU _

TaKaa ae AaTra 3aKa3a MapOK nppHBeeHa eMne B OAHOii BeAOMOCTH 33r.
TpH T icaqH MapOK Jmi 6aHaepomnHH~x oTnpaBjneHHi Ha BOCTOK 6buNl TIInpH ITi H3
33rB B aHBape 1863 r. H BbICJIaHbi B OneccKyIo iorpaHHIHylo no]roByio KOHTOpy 27 Map-
Ta. 15 anpena 1863 r. noaTOBaa KOHTOpa Aonjoxa ua fIorrTOBOMy enapTaMeHTy, rro "oc-
maewia y ce6Ai aZj co6cmeeHuozo ynompe6tenus u i)ul nepedatu ... Odeccxylo Konmopy
POHuT bee muicnuu .iapoKi; ocmai bHal mbicR a
pacnpedejieHa: e Tazanpozackyo 240, KepreHncKio 150,
-1 i EicKyio 100, Mapuynomnbchyo 170, Eep)anc37o -170
.u PocmoecKylo 170".s
-: -: TaKHM o6pa3oM, HaqanoM noqTOBoro o6papmeHaH
S, .- 6-TH KoIneeHhX MapOK xiA 6arHepojnHix oTnpaBaeieHH
: Ha BOCTOK (pHc. 4) HyxcHO CiHwraTL anpein 1863 r.
CornacHo "OTqeTa o npIrTOToBjean
.-. rocyaapcTBeHnnx H qacTHMx 6yMar", B 1864 r. 6bno
-- oTneqaTaHo H Bb~LaHO 13 33rB 4000 "normoeux .Mapoh
PHCyHOK 4 6Jia omnpaeienuu 6 6auHepouAx".
June 2005

B "BeoMoMCTH o cyMMax, npHqHTraiomrnxca 3a pa6oTb B 1865 r." oT~eJmHoro Ha-
3BaHHa y MapOK HeT. Ho B 3TOM OKyMeHTe nepenHcneHbI n3roTOBjneHHIIe no 3aKa3y noq-
TOBoro BeAoMCTBa H BbIVaHHue eMy MapKH:

3a KaKHe pa6oTMm KojnqecTBO

3a noTrOBble MapKH 52000
Toxce 4000
Toace 40000
Towe 170000

3Aecb BmbeJiseTca 3aKa3 B 4000 3K3eMInIspoB, HepeaJnHO ManJeHhbKHii iA- Tex
Him mnux o6merocyfapcTBeHHBix MapoK. BeposaTeii Bcero, rTO 6bm eme owm BbmycK
6aHaepojnHimix MapoK XJIM BOCTO'MHOi KoppecnoHeHmmI.
CBeaeHHie 06 H3rOTOBJneHHH gaHHblX MapOK B 1866 r. HeT.
B "OTqeTe o npHroTOBJIeHHH KpeLHTHrrH 6aIneTOB H apyrHx 6yMar B 1867 r."9
cHosa InoSaBJnITCaI MapKH AnlI 6aHaepOJLHbLX oTnpaBJieHHi:

Ha3Ha- 1866 C 1 aHBaps 1867 no 1 armapa 1868 CocTOHT Ha
qeHo oCTaJIocb OTneqa- Omy- HcTpe6jie- JIHO K 1 IH-
TalHO IeHO HO 6paxa Baps 1868
IloTroBsi MapOK
Wn 6aiHaepons- 3000 -3100 3016 84
Hb oTnpaBne-

Ainj 6aHnepojnHb]x MapOK BbmycK 1867 roAa oleim no3sAmiH, HO ero HnarIHe
nof.BepmceHo H B "BeloMOCTH o cyMMax, npwmTaioinIxcA 3a pa6oT B 1867 r.".
3TOT BbmycK H InpHBeAeHHmi Hame 4cparMeHT H3 "HpaBHjm A arerHTOB BOCTOH-
HbIX mmIH POIIHT" Ino3BOJiIIOT CHTTaTT HeBepHbmMH yTBepageeHHa, qTO npHMeeHHne Ma-
poK AnaI 6aHAeponjmHbx oTnpaBsneHHi Ha BOCTOK OKOHXHJIOCL B 1864 r. HimH B 1866 r.
"HpaBHja..." InpHH5IaT B KOHnae sHBapa 1868 r., nocne nofnicaHmi HOBoro goroBopa MexK-
ny HOTOBLIM aenapTaMeHTOM H POHnT. B naeOJM AOKyMerHT 6ygeT paccMOTpeH nosAHee.
Ceii'ac HHTepeceH OHH nymIHKT IlpaBim: 74. Azeum ee)em eedo.Mocmb nojnyenHHblx u
npoaHnHbix notmo6blx MaporK ji. nuceM u 6aHuepoAbHbbx omnpaaenHuii. HIocAe 31 beKa6pu
azenm coo6uqaem novimoeo.y ombe.jeHuo Fraenoif Konmopbt uecmb tiu4p U.3 amo KHUZUe:
1) Hmoz e py6.nix nonyweHHblx 6 meenHue eoba us Tsaenoui Konmopbl nomoeblX
MapoK rjU C nuceM.
2) To 'ce normo6blx MapoK onrI 6auHepobHblx omnpaeneHuit.
3) Hmoz e py6jix npoamHHbi x meeHuue zoCa novmo6blX MapoK odj nucem.
4) To rice nonmoebix MapoK dOJ. 6auHepoAbHbl omnpaeenu.e
5) OcmamoK e py6six K 1 AHReap6 nacmynueuwezo zoa noutmo'6bx mapoK oBn nfu-
6) To mace nomoebtx MapoK odajn 6auepoibHbzx omnpaieHnuii".
IpHBseeHHea Di gOKyMeHT noKa3,IBaeT, rTO MapKH xmui 6atHaepojmnHbx oTnpaaje-
HHAi H3 ynoTpe6neHHas He H3bIMaJIHCb. 06gIecTBo He OTKa3IsBajocb OT HHX; paccuianio H
HcnoJIb30Bano 3TH MapKH, no Kpaifmei Mepe, HeCKOJMbKO nepBux MecaneB 1868 roaa.
HenoHRTHoe mna MHonHX no3uAHee npIpMenemie 6aHneponbwix MapOK BnoJme o6bacHH-
cTpmH, OpamnuH H T.n. cneaajTHbmIe MapKH 06mecTa BMnoJRHan He TOJIbKO 4)ymaKII oIRaTmH,
HO 6lrmH "BH3HTHot KapToxKofl", peicaMofi POIIHT.
I.un. 9M7l

B gOKyMeHTax 33rB o6Hapy)xeH emie OAHH, HenoIHaTHbii BLHycK 6aHAepomnHiuix
MapoK. B oTqeTe 3a 1864 r. yKa3aHMI 3120 urryK H3roTOBJieHHbx B 1863 roay H ocTraBnxca
He BbiaHHbIMH "noHlmo6bx 6 1 jom MapoK 6an omnpaenenuu a 6auc)epo.ax". OHH nepe-
ImnI no y"ery B 1865 roA Hnaxolmamcb B 33FrB no COCTOSIHo Ha 1 moJn 1866 roaa. B
OTmerax 1867 r. 3TH MapKH y)ae OTcyTcTByIOT. TeKcTyanmbHbx ynoMHHaHHH o LaaHHOM BI-
nycKe B apxHBax fnorroBoro fenapTraMera, POHIT H 33FE Her. tqT aro 6bim 3a BnMycK?
Korea 3aca3aH? 1-oqeMy IIowroBI~i genapTauerr He npHHHMan ero H3 331B? KaxoBa
cygb6a BmycKa? Ha 3TH BonpocLb oTBeTa HeT. MoaXco jm CWrTaTb AaHHLig BbImyCK TeM
THpamoM, KOTOpbIi He 6maTI B 0ITOBOM o6paiiemmH? ToHoro OTBeTa TaoKme Her.
ApxHmBHe AOKyMeHTMu He IO3BORIIOT paccraBI~m Bce TOmKH H=a "i", TBK K=K B HHX HeT
TeXHOJionTecKHx (H, cJiAOeBaTeSbHO, 4)H aTeJHCTHIecKHx) oco6eRHOcTeti BMJycKOB MapoK ans
6aHAeponJbHbix ornpaBJeHAii Ha BOCTOK. Ho orH no3BsonJI coBepmeRHH no-HOBOMy yBaerTb HC-
TOpmO BufnycKa H rHOTOBoro o6pameHia 3THX MapoK.
B nepBoHaamJaHOM TeKCTe ;oroBopa 1862 r. roBopanocb, rro Ha areHTOB 06me-
CTBa Bosn3araeTc upnHeM, oTrnpaBjeHHe H BBiOAaqa KoppecnoneAH nHH B BOCTOqHhX nopTax,
KpoMe KOHCTaHTHHOIIOJI, l(44i) H HepycanHMa. Ha ocHOBaHHH 3Toro, B. Mor~HjIbHH B
yxa3aHHOii Bi hIe CTaTbe yTBepKajia: "K momy apeMenu 6 KoucmaHmunonoe, H)i e u
Hepycanwue ybynHKIuouupoeau sazpaHnuHbie KOHmopbt pyccrozo nommoozo eedoucmea".
3TO He BepHo. 3arpaHHnHaa nouTroBa KOHTopa 6bTua TOJnIKO B KoHcTau~'H onoaie.
B norTBepagceHHe MO)CHO cociaTbca Ha noKiaa rFaaBHoro YupamBeHRm norr 3a 1862 r.,
npeXcTaBJemiHui Ha paccMoTpeHne HMnepaTopa. 3Lec,, B qncje npotax nowrorBIMx yqpeAaemafh,
yKa3aHO: "3appaHuumbLx rOHmop 1". (PFHA, ). 1289, on. 1, j. 1978 "06 orqere 3a 1862", j. 74.)
C cepep[HHI 1861 r. nHyqajiacb BO3MOeKHOCTh OTKphrTma norroBIOx ype)1iaeHHi
PoCCHn B HepycauHMe H 5I44e. B CBa3H c 3THM, B KoHoe Mapra 1862 r. nIIorosBI aenap-
TaMeHT noJIyRHJI H3 MHHHCTepCTBa H TpaHCTaHhX AJen 3anHCKy pyccKoro KOHcyJIa B Hepy-
caJnMe "O nepecuJIKe KoppecnoHaeHmmH Mexa y HepycanmMoM H PoccHefi".
"Memicdy HepycatuuoM u flfiboii, nucaw Koncy, cyutecmayem qacmnaj pyccKasi
noqma, docmaenatoufan KOHcyJbCKue naKemei u nucbMa noKjiOHHnuKO (aBT. T.e. IIajOMHH-
KOB) 6 fHqby u npueo3sAutas ommyca 6 Cesmoi zopo6 noinyvenHie c napoxobom naKembi u
nucbma. Ona yppearicena Hnoi6pe 1859 zoba u naxo6umcA s sa eedo6auu Fiaenozo
Cmpoumej3i s3euimux Hautux 6ozoyo)nHbx 3asee)euut. ...Cpeb)ee ,ucJo nuce.t s metenue
1861 zoba 6bUlo 15/2 (...nepese3eno 1080 nuceM, He crumcan KaseHHbix nae0moe), npute.-
nau6olnbzuee ,iucno nuceM d)m ouozo pa3a 6buio 41, nauMeHbzuee 1".
lanee KOHCYJI oTMerTH Heo6xogHMOCTb OTKpirrma B HepycalnMe oHImHajiLHOH
pyccKori nowrb H yia3ajn, 9TO BBeAeHHe "OCO6btX nO'tmo06bex MapoK u3 HepycamUita ... 6b7o
6bi O)HUM u3 AJyVuiux cnoco6oe un.A yeenuvenuu nonmoeoi nepecblKU" .10
H13yneHHe Bonpoca 06 OTKpbrTHH HOBbIX IIOqTOBbX KOHTOP Ha BocToKe noKa3aJIo,
rITO B 51Qe TaKaSI KOHTopa He lHyx a. 17 AeKa6ps 1862 r. HIIoroBbI enapraMeHT npocLmi
POIHT sbImOJHaTh onepaiuHH no npaeMy, oTnpamaeHHIO H Bbilaqe KOppecnoHAeHiH H
upoaxae MapOK B 14e B MCCTHOM areHTCTBe O6mecTBa. IIpanieHne POIIHT cornacanoci
c 3THM; H3MeHeHHII 6bJIH BHeceHmI B ,orOBOp eite Ano BCTynnJeHHn ero B neiHCTBHe.
oIoKMeHTM Ha OTKpTmTHe B HepycaiHMe noTOBoro oTgeneanHi 6UblIm nepeaanu
oceHbo 1862 r. B FocyaapCTBeHHbmii COBeT Ha yTBepcAeHHe. Ho o6cTaHOBKa Ha BocroKe
Hawana MeHsanCl; MHHHCTepCTBO HHOCTpaniHH Aen PoccHa npeAjio0ano o'rroBOMy
aenapTaMeHTy npHocTaHOBHTb pemeHHe 3Toro Bonpoca. )OKyMeHTBI H3 rocyaapcTBeHHoro
CoBera 6bIum OTO3BaHbi.
TaKHM o6pa3oM, rocyAapcTBeHHoe noWroBoe yqpewaeHHe B Hepycar e mMHe OT-
KpbIBajocb, a nepeBo3Ky InorbI H3 5144Ia B HepycannM H o6paTHo B3amo Ha ce6a POIHT.
B KOHue oKTa6pa 1862 r. IHOrTOBbIa aenapTaMenr pacnopaauanc
.0 o 3aroTOBKe gJ areHTcTB, yKa3aHHbX B AoroBope 1862 r., KaiieHaapnimx
...' .. mTeMenefei, a TalOKe nrreMnenefii lJia yHHErroTeHHR a MapK (T.e.
.'.*.' '.*.'. TOieIHbIx HoMepHbIX mTeMeneJie). HpHCBoeHHn e HoMepa (pnc. 5) no
'"' -""'" cncrKy cooTBeTcTBOBaJH nopL=Ay HaHMenoBamna nopToB B AoroBope:
PHeYHOK 5 777 BaryM, 778 Tpane3yna, ...787 CajiomnH. B aeKa6pe 1862 r.
June 2005

rreMneJiL 6mnH noinyeHbI B FJiaBHOHi KOHTOpe O6mecTBa. Bo MHOIHX pa6oTax yKa3aHO,
wTO ee 3AHnee IOqTOBIi aenapTaMeHr BJuTenan An areHTCTB POHIT aoonJmrrenmHbie
HOMepa ToqeqHbix mTeMnenefi 812, 823 827. B apxHBe noRTooro BeAoOMcTBa coxpaHH-
neneie ajn Tex HJIH HHbx areHTcTB O6fiecTBa.
1. B aaHHOM cjnyqae npiMeHeHHe TOe-9Hbix HOMepm IX urreMneneii TpeyrojnThofi SopMI
c yce'eHHMMH KpaaIMH 6uJIO HcioIoqeHHeM, a He ripaBHnOM. Ilooo6Iue rrTeMneTia, BBeAeiffMe
npiHKo3M no DiaBHOMy YnpaBneinio Hlow OT 17 aBrycra 1858 r. NX 157, npeHaHaHaqajnHcb TOJ0T-
Ko an nowroBmx crTaHmmi. AreircTsa POIlT TaxoBiaMH He annsanHC H He BXOHJIHa B CTpyKTypy
nIOToBoro BeAoMCTBa.
2. C 1864 r. CajioHncKasR HmHH POIHT 6Buna saKpbrra. B 1864 r. conepmaiHe areHr-
crTa B Aqone B3UI Ha ce6a MOHacTHup "Pyceica". Ho YcnoBHnm, 3aicoqeimniM c POIIHT, Kop-
pecnoHeHHUEM HanpaBmeMaa 13 C. A(4oHa B Poccmo, rpHHHManacL H oTnpananracb B cooTBeTcr-
BHH c AoroBopoM 1862 r.; HanpanBaeMaa B nopTbI BocToKa, He BomeinIHe B AoroBop, B COOT-
BeTCTBHH c InoqTOBwMMH paBHnaaH O66mecTsa. B znanbHeilteM HenI,3M HCKIInqHTI npnIMeHemUe
HoMepHnx mTeMneiefi, B3roTOBnemHHix aru areTHTCTB C. A4)oHa H Cainomm, B Apyrnx MecTax.
B 1864 r. POIHT rpocHjI yBelHneHTb KOJImeCTBO nopTOB, B KOTopMe npHHHMaeT-
ci noIroBaA KoppecnoHAyeHHla. HIocne coriacoBaHHR B HX HMCJIO BOIIUI CaMcyH, Kepa-
cyHA, J~apAaHenaui, XHoc, PoAoc, JIaTaKHA H TpHnojI. YKa3aHne o6 H3rOTOBJneHHH
TreMneneei Iana aaHHbw areHTCTB 6bmo cAejiano B 4eBpane 1865 r. Xo3~icTBeHHoe OTAe-
neHHe 1-oHTOBoro genapTaMeHTa, pacnopalAHBmHC1 06 H3rOTOBJeHHH KajieHapHbn x mueM-
neniei, yKa3ano: "amu Ice uimeMnermia 6o.iOCHbn ynompe6aimbcA O) yHuwmoTIcenus MapOK".
B nicbMe rlorroBoro aenapTaMeHTa OT MapTa 1865 r. B OAeccKyio norpaHHqHymo noTo-
AapHbix. TaKofi nonxoA, Koraa ympex eHHa, HMMeioIHe KaJeHIapHB e IIIeMInen, MOJIH
racHTb MapKH 3THMH mITeMUnenIMH, 6uIx ycTaHOBJIeH TmpKyJIapOM IHoTrOBoro genapTaMeH-
Ta OT 11 eBpaIn 1863 r. No2 123 H npHMeHManc BO MHOrHX nIOTOBbMx yqpexeHHaX cTpa-
HII. H03TOmy mHHero CTpaHHorO B 3TOM pemeHHH He 6suIo.
mreMnenji anL BbHmoreuHHa nOTrOBux onepauHi B 18-TH areHTCTBax B BOCTOqHbIX IIprax:
B 11-Tb KaneHAapHHbe H TOieqHbI e HOMepHie mnTeMnenia, B 7-Mb TOJIbKO KaneHfapHme
TrreMneja. KpoMe 3THX noproB B 1866 67 rr. napoxog i POI-HT InTaHOBO nocemajm no
MaKapomno. Ho B AKpy OHH 3axoALHJH TOJIbKO B XOpomyIO noro~y, B CaHm npH HamnamJ
rpy3oB B 3TOT nopT, a Opay nocemnanjH epes peiic. B nopTy MaKapoHHH go 1870 r. He
6ruio areHra O6mecTBa, Ho npaBo BLmonjHaur notroBBie onepamin Ha npHMenr noHt rosBIe
mTeMneJIA HMeJIH TOIbKO areHTbi POrHT. KpoMe Toro, Opay H MaxapoHHsa axce He Kax-
AIJi roa BKJmnoTaIJHC B pacrmcaHne napoxoHibix peiicoB. B cany 3THX H ApyrHx npHrHH
rpneM noqTOBOfi KoppecnoHAe~HIHH B AaHHblX nopTax He OTKpLEBanca. To ecTb H3roTaBJH-
BaTr Toeqnme mTreMnenJ c 3ape3epBHpoBamHHIMH HOMepaMH 812, 823 827 B 3TOT nepnoA
6buIO He AlSI Koro.
CnpaBKa: 3araAno'Hoe MeCTo MaKapomia He6oJImoit OCTPOBOI H nopT Ha
paccTAmmHH 87 MHJui OT JapnaHejar H 63 MHa OT CMHnpin. C. UqiHjrrpHaH H B. CTePaH
("Stamps of Russian Empire used abroad", 1957), nmnyT, ccbhaaci~ Ha C. lIpMrapy, 06 orTKPrriT
B MaKapoHnu areIrrcTna (noieMy-To, Postal Agencies, noqTOBoro areHTcTBa, ???) B 1870 r., HO
He Moryr yKa3aTb HCTOtnHHK 3THX CBeAeHHIl.
Taxa HH4popMauIr coxepwrcrca B cnpanoIrmHe POIIHT. B H3aaanm 1869 r.
B pas~ene "AremHT H KoppecnoHAeHTH" B MaKapomni arerra HeT. B AonoJIHeHHH K cnpaBsoHqmy,
rH3AaHHOM B 1870 r., oTMeoeHo Hnarwqie B MaKapoHHH areHTa 06mecTBa.
Bee ToeeqLHie HOMepHie mTeMnena H3roTaBJIHBaJIHCb H paccumajnCb TOJIKO
HOrroaunM enapTaMeHToM. Ho c 1868 r. OH mTeMnenraMH POHHT He cHa6aan. TaxKM
o6pa3oM, aHarIH3 AOKyMeHTOB nOrTOBOrO BeAOMCTBa H POIIHT nepnoAa 1862 67 rr.
Ino3BOJaeT C'ITaTi,, T O IMa BocToqHOi KoppecnoHHAeHIHH TOHe~tHbIe LrreMIHeJI c HoMe-
paMH 812, 823 827 ITo[rOBbM aenapTaMCHTOM He H3roTaBJIHBajiHCh.
rIpHMeHeHHe TOqeqHbIX HOMepHbX unrreMnenejei Ha noqroBux cTaHuHax PoccEH
npeKpaTaT ocHb B 1876 r. B 3-M npKycynape no norTOBOMy BeAOMCTBy 3a 3TOT roa rOBopH-
June 2005

nocb: "...ynompe6ane.Mbe na cmaungux ... umeMnenmi 6)nm yHutmoicenuH naAolwceumnix na
nucbM.a noMtmoblx MapoK, c ombenbHblAM HOMepOM Ha Ka3fC)oM utmeMnete, omm7enatomcA.
...e ecmo nux cmanquu donlimCbt HnaiRabacbamb na MapKu Mieoibbz na6opHbli wmeMne.lb C
o6o3HnaL eueM. Mecma u apeMenu nobamu nucbMa".11
o HLnHajnIoe HcnoJM30oBaHHe TaKHX nrreMHenefi Ha BocTOKe AOJCKHO 6Imo 3aKOHBHTbca
npnMepHo B 3TO ace BpeMa. TeM 6onjee qTo pyccKo-TypecKaa BOfHa 1877- 78 rr. npHocra-
HOBHJIa AerreJIBHOCTm 061ecTsa B TyptHH.
O 3anpeTe npHMeHeHmH TOqeqHix HOMepHMx nrreMnenefi B 1876 r. roBOpErc= nospo6o
OTroro, rro C. IpHrapa ("PyccKa I noTra B HMnepmi, B Typunm, B Krrae H B IapcTBe oloJmcKOM",
HiMo-IfopK, 1941) nrmer: "03Hsaenume utmemnen 6bmu UIMmm u3 ynompe67enusuR upzpypao
om 20 OKmni6pA 1877 e. u 3saMeeHb, 6bnA eauenHi MmapoK H0oe ULu KpyzabtMfu tiwmUine'LiWu". 3r0 He
Tax. LU pynmapHbM npeanncaHneM OT 2 moni (HO He 20 orra6pa) 1877 r. Ha noqTOBUX craHnax
c npHeMOM H BsbIaaeri ecex nBAOB norronBO t oppecnoAeHnuHH BMeCTO MeeabHX Ha6opmux
rreMenenei, 3aMemHmmx co6ofi Toiewume arreMnejs, BBeAeHM cmranbHie ipyrnme iiTeMneJa.
AreHTCTBa POIHlT npmnMann KoppecnoIHenmo Ansi nepec~uiMn He TOJILKO B
PoccHmo, HO H MeXCay BOCTOrHbIMH nopTaMH. BO3HHK Bonpoc 06 ounaTe TaKOH KoppecnoH-
AeHinHH. B aeKa6pe 1862 r. HlorToBBi glenapTaMeHTr ncan, oTBeiaq Ha s3apoc POIaHT, Tro
AorOBOp onpeAenieT onnary "KoppecnonHenuuu, nepecbaeMou Mecacy pycch-zuu u uno-
cmpanuHbMu nopmaMu; onpebeneHue naambz 30 KoppecnoHncemniuo, nepeeosnuylo .Meacby
unocmpanHblMu nopmaMu, saeucum mobbKto om 06utecmea".
lepe3 roa, B geKa6pe 1863 r., IIoqroBbil nenaptraeHT passac~su OaeccKoH no-
rpaHH~u OHi nollroTBO KOHTOpe, rTO KoppecnoHaeHu M B BOCTOmHrIX noprax "nepeci7aem-
ca 6es yacmus nowmomo6o eeboMcm6a, a nomo.y sa nee HUKcaKUX rvameX/ceu e no.7blb
normo6oeo ynpaeneHus He ua3HaeeHo". 12
ro3HnWqa noqTOBoro AenaprameHTa B OTHOImeHHH KOppecnoHgeHImH nepecbuiae-
MOri 6e3 yqacTis noTroBoro BeooMcTBa, 6bma iopg~xiecKHM o6o0CHOBanHeM an~ RIroTOB-
n eHHH B 1865 r. MapoqHOi~ 3MHCCHH POIIHT (pnc. 6). 3THNM
... MaprauMH o 1868 r. dpaHcKpoBajmch nHOTOBMIe oTnpaBJieHHsI
nepecmaeMbxe Mexagy BOCTO'qHBIMH nopTaMH. HMH HejTh3a 6imo
un, aTHTm 3a AocTaBKy noH'rI c BocTOKa B Poccmo. 06 scHenee
S"- ", npocToe: 100 % aoxoaa 3a AocraBKy MopeM Ao Oaeccbi nHceM,
onmaieHmalx MapKaMH POHrT, nocrynano 6I B Inons3y
PHcyHOK 6 O6muecTea; HO no AoroBopy 1862 r. eMy 6bmo no noenoHO 3a
MopcKyio nepeBo3Ky TOJbKO 25 % TapH4a, a Ha JnIHH
KoHCTaHTHHOnojm Oaecca niaTexr Boo6mHe He nonaraJJIHb.
Ha pHc. 7 jnIUeBaB H o6opoTHaa CTOpoHm nOrqTOBOrO oTnpaBjieHHn, npmaroro B
areHTcTBe B MepcHHe, 4paHKxpOBaHHoro MapKaMH POIlIT H aocTaBneEnoro Ha napoxoae
O6mecTBa a Be ipyT.
SB HHepecHOfr cTrabe
*". "Pyccica MOpCKa=I BOCTO'Ia notra"
',i -' '- (xypRan "tanarTenm CCCP", N2 11,
1979) r. ARynoB yraepxanaer, rT
S. Mapi POIHT "npu.ienwiucb c 1863 a
4-1A "on7amvlb KoppecnoHnemHru,

,-- -- *-_--:

PrcyHOK 7 H3o6paeHmre mno6e3HO npeaocTaBJeHO
ai cTaTnH BnaaenhUeM norqoBoro oTnpaan eHHa ,
A. FanibnepoM (CaHKr-HeTep6ypr, PocCHu).

June 2005

nepeeouMofi Meeac)y eocmotHbLMu nopmaMu". JOKyMewHT apxHBoB C-neTep6ypra He IO3BOJIIIOT
HH nogrmepA~Tb, HH oipoBeprIHyrT 3y Aary.
TaioKe F. AKyHoB coo6maeT, Co ccumLIKOf Ha "IIpaBHnla 06mecTB=aara nepecuiKH nmceM
MexaRy BOCTOqHBIMH nopTaMH", 1863 r., 'ro "maKan nolma onnavuesaacb MapKaMu POIHuT u3
pacqema... 3a iom: npocmie nucbMa no 2 nuacmpa, cmpaxoeie no 4 nuacmpa u I nuacmp sapac-
nucKy". 3a ornpaaneHma nof "6avueponAvu e3UMCaocb no 10 napa" 3a noT.
Kax cKa3aHO Bbline, B apXHBHbIX AOKyMeHTaX OTMeqeHu cIiyqan npneMa H a-
npaBjieHHa nIORT B HMnepHo H3 BOCTOrHb noproB, He BomexAIHx B AOrOBop, TpaH3H-
TOM qepe3 OAHH H3 nopTOB, yniOMAHyTbX B AoroBope. Ha KoppecnoHAeHIAHH,
nepecumlaeMOii TaKHM o6pa3oM, MapKaMH POIHLT ormnauiajacb nepecbm ca MeKay BOC-
TOnHbMH nopTaMH.
Bo Bcex CTaThnx H KaTajiorax YKasa3H HOMHHaJILI MapOK POHHT 10 napa (2 Kon.)
H 2 nracTpa (20 xon.). HEUKe 6yAeT noKa3ano, HTo, cyaR no apxHBHMM tAOKyMeHTaM H He-
KOTOpM nuchCbMaM, npI HCnOJIb30BaHHH B TeHCHHe nepBux Tpex MecaSeB 1868 r. Kaxiaai
inecTBo Tarae npHMemsuo xaj raimenHn CBOHX Mapor noxowaoe mTeMneji (pHc.8) pa3Me-
-.- pOM 27 x 17 MM, Ho 6e3 HOMepa. 3TH mrTeMnejiAl H3BecTHM H a
o *,*t o o6wIerocynapcTBeHHbn IIO'TOBbIX MapKax.
*!e**i** AelicTBHe AoroBopa 1862 r. 3axownruocb 31 aeKa6pq 1864 r.;
*.*. o6e CTOpOHbI npoaOJDKaJm BbamojmIT ero Ao 3aKmnoqeHI o HOBoro
PHcyHoK 8 IHOAfrTOBKa TaKoro corniameHiH Mealy noqTOBsbi
BeAoMCTBOM H POIIHT Haqanacb B nepBsoi nnojOBHHe 1865 r. B AoroBop nanuHHpoBanjoc
BHecTH cepe3mue H3MeHeHHm.
B aBrycTe 1865 r. npe;cegaTejxb HIpaBJneHHA POHHT H. FaeBcKnlH, npejiarat ne-
peaaT 06mecTBy BbmoJneHHne Bcex noiosxTOB oIIepaiHia Ha BocTOKe, nHcaji: "B Hacmoa-
ulee epe.w Ha 6ocmowHbix JlutnUx ... 6e nomMbl: PyccKas KaienHaA (Meaccy nopmaMu,
6ometeUuuM u e Zozoeop) u PyccKaA 06uqecmea (Mewc6y nopmaMu, He eoluebwuuMu e ,o-
zo6op); e6a copma MapoK: PyccKue novmoeozo eedoMcmea u PyccKue O6utecmea".
H. FaeBcKHii OTMeTHJ, HTO TaKoe nojnoceHHe Aien BM3BIBaeT y oTnpaBHTeJinei "3ampy6nenui
u cmo.jnHo6eHeua c aeeumanu 06uzecmea, Komopbze o6sisaHbi mpe6oeamb ...mo OaHux, mo
6pyzux normo6blx MapoK u nriambi mo no oHuoHi, mo no opyZeo notmoeooo marce".13
C HaqaJIoM pa3pa6oTKH HOBorO AoroBopa POHnT nocToaHHO npeniaran BBecTH
MapKH ,IaJ BOCTO'IHOH KOppecnoHgeHmIHH. HIoTOBbi I AenapTaMeHT He BO3paxaaj npOTHB
3Toro. Ho B IIOrTOTOBJIeHHLbX AOKyMeHTax G6buJ pa3nIHMie BapHaHTbI. B TOM Hmcne pac-
TOnHOri no'rm (3a MopcKyIO nepeBo3Ky) H o6imerocyAapcTBeHHLIx (BHYTpeHHHii BecOBOil
c6op). H3-3a CJnrKHOCTH B3aHMOpacreTOB (nowroBbij c6op 3a IIHCbMa c BOCTOKa B POCCHIO
naiHHpoBanocbi OTgaBaaTi 06uecTBy, HO miaTa 3a o6muerocygapcTBeHHne MapKH nocTynana
B FocycapcTBeHnyIO Ka3Hy r T.n.) 3TOT BapHarr 6bm OTKrIOHeH.
B KOHne AeKa6ps 1866 r. npeaceAaTejib npaaneHua POIHT o6panTica c npe~no-
CeHneM H3rOTOBHTb A~n O6imecTsa "normogble Mapru c oco6blM 3HaKOM". )OoKyMeHTaJb-
HbrX cBeAeHHii 06 o6pa3isax MapoK, npeAcTaBjieHHbrx POIHT, He Hai HeHO. Ho cpeAH
MapouHbx acce cepeaHHmi 1860-x roPos ecTL noxowane Ha TaKHe o6pa3I i, c 6yKBaMH "B" H
"K", rTO MO2HO pacLmnpoBaTb KaK "BocToqHna KOppecnoHAeHIAHH". BepoaTHocTn noAo6-
HOi HageHTHRHKauRHH yBeJH~HBaeTCs, ecin 3aMeTHTm, qro Ha 3THX 3cce, Ha qaCTH MapOK
POHHT 1865 68 rr. H cepHH "AHKHii JIeBaHT", BbmyineHHbIX POrIHT Ha nIIfThLeCCT C
riaBHIbie 6yKBM Ha QOHe Kpyra c AByx CTOPOH OT IeHTpa (pHC. 9). B InorTOBa X MapKax
Poccim TaKoii npneM B IeiAeeHHSa KaKHx-JH6o 6yKB He HCIIOJIL30Ban]ca.
OAHnaR, no MHeHHIO MHHHCTpa noTr H TenerpadQoB rpa4)a H. ToncToro MapKH flM
BOCToIHOOj KoppecnoHneHIHH nojniKH 6bIH 3HanHTeJIbHO OTmJiHaTba OT o6merocyFap-
June 2005


B AoKnaae, npelcTaBineHRoM HJMneparopy B anpene 1867 r., on nican:
"...npeano)iceno, imo6bi niama 3a nepecbtuiy ecei Koppecnon eHmtuu, cnedyyoutfeu 1 Poc-
cuu Ha BocmoK, noanocmbwo nocmynaua 6 nommoeble c6opb, ...HO nmo6b 06uqecmeo oc-
mae6Jis o c60oo nojb3y my nramy, Komopylo ono 6yOem esumamb c KoppecnoHHeumoe Ha
BocmoKe, 3a nepecbuaKy ux omnpaenenuu e Poccuwo (npHMeIaHTe aBTopa: nontepKHBaHme
CJIOB BbHIoJIHeHO B TeKCTe AOKyMeHTa). ...06tzecmeo 17apoxobcm6a xodamaucmeyem o
os360oJeuu seecmu 6e ocmomHbix nopmax amn onnambt omnpaea enfMo napoxoc6aMu 06uze-
cmea KoppecnoHncemnuu oco6bie mapru.
...Haxosi, umo nOMHuaymble MapKu, npe)cmaean.u co6oft c6opb, cocmaaeviouiue
co6cm6eenocmb 06u2ecmea, omicunbi ...pe3KO onrtuambcA om MapoK, ynompe6ave.w x 6
HMnepuu u npeacmaeatouutux npunaclnexcauue FocycapcmeeHHnoMy Kasuaeifcmey non-
moblie c6opbt, I pacnopItCuIac uwomoaenueM pucyuca oco6bix Cb)a O06uecmea MapoxK 14
B 3TOM A oKyMeHTe BnepBre c4opMyJUposaH IlnpHmIma, npaeHeHeHrlAi epe3 mecE, B
Mae 1867 r., aU 3eMCKHIX MapOK. TaiKe MapKI paspemanoc BbsmycxaTb npH yclnoBH, wro EH pn-
cynox 6yAeT 3HaqHnTTeJIHO OTJHqaTTbH OT pHcyHKa o6merocyJapcmeHHbix Mapoi.
JoroBop IIorrOBaoro AenapTaMeHTa c POIInT 6bui noxancaH 9 eica6ps 1867 r.
TeKCT AIoroBopa B jmTepaType He neqaTajicI, a HeKOTopbie csBeaeHn H3 Hero npHBo aIHrmC
co CCbUIKOri Ha IHPKyjrap nolqroBoro aenapTaMeHTa OT 21 neKa6pa 1867 r. Xo 49. Bonee
Toro, H. HocuIoB B CTaThe "Enme o MapKax pyccxoro JIeBanTa"' (c)ypnan "CoseTcKli KOI-
neKIamoHep", No 4, 1932) muner, Tro TeKCT
0(Zo0 r0 pi. 3Toro AoroBopa He coxparHHJac. B apx~Be
Ilor roBoro aenapTaMerra eCTm KaK THIO-
rpacatKHi TeKCT goroBopa, TaK H pyKomHc-
Cr' Ir riW .rft. a l ttp-.If trt rrf r .ht -ln I-t

/ ^~~r~*L~zr..~ / ~ 't R ~~sdcr r/o;
SIfE ten.rt .tflr-t.-t FL EE C r. .fl ].. t trA.flb ftf ift nrO aiy
,,l.-nIn(( I ,-tf.u.7" t-.I~ ~ ,.cC ~ u C ~ Wtdt4l ,j~i ~i<..

