Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Postal historians and...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - fourteenth...
 Registered & express mail sent...
 The utilisation of the "3" cachets...
 Address boards and the mail in...
 Registered and underpaid sendings...
 Careful: Forgery!
 The operations against the partisans...
 Ruben Ruiz Ibarruri: A Spaniard...
 New data about the postage stamps...
 Some data about the dotted numeral...
 Matters Mongolian (II)
 The Soviet express mail and sendings...
 Two unusual examples of conversion...
 The postal links between Romania...
 More about the Soviet posts in...
 The incorporation of Bessarabia...
 The third (famine relief) issue...
 The posts of the Volga Germans...
 Different orientations of the "carpet"...
 Some remarks and additions to the...
 A Russian viewcard of Port Arthur...
 Some items of Russian interest
 Another registered letter posted...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00054
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00054
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Postal historians and conventional historians
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - fourteenth instalment
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Registered & express mail sent by postal wagons in the Soviet period after 1917 (II)
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The utilisation of the "3" cachets on Russian postal wagons for registering letters at railway post offices
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Address boards and the mail in Russia
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Registered and underpaid sendings taken out of letter boxes on postal wagons
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Careful: Forgery!
        Page 46
    The operations against the partisans in Transnistria
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Ruben Ruiz Ibarruri: A Spaniard on a Soviet postal stationery cover
        Page 50
        Page 51
    New data about the postage stamps of Russia (Russian text)
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Some data about the dotted numeral postmarks assigned to the ROPiT agencies
        Page 65
    Matters Mongolian (II)
        Page 66
    The Soviet express mail and sendings of importance (II)
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Two unusual examples of conversion rates on express mail in December 1922
        Page 88
    The postal links between Romania and Russia 1918-1937
        Page 89
        Page 90
    More about the Soviet posts in the incorporated Romanian territories 1940-1941
        Page 91
    The incorporation of Bessarabia in the USSR 27-30 June 1940
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    The third (famine relief) issue in May 1922 of the Armenian SSR
        Page 95
        Page 96
    The posts of the Volga Germans (continuation)
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Different orientations of the "carpet" watermark on Tuvan stamps
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Some remarks and additions to the Tuvan book by V. N. Ustinovskii and to the article by Alan Leighton in "the post-rider" No. 50
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    A Russian viewcard of Port Arthur sent during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905
        Page 112
    Some items of Russian interest
        Page 112
    Another registered letter posted on a postal wagon
        Page 113
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text

Printed in Canada



P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/potridestrider/postder/
E-mail: postridersyvmpatico.ca
"THE POST-RIDER" J. 54. June 2004.
2 Editorial: Postal historians and conventional historians
2 Special Note: also at 3, 22, 43, 49, 91, 103, 111 & 119
3 Correspondence with Canada: A surface cover fromthe Ukraine to Winnipeg Rabbi L.L. Tann
4 Zemstvo varieties: Fourteenth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
6 Registered & Express Mail sent by postal wagons in the Soviet period after 1917 (II) Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
23 The utilisation of the "3" cachets on Russian postal wagons for registering letters Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
at railway post offices
26 Address Boards and the mail in Russia Meer Kossoy
44 Registered and underpaid sending taken out of letter boxes on postal wagons Meer Kossoy
46 Careful: Forgery! Vladimir Berdichevskiy
47 The operations against the partisans in Transnistria Dr. Dan-Simion Grecu
50 Ruben Ruiz Ibfrruri: a Spaniard on a Soviet postal stationery cover Salvador Bofarull
52 New data about the postage stamps of Russia (Russian text) L.G. Ratner
65 Some data about the dotted numeral postmarks assigned to the ROPiT agencies L.G. Ratner
66 Matters Mongolian (II) Richard Clever & Andrew Cronin
67 The Soviet Express Mail and Sendings of Importance: R. Taylor, Dr. G.A. Ackerman, Dr. I Steijn, N. Banfield &
Part II: A. Cronin
88 Two unusual examples of conversion rates on Express Mail in December 1922 Robert Taylor
89 The postal links between Romania and Russia 1918-1937 Ing. Cristian-Andrei Sciiceanu
91 More about the Soviet posts in the incorporated Romanian territories 1940-1941 V. Yu. Malov
92 The incorporation of Bessarabia in the USSR 27-30 June 1940 A. Cronin
95 The Third (Famine Relief) Issue in May 1922 of the Armenian SSR Dr. A.M. Sargsyan
97 The Posts of the Volga Germans (continuation) Meer Kossoy & Vladimir Berdichevskiy
104 Different Orientations of the "carpet" watermark on Tuvan stamps Jarl-Gunnar Salin & Alan Leighton
108 Some remarks and additions to the Tuvan book by V.N. Ustinovskii O.P. Sel'nikov
and to the article by Alan Leighton in "The Post-Rider" e_ 50
112 A Russian viewcard of Port Arthur sent during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 Colonel Asdriibal Prado
112 Some items of Russian interest A. Cronin
113 Another registered letter posted on a postal wagon Charles Leonard
114 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

O Copyright 2004. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily
those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its coordinators.


Over the years, your editor has read thousands of historical works pertaining to our areas and he has come to
the conclusion that we postal historians have much to offer to our conventional counterparts, based on the documents
and other materials present in our own collections. In short, it is high time that we should all get together at
conventions, specifically to exchange and compare information, so as to eliminate gaps, misconceptions and
That seems to be the main problem. Your editor started off with the assumption that conventional historians
would in general be objective in their approaches, but he soon found out that was not necessarily the case. The best
examples are to be found in the volume of historical works published on both sides of the ideological divide in the
twenty or so years since the end of the BOB/WWII in 1945. Many of those studies are so tainted with Cold War
propaganda, that they are useless as historical references. Some historians also tended to become emotionally
involved with their subjects and objectivity then went down the drain.
Things have improved since then, as formerly secret archives on both sides have become partially accessible.
In and of themselves, the data gleaned from the archives are not always the final words on a particular subject, as
documents deposited there were sometimes deliberately slanted by subordinates in order to please their superiors.
Also, the archives may sometimes be incomplete, have been tampered with, or the researchers are only interested in
finding material that confirms their previous interpretations, thus intentionally excluding any evidence to the
Even without access to the archives, we postal historians have still been able to ascertain as they happened
the activities of the Imperial and Soviet postal systems, the incidence of censorship/perlustration during both
administrations, the devastating effects of famines and other catastrophes, the military events and structures in both
periods, the onset of collectivisation and industrialisation, economic and political policies and many other facets that
are to be found in the Russian, Soviet and related areas. In a word, we could acquit ourselves honourably on many
fronts when meeting the conventional historians, as we are mainly interested in recording items, rather than refuting
or supporting any particular ideology.
Just one possible disadvantage now comes to mind. We could get the conventional historians so interested in
what we are doing, that they themselves will start collecting Russian, Soviet and related postal history material, thus
increasing the competition for such items. Oh dear!!
Investigating the 1923 Agricultural Issue Sc. 242-249
Produced in four values, imperf. and perf., the 2r., 5r. & 7r. stamps in
particular give the impression of having been lithographed in one operation
in shades of one colour each, i.e. 2r. deep & pale green, 5r. deep & pale
blue and 7r. rose & pink, perforated and imperforate.
However, examination of the 5r. imperf. here (155%) makes it clear that
the pale shade of blue acted as a background and was the first stage of the
printing process, with the word "PYBJIEII" outlined in white.
The dark colour was then added from a separate "frame" plate. Note in the
imperf. example here that the two operations were misaligned horizontally
by roughly I mm., through faulty emplacement of the frame plate. It seems C. e : x s
safe to assume that other faulty applications may have occurred: horizontal, i-- -. a -o r 2
vertical, or even inverted! Data on further varieties would be appreciated.

June 2004

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear Xerox copy of the
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

The Canadian prairies were the site of mass migration from other parts of the world as early as before WWI,
particularly from Eastern Europe and the former Russian Empire. A wide-ranging selection of mail was thus
generated between the "Old Country" and Canada, demonstrating migratory trends. The cover shown here was sent
from an area in the Ukraine, which was ethnically diverse, the 14-kopek Zamenhoff stamp for international surface
routing being cancelled by the bilingual Russo-Ukrainian postmark of Berdichev 26.6.28. The letter went through the
Kiev Railway Station post office the same day, on its way to Canada, That latter office may also have had a
monitoring function. *

The market value of the 10-kopek Spartakiada Sc. 564 with tilde "-" variety.
Referring back to "The Post-Rider" No. 53, p. 68, your editor noted that a recent
Cherrystone Auction estimate of US $150.00 for this item seemed fair, as it
appeared to be rare. Just how rare may be gauged from the subsequent realized price
of US S 750.00 (!). One may therefore suspect that this variety was noted early in
the printing and promptly corrected. That leads to another assumption: possible
evidence of a retouch to eliminate the flaw on the 11th. stamp on the sheet, which
would also be a very desirable piece. Added to that, Olympics enthusiasts now
regard Spartakiada material as part of their collecting interests, hence the high price
realized. Keep looking and examining, dear children, as you could be rewarded!

June 2004


by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. Where a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties do not
exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is shown here is what
I have in my collection.

Chuchin No. 5a:
Additional perfs
through middle
of the stamp.

Chuchin No. 22:
Additional perfs horizontally or

Chuchin No. 23:
Misperforated used stamp. As a rule,
Zemstvo postal clerks used up all
available stamps: misperforations,.
imperforates between, etc.

Chuchin No. 24:
through middle
of the stamp.

Chuchin No. 27:
At left imperforate vertically and at right additional perfs horizontally
and vertically.

Novava Ladoga, St. Petersbur province.

Chuchin No. 29:
Pair, imperforate between

t t t
Chuchin lb mint & used. 2 & 2a:
Note the "25" left in the lower right corer.
'Used stamps with this error are rare.

Chuchin No. 15:
Pair, imperf, between vertically.

June 2004

Chuchin Nos. 4 & 4a:
Block of six with two
tete-bSche pairs.
Novorzhev, Pskov province.

Chuchin No. 2:
Note the dot in
the lower "5"
at right.

h ro
G I h
.- ',..fim,
"J ~ 3~

Editorial Comment: We will now proceed with a review of a wonderful new publication by our Zemstvo enthusiast,
G. G. Werbizky, namely: "Unrecognized and overlooked Zemstvo Mail".
This highly useful work of 77+ pages in 22 x 29 cm. format (8 1/2 x 11"), with the illustrations intentionally
included in colour to emphasize the great variety of shades in the cachets, has just been issued in a bilingual Russo-
English text. It features hitherto unrecorded material, that only begins to explore the mail services offered by non
stamp-issuing Zemstvos and Zemstvo Administration Offices, which latter also acted as post offices. There were
unquestionably other Zemstvos that offered mail services for a fee or free of charge and this groundbreaking work
should help to bring them to light.
Due to the necessity to reproduce this type of mail in its full effect in colour, the cost of the book is US
$90.00 postpaid for orders in the U.S. and Canada and US $95.00 to all other destinations. Potential buyers will be
most impressed by this work, as Georgii Grigor'evich. has managed over the years to acquire many rare examples of
this type of mail and there is still scope for more work in this unusual field.Orders to G.G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road,
Vestal N.Y., 13850-3246., U.S.A., Our Ukrainian readers will
al .. t .. ., be especially interested in
J/ .- e .- one of his covers, as shown
.:ci here, for a variety of
S, reasons. The faint circular
i' -- ,, marking in the centre has at
S.- -' top:"F'rOTHHCKASI',
.at bottom: "3EMCKASI
-,. _l IOITA"and the date in
.. .... the middle is "27.IX.1918".
It passed through the
,., ,^/ Yahotyn (Yagotin State
St'- P.O.) in Poltava province
the next day and was sent
2 -< 1t.': t to Krik-gefangene (sic), i.e.
-. .: ,POW No. 23015 Anton
Gansin (Hansyn) by
-. -- '/ mistake to Baden bei Wien
in Austria (see triangular
censor mark of Vienna at
top right). It was then marked in blue crayon "Deut/land" (sic) at bottom and forwarded to Baden-Baden in Germany
to the "Ukrainerlager" (Camp for Ukrainian POWs in Rastatt), as underlined in blue at top centre.
That political situation came about as a result of a treaty signed by the Ukrainian delegation with the Central
Powers at Brest-Litovsk on 9 February 1918. One of the results of that treaty apparently was that Ukrainian POWs
were to be segregated from other former Russian Empire prisoners, who were being held by the Germans in 1918
during the Hetman Skoropads'kyj period. Quite a conversation piece and comments are invited!

The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even.
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.

June 2004

1917 PART H: THE ILLUSTRATIONS by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
(For the text of this important article, please refer to "The Post-Rider" N2 53, pp.98-116. As an aid to correlation, the
numbers for the illustrations/figures are keyed to those given in Russian in the last boxes of the tables set out in the
article. Where necessary, additional comments will be added to the illustrations that follow and supplementary
information from Dr. Levandovskiy will be found at the end of the illustrations).

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June 2004

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15A- address side express letter with PW 26.

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June 2004

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June 2004

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June 2004



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June 2004


29- Bmpe3Ka c PW 279.

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June 2004

33a- address side letter with PW 18
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June 2004

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S- t
< ..--- ---- --- / "" : -^ ;
--"- "-_______________***/ ," t <- ***....* :-,';!*

41- address side letter with PW I-ElEHTA-JIEHHHTPAA.

44a- address side letter with PW 236
446-reverse side.

42- address side letter with PW MOCKBA-APXAWHEJIbCK.