LI-fE.'t Ct-It .efitl..X# Iip.~tfri.- I E--c.-elf-cri I cw
C.fI t" L.r.ut-f-rI t-t.f atr.- .x4 6 frriat.' f3 b-

f1.(miA~~y tl rr cfM:.K> SS/t. LIJiL -f'toefam-vih *f1msftW/ix. /. 3ote? f~o.I

~.W-K.lr F a.^ttPj mrtt tic-flt-u.

.M<-- .^^~tl4IX'.LW /(L'^''"'" C.*y^MI--f711'* / 'UI S
4 1/
I. *t'flt c-u .I IE/fA- Erp cLr iLp.LIC~t2 C/CEQ~dib

-a^ Ei.4ry.^iEn tlC-i-C tC ( I L4. ltyd- r-ffnittticpt .

PHCYHOK 10 Or no-TOBoro aenapTaMeira fLoro-
22 Bop noXwHcaH BH1ie-flpeKTopoM H. KPHCKOBbM

*~*,40attJ4 tat-C. C~lt-lEA '-t.-~+F Lt` tl-CCcn~.At.-.;...
*~-acsc~r 'C-. 4r r* j*, E~;lU-rvcl

-T~-normnr~w-n--y-rcc ~ ?~r-trurro -aZ-
-f-I )E-tVLO ,n.-ti~e4-Cl'C'PCt.- .--C~CC--~~-L ~I---ri---fl'.j tt-E
~ti~4C~roi.~ ~L-L~~-)e~C6 CII~-I.
,tC t-EN~dauau~~ P~;~~~~u r~r


I- ~;2' J-

~~ zc

sZ^--~- t.:. ~5c-.,


/4- -
/--~ i-~

June 2005

mIHuaMH KaR)KOH H3 CTOpOH. Ha pnc. 10 nepBAii H nocJeXeHHFi JIHCTbI opHrnHajniHoro
3K3eMiuipa AoroBopa 1867 r.
qTO6bI IIOHITb ycTanHOBeHHbli c 1868 r. nopaSor nepeclbUKH IIOWTOBUX OTnpaB-
nieHHH, Heo6xoHMo paccMOTpenb HeKOTopbIe CTaTbEH AaHHoro AorBopa:
1. POHuT npunuuaem Ha ce6s: 1) nepeeo3Ky u pastday npocmbix nuceM, 6an-
deponbHblX omnpaeneHuii, cmpaxoebix nuceM u oeuez, cu.ebyloulux us ecex zopoooe u nop-
moe PoccuficKoii HMnepuu eo ece nopmbi BocmoKa, napoxodamu PyccKozo 06tOecmea
noceufaeMble, u 2) npuem u nepeeo3Ky ecex obltuenowmenoeanHHbx Gu6Bo KoppecnonoeurHuu
u3 ecex nopmoe BocmoKa, napoxobaMu PyccKozo 06utecmea noceu4aeMblx, eo ece zopoda u
nopmbi HMnepuu.
2. Henocpe6cmeenHas nepedava ua napoxobbi KoppecnoHdentuu, cjedytoueu U3
Poccuu 6 BocmovrHbe nopmbl, u npuem c napoxoooe Koppecnondenuuu u3 BocmonHblx
nopmoe 6 Poccuwo npouseobumcs ObeccKoif nozpanuqHou u 6ceMU npuMopcKuuu normo-
6bluu Konmopauu tIepHozo u A3o6cKozo Mopeu.
3. HoR1 moe6be KOHmopbl npunuuaiom KoppecnonHemnuo, aOpecoeannylo a me
monbKO BocmovuHbe nopmib Komopze nouuenoeanHs a pacnucanuu peucoe POIuT.
4. Ipocmbie u cmpaxoe6,e nucbMa u 6aHbeponbHube omnpasneHnu, cnedyoutue u3
Poccuu na BocmoK, nepeeosumci PyccKUM 06uzecmeoM 6e3eosue3sHo. IHomoebie nna-
meicu 3a nux ...nocmynatom nolnHOcmblO 6 nojb3y notnmo6ozo 6ee)o.cmea. HIAama 3a npo-
cmble u cmpaxoezbe nucbMa u 6an(eponbHble omnpaenenua, utyutue c BocmoKa e Poccuto u
o6MenueaeMbie MeoItcey eocmotHblMu nopmauu, nocmynaem nonnocmblO a noj0b3y PyccKozo
5. Becoeas nmama 3a nepeeo3Ky uopeM npocmbix nuceM ... a3HnaaemcA no 10
KoneeK c 7oma (ceepx 10 KoneeK enymperHux eecoebix ...c joma, 3a cyxonymnylo nepecbll-
Ky nuceM us3 eympeHnux eopodoe Poccuu do Odeccbz u bpyzux nopmoeubx zopoOoe u o6-
Hob 6anHepo.aruu do36onnemcn nepecbnamb za3embi, ocypuamibt... u apyzue ne-
vamubie npou3eedenuwi....
3a 3mu omnpaeenuus 6ydem e3UmaeMo no 2 Konei~cu c Ka2icobix 3 4iomoe, 6 mo.
tucje no 1 Konefte 3a nepeeo3Ky MopeM u no 1 KonefiKe 3a cyxonymnyio nepecbutny e npe-
eniax Poccuu.
6. 3a nepeeo3Ky MopeM cmpaxoebix nuceM e3biCKU6aemcg ...no 25 KoneeK c aKOc-
6ozo ioma, ceepx ycmaroesieHUbix noVmoebix niamemiceu ...3a cyxonymnylo nepecblvKy
cmpaxoebix nuceM u3 6nympeHHux zopodoe Poccuu do Obeccbz u opyzux nopmoebtx zopoboo
u o6pamno.
8. B suMinee epeM.u no 3aKpuimuu naeuzaluu e nopmax A3socKozo Mopi: Kepwu,
Bepo~ncKe, Mapuynone, EIcKe u Tazanpoze u s npupeinlbix nopmax: Xepcone u Huxonaese,
nucbua u 6anHeponbHbie omnpaejeneH, cnedyioutue c BocmoKa e nomunuymbie nopmbz uiru
o6pamno, 6ybym nepecbwambca MIewtcy Odeccoft ...u o3HnaeHHbMU esblue nopmaMu, no
cyxonymnof norme, Ho 3a my ace niamy, Komopan Ha3uHaena npu nepeeo3Ke ux uope.M.
9. 17pocmble nucbMa u 6anHeponbHbze omnpaeJenuw, KaK uodyuue u3 Poccuu na
BocmoK, maK u no7iyOaeMbie ommyba, dojiICHbi 6bzmb onilaZueaeMbi (qbpaHKupyeMbz) npu
nooaqe HaKrieenHblM Hna mux noTmoesbiu MapKcau.
Honmoeblui benapmaueum 6yoem cHa63icamb PyccKoe 06Ouecmeo 6aH onzambi
nobaaeaemuou eocmoqHblx nopmax KoppecnodeHmtuu, ucK)ntoumejnbo 6sIR amo1u yeitu
npeHas3HaveHHblMU OCo6blMU notmo6biMu MvapKcauu, no yene ux ebibentKu. ...eciu Ha no-
OanHuoi e eocmonHbix nopmax K omnpaeienuio c napoxoaMau coppecnonoenmuu ocacicymci
naw)eenHHbMi KaKue Au6o opyzue nomoebie MapKu, mo 06utecmeo umueem npaeo, He
npunuMua maKou KoppecnoHdeuemuu, mpe6oeamb onnambl ee nooaeameweM Hnaoiecwcatzeit
normoeoif Mapcou. (!!!)
17. Bce ebuiweuinowceuHbie ycioeus pacnpocmpauinomcA Ha KoppecnoHnenHtuo,
nepecbuiaeMylo Yepe3 Poccuto, Me3c6y Bocmoiwibwu nopmaMu u I.apcm6eo HM OIbCUM u
BeAunuKi KniHacecmeoM OuuHnIAHcKWu. ... o3HaeHHbie ycjioetu, no ycMompenwo Fraenozo
June 2005

Haarbcm6a 3aKa6KascKozo KpaI, Mozym 6blmb npumeneHub K Koppecnondenluu, nepecbu-
niae.mou Mefc6y Bocmoiimtu nopma.uu u 3aKa6cas3M, nepes noqmoewie yvpeocbenu e6
Homu u CyxyM-Kane".15
HopHlOK nepecuimKH H ornnaTb AeHewHoli KoppecnoHfeHmHH onpeenancca B 13
joroBopa. OCHOBHOi oco6eHHnocTbO nepecunIK TaKofi KoppecnoigenuiH 6unI To, Tro
OHa onnJaqHBaJacb IHOqTOBbIMH c6opaMH TOJIIKO Ao OAeccbI. 3Aecb naKeTH BCKpBiBariiHCb;
XeHbrH nIepec'MMbiHHaIi H n IOTOM nepelaBajmIcb npeacTaBHTrenJ POHnT non pacimcry,
BMecTe c noAnmHHHbIMH o6ojio0KaMH naKeTOB. 3a nepecbu my MopeM 6pancs nononmarenm-
Hbi, c6op B pa3Mepe /2 % OT nepecbmaeMoi cyMM~I Aener. 3ToT c6op B3bCKmBainca nup
sbIgae (HnjH npieMe) aeHer B BOCTOIHb6IX nopTax.
B COOTBeTCTBHHI c noIroBbIM nipaBHIaMH cTpaXOBbe IncbMa H XHenaKIaa KOp-
pecnorAeHqAH 3aHOCHJIHCh B peecTp noHMeHHO. Ha pHc. 11 4parMeHT peecTpa AeHer H
cTpaxoBBX nmceM, oTnpaBnemmax H3 KOHCTauHTHHOIIOS.
Ilurra ZeMity Bocrsosb n Pociceo.
1hfv WnOi leJ Lvamt t l. wso-i
peesCTps Aeers a crpazorubs UaaUcesa OTnp"iaaeSBt&xIx
Rlev4 de rargcnt ot de letters chargi, eqxpdiMs
pHMOHA THl Ba oOsopeY Ap A Boxla y p c o
2,W., D'. pr Ii
: 11 ..........| .r a2 | ,a._.__I..i-- .---- --,, -

o o.a O opa'Kica .< T "'..O -IAe p...-.' _a ol o e e. cO...--" .. i p
Ty p ,u ", pe' |eroI .uoc o ... ..E.. a' .-*.r e nac^uennat pyc a'-,,nor5ta-. -, '. K. Srp

c ye O T p -. H -.'T'HT.HO .O.'.-.t -. COKO-OB O
1n a o!e ... H <.--'^-- /..... H....... ,,-az o^ coo-I-ae. : i

* '2 l o "" 4 1


rIpHMeHeHHoI-In B o OrOBope nopAoic oTiaTbi npoarcThbix rmceM H 6a.Aepoam, ix OT-
npaBJIneHHi: HanpaBomM x iH3 Poccem Ha BoCTo o6.merocyap eNm MapKa-m, a c
BocToia B Poccmo Map-KMH IAI BOCTOIH -Ofi Koppecno1- ,ieHmmf, coxpa'HHJcA H B arf-
I eorOBop B1CTyIHHJI B eACTBH c 1 1HBapA 1868 r. C aTOi mce 1aT8i 3upaHnr;Ia
nPeMeHeHHbOO B yo oroBOpe noporo oK oizeaTso nPoCaTX ImaCeM H6 6aimepo.aHix oT-

noiTrOBaa KOHTropa B KoHCTaMHTHonoIIne npeapaTnra CBOKo raeanrejtHOCT. 1-oBTopseMaA B
paye CTaTeHi HqopMaHmam o TOM, HTO 6buiH 3aKp~TbI "3azpaHuwMbie nomoesbe Konmopbl e
Typzluu", rpemHT HeTOHMOCTbIO. EBmua 3aKpirra eaHCTBeHHaa pyccKaa nowroBaa KOHTOpa,
cymnecTBOBaBuma B TypiuA KOHCTaHTmHonojnBccKa. H. COKOJIOB, noTrBep niaa 3TOT
#baKT B CTaTme "0 noaTOBLIX CHomenHHX POCCHH c TypnHeii" (rIowroBo-TejIerpadmbdfi 3yp-
Hna, OTleJi Heo4IHUHajibHbli, d4eBpajm, 1900), Talce coo6niaer: "Omnpae.enHue pyccKo-
mypeyrKoio cyxonymnouf nomb, oKomname.nbHo npeKpamuwiocb e 1868 z., Rozoa ecA nomo-
eam onepazju Hna BocmoKe 6bmva nepe)ana POnuT'.
IpHMeeHeHie AoroBopa Ha KaBsa3e Ha'ajiocb c Mar 1868 r.
Jo 1868 r. H3rOTOBJIeHHe inTeMnejiei, KHH1r H 6naHcoB AJMIa nTO'rTOBOro enionpos3-
BOnCTBa B nopTax, yKa3aBHHbM B aoroBope 1862 r., Bo3Jnaraocb Ha IIoaTOBNaA Aenapra-
MeHT. no HOBOMy AoroBopy no'TOBoe HMyimecTBO 3aroTaBmBajio 061necTBO. UlTeMneji,
npHMeHmeMbie POHIIT, qacTO HanaraJrncb Ha noTOBuIe oTnpaBjieHHa KpacKOAH Aim ciy-
ce6Horo AenonppOHsBOACTBa, cHHero xBera. B FjiaBHoi KOHTope 06mecrBa B OAecce
June 2005

6bmIO co3aaHo nowroBoe OTxenerIHHe (nowroBaa qacTi), rge c 1868 r.
SC npiHHHManaci OT oTnpaBHTejiei nowroBam KoppecnoHmemnsi H
S 5 cnooJI30BajmHC norosBue mrreMneja. OAHH H3 HHX (pHC. 12), -
Sc*HHCero qneTa, HnaueH Ha AoKyMerTe O6mecTBa. Pa3Mep nrreMuneis
1872 26MM. BesycoJIBHo, o6pa3suoM npH rpaBHpoBKe 6bh mTeMneJm
.cr I OgeccKoii norpaHHnHOHk noToBofl KOHTOPI. HOBbiA mreMuneji
He3HatHTreJIHOn oTjnmaeTcI OT Hero rpaBHpOBKOit HeKOTopbIX 6yKB H
PacyHOK 12
ITepBaa 3aMeHa 6OIbnHHHCTBa mnTeMnejiei inpOHSomrna, BHAIHMO, B 1873 r. B Mae
3Toro roa rJIaBHbIri areHT BOCTOHbIX JIHHHii 6apoH IllTeiirep imcaji, qTO B Bcex areHTcT-
Bax nowrOBsbe imTeMneJis "6oRbweu tacmblo npuutiu 6 HezoO)nOCmb" H rTO OH yxe o6pa-
THJmc no Bonpocy HX 3aMemHb B rJFaBHylo KOirropy O6mecTBa.
B TeKCTe gorOBopa oco6o oroBapHBajrocB, -TO opMa pacnIHCOK, BHlsaBaeMb x 1npH
ilpieMe cTpaxoBbLx niceM H AeHer, 6yAeT ycTanoBneHa no oTlejniHOMy corJnaleHIHO o6eiH
CTOpOH. 06mUHii BHA 3THX pacmHCOK, c 1872 r. npHMeHaBinHxcCA H r npn peMa 3axKasHux
oTipaBJIeHHm CHeJIHO OTJIH qaic OT ynoTpe6jaIBmHxcsa BHyTpH cTpamH. IIoapo6Hee o pac-
nHCKcax rinowTr POIIHT roBopmTcn B cTaTbe A. KpoHHHa "ROPiT Parcel, Insurance and
Registration Receipts" (XaypHan "JIMIiHK / The Post- Rider", NX 52, 2003).
nocne noAFnicaHHa l oroBopa IIo'ITOBbii .enrapTaMCHT npoCHJ 3317 H3TOTOBHTb
ofHO -, Tpex -, arTH H AecaTH KoneeHible MapKH ,IIAJ BOCTOqHOH KoppecnonAeHnIuH.
B 4eBpane 1868 r. POHrHT coo6iaJan, rTO inowoBMe onepaijHH Ha BocToKe BI-
B Harane MapTa 1868 r. IowTOBbIi AenapTaMeHT noJiyinu H3 333B 30 THCeI Ma-
no 5 TbucaII nIATH-, Tpex- H OgHOKonIeelHblx. 18 MapTa MapKH 6bUIH BbICJIaHM B OeccKyio
norpa~HiHyio noTroByIO KOHTOpy AJM nepeaanH FJmaBHOi KOHTOpe POHIHT.
3 Maa 1868 r. IIpaBjieHHe POIIHT H3BeecTHno lnorroiBbi enapTaMeHT, rTO KOHTO-
pa 06mecTBa B Ofecce nonyiuia 30 Tmica MapoK zwu BOCTOTIHOi KOppecnoHaeHImHH.
rIpaBjnemHe npocniIo BbICjnaTb eme 50 TwCca mTyK Aec THKoneeMHblx H 10 TbICaS uTrq
nrarmoneemHix MapoK, a B moHe 1868 r. eime 10 TbIC5 Of1HOKoneemHHX MapoK ~1m1 BOC-
TORHOii KOppecnoHgeHzMHH.
21 HmOHr 3TOTO Kce roa BHOBb OTneqaTaHHbIe 50 ThICI AecTrrHKoneeImHhu H 10
ThICAI nrTHKoneeWMHMx MapOK 6bmmI oTnpaBJieHbl B OAeccy; oHOKooneemIe MapjKH lloYTo-
BriiH e1enapTaMeHT o6eiIaai OTnpa1BHTb .O KOHIa HIOHI.
MapKH nepBoro THpaxca HMeJI 3y6UOBKy 11 '2. HaH6ojee panee ImcbMO c TaKHMH
MapKaMH, HaiileHHoe npi noaroTOBKe CTaTbH, AaTHpoBaHO 30 anpens 1868 r. (pHc. 13).
B nrTepaType H KaTarjorax
S ("KaTanior MapoK H InetjbHI~X
,. R-,- BeineH" non penaKUHefi D. IymHna
; H T.I.) BTOpofi BbmycK MapOK AJis
S OTHeceH K 1872 r. 3y6IOBKa IJIX
S(' aHHoro THpawKa MapOK yKa3aHa
14 2 : 15. YnoMInaHHU o6 H3ro-
S TOBnjieMHH 3TH MapoK B 1872 r. B
f_ ...- '" ;*" apxHBax rIOTOBoro genapTaMerrra,
B AaHHOM cjiyqae TOJIbKO
oTnpaBjeHrHax 1872 1873 rr.
June 2005

TaKHX CBeaeHHii He HaAieHo. Ho o6HapyxeeHmI AOKyMeHrbI o aocTaTorHO 6oj31mnOM BIfmyc-
Ke MapOK AXJI BOCTO'HOR KOppecnonHeHnIm B 1874 r. PaHee o HCM HHrae He ynoMiHanocb.
27 HoA6ps 1874 r. npaBJeHHe POnHT npocnjo HOrrTOBIi aenapraMeHT "coenamb
pacnopsacenue 06 uwomoeaenuu u omnpaeKe e Odeccy mpexcom mbzcaJ normoebtx .apor
6An eocmorHof Koppecnon)emnuu:
)ecamuKoneeHbltx 75000 uimyc,
namuKoneeuHbix 75000 utmyK,
mpexKoneewbix 75000 wmyK,
oc)iHoneeuHbtx 75000 utmvK,
300000 utmyK".
30 Hoa6ps 1874 r. IowrOBblH aenapTaMeHT 3aKa83a B 33rB aTH MapKH, a 24 Ae-
Ka6ps coo6umHni paBjeHHio POITHT 06 omcbwnKe 6 Obeccxyio nozpanuwlHyo notmoy3o
Konmopy duoI nepedavu Konmope 06ufecmea npunAmbIx u3 33FE 75m. IK, 75m. 3K, 75m.
- 5K, 75m. 10K, a scezo mpexcom mblcRT noTmoe6bx MapOK iA seocmoMoIu Koppecnon-
oeHnjuu". 16
HcxolAR H3 3THX CBeAeHHi, HyXaHO yTO' HHTh qaCTO noBTOpseMoe mnHeHe, wro
nonimiHHe HanneqaTKH "8" H "7", cagenamHie nos3ee H3-3a H3MeueHHI TapaBa, Moryr
6brrn TOJnbKO Ha 10 KoneenHbix MapKax BbbmycKa 1872 r.
He oTnepraa BO3MOmKHOCTH BbILycKa MapOK LAJ BOCTO'HOH KoppecunoHenHH c
3y6IJOBKon 14 V2 : 15 B 1872 r., Heo6xoaHMO IIpH3HaTi, HTO HOBIUi 3aKa3 o4opMJInjca npH
ymeHbmeHHH CTapB1X 3anacoB, a HaSmneaTaKH "8" H "7" aonxrac 6Lrm Ha MapKax, ceaaaH-
Hbn B 33rB no3FAHee.
Bojimaa racTa 10 Koneelmux MapoK, BLmymleHmn B 1874 r., npH nepexoae K
HOBbIM TapHd3aM ocTaBanach He Hcno IT 3BaHHOH H, 6e3ycnoBHo, MapKH 3Toro roaa H3ro-
TOBjieHHa CTanH "6a30BbIMH" AJI HagnIeqaTOK "8" H "7".
HeKoTop ue aBTopbI coo6nIaIOT, HTO oAHOBpeMeHHO C BBeeCHHeM HOBbIX MapoK wxs
BOCTnoiHOi KOppecInoHleHIAHH IIpKyJSp IIorroBoro IenapTaMeHra OT 21 AeKa6pa 1867 r.
N2 49 OTMeHHj npiHMeHnene MapOK POrIHT. 3To He BepHo. B ynOMMHyTOM mnpicynspe
TaKoro 3anpera HeT. HIparKr ecKH MapKH POIIHT npoAojajm nppMeHirTSca emle B Teqe-
Hne HecKoJIbKHx nepBbx MecSaeB 1868 r. Ha pHc. 14 inmcMO, dpaHiKpoBaHHOe TaKHMH
MapKaMH H npHHrroe B CMHpHe 24 aisapa 1868 r.

yFO'- 1- -
'H-H-Z'." o 14'. ,i.'.


June 2005

B deBpane 1868 r. 06uecTBo pa3ocjnao areHTaM B BOCTOH HbIX nopTax RIHpKynap
(pHC. 15), KOTOpbIM B03JIOKHXIO Ha HHX o6a53aHHocTb npHHHMIaT H BBi~aBaTb npocmTe H
cTpaXOBbIe IIHcbMa, 6aHaeponjbHlMe orTpaBneHHaI eH ICHbEH. 3,Aecb e roBOpHJIocb, HTO
"nomo6ble MapKr, neeamb u wumeMnenb 6yc)ym 6bciacHbt no u3womoieHuu".

PYCCot OasaicTro O~ecca, e A '" pa 1868 s.
napoxon erea H Toproa 7B

fr. AretTn ltn BOCTOutlax'h aniil 06lecCTa.
jA 846.
Cormacio nonomy loronopy, aammioeirmoMy 9-ro feria6Ipa
1867 roaa uem;iy IIorronlT ACerapTaMetrrTos t n Iannu1 r
06mecTsnon ni coo6meumroy sBam npn ImpiTnyapt rtannoji
Kotrropb or- 12/24 SifnapH JM. 843, na zam BouaaraeTca
o6mnaimocr npmmnMam, namemrs Arean'irer npoer Ta n
cTpaxonma micmra, 6anAepo.,mntia ornpas.enia in ,eHura,
aapecyeMis Bo BC ropoja PoccifiCoRf HIbImpin, I(apcrna
IIoBMtcaro n BeamEaro KCnmxecTRa c(Hunran~cxaro. 3Ta Kop-
pecnoaemenxi, no Aoceaisenin ea Ba OAecey man Bs apyrie
pyccie nopTrone ropoAa lepnaro n AsoceKaro Mopa, 6yaera
oTnpanYianceT orryga a McrTy na3asaieHia nCepearBTO
nIpamrre.remroftt cyxonynmol novra.
Ha BacI Bosoaraccen Tastse o6a3amrocTr pa3aBaTr, th
ArenreT t Bact HaaBmnira B nst xoppecnonrenuin, aoeraB.anc-
bMoft uaMa us Pocciiiexoti Hiamepin, IITaperma IIoncaro n
BeArmaro KnazecTRa m imrancuaro napoxo.amn 06umee~ a.
.aam cero im 6yaere co6noxamr nspannra, yrnepmAoixnrua
Erannolo Kouropomo 3p cero roAa, neTqrTHuit 3K3eMinap
KOTOpLIxs npu cei. npcnpoBomaeTre, co e13ct c.itayouMn
K mHErs pnpomeiniaM n (oopmIA Mj 94, 96,97,98,99, 100 n 101).
Jfo rnpmrInenin Aoronopa 9 reKaf6ps 1867 r. I, 3a-
aBsRaacseomy xparo, npocran roppeenoingenmia, e.~cTroura sf
aToTr rpait n o6parno, npumnmacrea ir pa3jacTen 7 Arciur-
TBt no CeymeCThI0memy nopanoy.
IIopocmb a noppecnonuemain mxezy Bocroiunam nopranr,
eIrrraa I TOMa b qnet nt KoncTnamrronoa, rgr Pyccraln IIoir-
Troaa Kouropa ynpa3Mlena, Aoxsnaa nponsBojnrrtA e, uari n
Aomsatr, na ocuonanian r icrroymmaro Ycrava Arcura s
IIoTrowBhn a*pKn, ncII'aT nh TremneauT .6y,(ayyn>y,.aa....
BIClaMILT0 no aI3rOToa3Q.iII.
Ha manext, rpoS6ycoti 15 ,floronopa, AtojrnL 6Lrrt,
citxyromaa pyceina na mnicb, ci, nepenouao i na unocrpamristi,
6oaJre ynorpe6nTrc.mnirmzi y nacj nmnmi: Ulpiems ioppecnonien-
twiu, omnpasne.mofi es Poccito, it ebiaLa no.a.rac.not u35, Pocciu
Bui noTpyaTCCbeei oaamzaT ce y ce6Sn na 'ICTrt, uun,
ec.ni na xterCt nirsMT s TONy CpeACTfn,, o6paITrreci. ri
rjanrnoe ArenTcTBO BocTO'rbIx h M iii OGueerna.
IIo OTIomeilio la ~rTOi Ko ppecnoIxAenumI nm, coriaacmo
foronopy, nasr, ArehiT IIpanumeaeCTeunaro yupea~euim,
no11A3yeTCeb oco6mtar norpomnreITeTBom's npeAcTamrreeit'i pye-
cmaro IIpanrcj=ecTma, Ra noropoMy H 6yAeTCe npn6trarL, BeaCii
pas:, norxa oKaafeCTa IT Hexs iaAo6iiemor.
37a 4upermopa M. Cmaaauro
3ac~tdsatoujift Ifomooolo
u COpaxocOOO acmwbo I. I3apTasutmeos

June 2005

PyKOBoacTBOM 1no BbmojnieHHIo IIOTOBbIX onepatmrH B BOCTOrIIX nopTax 65buI
"IIpaBHna ipm areHTOB BOCTOsHbIX jnlHHri POIHT", yTBepamemmIe FiaBHofi KOHropoO
061necTBa 23 aHBaps / 4 eBspajr 1868 r. IlepBbli JIHCT 3THX IIpaBHJI noKa3sa Ha pHc.16, a

lIoppeaifseBnig m ey Pocie a Borom ic joa opy A era6ps 1867 roa

,laj Are'CTOB' BocToqHblt x .ahmif PycctKaro 06mecTa
napoxoacTna H Topromsa.

a) IIpieaxr oTnpamsa.
IIermnsa n 6agepomiau ornpamseHin npamnMrHai T ne rmaie, sark oppma npoanar
nonium norToBtum map sman, a i~oTopw~ noa~aen ypnramraerB no y3asanoaey nare Tapaoy.
lprn.,anie. Aot noayrenis nOBmlms MaporK, Arcn- 6yAca epainupoanm ary
toppea~on isiro noiTomanm Mapisamn O6necra.