45a- address side letter with PW 328
456- 3-Kame IBNo_328.

nIOqTOBAsI T,4KA .---

Ku, /1 4o

43- address side letter with PW CEBACTOIIOJIb-MOCKBA.

June 2004

I C b
.. *

46a- address side letter with PW 174
466- 3-Kame rlBN 174
46B-KapTa Mapmpyra InB ?174 CnaBropon-TaTapcicas.

,. Y,
;cz j F

46Aa address side letter with PW XJ2 220.
46A6 3-Kame IIBNX 220

PHc. 46B MapmpyT TIB NX174 "CnaBropog-TaTapcKas "
June 2004

f c e

47a- address side letter with PW 223/224 .. .
476-3-ame IB 223/224.
,JHR >.99- "-"- ..'--- ...*'""" ""' '--" --

48a- address side letter with PW HAMEXgMHHCK 282
TOPOBJIATOAATCKAMI 486- 3-Kaine TIB 281/282.
"- ------

-,-- :. ,. -- ,. ............
.. .. ... e

C. :J o /^ <2 -, "

49- address side letter with PW MWIYPHHCK- .

e't 'a- I 50a- address side letter with PW OPEJI IoO.BAr.196 / 195
506-pmk OPEJI nIOq.BAT.196 / 195
SFOP SOB- 3-Kamle MAPMTI KH-OPEJ e I/B 2196.
S.. .|...

mi/i k MfIPMb~fclKOPEPJ
S1. .281/ /8 186
I P LB f 1PS 'S6P

-e n/" "-PJo. .A Ii....._________

51 a- address side letter with PW I.B. YPrAJI- XAEAPOBCK ,- fl-,I. /H.
,,,V w,; -- l....... .

516- pmk 51 B3-came --
June 2004

.- 53B-HaAnHci ((fHoqmoebl eMazon Epwoeo-HIyzamee6>

A _


53a- address side letter with PW Eptaoeo-Hllyzaqe



- ,4

52a-address side letter with PW KOKIETAB K3bIJI-TY
526- pmk PW KOKqETAB K3blJI-TY

54a- address side letter with PW
HoBropoA-CeBepci HOB0bIGICOB

546- reverse side

,/l- h '/f ..-
? Z-4; t,


Fi i

-Pi' A'

i~~-ZY -i *,


June 2004




~;a*Y ~


K y ...... .. ..... .
..o.... y ..... ... ...... ... ( .... ..I .

55a- address side letter with PW 230 CemIKapoBO-
ToD~AOm ---- 556- reverse side.

PHc. 55B MapmpyT IIB MN230 "CemnicapoBo-Top;KoK"

Pnc. 5668 IB HeHoMepHoro Mapmpyra "CocHOBKa-BoromsneHCK" /o Z1Cm'1 f '. (^ t /.

56a- address side letter with PW CocuoBKa BorosneeHCK )' R, ./ .--
566-KapTa Mapmpyra InBN256. .

June 2004

Supplementary Data:
(a) An addition to Table 1.2 (see "The Post-Rider" JN 53, p. 103).
onoJnHenHHe B Ta6Jn. 1.2

1.6.35/ 8x10 *IIOq. BAF. CY3EMKA- Cnemuoe MocKBa/ 43A
CT. Tpy6qeBCK TPYMBEBCK N 31/10 3.8.35/ /
TonorpamTecKoiH =40 KM CyseMKa H iacTHbIi 20A
BeTBH 3anarAHbi H
xA__ 20B
[*] This is a previously unrecorded PW dated canceller of an unnumbered route for the temporary topographic
"Suzemka-Trubachevsk" branch line (see Figs 20 A,B & V at the top of p. 12 herewith).
A historical and geographic note: The town of Trubachevsk, located at 154 km./ 99 miles from Bryansk down on
the Desna river (the biggest tributary of the Dnieper river) and possessing an important pier on its right bank, was
founded in the 12fh. Century and the name is a hydroneme derived from "truba" = a tributary, stream in a gorge, or a
bed of a river [8]. The railway station at Suzemka on the Western Railway Line and through which the Moscow-Kiev
Railway Line passes, is located at 109 km./ 66 miles to the south of Bryansk and at 13 km./ 8 miles from the border
with the Ukraine. The temporary route of PW Suzemka-Trubachevsk was laid along the Desna tributary of the
Nerussa river and functioned, judging by everything, in the middle of the 1930s.
.... 1(b) Another unnumbered route H-B
J- .. [ lCO'H- TYAHCE / a was noted in
...n-cor4.M-rnc Table 1.2 (see "The Post-Rider" M 53, p.

example of three days later is shown
herewith for the record.

registered cover from the Kushchevka
S t- N-..- railway station in Fig. 27A referred to in
the text (see "The Post-Rider" N 53, p.
105, Table. 2.1.1) is fully shown and
described by the present author in the
S.. .. article that follows immediately (see pp.
23; 24 & 25, including Figs. 3 to 6b).

4. An analysis of the Express Mail sent via postal wagons has shown that:
The frequency of occurrence of Express Mail sent via postal wagons was around 12% and practically just below
that for registered mail.
The handwritten registration notes on express letters handled in the classic way is identical outwardly with the
registration notations on registered letters and, as a rule, are in the form of a fractional inscription of the type
"Registration J2 of the letter / PW N',".
Out of 12 express letters described in the present article, there is a "personal" PW cachet only on one of them,
while on another example, a handwritten cancellation of the stamps and a manuscript representation of a registration
label were performed because of the absence of a dated cancellerand special registration labels for the postal wagon.
The author would be deeply grateful to his colleagues for additions to this article, as well as for any
information and material regarding the registered mail of Russia despatched by postal wagons.
This handbook, issued in Russian in AS format with 352 pages by the Union of Philatelists of Russia, Moscow 2003, is
packed with authoritative articles on philately, deltiology, numismatics, paper money and playing cards. There are 14 absorbing
contributions on stamps and postal history, the most comprehensive being a 78-page study of the Russian dated postmarks of the
Chinese Eastern Railway Line (K.B.)K.J) by V.N. Ustinovskii. The other 13 articles are of equally high standard.
Interested CSRP members should contact their favourite Russian-area dealer or auction house for this valuable work.



Already after the publication of the article [1] devoted to registered letters despatched in the Soviet period on
postal wagons (PW), the author has come across yet another most interesting registered letter (Fig. 1) sent on 26
February 1923 through the post office at the Baku railway station to a private address in Erivan'. It must honestly be
admitted that, for a long time before the writing of the article in reference [1], this letter laid among some registered
sending with registration notations of railway station post offices, as there were no pressing reasons for examining
carefully its "3" cachet. However, a similar registered letter from Baku previously described in Table 2.1.1 of the
article in reference [1] and encountered by chance in turn on the first day of the New Year has led to the description
of the letter in the present article and it allows us to examine something that excites interest.
The letter was franked on the back with four stamps of the 3.C.Q.C.P. (Transcaucasian Socialist Federated
Soviet Republic), namely the issues for Azerbaijan: 5000 on 2000 r. and 3 copies of 15000 on 5000r. The stamps
were cancelled with the oval date-stamp reading "BAKY / BOK3AJIT / 6", a fourth strike of which at the left on
the front side of the letter. The sender placed the inscription "3aKra3oe" (Registered) in the upper right corer and
there is at bottom the "3" cachet of the postal wagon, measuring 36.5 x 15mm. and showing in the upper part the
designation "'.", which is 7mm. high. The postal official has inscribed by graphite pencil the registration number
"346" and, in the lower section which is 8mm. high, there is the barely legible notation "II.B. 2J". The town name of
"Baku" is written in with the same graphite pencil. The letter got to Erivan' on 5 March and, because of the absence
of the addressee, it was sent back to Baku, as confirmed by the circular arrival marking of Baku, dated 8 May and
applied on the flap to tie the stamp with the "5000" surcharge. The following official notations were also applied on
the cover: the destination of "Erivan'" on the front has been crossed out with a graphite pencil and the note "To
Baku" written below it; also, the "3" cachet has been crossed out from the upper right corer to the middle. The
number "472" has been placed in violet ink in the upper right corer of the cover. A notation in the same ink has
been written on the back, reading "Addressee has gone off to Baku / Post(man), signature". To the left of the
inscription a number "2330" has been inscribed in green ink and subsequently crossed out, while below at right there
is another number "3069" in black ink. There is to the left of the strip of three stamps the capital letter "A" (D)
written in graphite pencil. In spite of the fact that, in opening the letter, a 15mm. wide strip was cut off at right and it
also grazed the lower corer of the "3" cachet, the dimensions of the cachet and its inscription can fortunately be
made out clearly. For example, this "3" cachet can be assigned to PW X2 95 Baku-Batum.
The similar letter from Baku as described in reference [1], is addressed to Kiev, but sent almost a month later
on 28 March 1923. It should be noted that this is the latest utilisation known to the author of the "BAKY /
BOK3AJHb / 6" oval marking. Moreover, the envelope of this letter has been opened in such a way that the right
selvedge of the "3" cachet has been cut off, so that the length of the cachet can be specified only approximately.
It should be taken into consideration that there are registered letters in the collection of the present author,
sent from the Baku Railway Station post office during the previous period of from October 1916 to December 1021,
the registration labels affixed to which, have the text in three lines: "X2. / BaKy / xc. g. n.o. A". An example of
this type of registered letter is shown in Fig. sent on 29 December 1921 from Baku to Tiflis. It is possible that the
stocks of similar Russian registration labels of the pre-revolutionary period in the Azerbaijan SSR had been
exhausted and so Russian pre-revolutionary "3" cachets of the postal wagons were applied as an alternative. For
example, such a "3" cachet could have been utilised on the PW route JN 95 Baku-Batum.
As a consequence, the description set out in reference [1] about the registered letter from Baku (Fig. 27)
could be supplemented and defined more exactly as:-
1. The dimensions of the "3" cachet composed of three sections for the postal wagon come to 36.5 x 15mm.
2. At the very least and in the period from February to March 1923, the Russian "3" cachet placed on registered
letters sent from the Baku Railway Station post office, was the one previously intended for handling correspondence
in the Russian postal wagon.
Taking into consideration the great rarity of such non-standard utilisation of "3" cachets of postal wagons (3
out of 100 in the collection of the author) and also the not quite successful insertion of the typographic details of the
table in the second section [reference 1], in which the handwritten inscriptions of the "3" were set out by the author
in cursive style and in colour, but which came out in the computer print-out as blocks in black, the author is now
setting out in the present article the full description of yet another interesting letter M 52A (Fig. 27A in reference [1])
This consists of an international registered letter of 1922, addressed to Dr. Brander in Berlin (g.) and with
the arrival marking on the back of BERLIN SW / 47, 12.12.22, being sent from the Kushchevka Railway Station post
office. Kushchevka was a junction station of the Northern Caucasus (formerly the Vladikavkaz) railway line (83km./

June 2004 23

51 miles to the south of the Rostov / Don Railway Station [3]), from which a branch line began in the western
direction at the Starominskaya Station and onwards to the Eisk Station on the Sea of Azov [4]. The letter is franked
on the back (Fig. 4) with 19 x 4-kopek and 4 x 10-kopek stamps, cancelled with eight strikes of the oval
KYIIEBKA- BOK3AJTb / a" marking measuring 30 x 25.5mm. (Fg 5) with the date 30.11.22; a further strike
was also applied at right on the front of the cover. It should be noted that this is the earliest sending known to the
author with this postmark, which was utilised at the very least up to the middle of 1928. A "3" cachet measuring 37 x
15.5mm. (Fig. 6a) stands immediately above that particular railway station marking, which had been designated for
application in the postal wagon. A postal official has written in the upper section of the the cachet above the note
"J," the registration number "364" and along the lower section in its upper part the text "ILB. NJ", together with an
inscription handwritten in bold red ink and reading "KyuyeoKa eorcaan" in such a way that it did not fit within the
boundaries of the cachet Fig. 6b). The dimensions of the upper and lower sections of this cachet are identical. This
"3" cachet could have been applied, for example, on the route ofPW J_ 291 Rostov/Don-Novorossiisk.
1. Three registered letters have been described in the article, two of them sent from the Baku Railway Station and the
third from the Kushchevka Railway Station, the stamps on all of which were cancelled with the railway station date-
stamps, while the "3" cachets which had been intended for the postal wagons (type "IIB.,N" see reference [1])
were not utilised for their original purpose, but applied as blank registration "shingles" instead of the railway station
"3" cachets or "3" labels. It is interesting that these "abnormally handled" registered letters still confirmed that they
were despatched in the direction of the Caucasus from railway stations.
2. The dimensions and the period of application of the PW "3" cachet (see reference [1]) have been confirmed for the
marking at the Baku Railway Station.
3. Illustrations have been furnished for the "KYIIIEBKA BOK3AJI'b / a" oval marking with the earliest dates
known to the author and of the PW "3" cachet utilised at the Kushchevka Railway Station.
1. V.G. Levandovskiy. Registered and express mail sent by postal wagons of Russia in the Soviet
period after 1917. The POST-RIDER (IMI~IH K), 2003, JN 53
2. Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, part 10, Russia, 1999, p.333.
3. 04 mHHnanuM i yKaaTeajie )xeesoA3HOopoKxn x, napoxoamI x H apyrax naccaRcapCnx
coo6meHHi.i. 3NMHee ABsmKele 1926/27 rr., BimycK 2No 9, pea. C.E. Bpiojm, HKIIC, TpaHcneHaTb,
4. C. AHmICHMOB. KaBKa3CIKHl Kpaii. HyTeBoArwrenm. FocyaapcTrsenoe mIaaTenjcTBo. MocKBa-
JIeHHrpaa, 1928, c. 56.

e-mail: levandovski@mtu-net.ru Doctor of technical sciences,
JIeBaHaOBCKHmi B.F., Corresponding member of Academy
MocKna, AHBapi 2004 r. of Medical Technical Science
Valentin G. Levandovskiy

-, .. .., .' ...." ,.,

Fig. 2.

June 2004

Fig.1. Fig. 4.

Fig. 5. Fig. 6a. Fig. 6b.

June 2004

by Meer Kossoy.
An interesting documented and analytic article about the issue and utilisation of the address applications on
blank cards in St. Petersburg has been published by L. Ratner [1]. Such applications, consisting of two blank cards,
were used for the despatch of an enquiry and the receipt of a reply from the Address Board in the 1880-1902 period,
as investigated by the author.
By the means of documents, it was established in that article that the Postal Administration did not concern
itself during that period with the issue and sale of address applications and only ensured their despatch. The sad
conclusion for collectors that followed stated that: "the address applications of St. Petersburg ...were in fact private
overprints applied on postal stationery and were performed in the interests of the Address Board...It is not possible to
link these address applications with the postal stationery of the Russian Postal Service".
However, there was another area of work for the Address Boards of Russia, wherein they had a direct
relationship with the Russian Postal Service. We are dealing here with the numerous occasions, whereby the Postal
Service carried out searches or defined more exactly the addresses of the recipients by means of the Address Boards,
so as to deliver the mail to them. As a demonstration of such collaboration, we can see on mail several official
handwritten notations and, in a later period, different cachets of an Address Board. The texts of these handwritten
notes or cachets recorded the results of a search for the address of a recipient, after the Postal Service had turned to
an Address Board. Such manuscript notations and cachets have not been investigated or described by philatelists in
the literature.
The aim in writing the present article is to show some official handwritten notations and cachets, known to
the author and relating to the work of the Address Boards in several Russian towns and also to draw the attention of
philatelists to this interesting theme.
The Address Board first started functioning in St. Petersburg in 1842. In accordance with the Regulation
about the organisation of an Address Bureau, it was established "for the swift and correct assignment of all houses in
the Capital, where. Government establishments were located, as well as to specify the dwelling places, passages and
times of arrival and departure of the inhabitants".
The organisation of an Address Board in the Capital was evoked by a real necessity. At that time, new
construction was being developed in St. Petersburg, new governmental establishments and private offices were being
opened, while the population of the Capital was nearing half a million and it was thus important to have operative
information about the city and its inhabitants.
By the time the Address Board had been set up, it was already clear that the staff of 15 persons was
insufficient to record all the dwellers of St. Petersburg. As a result, a decision was immediately taken that all citizens
and arriving persons would have to have at their disposal information about themselves. In order to have such
information available, it was not necessary to present oneself at the Address Board, but it was required to fill out an
address application at the Police District Office, within which the house was included, or where it was intended to
live, or from which the citizen was departing. Upon being filled out and after checking the veracity of the information
therein, the applications were forwarded from the Police District Office to the Address Board. Any citizen, who filled
in the application incorrectly or had included untrustworthy information, was liable to be fined. The address
applications were not handed out free of charge, but cost one kopek each.
The address applications were in two colours: white, which was filled in by the dweller and specified basic
data about the citizen (surname, age, etc), as well as the date of arrival at the place of dwelling and blue, which was
filled in when leaving St. Petersburg for another city.
The address applications arriving at the Address Board from the Police District Office were stored in
alphabetical order and then inserted in special books with metallic detachable rings. In order for this to take place, the
applications had a hole previously punched in them, so that they could be inserted in the rings and then placed in the
books. In that way, the applications could be quickly and easily stored, when new ones came in.
Upon to 1874 and when enquiring about the dwelling place of a citizen in St. Petersburg, any person at all
could apply directly to the Address Board. Thereafter, and because of the shortage of premises, private persons were
no longer admitted to the Address Board and enquiries from them were accepted only by mail. In order to facilitate
the acceptance of such enquiries, the issue of special address applications was organised in St. Petersburg in 1880, as
L. Ratner has already informed us in [1]. There was printed on such applications a text, which set out what
information it was necessary to specify at the Address Board for carrying out the enquiry. The required information
had to be graded according to the class of society and was different for officials, merchants, peasants, military ranks
and foreigners.
By the end of the 19th. Century, St. Petersburg had quickly grown and developed, so that the quantity of
enquiries directed to the Address Board was constantly increasing. For example, if the figure in 1889 was 140,000,

June 2004

then by 1894 there were already more than 260,000 and, in 1900, the staff of 60 persons was processing almost 1.5
million enquiries, of which an important quantity was being handled at the request of the Postal Service.
In the period from 1858 to 1892, the charge for each written application to the Address Board and performed
for a private person came to 2 kopeks and, later on, it was 3 kopeks.
A telegraph station operated to provide a quick answer to an enquiry directed to the Address Board. As an
example, a telegram is shown in Fig. 1 that had been despatched from such a station. That is evident from the text of
the telegram: "Iogana Ha cr.(anain) Agp.(ecHbu ) Or.(oni,) 13 Hoq6pa 1879 r.(oga) 6 H.(acoBr) 5 M.(HHyrb)
no n.(onynHH)"[Handed in at the station, Address Board, 13 November 1879 at 6:05 pm.]. The telegram was
received at 6:10 pm. at the Staff Station of the Gendarme Corps, which was the "Military and Police Station of
Telegraphs of St. Petersburg". In replying to the enquiry, the text of the telegram specified the point of residence of a
particular person and the length of time she had been dwelling there.
In the despatch of mail, much of which was of official character, the sender sometimes did not know the
exact address of the recipient. In such cases, the sender would write in a directive of the type: "To be delivered via
the Address Board".
As an example, we see in Fig. 2 the address side of an official envelope and in Fig. 2b the back of the same
cover. Official mail was generated by governmental institutions and, in accordance with an established listing, many
such establishments enjoyed the right of post-free despatch of their mail. As a confirmation of that right, a paper label
was affixed to the flap of the envelope and served as the seal of an organisation or sender.
Looking at Fi. 2a an official letter J 4155 was addressed to: "The Trustee of the Court of Wards of the
Noblity, Mr. Lavrov, in the city of Moscow via the Address Board" (underlined by the author).
Judging from the text of the paper label, the letter had been sent by the St. Petersburg Court of Wards of the
Nobility, the postmark of despatch reading St. Petersburg 26 July 1872 and that of arrival: Moscow of the next day -
see Fig. 2c.
In accordance with the directive given in the address, the letter was forwarded in Moscow to the Address
Board so as to determine the exact destination at which Mr. Lavrov was residing, otherwise the letter could not be
Judging from the handwritten note in black ink on the envelope, the Address Board declined to proceed, the
stated reason being "IT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW THE FIRST NAME AND / PATRONYMIC / Reported by
postman Stepanov / 27 July". A postal official then wrote on the envelope the notation: "Because of being
undeliverable (by reason of) no indication of the first name and patronymic / the Address Board has refused to
proceed / signature"; see Fig. 2b.
On the basis of the postal regulations, and in the case of the impossibility of delivering a letter to an
addressee or recipient, the Postal Service was obliged to return the letter to the sender. That is the reason why we see
on the address side of the envelope a handwritten notation in black ink, reading: "Back to St. Petersburg". The letter
was returned from Moscow on 4 August 1872, to arrive the sender in St. Petersburg the next day; see Fig. 2b.
The address side of an official envelope is shown in Fig. 3 and the back in Fig. 3b. According to a paper
label on the envelope, letter No. 4317 was sent from: "The St. Petersburg Court of Wards of the Nobility" and
addressed "To the Guardian of the wife of the nobleman.....,provincial capital of Vil'no". It was sent from St.
Peterburg on 6 November 1889 (see Fig. 3a and received in Vil'no the next day ( 3b).
The address of the sender is missing on the envelope, so the letter was handed over to the Address Board in
Vil'no. As a result of verifying the envelope, a handwritten note in black ink was placed on the envelope, stating:
"Report of the Address Board. / As indicated on the back of the envelope / there is no information about the person -
7 November 1889. / Reported by the postman (signature)". In accordance with the postal regulations and in the case
of the impossibility of delivering a letter to the addressee or recipient, the Postal Service had to return the letter to the
sender. That is why there is a handwritten notation in. black ink on the address side of the envelope, reading: "Back
to St. Petersburg". In accordance with that directive, the letter was returned to the sender in St. Petersburg on 9
November 1889; see Fi. 3b.
It can be assumed that, after the letter had been returned, a search was carried out in St. Petersburg to
determine the sender, possibly via the Address Board, or that his address was obtained by some other means, since it
was specified as "Vasil'evskii Island, 2nd' Line, House No. 43". However, after arriving at that address, a handwritten
note in black ink stated that: "Such a person is unknown at House No. 43 / Senior house-porter (signature)".
Later on, the handwritten notations of the Address Board were replaced on the mail by official cachets with
differing inscriptions. As a result, there is featured in Fig. 4 the address side of an official envelope J 577 (in the M.
Mandrovskaya Collection, Moscow, Russia), which had been sent from the "St. Petersburg Court of Wards of the
Nobility", as noted by the paper seal on the back of the cover. The letter was addressed to "Tsarskoe Selo / via the
Police" (underlined by the author). It was sent from St. Petersburg 2.3.05 to Tsarskoe Selo, arriving on the same day.

June 2004

CiHaro II.no geBicxaro TeaerpasOBTa B, C -HeTep6yprt.
S' CraH nin UTa6a Kopnyca HIaHliapmosa .

(a na cm. <,y IJw j-2. e^7. ./d' nz. no n.

\c .'y'CC 6
\ 3,. ,,
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Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

June 2004

Fig. 5.

As is evident from the text of the address, the sender did not know the details and therefore did not specify
the name of the street and the number of the house. He sent the letter through the Address Board of the Police, in the
hope that they would find there the address of the recipient and would hand over the letter to him. After the arrival of
the letter in Tsarskoe Selo, it was sent to the police station, in accordance with the address. That was confirmed by
the application of a rectangular cachet in violet, reading: "IAAPCKOCEJIbCKAAI / FOPOACKASI IIOJIHUIL
/ 3 MAPT. (A) 05". The letter was handed over from the police station to the Address Board where, after searching, a
violet cachet was placed on the cover, reading: "'o agpecHoMy crony IIonmain r.(opoga) I[apcKoro / Cena Ha
aKHTenmiCTB' He 3naHmTca. / 3aB3 ,IBm.(aIomift) APpecH,(bmn-) CronoMb, (nognncb)" [According to the
Address Board of the Police in the town of Tsarskoe Selo, unknown at the dwelling / Director of the Address Board -
In contrast to the other known cachets, this one specifies the relationship between the Address Board and the
Police. That occurrence may be explained by the fact that, because of the size of its population, Tsarskoe Selo was a
small town and really a suburb of St. Petersburg. In such small inhabited points, the Address Board was included in
the composition of the Police Force. In large towns, the Address Board was detached into a separate establishment.
We have in Fig 2 a letter with the handwritten notation of the Moscow Address Board, which declined to
report, because of the absence of information regarding the "NAME & PATRONYMIC" of the addressee. When
Address Boards were confronted later on with such a situation, they applied a cachet with the relevant text, instead of
a handwritten notation.
As an example, we note in Fig. 5 a postcard (in the M. Mandrovskaya Collection, Moscow, Russia), on
which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 66) has been cancelled with the despatch postmark reading "VIL'NA / 29.3.14".
The card was addressed to Mrs Morozovskaya in Warsaw, where it arrived on 31.3.14. During sorting, the postman
noted that the address and abode of the recipient had not been specified on that card and an enquiry was sent to the
Address Board in Warsaw. As a result of the investigation, strikes of the following cachets were applied in violet:-
1. A cachet reading "MHOFO JIHDL'b" (= many people; Morozovaya [Morozowska] was a widely known family
name in Poland, while the first name and patronymic were not given in the address and, for that reason, the Address
Board refused to report).
2. Another cachet, reading "OBPATHO IIOAATEJIO / 3A HEPA3bICKAHIEM'b / IIOt. TEJI.
MIHHOB." (Back to the presenter as not found Postal-Telegraphic official).
According to postal regulations and as stated in the inscription on the second cachet, the Postal Service had
to return the card to the sender/presenter. That was why the address of Warsaw was crossed out on the card with red
ink and a note was written below it, reading: "Return to Vil'na, to be given back to the sender". The despatch
marking of Warsaw is dated 31.3.14 at the bottom of the card and the arrival marking back in Vil'na is below the
stamp and dated 1.4.14.
A postcard is demonstrated in Fin. 6 with the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 81) cancelled with the despatch marking of
Kuznetsk, Saratov province, 24.3.14. The card was addressed to Tiflis, Tskhpetskaya (St.) 19 and the arrival marking
is dated 30.3.13. The card was not handed over to the addressee and that was confirmed by a handwritten notation in
pencil (badly written text), reading: "The lady recipient was not found / Reported by the postman signature".
In searching for the address, the card was forwarded to the Address Board and, as a result of the searching, a
report was issued in the form of a cachet in violet with the following text:-

3aBtn.(bIBaioiAif) agpecHibim CronJOM' (no ~nHc) /
1. (owroBO-) T.(ejerpaqHbnif) tmH.(OBHHmK,) (nonITcb)

Two blank lines were provided on the cachet, which were intended for writing in the results of searching for the
street and house number. As a consequence, the new address for delivering the card was written in pencil on the
cachet as "Kazbekskaya St. / N2 15 and it was delivered to the recipient on the that basis.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 7. in which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 81) is cancelled with the despatch
postmark of Volmar, Liflyand province 17.IX.1913. The card was addressed to Riga, where it arrived on 18.9.13.
The card was not delivered to the addressee and, in searching for the address, it was forwarded to the Address Board
in Riga. During the searching process, a cachet in violet was applied on the card with the following text:-
Bi, AppecHoMb CTOJIr / 3asmjeHi ............--
yJIHn. N.2 -..-. ---. -.-..--. ..--.--.._
CnpaBjnica 1I.-T. THHOB. (InoArmHC)
Two blank lines were provided on the cachet for writing in the results of the search, i.e. the street and house number.