B Oin.: o
!_t~ucponf~p ~ Lon4t
Inq..m u c. B.oe aca

I 1 H fr' I Zfi r-T

Sa mnctneo nteoal ioe 6oate oAMoro ora. . . .
3a imeiMo itcoms 6oate oAnoro aora, no ie 6one ay .
3a rmnmo rtconsi f6oate AnByx, no He dione Tpes .IOToB .
H TaNt Aaa A e B TO it zse
3a 6aitIepoa Hoe onrpaaeienie Btcoun ne 6oiae 3% sar .
Ba 6Minaepojatnoe orTpasaenie BtcOnOM 60oe A84 Ao 611/ aoroTS .
3a 6annepoanoe ornpaanenie tcoman 6oaxe 61/, Ao 9% oroso .
3a 6aaeipoucnoe orTpa4 eniec B coirs 6oeate 9% Ao 13 zoross.
3a 6ataepoainoe oTrpaneaeie x comr 6oone 18 Ao 161% aroZZ .
3a 6anAepo-n.oe ornpstaecie, nteosor 6orse 16'/ o A 20 zoros .
Baxtepos umaa ornpanrenia, npera.alamnia 20 aoromn re n pnamxraorr
noA. 6SanAepoarnm roano enten rnpeosatrL: ra3ermr, atypuaamn
npcitcs-sypatnr, unpiyJapr n t pyril nearnrrT o6anaAesia, bi noTo-
puxi x pors aOpeea no 6yaer nmmero imeammnro.

Benone OTnpnamaemoe rmcutmo AOvmo 6AI b 3anarrenmeAenano noTrronm m rersteae
AroenTrca e% o3Haiceiemr rota, artemua n vaeAa ornparmenil. mtreimene oaramn aae'r IEa
Tofi CTopoirT n reMa, rAt ono saneraTano.
Ilp ritaie n Ao nonreniri Tr1aoro mxremneia, Areim 6y,'er ynorpe6.aan rremie.&,
HasauareHnHi aas naceaampcni 6nne$wtOO,.

Bet nowtoBmiH aiapex BcnHcaro ornpaBaaae~aro nneBaa, AO i 5HH Sma nasieibieinH EaeP-
noMLr, naa ena tHri eR n ft o n reuii xIs roAHoeron.
IlpoeTyio naaenyrto noppeenonAenito on npeaoTaBmrTeeft Pyeearo IpaTHmare nera am nopTr
npe6,maiia Arenra on on serneT r B mciacrei it nrpeAcramxreTaern Typenaro IIpamrre.scr7a
Ia Poceei, oana.I 6sTt, npmIrn aeMw, sa n2r neMieatmm, 6eanarnTo.
IaaeHiaUn enearnbi ornpau~iemn npimrraioTre Tar e, nasn a OTS 'alninr .mru, an
ocnonaurin uaeTroTnunx npaBnssra o Aebrars (eC. aafie 36-67).

PHcyHOK 16

June 2005

1 .
8 *

4 -

8 -


1. UucbMa u 6aHnepoAibHbze omnpaeaienu npunuMatomci He unave, KaK (fpan-
KUpoeaHHibe HO6bMUu noVlmo6bLmu MapKamu....
HpuMeianue. ,4o nonyvenuw HOwbix MapoK Azeum 6y6em tppaHKupoeamb smy Kop-
pecnonHenHuio nofmosblM u mapKcau 06uiecmea (aBT.: T.e. MapKaMH POIInT)
2. TapuOb

B Obeccy u Bo enympeiHue
6pyzue pyccKue zopoda Hlne-
nopmoeble zo- puu, Hapcmea
po6a Vtepnozo u H17onbCKOo u
A306CKiOZO Mopn Ben. KnHmcecm-
ea cQunimHdcCKo-
3a nuCbMO eecoM He 6oAee obnozo soma 10 Kon. 20 Kon.
3a nucbMO GecoM 66oree obnozo aoma, no He 6oaee.
20 Keon. 40 ion.
beyx uomoe

3a 6arnepojnboe omnpaeienue eecoM ne 6onee 3% K. 2 on.
1 xon. 2 xon.
3a 6andepobibnoe omnpaejenue eecoM 6oAee 3 nto- 2 4 KOn.
moe 6o 6% nomoe

3. BciRoe omnpase.uMoe nucbAMO bO&ICHO 6bimb 3aumeMnene6aHonoo moblM
utmeMneileM Azeumcmea c o6o3natenueM zooa, Mecinla u iuc7a omnpaeieHnun.
HpuMeleanue. ,o noJyienuw maKozeo wmemneani Azeim 6ydem ynompe6.jumb
utmeMneJib, Ha3HateHHbn bi 6nA naccaocupCKux 6wuemoe.
4. Bce noqmo6bie MapKu BCAKOZO omnpaejaeMozo nucbMa OOnJICHbl 6blmb 30-
KefieteHbi KceuMOM. Ha3HamenHHbiM brn ynuumoicenuH ux zoobocmu.
6. 17o OKOHtarUU npuema npocmof KoppecnonHenyuu azeim copmupyem ee Ha
abpecoeannylo: 1-e e Obeccy u 2-e 6e pyzue zopoda Poccuzccroi HlMnepuu, Iapcmeo
Ho0bCcKoe u BenuKoe KnAicecmeo IunHJnubcKoe, u 3anevambitaem 6a da naKema c nabonu-
Cbio na OoHOM "lH (nocmnaKem) e O)eccy", a na opyzoM "11 e6 Poccwo". ...
11. Ho npu6bimuu napoxoba azeHm HeMeldnenHo u npea coe 6cezo npunuHaem c
nezo nocm-naKembi.
13. Ho 6osepa0uenuu c napoxooa 6 azeHmcmeo, azenm nemeneHbeno 6cKpbi6aem
naKcembl u mom Cac m/ce pa3oaem nucbMa u 6aHc)epobiHbe omnpaeinenus mem adpecamaM,
Komopbze AnGtUCb K HeMy.
3ameM ocmanbHblM nuCbMaM, ommucnye Ha nux no'moebi.M umeMneineM o20, Me-
cmni u tucno noInyeHnu, on cocmaeaiem peecmp a oayx rK3eM.unapax u 6blcma6nrAem OUH
cHapyalcu, opyzou enympu azenmcm6a.

June 2005

23. Tapuqb Ha cmpaxoeble nucbMa

B dpyzue zopo-
B Obeccy c)a Ifnepuu, ...

3a cmpaxoeoe nucbMo eecoM He 6onee 1 ioma 25 Kon. 50 Kon.

3apacnucKy, ebdi6aaeMylo Ha KcaaIcCoe nucbMo 5 Kon.
3a 6ee pacnuccu: ocny, 6bl6asaeMylo a nopmy om- 10 Kcon
npajeHnuw, u bpyzyro, nojnyaeMylo 06uqecmeoM 6
Obecce om norMomoo6 Konmopb
27. KaxIc)oe cmpaxoeoe nucbMo, Kpo.e nevamu noobaeame.i, o.&nicuo 6bimb 3a-
ne.amano u normoeouf neamblo Azeemcmea".7
CornjacHo 1 rpaBHn, areHTLi O6mecTBa mMeJH npaBo npHHmMaT TOJIKO noTro-
Bme oTnpaBjieH, 4panKHpoBamHHie MapKaMH I AJn BOCTOqHOH KoppecnoHAeHmlH; Ao H3ro-
TOBjieHH H pacCb KH 3THX MapOK OHH ~oojDKHn 6bhu HcnOJMb30BaTT MapKH POIHT.
CornacHo 2 3THX me IlpaBHJn nppH QpamIpOBKe imceM MapKoi POIHT 6panacb
apecoBaHHbix go OxeccbI HnLH Apyrux InopTOBb ropo tOB lepHoro H A3sBCKOro
Mopeii 10 KoneeK 3a .IOT Beca rmHCbMa;
aApecoBaHHb1X B apyrHe MecTa I4MnepHH 20 KoneeK 3a JIOT.
3a 6aHgepoJmHbIe oTnpaBjieHHa B anHaorHwHOi cHTyanan 6parnacb niaaTa
1KonetiKa HJIH 2 KoneiiKH 3a Bee, He npeBbnnaiomntw 3% JIOTOB.
Bonee Tpex nepBBIx MecaseB 1868 r. Maprc POIlHT 3aMeniau co6o0i oco6Me Map-
nepeci6iaTmca c BocTOKa no Bcei PoccHH.
lpHMeeHeHHe paspesaHHMix MapOK POIHT B 1868 r. He H3BeCTHO, H Bo3MOCKHbI Ba
MapKH nMeaH nepeMeHHI i HOMmHHa, cooTBeTcTBeHHo 1 Hmr 2 Kon.; 10 aJIn 20
nopasOK nepecumuKH BOCTOHHORi KoppecnoHAeHnim 6bmn pa3pa6oTaH TaK, irro name npn
nepeMeHHOM HOMHHarJe 3THX MapOK yuaTbIaTb B, ipycKy 6b Uo nerxo. K npHMepy, MapKH
POIIHT Ha niHBMax, ynomeaeHHux B nocTnaKeT "B OAeccy" CTOJIH 10 KoneeK, B nocTnaxeT
"B PoccmHo" 20 KoneeK.
ABTOPbI MHOrHX craTesl Ha3baBaioT AaTOfi BbmycKa TpeTbero THpaja) MapOK
POIIHT MapT 1868 r. HepBOHaqajiHble cBeaemsH 06 3TOM aaeT F. JIIoKepT (H. Liekert) B
cTaTbe "Timbres de la C-ie russe du Levant" B )KypHarie "Le Timbre-Poste". IIPHIHHa CTOJM
no3aHero no BpeMeHH BbmycKa CTaaOBHTCA nonaTHa H3 npHMeSaHH K K 1 "IHpaBma...".
CneuHaJibHbie MapKH AX BOCTO1HHOH KoppecnoHAeHIMH B o6paueHmie eme He noCTiynmr H;
061ecTBy 6bmH HyaZHHI oco6ie MapKH ~n 4sIpaHKHpoBaHnn KoppecnoaeHmaHH, lnpHH-
MaeMoil B BOCTOIHbHIX nopTax. THpax, n3roTOBnjeHHbMl B Oiecce, MOxCHO 6IiUIO OTIIpaBHTb B
nopTbm c nepsbUM we napoxofOM.
YIrHThBas. cKa3aHHoe, HHTepecHO paccMOTpeTb nHCbMO, npHmrroe B areaTCTBe
O6mecTBa B KoHcTanTHHonoJIe B 4eBpane 1868 r. Ho TapHnQy niaTa 3a ero nepecunKy
cocTaBjinia 10 KoneeK 3a nOT. Ha nIIcCMO HaKneeHa oAHa MapKa POnInT H ogHa o6merocy-
napcTBeHHaa 10 KoneeHmaa MapKa (pHc. 17).
B Haanie 1868 r. nHcbiMa c noAo6Hofit paHKHpoBKOi 66bun, BHmMMO, He eaEHHq-
Hi. B rocygapcTBeHHOAi KonJneKCu II norTOBix MapOK L[eHTpaJTnHoro My3ea CBBa3 HMeHH
June 2005

A.C. I-onoBa xpamrHTCa IIHCBMO,
npHHIToe B KoHCTraHHHonojie 12
I.Y .._', MapTa 1868 r. H orinaqeHHoe
S' TaKHMH ace MapKaMH (pHc. 18).
.-. -' IOMecTHB H3o6paxeHHe
3TOrO InCbMa B cTaThe "HoBbie
-aarmie o MapKax pyccKxoH noqns
"- .. = --_ Ha BjnHKHeM BocTOKe" (c6opHHK
S. ." .-- ""COBeTCKHi KOfJIneKimOHep", N2 14,
1976), A. FeoprneBcKHii rmcai:
'- "...MapKu POIHuT npenHas-
Ha -anucb a uc i oirtambi KOp-
PicyHOK 17 pecnoHeHinuu mo]bKo Ha ytacmKe
.wearcy nopmaMu Enuaitcezo
BocmoKa ...u Obeccoii. ,lan omnpasKu
oice nuceM easy6b Poccuu mpe6oeazacb
~: '' ~ononlHumejlbHa oniama ux o6uze-
Socydapcm6eHHbiwu normoebufu
*. t ._- ,- I. -
-.;. .. apraMu". 3Ta 4opMyjmpOBKa lnoTH
S-. OCJIOBHO B3aTa H3 ynoMHHaBIeneca
S1-: panee CTaTiH H. HocHJIOBa "Eme o
SMapKax pyccKoro JIeBaHTa" H no3wHee
S.- noIBTOpeHa B KaTanjore cnpaBOHHice
"PyccKaa nowra Ha BJnnTxeM BOCTOKe
S. (PyccKHii JeBaHT)" B mypHanei
"InHJIaTeJmm CCCP" No 5, 1990 r.
PcyHox 18 TaKaa TpaKTOBKa He BepHa.
OHa He yqHTbIBaeT, rro c 1 AHBapa
1868 r. nHcbMa, noc bjaeMue H3 BOCTOJHbIX nopTOB B imo6oe MecTO PoccHH, o6rmerocyAap-
CTBeHHbMH MapRaMH He oninamHBajnHb. C 3TOii AaTmi AeiicTBOBaj HOBbIn~ jOrOBOp H eAnIH-
npH3HaBanIcC MapKH, npHHanexcamHe O6inecTBy.
MapoK Azn BOCTOIHOi KOppecnOHeHIMHH B Haqajie 1868 r. euxe He 6bUnI H oTnpa-
BHareJI nieM, no npHBbs Ke, KaK Aenaim c 1863 r., naKieHni Ha nHCbMa o6IerocyAapcT-
BeHHbie MapKH. Ho qHHOBHK 06I~ecTBa B KOHCTaHTHHOnOjie HcnojXI30Baji corJIaCHo
npHMeqaHHM K 1 "HpaBHn A~i areHTOB..." MapKH POIIHT ARJ onnaTm noqroBoro c6opa n
4)paHKHpoBan HMH IIHCbMa. B AaHHOM cnyqae MapKH POIHT HcnoJIb30BarJHCb Ha TeX we
ocHOBaHHlx, qTO H BbmylmeiHHbe B 1868 r. noiroBbie MapiKH ana BOCTOqHOHi KOppecnon-
10 Koneem'iMie o6erocygapcTBeHHhe MapKH B pacqeT onIiaTbI He npHHHMaJIHCb,
Ho 6UIm norameRn HcxoIa H3s Tpe6oBaHna 4 "IpaBHr sia areHTOB..". TaKoe AefcTBHe
CBepx TapH4a, oTnpaBHTemo He B03BpaIImamHCb H noramaJIHCi IIOqTOBbIM ImTeMenefeM.
TaX KaK o6a oTnpaBHTenja #paHKHpoBaJIH CBOH nIccMa 10 KoneeqHbIMH MapKaMH,
TO, BeporTHeil BcerO, Bec nHceM He IpeBbllImal 1 JIOT. B 3TOM cJIyqae CTOHMOCTB Kaa90i fH3
HarKJeeHHbIx Ha rIHCbMa B areHTCTBe Mapxax POHuT aojicHa 6brri 10 KoneeK (1 nHacTp).
HHTepecHbIM 6 mn nopaIHOK BlganH B areHTCTBaX npocTOHi KoppecnoHgeHmHH,
OHHcaHHbMii B 13 "npaBHi Arx areHTOB...". H3 TeKCTa BHaHO, wTro npocTbre ImcbMa H
6aHnepOJmHbme ornpaBjieHHr Bm1,aBaJmHCb aapecaTaM, aBHBImMCa B areHTCTBO 1no npaGI-
THH napoxoAa, cpa3y, 6e3 HanoKceHHEnq Ha HHX ImTeMenelei MecTa noJInyeHHl.
B 1869 71 rr. B 3oroBop BHOCHJIHCb coraacoBannHHe H3MeHeHHla Ino oinaTe 6aH-
geponefi, npHeMy 3aKa3HbIX nIHCeM H T.H. Ho HOqTOBOMy BeCOMCTBy 3TH H3MHeCHHa o6,.lB-
JInIMcHb pKyJIpHo.
June 2005

C 1 aHBapa 1870 r. nnaTa 3a 6aHAeponH no 4 Kone KH c Kaxauux 3% jinora: 2 Ko-
neiiKH 3a nepeBo3Ky MopeM H 2 KoneiiKM 3a cyxonyTryio nepecuIKuy B npeaenax PoccHH.
B aeKa6pe 1871 r. 1IoHTOBUbl AenapTaMeHT H3BeCTHn OAeccxyio norpaHHqPyIO
nOwTOByio KoHTopy 06 H3MeHeHHIx, BHOCHMAX B ,10orOBOp C 1 afBmaps 1872 r. B CooTBeTCT-
BHH c "BpeMeHHbIMH nOCTaHOBJneHHMMH no nHOMTOBOii HacTH". B qaCTHOCTH, Ccoo6Iianocb,
ro 4 KoneiKH (2 KonefiKH 3a nepeBo3Ky MopeM H 2 Koneiimc 3a cyxonyrnylo nepechi3y)
6yayr 6paTcC 3a 6aHvepOJIbHbIe OTnpajneHiHH BeCOM Ao 3-x nOTOB. rLinara 3a 3aKa3aIe
nncbMa, npmHnnaeMue B OAecce H apyrnx nopTOBbIX ropoAax, 6buia ycTanoBaena:
BecoBoi c6op 10 KoneeK c JOTa,
3a 3aKa3 10 KoneeK,
3a pacnccKy 5 KoneeK.
IIfaTa 3a TaKHe 2e HHCbMaa, nocbunaeMbie Ha BOCTOK H3 Apyrax noqTOBsX yqpeK-
eReHHii HiMnepHH, cocTaBsjma:
BecoBori c6op 20 KoneeK c JIOTa,
3a 3aKa3 20 KoneeK,
3a pacniCy 5 KoneeK.
I3MHeHeHHa, BHOCHMiIe B AOOrBOp, 6iluI HaneqaTaHbI B 18 IHpKyn~pe 1871 r.
B KOHiUe aHBapa 1872 r. InorTOBBIj AenapTaMeHT H PO-IHT noWmcajnH onolIH-
TenibHBe YCJIOBHB K AOTOBOpy 1867 r., onpeAejMaoiHe nopAAOK nepecbIRKH noqTOBOif
KoppecnoIHennHH Meycy BOCTOTH lMH nopTaMH H eBponeiicKHMH rocyaapcTBaMH qepe3
Oneccy H BOJIOIcK.
K 3TOMy BpeMeHH B cocTaB 06mecTBa BxoHjaa O)eccias eneI3Haa aopora H B
AoKyMeeHTe OHO HMeHyeTCA Kax PyccKoe O61iecTBo rIapoxoacTBa, ToprOBjm H OaeccKofi
aKeJIe3Hofi Aoporn.
"YCJIOBHu" BBOAHJMuIC B erleTBHe c 15 Q4eBpaJi 1872 r. CBeJeHHi B nJIaTeJHm-
CTHqecKOjH mrTepaType o6 3TOM AOKyMerre HeT, IIo3TOMy Heo6xoauMO yxa3aTL ero OCHOB-

Pyccroe 06utecmeo 1Tapoxobcm6a, Topeoenu u OCeccKof 3ceAes3Hou o opozu npu-
nuHaem na ce6i: 1) docmaeiy om OOeccbi... 3aKpblmblx npocmblx nucea u 6acm)epo.ibHbnx
omnpajenuHu, cie)ylouqux U3 EeponeficKux Tocycapcme, tepe3 Obeccy, a KoHcmaumuno-
nojib u so ece 6pyzue nopmbi TypeifKoi HMnepuu 6e3 ucKiwouenua u 2) npue.r u bocmasey
oo Ooeccbt 6biuieo3HaenHHbzx 6Uo06 KoppecnoHenteutu, cjie)yiozuef1 u KoHcmanmunono.va
u ecex Opyeux nopmoe Typyuu e EeponefcKtue Focybapcmea.
Bblleo3HaleHHbt e 3a0Kpblmble npocmbie nucbMa u 6anHeponbHble omnpa&eenuH
6OJdICHbt 6bimb onaaieHbi no12moo6blU c6opaMu oo mecma Hai3HavenR.
3a oocmaeay amoi KoppecnoHnbeuuu 06utecmey npuiumaemcs: a) sa roppecnon-
OeHmuo, cae6yioujyyo u3 KoHcmaumunonorz 3a zpanuyy u o6pamHo: 3a 3saxpbmbie npo-
cmble nucbma no 3 KonefiKU 3a cKaicbbie 15 ?paMMoe (1 pycchux noma) u 3a
6audepoAbHbze omnpaejienuu no 1 KonefiKe 3a rcatcbbe 40 zpaMMoe (3Y pycc-ux noma); 6)
3a Koppecnoynenq4uo, cmedyloutywo u3 bpyzux nopmoe TypIyuu sa zpanuzy u o6pamno: 3a
3aKpbtmbie npocmble nucbma no 6 KoneeK 3a Kcoa3cble 15 zpauMMo (1I py4ccKux jnoma) u 3a
6audepo.JbHblne omnpaweernuw no 1 Konefme 3a Kcag/cbte 40 zpanA0o (3% pycchux aoma).
3aKpbtmbie npocmtbe nucbMa u 6anHepoAbHUbe omnpaenenuw, cneoypoutue u3 KoH-
cmanmunonoAl u bpyeux nopmoe Typyuu 6 Eeponeiiciue rocybapcmea, do.i.owcus 6umb
oninaeHblb HnaKeeHHblMU Ha Hux:
A) PoccuucKuMu rocyoapcmeeuHblM u nomoeblMu Mapranu 3a nepecbuiKy om
Oceccblt o Mecma Hn aneHUiw 3a zpanHufeu, no maKce, ycmanoeenenou O.tI 3aepanuHWno
June 2005

KoppecnoHdeHnuu, u 6) .apKaMu, ycmanoesennHbLu baiM eocmoinoif KoppecnoHneuHuu, 3a
oocmaesy do ObeccbI no maKcce, yKa3annou e 6 4.
3aKpbimbe npocmble nucbma u 6anbepoAbHbze omnpaaeenurn u Koncmanmunono-
ian u apyeux nopmoe Typziuu e EgponeicKue Focybapcmea 6e3 MapoK He npunuMuaomcat, a
onyufenlHbie 6 noMmoebie AtquKul no Ha3HaltenH o He omnpaeanmomcA".i
143 TeKcTa AonHOJIHHTeJibHbu YCJIOBHi BHAHO Ba)eHenmee paan3Ji e InoTwOBMx OT-
npaBneniHi, nepecbuiaeMIXx H3 BOCTOlIHIX noprOB BO BHyrpeHHHe MecTa PoccHH H B eBpo-
neficKHe rocynapcTBa. rlepBbie 4)paHKnpoBajnHCb TOJTHKO MapKaMH AaJa BOCTOHOr
KoppecnoHAemmHa. Y BTOp~ix 3THMH MapKaMH onIaIHBaJIacb JmIIL niepeBo3Ka MopeM Ha
napoxogax O6mecTBa, TO ecTb Ha nICbMax H 6aHIepojix, noc~uiaeMIx B 1872 75rr. c
BocTOKa B eBponeiicKHe rocynapcTBa, AgoJiam 6,rrm OAHOBpeMeHHO MapaKH XIri BOCTOHOii
KoppecnoHAeHuMHH H o6inerocyfapcTBeHHbIe InorTOBble MapKH.
,)pyroe BamHoe OTJIHne 3saKnoqanocI, B TOM, TO 3a AocTraBKy BsyrpeHreii fno rT
POIIHT noiyqani Becb noLroBbiii c6op c KoppecnoHAeHIAHH, HanpaBJIeMOii R13 BOCTOHIX
nopTOB B Poccmo, a 3a 3arpaHHlqayo nomry 061mecry nonaramcb nlO1TOBbIe c6op1I TOJb-
KO 3a IlepeBO3Ky MopeM, HO B o6e CTOpOHb, c BOCTOKa H Ha BOCTOK.
IIPHqHH XJIH TaKoro noAxoAa MHOro: CBS3aHHOCTb pyccKOfl noqTI paHee 3aKjno-
cTpaHaMH 3a KoppecnoHAeHIHIO, nocbuiaeMyio 3a rpaHHLTy, H T.n.
B CBa3H C MHoroTHCJIeHHbIMH H3MeHeHHnSM B nIIOOBOM aeee AorOBop 1867 r.,
Aaa)e c KoppeKTYpaMH H A~HaonoHeHHRMH, ycTapen. HorTroBqbhi eniapTaMerT H POrIHT pa3-
pa6oTajr HOBIsH goroBop, KOTopLi ynTmBmai oco6eHHocTH nepechmnil noTroBoi Koppec-
noHAeHCHHH c BocTOKa B Poccmo H eBponeiicKHe rocygapcTBa H o6paTHo, a Tamce noqToBoe
o6pameHHe 3aKprrnix nocTnaKeTOB (T.e. nocTraKeTOB, nepeaaBaeMix aanee no Ha3Haqe-
HHIO 6e3 HX BCKpbITH3I). B pe3yjbTaTe OroBOp nojyMnJicA rpOM03AKuHM H CJIoaxKHIM. oro-
Bop 6iLu noamicaH 8 moHA 1872 r. H BCTyIEn B AeiCTBHe c 1 moJa Toro ace roga. TeKcT
AoroBopa paHbme He neqaTaJca. HHace ipHBeAeHm HeKOTop~e nyHKTbi 3Toro AOKyMeHTa:

"Cm. 1
PyccKoe 06uecmeo IIapoxodcmea, Topzoenu u ObeccKofi aIcenes3uo bopozu npu-
numaem Ha ce6A:
1. HepecbLlKy MopeM om Odeccbz u bpyzux nopmoe Vepnozo u A3oecKozo
...omnpaeasieMuo u3 Poccuu a KoHcmaHmuHononib u o6 ece bpyzue nopmi TypeIKOiu HMne-
puu, napoxoda u PyccKozo 06Ozecm6a nocequaeMbiMu, a paeno npuem e smux nopmax u
nepecbuwKy MopeM do Ooeccbt u bipyzux nopmoes eploeo u Asoec3ozoo opeu adpecoeannoU
e Poccuo KoppecnoeneHquu: a. 3axKpimbix npocmbix u 3aKca3Htx nuceM, 6. omrKpbmblt
nuceM, 6. 6aineponbHbMx omnpaenenufl..., 2. deneWfCHblX naKemoe..., b. ys3oe co 36oHKOU
M.onemou..., e. omKpbimbX z eHHbbix naKemoe....
2. 17epecbUiKy mopeM om Odeccbi... npocmblx 3aKpbImblX nuceM u 6aHneponbHbHx
omnpaanenui..., cieiyotoyux u n uocmpaunbix zocybapcme Eeponbt... 6 Koncmanmunonwob
u bpyzue nopmbt Typytuu, a paeno npuem e KoncmanmunonoAe u opyzux nopmax Typyuu,
napoxobaMu 06tqecmea nocetqaeMbLMU, u nepecbllKy mopeM do Obeccbi 6bitueo3HatieHbix
6euoe KoppecnoHbeHnuu, omnpae.rteMo~i e pone icKue zocybapcmea mpau3umo.nM epe3
3. UepecbUlKy MopeM om Obeccbl... 3aKpblmblX nocmnaKemoe, cAeby6ouitx 6 Kon-
cmanmunonoRb, a paeno npuem om naxob)tAuuxc maM unocmpaHHbmx notmobix ytpemicde-
nuU u nepecbtnKy MopeM saKpblmblX nocmnaKemoe, cnecyioulux e Obeccy. ...
lpuMewanue 1. Bbuteo3navenwasR Koppecnonuderwu boaoicna coom6emcm6eoamb
6ceM ycnoe idefM cm6yioutux 6 Poccuu noqmoeblX nocmanoH enuri u KOn6enfuu....
Hpum.enanue 4. 06Ouecmey pa3petuaemcA ycmpoiicmo normoebix uIUKO6 Ha 6cex
napoxooax onozo, npu ezo azeemcmeax u 6e pyzux Mecmax TypeztKux nopmoe, ede ora-
micemci y6o6HbLM.
June 2005

Cm. 2
1nama 3a Koppecnon)eHyuwo, nepecblnaeMyio u3 Poccuu 6 Typezipue nopmbi... u
o6pamno u3 amux nopmoe 6 Poccuio ycmanaeaueaemcm:
a. sa 3aKpumbie npocmble nucbMa no 13 KoneeK 3a KGacabe 15 epaLifmo (1%'
pyccrKoo noma) unu ,acmu 15 zpaMmoe;
6. 3a 3aKa3Hle nucbMa, cgepx 6eco6of niambb no 13 KoneeK 3a Kaccube 15 zpam-
M.o, e3umaemc euje 3a saKca3 no 10 KoneeK 3a aarc)coe nucbmo u 5 KoneeK 3apacnuciy;
e. 3a omKpblmble nUCbMa no 10 KoneeK 3a Kcacdoe nuchMo, u
z. 3a 6ancepoJlbHble omnpaeienuwi no 3 KoneuiKu 3a Kcaycbie 50 zpa.fos6 (4 pyc-
CKux noma HenomnHux) wuu tacmu 50 zpauMoe.
KoppecnonHenHun ama boicnua 6bimb enonne onnaneHa.
Bbluieo3HaweHHai nmama nocmynaem: a. 3a KoppecnoHneHnzjuo, omnpa6zae.wyo U3
Poccuu 6 TypetzKue nopmbi 6 noib3y PyccKozo normosozo eeooMcmea u 6. 3a Koppecnon-
oeH4yuo, omnpaenie.uymo u3 TypeqKUx nopmoe a Poccuo u o6.uenu6ae.an inewcty T)petIlRu-
MU nopmauu e nojb3y PyccKozo 06uzecmea.
Cm. 3
1-nama 3a 3atKpbzmble npocmibe nUCbMa u 6anoepoJbHble omnpasaenuu, c.ied)yo-
ujue U3 KoHcmaHmuHnonou u opyzux nopmoe Typiuu e unocmpanHbe zocy)apcmea Eepo-
nbi... u o6pamno, e3uMaemcR: 1. 3a nepecbunKy Mem3y Oceccoii u unocmpannLuu
zocyoapcmeaMu Eeponb no befucmeywyuuM e Poccuu maKca~iu ) 3aZpaHnturoii woppec-
noncenyuu u 2. 3a nepecbimy uopemt .Mewcy Odeccoii u TypeyKw~mu nopmau no crzeoylo-
queii maKce: a. 3a KoppecnoHdemnulo, cjiedyoyrouyo u3 KoHcmanmunononjio 3a zpanuzy u
o6pamno: 3a 3aKpblmbie npocmble nucbMa no 3 Koneiiru 3a Kayc bie 15 zpai-M6 u 3a
6aunepoAbHble omnpaanenuw no 1 KonetiKe 3a Kaicobe 50 zpa.Moe u 6. 3a KOppecnon-
oeHnquo, cjieyioufylo u3 opyzux nopmoe Typuuu 3a zpanujy u o6pamHo: 3a 3aKpzmmbie npo-
cmbie nuchna no 6 KoneeK 3a KaOcbdwe 15 zpauwoe u 3a 6anHeponrbHle omnpasCenuRH no 1
KoneiKe 3a KaoICcble 50 apauMoe.
Bbiueo3HaenneHaA KoppecnoHoenmuw dooiwcna 6bimb enoJne onaHena. ...
Cm. 5
IHoqmoebif denapmaMeHm doimcen cna63icamb O6uzecmeo 6jiaHKanau c).i omKpbl-
mblX nuceM u oco6bu u noqmo6blAu m.apKaMU no ueue ux 6bledeiKu. 3mu Maph-u don.CHb
cayicumb ucKnlovumenbHo daO onnambl: a. KOppecnoHnenifuu, cned)youyei c BocmoKa 6
Poccuo u 6. nepecbuKiu MOpem do Obeccbi KoppecnoHneHZmuU, ciebyzorueft u3 Type fKux
nopmos a E6pony... 3a oocmae6y om Oceccbz co mecma ua3natenHu 3a zpanuieie smolu
coppecnon)eHifuu ona onimcna 6bzmb onnJaena PoccuwiicKumu zocydapcmeeHHbmu noimo-
6biMu MapKaMU, Komopble Mozym 6blmb npuo6pemaeMbl 06ulecmeoM no HnomuaIHJino ux
3aKpbzmbie npocmble u 30Ka3Hbie nucbMa, omKpblmbie nucbMa u 6a)Hepo.bHbze
omnpaeaienuI u3 Poccuu 6 TypezKcue nopmbl u o6pamno 6e3 MapoK umu ne enoame onltaxen-
une, a omKpbImbie nucbMa KpoMe mozo na 6InanHax ne om nonmoeozo eecoM.cmea u3zomoe-
jenHubx, He npunuuMaomcR K nepecbumKe. Ecnu maKan Koppecnon)eHuun 6ydem onyuyena a
nonimoable AilUKU, mo ona ne nojOnezcum omnpaaenUeo, 3a ucmitoienue.M: a. npocmbix
3aKpblmbix nuceM, npu eblioae Komopbix c noinyuamea/i e3uMaemcA deoiuHan mnama u 6.
3aKa3HblX nuceM, c KomopbMuu nocmynaemcA a matKOM cjiyiae KaK c npocmbLiMi 3aipbimbi-
MU nUCbMaMU. ...
Cm. 7
Ka3eHnas Koppecnonuenuui .Meeic)y PoccuiiCKUMu npaeumejlbcmeennHblMU ytpeic-
ceHwiUu u HMnepamopcKo-PoccuficrKuw noconbcmeoM 6 Koncmanmunonome, a mahrfce
ocugualblible naKembl, nepecbwuaeMbie MeacCy OmmoMancKoil Holpmoro u Haxooniufu.MucA
6 Poccuu noconjbCm6aMU U KOHcylbbcmeaMU,l nepeso3zmcA Ha napoxocax O6uecmea 6e3
nnambl ...
CTaTba 4 )oroBopa onpeAeJIana nnary 3a saKpHrTHe nocTnaKeTm, a CTaTbH 8, 9 -
nopalOK nepecTuiKa H oiuaTy geHexmusx naKeTOB, y3nOB H OTKp~Trrx neHHbx naIKeToB. B
June 2005