June 2004

Two blank lines were provided on the cachet for writing in the results of the search: street and house number.
This cachet was close both in type and text to the one shown in Fig..
However, the new address was not found as a result of the search. In accordance with the postal regulations
and in a case of the impossibility of delivering the letter to the addressee/recipient, the Postal Service had to return
the letter to the sender. That was why a violet cachet was applied on the postcard with the following text:-
BosBpai~aeTcs / na Hepos3icKaHieMb / Returned / as not being found
n.(oqroBo-) T.(ejerpa4c HLi) mMH.(OBmRHH ) (no~umcb). Postal-telegraphic official signature.

In the process of sending back the card, the name of the town "Riga" was crossed out with red ink and a directive
written in, reading "R(eturn) to Volmar".. That took place at Riga on 18.9.13 (see at bottom right of the card) in
going back to the sender, but there is no arrival marking.
The back of the reply half of a card is shown in Fig. 8 where both halves have an impressed 3-kopek die
(Michel P27A, issued in 1913). The stamp on the card is cancelled with the despatch marking of Ekaterinoslav,
3.11.15. The card was addressed to the Shlissel'burg Fortress, where there was a hard-labour prison and it arrived on
It would appear that the double card (Michel P27) was sent according to the address "Ekaterinoslav -
Address Board" with a request to give a reply as to where Feodosiya Davydovna Razvodkina was living. In replying
to the enquiry, the Address Board sent to Shlissel'burg a "REPORT" in the form of a violet cachet with the text:-
Ho cBsaH1imTb AgpecHaro Crona According to the data of the Address Board

3Ha'HTca Ha XaTenriCTB- B1s r. EKaTepHHocnaB-' Recorded as living in the town of Ekaterinoslav
Io ... _____.. .._ .. _. OM At street-. -.-____._..... .. and house number

HaaInbHHnK', Agpec. Crona (nonHncL) Director of the Address Board (signature)

Four blank lines were provided in the cachet for writing in the results of the search, with the first line intended for
bearing the surname, first name and patronymic. As the address was not found, a handwritten notation "He" was
placed before the word "3naaHrca", i.e. not recorded.
A further violet rectangular cachet was applied on the postcard, reading "EKATERINOSLAV / Address
Board/ 2 NOV. 1915".
Before being handed over to the addressee, the card was verified by the jail censorship and that was
confirmed by an oval cachet in violet, reading: "IIIJIHCCEJILYPr'b / KATOP.)KH.(AI) TIOPMA /
IIPOCMOTP-BHO" (Shlissel'burg, Hard Labour Prison, Examined).
An example of a search conducted by the Postal Service of an addressee/recipient on a piece of mail is in the
form of the address side of an official registered letter as featured in Fig. 9 while the back of the cover is shown in
Fig. 9b. There are two reports by the postman, which were glued one under the other, showing temporarily that they
were affixed one after the other.
This official letter 2M 5583 from the Russian Board of Trade in St. Petersburg has the label below the report
and was sent from St. Petersburg as a registered article JX2 484 to the Bukovich School of Handiwork, at the Udel'noe
Station, Kostromskaya Street JM 51. It was sent from St. Petersburg on 12.8.05 and bears on the front an arrival
marking of the next day, reading St. Petersburg, 17t'. City Postal-Telegraphic Station at Udel'noe; that postmark is
below the report.
The letter was franked on the back with 5- & 7-kopek stamps (Michel 44 & 45); see Fig. 9aThe total
amount of 12 kopeks covered the postal rate, i.e. 7 kopeks for the registration fee, with a further 5 kopeks for
weighing more than 15 grammes (roughly V2 ounce); up to 15 grammes the letter could be dispatched as a post-free
The postman could not deliver the letter to the addressee on 13 August at Kostromskaya JM 51, as specified
on the envelope and therefore set up the first report: "It is unknown where Bukovich is and there are no details" see
Fig. 9 As a confirmation, the postman again visited the given address on the next day and made out a second report:
"Bukovich went away on 10 June 1905 without notice. There are no further details" see Fig. 9b.
The letter was then forwarded to the Address Board for a search, but the addressee was not found there. That
was confirmed by the application of a violet cachet, reading: "AAPECHATO CTOJIA" (of the Address Board),
together with a handwritten note in black ink: "Ce(abr) niW) nmbmm6(There is no information).
Once again in accordance with postal regulations and in a case of the impossibility of delivering the letter to

June 2004

Fig. 9a.

Fig. lOa.F


Fig. 9b.

Fig. 10b.

the addressee/recipient, the Postal Service had to return the letter to the sender. That is why a written notation in
India ink was placed on the address side of the envelope and reading "06p.(aTHo) non.(aTeneo)" [= Back to the
presenter]. The letter was despatched to St. Petersburg, where it arrived on 18.VIII. 1905 see Fig. 9b.
As indicated at the beginning of this article, a huge number of enquiries arrived at the Address Board in St.
Petersburg (almost 1.5 million in 1900), including a considerable amount from the Postal Service. So as to put in
order the process of obtaining information about the mail, a "CnpaBonHoe BEopo" (= Enquiry Bureau) was set up in
St. Petersburg, as a result of Order No. 56 of 4 May 1904 [2]
In accordance with this order, all undeliverable ordinary and registered letters, wrappers and petitions were to
be forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. It was provided with various sources for carrying out enquiries, such as the
publications-"Becb IIeTep6yprB", "AApec1-Kaneiiaapb" etc. Special cachets were placed on the letters with
regard to their being forwarded, or sent to the remaining items and so forth. The Enquiry Bureau would then send the
mail to the Address Bureau. Where items could not be delivered to the addressee/irecipient, the mail would be
forwarded to the corresponding despatch post office with the cachet "'CnpaBoqHoe 6iopo. CB AeHifi HerT"
(Enquiry Bureau, There are no data).
The establishment of the "Enquiry Bureau" brought about s quicker and more reliable delivery of the mail, in
the case where the postman could not deliver it to the addressee/recipient.
As an example of a search for the addressee/recipient by the Address Board in Pinsk and the Enquiry Bureau
in Petrograd, there are shown in Fig. 10a the blank form of an official postcard and, in Fig. 10b, such a blank with the
report of the Address Board in Pinsk glued to it.
An official postcard was a postal formula card for official mail, which was forwarded free of charge. A strike
from the rubber seal of the sender was placed on the formula card to confirm the right of post-free transmission.
According to the text on the seal, this particular official card was sent from the Police Department of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs and was dated 30 September 1914, but the despatch postmark is missing. It was
addressed to the "2nd. Police District of the town of Pinsk / To the citizen...../ to Bregman". The arrival marking of
Pinsk is dated 12.10.14.
Since the exact address of the recipient was not indicated on the card and also in accordance with the
attached report, it was therefore stated that: "in Pinsk / REPORTED BY THE POSTMEN (7 signatures) / Verified, p-
t. official (signature)". In spite of the intensive search by 7 postmen, the card was not handed over to the addressee
and it was forwarded to the Address Board for a further search. The address was not found even then and that was
confirmed by the "REPORT / OF THE ADDRESS BOARD IN PINSK" in the form of a violet cachets; see Fig. 10a.
The composition of this report differs from the reports of Address Boards in other Russian towns (see Figs. 6
&7). The report was divided by a vertical line into two halves: on the left half the surname, first name, patronymic,
enquiry number and the date were indicated, while on the right half, there was a space for showing the address, if it
had been found and other information. In the text of the report and before the word "SBniea-" (= appeared), there is a
handwritten note in red ink stated as "HebI", i.e. the addressee did not appear (=HeBniaBjieHI).
According to the postal regulations and in a case of the impossibility of delivering the card to the
addressee/recipient, the Postal Service had to return the letter to the sender. That was why a directive in India ink was
placed at the top of the card and reading "B.(o3BpaTnTa) IIeTporpaff" (Return Petrograd), where it arrived on
28.10.14. It can be assumed that, in order to specific exactly the address of the sender (the Police Department had
many subsections in its composition), the letter was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. That is confirmed by a strike
of the rare postmark: "C.II. nHOTAMTb / CIIPAB. BIOPO / 28.10.14".
As a result of the search, the following cachets were placed on the card; see Fig. a:-
1. A cachet in violet with the word "OEPATHO" (= BACK) in a rectangular frame.
2. A circular cachet in violet, enclosing the number "25" (the personal number of the official carrying out the search)
In returning the card to the sender, it had to be forwarded to a special despatch centre of the post office,
which served for the delivery of mail to the high governmental organs and to personages in the Imperial family. That
is confirmed by a rare postal marking, reading: "ITETPOr PA)' / OTA.(t'BJ ) AOCT.(ABKH)
BbICON.(Ai IEfII) KOP.(PECnOHAEHIIH) / 31.10.14"; see Fig.9b. This marking is also interesting in that
the name of the city is designated in two postmark versions: C. IIETEPBYPIb and IIETPOFPAJT'.
The address side of an official envelope is featured in Fig. 11a, with the back shown in Fig. lb. The letter
was sent from the Imperial University at Yur'ev (now Tartu in Estonia), the seal of which may be seen in Fig. lb.
The cachet of the University and the despatch postmark "YUR'EV LIFL. / 27.8.13 are shown in Fig. 1 la.
The letter was addressed to the student Andrei Red'ko in St. Petersburg, where it arrived on 28.8.13. In
attempting to deliver the letter to the addressee on that day, the postman filed a report, saying: "A. Red'ko is not to be
found at Samsonievskii Prospect XM 31".
In searching for the address, the letter was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau, as confirmed by the postmark:
June 2004

Postkartr. Carte ost

Lne if

I-IILP I, ~ ,n -dr

rd ,.

r J b[ F 'flOB EIr LLio

r- ~K~b -O~flCbMO.'--C ,PDS~~-
r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~~ PoSTALo~o..lo liU7

.. ..


r T11PLSoE '1 IC

~~ Fig. I3
4I rl "-

June 2004

As a result of the search, the following cachets were placed on the envelope:-
1. A single-line cachet in violet, reading: "CB eieHii HsIT" (= no data).
2. A circular cachet in violet, enclosing the number "25" (the personal number of the official).
For a further search of the address, the enquiry was forwarded from the Enquiry Bureau to the Address Board
and, as a result, the following cachets were placed on the envelope; see Fig. 1la:-
1. A single-line cachet in violet, reading: "110 CIIPABKB A.PECHATO CTOJIA" (= according to the report
of the Address Board).
2. A single-line cachet in violet, reading: "3A HEPO3bICKAHIEM'b AA1PECATA" (= because the addressee
has not been found).
3. A circular cachet in violet, enclosing the number "5" (the personal number of the official).
In conjunction with the report of the Address Board, a handwritten notation in red ink was placed on the
envelope, reading: "B ,i6.(runs) Ha3 C. IIeTep6ypra" (= he has gone away from St. Petersburg). In accordance
with the postal regulations and in the case of the impossibility of delivering the letter to the addressee/recipient, the
Postal Service had to return the letter to the sender. A directive was therefore placed on the cover in violet ink and
reading: "06p.(aTHo) IOpieB." (= back to Yur'ev). The arrival marking reads Yur'ev 4.9.13; see Fig. 1 a.
A postcard is featured in Fig. 12 which, according to the postmark was sent from Paris, France 9 January
1905 N.S. to St. Petersburg. The arrival marking of St. Petersburg 30.XII.1904 O.S. is on the back of the card. The
address "Kazanskaya Street NM2 31 "is indicated on the card. In delivering the mail, the postman discovered that the
recipient did not live at the address indicated and it was therefore forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. As a result of the
search, a rectangular cachet in red was applied to the card with the following text:-
"Bi CIpaBOqHOMmb Biopo / CBsAnHiiAn H'T. / "There are no data / at the Enquiry Bureau./
qHHOBHHK'I (HnoIHCL6)". Official (signature)".

During a further search, an enquiry was made at the Address Board, from which a new address was obtained
"Kazanskaya Street JMN 45 and that address was written in black ink at left on the card, to where it was delivered to
the addressee/recipient.
We see in Fig. 13 a postcard, where the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 43) had been cancelled with the oval
despatch marking of the postal wagon OREL 7 DVINSK / 7.12.08. The card was addressed to St. Petersburg,, where
it arrived the next day. The address indicated on the card reads: "Vasil'evskii Ostrov, 9~. Line". In delivering the
mail, the postman discovered that the recipient did not live at the address specified on the card and it was therefore
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. During the process of searching, a strike in violet was placed on the card of a
cachet similar the one shown just above in Fig. 12 but differing in colour.
In searching further, an enquiry was made at the Address Board, from where a new address was received:
"M.(alyi) pr.(ospekt) V.(asil'evskago) O.(strova) N2 19" and it was written in black ink on the card, being
subsequently delivered to the addressee/recipient.
It could be assumed that the cachet shown in Figs. 12 & 13 was later replaced with another type and a similar
text, but having provision for a changeable date (day, month, year). However, it is also possible that the two original
cachets continued to be applied concurrently, but assigned to various officials.
A local postcard is featured in Fig. 14 in which the 1- & 2-kopek stamps (Michel 41 & 42) were postmarked
with a despatch marking of St. Petersburg 4.10.07. The arrival marking of the same day is in red. The address
indicated on the card reads: ""Peterb.(urgskaya) Stor.(orona), Tserkovnaya ul.(itsa) JN2 3". In delivering the mail, the
postman discovered that the recipient was not living at the address stated on the card and it was therefore forwarded
to the Enquiry Bureau. During the process of searching, a strike in red was placed on the card with the following
"C.(IIPABOUHOE) B.(IOPO) /CB'~3b'HI14 HSITb / "There are no data / at the Enqiry Bureau /
-6 OKT.(aIBPI) 1907 M 9." .6 Oct(ober) 1907 NM 9 ".
The cachet has an interesting characteristic, as it has the indication ". 9" after the changeable date. It could
be assumed that it was the personal number of the official conducting the search for the address.
In the process of a further search, an enquiry was made at the Address Board, from which a new address was
received: "Tserkovnaya M$ 4". That address was written in black ink on the card, which was then delivered to the
Fin. 15 features a postcard, on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 66) was cancelled with the despatch
postmark of UFA 2.4.10. The card was addressed to St. Petersburg, where it arrived on 8.4.10. The address written
on the card reads: "Vyborg Chaussee, h.(ouse) M, ap.(artment)...", i.e. the sender did not know and did not indicate
the house number. The card was therefore immediately forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. As the result of a search, a
SJune 2004

strike in violet of a cachet was applied to the card with the text:-
"C.(IPABOxHOE) B.(IOPO) / CBb jsA HIfE HsTb / M 7 .../ "Enquiry Bureau / No data / MN 7
6 AIIP.(BJII) 1910". 6 Apr.(il) 1910".

In contrast to the cachet in Fig. 14 the one in Fig. 15 has an additional "empty" space with the text "Jo 7". It
is assumed that "JM 7 was the personal number of the postal official, who carried out the search for the address and
that the "empty" space was designated for his signature.
In carrying the search further, an enquiry was made at the Address Bureau, from where the address "Vyborg
Highway, house 9" was received and written in black ink on the postcard. The card was then delivered to the
Fig. 16 features a postcard, on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 53) was cancelled with the despatch
postmark of a postal wagon "TSARITSYN 108 GRYAZI / 13.2.09". The card was addressed to St. Petersburg, where
it arrived on 15.2.09. An address is indicated on the card, reading "Peterburgskaya storona, house 18, apt. 9".
Peterburgskaya storona was a suburb of the city and the name of the street was not specified. The card was therefore
immediately forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau and that is confirmed by the postmark "C.I.(ETEPBYPrTb)
For some unexplained reason and after the arrival of the mail at the Enquiry Bureau, this postmark was
applied only on exceptional occasions and it is therefore encountered quite rarely.
During the searching process, a faint strike in violet was applied on the card of a cachet, similar to the one in
Fig. 15 above, but with a different number and date:-
"C.(IIPABOHHOE) B.(IOPO) /CBt-B HIfI H-bTb / "Enquiry Bureau / No data
N 6 .... __ _,_./ 15 EBP.(AJI) ) 1909. N 6 .------.... / 15 Feb.(ruary) 1909.

In carrying the search further, an enquiry was made at the Address Bureau, from where the address was
received as "Malyi pr.(ospekt), Pet.(eterburgskoi) St.(orony), d(om) 58/18". That destination was written in black ink
on the card, which was then delivered to the addressee/recipient.
Fig. 17a shows the address side of an envelope for an official letter and Fig. 17b its back. This official letter
22002 from the Court of Wards of the Nobility (see the paper label in Fig. 17b) was despatched from St. Petersburg
on 26.VI.09 and addressed to the Sergievo Station, the arrival marking reading "CEPrIEBCKAS HIYCTbIH
C.II.(ETEPBYPTCKOIl) / 26.6.09".
Upon carrying the mail, the postman could not deliver the letter and, for that reason, set up a report to the
effect that: "Litvinov does not live in Sergievskaya Pustyn' at Boulevard Street 9". On the basis of that report and in
accordance with the postal regulations, the following handwritten notes in black ink were placed on the envelope:-
1. On the back of the cover the text: "It is being returned, as the addressee is not to be found / P.T. official:
2. On the address side:"06p. (amno) C. Hemep6ypz-b" (back to St. Petersburg).
The letter was returned in accordance with that directive, the despatch postmark of Sergievskaya Pustyn'
being dated 10.7.09, with the arrival postmark of St. Petersburg having the same date.
As the complete return address was not indicated on the envelope, the letter was forwarded to the Enquiry
Bureau and that was confirmed by a strike in violet of the following cachet:-
"nOCT(ABHTb) OBPATHO / C.(IPABOqHOE) B,(IOPO) N2 4" (To be sent back, Enquiry Bureau N2 4,
the latter being the personal number of a specific official).
In accordance with the directive on the cachet, the letter was returned to the Court of Wards of the Nobility.
A local postcard is shown in Fig. 18 on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 81) was cancelled with the
despatch postmark of St. Petersburg 7.11.13 and the arrival marking is of the same day.
In carrying the mail on that day, the postman could not deliver the card and, for that reason, set up the
following report: "Klimov has gone away to the town of Nikolaev. There are no further data".
The card was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau, where several violet cachets were applied during the
searching process:-
1. A cachet with the inscription "CB gffHnii~ H' (There are no data).
2. A framed rectangular cachet reading "OBPATHO" (= BACK).
3. A circular cachet enclosing the number "20" (see on the postage stamp). with cachet M 24 in the bottom left
corner. They were the personal numbers of the two officials.
In accordance with the postal regulations and the directive stated in the rectangular cachet, the card was
returned to the sender at "Bol'shaya Moskovskaya, house 9, apt. 22" as stated at left on the card and encircled in red
pencil, being partly hidden by the report slip
June 2004

Fig. 16.

Fig. 18.

Fig. 20.

Fig. 17a.

Fie. 17b.

Fig. 19.

Fig. 19 shows a postcard, on which the 1- and 2-kopek stamps (Michel 64 & 80) have been cancelled with
the despatch postmark of Assen, Liflyand province, 29.5.13. The card was addressed to St. Petersburg, where it
arrived on 20.V.1913. In carrying the mail on that day, the postman could not deliver the card and, for that reason,
made a report, stating that: "E. Manbom is not to be found at Kamennoostrovskii prospect, house 26, apt. 106" (in
Fig. 18. the report was temporarily shifted to the left, so that such a marking would become visible). The card was
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau and, during the process of searching, the following cachets were applied in violet:-
1. A cachet with the text:"'CB'BT'BHLIH HBTb" (There are no data)..
2. A cachet with the text: "3A HEPO3bICKAHIEM'B AAPECATA" (As the addressee could not be reached).
3. A circular cachet enclosing the number "19" (personal number of the official).
In accordance with the postal regulations and in the case of "not being able to reach the addressee", the
Postal Service had to return the card to the sender. For that reason, a notation was made in red ink on the card,
reading "B.(o3BpaTHrE) AccepHi" (Return to Assern), where it arrived on 1.6.13.
Fin. 20 features a local postcard, on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 66) has been cancelled with the
despatch postmark of St. Petersburg 9.10.10. Neither the street nor the house was indicated in the address on the card
and it was therefore forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. That was confirmed by the postmark: "C.I.(ETEPBYPTb)
IIOHTAMTL / CIIPAB.(OHHOE) BIOPO / 1910". During the searching process, a circular cachet enclosing
the figure "5" (the personal number of the official, carrying out the search) was placed on the card and the address
was written thereon in black pencil as: "Pushkinskaya 10", to where it was subsequently delivered to the
There is no cachet of the type"CBB'A'BHIIf HBSTb", or of any other kind. However, it can be assumed
that, in such cases, the card had not been forwarded as an enquiry to the Address Board. It is possible that the address
was found at the very Enquiry Bureau and, for example, it may have been determined by consulting the annual
address manual "BECb IIETEPBYPF'b".
A postcard is shown in Fig. 21, which was despatched from Leipzig, Germany 13.3.11 N.S. to St. Petersburg,
where it arrived on 2.3.11 O.S. The card had not been franked, as the stamp is missing and a rectangular cachet
enclosing the letter "T" (the first letter of the French word "Taxe" = to pay) was therefore applied, together with an
oval cachet reading "oonnaTHTa / C. IIETEPBYPrb", within which the postage due of 10 kopekss) was noted.
There were no indications whatsoever in the address of the street or of the house. The card was therefore
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau where, during the searching process, a circular cachet in violet enclosing the
number "5" (the personal number of the official conducting the search) was applied on the card.
The address was written in black pencil to read "Nevskii 84" and, to draw attention, underlined in red pencil;
the card was then delivered to that address to the addressee/recipient.
The circular cachet enclosing the number "5" was not "characteristic" for that type of correspondence,
although it has been featured in Figs. 19 & 20. The author knows of other numbers, i.e. "15" and "17".
We see in Fig. 22 a local postcard, on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 66) has been cancelled with the
despatch postmark of St. Petersburg 13.12.10 and it arrived on the next day. In carrying the mail on 14 December, the
postman could not deliver the card to the addressee and made out a report for that reason, stating: "Tambakh, living
at Gorokhovaya Street, went away on 4 Dec. Strel'na station and there are no further details".
The card was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau and during the searching process, the following cachets in
violet were applied:-
1. A cachet with text" CB'Bj'BHIfIl H T'BTb"(fhere are no details), which was subsequently underlined in black
2. A circular cachet, enclosing the number "15" (personal number of the official.
The address was written in black pencil at the bottom of the card as "Tverskaya 23", to where it was
delivered to the addressee/recipient.
A postcard is demonstrated in Fig. 22A) which, according to the postmark, was despatched on 11 January
1911 N.S. from Darien, California, U.S.A. to St. Petersburg, with no arrival marking indicated. There are no
indications in the address either of the street or of the house. The card was therefore forwarded for searching to the
Enquiry Bureau and that was confirmed by the circular cachet enclosed the number "7" (the personal number of the
official carrying out the search). As a result of the search, the address was found and the surname was translated into
Russian, a pencilled notation being written on the card, reading: "S.S. Mukhin, 14t. Line, V.(asil'evskago) O.(strova)
36". A cachet in violet was also applied on the card with the text in one line reading "HA CIIPABKY" (To the
enquiry). The purpose of this cachet becomes clear, when we turn to the "Instructions for the postmen delivering
mail in St. Petersburg" [3]. Article 43 of the Instructions states:-
"Sendings, delivered according to the reports of the Address Board with a notation of despatch of the
Enquiry Bureau stating: "to the enquiry of persons so and so" may only be delivered after a detailed questioning of
June 2004


~ J i r ~ I3"1 t3-4 R _


Fig. 21.

Tflti A,
.-C .ompyra.P
r.uon~ r~c r


Fig. 22.


~. ..Y. ........*.r ~ v~ (;

Fig. 22A.

I a,, ,,oTAtna., /, oxcy~
:AIMOMOR Rsffr h

.......2/- ..

/ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ...~noo~aol~rrI~ ..

.0 4?