CTaTbe 18 oTMeqanjocb, rTO ero eifcTBne pacnpocTpaHreTCr Ha BenjHKoe KHSKeCTBO (OHH-
1HAMCKoe H, no pemeHmo HaMeCTHHKa KaBKa3CKoro, MOmerT npHMeHnarTb K KOppecnoH-
AeHIHH, nepecbmaeMoHi MecrAy BOCTOHHbIMH nopTaMH H KaBKa3oM.
IlepecbuIKa OTKpbrrbix nHCeM Ha BOCTOK H o6paTHO Harajiacb, cornacHo pOroBO-
py, c 1 Imona 1872 r. UIeHHbie naKeTbi, 3asBieHHbie B AoroBope, K nepecbuIKe He npHHHMa-
JIHCb, TaK KaK nIOrTOBOMy BenOMCTBy He ygajiocb cornacoBaTb c POHHT ycJIOBHsi npMea -
nepegaqHt 3TOi KoppecnoHHeHIIHH. OTnpaBKa OTKpbrrbix LeHHbIX naKeTOB Ha BOCTOK Haqa-
niacb c cepeAHHbI 1875 r. B HIOHe 3TOro roAa OAHOBpeMeHHO C BHeCeHHeM H3MeHeHHI B
AoroBOp 1872 r, Bbl3BaHHbIX 3aKJIIOneHHeM B BepHe Bceo6ulero fowroBoro Corosa, 6bula
yTBepxAena "HHCTpyKumH o nopAsKe nepecbmuKH ACHexHbm naKeTOB H y3nIOB H OTKpbITbix
HeHHbIX naKeTOB Meeay OAeccKoil norTOBoii KOHTOOi H BOCTOqHbMMH nopTaMH... ".
B 1872 74 rr. IIpaBneHHe POIIT HeoAHOKpaTHO OTMeanio napymeHHe ycIOBHHi
oroBopa, Koraa nHcbMa H3 POCCHH Ha BOCTOK HanpaBjnHjncb He qepe3 Oeccy, a qepe3
ABCTHIO. IlHCbMa H3 EBpornb Ha
BocTOK, axce c yKa3aHHAMH "via
Odessa" nocbiiaJInHCb, 4arge Bcero, no d
eBponeHcKHM nomTaM. B )eBpane 1873 r.
POfIlT nepeaani I orTOBOMy genapTa-
MeHTy 10 KOHBepTOB nHceM, anpecoBaH- '
HbIX B KoHCTaHTHHonojib, HMeIOmlHX Hag-
nnCb "via Odessa", HO oTnpaBJseHHbIX Ino
CeBepo-repMaHCKoRi nowre. Ha pnc. 19e--
OAHO H3 TaKHX nHCeM, nojiyqeHHoe B I2 '
KoHcraHTHHonojie B aBCTpHHCKOi
KoHTOpe. ')- -- -
B KOHie J eBpajla 1873 r. -
repMaHCKHHi reHepanbHbm II oraMT C_
BbIpas3Hj cornacne Ha nepecbmKy
CBoeri KoppecnoHCeHItHH H -
KOppecnoHgeHUHn aHrJIHHiCKoro .
IIoToBoro YnpaBjeHHa B '" -!" O 'i
KoHcraHTHHonoJmb qepe3 Oneccy. Ho
npaKTrrecKH 3TOT Maptupyr He HC- PHCHOK 19
Yxce B HaqaJie anpeni 1873 r. repMaHcKa nowra aJiaa OTpHnaTejnbHbfi OTBOT Ha
sanpoc IIoTroBoro genapTaMeHTa o nocbMue norTOBbir oTnpaBneHHH Ha BOCTOK, yKa3aB:
"...reHepawMbHbi 1HomatMm nojb3oeaBncR 6bi6 Bt) nepecbulKu KoppecnonitHeHuu KoH-
cmanmunonoAb nymem vepe3 Oeccy, ecnu 6bi 3mom nymb uwe,7 KacKyo-]u6o a0,ezoy... e
omnHOweHuu CKOpocmu uniu ezueSul3Hbi, lieo Hem".
Ha cjeayiorml i geHb OTpkHnaTejibHb i OTBeT 6bwi nojiyqeH OT aBCTpHcxKoro MH-
HHcTepCTBa ToproBJn: "...etue ne nacmynuio epemA nanpaen.mnb KOppecnoHdenyfuo Meaicby
Aecmpo-Beunpuei u Typquei vepe3 Poccuo".
EbUIH OTKa3bI B nepecbunie BOCTOMHOi nOITbI sepe3 Oneccy H c ApyrnMH 4)opMy-
JnHpoBKaMH. MHorne npHIHHbI aBJIuIHCb HefoCTaTOqHo cepbe3HbIMH. BepoaTHei Bcero,
yMeHbmaTb CBOH Aoxoxbl H ocna6JRTb BJIm5HHe aBCTpHHCKOH nOTrTbI Ha BocroKe.
CTa6HnjHaA nepecbijKa noMrTOBOH KoppecnoHAeHuHH H3 EBponbI Ha BOCTOK Repes
Oneccy Haraniacb c BCTyrnjeHHeM B AericTBHe AoroBOpa o Bceo6meM HIIoroBOM Colose B
1875 r.
1857 1874 rr. Anj BOCTOqHOi nowITb POHIT, inpHBeAemHb B Ta6nmue N2 1.
June 2005

Ta6niHia Nl 1

TapHnQ onria-
OrrKpa aoe CTpaxoBoe IIWCbMO go 1.1.72
3aicprroe npocroe HcMO HCM BaepoJIbHo e OnpasieHr e 3aKa3Hoe nHChMO c 1.1.72

Aara npHMe-



1 03

B eBponeiicKre rocyAapcrsa




0~~ ~


B eBponeii-





30 Ion 40 Kon
25.4.1857 3a 1 JoT 3a I IOT
20 Kon 30 KOn 6 Ion 10 Kon
01.01.1863 3a 1 joT 3a 1 JOT 3a 1 nor a 1 JIor
10 Kon 20 Kon 1 xon 2 Kon 25 Kon 50 KonI
01.01.1868 3a 1 JoT 3a 1 noT 3a 3/4 nJoTOB 3a 3'/4 JoTB 3a 1 IoT 3a 1 ior
2 Kon 4 Kon
01.01.1870 3a 3 noJono 3a 3/4 oTOB
10 Kon 3a 1 JIOT 20 Kon 3a 1 nor
01.01.1872 n 4 on 10 icon 3aia3 20 Kon 3aKa3
sa 3 nora 3a 3 jora 5 icon pacnHcxa 5 Icon pacnucxa
+ 3 Icon + 6 Ion + 1 icon
K TapH(ly K TapHMly K TapH(l)y
.3arpaHn'i. 3arpannl 3urpaHH'r.
IOp. 3a 15 rp Icop. 3a 15 rp Kop. 3a 40 rp
+ 1 ton
+11(01 13 Kon 3a 15 rp. Bcca
01.07.1872 13 I(on 10 lon 3 I(on K TapI}y 10 Kon 3'M 3Kfa3
i'tm 15 rp. 3a 50 rp. 3arpamH.. 5 KOI all paCinclKy
__ ______ _______________cop. 3a 50 rp________________

O~HoBpeMeHHO c pyccKOH no'IIO H B Typlmm xeAfTBOBajm noIHoTOBbe yqpexaenmM
ABCTpHH, (paHUHH H T.A. 3Aecb TaoKae npHHHManJH nOTOByIo KoppecnoHAeHiLmHo JIm
nepeclmcH Meacxy BOCTO'HmMH nopTaMH HJIH B Poccmo, HO no CBOIM npaBHjaM H TapH-
B3amMoaeficTBHe pyccKOi H HHHOCTpaHHEbX Hnoa Ha BocTOKe, c IleJrlo nepeclmuno
KoppecnoHgeHIlHH MOpcKHM nyreM, HaInaocb eme B 1840-x rogax. B 3armcKe, noAroTOB-
jeHHno I1IoWrOBIM genapTaMeHTOM B ceHTa6pe 1844 r. oTMeqanocb, wro xoppecnoHuleH-
UHA, HanpaBsaeMaa B PoccmHo H3 CMHnpHI, Fpemin, Ermrra H nopToB IOwcnoH EBponII,
aocTaBJaSeTCSr B KOHcTaHTHHonOJMb Ha #paHay3CKHX H aBCTpHPCKHx naKerToTax, aB OAec-
cy nocbuiaercs Ha pocCHicKHx napoxoAax.
"IlpaBHina FJia nepeBo3KH HOInT Ha napoxoAax POIHT" 1857 r., npeaycMaTpHBajiH
,JoroBop 1867 r. coAepacan oTeejiHbMn naparpa4) o nepecbuKie KoppecnoHAeHIIHH
B Fpenmo H o6paTHo.
B Haqane 1870-x roAoB napoxobgu POTIHT nepeBO3HJI KoppecnonHeHnHmo, Ha-
npaBJieMyio H3 IOxnori Opanumn Ha KaBKa3. 3Ta noara nepenaBanacB HM c $ipaHny3CKHx
napoxooaB B KoHCTaHTHHOIojie. B 3TH ace row bi 06iecTBO AocTaBjianO B BeiipyT nocTna-
B 1860-x Hnaaie 1870-x rr. napoxoAM POIIHT H aBCTpHicKOro Jijioifa HHorna
Ay61mpoBajm Apyr Apyra Ha o6mHx MapmpyTax. HanpHMep, B mone 1871 r. OaeccKaa
norpaHHMHa HnoWroBaaI KOHTOpa coo611ania, HTO OAHH pas B Helemo no noHegeJIbHHKaM
iacTHaAr KoppecnoHAeHIHfl oTnpaBJIAeTCa B KOHCTaHTrHHionoJ H ApyrHe BOCTOtHbIe IIOpm
Ha napoxoHjax aBcTp~icKoro "JInotia". (rHpHMeqaHHe: napoxoabI POHnT B 3TOT nepnof
BpeMeHH OTXOaHJIH H3 O)teccBi Ha BOCTOK no cy66oTaM.) A noara B Beny, Ba3Ham H T.a.
nepHOAHiecKH oTnpaBJiaSacb napoxoaMH POIIHT. TaK, B aBrycTe 1865 r. aBcTpHHcKoe
MmmcTepCTBO ToproBjH nHpocHJno IoaHrOB if AenapTaMeHT oTnpaBJiTr nory H3 OeccI
B BeHy napoxoglaMH POHHT qepe3 ranaia, "maK KaK ecnebcmsue iapaHmuna omnpaeienue
napoxo6oe JInoiiua Mecbcy Obeccofi u KoncmanmuHononone npeKpauteno". B oTBeTe roBo-
pHIocrb, wTO "ObeccKaI nozpanutuaF notmoean6 Konmopa ...ymce nocb~aem ecIo ciebylo-
ufqyo Beny u basiee Koppecnondenifuio ,epe3 Fawray ...napoxo6aMu POHuT".20
Ho 3TO yxe apyraa TeMa.
IpuHJoxeHHe: KapTa nIaHOBbIX peicoB napoxoRoB POInT Ha BOCTOK B 1868r.
* ******* ****

The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.
June 2005







It1HE5OJ1T 30
_,CAfA 5 -- ATY
*E OPQo.Y STp53o4'





~~-~AflEICAc HEIPrl

PoccHlicKH rocynapcTseHHui HCTOpHrecKHfl apxuB (PFHA), (4oHA 1289, ornmcb 1, =leno 668 "06 ycrpoii-
cTBe peryjipHmux coo6IeHHH nocpencTrBoM napoxogoB B qepHOM H A3OBCKOM Mopax", i. 103 105.
2 PFHA, 4. 107, on. 1, A. 18 "HpoeKT npaBmn ana nepeBo3KH nosr Ha napoxonax POI-HT", ji. 1 21.
3 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A. 1209 "O nepecbune KoppecnoHnemAnH Ha napoxoAax POIHT", qacmT 1, J. 66.
4 PFHA, Qc. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210 "O nepecLunce KoppecnoHfeHinm Ha napoxoAax POIHT", aacM 2, m. 31, 32.
5 LeHTpajmbHMBI My3eii CBs3H nMeHH A. C. lonoBa (IMC HM. A. C. 1-onoBa), 4). 3, JLlnpynrsp Iloroaoro
nenapTaMeta 1862r., n. 12.
6 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, n. 155.
7 IeHTpanmiuil rocyzapcTBeHHbIfl HCTopHnecKHi apxHB C-HeTep6ypra (LrHA C16), 4). 1458, on. 2, f. 461
<>, nJ. 111.
8 PTHA, iQ. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, 1. 203.
9 IFHA C16, 4). 1458, on. 2, A. 2464 "O npeacTaaneHHH OTqeTOB o aercTBHmX 3KcneinHUM 3a 1867 r.", 2. 85
10 PTHA, 4. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, i. 66 69.
LMC HM. A. C. IIonoa, 4). 3, UHpKyjnapiI IIo'ToBoro AenapTaMeHra 1876r., n. 13.
12 PrHA, Q4. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, n. 162, 279.
13 PFHA, 1289, on. 1, A. 2272 (>, n. 6.
4 TaM Ke, I. 57.
June 2005

1' PTHA, (4. 1289, on. 1, A. 3188 < Bocro9HOHi Koppecnomaeiam c napoxoAaMH OG6ectBa>, j. 117 118.
l6PFIHA, 4. 107, on. 1, a. 520 "0 CHOmeu c InoW OBLM BeaoMCTBOM", i. 75 78, 92.
7 PFHA, Q4. 1289, on. 1, A. 2272, n. 142 144.
8 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, a 3187 "O nepecuane c napoxoaam. POIINT coppecnonienmH n ~ 3 noproB Typrmn
B EBponeiicKHe rocyAapeBa", n. 23 25.
19 PrHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A. 2820 "O nopre ornpaBJenna KoppecnowaeHium, apeconaanorl B Byxapecr,
raaaxu, TymIy H KoncTarTmnonoJs", J. 57, 58.
20 PTHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, a. 2421 "06 ornpaBnemHH c napoxonaMi KoppecnoH eHnmH Mea~w Ozeccoii Benoii
H Ba3HanIOM", ji. 4.
Editorial Comment: We are most grateful to Mr. Ratner for delving into the Official Archives to extract all this valuable
information about the ROPiT Postal Service and an English translation will appear in due course. Meanwhile, members are urged
to practice their own attempts at following the Russian version, as Mr. Ratner writes in a clear and concise manner. In the
interim, several of the illustrations are worthy of mention, as follows:-

.. : /' /; ; ', ,,
y~~~w ^-^S^,^- ~~~~-----* -----' ''*'/" *-"*"-^

St ,, -

Referring to Fig. 17 on p. 31 herewith, the ROPiT stamp and Imperial 10-kopek value are both tied by a "retta" of
unnumbered dots, with the Imperial stamp also receiving the ROPiT Constantinople postmark dated 11 Feb. 1868. The letter
reached Odessa by sea on 17 Feb. and went overland to Kishinev at the internal 10-kop. rate; that was why the Imperial postage
had also been affixed. This letter was part of the "Sinadino Correspondence" and an earlier example is shown above at left,
flanked apparently to the third weight step by a strip of 3 x 10-kop. Imperials on 16 Jun. 1864 at the Russian Imperial P.O.
Abroad at Constantinople. ROPiT had not yet begun to issue its own stamps and the letter reached Kishinev on 19 June.
The item featured above at right appears to have been a double-weight letter, being franked with a pair of 10-kopek
ROPiT stamps which were cancelled with a "retta" postmark of unnumbered dots. The letter passed through Odessa on 24 Oct.
1868 to reach Victor Sinadino in Kishinev.

-" .. Some words now about the Sinadino family.
:-' CO 'I'LL' The head of the family was actually loannis Synadinos, a
.;-'- ; Ii.r TORRat;E"UIf'L0R D I i TI.('R tiNA successful Greek merchant, who had established himself
cmF U-fS RR.MA mdo -35 in Kishinev during the 19th. Century and had donated
-- money for the construction of a building in the city.
". During the Romanian administration of Bessarabia 1918-
S1940, a street was named in his honour, as we can see
S" from the registered cover illustrated here at left. It was
sent from Chisinau/Kishinev, Sinadino st. No. 35 on 19
SJun. 1922 at the 6-lei rate to Washington D.C., arriving
.- on 5 July. The printed address of the sender is also most
interesting, since it translates as "The Central Committee
-Z of Aid to the Jews ruined in the Ukraine". In short, a fine
Judaica item.
__ Finally, CSRP members are requested to check
,' 1--, Their collections of Russian mail from the Middle East
-_ for further examples of the Sinadino Correspondence.
,_ -.., We may be in for further surprises and discoveries!

June 2005

The Tale of Two Stamps, the Windward and the Polar Bear, from Expeditions to Franz Josef Land at the Turn
of the Century by Doctors G. Adolph Ackerman & Hal VogeL

This is the story about two of the world's rarest stamps and the polar expeditions associated with them. Both
stamps were prepared at the turn of the 19th Century by two separate polar expeditions, one British (Jackson-
Harmsworth), the other American (Fiala-Ziegler), while at Franz-Josef Land. Perhaps, these stamps are best regarded
as vignettes or cinderellas, since they were produced and used only by expedition members and were not
governmentally sanctioned as postage. Also, letters using these stamps were transmitted by hand, in one instance
locally by expedition sledge and in the other by the captain of the supply ship, rather than by designated postal
The end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th C was a time of great passion for conquering the Pole. The
literature abounds with reports of the struggles of hearty explorers to achieve their goal (1, 7, 12, 13, 20). Rudolf
Island, the most northerly island in the Franz-Josef Land archipelago, was to provide the base camp for the final dash
to the Pole for a number of over-ice expeditions during the light-filled summer months.
The Franz-Josef Land archipelago is located in the Arctic Ocean between 45 to 65 degrees East longitude and
80-82 degrees North latitude. This large island group is composed of nearly 200 snow and ice-covered islands.
Spitzbergen (Svalbard) lies nearly 160 miles to the southwest of Franz-Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya lies to the
southeast, a distance of about 225 miles. The island group can be divided into three main groups. Ostrov Rudolf is
the most northerly island of the central group, approximately 475 miles from the Pole (figure 1). Regional waters
around the Franz-Josef Land's southerly islands are relatively ice-free during the summer months, permitting
expedition (and relief) ships to berth near the base camps (figure 1). Expedition success or failure was dependent on
the whims of the weather and changing ice conditions,
The Discovery of Franz-Josef Land: The latter quarter of the 19th Century saw a marked increase in
exploratory and scientific activity in the Russian Arctic, particularly in the Barents and Kara seas and on Novaya
Zemlya. Much of the Barents Sea was known to local fisherman and to the Dutch, English and Russians through
seafaring expeditions as they searched the waters for whales and walrus and for the Northeast Passage to the Orient
and Northern Siberia for economic rewards. However, Franz-Josef Land had remained undiscovered until the last
quarter of the 19th Century., when Payer and Weyprecht in their ice-bound ship Tegetthoff sighted the new land
(August 1873) after a year's drift north-westward from the northern coast of Novaya Zemlya (20). Finally, they were
able to make shore on the southern part ofWilczek Island (figure 2). Exploring and mapping the eastern island group
by dog sledge, Payer reached the northernmost point at Cape Fligely (820 5) on Rudolf Island in April 1874, 160
miles north from his beached ship. Special labels were issued in Austria upon the return of Payer and Weypracht. In
celebration of their discovery. Austria also has issued a special centenary stamp honoring the discovery (figure 3).
The Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition: Notable expeditions launched to Franz-Josef Land included the
explorations of Leigh Smith in 1880-1881 (18) who charted at least 150 miles of coastline and studied both the
physical features and the natural history of the region. The next important expedition to Franz-Josef Land was led by
Frederick Jackson and funded by Alfred Harmsworth (11-13, 18, 19).
Jackson's first Arctic expedition (1893-94) sailed from England to Arkhangel'sk and northward to Ostrov
Vagach and the southern tip of Novaya Zemlya in order to test equipment, dogs and Siberian ponies under Arctic
conditions (12, 13). Several months after returning to England, Jackson's Second Polar Expedition (1894-97) on the
steam whaling ship, the Windward, sailed to Arkhangel'sk, picked up supplies and headed northward to Franz-Josef
Land. They set up their base camp (Elmwood) at Cape Flora, Northbrook Island (figures 1, 4). During the next three
years, they explored and studied the regional geology and biology (12, 13). Scientific study of this island group was
the primary thrust of the expedition. Conquering the Pole was of secondary consequence and was unsuccessful.
The Jackson and Windward Stamp/Vignette: Letters were written by expedition members while at their base
camp at Cape Flora in 1895. The Windward returned to England that year (1895), after it had wintered in the ice off
Cape Flora the previous year. Jackson (12, 13) states in his diary (1 July 1895). "Our mail is nearly ready. I put all
the letters on board (the Windward) this morning, sewn up in strong canvas bags, sealed and soldered up in a biscuit-
tin and covered with thick brown paper. This I placed in my cabin." The ship left the next day and reached England
in September (1895). The ship returned the next year with additional supplies and eventually returned to England
with the expedition team.
Jackson describes the preparation of the Windward stamp/vignette while aboard the ship as it voyaged from
England to Arkhangel'sk (12), before travelling northward to Franz-Josef Land (1894). Herbert Ward made the
artistic drawing of the Windward under sail in the polar ice (figure 5). This drawing was photographically reduced to
stamp size from which prints were made. These were distributed to members of the expedition for their letters home
from Franz-Josef Land (13). No more than 100 vignettes were printed.
June 2005

..-, Cape Fligely i64OE
Franz Josef Land Rudolf Island
0 10 20 30 c br 0:
Miles 0 "

7 Granam
, Bell
/ Island


Fig. 1.

tItiillSIl." .a .-'.

I =_-_- ..... __r -_.t I
'Fi : .
5 P'a
6 L

Fig. 4.
June 2005


B1030 N

Fig. 24


A Treasure Found:: Few letters from the expedition bearing Windward stamps/vignettes have survived-
Several years ago, I (GAA) was lucky to find a source while searching for Russian Arctic material at a large stamp
show. After long-distance communication to England, I was able to add one to my collection. The cover had been in
the vault of dealer Argyll-Etkin for a number of years and had not been on display at the show. Individual
"Windward" stamps apparently no longer exist and have not been mentioned in the philatelic literature.
The Windward stamp/vignette shows the S Y Windward amidst rough ice with its name in the top border and
"Franz Josef Land 1894" along the lower border. Individual letters "'', "H", "P", "E" (for Jackson Harmsworth Polar
Expedition) appear one in each corer (figure 5). The stamp measures 38 x 30 mm and was photographically
printed in black on a thin paper. The stamp was then glued to the envelope. The stamp on cover has a black image
while the overall colour now appears as dark olive-brown, which tends to mask details of the image. Apparently, the
stamp was printed on thin albumen printing paper by a technique that was still in use until the turn of the century
(17). The darkened yellow-brown colouring is probably due to aging and inadequate fixation during photographic
Jackson Expedition Covers: My first Franz-Josef Land cover bears the special Windward stamp and has a
letter enclosure. This cover and letter (figures 6, 7) were written by Frederick Jackson to Montague Troup Esq.,
Dryden Mansion, West Kensington, England and was sent from Elmwood, Cape Flora, Franz-Josef Land, being
dated 9 April 1995. The letter was transmitted to England aboard the Windward and hand-delivered to Harmsworth
on 26 October 1895 (date pencilled on back). Harmsworth then forwarded the item by carrier to the addressee. The
cover not only has the Windward stamp, but also has a violet Franz-Josef Land (in capital letters) handstamp. The
Windward stationary and its envelope flap feature a small cachet with crossed flags, expedition initials and the ship's
name (2, 5).
Excerpts from Jackson's folded letter: Handwritten in the left comer by the Windward flag-cachet is the note
"The stamp was made on board the Windward."
"Elmwood / Cape Flora / Franz-Josef Land /April 9, 96
My Dear Troup,
Here we are you see safe and sound and quite at home now. We reached here on the 7th of
last September after very considerable trouble with the last fifty miles of ice. The ship had been unable to get away
as the winter had come upon us very suddenly, and now lies frozen in 400 yards from here, but in a favorable
position for getting away in two or three months time. I have just returned, accompanied by two men, from
establishing our first depot north 38 miles from here at the entrance of Markham sound, leaving here on the 10th of
March with two ponies and 1700 lbs. of store.The ponies I find a huge success. I am off again in a day or two. I am
glad to say I find the equipment generally satisfactory.
I expect the regulation rumours have been abroad in reference to the non-appearance of the
Windward. The knowledge birds as usual wagging their heads and remarking sagely 'I told you so' We have done
them all in the eye anyhow up to present.
The scene here is as Arctic as it is possible to conceive, the whole land so far as I have seen
at present is covered with perpetual ice sheet except where it is interrupted at long intervals by bold black basaltic
rocks, below which a raised wind-swept sea beach sometimes occurs as is the case here. I have asked Mr.
Hannsworth to send you a copy of a letter I have sent him giving you further particulars.
I did not half thank you for your kind present to me at Greenhithe. I think it was very nice of
you don't forget to send me a line by ship in 1896 and get any of my old friends who can spare the time to do the
same. Please remember me to your sisters and all old friends.
Very sincerely yours, Frederick G. Jackson"
Several other covers/letters from the expedition have survived and have appeared in auctions during the past
50 years (4). Most feature the "Windward" vignette and the Franz-Josef Land violet handstamp. Known examples
were addressed to Cooke (4), Paterson (4, 10), Grant (4) and Child (4). Each has the Windward vignette and the
Franz-Josef Land handstamp. In addition, the stamp on piece with a portion of the Franz-Josef Land handstamp also
exists (4). Most of the correspondence was sent to Harmsworth in London and forwarded by him to the addressees.
Covers sent from England to Jackson and Expedition members have not been philatelically documented.
A letter from Jackson to Arthur Cooke, British Vice-Consul at Archangel'sk, was delivered by ship and
hand- carried to him. This letter provides some interesting insights about the Expedition in the spring of 1895 (figure
8). Also, enclosed in the envelope was an earlier letter written in late August 1894. The 1894 letter deliverance was
delayed due to the Windward being frozen in at Cape Flora and unable to leave until the coming spring. Another
Expedition cover known (9) addressed to Airey also is dated 26 August 94. This correspondence was written by
Annitage, who was in charge of the Expedition's meteorological and magnetic observations. In addition, one cover
has survived that was sent to Kristiania, Norway (4). This item bears British stamps rather than the vignette but does
June 2005

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have the Franz-Josef Land handstamp (figure 9); British stamps allowed the registered cover to be transmitted
through the mails from England to Norway.
Excerpts of Jackson's letter to Arthur Cooke (4):
"8th April 1895 Elmwood, Cape Flora, Franz-Josef Land
My Dear Cooke,
After a heap of trouble we reached here. On 7th September last, we found the last 50 to 60 miles of
ice very tough to crack;. the floe lay unbroken, packed against the land and had evidently not come away before. The
fjords were only just breaking up and everything indicated a very unusual season. The icemasters and Schlosshauer
wanted to chuck up the sponge as the prospect looked so black; young ice was rapidly forming and the season was
rapidly drawing to a close. However, by sticking at it we at last got in. Too late, however, to get the ship away as she
was frozen in few days after getting here. Schlosshauer by the by has turned out to be an absolute fraud, being worse
than useless. He is incompetence, stupidity and carelessness personified. He became ill with stricture soon after
getting here and has been in his bunk a great part of the time since I knocked off all his liquor after leaving
Arkhangel. He was the cause of to a large extent, the crew's behavior at Arkhangel. I learnt afterwards that in spite
of them all being drunk he gave one or them permission to go and get a bottle of vodka and then repenting took 2
away on their coming on board hence the persistent requests for those 2 bottles.
Schlosshauer is returning likewise Dunsford who is an impossible man also. We have got through the
winter very well and I managed to shoot enough bears and walruses to keep us all (the crew also) in fresh meat One
man on the ship is ill with scurvy but he is one of the two men who declared that they could not eat bear's meat. The
other one has since mended his ways and they both now are glad to do so.
I have made one trip north accompanied by a and Blomkvist (lately one of the crew) whom I have
taken on. He is big, strong willing Finn. We took 2 ponies (the black and one of the bays) and 1700 lbs of stores. We
met with bad weather dense mist and snow and it was also pretty nippy at the entrance to Markham Sound, 38 miles
from here. I have days off again in a day or two and I'm awfully busy with one thing and another. I have asked
Harmsworth to send you a copy of my letter to him which will give you more information than I have now time to
write. Send me a line by the ship in 1896 if you have time.
I am asking for 4 more Russian ponies, will you see that they are good ones. free of lice and will not
jib. Ours have behaved very well and are a great success.
Good luck to you. Very sincerely your, Frederick G. Jackson.
PS I am sending Gerneral and Wilton a photo ....."
Other Expeditions to Franz-Josef Land: Following unsuccessful attempts to reach the Pole by the Second
Wellman Polar Expedition (1898-1899) (11, 16, 19), the Italian North Polar Expedition (1899-1900) (1, 11, 18) and
the Baldwin-Ziegler Polar Expedition (1901-2) (14, 18), the next major expedition to Franz-Josef Land was that of
the Polar Expedition of Fiala-Ziegler (1903-05) (7, 15, 18, 19).
Wellman (1898-99 had established his base on Hall Island and eventually reached Rudolf Island before
returning to his southerly base. On this expedition, the Baldwin group was able to chart Wilczek Land and discovered
Graham Bell Island to the north; however, the Expedition was unable to make inroads toward the Pole.
The Duke of Abruzzi Italian Expedition was next to attempt the Pole from Franz-Josef Land. They set up
their supply base at Cape Flora before voyaging northward, where they established another base camp on Rudolf
Island at Teplitz Bay. From this base, Cagni was able to reach 860 34' north latitude, closer to the Pole than Nansen
had done on his epic trek in the Fram and sledge across the northern ice (1, 11,18). No mail originated from the
Abruzzi expedition; however, a number of celebratory postcards were released commemorating the event (figure 10).
The luckless Baldwin-Ziegler Expedition also was unable to claim the Pole. Several members of this Expedition,
e.g., Fiala and Porter, gained experience for the subsequent expedition to Franz-Josef Land sponsored by Ziegler.
The Fiala-Ziegler Expedition: After picking up supplies at Arkhangel'sk, the S. Y. America carrying the
Fiala expedition proceeded to Cape Flora and northward to Teplitz Bay, Rudolf Island, reaching there by the end of
August 1903. There they set up their northern base camp at the site previously occupied by the Abruzzi Expedition
(figure 10). The S.Y America was crushed by the ice at Teplitz Bay and sank in early 1904. Their attempt for the
Pole was unproductive. Most of the expedition members were sent back by sledge to Cape Flora or to Camp Ziegler.
Fiala and nine others remained at Camp Abruzzi in order to make another attempt at the Pole in the spring of 1905
(figure 11). It was while at this camp in the spring of 1905 that the idea of making a special postage stamp to place
on their letters back to friends at the southern camps came about. This small group at Camp Abruzzi already had
been printing a small newspaper and had printing facilities available at the camp along with considerable tools and
equipment rescued from their lost ship (figure 11).
June 2005

Fig. 10.