Fig. 23.]
June 2004



Cf" ,~. sjK' K


'~ e\ S
'\ '

the persons indicated by the Address Board".
It can be assumed that the address which had been found evoked some doubts, as the surname Mukhin was
widespread in Russia and several persons could be encountered with such a surname and initials. In this case, the
cachet indicated the necessity of questioning the recipient in advance, so as to clear up his entitlement to this card.
We see in Fi. 23 the back of an envelope, which was sent on 16.IX.11 N.S. from Regional, Switzerland. The
letter was addressed to St. Petersburg, where it arrived on 6.9.11 O.S. In carrying the mail on that day, the postman
could not deliver the letter to the addressee and, for that reason, he set up a report, stating that: "Krauzman is not to
be found at Kolomenskaya Street, House NV (the front and back of the report is temporarily shown side by side on
the cover). The letter was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau, where the following cachets in violet were applied
during the searching process:-
1. A cachet with the text reading:"'CBB'HIH H'BTb'".
2. A circular cachet, enclosing the number "21" (the personal number of the official).
3. A cachet with the inscription: "OIIPOCHTb O IPHIHAAJI.(E)XHOCTH)" [= The entitlement to be cleared
up], together with which an address was written in black ink, reading "Stremyannaya X2 4". An interesting
particularity was the fact that this last cachet was placed on the back of the report.
It is possible to make an assumption that the recipient lived at the "Stremyannaya JMN 4" address (going by
the text, the address "belonged" to him), to where the letter was also delivered with the arrival marking of St.
Petersburg dated 6.9.11 (there are three strikes of St. Petersburg on the envelope under the reports).
A postcard is featured in Fig. 24. on which the 3-kopek stamp (Michel 81) was cancelled with the despatch
postmark of Warsaw 5.VI.15, being addressed to St. Petersburg.
In carrying the mail, the postman could not hand over the card to the addressee and it was therefore
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. That was confirmed by the rare postmark: "IETPOr PA'Tb /
CIIP.(ABOIHOE) BIOPO 6 3KC.(IIE _HLUS1 ) 9.6.1915". In contrast to all the other postmarks of the Enquiry
Bureau in Figs. 10a, lb. 16 & 20, there is a designation on this present marking that it was to be found in St.
Petersburg at the 6t. Despatch Section of the General Post Office.
During the searching process, a cachet in violet was placed on the card, reading: "3A BbIBblTIEM'b /
II.(OITOBO) T.(EJIErPA4 official]. In accordance with the postal regulations, the card was returned to the sender, for which reason an
indication was written it in black ink, reading: "A.(OCTABHTI) Pa3sejiabaa" [To be delivered; Razdel'naya St.).
There is no arrival marking.
Fig. 25a shows the address side of an official letter and the back is in Fig. 25b. According to the printed
heading as seen in Fig. 24b, this official letter JM 13860 was from the Urals District Court and the postmark of
despatch reads Ural'sk 16.9.15, as shown in Fig. 25a The sender did not know the address, so he gave an indication,
stating: "To the Warden of that part of the city of Petrograd, in the section of which the Ekateringof Prospect is to be
found". For that reason, the letter was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau in that city and that was confirmed by a
postmark, reading: "Petrograd / Enquiry Bureau / 6th. Despatch Office / 19.9.1915".
As a result of the searching process, the following various cachets in violet were applied to the envelope; see
Fig. 25b:-
1. A cachet with the textr"CB'B'BHIIH'BTFT" (= There are no data).
2. A cachet with the text: "3A HETOtHOCTbIO AAPECA" (= Because of an incomplete address; pale strike).
3. A circular cachet enclosing the figure "1" (personal number of the official), with a further figure "6" on the front.
In accordance with the postal regulations, the letter was returned to the sender and, for that reason, the
destination of the city of Petrograd was crossed out in black ink on the address side of the envelope, also adding the
directive: "To Ural'sk". The postmark of despatch reads: "Petrograd / Enquiry Bureau / 6t. Despatch Office
/21.9.15". It arrived back in Ural'sk on 25.9.15; see Fig. 25b. The postmark of the Enquiry Bureau is rare, as it was
applied in the capacity both of a postmark of despatch and of arrival; see Fig. 25.
After the revolution in October 1917 and the founding of the RSFSR (1917-1922), the cachets in the Enquiry
Bureau were replaced by new ones. An example is given on the postcard in Fig. 26 which was sent from Kronshtadt
3.1.20 to Petrograd 9.1.20 to an addressee serving on the tramp steamer "Erlik". In writing the address, the sender put
by chance the destination as Kronshtadt instead of Petrograd and the former place was then crossed out. In
accordance with the postal rates in force from 1.1.19 to 15.8.21, ordinary postcards and letters were forwarded free of
charge, so that this particular card was not franked with stamps.
In determining the address, the card was forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau and that was confirmed by the rare
postmark "IIETPOrPAl / CIIPAB.(O'HbIAI) OTHEJI II.-(OHTAM)TA 6, 11.1.20". As is evident from
the text of the marking, the Enquiry Bureau was renamed as the "Enquiry Department" and in the text of the
postmark, the word "Petrograd" is given in the new spelling, i.e. without the hard sign "'b" at the end of the name.

June 2004

Fig. 26. Fig. 27.

Fig. 28.

Fig. 29.

~:. .* o cB2en!:eRM AAPEC~iOFO. alfiPo

-- -~ Crru~ 30 -1-
Fig. 30. Fig..31
~' .~

gp -

Fig. 30Fig. 31

June 2004

As the result of a search, an indication in black pencil was written on the card, reading: "MopcKoft DITa6"
(= Naval Staff). All the mail to the ships of the Active Fleet was forwarded via that address and the despatch marking
was that of Petrograd 12.1.20.
A local postcard is featured in Fig. 27. on which 2 x 1-rouble stamps (Michel 121) were cancelled with the
despatch postmark of Petrograd 30.9.22, to arrive on 2.X.22. The total franking actually came to 20,000 roubles,
which corresponded with the postal rate for the transmission of an ordinary postcard (the definitive stamps were
revalued at 10,000 times face value in the period from 15.4.22 to 30.9.22 and during the era of maximum inflation).
In carrying the mail, the postman could not hand over the card to the addressee and it was therefore
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. That was confirmed by the rare postmark reading: "IIETPOrPAA /
CIIPAB.(OlHbIfI) OTHEJI II.-(OqTAM)TA / 3.10.22 (serial letter "a "). The results of the search for the
addressee are not noted on the card.
Fi. 28 features a local postcard, on which the 4 x 5-kopek stamps (Michel 113) were cancelled by a
despatch postmark, reading: "IIETPOFPAJTb / 13.9.18" and the arrival marking is illegible. The total face value of
the stamps was 20 kopeks, which corresponded to the postal rate for sending an ordinary postcard in the period from
28.2.18 to 15.9.18.
In carrying the mail, the postman could not hand over the card to the addressee and it was therefore
forwarded to the Enquiry Bureau. That was confirmed by a violet cachet reading: "CBSBJ ,(4lI) 7. H'STb" (the
number "7" within a circle). In fact, this cachet carried out two functions, which have already been described in the
text, namely, it served to indicate that there were no data and included at the same time the number "7" of the
official. The results of the search for the addressee are not noted on the card.
During the Soviet period after 1922, the search for the addressee was performed via the Address Board. As
an example, we see in Fig. 29 a postcard with an impressed die of 3 gold kopeks (Michel P 10, 1926 issue), on which
the stamp is cancelled with the despatch postmark of Moscow 22.5.27. It arrived in Leningrad on 24.5.27.
In carrying the mail, the postman could not find the addressee as given by the address on the card:
"Tserkovnaya at the corer of Kronverskaya, House 1, Apt. 7" and an enquiry was therefore made at the Address
Board. As a result of the searching process, the following violet cachets and a handwritten notation were placed on
the card:-
1. A cachet in a rectangular frame with the text: "He is........ known / according to an enquiry at the Address Board"
(in the case where the addressee could not be found, the word "not" was written in before the word "known").
2. A circular cachet enclosing the number "7" (the personal number of the official). The diameter of this cachet has
been increased from 10 to 17 mm., in comparison to the ones previously described.
3. An address handwritten in blue pencil and reading: "Blokhin Street, House 1/75, Apt. 8", to which address the
card was delivered to the addressee/recipient.
We see in Fig. 30 the address side of a local letter, on which the stamp of 5 gold kopeks (Michel 275A) has
been cancelled with the despatch postmark of Leningrad 16.6.27 and the arrival postmark on the back is of 17.VI.27.
In bearing the mail, the letter carrier (that was the new name for the postman) made out a report, stating that:
"Shishmarev does not live (underlined in red pencil) at Marat Street, House J~ 8". The illustrations temporarily show
both the text and back of the report side by side on the cover.
In searching for the address, an enquiry was made at the Address Board.. As a result of the search, the
following cachets in violet and a handwritten notation were placed on the envelope:-
1. A cachet with the text in a rectangular frame reading: "He is....known according to an enquiry at the Address
2. A circular cachet enclosing the number "4" with a diameter of 17 mm. on the back of the envelope.
3. A cachet with the text in a rectangular frame reading: "OBPATHO / IIOAATEJIIO (signature)" [Back to the
presenter]. For some unexplained reason, this cachet was applied on the back of the report.
4. A notation in blue pencil reading :"HecK.(oJILKO) / aAp.(ecoB)" [= several addresses]. There had been no
indications of the first name and patronymic of Shishmarev in the address on the envelope and there were many
addresses for such a widely known surname.
In accordance with the postal regulations and the directive on cachet JM 3, the letter was returned to the
sender, with the despatch postmark reading Leningrad 19.VI.27. The arrival marking of 20.6.27 is on the back of the
It should be noted that, even in the difficult 900 days of the blockade of Leningrad (8.9.41 to 27.1.44), when
650,000 people died in the city from hunger, cold, bombing and artillery barrages, the Postal Service kept on working
and even carried out searches at the Address Board for the addressees.
As an example, there is shown in Fig.31 a postcard of the USSR with an impressed die (Michel P 161.01,
1941 issue), on which the 20-kopek stamp design was cancelled with the despatch postmark of Tomsk 4.10.42. As a
June 2004

result of wartime conditions, the card was checked by the Military Censorship and that was confirmed by a strike in
violet of a cachet with the text: "IIPOCMOTPEHO / BoeiRHo IleH3ypo0 / 70". The card was addressed to
Leningrad, with a pale and barely readable strike of the arrival marking dated 13.10.42.
In carrying the mail, the postman discovered that the recipient did not live at the indicated address and the
enquiry was therefore sent to the Address Board. A paper label confirming this enquiry has a text reading:-
"According to the data at the Address Bureau / ....living at...../....House NM.../...apt...../ Station of the
Leningrad City Militia / Enquiry carried out by the Registrar (signature) / "...."......194....".
An inscription written in pencil on the label reads: "He has gone off to the Red Army, 14.XII.42". In
connection with the departure of the addressee, the card was returned to the sender from Leningrad on 18.10.42. The
arrival marking of Tomsk is absent.
During the period of war (1941-1945) Leningrad was beset with many difficulties, including in connection
with the absence of typographic equipment and paper. It is assumed that, for this reason, the paper labels described
above were replaced with cachets having a similar text.
As an example, a postcard is featured in Fig. 32 which was sent from the Army on Active Service, Field
Post M90532. The card was not franked since, in wartime, the mail from the Army and to the Front was sent free of
charge. In this case, the despatch postmark read "FIELD POST / 8.1.45.
Because of wartime conditions, the card was checked by the Military Censorship, as confirmed by a strike in
black of a cachet with the text: "IIPOCMOTPEHO / BoenlHo IieH3ypol / 01249" in a pale and barely readable
strike. As a result of the examination, the censor covered up with an indelible pencil the reference to the name of a
town in the text "I am sending you a view of the town......" (see the arrow), presumably because such information
was regarded as secret, since it indicated the whereabouts of the military unit. It should be noted that the censorship
of mail was sometimes cursory; for example, the censor had blocked out the name of the town in the text, but it had
remained on the view side of the card as "Constanla, Debarcaderul" (Disembarking [of the passengers] at the
Romanian port of Constanta).
The card was addressed to Leningrad, Vasil'evskii Ostrov, 6t. Line, House 2, Apt. 28., where it arrived on
7.2.45. In carrying the mail, the postman discovered that the recipient did not live at the address indicated on the card
and an enquiry was therefore made at the Address Board. That was confirmed by a strike in violet of a cachet, the
text of which is the same as on the paper label and is therefore not shown; see the text in Fig. 31.
As a result of the search, a new address was written in violet ink on the cachet as:"V.O., 7th. Line, House 2,
Apartment 26": this new address corrected the street (7th. Line instead of the 6h.) and "26" instead of "28" for the
apartment number. In order to draw the attention of the postman, the number "7" instead of "6" was written in the
address and the card then delivered to the recipient.
As an example of searching for an addressee in the postwar period after 1945, the address side of a cover is
shown in Fig. 33 and the back of the same envelope in Fig. 33b. The 4-kopek stamp (Michel 2437) on the cover was
cancelled with the despatch postmark of Kiev 11.5.62, to arrive in Leningrad 14.5.62; see Fig. 33b.
The letter carrier could not hand over the letter at Kirov Street 8, Apt. 17, since according to the seal
and report of the Living Quarters Authority, the addressee "does not live at Kirov Street 8". In searching for the
proper address, an enquiry was made at the Address Board. As a result of the search, a rectangular cachet in violet
was applied to the envelope, reading: "According to the data of the Address Bureau in Leningrad, Citizen....HAS
BEEN REPORTED..." and an address was written in black pencil in the cachet, namely: "Smirnov Street, House 8,
Apt. 17"; see Fig. 33b. The Leningrad arrival is dated 22.5.62.; see Fig. 33a
Interest is manifested by a rectangular cachet in violet with the text: "For the enquiry / 2 kop. / of the
Address / Board", i.e. upon receipt of the letter, the addressee had to pay 2 kopeks for the report of the Address
The author expresses his warmest thanks to Marina Mandrovskaya of Moscow, Russia for extending the
possibility of becoming acquainted with the material in her collection and permitting its publication in this article.
1. L.G. Ratner: "The Story of the Issue and Usage of Address Applications on Postcard Blanks in St. Petersburg".
"The Post-Rider N2 52, June 2003, pp. 12-21.
2. JIeHfmrpagcKnx rocyAapcrBeHHm6A HcropwiecmKB ApxHB, (pOH 1543, onMch 9, nejo 14, crp. 68.
3. JIeHHHrpaAcKHm rocygapcraeHabi HeropHnecKHa Apxas, 4bonH 1543, onnc 9, aeno 47, cip. 71-75.
Special offer of back numbers of "The Post-Rider".
Our "Comprehensive Index for 'The Post-Rider' Nos. 1 to 50" has won high praise in the foreign philatelic press
because of the extensive cross-indexing of the more than 4000 pages of solid and original research that we have published so far.
The Index is very reasonably priced at US $8.00 post-paid anywhere in the world and we also offer a very favourable price for
substantial orders of back numbers of "The Post-Rider". Your knowledge of Russian philately will expand greatly.

June 2004

w r tf i R i 1 l t. P r u
.'l Fig. 3,2f -..

M o .. B. t in a u o- t Ro

.j. ^_____,,,.Af-- 4-;`9,

.. -. Fig. 33b. -Fig. 33a.