Fig. 11.

Dr. George Shorkley.

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Fig. 12.
June 2005

'LAR EXP.il 1 .J.Ln -osm- v "
AMERICA" (g^ Baa l

Fig. 13.

The "Bear" stamp shows a running polar bear with red background and a "LAT 81o 47'N" inscription
printed above the bear. Along the borders are the inscriptions "F.J.LAND POSTAGE" (top), "TWO CENTS"
(bottom) and year "1905" on either side; a small "2" also is present in each corner. The stamp is printed in red on
whitish paper and measures 47 x 34mm and is perforated. As indicated by Fiala, these stamps were also printed in
dark blue and only a total of 50 stamps were printed.
Three men and sledges were sent back to the southern camps at Cape Flora and Camp Ziegler on Alger
Island with food and supplies taken from their sunken ship and augmented by stores left from the Abruzzi
Expedition. The remainder of the party including Fiala, Porter and Seitz returned later to Cape Flora and their rescue
The story behind the recovery of the "Bear" stamped cover. A friend of an acquaintance of the second
author (HV) had just agreed to help clean up an old house of a friend in Mount Vernon, WA in the late 1970s. When
he arrived at the house he saw a trash truck beginning to pull away. He noticed a bound packet of letters on top of the
trash and being a collector of old military mail he grabbed the packet as the truck pulled away. Surprisingly, the
packet did contain some WWI correspondence plus an unusual envelope with a strange stamp plus several related
ancillary items (21). The man contacted HV's friend about this item and since it had a red polar bear stamp on the
cover, The fellow thought that HV might know something about this unusual rescued cover. And philatelic history
was made.
This cover, the only one known to date, was addressed to Dr. Shorldey, who had been part of the Fiala-
Ziegler expedition. Shorkley at this time was with the expedition party that spent the winter months at Cape Flora.
The writer, Dr. Seitz, also an Expedition member, was with the small group spending the winter months of 1905 at
Camp Abruzzi, preparing to make a final dash for the Pole. The house mentioned above had been owned by Shorkley
and turned over to his unmarried daughter, when he retired to Seattle in the 1950s. The house at the time of the
"rescue" was being sold for unpaid taxes upon the death of Shorkley's daughter.
From a philatelic standpoint, Fiala's Expedition narrative (7, p.181) and a brief subsequent article (10)
describes the preparation of the "Polar Bear" stamp at Camp Abruzzi (1905):
"We had bad weather on April 9th. On the 11th, Assistant engineer Vedoe with Stewart and Tessem left for Cape
Flora. They had two heavy sledges, each pulled by a team of seven dogs. Mr. Vedoe carried a bag of mail for Camp
Ziegler and Cape Flora. some postage stamps had been designed and printed and, before the departure of the mail,
the men found pleasure in writing to their comrades at the southern stations and in pasting on the envelopes the
expedition stamps. Porter cut a canceling stamp on rubber and with it the postage was marked in the most approved
and regular style."
Three years later (1908), Fiala described in further detail the making of the "Bear" stamp in the NY World
newspaper (8):
"On our return from the Polar pack in 1905 we found that two men with a dog team and sledge had reached
Camp Abruzzi during our absence, having marched all the way from Cape Flora, about one hundred and seventy
miles south of us. They brought the good news that all the members of the expedition at Cape Flora and at Camp
Ziegler were alive, and that the long dark winter had passed without accident. They also brought letters from the men
at the southern stations, and with them requests for tobacco, sugar, butter, beans, bacon, flour, etc., but the great
desire emphasized seemed to be for tobacco.
Preparations were made at once to send loads of food and tobacco. While the sledges were being loaded the
men at camp wrote letters to their comrades at Cape Flora and Camp Ziegler, and quite a large bag of mail resulted.
Its appearance suggested the idea of postage stamps.
Looking over our outfit of types and cuts used in printing our camp newspaper, the Arctic Eagle, a cut was
found containing a number of running polar bears on a black background. The smallest one was cut off from the rest
by means of a carpenter's saw and chisel, and the latitude of Camp Abruzzi 81 degrees 47 minutes cut in the dark
background of zinc with a pocket-knife. Type was then set around the cut, giving date, place, denomination. By
means of this engraving about fifty stamps were printed in red and blue inks and given to the men, who pasted them
on their sealed and addressed envelopes.
The fact that there were stamps to use stimulated the letter writing. A cancelling stamp was also made out of
artist's rubber, and all the stamped envelopes were duly cancelled.
The letters were then given to the leaders of the sledge party who were to make the long run over glaciers
and channels to the southern camps.".

June 2005

Excerpts from the Seitz Intercamp Letter: The complete text which describes some interesting events about the
expedition and Fiala's unsuccessful attempt at the Pole (1905) can be found in ref. 21. Portions of the text of the
Seitz three page letter to Shorkley are reproduced here.
"Camp Abruzzi, April 8 1905,
My dear Shorkley,
Porter and Mackerenan arrived here March 17th, and we were all glad to receive news
from Cape Flora and to learn that all had passed through the winter so well, considering the circumstances under
which you were placed. Living in the midst of plenty here, we have often wished that we could share some of our
good things (thanks to the Duke) with the men at Cape Flora, in spite of Fiala's repeated statements that there was
plenty food there a statement which I always did my best to disprove. Before long, however, some of your desires
will be satisfied, for Anton, Stewart and Tessem are to leave on the 11th, and carry sugar, tobacco and some other
supplies to Flora........"
Perhaps you will be interested to know something about our trip here last Fall. We made three unsuccessful
attempts to get away from Camp P., but on the 22nd of Oct. succeeded and made Hooker I. Fiala fell into a crevasse,
and Spencer, who followed, ran to his assistance, but the crevasse which was visible as a furrow on the surface of the
glacier, and naturally the crust gave way and both disappeared. We could ......
... During the winter, I have taken care of the dogs, and the Chief says Peters has me on the scientific staff,
but I can't see it that way.
Well, F. made another dash and again failed to beat the ship's record. You will learn the plans from Hartt's
letter. He ......"
Discovery of this "Polar Bear" cover revealed more than Expedition correspondence. It also exposed a
forgery. Up until then, the only "bear" stamp example had been a vignette in black on something akin to tracing
paper. It had been touted as a proof strike of the vignette. However, comparing the so-called proof with the actual
vignette used in cover, revealed that the two were not quite the same. It eventually was determined that the "earlier"
{sic} discovery had been a tracing of the vignette from an impression printed in Fiala's narrative about the
expedition. No unused "Bear" stamps/vignettes are known.
Summary: The origin, preparation and usage of two rare polar stamps/vignettes prepared during two
separate polar expedition to Franz-Josef Land over a century ago have been reported herein. Each has been illustrated
on covers dispatched from Franz-Josef Land along with excerpts of their enclosed letters. Original references written
by the hearty explorers of a frozen unknown land have been included for the reader who may be interested in gaining
a feeling for life in the frozen North and the challenge of the Pole over a century ago.

1. Abruzzi L, Duke of (L. Amedeo L of Savoy): On the "Polar Star" in the Arctic Sea. Transl. WL Queux, Dodd,
Mead & Co., N. Y., 1903.
2. Ackerman GA: The Russian Arctic. History and Philately ofRussia's Far North. Worthington, OH,1999.
3. Anonymous: A cover from the Arctic 1895. The Philatelist. 44:360, 1977.
4. Argyll Etkins Ltd: photocopies of covers/enclosures from postal history auctions, personnel communication.
5. Coyne BV: Jackson-Harmsworth expedition, Franz-Josef Land 1895. Ice Cap News 32:258-260, 1987.
6. Cronin A: The stamps and postal history of Franz-Josef Land; "The Post Rider", 16:28-45,
7. Fiala A: Fighting the Polar Ice. Doubleday, New York, 1902.
8. Fiala A: Original Arctic postage stamps. Mekeel's Stamp Weekly. July 4, 1908, p.231; reprinted from N.Y.
World newspaper.
9. Haffner R: Mail from Franz-Josef Land. The Jackson-Harmsworth expedition 1894-97. source unknown, April
26, 1968, p 783.
10. Hall G: Arctic Philately. Amer. Soc. Polar Philat. http://www.south-pole.com/aspp000.htm
11. Hoare JD: Arctic Exploration. Milhuen & Co., London, 1906.
12. Jackson FG: A Thousand Days in the Arctic. Harper's, New York, 1899.
13. Jackson, FG: The Lure of Unknown Lands. G Bell & Sons, Ltd., London, 1935, pp.138-9.
14. Larson D: The Baldwin-Ziegler Franz-Josef Land expedition. Ice Cap News 17:98, 1971
15. Larson D: The Fiala-Ziegler expedition. Ice Cap News, 17:98, 1971.
16. Larson D: The Melville and Walter Wellman expeditions to Franz-Josef Land. Ice Cap News, 16:158-159,1971.
17. Leggat R: Albumen Photographs:history, science and preservation. 2000.
18. Mills WJ: Exploring Polar Frontiers. A Historical Encyclopedia. vol. 1/2. ABC Clio, Santa Barbara, CA, 2003.

June 2005

19. Neatby LH: Discovery in Russian and Siberian Waters. Ohio Univ Press, Athens, 1973.
20. Payer J: New Lands Within the Arctic Circle: A Narrative of the Discoveries of the Austrian Ship "Tegetthoff' in
the Years 1872-1874. Macmillan, London, 1876.
21. Vogel H: B.U.T. Ice Cap News, 26:86-91, 1981.
22. Vogel H: A doubly extraordinary polar expedition. Congress Book, 1992, p. 168-9.
Figure 1: Franz Josef Land Archipelago. The Jackson, Abruzzi and Ziegler camps have been indicated.
Figure 2: The Tegetthoff and landing of the Payer-Weyprecht Expedition at Franz-Josef Land. (from Payer (20,
Figure 3: a: The Tegetthoff aground at Franz-Josef Land. b. Austro-Hungarian Postal Administration triangular
vignette with Hungarian Anns + "Cape Pest" (Budapest) + "Franz-Josef Land" and date "1872-74." c. Unissued
Austro-Hungarian stamp with Franz-Josef profile + "Franz-Josef-Land" and abbreviation honoring Weypracht, Payer
and crew of the North Pole Expedition.
Figure 4: a. The Windward and start of Jackson trip north, March 1895 (from Jackson (12, p. 171). b. Jackson
Camp (Elmwood) at Cape Flora, Franz-Josef Land (from Jackson (13, p. 93)
Figure 5: a. The Windward drawing from Jackson (12, p. 262).
Figure 6: Jackson cover with Windward stamp and violet Franz-Josef Land handstamp. Cover addressed to
Montigue Troup, West Kensington (England) via the Windward. Enclosure written by Jackson on Windward
stationary marked Elmwood, Cape Flora and dated April 9.95. Notation (top, left) "The stamp was made aboard
the Windward."
Figure 7: Pages from Jackson's letter to Troup with a written on Windwiard cacheted stationary and Jackson's
signature. Note the corer notation about the Windward stamp
Figure 8: Cover and enclosure from Jackson to Cooke sent from Franz-Josef Land to Arkhangel'sk. Cover has the
Windward stamp/vignette and Franz-Josef Land handstamp and was hand-delivered upon ship docking to the
Figure 9: Cover sent by a member of the Jackson Expedition to a friend in Norway. Cover has Franz-Josef Land
handstamp but not the Windward vignette. British postage overlays a portion of the Franz-Josef Land handstamp.
Cover sent to England for postal dispatch to Norway.
Figure 10: a. Commemorative picture postcard showing portrait of the Duke of Abruzzi and a frozen scene with his
ship, the Polar Star, above a globe showing the Polar region with Franz-Josef Land. b. Abruzzi camp at Teplitz
Bay, Rudolf Island. The Abruzzi's damaged ship Polar Star embedded in ice near camp site. (from Abruzzi (1), p.
Figure 11: a. The Fiala Expedition at Camp Abruzzi (1905) in the early spring. b. Members of the Fiala expedition
inside the working quarters at Camp Abruzzi. (from Fiala (7) p. 155).
Figure 12: Ziegler Polar Expedition "S. Y. America" cover with the red Bear stamp. Circular black dated cancel -
"Camp Abruzzi / PO. / APR. 10" cancel. A separate violet handstamp with letters "Z.P.E." (Ziegler Polar
Expedition) was stamped diagonally across the stamp. Cover with enclosure was sent from Dr. Seitz, the physician
at Camp Abruzzi, Rudolf Island to Dr. Shorkley at Cape Flora. Insert shows the illustration of the Bear stamp
reprinted in the Fiala book (7, p. xxii). Stamp border (top) F.J.LAND POSTAGE", bottom "TWO CENTS with a
small "2' in each corer and the date "1905" on either side.
Figure 13: Enlarged portion of cover showing the "Bear" stamp, Camp Abruzzi cancel and Ziegler Polar Expedition
"Z.P.E." handstamp.


This title refers to a beautifully produced multicoloured magazine, printed completely in Russian on high
quality coated paper in A4 format since 1994. Issue NJ- 2 (25) 2004 has 88 richly illustrated pages and is dedicated to
the centenary of the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. Published by the Centre for the Preservation of the
Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Irkutsk Province, it contains 19 articles and comments by qualified
researchers on many phases of the War as they affected that area of Siberia and a long narrative poem composed
during that period on the subject is even included. In short, this work is a valuable historical reference and enquiries
regarding availability and price should be directed to: 664025, PegaKima UICH HpKyrcKOfI 06nacrn, r.
HpKyrcK-UeHTp, yn. 5-i ApMHH N 2; E-mail: editor zi(irmail.r.


June 2005

by Meer Kossoy.
The present author has read through the information set out by Dr. Robert M.S. Bell about a case where a
letter was returned to a sender upon a directive from the Customs Service in Kiev, since the sending contained an
unauthorised enclosure namely postage stamps [reference 1]. It should be noted that the question of interaction
between the Postal and Customs Services has remained practically unexplored and we can therefore welcome the
appearance of an article looking at such a subject. The interest in the article in reference [1] is manifested in the
official cachets utilised for this purpose at the Customs Office in Kiev as shown on the envelope, sent from Caracal
in Romania to Zaporozh'e and opened by the Customs in Kiev on 7.10.77. In publishing the present article, the
author would like to supplement the information provided in reference [1] by showing examples of the activities of
the Customs Service in various cities of the USSR.
By way of a sample, the address side of a cover is featured in Fig. 1 (V. Vinokur Collection, Israel), which
was sent from Wilkau-Hablau (GDR) on 8.12.70 and despatched to Riga. The letter was detained there and opened in
the Customs Service. That was confirmed by a framed rectangular cachet in violet, inscribed: "Riga Customs
Service; LIABLE TO BE RETURNED ABROAD / Basis: Postage / stamps not allowed / in the transmission.
Inspector (signature) 21.XUI.1970"; the text has been written in violet ink. The letter was returned to the sender and,
for that reason, the address of the intended recipient in Riga was crossed out with a red pencil. In addition, a two-line
cachet was applied, reading "Retour Interdit / timbres-poste" (the text is in French, the official language of the
Universal Postal Union). In other words, the forbidden postage stamps were to be returned.
Fig. 2 shows the back of an international airmail letter (M. Lam Collection, Israel), which was sent from
Kaliningrad (the postmark of despatch is missing and the two stamps totalling 16 kopeks are crossed out in blue ink)
and addressed to Santa Fe, Argentina. The letter was detained and opened by the Customs in Vilnius. That was
confirmed by a framed rectangular cachet in violet, reading in four lines: "Opened in the official course of business
(...according to the Convention)"; apparently without the text not being read as "on the basis: Customs Inspector /
Operator -signature in red ink". The number "30" was also written in red ink before the word "Convention". That
number presumably referred to a report, or to the entry number in the Customs ledger re the opening of this letter. As
a result of the examination of the letter, a framed rectangular cachet in violet was applied in three lines, reading:
"LIABLE / TO BE RETURNED / Vilnius Customs House", with a further inscription in blue ink stating that:"The
transmission is forbidden / of postage stamps / (signature) 15.IX.69". In accordance with the postmark "Kaliningrad /
15.9.69, the letter was returned to the sender. For that reason, the address of the intended recipient in Argentina was
crossed out in blue ink.
If we compare the cachet of the Customs Service in Kiev as demonstrated in reference [1] with those applied
by the Customs in Vilnius and Riga, it can be noted that they all differ from each other.
Fig 3a shows the front of an international registered letter No. 447, which was sent from Luganuse 28.1162
in Estonia and addressed to Berne in Switzerland. It would seem that stamps were being transmitted in the letter, as it
was sent for examination at the Customs. A green label with such an inscription was affixed with a two-line
inscription reading: "HA TAMO)KEHHblfT / AOCMOTP". The letter was opened at the Tallinn Customs and,
as a result of the examination, a three-line cachet in violet was applied on the back of the cover, reading "LIABLE /
TO BE RETURNED / Tallinn Customs" see Fi. 3b. In accordance with the designation on the cachet, the letter
was returned to the sender and the address of the intended recipient in Berne, Switzerland, was crossed out. See also
the postmark of return, reading LUGANUSE EST. SSR 9.12.62, as also noted in Fig. 3b.
Fg 4 has the back of an international airmail envelope, registered under XJ2 179, which was sent from
Leningrad 18.2.66 to Prague, Czechoslovakia. The letter contained in the envelope reads as follows: "I thank you for
the First Day covers you sent. I am sending some sets of stamps of the USSR". In spite of the fact that only a few sets
of stamps of recent years were being transmitted in the letter and that the correspondence was clearly not of a
commercial character, it was detained and opened by the Customs in Leningrad, That was confirmed by a rectangular
three-line cachet in violet, reading: "LIABLE / TO BE RETURNED / Leningrad Customs". A notation was made in
fractional form as "J\e 38 / 66" and it is assumed that "M 38" referred to the number of a report or to an entry in the
Customs ledger about opening the letter, while the number "66" designated the calendar year. In accordance with a
postmark on the back of the cover, reading: "LENINGRAD K-9 GOR. / 23.2.66", the letter was returned to the
sender, the postal station for that address being noted as K-9. As a result, the address of the intended recipient in
Czechoslovakia was crossed out in blue ink.
The cachet of the Leningrad Customs as featured in Fig. 4 is similar to one of the two cachets of the Vilnius
Customs. It could be assumed that, at a much later period, two cachets had also been introduced at the Leningrad
Customs, being applied together with the cachet described above in Fi. 4. The new cachets had a supplementary
inscription, which specified on the basis of some documents that a postal sending had been opened and that there was
June 2005

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a specific reason that it was liable to be returned to the sender.
As an example, we see in Fig. 5 the back of an international airmail cover under registered J 831, which
was sent from Leningrad 28.4.75 and addressed to Zenica in Yugoslavia. The letter was opened at the Leningrad
Customs and, as a result of such action, a three-line rectangular cachet was applied in violet on the back of the cover
and reading: "Opened under official order / on the basis of the Universal / Postal Convention" The registration MJ
831 was also inscribed on the cachet in blue ink. Upon examining the letter, a cachet in violet with the text in a
rectangular frame was applied, reading: "Leningrad Customs / Liable to be returned / to the sender / Basis: Postage
stamps / Forbidden enclosure". The letter was returned to the sender from the Leningrad K-232 postal station (which
served the addressee) on 19.5.75 and, for that reason, the address of the intended recipient in Yugoslavia was crossed
out in blue ink. The assertion by Dr. Robert M.S. Bell in reference [1] that the contents of the letter were not
confiscated in accordance with the text on the cachet stating that "It is liable to be returned to the sender" is open to
doubt, since a cachet with a similar text was also placed on the cover shown here in Fi. 5.
However, in this last case, the enclosed stamps were indeed confiscated, in accordance with a form inserted
and headed: "REPORT / about the seizure of articles, the transmission of which / are prohibited in international
postal sendings. See Fig. 6a as well as the "STIPULATION / of the Leningrad Customs" in Fig. 6b. The texts of the
Report and Stipulation were printed on the two sides of a sheet of lettuce-coloured paper, such that they form a single
document In reading the text of the Report, it is evident that "36 unused postage stamps of the USSR issued after
1961 were enclosed with a total face value of 3 roubles and 36 kopeks". They were confiscated on the basis of the
Stipulation of the Director of the Leningrad Customs, who stated that: "In applying Article 99 of the Customs Codex
of the USSR, it is stipulated that.... the articles enumerated in the Report should be confiscated as being forbidden in
the transmission of international postal sending" (signature of the Director of the Customs).
The present author remembers that the stamps were in the "flora and fauna" category and had been sent to
the son of a Yugoslav engineer. The author had met the engineer when he arrived at a Leningrad institute, which
dealt with the resolution of a mutual engineering project. In returning to Yugoslavia, the engineer regretted that he
had not found the time to carry out the request of his son to bring back pretty stamps to him. The author promised the
Yugoslav engineer to send the stamps to his son during the May holidays (1t. May Day of International Solidarity
and 9th. May Victory Day) and, together with the greetings, some sets of stamps of the USSR were also forwarded.
Those stamps were regarded by the Customs as CONTRABAND and they were therefore confiscated, in order to
return to the State the "national property".
The Customs regulations and the activities of its officials were in direct contradiction of the propaganda
about peace and friendship among the peoples, to which the Soviet Union also subscribed.everywhere. For example,
we can read on a stamp issued in 1960 (Michel 2346) the inscription "Philately serves the friendship of the peoples"
- seeFig. 7.
It is worthwhile to tell another story, which shows that philately does bring people together and the activities
of the Customs aided the transformation of the USSR into the form of a "monster state". The story began in 1970,
when the world noted the centenary of the birth of V.I. Lenin and that event was one of the most popular in philately.
As a result of an advertisement in the magazine "Philately of the USSR", the author became acquainted with a
collector in Poland, who was looking for a serious partner to exchange stamps about that theme. We exchanged want-
lists and, at the time, I sent him some stamps of the USSR and he forwarded in exchange stamps of Poland and of
other countries. However, after several months, neither I nor he could send each other interesting material
Nevertheless, as a mark of mutual esteem and friendship, we would send each other greetings three times a year on
the occasion of the holidays and also as souvenirs included some stamps in the letter. In 1975, the author did not
receive from Poland a greeting on the occasion of the October revolution anniversary and, being astonished by this
fact, I thought that he might have been sick. The letter with the greeting was received considerably later. It turned out
that the letter had been sent in time, but returned by the Leningrad Customs, because there were some stamps in the
envelope. The reaction of my philatelic friend, whom I had never seen, shocked me and I have kept his letter for
almost 30 years. Excerpts from his letter are shown in Fig. 8 in the expectation that the evaluation of the activities of
the Customs would be interesting for the readers of the journal. Here are some lines from the first letter: "Dear
Friend! I have always felt that our relationship was something greater than an ordinary partnership for the exchange
of stamps...I thank you most deeply. If I knew the Russian language better, I would have expressed this feeling even
more fully..." Perhaps this was another case of the people indulging in "contraband"! And here is his reaction to the
activity of the Customs in sending back the letter: "P.S. The letter was returned, because there were FIVE STAMPS
in it!!! Contraband!! (2 Hungarian stamps, 2 from Bulgaria on the Lenin theme and 1 from Bulgaria regarding
Copernicus). I showed this letter to my friends; they smiled and one of them started to sing "I know no other.... I do
not know about bureaucracy" (that was a rephrasing from the words of a song: "I do not know of another country,
where man can breathe so freely"). Anyway, I will send back the stamps to you. Think how a person feels, who fought
June 2005

PAR AVION o "T ^d^Qww- -

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kI#-e ?2f6T2TT lgla Fig. 10 b.

endurance. It would be interesting to know what Gogol' would have said about this". When one reads such a letter,
comment is superfluous.
In the category of excluding mail to Leningrad, it was sometimes examined at the Customs Section of the
Moscow International Post Office. We note as a sample in n. 9 a cover, which was sent from Conches (Geneva
canton in Switzerland) on 14.3.74 and addressed to Leningrad. The letter was detained and opened by the Customs in
Moscow. That is confirmed by the red date-stamp on the back of the cover, reading MOSKVA / 19.3.73. The red
colour of the postmark and the inscription in Latin letters serve as a basis for assuming that the letter was opened by
the Customs at the International Post Office. The letter was returned to the sender and, in contrast to the Customs
Services in Kiev, Leningrad, Riga and Vilnius, all of which would have applied cachets of return, Moscow affixed a
two-line label of grey paper reading "Retour interdit / timbres-poste". The signature of a Customs official appears on
each label and the inscription is the same as that on the cachet shown in Fin. 1.
It should be noted that the Customs Service returned to the sender, or confiscated not only postage stamps,
but also other collectable material, for example postcards. Fin. 10a features as a sample the front of a cover which,
according to the despatch postmark, was sent from Leningrad 4.1.90 and addressed to Essex in England.. A two-line
rectangular cachet in black was placed on the cover, reading: "To be presented / for examination by the Customs"
and accompanied by an additional notation in violet ink stating that: "On the basis of Article 37 / of the Universal
Postal Convention". The Customs found three postcards with views of London in the letter. Those postcards had
been sent by the author to England in the letter of a woman neighbour on the staircase landing. The cards had been
sent as souvenirs, together with greetings on the feast-day of her daughter, whom he knew from the first days since
her birth. She had married an Englishman and lived in a London suburb.
The postcards were returned to the sender, together with a report, which was written on the form used by a
postman in enquiring about an addressee (form N2 20). The text of the report reads:: "To be returned to the sender. In
accordance with the conclusion of an art expert and checker of the MK CCCP (Ministry of Culture of the USSR),
postcards issued up to 1917 cannot be sent from the USSR (signature)" see Fig. 10b. There is an interesting
postmark on the report reading "JIEHHHIEPA)l IIO'TAMT IIPOH3B. YM. / 28.3.90" (apparently referring to
the Production Unit of the Customs at the Leningrad G.P.O.). The cards had been bought at a bookshop and on the
back of the cards there was the cachet of the shop and the designation of the selling price 13 kopeks. The sale price
of such cards may serve as an indirect indication of the type of "unique" material that the Customs prohibited from
being sent out of the USSR-
The author expresses his deepest thanks to V. Vinokur and M. Lam of Israel for the permission granted in
publishing material from their collections.
1. Dr. Robert M.S. Bell: "The Soviet Customs intercepts Romanian philatelic mails"; "The Post-Rider" 2 o 49, p. 120.
Editorial Comment: Mr. Kossoy has raised some interesting points about Soviet Customs regulations and usages;
further discoveries and comments from CSRP members would be much appreciated. Your editor had a somewhat
similar clash with Soviet Customs at Sheremet'evo airport in 1978, as he had some foreign stamps, including a set of
Jordan "Stations of the Cross", which were impounded as "religious objects". From memory, they were returned
upon leaving the country. The references by Mr. Kossoy about the Conventions of the Universal Postal Union are
also important, as one of them specifically forbids U.P.U. members to lay claims on their issues of stamps and postal
stationery to territories, architecture and other external factors outside their own national boundaries. For example,
the Soviet authorities made a point of returning to West Germany mail franked with stamps referring to the city of
K'6nigsberg (since WWII Kaliningrad in the USSR and the Russian Federation) and applied a special cachet to such
mail, quoting the relevant U.P.U. Convention number. Data on such and other Convention markings are welcome.
ben en b te uho t Eglndinte eterofa oanneghou o testiras l7dg hecadsha be

By Meer Kossoy & Vladimir Berdichevsldy (Israel)
1. Introduction
This article is in effect a continuation of our articles previously published in "The Post-Rider" [see references
1, 2 & 3]. In the first two, the questions were examined regarding the transmission of the mail of the personnel of the
Imperial Russian Navy (BMQ Poccii) in the 1914-1918 period, but the main intention had been devoted to the
procedures for verifying such mail. In the article in reference [3], which was a continuation of those in references [1
& 2], the regulations were looked at for handling and transmitting the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy
(BMQ CCCP) in the 1918-1941 period.
The workings of the Navy Postal Service (BMII) in the period of the Second World War (BOB 1941-1945)
are a very interesting but little studied sector in the postal history of the USSR. One of the reasons which hampers the
investigation of this subject is the absence of published specific documentation about the functions of the Navy
Postal Service, as such documentation was and still remains secret. Another reason, concerning the rarity of such
philatelic material, is connected with the activities of the Navy Postal Service in the 1941-1943 period. The rarity of
such material is confirmed by the specific investigations ofM. Kabanov [reference 4]. He was able to examine and
analyse the leading collections in Russia, which contained examples of the Field Post Service (BmII). More then
4000 such Field Post items were studied and there were only 58 sending of the Navy Postal Service.
As they were a basic component of a single system of communications (HKC CCCP), the functions of the
Field Post and the Navy Postal Service were governed by the same regulations on most occasions, but there were
some differences. They evolved in such a way that; in the first period of the war (1941-1942), the Field Post Services
carried out the postal needs of the Red Army units (HKO = People's Commissariat of Defence), while the Navy
Postal Services looked after the Naval Units (HK BM(E = People's Commissariat of the Navy).
The basic distinguishing features which permitted the sorting of the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy
from the general mass of military mail may be regarded as the following:-
1. The presence in the inscriptions on the triangular cachets for post-free transmission of the abbreviations "HK
BM>" or just "BMV" (the cachets for military mail bore the abbreviation "HKO"). Such cachets will be described
in the following section.
2. The presence in the date-stamps of the text "MOPCKASI IIOTA" plus a number, which were characteristic for
such mail, or with the text "IIOJIEBA5I IIOMTA" (Field Post) plus a number, characteristic for the Navy Mail
(these markings will be described below in detail).
3. The presence of the designations, such as "Ba~niT ncHHtCKA" (Baltic...) in the addresses, or of additional
inscriptions placed above the addresses, such as "Kpacuonaomcrcoe" (Red Fleet letter).