WAGONS by Meer Kossoy.
The Nikolaevskii Railway Line was opened for traffic in Russia in 1851, linking St. Petersburg with
Moscow. Both on that line and the numerous ones in the years that followed in Russia up to 1917, more than 350

basic routes went into operation, along which the transmission of mail came into being, in addition to the conveyance
of passengers. The correspondence to be forwarded was accepted at the postal stations of inhabited points and the
possibility was also examined of it being handed directly to the postal wagons of the trains passing through; letter
boxes were installed for that purpose.
Only ordinary mail could be deposited in the letter boxes on the postal wagons. Registered mail was
originally not accepted, as such transmission required the relevant documentation for filling in and handing out a
receipt to the sender and there was a time limitation on the stopping of the train.
Further philatelic investigations would be necessary in order to determine the date when the transmission of
registered mail was permitted by being taken out of the letter boxes of the postal wagons. However, it is known that,
in accordance with the Circular of the Director of the Central Administration of Posts & Telegraphs (fYlHT) JW 29
of 29 May 1914, there were put into use "Special cachets for registered sending, which have been taken out of the
letter boxes on postal wagons" [1]. The Circular directed that:-
1. Each postal wagon or its subdivision had to be provided with a rubber stamp with the following inscription:-
(a) The capital letter "3",
(b) The sign "s-",
(c) The designation "n.B. MN".
2. The size of the cachet and the arrangement of the text must conform | Fig. 1.
with the sample shown herewith; see Fig. 1.
3. The cachet should be applied exclusively in red.

June 2004

If it is taken into account that postal operations could be carried out only after the official introduction of a
postal cachet, then it can be claimed that the acceptance of registered sending taken out of the letter boxes on postal
wagons began no earlier than June 1914, as confirmed by the cited Circular [1].
Special interest is therefore evoked
S a:"j nor a o"ui by the postcard shown in Fig. 2. The card
rosAE Ni- M was franked with three stamps, totalling 10
(i uToE Etlmuo.- CL j, kopeks in value (1 + 2 + 7), in conformance
with the postal rates in force during that
period: 3 kopeks for sending the card and 7
S/ .- kopeks for the registration fee. The
Sidesignation "3aKa3noe" (Registered) is
written by hand at the top of the card.
/4 The card was deposited in the letter box of
: a postal wagon, as confirmed by the
Slcircular postmark in black, reading:-
a .. ... *s. "Postal Wagon N2 204"and with the date in
cross form: 11.111.04. Postal Wagon M2 204
served the Chardzhui-Krasnovodsk route, which was opened in 1899. The postcard was addressed to Sretensk in the
Trans-Baikal province, where it was received by the addressee on 30.11.04.
One may suggest several possibilities, but the clinching fact is that this particular card was accepted and
handled in Postal Wagon XJ 204 as a registered sending. That was confirmed by the handwritten designation in black
ink of a rectangular registration cachet, in which the route is given as a fraction: n.e. JVM 204 (with the initials of the
word "postal wagon") and the consecutive number of the accepted sending, namely "1". The hand-drawn cachet
differs from the one designated by the Circular [1], in that the capital letter "3" (for "Registered") is missing and the
text on the cachet has an "inverted" arrangement: what should have been the upper line is now at bottom and vice
The number "1" in the cachet confirms that this was the first registered postal sending taken from the letter
box of Postal Wagon JM 204 and, if the date is taken into account, it may well have been the first such sending in the
Railway Postal History of Russia. It may therefore be reckoned that such mail was already being accepted ten years
earlier than had been officially sanctioned by the cachet in the Circular [1].
Further searching in the postal documents and the investigation of philatelic material will allow us to
determine the contradiction in the dates of the original acceptance of registered sending taken out of the letter boxes
on postal wagons and thus answer the question: was 1904 just a date by chance and was the postcard shown in Fig. 2
just an exception to the regulations, or was the acceptance of such sending officially permitted in 1914, when a
uniform cachet was put into use for that class of mail?
In connection with what has been said above, it would also be interesting to examine the dates for the
acceptance of underpaid sending, taken out of the letter boxes of postal wagons. With that aim in view, one may turn
to the work done by A.V. Kiryushkin & P.E. Robinson [2]; on the basis of studying and analysing the largest
collections in the world, it has been possible to collect and describe material about the Railway Postal History of
An analysis of the railway line cachets for underpaid mail in [2] shows that the earliest dates were in
November-December 1902. There are also underpaid railway line sending which date from 1903 and 1904. It should
be noted that these dates are close to the date of acceptance of the registered sending described and shown in Fig. .
An especial interest is
I .204. .. demonstrated by the postage due markings
S 3. .1 of postal wagons. A strike is shown of such
---' a postage due cachet, which was applied by
e. N Postal Wagon No 204.
J Q 9...- A postcard was deposited in the letter box
Fig. 3, of that wagon, being confirmed by an oval
,/- ,. ': Fig. cachet, reading "CHARDZHUI-204-
... KRASNOVODSK" in black and dated
7.9.13. The card was not franked, as the
F Y .... stamp is missing. For that reason, an oval
.-M t^ ^ r" .. -. postage due cachet was applied in red with
S._ _.. the text reading:

June 2004

"TO PAY POST(AL) WAG(ON) / KRASNOVODSK-CHARDZHUTI, writing in the amount due as "6" kopeks.
That amount was double the deficiency. The card was received in St. Petersburg on 13.9.13.
The following interesting fact should also be noted; in all probability, there was only one postage due cachet
in the postal wagon, which was applied both for the forward trip: "Krasnovosk-203-Chardzhui" and the return trip:
"Chardzhui-204-Krasnovodsk", as can be seen on the postcard in Fi. 3.
It may also be noted that the railway line markings shown in Figs. 2 & 3 were unrecorded in [2], thus
confirming their rarity. In connection with the classification set out in [2], these markings should be placed in the
highest category of rarity, namely "G"
1. IloqTOBO-TejierpacDHifi xypHajni, 1914, JN2 23, cro. 286.
2. A.V. Kiryushkin & P.E. Robinson: "Russian Railway Postmarks", 1994, pp. 120, 151-154.
by Vladimir Berdichevskiy.
Not long ago at an e-Bay auction on the Internet I came across two used stamps from the well-known set of
charity stamps of the Ukrainian SSR, issued in 1923 with the theme: "In aid of the starving". In studying them
carefully, the following facets had to be cleared up.
A partial strike of the postmark was seen on the stamp with the portrait of T.H. Shevchenko (20 + 20
karbovantsiv, Michel N2 68A) and it was possible to make out only four letters: "CKBA". The date was practically
unreadable (Fi. ).
As is known [reference 1, p. 81], the stamps of this set went into circulation at only 9 towns in the Ukraine
(Khar'kov/Kharkiv, Poltava, Ekaterinoslav/Katerynoslav, Zhitomir, Kiev/Kyiv and Chernigov/Chemihiv) in the
period from 25 June to 15 July 1923 and none of these listed town names contains the "CKBA" combination of
letters. On the other hand, the name of "MOCKBA" (= Moscow), immediately came to mind, although the stamps
were never in circulation there,
It may therefore be suggested with a great amount of probability that, in this case, a genuine stamp was
therefore postmarked also with a genuine canceller of Moscow, but to the detriment of philatelists. The fact is that the
used stamps of this set are encountered considerable more rarely than those in mint condition and they are
consequently more expensive.
We see on the second stamp (10 + 10 karbovantsiv, Michel N2 67A) the partial strike of a postmark.
However, a star with the hammer and sickle inside can be seen absolutely clearly and to the left of it the two "CC"
letters, i.e. the first two letters of the initials "CCCP" (= USSR). In connection with that configuration, it is known
from reference [2, p. 2] that: "An order was published by the Administration of Postal Communications in April 1938
regarding: 'In amending the directive N2 148 of 19 February 1938 issued by the People's Commissar, the following
model for dated cancellers is confirmed:-
1. The emblems of the hammer and sickle and the five-pointed star with the letters CCCP are to be engraved in the
upper part of the canceller;..."
It is therefore obvious that this stamp was postmarked with an unknown canceller but, in any case, it must
have taken place after April 1938. We also see here an activity to the detriment of philatelists. (Fig.2)

ADnuoror^ otuA-M-9w

1. V.B. Kofman : "Some additional notes on the 1923 Famine issue of the Ukrainian SSR"; "The Post-Rider"
(~MIIHK), 2001, JN2 41, pp. 81-83.
2. JI.r. PaTHep: "CoBeTcKHe KaJIeH apHLie mTeMneJni o6pa31ibI 1938 rosa", CaHKT-IIeTep6ypr, CraHgapT -
KojijieKnsa, 1997, NM 11, crp. 2-4.

June 2004

by Dr. Dan-Simion Grecu.

Romanian military mail can offer many elements of interest if they are correctly analysed from a historical
perspective, which can often be revealed even by identifying and examining in detail the actions of some known
military units. An area of interest not yet tackled in the literature refers to the battles waged against the partisans on
the Eastern Front. While probably justified in the conditions of a military campaign, this type of hostile action against
"illegal combatants" brought on after 1945 terrible reprisals by the Soviet victors against implicated Romanian
commanders and soldiers.
There existed in the years from 1942 to 1944 specific campaigns to wipe out Soviet partisans in the frontal
areas, with the most widespread action being probably in the Crimea (I am especially referring to the front line held
by the Romanian troops). But in what is being set out below, we will be referring to a "secondary" anti-partisan
campaign in Transnistria, which reached its greatest extent in the months of February-March 1944 [1].
The activity of the partisans in Transnistria was weak, being carried out in the majority of cases by small
groups without logistic help or important popular support. They operated for a short time in limited zones and were
usually quickly discovered and broken up. It appears that the ones best known were those which operated in the
suburbs of Odessa (being composed of former sailors and workers at the power house or at smaller enterprises).
Some of them were based in the well-known catacombs of the city, but they were not the subject of military
operations by the Army, being fought by the Romanian Police Force in Odessa.
Apart from Odessa, a group of partisans is known to have operated in Southern Transnistria in the district of
Bol'shoi Fontan (1'ichevsk), being inactive until 1943, when it began to fuse with other groups. By the end of the
year, it numbered 299 persons under the name of the "Stalin Brigade" and published a newspaper called "3a
cnacrae POAnHHi" (= For the happiness of the Motherland).
There was even lesser activity in the area of Northern Transnistria. The existence was noted there of a group
of partisans, composed of railway workers in the Dubossary area. In addition, there was activity to some extent by a
group in the Savranskoe zone of Transnistria (Golovanevsk in the Ukraine, to the north of Golta) and known under
the name of "BypeBecTHHK" (= The petrel bird), which seemed to have brought together the remnants, as a result of
the Party Organisation, after its withdrawal in the woods at Savranskoe.
After the failure of the first partisan operations, the former secretary of the Town Committee in Pervomaisk
was sent in person in the autumn of 1942 to reunify the rest of the partisan groups and resisters in the area to the west
of the Bug river in the Pervomaisk zone. He thus became the commissar of the "Burevestnik" units. However, the
units did not go beyond 60 members up to the winter of 1943-1944, when they received Soviet reinforcements
(beginning in the month of August 1943 and, with much support from the 4 Ukrainian Front, the unit was enlarged
and reorganised, reaching 200 members in the winter and increasing as the Soviet forces advanced westwards).
At Krimi (to the west of Pervomaisk and on the bank of the Kodyma river) 20 schoolchildren of both sexes
constituted the nucleus of a unit called "rapTHsancKai HcKpa" (= The Partisan Spark) and, during an action to
coincide with the Battle of Staloingrad, the group was captured by Romanian soldiers. Soviet historiography claims
that about 30 persons out of the 90 taken on that occasion were executed by the Romanians in February 1943.
As can be seen, the partisan movement in Transnistria remained at a minimal level of activity, being
practically non-existent up to the middle of May 1943. Some attempts at reinvigoration then took place and around
1t. May, some 160-200 men tried to cross the Bug river in Transnistria, firstly at Pervomaisk and then at
Voznesensk, but 64 of them were captured by the Romanians. Activity was intensified in the expectation of the
advance of the Red Army, including repeated parachute drops, especially in the winter of 1943-1944. Thus, in the
winter of 1943-1944, the weak activity of the partisan movement in Transnistria had gathered momentum somewhat,
that being precisely the period in which Romanian military units were involved in anti-partisan activities in
The coordination of military actions in Central and Northern Transnistria from the beginning of 1944 and up
to 25 March took place as a mission of the 3rd. Army Corps (FPO 116; see reference [2]). The exact dates are
known to some extent about each division [3], as follows:-
*In Northern Transnistria, the 5h. Cavalry Division (FPO 90) acted in an isolated way (it would be most correct to
say: a part of the Division and made up of the 6t. & 8th. Roliori [Elite Cavalry] Regiments), having fought in the
period from 27 February to 17 March 1944 against the partisans at Mitki, Shargorod, Stanislavchik and Trestyanchik,
safeguarding and defending the bridgehead at Mogilev-Podol'skii.
*8h. Infantry Division (FPO 59): Some subordinate units entered during the period of 20 February to 27 March
1944 into the formation of the "Cantemir" Group (namely the 29"t. Infantry Division, 8th. Police Company and a
Transmission Detachment), which was put together to fight the partisans in Central and Northern Transnistria.