2. Cachets for the post-free transmission of the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy
It was noted in the article in reference [3] that, in the pre-war years (namely since 1939), triangular cachets
were distributed, which ensured the right to the post-free transmission of the mail of the personnel of the Soviet
Navy. Such cachets were introduced instead of official military markings, in the inscriptions of which the name of
the Naval Unit was normally designated and thus showed its location. The town and postal station number were
normally specified in the inscriptions of the triangular cachets, as well as the abbreviation "HKBM<" (People's
Commissariat of the Navy). For large towns, the number of the post office box would normally be added and
specified. The absence of the military unit ensured the preservation of secrecy. Later on, there was a distribution of
cachets with the inscription reading "KpacnofcioTcKoe nIHCbMO BECIJIATHO" (Red Fleet letter POSTFREE).
The cachets in triangular form for the post-free transmission of the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy in the
period up to the beginning of World War II in the USSR (22 June 1941) were shown in reference [3].
As is known [reference 5], new regulations were promulgated already in July-August 1941, in accordance of
which all ordinary letters and postcards from the personnel of the Soviet Navy were sent free of charge via the Navy
Postal Service. Later on, these rules were supplemented by a proviso, in accordance of which post-free transmission
was ensured not only by the presence on the mail of the date-stamp "MOPCKASI HIOTA" (Naval Post), but also
by the appearance in the return address of the designation of such mail,
New rules were also envisaged, in that ordinary letters and postcards, addressed to the personnel of the
Soviet Navy were sent free of charge. Registered postal sending from and to the Navy were paid for under the
general conditions. After the initial coming into force of the new rules for the workings of the Navy Postal Service,
the necessity for the triangular cachets practically disappeared, since the right to post-free transmission was now
ensured by the presence on the mail of the date-stamp "MOPCKASI fIOITA" (Naval Post), or by the notation of
such a postal service in the address of the recipient.
In practice, the rules referred to above were not always adhered to and, although after the beginning of the war

June 2005

the requirement lapsed for designating "post-free transmission" on the cachets, they continued as an exception to be
struck on the mail. It can be assumed that not all the clerks in the Naval Postal Service knew about the new rules and
they therefore kept on applying the triangular cachets. Cases of utilisation of the "post-free" triangular cachets on the
mail of the rank-and-file of the Soviet Navy are known to the authors throughout the entire period of the war.
It should be borne in mind that, right from the first days of the war, there began a massive displacement of
the armed forces, as well as of units of the Soviet Navy. As a result, the final locations were often unknown and in
such a situation, the system of delivering mail via the postal station of the nearest inhabited point could not function.
For that reason and, already from the 1i. of July 1941, a new organisation of the Naval Postal Service came into
being, whereby the mail was transmitted through the newly established Naval Post Offices (BMIIO) or by Naval
Postal Stations (BMIIC), where there was regularly updated operative information about the points of displacement
of the relevant Naval Units (they will be discussed in detail in a special section).
By way of an example, a cover is shown in Fig. 1 which, in accordance with the return address, was sent
from "Ezel', P.O. Box 346/3" (Ezel'/Oesel was the island of Saaremaa, being the largest in the Moonzund
Archipelago in the Estonian section of the Baltic Sea). The poorly struck despatch postmark reads "KURE.../ Eeesti /
5.VII.41 and is easily recognized as Kuresaare, the main town on the island of Saaremaa, known as Arensburg until
1917. There is on the front of the cover a triangular cachet of free transmission in violet and reading: "JIemarpan /
Ho'rr. OTa. 303 / Hoqr. InmiE JNM 346 / CCCP / HKBMO4". Such an inscription may serve as a proof that the
cachet had been prepared in the pre-war period.
It would seem that post offices with the numbers of 300 and higher were in peacetime intended for handling
the mail of the personnel of the Baltic Fleet. Going by the inscription on the cachet, such offices were subordinate to
Leningrad, although they actually could be found in other areas, e.g. in Estonia. There was at Post Office J2 303 a
P.O. Box N2 346 for a unit of the Soviet Navy, located on the island of Oesel/Saaremaa. As already stated, there was
no necessity for placing a triangular cachet on this letter, as it was sent not only from an active unit, but was also
addressed to Naval Post Office No 1001. In the initial period of the war, the senders of mail did not fully understand
the system of addressing correspondence, as the mistaken designation on the cover is given as "Naval Post Office
P.O. Box JV2 1001", instead of "Naval Post Office 1001". There is on the back of the cover the Naval Mail postmark
of arrival, reading "MOPCKAAI IIOHTA 2N 1001 / 18.9.41" and an inconsistent machine censorship cachet of
Leningrad see Fig. l Naval Post Office X2 1001 was at Kronshtadt and served the units of the Baltic Fleet. From
now on, the locations of the already mentioned Naval Post Offices and Naval Postal Stations will not be repeated.
Fi. 2 features the front of a cover which, in accordance with the return address, was sent from the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet (KBED), P.O. Box 2M 1101, Naval Postal Station "Petropavlovsk". The despatch postmark reads
Leningrad / 6.VII.41. As in Fi. 1the sender once again addressed it by mistake as P.O. Box 1101, instead of
Naval Postal Station N2 1101 (Naval Postal Station X'o 1101 was located in Leningrad). A violet cachet in the pre-war
style was placed on the cover with the text: "Post Office / Box N2 395 / city of Leningrad / five-pointed star /
People's Commissariat of the Navy" (H.K.B.M.Q.). The letter was addressed to Khar'kov, where it was
backstamped on 10.7.41.
Fi. 3 shows a cover, which was sent from Leningrad to Kronshtadt, P.O. Box 460. There is on the front of
the envelope a triangular cachet of the pre-war style and reading "P.O. / Box JV 509 / Leningrad P.O. 306 / five-
pointed star / H.K.B.M.b. / C.C.C.P.". We see on the back the despatch postmark of Leningrad 17.8.41, as well as
the arrival mark of Kronshtadt 18.8.41. A cover is known prepared in the same way, but with the triangular cachet in
blue and it arrived in Kronshtadt on 21.7.41.
The best results in philatelic investigations may be obtained by studying material from a specific archive,
where the correspondence was carried out over a long period of time between regular recipients. In such a situation,
one can see how, with the passage of time, there were changes in the system of addressing mail and in utilising
markings. As an example, the front of a cover is shown in Fi. 4. bearing a Naval Mail despatch postmark reading:
"MOPCKAAI IIOqTA Xo 1108 / 18.8.41" and a triangular cachet of the pre-war style in violet with the inscription
"Leningrad 317 / P.O. Box JM 577 / H.K.B.M.. CCCP / FOR / packets". The return address is given in the pre-war
style as "Leningrad 317, P.O. Box 577". In other words, the return address practically coincides with the inscription
on the triangular cachet. It is known that Naval Postal Station MN 1108 was situated on the Hanko peninsula (the
Russian name is Gangut) and from that it can be claimed that the Leningrad P.O. 317 served the garrison on Hanko.
That latter area was a historic place for the Russian Fleet, which destroyed the Swedish Squadron in 1714 under the
command of Peter the Great.
The Hanko peninsula was a naval base outside the borders of the USSR and was rented from Finland for a
period of 30 years as of March 1940. That base blocked from the north the entry into the Gulf of Finland and the
outer approaches served in the defence of Leningrad. Although surrounded, the Hanko garrison defended itself until
3 December 1941, inflicting severe losses on the enemy. The letter was addressed to the Yaroslavl' province, but the
June 2005

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is no arrival marking. The inconsistent censorship marking of Leningrad is on the back of the cover, see further in
Fig. 4a.
Fig. 5 demonstrates the front of a cover, similar to the one shown in Fig. 4 but with the Naval Mail postmark
of despatch, reading: "MOPCKAS IYIOTA J2 1108 / 25.8.41". There was a difference of 7 days in all between
the despatch dates of these letters, but the return address is already specified in the new system, namly "Red Banner
Baltic Fleet, Naval Postal Station Xs 1108 / P.O.B. 577". The letter was addressed to the Yaroslavl' province and
there is no backstamp of arrival. The inconsistent censorship marking of Leningrad is on the back; see Fig. 4
Fig. 6 shows the front of a cover (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), which has the Naval Mail despatch postmark
"MOPCKAI IIOWTA JM 1108 / 23.8.41" and a triangular cachet of the pre-war style in violet with the inscription:
"Leningrad 306 / P.O. N% 532 / H.K.B.M.#. CCCP / FOR / packets".The return address was specified in the new
system of addressing: "Naval Postal Station / Red Banner Baltic Fleet NM 1108, P.O. Box 532". The P.O. Box
number in the return address coincides with the number on the triangular cachet.. The letter was addressed to the
Yaroslavl' province and there is no arrival marking.
Fig. 7 demonstrates a "triangular" military letter. This is a sheet of paper, folded in the form of a triangle, on
one side of which was written the text of the letter and on the other side the address. Such "triangular" letters were
widely utilised during the period of the war (1941-1945), as they did not require insertion into envelopes, which were
hard to get and could be easily opened and closed when examined by the censorship. The letter was not franked, as
military mail was transmitted free of charge.. The text of the return address formed part of the letter, reading "Town
of Engel's-3, P.O. Box 10/4. We see the same text also on the triangular cachet in the pre-war style, being inscribed:
"Post Office / Box JM 10 / town of Engel's-3 / five-pointed star / H.K.B.M.I." The despatch postmark of
"Engel's 17.2.42" is on the front of the triangular letter and the arrival of FRUNZE 28.2.42 on the back.
Fig. 8 shows a cachet in the pre-war style, which was utilised by the Black Sea Fleet with the text "Post
Office / Box N- 147 / 131 / town of Sevastopol' / five-pointed star / HK / BM~Q / CCCP" (reference 4, Fig. 1).
Fi. 9 features a postcard (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), upon which there is the Naval Mail despatch
postmark "MOPCKA IIOTA J2 1101 1.6.42 (KBE)" and a triangular cachet in violet with the text "Post
Office / Box XN 11 / Leningrad / HKBMD". The card was addressed to Novosibirsk, with the arrival marking dated
13.6.42. An inconsistent censorship marking JMN 86 of the type shown in Fig. 10a, was also applied. The censorship
marking was composed of the following features: coat of arms; text in two lines, reading "EXAMINED / By the
Military Censorship"; also a supplementary characteristic in the form of numbers in fractional form and with the
numerator showing figuress, letters) or the name of the inhabited point.. The triangular cachet has a characteristic
text, but may be distinguished from the others by the number "11", instead of "300" or even greater.
Fig. 10 shows a "triangular" letter, sent from Leningrad. There is on it the Naval Mail despatch postmark
"MOPCKAAI IIO1TA NJ 1101 / 26.7.42", as well as a triangular cachet in violet with the text : "Post Office / Box
Ne 12 / city of Leningrad I five-pointed star / HKBMD." The letter was addressed to the Aleshinka Station,
arriving on 8.8.42. The inconsistent censorship marking bears the number "83" (Fig. 10a).
The triangular cachet in Fig. 10 is very similar to the one shown in Fig. 9 but may be distinguished by the
P.O. Box number and some elements of the text.
Fig. 11 shows a "triangular" letter (I. Bryun, Russia), bearing the despatch postmark "Lenkoran Az. SSR /
22.8.42"and a triangular cachet in violet, reading "Post Office / Box ?- 5 / town of Lenkoran / HKBMM'T The
address of the sender reads: "Az. SSR, Lenkoran, P.O. Box 5, Letter "P". Judging from the address, it may be
assumed that the sender was serving in one of the units of the Caspian Naval Flotilla. The letter was addressed to
Egor'evsk, Moscow province, arriving on 15.9.42. The letter also bears an inconsistent censorship marking with the
text "Baku/43" in fractional form.
Fig. 12 features a postcard with the despatch postmark of Leningrad 26 / 10.5.45 and a triangular cachet in
violet, reading: "Post / Office 115 / Leningrad / HKBMO". The town of Leningrad-115 is specified in the address
of the sender and thus corresponds with the number stated in the triangular cachet. The card was addressed to
Moscow, where it arrived on 15.5.45. The inconsistent censorship marking bears the number 22917 (Fig. 12a). It is
evident from this card that the utilisation of the triangular cachets of post-free transmission continued literally until
the last days of the war. It seems apparent that in the initial period of the war, when the Soviet Navy units often
changed their locations as a result of withdrawals or fighting activities, the triangular cachets of the pre-war type
would have been reengraved, or exchanged for new versions. Data regarding the name of the town where the post
office box was assigned, as well as its number, were taken out of the inscriptions. It was obviously suggested that
such data be entered on the cachet at each new location of Soviet Navy units, but this requirement was not carried out
in practice. Moreover, a very rare occasion is known, where a triangular cachet of the pre-war type was still being
applied unchanged even after the beginning of the war.
Fig. 13 shows a cover (L Bryun Collection, Russia), on the front of which there is the despatch postmark of
June 2005

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-c~. C .aeA'aS:C~.:; ofa.1(
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Fig. 15.

Fig. 12.

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June 2005

Fit. 16.

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BMIFC 74 1135

Fig. 19a.

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IC 0

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June 2005

Fig. 17.

GA.,/ /
,, y^A^t^a ad ,

e.ak Aged r /A n ^

Fig. 21.

"Kardla Eesti 25.VI.41" and a triangular cachet in violet, reading "Post Office / Box I/J 289 / BM4Q ". This very
same cachet was described by the authors in reference [3, Fig. 40], but in that case the cover had gone through the
post in May 1941.
The address of the sender is specified in Fig. 13 as "North-Western Front / ESSR, island of Dago / post
office Kyardla N2 289/4". That corresponded with the contents of the despatch postmark and (almost) of the
triangular cachet. We see from the cover in Fig. 13 and that in reference [3, Fig. 401 that the addresses of receipt are
identical, but in the address of the sender only the designation of the front had been added, as the war had started.
Fig. 14 shows a cover, sent from the Northern Front and addressed to "Kronshtadt, P.O. Box 460". There is
on the front a triangular cachet in violet, reading: "Military unit / P.O. Box J- 17 / H.K.B.M.4. / FOR /
PACKETS". There is on the back the arrival marking of Kronshtadt 10.7.41 and the address of the sender was given
as: "Northern Fleet, Naval Postal Station JN 1141, Communications Battalion" (the BMIIC X2 1141 was located in
Murmansk during that period and served the Northern Fleet).
Fi. 15 features a cover (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), with the despatch postmark on the front reading
"MOPCKAH IIOHTA NJ- 1001, 11.2.42", together with a strike in violet of a triangular cachet inscribed "Post
Office / Box M 1001 /HKO". The address of the sender is given as "Naval Postal Station 1001, P.O.B. 314" That
corresponds with the contents of the despatch postmark and (almost) with that of the triangular cachet.. It should be
noted that the abbreviation "HKO" (People's Commissariat of Defence) and "M- 1001" are present in the text of the
triangular cachet, although they basically contradict each other. The letter was addressed to the Omsk province, with
the arrival postmark reading "Obatskoe, Omsk prov., 1.3.42".
Fig. 16 shows a postcard (I. Bryun Collection, Russia) with the despatch postmark reading "MOPCKAI
IIO'TA J' 1101 / 11.6.42 (KBI' = Red Banner Baltic Fleet)", as well as a triangular cachet in violet inscribed:
"Post Office / Box J~ 311 / five-pointed star / H,K.B.M..L1 If we compare this cachet with the one demonstrated
in Fig. 2. we can notice the differences between them, namely in the numbers and the absence in the text of the
location (town of Leningrad). It would seem that the cachet in Fig. 16 was in the pre-war style and had been
reengraved to take out the term "town of Leningrad". The address of the sender was given as "KB( BMhIC-1101
n/s 311"; that corresponds with the contents of the despatch postmark and that of the triangular cachet. The card was
addressed to Kirov and the arrival marking is dated 27.6.42. Below it there is also an inconsistent censorship marking
with the number "57", being of the same type as the one shown in Fig. Ia.
Fig. 17 features a cover with the despatch postmark reading "MOPCKAAI IIOITA J~X 1115 / 11.10.41"
(this Naval Postal Station was located in that period in Novaya Ladoga and served the Ladoga Flotilla), as well as a
strike in black of a triangular cachet with the text: "Post Office Box JN ..../ H.K.B.M.A." As can be seen, the
number was not inserted in the cachet. The letter was addressed to Leningrad, where it arrived on 17.10.41.
Fig. 18 demonstrates a "triangular" letter, which was sent from P.O. Box 92 in Makhach-Kala (Dagestan)
4.5.42 and addressed to Leningrad. There is on the letter a triangular cachet in blue with the inscription "Post Office
Box IN / HK / BM4 ". The cachet is similar to the one given in Fig. 17 but it has the initials "HKBM4>" in two
lines. The letter was not delivered in Leningrad, for the reason stated in the notation: "The addressee went away /
5.VI. (signature)". The address in Leningrad was crossed out, so as to be returned on 8.6.42. it arrived in Makhach-
Kala on 18.6.42.
Fig. 19 has a cover from reference [6], on the front of which there is the despatch postmark, reading
"MOPCKAAI InO'TA JN 1135 / 28.8.41" (Naval Postal Station M 1135 was apparently located in Kerch' during
that period), as well as a triangular cachet in violet with the text "IIOtTOBb 1I SHIHK / B.M.." The address of
the sender was specified as "Black Sea Fleet, Naval Postal Station 1135, P.O. Box 5". That coincided with the
inscription on the despatch postmark. The letter was addressed to Moscow, being backstamped on arrival on 5.9.41.
There is also on the back an interesting censorship marking of the Soviet Navy in triangular form with the
inscription: "IlEH30P / XJ 1 / BMIIC MN 1135"; see also Fig. 19a, as well as an inconsistent censorship cachet in
violet with 8 wavy lines, as demonstrated in Fig. 19b. It is numbered 150, being the personal number of the censor.
As was noted above and shown in Figs. 4 & 5 as examples of comparison, the system for addressing mail
was changed at the beginning of the war. Under the new system, only the Naval Post Office or Naval Postal Station
numbers were specified in the address, as well as the name of the Fleet and not the town or post office box number.
Such relevant changes were also inserted in the inscriptions on the triangular cachets, which were being prepared in
that period.
As an example, we see in Fig. 20 the front of a cover (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), which bears the despatch
postmark "MOPCKA5 I IOqTA X$2 1108 / 9.9.41" and a triangular cachet in violet with the text: "Red Banner
Baltic Fleet / Naval Postal Station 1108". The inscription on that cachet almost completely repeats the return address
of the sender. The letter was addressed to Blagoveshchenskii Zavod in Bashkiria, but there is no arrival marking..
The inconsistent censorship marking of Leningrad is on the back. See also Fig. 4a.
June 2005


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Fig. 22.

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June 2005


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A postcard is featured in Fi. 21 (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), bearing a despatch postmark, reading
"MOPCKASI HnOTA NM 1101 / 5.8.42", together with a triangular cachet in violet inscribed "1101 Naval Post
Office ", p.o.b. 321 / KBI / HKBM'b". The inscription on the cachet almost completely repeats the address of the
sender and it also includes a mistake: 2M 1101 was a Naval Postal Station and not a Naval Post Office. The card was
sent to the Rimert' Station in the Molotov province and there is no arrival postmark. There is on the card an
inconsistent censorship marking with number "87", in the same type as the one given in Fig. 10a.
Fig. 22 shows the front of a cover, bearing a despatch marking reading: "MOPCKASI IIO1TA J_ 1118 /
2.9.42", together with a triangular cachet in violet inscribed : "Pacific Ocean Fleet / BMIIC 1118 p.o.b. 57-3 / HK
BMO CCCP / For / letters" (Naval Postal Station was apparently located at that time on Russkii Island). The text
on the cachet completely repeats the return address of the sender. The letter was addressed to Gor'kii, where it was
backstamped on 18.9.42. There is also on the back an inconsistent censorship naval marking M 1118 /6 (which will
be dealt with in detail in a special section). See also Fig. 22a.
Fig. 23 features the front of a cover (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), bearing a despatch marking reading: Baku
8.12.41, together with a triangular cachet in violet inscribed "Naval Postal / Station 1154, p.o.b. 2N_ 76 / HK BMI"
(Naval Postal Station XN 1154 was presumably situated in Baku at that time and served the Caspian Flotilla). There is
no arrival postmark, but there is a censorship marking in a rare type on the back of the cover.
There was in the initial period of the war a widespread distribution of triangular cachets, with the inscription
Such a text on the cachet ensured the maintenance of secrecy, as it did not divulge the actual location of a Soviet
Navy unit.
Especial interest is designated by the cover shown in Fig. 24 which bears a despatch postmark, reading
VENTSPILS LATVIJA 22.6.41, as well as a triangular cachet inscribed "Red Fleet [letter] / Free of charge / Post
Office / Box / 378". That text almost completely repeats the return address of the sender. The letter was addressed to
the post office at Kharlu in the Sortavala district of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, where it was backstamped on 27.6.41.
The uniqueness of this cover may be deduced from the fact that it was sent on the first day of the war (22.6.41) from
Ventspils, which was not far from the border. It follows from the investigations of M. Kabanov [reference 4, section
6] that the highest level of rarity (RRR) should be ascribed to such an item.
Fig. 25 demonstrates the front of a cover, which bears a despatch mark of Leningrad 3.8.41 and a triangular
cachet in violet, reading: "Red Fleet / letter / Free of charge /P.O. / 316". The letter was addressed to Moscow,
where it was backstamped on 21.8.41.There is also on the back the impression in black of a rare and inconsistent
machine censorship marking of Leningrad. See also Fig. 25a
Fig. 26 has a postcard (I. Bryun Collection, Russia) with the despatch marking of Leningrad 28.9.41 and a
triangular cachet in violet reading "Red Fleet / LETTER / FREE OF CHARGE /*f From the Naval Border
School of the NKVD". The card went through the post within Leningrad.
Fig. 27 shows a triangular cachet with the inscription reading "RED FLEET / LETTER / FREE OF
CHARGE / five-pointed star / HK / BMO / CCCP" [reference 4, Fig. 11.
Fig. 28 demonstrates a "triangular" letter bearing the despatch postmark of the Molotov provincial capital
and a triangular cachet in violet with the text: "Red Army / letter / FREE OF CHARGE / B.M.4." Although
characteristic for Red Army units in the inscription, the initials "B.M.A." indicated that Military Unit 34087 was in
fact assigned to the Soviet Navy. The letter was addressed to Volkhov and backstamped "VOLKHOVSTROI
LENINGRADSKOI / 21.2.43.". The letter also bears an inconsistent censorship marking with the text: "Molotov
prov. cap. / XN 33".
Fig. 29 features the front of a cover with the despatch marking reading: "IIOJIEBAAI IIOHTA M 85 /
26.8.41", as well as a triangular cachet in violet with the text: "Red Fleet / letter / Free of charge / HKO". The
letter was addressed to Moscow and backstamped there on 18.9.41, together with a Leningrad inconsistent censorship
marking see also Fig. 4. It should be noted that the inscription in the triangular cachet includes both the words for
"Red Fleet" and the initials "HKO" = People's Commissariat of Defence, which in fact contradicted each other. By
the way, the letter in Fig. 29 can be compared with the one in Fig. 25. Both letters were sent to the same address by
one and the same sender within a three-week period. However, the triangular cachets on them already differed in the
contents of the texts. The earlier item (Fig.25) is inscribed "P.O. / 316" and the later example: "HKO", with all the
remaining elements in the cachets left unchanged. Was a reengraving possibly carried out? The triangular cachets
were not prepared at a central point, as the inscriptions on them often differed from each other. It is known that, in
one of the Soviet Navy units, there was even a change to a different text.
As an example, we see in Fig. 30 a postcard [reference 7, Lot 2M 517] with the despatch postmark reading
"MOPCKASI nIOTA M- 1111 / 21.11.41" (Naval Postal Station JM 1111 was apparently located during that
period in the Ust'-Izhory district of Leningrad province), together with a triangular cachet violet inscribed "Military)
Free of charge / HKBM4) / five-pointed star".
June 2005

-n o qTO BMAR V ~P TO') 0

MI E V 1 r1.1,1, C

Fig. 26.

-% 'C..,.-5

.- /' O(.~


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h s pocMorpciTo BoeCIroh

Fig. 30a.

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44 ) .-*~* ~- .

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Fig. 29.


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June 2005

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Fig. 31.

Fig. 34.

BaoHHOit LtA Q3ypoi

Fig. 33a.

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Fig. 33.

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Fig. 32.
:.-':-::"~ r.O s 22 '

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r :r .. c ......
/.%t l, n f- i .'i. 'r :; .... t- '
!' ". :i:- :--, "rw u- rr-
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.. .l,. .,,l _, f ,l r ..., 4 .$ .
lc a,~
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^ ?-- .. . --- -- -- ----*: ,
--:--^^ /

June 2005

Fig. 35.


I ------

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: "~`"`"

In contrast to the examples set out above, the text of the return address on the card is given as "n(ojeBaa)
noqTa [= field post]" instead of "KB(I". The card was addressed to Leningrad, arriving on 24.11.41. A weak
impression may be seen in the upper left comer of an inconsistent censorship mark with wavy lines; see also Fi 30a
We note in Fig. 31 a postcard [reference 7, Lot JN2 524] of mail between the same addressees as in Fig. 30
There is on it a despatch postmark reading "MOPCKASI InOqTA No 1111 / 25.12.41", Le. the card was sent on a
month and 4 days after the one shown in Fi. 30 However, there is on Fig. 31 a completely different triangular
cachet in violet, inscribed "SAILOR'S / LETTER / FREE OF CHARGE I anchor". The card was sent to
Leningrad, arriving on 29.12.41 and features an inconsistent censorship marking with seven wavy lines (Fi. 30a).
By way of an example, a postcard (I. Bryun Collection, Russia) is demonstrated in Fig. 32 with the arrival
marking reading "MOPCKAI rIOqTA X2 1001 / 12.8.41", as well as a rectangular cachet in violet, inscribed:
"3a cqer HKBM(?)O" ["To the account of the People's Commissariat of the Navy (?)"]. The cachet is not only in
non-standard form (rectangular instead of triangular), but also has another debatable inscription "To the account of
the HKBM4", instead of"BECIIATHO" (= Free of charge). The phrase "To the account" may be understood as
implying that the People's Commissariat of the Navy would pay for the transmission of the card In practice, the
transmission free of charge was carried out on the basis of a legally accepted right for such a sending. The card was
addressed to Leningrad, where it arrived on 14.8.41; it also bears an inconsistent censorship marking with 7 wavy
lines (see Fig. 30a).
A "triangular" letter is demonstrated in Fig. 33 with the despatch marking of Ivanovo 22.7.42 and a
rectangular cachet in violet, reading "3a cqer HKBM4" (the same as the one described in Fig. 32). The letter was
addressed to Postal Station 634 without an arrival marking, but there is also an inconsistent censorship mark with the
number "1/92" (Fg.33a).
In comparing the postcard in Fig. 32 and the "triangular" letter in Fig. 33 the following points should be
borne in mind. The card went through the post in 1941 and the "triangular" letter in 1942. Moreover, they were sent
to different places, but both of them were struck with one and the same cachet inscribed "3a ceer HKBMI'", from
which two inferences may be made:-
1. This was a uniform cachet, which was utilised by several units of the Soviet Navy, initially in the pre-war period
and continuing after the war began.
2. This cachet had been assigned to one of the Soviet Navy units (for example, an educational institute), which was
originally located in Kronshtadt (let us recollect "MOPCKAI IIOqTA J2 1001") and later transferred to Ivanovo.
The present authors support the second possibility.
Fig. 34 shows a postcard sent from Tbilisi. There is a circular cachet in blue on the front with the inscription
"Navl Preparatory School named after Admiral Nakhimov / FOR / PACKETS". The same marking is on the
back of the card with an Odessa 20.10.44 arrival. There is a uniform censorship marking with a five-figure number
"00742", in the same type as shown in Fig. 12a.
Fig. 35 features a "triangular" letter (I. Druzhinin Collection, Russia) with the despatch marking of
"Lenkoran Az. SSR 5.6.42" and a violet marking with one word "KPACHOOJIOTCKOE" (= Red Fleet [letter]).
The address of the sender is given as "Az. SSR, Lenkoran, p.o.b. 5, Letter P". Judging by that address, it may be
assumed that the sender was serving in one of the units of the Caspian Naval Flotilla. The letter was addressed to
Egor'evsk, Moscow province, arriving on 8.6.42. There is a uniform censorship marking on the letter with the text
"Baku/12". It is interesting to see that the letter in Fig. 11 was sent from the same address and to the same recipient,
but 2.5 months later, being already struck with a triangular cachet
Violet was the colour known to the authors as being used in the impressions of the cachets for post-free
transmission, with black or green as exceptions. The latter two colours may be assigned a grade of 4 or 5 in a scale of
up to 5 in rarity. In summing up what has been described above, it can be said that five types of cachets were
introduced for the post-free transmission of mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy, as follows:-
Tvne 1: Cachets which specified the town, number of the post office and also the abbreviation "HKBME>" For large
towns, the number of the p.o. box was added. We have designated such cachets as "pre-war types"; see Figs. 1-12.
Type 2: Cachets in which the name of the town was-absent and where the p.o. box number was to be specified. It
was apparently intended that such data would be inscribed in the cachets for every new location of the Soviet Navy
units, but that requirement was not fulfilled in practice; see Figs 13-19.
Type 3: Cachets in which the numbers were inserted of the Naval Post Offices and Naval Postal Stations, as well as
the name of the Fleet. At the same time, the names of the towns and the post office box numbers were mostly taken
out; see Figs. 20-23.
Fig. 4: Cachets of the type reading "KPACHONJIOTCKOE IIHCbMO BECUJIATHO"(Red Fleet Letter Free
of Charge) ; see Figs. 25-31.
Fg. 5: Other cachets, which do not fall into the types 1 to 4 described above; see Figs. 32-35.
STHE POST-RIDER/MHK (to be continued)
66 TE JunPOST-RIDER 2056
June 2005

RIDER (IlMIlIHK), 2000, X- 47, p.p.76-86.
BIIn BoeHHo-foreBiMai nora RIDER (IMIUlHK), 2001, .N 48, p.p.18-45.
HKO HapoJmlfi Komrrccapnar OGopOHLr SOVIET NAVY (1918-1941). The POST-RIDER (AIMIHHK), 2002, Ne 50, p.p.16-35.
BMIIC BoeaHH-MopcKaM norOTBasR CTanaI No24, p.p.3-15.
n/a-- rnoroB 1ia mm 5. B.rIAHTIOXHH. rnO4TOBAI CBJ33b BEJIHKOfl OTEIECTBEHHOL. 0Qnarenma
KBQE -KpacHo3aaMemnHH BaMGiircKHilt ~OT (Poccmr, MocKBa), 1995, ?,4, p.p.18-19.
IIUI-1neHypnImtMTamr 6. H.Py3KXMHHH. nOJIEBAII IIOqITA. 55 Jer BenmxonB ro6eam. BcepoccHIicKa
HYIUll Heyi-m TupoBan-if sne~ypm l rraHl n qlujaTemnacrcqecKa BucrarKa. TKaraior. MocKBa. 26.5.- 25.6.2000r.
YLUUI-yawmlaxpoBaBmgi neuyparit mra~n 7. Nagl Auction N 18, Bamberg, 11 October 2003.

S(a) The "Hryvni" ovpt on 10K Feldpost. 4". Stanvslaviv issue
There are only 2 copies known of this "YKp.H.Pen." ovpt; one
used and the other originally mint with gum and they are therefore
.ii among the Crown Jewels of Ukrainian philately. The second copy
i was in the Marquis of Bute collection and, during the Nazi Aerial
SBlitz against England in 1940-1941, his residence was bombed
and the mint stamp lost its gum. It was Lot 28644 in the 63".
-- Hobbyphilatelie Sale of 25.1.2005, with an estimate of 110,000
Euros (USD 143,000.00), but it did not sell. By the way, the value
Should have been printed as "10 rprmem". Expertised by Alberto
Bolaffi and Ing. Z. Mikulski, this unique unused piece is shown
here so that we all know what it looks like.

-^ / (b) Germanica: Postmark of New Bavaria/Neues Bayern
SAccording to the "List of Post Offices in the Russian
S`. Empire" by V. Kiryushkin & P.E. Robinson, this postal
,,,. and telegraphic office was originally opened as Grigorovka
/, ,..., V. in Khar'kov province in March 1913, being renamed as
/," 'I 6-'f / 'Novaya Bavariya (New Bavaria) in August that year and it
../ .'~ ."'^... ^ is probably scarce. Many thanks in advance to the two
; ., ..-.-.-i i authors for that information. The card shown here with
/,Easter greetings is dated 5.4.14 and note the characteristic
i "fretwork" above and below the date-bridge. That also
.... ', ... ./ occurs on other postmarks referring to Khar'kov and it
S- would seem that all such markings were made/authorized
y../- /...',, / by the Khar'kov Postal District.

(c) A label featuring Ataman Grigorii Mikhailovich Semenov, advised by G.G. Werbizky.
A patriotic label from Kharbin was shown in "The Post-Rider" No. 55, p. 120. Labels from that
Occ part of the world must be rare. Kharbin was a Russian center of the Chinese Eastern Railway Line
C9 and had a significant White Russian population. That enclave of Russians lasted until the Soviet
S occupation of Manchuria at the end of World War II. Subsequent to the Soviet withdrawal, many
Uj u of the White Russians fled to Shanghai and a small number of those refugees was eventually
resettled in the USA. There is hardly a trace today of the former Russian presence in Kharbin.
SThe Russian Civil War of 1917-1921 was waged not only in European Russia, but also in the Far
0 East, where one of the anti-Red military leaders was Ataman Grigorii Mikhailovich Semenov. He
was a fierce and brutal commander and, after the defeat of his forces, he fled to Manchuria,
residing not far from Kharbin. He was arrested by Soviet Special Forces in 1945, tried in Moscow
ib 0 Cand executed in the notorious Lubyanka prison on 30 August 1946. The vignette shown here was
probably printed in the 1920s. The swastika shown thereon was an ornament as, in spite of his
many sins, he was not a Fascist. I suspect that this vignette is rare, as I doubt that many were
printed and that even less survived.

June 2005

Listing of Russian Initials:


by Dr. Ivo J. Steijn.
Many years ago I ran into the postcard in Figs. la & lb and decided that I was witness to an impressive
demonstration of Soviet versatility. It may look like a postcard, but it is actually a money order for 50
roubles/karbovantsi, sent from Cherukhi, Poltava province on 14 June 1940 to Ordzhonikidze, Stalin province
(destination underlined), with the amount paid out on 20t. June. The card subsequently went through the offices in
Stalino 26h. June and back to Poltava province on 27th. June, presumably for accounting purposes. The post office
had apparently run out of money-order forms and used a postcard instead. We find all the bits and pieces we
normally find on a money order of this period, except for franking.
Lightning struck twice a few years later. Figs. 2a & 2b show a "Form 119" (confirmation of receipt card) used as
a parcel address card! This time from Inkerman, Crimean ASSR on 19 March 1941 to Bol'shaya Verbika in
Voronezh province 23.3.41, with the destination underlined. Again, the franking was not on this improvised form,
but it looks like the rate was 9 roubles (see at bottom left front, where the weight was also specified: 7.7 kilos).
A slightly less weird usage of the same item of postal stationery is shown in Figs. 3a & 3b: the same "Form
119" used as an ordinary postcard in Moscow 27.1.44 and addressed to Ivanovo 31.1.44. Of course, this is probably
just a private citizen getting creative and not a postal clerk. The message is dated 26h. January.
Finally, Figs. 4a & 4b show another postcard, this time used as a parcel address form from Krivoi Rog
25.7.40 to Karpilovka, Cherigov province (destination underlined). Again, no franking, although there are stamps
totalling 50 kopeks on the back, cancelled on 1.8.40 in Karpilovka. The addressee received the package on 71.
August. Storage charges?, home delivery charge?
It seems that, during 1940-1944, some Soviet post offices were very creative in the use of postal stationery.
Was the supply of money-order forms and parcel address cards interrupted?
Editorial Comment: The USSR was always a Spartan society and it is probably accurate to say that, if one did not
improvise, one could not survive. That same principle was applied against the Nazi invaders in 1941-1945, with
predictable results.
All the illustrations have been reduced to 60%.

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June 2005
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June 2005

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The rarest pre-stamp marking of Carpatho-Ukraine.

Reduced to 60%.

This is a negative marking, originally intended to be applied on wax as a seal by the Imperial Austrian Postal
Administration. It was in use in Unghvar / YxropoA as a postmark in red only during 1814 and, in the two examples so far seen
by your editor, it was struck towards the upper left on the address side of the letter entire. The handwriting sometimes obscures
the impression of this marking, so it is also shown in enlarged detail here; note the joining of the last two letters "A".
The example featured here was an official post-free letter, weighing one Austrian lot and indicated in red at bottom
centre as "1 L". It was sent from Unghvar / Ungvhr/Yzropoa on 24 July 1814 and addressed in Latin: "To the Venerable Swiss
Contingent assigned to the Supervisory Transylvanian Consistory with fraternal love, in Claudinapolis"; thus also a very
interesting "Helvetica" item.
Claudinapolis (Latin) was Klausenburg (Austrian / German), Kolozsvir (Hungarian) and now Cluj-Napoca (Romanian),
an important town in Transylvania. *
June 2005

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by Alexander EpStein.
Some time ago, there was a discussion about the so-called Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail in "The Post-Rider"
(J2. 36, pp. 15-19; J&.37, pp.65-74). The present article deals with one more aspect of this interesting topic, which I
would call the pre-Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail. One should not accept this term in a general sense. It concerns only the
exchange of mail between Russia and Germany (as well as some territories of the former Russian Empire occupied
by Germany and probably also by Austria-Hungary), that took place even before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was
signed. Indeed, paragraph 4 of the armistice signed on 4/17 December 1917 provided for the resumption of mail
between Russia and the Central Powers. That period lasted until 19 February 1918, when Germany started its
ultimate offensive in the East, after the peace negotiations had been broken off at Brest-Litovsk. The details for the
mail exchange were fixed in a special agreement with Germany. For example, only ordinary postcards were accepted
for delivery (although letters presented in an open state were probably admissible as well). Such an agreement was
probably concluded also with Austria-Hungary; at least such an example was shown by G.G. Werbizky regarding the
same discussion (see "The Post-Rider" X 37, p. 65). Another possible item, as well as a few examples of mail to
Germany and to the occupied territories, are shown hereunder.
Fig. 1: A so-called "Kerenskii" PS card, issued in October 1917 and with additional franking by a 3-kopek Imperial
Arms stamp, i.e. to total 8 kopeks in accordance with the foreign postcard rate then in force and mailed on 21
December 1917 / 3 January 1918 from Petrograd to Kovntal, Wiirttemberg, Germany. The sender informed his son
that he was already in Petrograd for 6 days and that he would soon be leaving for Sweden. Although the message was
written in German, a Russian-like style of writing the letter "k" gives rise to the idea that the sender was a German,
who had been living in Russia for a long time, had probably been interned during the war and was now availing
himself of the chance under the armistice of returning to his native country. There is no arrival postmark, but that was
a common practice, since the German postal regulations did not provide for backstamping ordinary mail. The
postcard was censored at Petrograd.
Fig. 2: A double "Kerenskii" PS card 5k. + 5k. remaining intact, with both halves additionally franked with two 3-k.
stamps (i.e. overfranked by 3 kopeks) and cancelled with a military cachet reading "JS'BHCTBYIOIILA APMII "
(i.e. Army in the Field). The card was addressed to the Riga Orphans' Court by a woman at the Commercial School
in Smilten, Livland province (now Smiltene in Latvia) and sent via the so-called Peace Section J& 2 ofIskolastrel (a
Russian abbreviation for the Executive Committee of the Lettish Rifle Regiments controlled by the Bolsheviks),
located at the "LUbeck" outpost along the Riga-Valk highway. Apparently, all the mail from this area in Latvia near
the front currently under the Soviets and sent to the territory occupied by the German forces, had to be directed in a
such a way, rather than handled by the State post offices. There is no datestamp and the message is dated 24 January /
6 February. There is also a handstamp in German, reading: "ZUGELASSEN" = "Permitted" on the address side of
the despatch half, probably applied by some local censor at a German military unit. However, the sender did not get
an answer (at least on the reply half), for the simple reason of the resumption of military hostilities.
Fig. 3: A 4-kopek Imperial PS card of the 1919 issue, with the additional franking of a pair of 3-kopek Imperial
Arms stamps (overfranked by 2 kopeks), mailed on 3 February 1918 (according to the date on the postmark) from
Uzlyany, Minsk province to the Ptock province of the former Russian Poland under German occupation. The
message is written in Polish. Although the card was sent also from near the front-line area, it was handled
nevertheless at a State post office. It should be noted also that the Gregorian calendar was introduced in Russia as of
the beginning of February, so this month actually started there as of the 14h. day. That was not yet known at the post
office at Uzlyany, which did not adjust the canceller in good time. This postcard was actually handled on 16h.
February. As noted above, the absence of an arrival postmark does not necessarily mean that the postcard was not
delivered to the addressee. However, as there were only 3 days left before the end of the armistice, it is not clear
whether the card was handed over to the German side prior to 19th. February, or if it were taken later by Germans
directly from the post office, after they had occupied Uzlyany in the same month.
Fig. 4: This cover probably represents an example of the pre-Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail to Austria, although any
definite information in this regard is still missing. It is an ordinary letter addressed to Vienna in a pre-printed
envelope of G. Kelekian, the Armenian owner of a haberdashery shop at Harsova in the Dobrodgea area of Romania.
However, the letter was sent by Mr. Kelekian from Odessa (his address threat is given on the back of the cover), to
where he had probably fled with the retreating Russian troops. The cover was franked at 20 kopeks, which
corresponded to the ordinary foreign letter rate in effect in Russia from 1 September 1917 to 9 March 1918.
Unfortunately, the date in the Odessa postmark is barely legible; it looks like 10 March 1918, while the advancing
German troops entered Odessa on 13th. March. There is no arrival postmark, but postal regulations similar to those in
Germany were also in effect in Austria in this respect. The letter was definitely delivered by the post, as it was

June 2005

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June 2005


censored in Vienna. However, that could have happened much later, after postal communications between the
Ukraine and Austria-Hungary had been restored in the summer of 1918.
Finally, there is one more item that does not fall formally under the definition given above, but which raises some
Fig. 5: A 3-kopek Imperial PS card of the 1909 issue, franked additionally with two 1-kopek Imperial Arms stamps,
handled at the Line-of-Communications Field Postal & Telegraphic Branch X_ 213 on 10 May 1917 and addressed to
Debica, Austrian Western Galicia (now in Poland). The message was written in Ukrainian.
It was in the period after the February Revolution, with the Provisional Government continuing the war. Ahead were
the Russian offensive in June and the German/Austrian counter-offensive in July, that led to the withdrawal of the
Russians from almost all the parts of Galicia occupied earlier in the course of the offensive by Brusilov in 1916. In
1917, the Russians still held a vast territory in Eastern Galicia, with numerous Russian field post establishments
functioning there. At the very least, some of them were handling also the mail of local inhabitants.
However, although for some time in the Winter and Spring of 1914-1915 DIbica had been under Russian occupation
it was then recaptured and held again by the Austrians for two years. The sender could not have been ignorant of that
fact, but he nevertheless did write and post this card and the Russian Line-of-Communications Field Postal &
Telegraphic Branch JM 213, situated at that time somewhere in Galicia, seemingly accepted it. The question arises as
to whether there could have existed any postal exchange over the front lines in Galicia It is true that there is no
arrival postmark, but it was not required, as said above. Also, the franking also give rise to questions: why 5 kopeks,
if the rate then in force was 3 kopeks for domestic postcards and 4 kopeks for foreign. A mystery!

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by Alexander Epstein.
yCollectors of the postal history of the Revolution and
... .,.:.. Civil War period in Russia are interested first of all in
OTHM GTPbi 'b, U "tLSTALE covers, the franking of which includes stamps issued by
1J.O different, mostly short-lived national or army
^- governments overprintedd Imperial stamps as well as
dJ L- tV441 original issues), which arose from the ruins of the Empire.
S-However, they pay less attention to items franked with
e1(I )$titC2b(>" ordinary unoverprinted Imperial stamps, which were still
widely used in vast territories of the former Imperial
,< \ Russia. Incidentally, such very humble entire may also
S' be of great interest to a serious collector.
3-I A picture postcard used locally in Kishinev is shown here.
SThe message consists of name-day congratulations from a
Reduced to 60%. former pupil to his teacher. The card is franked with an
imperforate 5-kopek Imperial Arms definitive. Although the canceller strikes are rather unclear, one can nevertheless
read the date 21.5.18 in the despatch postmarks, one of which cancels the stamp, as well as the date 23.5.18.on the
arrival marking (two days later within the same not so large town!). There is also a postage due marking of the old
type without a town-name indication (that type was replaced everywhere in the early 1900s with a new type with the
town-name), with the figure "10" written in. Such mute markings are found used at some localities in or near the area
of military activities in 1916-1917 (and Kishinev was one of them).
June 2005

Let us remind ourselves briefly of the historical facts. Up to 1918, Kishinev was the capital of the Bessarabia
province, a part of Russia. The rise in national consciousness after the February Revolution did not ignore
Bessarabia. In April 1917, a National Moldavian Committee demanded autonomy, land reform and the use of the
Romanian language. However, it was only after the Bolshevik coup in Petrograd on 25/26 October O.S. (7/8
November N.S.) and under the influence of events in the neighboring Ukraine that there was created in Kishinev on
21 November/4 December a national body named Sfatul Tdrei, i.e. Council of the Country, which proclaimed on
2/15 December the Moldavian People's Republic, while still maintaining a federative connection with Russia. At the
height of the struggle between the local Bolsheviks, assisted by those from Odessa and who together took power for a
short time in Kishinev, Romanian troops subsequently invaded Bessarabia (Ukrainian forces also intervened) and this
Moldavian People's Republic renounced all ties with Soviet Russia and formally proclaimed its independence on 18
February 1918, remaining occupied by Romanian forces. On 27h. March, the Council of the Country, taking into
account the economic impossibility of isolation and, seeing no other alternative, voted for a conditional union with
Romania, whereby the Moldavian People's Republic remained an autonomous part of the latter. After the defeat of
the Central Powers, that autonomous status was ablolished on 9". December, Sfatul Ttrei was dissolved and
Bessarabia became part of Romania until July 1940.
Very little is known about the postal affairs during the administration of the Moldavian People's Republic.
As is evident from this postcard, the former Russian postal/telegraphic office was still functioning in Kishinev in the
last ten days of May, using Russian stamps, date cancellers, etc. However, it is not quite clear what postal rates were
in force during that period.. Having in mind that the figure "10" represents double the deficiency at the correct rate,
the franking should be 10 kopeks. There are two possible versions: either the tariffs of Russia of 15 August 1917, or
those of the Ukrainian People's Republic introduced on 14 January 1918, if the latter were adopted earlier by the
administration of the Kishinev Postal/Telegraphic District. The answer depends on the class of mail considered for
this postcard.
The first (Russian rates) are applicable if the postcard was regarded as a greeting postcard; according to the
regulations then in force, such postcards were to be franked as for ordinary letters, the rate being 10 kopeks.
However, if it was regarded as an ordinary postcard, the corresponding Ukrainian rate of 10 kopeks applies.
Unfortunately, this item does not produce a single answer to the problem of postal rates.
TIMES OF DESPATCH 1876-1900 by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
(The numbering for Fig. 15 is now revised from 'The Post-Rider" N 55, pp.106-107).

Fig. 15A: Despatch from Krasnoe Selo, 15.6.1879 Fis. 15B: Arrival at St. Petersburg ,16.6.1879.
-t l .;i V

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S : Actual size.

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to 55% ...
Fig. 15a: Despatch from Krasnoe Selo, 2.7.1877. Fig. 15B: Arrival in St. Petersburg, 2.7.1877.

44, ; Actual size.

to 55%. i.l.i:;
Fig. 15a: Despatch from Krasnoe Selo, 2.7.1877. Fig. 15b: Arrival in St. Petersburg, 2.7.1877.
June 2005

by Salvador Bofarull.
(Reprinted and translated from the original Spanish text by kind permission of the author and Sr. Carlos Echenagusfa, the Editor-
in-Chief of the magazine "Revista de Filatelia" of Madrid, Spain).
In the surprise attack by Nazi Germany against the USSR on 21 June 1941, the aggressors hoped to gain a
quick victory in the Blitzkrieg style of a lightning war, while occupying in a short time the principal industrial and
urban centres and thus annihilating the Soviet military potential. After spectacular advances in the first few weeks
and the heroic defence of Leningrad and Moscow, as well as of sectors of the front, it became evident that this was
going to be a long war. The USSR transferred its military industries to beyond the Urals and asked for armaments
and supplies from its allies, Great Britain and the United States. In order to facilitate the required aid, a conference
was set up in Moscow from 29 September to 10 October 1941 between representatives of the USSR, Great Britain
and the United States, in which it was agreed that maritime convoys should be formed for the transportation of
supplies to the Soviet ports.
The only maritime routes to the USSR still open at the end of 1941 were those of the Arctic, the Far East via
the Pacific Ocean (1) and that of the Persian Gulf via Iran (2). As it turned out, the route which conveyed the greatest
volume of traffic was that of the Arctic, towards the Soviet ports of Murmansk on the Barents Sea and Arkhangel'sk
on the White Sea. Although it was the shortest route (3), it also presented great dangers. German cruisers and
submarines sheltered in the Norwegian fjords, as well as the Luftwaffe airfields. The Finnish port of Petsamo
(Pechenga) was very close to Murmansk and also served as a base for enemy ships and aircraft, while the Soviet
Arctic Fleet was noticeably inferior numerically and technically. The long Arctic summer days were an adverse
factor, which increased the vulnerability of the convoys but, on the other hand, the long winter nights offered relative
protection. As a contrast, the advance of the ice-floe zone in the winter required that the route go more to the south
and thus close to the German bases, thus increasing the vulnerability of the convoys.
The convoys originally consisted of 6 to 10 freighters and, as of March 1942 from 25 to 40 ships on
occasion. Their speed varied from 8 to 10 knots per hour. The summer route started from Scapa Flow in the South
Orkney Islands or at Loch Ewe in Scotland, going via Reykjavik in Iceland (4) and the Jan Mayen and Oso Islands,
up to the Barents Sea for Murmansk and Arkhangel'sk (5). The winter route was shorter to avoid the ice floes and
located further from the enemy air bases. Even after arriving at the ports, the convoys continued to sustain violent
attacks by the German Air Force. In spite of being in the actual Arctic zone, the port of Murmansk was ice-free all
the year round, owing to a branch of the Gulf Stream, although huge icebergs impeded approaching it It was
necessary to use icebreakers, especially in the cases where, to avoid the German threat, it was obligatory to skirt
Novaya Zemlya in the Kara Sea.
The allied convoys proceeded under the protection of a naval escort in parallel formation, which was
composed of torpedo boats, corvettes, frigates, minesweepers and submarine chasers. The protection was sometimes
divided into two parts, one with a cruiser close to the convoy and the other further away as an operative cover
consisting of cruisers, battleships and, on occasion, aircraft carriers. As the convoy neared its destination, Soviet
naval units set out to meet it in order to reinforce its protection.
During the first winter, the convoys were protected by the long Polar night and did not suffer serious losses,
but with the summer the situation got worse and an average of 10% was lost of their units. Churchill became
pessimistic about the viability of these operations. The first convoy PQ-0 with 7 ships weighed anchor at a British
port in August 1941 and took 40 days to reach Murmansk. The first big convoy, the PQ-16 with 35 freighters,
suffered intense German bombings for six days, soon after leaving Iceland. In spite of the weak protection (6), these
attacks resulted in only 7 ships being sunk with a loss of 150 men, although Churchill had predicted the loss of half
of the convoy (7). At the end of June 1942, the strong protection (8) was withdrawn, which had been assigned to the
PQ-17 convoy consisting of 35 freighters, when the British Admiralty had the impression that the German battleship
Tirpitz was being sent to intercept it. Of the 34 units in the convoy, 24 were sunk (9) by the attacks of the German
torpedo boats, submarines and aircraft. The few ships that could escape were escorted by Soviet units up to
Arkhangel'sk (10). In a letter of 23 July to Churchill, Stalin strongly reproached the British Admiralty for having
abandoned the convoy to its fate by withdrawing the protection when it was most needed. This serious setback
resulted in the interruption of despatching the convoys until September of the same year, when a convoy left Iceland
with 40 freighters and 31 ships as an escort. A total of 15 ships was lost, which led to the interruption in forming the
convoys, being renewed only in the periods of winter darkness. In 1942, the German High Command organised
"Operation Wunderland", which was intended to cut once and for all the passage of the allied convoys in the Arctic.
As of the month of January 1943, the Germans assigned new naval units to the zone, as well as the 5t. Air Fleet of
the Luftwaffe and mined extensive areas of the White Sea, but they did not achieve their objectives.
During the course of the battle, 40 convoys with a total of 725 freighters and 4 million tons of cargo arrived
at Murmansk and Arkhangel'sk,. The enemy sank 18 warships and 87 freighters, 11 of them being Soviet vessels.
June 2005

More than 3000 British crew members were killed and American, British, Canadian, Norwegian ships participated, as
well as of other nationalities. On the Soviet side, a great deal of coordination and protection was extended by Rear-
Admiral I.D. Papanin, Director of the Northern Sea Route (11). On the German side, there was active participation by
the heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer and the twin battleships Tirpitz and Scharnhorst (12), while the most important
bases were located in the Norwegian fjords ofAlten-fjord, Narvik, Varanger-fjord and Vest-fjord.
The surviving mail sent by the members of the crews participating in the convoys is actually very scarce. At
an international exhibition which took place in Spain, a Spanish exhibiter showed one of these pieces that he proudly
claimed to be a unique item. The present author has interviewed with distinct success some veterans of the convoys
or their descendents and Lieutenant Anthony J. Clarke of the Royal Navy furnished him with extensive information
about the mail, which he sent to his family and fiancee in Oxford. He had participated as a Leading Seaman in the
escort of a convoy aboard the HMS Jason and wrote several post-free letters during the voyage to Murmansk and
Arkhangel'sk, which went through the British Naval Postal Service to England aboard British destroyers in the
escort, among them being HMS Onslaught, Iriquois, Huron and Musketeer. He let the present author have two of
these letters and they are reproduced in this article. One of them bears a printed designation reading Royal Navy,
together with instructions for its use as a post-free military item. On the other letter, he had written at top "On Active
Service", which gave him the right of free postage, while at bottom the letter bears a censorship marking in violet,
reading: FROM HM SHIP PASSED BY CENSOR together with the date 21.10.44. Both items bear a machine
marking in red, reading POST OFFICE MARITIME MAIL. There is no marking that would have indicated the
route, but the sender furnished an explanatory note in that regard. A cover or postcard appears from time to time in
international auctions, which has been sent by members of these convoys or by their escorts. The present author was
able to obtain a Soviet postcard franked with Soviet stamps and sent in 1944 from Murmansk to the USA by a
Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy with Soviet and American censorship markings; it is reproduced herein. The author has
also obtained a card from a Soviet submarine operating from Murmansk, which is shown herewith. Moreover,
Fieldpost mail from Soviet land and naval units located at the Arctic ports of Murmansk, Polyarnyi and Arkhangel'sk
should exist and an intensive search in Canada and the United States should yield satisfactory results.
(1) The Pacific Route went from the West Coast ports of the USA to the Soviet ones of Vladivostok, Nikolaevsk-na-
Amure and Petropavlovsk Kamchatskii, the voyage lasting from 18 to 20 days and to which had to be added the long
overland route to the battlefront. In the beginning, that traffic represented about half of the volume of the sending to
the USSR, but after the entry of Japan in the War, it was practically closed.
(2) The voyage of a convoy from New York, via the Cape of Good Hope to the Persian Gulf ports took 75 days and
was thus of little practical value.
(3) The route of 1800 to 2000 miles took from 10 to 14 days.
(4) Convoys left Canada from the Atlantic port of Halifax, so as to proceed to Iceland and from there on to the Soviet
Arctic ports.
(5) On arriving at the latitude of Teriberki, the convoys split, with one part going to Murmansk and the other to
(6) Two submarines and some destroyers and corvettes. The two escorting cruisers turned tail when the first attack by
the Luftwaffe took place.
(7) Letters to Stalin, quoted by Alexander Werth in his book "Russia at War 1941-1945", Avon Books, 1965.
(8) The escort consisted of 6 torpedo boats, 2 ships with anti-aircraft capability, 4 corvettes, 2 submarines, 7
minesweepers, 2 British cruisers, 2 cruisers and 3 torpedo boats of the U.S. Navy. Also, to the west of the convoy,
the British battleship Duke of York and the U.S. battleship Washington, one aircraft carrier and 14 torpedo boats,
which offered additional protection.
(9) There were sunk with them 430 tanks, two cargoes of trucks and jeeps and 100,000 tons of various types of cargo.
(10) Several ships took refuge to the north of Novaya Zemlya, where they remained trapped in the ice.
(11) I.D. Papanin, twice awarded the Order of Hero of the Soviet Union, is well known to philatelists. In 1938, the
USSR issued a set in honour of the Polar Mission which he directed in 1937 and in which he appears on two of the
values, together with the other members of the group (Yvert 649-650; Scott 645-646; SG 789-790; Michel 616-617).
(12) Each of them had a displacement of 35,000 tons. The Scharnhorst was sunk on 26 December 1943 while trying
to attack a convoy and it was intercepted by the battleship Duke of York and the cruiser Jamaica, both of the Royal
Navy. The battleship Tirpitz was sunk in November 1944 with a crew of 1200 men, after having been attacked with
special bombs. Bibliography
Kouznetsov, Nikolai, La Marine Sovidtique en Guerre (1941-1945).
Amborski, Leonard E., The Last Voyage: Maritime Heroes of World War Editions du Progrbs Mosci, 1979. Capitulo Aux latitudes polaires, pp
Two. Orlando. Florida, EE.UU., 2001 293 ss.
Artier, La Bataille des Convois. Ruegg, ,B. & Hague, A., Convoys to Russia: Allied Convoys and Naval
Campbell, Jan Vice Admiral, Royal Navy & Macintyre, D., The Kola Surface Operations in Arctic Waters 19941-1945. Kendal. UK, 1992.
Run. Londres, 1958 Shofield, B. B., The Russian Convoys. Londres, 1964.
Churchill, Winston, Memorias. Werth, Alexander, Rusia en la Guerra, 1941-1945, Tomo 1, pp. 441 ss.
Kemp, Paul, Convoy, Drama in Arctic Waters. Londres, 1993. Werth, Alexander, The year of Stalingrad, Londres, 1946.
June 2005 75

Summer route. --- Winter route gtH& Map by the author.

The German warship Tirpitz was
overtaken and sunk by Allied fire,
while trying to attack a convoy. These
are the last moments of this colossus of
the sea.


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These are two covers sent by Leading Seaman Anthony
J. Clarke to Oxford in the UK during the run of a convoy
along the Arctic route to the USSR, both with a
mechanical marking in red, reading "POST OFFICE /
The upper cover has the imprint "ROYAL NAVY" and a
V series of instructions for the user.. It is sealed at left with
a tape by Censor 2855.
The lower cover is endorsed "On Active Service" at
"_- upper left and has a naval censorship marking below.
The certificate already referred to states: "This cover was
rom an escort ship sent by me in 1943 whilst on duty on HMS Jason...mail
was shipped by the destroyers Onslaught, Iriquois and
Huron on October 1". to 5t. 1943".

u3 Z -3342 h

A postmark of Postmark of
Murmansk with Severomorsk,
S inscrption "USSR, Murmansk prov.
f Q TA Murmansk Office 'b 3.3.42.
P c ofCommunications,
S 'k' 26.3.45.

I.D. Papanin, the Soviet
SDirector of the Northern
Sea route, shown in the
Front row centre with his
companions on a Soviet
-.&...-,t stamp of 1938.
June 2005



A postcard showing a Soviet submarine of the Arctic
Fleet, sent through the Soviet Field Post Service in July
1942 by a Russian sailor at the base in Murmansk.
(Collection of the author).

Set .-,

This is a certificate supplied by a British Leading
Seaman Anthony J. Clarke, who participated in an Allied
convoy and referring to his correspondence during the
run from Scapa Flow, Scotland to Soviet Arctic ports in
1943 (Collection of the author).

Here we have a cover from Murmansk to the USA, sent

BoeHnoI UpHsypoA

15 gS

Soviet military censorship markings applied at
Murmansk with the codes "BII/15" and "Censor J4 5 /

similar to the previous item. He writes: ear Mother -
^- ^ ^ ,. ..... .
e rs nO4TOBAR KAPT0hK sas a dr

This is a Soviet postcard sent from Murmansk to the
USA by a member of the US Naval Armed Guard and
similar to the previous item. He writes: "Dear Mother,
We are still here in Murmansk... There is also a drink
called vodka, but it is vile-tasting stuff". It is postmarked
4.4.44 and bears a circular Soviet Military Censor X2 2
/M-k marking (A. Cronin Collection).


1^f -; 7i:.'~' -, A_^S'';?/g1JEr- ig yC_ 36

^ .-: &J^^ V */::

\ r 1' -; ; ;

by an American member or a convoy crew witn a A Soviet postcard sent from Murmansk on 5 May 1944
franking of 80 kopeks in Soviet stamps. It could have to the USA by a Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy, who was a
been from a member of the U.S. Navy, or from a crew convoy member. Franked at 50 kopeks in Soviet postage.
member of a civilian freighter, or a usage of the Soviet It bears a Murmansk postmark and circular American
postal service instead of the U.S. Military Post (A. censorship markings in red-violet, also that of the Soviet
Cronin Collection). Censor M- 4 / M-k in black (Personal collection).

Cinematography: English and Soviet documentaries exist, among the latter being "The 69t. Parallel" (about
Murmansk). Videocasettes of WWII include a section dedicated to "The Battle of the Convoys".
Editorial Comment: We can see from the markings shown above that at least 5 Soviet censors were active in
Murmansk.. Note also that "M-K"was Murmansk, while "MK" was applied in Minsk, the capital of Belorussia.
June 2005

Pl~e:l.' -~~
*f:S~e3 .*;~ 5

May. 1922. Third (Famine Relief) Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan.
3 kop. surcharge by rubber handstamps (two types) in black ink


,- .


i- ffiU j I \

A copy of 500 Rouble bearing 3 kop. Type 1 on a Registered local letter sent and received in Alexandrr:,o) Wn
30.05.1922 used to cover the Famine Relief tax at 1 k. rate, and 2 kop. as an Ordinary local letter postage The -:
Registry is charged by the Second Issue 4k./25 R. .S.. The earliest postal use on entire of Famine Relief Issue.

Eight copies of 500 Rouble with 3 k. Type 2 on a Registered overweight intercity letter from Kamar!u. 9 C f ^
to Envan.13.12 1922. The franking with the Famine Relief Issue stamps only to cover the total 24 io. ')r
(4 knp as a Registry fee. 12 kop. for the overweight Ordinary mail. and the Famine Relief tax at S k-.o; -'

June 2005

3 3

May, 1922. Third (Famine Relief) Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

4 kop. surcharges by rubber handstamps (two types) in black ink

Type 2
light-creme paper

Type 2

The earliest recorded
postally used
Famine Relief stamp
24.05.1922 .Y!

Type 2.
applied diagonally
light-creme paper

A copy of 1000 R. bearing 4 k.Type 1 to cover a Famine Relief tax on a Registered intercity letter from Delizhan 22.12 22
to Envan, 25.12.1922 franked mixed with two copies of the Second Issue 4kop. / 25 R. to make up the total correct 12 kop. rate

June 2005

Type 1
white paper

Type 1
Type 1

May, 1922. Third (Famine Relief) Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the Second Essayan set
5 kop. surcharges by a rubber handstamps (Type 1, 2) in black ink


A strip of three of 2000 R. in Slate-Green on white paper bearing 5 kop. Type 2
The variety of the 39-th stamp on the left vertical pane (.49i )

Type 1

Type 2

Four copies of 2000 Rouble bearing 5 kop.Type 1 to cover a 20 kop. Famine Relief tax used on the reverse side of
an overweight Registered foreign overseas letter from Erivan, 24.07.1922 to Boston, 29.08.1922 in Massachusetts. USA.
franked mixed with ten copies of the Second Issue 4 kop. / 25 R. to make up the total correct 60 Gold kopeck total rate

June 2005


May, 1922. Third Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the Second Essayan set

10 kop., 15 kop., 20 kop. surcharges by rubber handstamps.

--".". .- ". . ; '. ^ .. .~ .~

.. .^._ t -. .:

... ,1 -

1- r

A single 2000 Rouble bearing 10 kop. surcharge on a Registered foreign letter sent from a small village Archis,
located close to the Railway station Airoum, c.d.s. Barany 26.09.1922 (R) sent to Debretzen in Hungary, via Tiflis.
Underfranked at 14 kopeck deficiency the letter reached only Tiflis, having a transit datestamp mark 29.09.1922

15 kop
Bright Rose-Red on light-creme paper

15 kop
Deep Rose-Red on white paper

Non-philatelic double strike R
postally used in Alexandropol

20 kop. in black
Slate-Green on white paper

20 kop. in red, surcharged to order
Blackish-Green on white paper

June 2005

20 kop. in black
Blackish-Olive on light-creme paper

by 0. P. Sel'nikov.
(Numbering according to "Postage Stamps of Tuva" by V.N. Ustinovskii)

Conseo. V.N. Ust. Face 3 : No
Mo Value _-c____ Notes


Upper Pane; Fig. 1.
Lower Pane.

40 k.
25 k.
25 k.
25 k.
25 k.
25 k.
75 k.
75 k.
3 k.
3 k.
3 k.
3 k.
3 k.
5 k.
25 k.
2 t.
2 t.
3 t.
5 k.
35 k.
70 k.
70 k.
25 k.
25 k.
2 a.

10 '2:10 Y: 0: 10%
10 /: 10 V: 0: 10 %
0: 10 '/: 10 %: 10 %
10 : 10 '/: : 10 /2
10 /2: 10 '/: 0: 10 '/
10 %: 0: 10 %2
10 /2: : 10 /2: 10
10 ': 10 ': 10 i: O
10 /2:10 ': 10 ': O
10 V: 0: 10 Y : 10 %t
14: 14: 0 + 14: 14; O
14:0: 14
14:0; 14 + 14: 0: 14 +0: 14: 14
14:0: 14 +14:0:14
14:14: + 14:14:
14: 0; 14 + 14: 0: 14
0: 14:14
14:0: 14:14+14: 0:14: O
14:0:14:0+14:14:14: O
14:14: 14: O
14: 0:14:14 + 14: 0:14: O
14: 14: 0; 14
14: 14:14: O
0:14: 14 +0:14:14
0: 14: 14+0: 14: 14 +0: 14:14
14:14: + 14: 14: O
14: 0: 14
14: 14: 0 + 14: 14: O
0:13:14 +0:14:14
14: 14: 0 + 14: 14:
14: 0:14
14:14: + 14:14: O
0: 14:14
14: 0: 14
11: 11: 11:0
11: 11: 0:11
14: 14: 0: 14+14: 14: 0: 14
11:0: 11:11
14: 0: 14
14:14:0 + 14:14: O
11: 0: 11: 11 + 11: 11: 11:
14: 14: 0: 14

(*) : The stamps exist with rebounding (jumped) perforations, thus facilitating the forgery of missing perforations.
(* *): The source of information for these stamps with missing perforations did not furnish illustrations of the same and they are
therefore known only by description.
The author would welcome any additions to the above tabulation from CSRP readers.

June 2005

Upper pane
Lower Pane; Fig 2.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.
Strip of three; *

Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.

Fig. 108.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 12.
Pair perforations shifted to middle
Fig. 11.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.

Fig. 15. Pair.
Fig. 16. Strip of three.

Fig. 17. Pair.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 19. Pair.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 21.
Fig. 22.
Fig. 23. Pair.
* *
Fig. 24.
Fig. 25. Pair.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 27.
Fig. 28. Pair.
Fig. 29.



Fig. 2.

Fig. 8.

Fig. 11. Fig. 12.

Fig. 15.

rs ; y'r' "e;.

"7' .. -. .

*'4- t ''' --
; ~r.- *-- ,
*r r
Fig. 10-1. ^,

:.~, 3' r

S.1. Ir
r -
p; IC'""

Fig. 10.
..... .. ... ...

- '
- -

O f

a- -. -
i'.' t^-

0E 3
I... .'-' I&"

< -. i '

r _____._____ .

"- '*.. 4'a r --

\^ ^Z rb Fig. 17.
June 2005 83

Fig. 20.

Fig. 22.

Fig. 28.
June 2005

Fig. 25.


Fig, 29.

Fig. 24.

Gt __,~- 1

( r- ;.

-F .-:'

,f ; :r, .-


en C, 1 $(.. C



i ,

aBI-- I I

--------- -

i" I


Fig. 27.

by V.N. Ustinovskii, Richard Clever, N.J.D. Ames and A. Cronin.
(a) V.N. Ustinovskii, Moscow, Russia.
Further to the data from R. Clever and A. Cronin about the provisional surcharges of 1941, as noted in "The
Post-Rider" XN 54, p. 66, I can report the following examples from my collection, all applied in black-

.4 I- -

(iv (ivii)

(Yii} .( -i).

(i) 5 mu/Myv on 5 tug, with violet postmark of Baiantumin Han (?) and dated in May 1942
(ii) 10 mul/MV on 10 tug, with very clear surcharge "10" and red postmark (Ulan Bator?), used in November 1941.
(iii) 15 mul/Mh on 5 tug in light brown, with surcharge shifted to the top and violet rectangular cachet (Reg'n?).
(iv) 15 mu/Myn on 5 tug, in darker shade of brown & partial violet postmark reading ULAAN BAATOR (IGOR).
(v) 20 mu/MVH on 1 tug with clear upper part of surcharge "20" & violet postmark ULAAN .BAATOR (IGOR) [?,
(vi) 30 mu/MVH on 3 tug, vertical pair on piece with violet postmark ULAAN BAATOR (IGOR) 19.5.42,.
Leningrad arrival 23.6.42 and partial Leningrad censorship marking.
Editorial Comment: This is an astounding item, as it shows that the letter reached besieged Leningrad. Note
that the upper stamp is noticeably damaged at top, as are some of the others shown here.
(vii)30 mu/MyH on 3 tug in darker shade of violet and with partial violet postmark.

(b) Richard E. Clever, California, USA.
Referring again to my copy of the 15 mu/MyH on 5 tug K'e- -
(see P-R No 54, p. 66), it just does not seem correct for I l
some reason, particularly upon magnification. 1'
On another point, airmail service was offered in *'-' '-
Mongolia as of 1929, with a two-line unframed cachet in M JI'
blue-violet applied in Russian to read: BO3AJYMIHASI __
IIOttTA. It measures 36 x 5 mm. and is shown here on
a registered cover with 80 mung postage, sent by N.
Lushnikov at Ulan Bator 11.1.30 to M.I. Ignatovich in .
Kharbin. Chinese postage due stamps are on the back. L A
Editorial Comment: Another CSRP reader has doubts
about that specific surcharge, but we need to see more .
examples of these provisionals before passing judgement-.-
The sender of the registered airmail cover, N. Lushnikov, ..
is also noteworthy, as we shall see below.

June 2005

(c) Norman J.D. Ames, Swindon, England.
The "POSTAGE" overprints on Mongolian fiscal stamps are a highly
Contentious issue and several forgeries exist, including some affixed to mail
-, going abroad, so help is needed to classify the material that I have accumulated.
It has been pointed out to me that the 2-cent value I show here bears a forged
"' "POSTAGE" overprint, applied by a postal official in Ulan Bator,
Lushnikoff/Lushnikov by name, who then postmarked his work with the ULAN
Sf:1 BATOR MONGOLIA c.ds. backdated to 1.V.26. He appears to have been the
S same person as the sender of the registered airmail cover to Kharbin held by
Richard Clever and featured on the previous page.
(d) Andrew Cronin, Ontario, Canada.
It seems necessary that we should appeal to the members to send in photocopies of their "POSTAGE"
overprints, in mint and dated copies, taking into account the following points:-
(1) There was only one handstamp and it deteriorated steadily during application. The initial state of the rectangular
frame had sharp 90-degree covers; see the block of four hereunder of the 10-cent value applied at Ulan Bator to the
back of a cover on 29.V.26.
(2) The handstamp was made of rubber, so if an indentation is visible on the backs of mint stamps, then the overprint
must be a typographic forgery.
(3) We have several facets to consider, namely: mint and used genuine overprints; forged overprints on genuine
fiscal affixed to mail going abroad from Ulan Bator by postal officials Shtabinsky and LushnikofflLuzhnikov; mint
copies of their forgeries on subsequent printings of the basic fiscal stamps (differing in shades of colour and grades of
paper) and, finally, outright forgeries of the basic revenue stamps with forged POSTAGE overprints and applications
of bogus bilingual c.d.s. markings.
The files of your editor contain two illustrations of the Lushnikoff overprint (see below) on the 2-cent value
with backdate 11.V.26 and from the 4th. printing in brownish-orange, which took place during September/October
1926. This forgery has a slightly shortened foot to the "P" of "POSTAGE".
All in all, we have quite ajob ahead of us!

'; We have here at left two
Copies of the Lushnikoff
POSTAGE forged overparint,
'., 4 backdated to 1 I.V.26.



.: ; .... .. / A J a~

Block of four of the 10-cent value, .- '
showing the first state of the ---' i-
"POSTAGE" handstamp on 29.V.26. fi: i
14 -aN.. i- 0-4y 1. & ..

Finally, here is another registered letter from J.
Lushnikoff in Ulan Bator 14.1.28 with mixed -
cents/mung franking and overpaid by oneP..- .'-'
cent/mung, which went via New York 15.2.28 W' "t1
and San Jose 1.3.28 to Costa Rica of all places!

June 2005



by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
For collectors who are enthusiastic about the postal history of the Travelling Posts, great satisfaction may be
derived by the discovery of sending with transit postmarks of several postal wagons (PW), as well as of interesting
routings which also went along various railway lines. As a rule, such letters serve to improve the collection of such
material, as they are encountered quite rarely.
Unique letters, which are also key items of Russian postal history are demonstrated in the present article with
seven (!), six (!), five (!) and 4 (!) datestamps of postal wagons. These letters have been taken from the exhibit of the
author, which was awarded a Large Gold medal in April 2005 at the "PACIFIC EXPLORER 2005 WORLD STAMP
EXPO" International Philatelic Exhibition in Sydney, Australia.

I. Abroad letter sent on 1882 from Leipzig to Tiflis showing SEVEN (!!!) transit PW
postmarks covered the distance of about 4000 km.

1882 abroad letter (address side-fig. 1A, reverse side-fig. 1B) sent from Leipzig (15.07 N.S.),
Germany to Tiflis (12.07 O.S.), Caucasus showing seven PW postmarks described in Table I:
Table 1
0 Distance
PW mark Fig mark, Usage period PW route Date Railway covered by
mm the letter
O KN 26 (6) 1.1 26 1879-1885 04.07 Warsaw-Vienna 300 km
0 NX 29 (3) 1.2 25,5 EJuly 1882-Oct.1882 <> 05.07 Warsaw-Terespol 210 km
O NX 42 (9) 1.3 24 1882 <> 05.07 Moscow-Brest 820 km
o No 62 (3) 1.4 26 41882-1887 <
* NK 13 (1) 1.5 26 1882-1887 07.07 Ryazan-Ural & 270 km
O N2 51 (5) 1.6 26 1882 08.07 South-Eastern 650 km
S 65() 1.7 26 1882 Rostov n/D-
o 2 65 (?) 1.7 26 1882 09.07 Vladikavkaz 700 kan
-8 ~ Vladikavkaz__

M1.LsUp l. V('LKEr(K.UNDLZ LmPr i

."I ,,.

S ..
:, //
/^ .-^i'T^ iy /
-'^ L^'


"a I

;12 'A:

S, .'. .,^ -


Fig.1.1 Fig.1.2 Fig.1.3 Fig.1.4 Fig.1.5 Fig.1.6 Fig.1.7
The routing of this unique letter is shown in the diagram in Fig. 1C.
June 2005



Abroad letter showing seven (!) transit PWpostmarks covered the distance ofabout 4000 km

Badr. o RUSSIA
{ 0 --- --- vy
01 0 .
Leipig ----e e 0-~--

1 t i enLio sIadef'2 .,) -,Kecp,
41..> ,"

s Lettr sre on'e 188 fo Raz Sa t o'.a Rdala sh ngs I b shota i

Size Distance
postmarks covered the distance of about 2800 kc

PW mark Fig. mark, Usage PW route Date Railway covered
period Pby the
O PW 20 (5) 2.1 025 1881-1892 Rostovon/D-Kharkov 23.06 Kharkov- 150 k

t PW 2 18(5) 2.2 025 1885 Kiev-Kursk 24.06 Kiev- 170 km2
PW m7(2) Dvinsk- 260k
RPWers 7 (2) 2.3 0 26 1881-1885d Riga-Vitebsk 25.06 Vitebsk 260 km
Reverse route PW route Date Railbsay

Postal section of 30 Verzhbolovo SPB -
the wagon 4(1)St.lersburg Warsawett

0 PW 2 39 (2) 2.5 025,5 1880-1888 St.-Petersburg Revel 27.06 Baltic 240 km

o PW X 90 (1) 2.6 0 25 1880-1896 Taps-Riga 28.06 Baltic 36 km

June 2005


.7 .

:P 1
i'" 5~
27 rC
I. n

,, _______.._________________-.________- _

Fig.2A Fig.2B
The routing of this unique letter is shown in the diagram in Fig. 2C.

Letter showing six (!) transit PWpostmarks covered the distance of about 2800 km

Rvel Tps St-Petersburg
/---- Gatchina
Baltic \0 1
Sea Ralkke


Fig. 2B





9 Lozaveys


Sea Fig. 2C

II. Letters showing FIVE (!) transit Russian PW postmarks

3.1. Letter from Switzerland to Voronezhskaya gub. via FIVE (!) Russian PWs /1 /
1873 abroad letter (address side-fig.3.1A, reverse side-fig.3.1B) bearing Switzerland 50c tied by
Flunter c.d.s. (18.10 N.S.) to Peski post station, Novokhopersk uezd, Voronezh gub. showing on
address side OPLACHENO in circle and boxed PD marks. Arrival two-line pre-adhesive type
postmark "PESKI POCHT. ST./16 octob. 1873", service inscriptions by pencil "40" in blue and big
"7" in red are at left bottom address side. Letter sent via Zurich (18.10 N.S.), Podvolochisk (21.10
N.S.), Poland showing five transit PW postmarks on reverse side peculiarities of which are presented
in the Table 3.1:

June 2005

Dvinsk -

:~ ~VS~I


,. / ,q~p
J ~s~s~r~

Table 3.1

0 PW J- 47-48 Q PW N 21-22 PW Ne_ 17-18 0 PW V 15-16 0 PW .n- 35-36
PW mark(4) (4) (4) (3)

Route Volochisk- Odessa-Kiev Kiev-Kursk Kharkov' Orel-Tsaritsin
Zhmerinka Moscow
No = Station name NX 9 = Serbinovtsi X2 9 = Kazatin N2 21 = Kiev N2 26 = Orel I N, 1 = Orel
Date (O.S.) 10 OCT.1873 10 OCT.1873 11 OCT.1873 12 OCT.1873 13 OCT.1873
Type PW mark II (<--) II (-f) (<--) II (t ) I (-+f)
Usage period 1872-1878 1872-1878 1872-1875 1873-1877 1 1873
Printing type serif serif serif serif serif
(* <- >>, < t >, > station number positions, ft o date position )

3.2. Abroad letter sent on 1875 from France to Caucasus via FIVE (!) Russian PWs
1875 abroad letter (address side-fig.3.2A, reverse side-fig.3.2B) from Bordeaux (06.09 N.S.),
France via Paris to Poti (07.09 O.S.), Georgia via Tiflis franked 4x25c. France canceled by dotted
mark "6307" showing five PW marks peculiarities of which are presented in the Table 3.2: Table 3.2
P PWV 51-52
pw OPW N 3-4 (1) PW J 7-8 (7) PW N 35-36(6) OPWX 13-14(1) 52
postmark________ (3)
Fig. 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5
VerMbolovo- Moscow -
Route Verzhboovo- Dinaburg Orel Orel Tsaritsin o Kozlov- Rostov
SPB Voronezh i
No= 243
Station o 43 = N 1 = Dinaburg XJ2 1 = Orel X 27 = Gryazi X 11 = Voronezh
Type PW ) I (--f) II (-f) (-) n (-t)
mark 1 P
Date 29 AUG.1875 30 AUG.1875 31 AUG.1875 1 SEP.1875 I 1 SEP.1875
Usage 1870-1876 1875-1880 18754 18756 1875

' ,. .,,.4
",. _j .''(* .,



June 2005

- ., 0;'x" ^-, ,= ":" .**-' : '-"' -

,. --

J9 ~: -

Fig. 3.2A

Fig. 3.2B

.., ~ u
': : ~$..: bkJ4
~.. *

I' i'


Postal wagon postmarks with double route number
Various positions ofstation number on the left ofdale Letter from France to Caucasus via five Russian PWs

SGERMANY o St.Pptersburg
"'--- Berlin '
Berlin Dinaburg
-... - Orel
Paris 01,
I ',.. "Verhbolovo
of /
Biscay/' 1 WITE N-
is den FRANCE 'sw
Bordeanx ITALY .

Fig. 3.2C C

Fig. 3,2A

Fig. 3.2.3

red nlddrLrs SidC


0 o Kozl
; 0



A Rostov
Sea \


Black '
Sea 4poti

Fig. 3.2C

Fig. 3.2.4

IV. Letters showing FOUR transit Russian PW postmarks
4. 1. Letter from Azov Sea port to Messina port of Sicily via FOUR Russian PWs
1874 abroad letter (Fig.4.1A) bearing 3+10 kop. from Taganrog (27.09 O.S.), Azov Sea port to
Messina, Italia (19.10 N.S.) showing OPLACHENO mark via Dinaburg railway station and four PW
marks peculiarities of which are presented in the Table 4.1:
Table 4.1

PW postmark O PW 2N. 19-20 (4) 0 PW 2N_ 7-8 (5) 0 PW X2 5-6 (3) 0 PW JN 25-26 (4)
Route Rostov n/D Kharkov Orel Dinaburg Vilna Warsaw Warsaw Granitsa
No = Station name NX 23 = Taganrog 31 = Orel XN 1 = Vilna NM 1 = Warsaw
Type PW mark II (+-) 1 (-+ll) 1I (-f) 1 (-~t)
Date 27 SEP.1874 29 SEP. 1874 1 OCT. 1874 2 OCT. 1874
Usage period 1872-1877 1869-1885 1872-1878 1872-1879

June 2005

iml L [ T -- ....

ce ddcs s,


Postal wagon postmarks with double route number
Various positions ofstation number on the left ofdate

Letter from Azov Sea port to Messina port of Sicily via four Russian PWs










B i; Sea .
Vina D;naburg 0
aranisa .......
Gra ita .........-"**..-.""-' Ore!

ir. -0
X % dL T,





4.2. Postage due postcard showing FOUR transit PW postmarks of the period II (cross-

1901 abroad underpaid postcard (Fig.4.2A) from Dresden (30.09 N.S.), Germany to Nemirov, Podolskaya
gub. (25.09 O.S.) charged postage due of 8 kop. with due mark < letter << >> by red pencil showing three marks < peculiarities of which are
presented in the Table 4.2:
Table 4.2
Distance covered
PW mark PW Route Usage period Date Railway by the letter

SDue mark of < PW NM 28 Warsaw>>

SPW 110(2) strovets- 901 23/IX vangorod- 110 km
SPW VN 110 (2) -Kolyushk1i> Dombrov
udnitsa- 50km
SPW 211nitsa- Sept.1901-1902 24/IX 50 kmn
PW) Olviopo Southern Narrow
SPW 182 (1) < 9I PW N 182(1) S1D901 25/IX 40 5
Zhitomin>> I 1

June 2005


PW postmarks of the period II Four transit PW postmarks
Sept. 1901-1902
\" ; "_. -' -, -._ PW K 211 (1)

PW N 110 (2)
.. ,.- PW. 110(2)
Fig. 4.2A 1901
/,--''"-,-191 ... .

S28 PW 28
*-- -( .- -" .- / ,. ]. 28P W 28
S" .- .., .. ../'. ', .- *
S- 1901
PW XJ 182 (1)

1901 abroad underpaid postcard from Dresden (30.09 N.S.), Germany to Nemirov, Podol. gub. (25.09 O.S.) charged
postage due of 8 kop. with due mark <-220 km route < Warsaw>, showing three c.d.s. PW N2 110 (2)>> (23/IX) 110 km route <>, PW .N 211 (1)
(24/IX) 50 km route ( and PW .N 182 (1) (25/IX) -140 km route <i
5. Estimation of the rarity and value of the letters with "multiwagon postal markings".
On the basis of an analysis of the material, above all in his collection and taking into account close to one
thousand letters with Travelling Post markings, as well as items in other collections and in the literature, the present
author has taken it upon himself to set out in Table 5 an exemplary estimation of the rarity and value of
"multiwagon" postal sending, set out under the category of Cn and taking into account letters with such "n"
markings. Table 5
Number of postmarks Quantity of
of Russian transit PWs Period known Estimation of Notes
on a postal sending examples value in USD

2 1860s- <1000 2(Ci+C2)
3 1900s <100 3(C1+C+C2 3)Rare
4 1874-1901 20-30 examples 5(+C2+C 3+C4) Very rare
5 1873-1880 <10 10(Ci+C2+C3+C4+C5) Rarity
6 1885 One only- >5 000 Unique
7 1882 One only >10 000 'Unique
8 or more Unknown
8 or more ito the author
1. There have now been described for the first time unique and outstanding letters of Russian postal history with
seven, six, five and four datestamps of postal wagons.
2. Of the six "multiwagon"sendings described here, five of them originated from abroad.
3. All the postmarks of the Russian transit postal wagons on letters known to the author with their large numbers
.(with five or more postmarks) belong to the first period with the date in three lines, including the earliest ones up
to 1880 (see the literature reference [1] below), which specify the numbers of the stations where the letters were
.accepted on the postal wagons.
4. An estimation has been given by the author for the first time of the rarity and value of "multiwagon" postal
l.V.G. Levandovskiy. Classification of the Russian First Period TPO postmark varieties (with the date in three lines),
JCRP JM 8, 2002.
Editorial Comment: Sincere congratulations are in order to Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy for his work in the fascinating
field of the Postal History of the Russian Travelling Post, especially because of the Large Gold medal he obtained for
his exhibit on the subject this past April at the "PACIFIC EXPLORER 2005" International Philatelic Exhibition in
Sydney, Australia. Mnoraa JIeTa !
June 2005

by Andrew Cronin.
The installation of an automobile industry constituted a prime objective of the First Five-Year Plan and the
preparations began on 2 May 1930, with the actual work starting on 1 January 1932. The first truck models to roll off
the assembly lines were the "TA3-AA" (heavy duty) and "TA3-A" (light duty). By the time of the Nazi attack on
22 June 1941, 18 models of cars and trucks had been produced, with the latter being the workhorse of the Soviet
Army. In the post-WWII period, the usage of plain but sturdy automobile products from Gor'kii became widespread
in the Socialist bloc in general and the logo: "TOPbKOBCKHH ABTO3ABOJ' was a familiar sight there.
It should be noted that, when the work started, the automobile factory was located in the well-known trading
town of Nizhnii-Novgorod. That town was renamed "Gor'kii" in 1932, presumably after the factory went into
operation and in honour of the well-known writer Maksim Gor'kii, who was the leading literary figure then in the
USSR; he died there on 18 June 1936. The industrial complexes at Gor'kii went on to become the main arsenal of the
Soviet Army; that is what the first three Five-Year Plans were all about.
Needless to say, the creation of such crucial industrial enterprises also had a significant impact on Soviet
postal history and we will also see that American engineers and specialists played the leading role in bringing the
automobile project into successful production. The Soviet authorities were deeply impressed by the outstanding
technical competence of the Americans, who were completely non-political, tough-minded and interested only in
getting the job done on time. Several of these specialists wrote books on their experiences and they make interesting
reading. There are several facets of this operation that bear .examination and they will now be treated chronologically.
(a) The "Fred Van Dyke" and related correspondence
Mr. Van Dyke was obviously an American engineer attached to this project in 1932 and he also brought
along his typewriter with an English keyboard and a fresh typewriter ribbon, as well as a supply of high-quality
American envelopes. In short, he was a well-organised person. He wrote to his wife and friends in Michigan and the
details of five of his sending and a related item are given hereunder.
N Sender Receiver Postmark Rate Notes
1. Fred Van Dyke Lemuel Severance ABTO3ABOl 3 A.C. 15 kop.
Niji(!) Novgorod Hastings, Michigan HHK. KPA SI11.4.32
2. Fred Van Dyke His wife in Detroit, ABTO3ABOJ 3 A.C. 15 kop.
___Michigan HI KPA5I 26.4.32
3. Fred Van Dyke His wife in Detroit ABTO3ABO 3 3 A.C. 95 kop. Note bilingual "Express", but no
_Michigan HHK. KPAAI 8.5.32 other such markings in Fig. L
4. Fred Van Dyke Lemuel Severance ABTO3ABOJ AF.CB. 15 kop. See Fi. 2
_Hastings, Michigar JM 1. 18.5.32
5. Fred Van Dyke Donald Severance ABTO3ABOl 3 A,C, 15 kop. Postal stationery envelope;see Fig3.
__Detroit, Michigan Hi K. KPAI 16.6.32
6. Harry Nurmiaho W.A. White ABTO3ABOJl 3 A,C, 45 kop. Note the two registration indicia
AmericanVillage 30 Engine Line, FOPb. KP. 21.11.34 and reference to Gor'kii district in
House 12, Gorky Lye, England the postmark: Fi-. 4.
Auto Zavod Received in Lye 27.11.34.
The postmark on covers 1 to 3 & 5 reads: "Automobile Factory, 3r. Postal Agency (3 AC.), Nizhnii-
Novgorod Region" (A.C. = AreHCTBo CBaaH). Note that Mr. Van Dyke consistently spelt his location as "Niji
Novgorod". His cover NM 4 provides the clue about "3 A.C.", as it is given as "AF. CB o- 1" (Postal Agency M 1).
(b) Launching Pads for the "Katyusha" Rocket System
The rockets were originally installed on fighter aircraft and were used with great success against the Japanese
Army at Khalkhin Gol, Mongolia, in 1939. They subsequently went into devastating action mounted on modified
"A3" trucks during the BOB/WWl on 14 July 1941 in the Orsha area of Belorussia, just three weeks after the Nazi
invasion had begun (see Fig. 5). That was the first inkling the General Staff of the Wehrmacht had that a fatal
mistake had been made in setting up the Eastern Front. By the end of 1944, a total of 10,000 improved batteries had
been placed on the trucks and 10 million rockets of various calibres had been launched.
(c) Supplying beleaguered Leningrad
The "FA3"trucks and their drivers rendered outstanding service in going over the frozen parts of Lake
Ladoga to bring food and aid to the besieged city. That initiative also included mail exchanges, which were delivered
by the trucks until the siege was lifted on 27 January 1944 and such items are of great historic interest On a final
note, we see one such truck on display in Fig. 6 to commemorate the 55". anniversary of breaking the blockade.
Final request: Details from CSRP readers about further mail from American engineers and specialists are welcome!
June 2005

June 2005

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
(a) A three-railwav postcard.
7 ... / .\ As everyone knows by now, I am totally batty
Si"icEIP O oIo3I.. Pocc12. about railway mail, so my excitement can be
\ *kRur. e imagined on acquiring this postcard, which
S/ Kpboe "." Carte Po e went on three railways!
S .- -- e -- I It is addressed to the Honourable Forester
,- -Aleksandr Ivanovich Kryukov in Minusinsk,
...... 7 '" 5:: i Enisei prov. and includes a birthday greeting.
2 --.7 ..F. It was sent from Arzamas, Nizhnii-Novgorod
-.. ~ Prov. on ll.VII. 1903. It travelled on the
L L postal van of Route 247 the next day, which
Sran then from Nizhnii-Novgorod to
Timiryazevo. There was a short local railway
---journey to Ruzaevka, where it was put on the
postal van of Route 215, receiving that postmark at Syzran' on 13 July. It travelled on to Ob', joining the eastbound
Trans-Siberian Railway van of Route 187 on 18 July. It had to wait at Krasnoyarsk for an up-stream steamer for the
250-mile/400-km.voyage to Minusinsk, arriving there on 25 July. Certainly a tribute to the Imperial Russian Postal
Service! [with thanks to Philip Robinson for help in working out the route].
ifc ^ a- A(b) Khar'kov Station oval postmarks.
f- / Khar'kov Railway Station had a post office that, until about
o cersel 1903, was run by the Railway Post Administration It was
then transferred to the State Postal Administration and
p,, *'-4',4 retained circular postmarks inscribed KHAR'KOV
,-J ., .VOKZAL, as it was a state post office at the station. It was
.,,,u ._ -/'. .... o "-. a busy office and over the succeeding years the postal
S^re' '- ...... ... cancellers included many of the sub-letters of the
B. alphabet.However, Khar'kov Station was issued in late
e/^'- yi ^.-...e_ h n.1916-1917 with at least three oval cancellers, but with the
sub-letters consistent with the descending order of the
'1 :? alphabet: Cyrillic letters "c" (= s), "x (=kh)and "f (=f).
\- I -,- Until recently, it was thought that these new oval types were
issued in 1917, with the earliest recorded in February in the last days of the Russian monarchy. However, I
show here a postcard of 28.12.16 with serial sub-letter "x" at right, so these were issued very late in 1916.
Did Khar'kov Station change its status and revert to the Railway Postal Administration, hence standard
railway-type oval postmarks? Or were they issued in error: a clerk would have phoned up the works and
said: "Khar'kov Station Officer here; we need 3 new cancellers, please" and thinking they were for a main-
line station, they made oval ones by mistake? On balance, opinion must veer towards the second
suggestion, that it was in error, but we cannot completely discount that there was a change in status. We
need to see a few more of the oval Khar'kov Vokzal postmarks and, if we can, establish earliest and latest
dates of use. Surely they continued through the revolutionary period of 1917; did they continue and are
there examples during the Ukrainian Republican period?
(c)Postage Due on TPO/RPO Route Moscow-33-Vologda
Here I show a nice postcard 24.8.17 to Tver'. By that time,
IIOI:-, I TOBA the postcard rate had risen from the Tsarist period at 3
SOCARTE .-. kopekss to the Kerenskii Republican period at 5 kopeks. The
.f / -, (;" *, r_ stamp is cancelled by the oval MOSKVA-33-VOLOGDA
Sand there is alongside a postage due cachet, but differing in
;.c- -2 7." "'/ ^ -T". its arrangement of words from the standard type.to read
S;.---."t.', -TAOIIJIATHTb/MOCKBA,33,BOJIOrOA and filled in
-- for 4 kopeks, double the missing postage.

I xopor 1868. r. (B r. "Vps ..nu ... .. h. .. '- .f
June 2005

by Alex. Sadovnikov.
Listed under B14-B17 in Scott, 165-168 in Michel and 230-233 in Stanley Gibbons, this set has several most
unusual features, as follows:-
(a) Each of these stamps had a postal franking value of 250 roubles, with the remaining 2000r. being a charity surtax
intended for famine victims.
(b) They were all printed together in the same corresponding colours on sheet margins of the four top values of the
then current RSFSR definitive and may thus be paired off in the following way:-
200r. brown Scott 182 + 2250r. brown Scott B 16 500r. blue Scott 185 + 2250r. blue Scott B 17
300r. green Scott 184 + 2250r. green Scott B 14 1000r. red Scott 186 + 2250r. red Scott B 15

Fig. 1.

It should naturally be noted that the paper varieties, which appeared originally on the basic definitive, are
also to be found on the stamps of the Volga Famine issue, the green and red stamps on pelure paper being the
scarcest examples for both the definitive and the stamps with surtax. See Fig. for an example of an unsevered
combination of the 1000r. + 2250r. stamps. Such items are extremely rare, as the panes of charity stamps were
separated from the RSFSR definitive before being issued to the post offices.
(c) The three large stamps with the river scene exist in two types, as shown in Eig.:-
TyeM: The house on the shoreline has an empty outline of the chimney and the dome is fully outlined.
Type II: The chimney is now filled in and the outline to the dome is missing at left.
(d) The River Scene stamps were printed in two horizontal blocks of four, with the two stamps in the upper row in
Type I and the two in the lower row in Type II. The gutter between the two blocks varies from 17 to 19 to 37 mm.,
implying that each block of four was added separately to the sheet margins of the definitive stamps (see Fig. 3. Note
the two different orientations of the triangular indicators between the two blocks of four which make up the pane.

Fig. 3. (reduced to 65%)

June 2005


. .. "- '
3~i rlcr~lmr l~d ~ ~ z

2250 R.
of 8
17 mm.
Triangle 97


~-.~---j I

Fig. 3.
Reduced to 65% and showing the orientation of the triangular indicators where present.


June 2005


2250 R.


of 8

37 mm.


I i
." 1

,- i:


2250 R.


of 8

17 mm.



2250 R.


of 8

17 mm.



2250 R.
B rovwn


of 8

19 mm.


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