June 2004

*5th Infantry Division (FPO 32) found itself entrusted with a mission of security and defence in Northern
Transnistria, going into combat actions against the partisans within Savranskoe, Slobodka Station, Peschana,
Koloderka and the Starolug forest, as well as in the Bershad area and thus against the "Burevestnik" groups.
*140. Infantry Division (FPO 62) in the period from 27.1.1944 and up to 23.3.1944 found itself stationed as a
diversion along the shores of the Black Sea between Kubanka and Popovka, to the east of Odessa
In proceeding from this section, so as to say theoretically, we will now analyse a rare postal item, which
documents one of these actions eliminating the partisans in Transnistria. We are referring here to a Transnistrian
postcard on white stock, with an imprinted 12-lei "Duca Vod&" design, written on 8.3.44 by a solder in the 6th.
Hunters' Regiment, Company 4-a, FPO 62, with the address indicating a regiment belonging to FPO 62 and on loan
to the 140. Infantry Division. The original censorship took place at the sub-unit level by applying a cachet reading:
"ROMANIA Regimentul 6 Van~itori" and adding a handwritten notation, reading: "Cenzurat. Cdt. Comp. 4-a,
Cipitan.. ". The sorting took place at the command level of the Major Unit, which applied the postmark OFICIUL
POSTAL MILITAR JM 32 (belonging to the 5h. Infantry Division) on 14.3.44. There already appeared a
contradiction in the address, where FPO 62 was indicated, while the postmark was applied at another office (FPO
32). In general and in such a situation, that was a case of two divisions located in the same zone and sharing an area
of mutual actions but, as we have also seen above, the 14'h. Infantry Division was stationed on that date along the
shores of the Black Sea between Kubanka and Popovka, to the east of Odessa and thus in Southern Transnistria.
During that same period, the 5a. Infantry Division was in Northern Transnistria, located in the area of Savranskoe,
Slobodka, Peschana, Koloderka and Bershad; there was thus a distance of 200-250 km. (1250160 miles) between the
two zones.
We find the explanation for this apparent mystery in the military bibliography, stating that the 14t. Infantry
Division had contributed a battalion from the 6th. Hunters' Regiment to combat the partisans in Northern
Transnistria, i.e. therefore in the zone of activities of the 5th. Infantry Division. There exists a complex and exact
confirmation of the historical dates through the intermediary of the described correspondence, sent clearly from that
battalion of the 6h. Hunters' Regiment (which had been detached from the 14th. Infantry Division). It had participated
in anti-partisan activities in support of the 5th. Division and, for that reason, the mail was sent via FPO 32, on a
temporary basis and it thus kept FPO N2 62 as the point of origin in the handwritten address! The period of 6 days
from the time the postcard was written and the date when it sorted at the FPO 32 level could eventually be explained
by the distance between where the actions of the battalion and the 5h. Division Command respectively took place.
The date of 14.3.44 also represents the latest date for the transmission of mail from a Romanian military unit
in Transnistria, taking into account that a general withdrawal from that area began on 23-27.3.1944, stretching out in
long lines. It is probable that the date of 14.3.44 was also the latest instance of utilisation of the 12-lei "Duca-Voda"
Transnistrian postcard, which is shown on the next page.
1. See much more data about the problem of the partisans in Transnistria in the work by Alexander Dallin: "Odessa-
1941-1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory Under Foreign Rule", Iasi-Oxford-Portland, Centre of Romanian
Studies, 1998.
2. The number is indicated in parentheses of the Field Post Office (OPM), which appears on the mail and which can
thus help in identification.
3. According to the work by Alexandru Dutu, Florica Dobre & Leonida Loghin: "Armata Romana in al doilea
Razboi Mundial 1941-1945 Dictionar Enciclopedic" (The Romanian Army in the 2nd. World War 1941-1945 -
Encyclopaedic Dictionary), Editura Enciclopedici, Bucharest, 1999.
Editorial Comment: Transnistria was the area between the Dniester (Nistru) and Bug rivers, in the Ukraine and the
former Moldavian ASSR / SSR, unilaterally occupied by Romania in WWII as an Axis power and administered from
Odessa, although at least 80% of the population in that zone was of Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian origin.
Practically all the mail so far seen was sent by Romanians and their German allies, while one German reply card has
been recorded sent by a Ukrainian to an Ostarbeiter in Germany. It would therefore seem that the local Slav
population basically stopped communicating by mail.
It is confusing that conventional historians still use the name Transnistria, Cis-Transnistria or Transdniestria
to denote the break-away Slav area on both sides of the Dniester river within the Republic of Moldova and now
calling itself "IpnH HecrpoBCKas MonjaBcKaa Pecny6 iHKa" (Pridniestrovian Moldavian Republic or PMR).
If partisan activity in Transnistria 1941-1944 was originally at a low level, that was because most of the area
was composed of steppe, with few forests to offer cover. After the devastating Soviet victories at Stalingrad and the
Kursk Bulge in 1943, the Axis forces on the Eastern Front lost all offensive capability and partisan activity increased
markedly, as the Red Army advanced westwards. By 23 August 1944, Romania had changed sides in WWII and its
forces saw subsequent Allied action in Northern Transylvania and Czechoslovakia. As they say, the rest is history.

June 2004

'F~-a~p~it ^*rSSent to Cacica in Southern Bukovina,
C T ...T it is curious that this card is addressed to a
Sa, -- lady with a pronounced Slav name: either
a e s ,en EBream JIyxelKaai (Russian) or EBreim
| ,JIy' eInKa (Ukrainian)!
[Dr. Dan-Simion Grecu Collection].

"D "e. et -" =-l,


Reference is made here to the request "Postcard
illustration wanted!" published in "The Post-Rider" N 51,

from the Tuvan border.

Andrei Ivanovich Kapranov has recently been kind enough
to send us a scan of that particular card, for comparison here
with the issued stamp. What a conversation piece!
It can be seen that the two views tally exactly, except that the stamp designer V.V. Zav'yalov has removed
the statue/person (?) from the top of the "rocky outcrop". Also, the captions on the card are unusually inscribed in
Russian and English, as follows:-
Caf6pi. Siberia.
OKpe.mocTH rop. KpacuospcKa. Environs of the city Krasnoiarsk.
Bnmatwiha cr. Entceih. Next station Ienisei.
OGm C.-eleTep6ypra 4695 sepcrb. From St.-Petersburg 4695 versts.
By contrast, most of the viewcards of the period were labelled in Russian & French, or just in Russian. Mr.
Kapranov is himself a viewcard collector, looking for cards of Siberia and the Russian Far East. He may be reached
by e-mail at: andy(cartsib.ru and his postal address is A.I. Kapranov, Russia 660073, Krasnoyarsk-73, ul. Nikolaeva
11-A, kv. 46.
The derivation of the geographic name "Siberia".
While on the subject of Siberia, we all know that it has a very cold climate and the inhabitants therefore drink a lot of
beer. The result is that they sigh beerier than anywhere else! That was a good one, was it not?
June 2004

Ruben Ruiz Ibdrruri, a Spaniard on a-Soviet postal stationery cover
by Salvador BofarulL
The Soviet Postal Administration, a dependency of the Ministry of Communications, issued on 26 October
1984 a postal stationery cover, measuring 160 x 114mm. A 5-kopek stamp was printed in lilac in the upper right
corner and in the same design as the Definitive Series of 1982, showing in a schematic way different means of
communication, such as by truck, train and aeroplane. There are ten horizontal lines immediately below, also in lilac,
being reserved for the name and address of the addressee, as well as the name, address and postal code of the sender.
A drawing showing the effigy in military uniform of the Spanish hero Ruben Ruiz Ibaurri is reproduced on the
upper left side of the cover. This design in black, red and yellow was the work of the Soviet artist P. Bendel and was
based on a family photograph of Rubdn with his sister Amaya. A three-line inscription immediately below the design
reads: "Hero of the Soviet Union / Guards Captain R.R. IBARRURI / 1920-1942". There is shown on his right side
the Gold Star medal of Hero of the Soviet Union on leaves of laurel. A black frame occupies the lower left side, with
seven boxes devoted to the postal code of the addressee. A diagram on the flap of the cover shows the way to write
the postal code, while there is a lilac inscription on the lower flap at back, reading: "Ministry of Communications of
the USSR. 1984", the selling price of 6 kopeks, the name of the designer P. Bendel and "Printed by the Goznak
Factory in Perm"'.
Ruben Ruiz Ibarui was the first child of Juliin Ruiz and Dolores Ib rruri. According to the Spanish naming
system, Ruben was his first name, Ruiz was the surname of his father and Ibirruri that of his mother., so that his real
surname was Ruiz, while Ibirruri was used only on legal documents. However, even if he was actually Ruben Ruiz
and given that, in the Russian system of naming and also in the British and American ones, the surname of the person
comes last, then he was known as R.R. Ibbrruri in the USSR and that is the way he is mentioned on the present
envelope. Ruben was born in 1920 in Somorrostro Muquiz in the Basque country of Northern Spain. Four sisters
followed, including triplets and two of them died shortly after being born. Amaya survived and she is living now in
Madrid. During the Spanish Republic of 1931-1939, Ruben's mother Dolores Ibirruri took the political pseudonym
of"La Pasionaria" (The Passionate One) and she was actively engaged in politics, being a Member of Parliament.
During the Spanish Civil War, Ruben fought in the ranks of the Spanish Republican Army, being promoted
to corporal when he was 17 and sergeant the following year.. He participated in several of the fiercest battles, among
them the offensive on the Ebro. When the Spanish Republican Army was defeated by the Francoist insurgents,
Rub6n crossed over into the south of France, where he was placed in an internment camp. From there he went with
his family to the Soviet Union. Shortly after their arrival, the German invasion drew the USSR into the Second
World War and Ruben joined the Soviet Army, being promoted to lieutenant. In 1941, he fought bravely in the Battle
of Borisov, which was taken by the invaders after a bloody fight. Rub6n distinguished himself there with his courage,
was wounded and awarded the Order of the Red Banner as a result. He recovered from his wounds at Ufa in the
Urals region, where he joined his family. In 1942, he took part in the Battle of Stalingrad, commanding a machine-
gun unit of the 35th. Guards Battalion. He died in action after fighting bravely. For his heroism, he was promoted to
Captain and posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the Gold Star medal. In the official list
of Heroes of the USSR compiled by the Soviet Academy of Sciences, he occupies position 44 among the Stalingrad
heroes. He appears in the main square of Stalingrad in a memorial monument, together with several comrades of
Rub6n Ruiz Ibirruri is the fifth Spaniard to appear on Soviet philatelic issues. In 1963, a stamp was
dedicated to political fighter Juliin Grimau; in 1966, to the famous writer Miguel de Cervantes; in 1980, to the
Hispano-Arabian doctor and philosopher Avicenna and, in 1981, to the painter Pablo R. Picasso.
The author wants to express his thanks to the Ruiz Ibarruri family for their kind assistance and to the
Editorial Board of RFRevista de Filatelia in Madrid, for permitting the reproduction of this article in English, which
was first published in Spanish in March 2004.
List of illustrations:
1. The postal stationery envelope of 26 October 1984.
2. Rub6n Ruiz Ibarruri in military uniform. Contemporary Soviet postcard.
3. Gold Star Hero of the Soviet Union, posthumously awarded to Rub6n Ruiz.
4. Soviet 5-rouble stamp dedicated to the Order of the Red Banner, awarded to Rub6n Ruiz.
5. Ruben Ruiz with his sister Amaya. This photograph served as a model for the postal stationery envelope.
6. Rub6n Ruiz in military uniform with his mother Dolores Ibirruri in the USSR.
7. Soviet 60-kopek stamp dedicated to the Order of the Red Banner, awarded to Rub&n Ruiz.
8. Dolores Ibrruri on a Russian postcard of 1938, used as a Soviet fieldpost card in 1943.
9. The reverse of the same postcard sent through Fieldpost NJ 47732, 54th. Sappers Battalion, 11th. Sappers Battalion,
with Military Censorship mark, Fieldpost date-stamp 21.12.1944 and Moscow arrival postmark of 3.1.1945.

June 2004

C-r .' fpw ro Conas
mrupRA an Ta P.P. MSAPPYPH
1920- 1942

- I P

nn Hn ImptA~pnlr. (Snrranrrl

Fig. 3.

M1edalla de oro de Heroe de la
Uni6n Soviktica, concedida a ti-
tulo p6stumo a Ruben Ruiz.

Fig. 4.

Sello sovi6tico dedica-
do a la Orden de la Ban-
dera Roja, que fue otor-
gada a Rub6n Ruiz.

Fig. 6.

S..- Sello sovidjico dedi-
Scado a ]a Orden de
la Bandera Roja, que
Rabdn Ruiz Ibirrurl en uniform con su madre fue otorgada a
Dolores Ibirruri, durante so estancia en la URSS. Rub6n Ruiz.

Fi. 1.

Fig. 5: Ruben Ruiz con su hermana Amaya. Esta
foto sirvi6 de model para el entero postal.

Fig. 8.
Dolores Ibirruri
en una postal
rusa de 1938,
nsada en correo
de campana en

June 2004

*'0 a i A A AR



P Amn, H. "U.. (. rant aE
u ~ m *' "* .< rim ri...^foi. H lia

AOP I?~~

Fig. 9.

Ryr)e ..

Ity e pe.rpr.q- -..r,- I --pC -pon a

JI. PaTHep L. Ratner
CaHrr-Herep6ypr, PoccHa S-Petersburg, Russia

(The English translation will appear in "The Post-Rider" No. 55).


can: "Ho0moeypo Mapiy mo0Hno paccMampueamb KaK enHHblft 3HnaK, KaK mnameIcHoe cpe)-
cmeo. ...Ho1 omnouenumo Kc nome, dnn nepecbmrit KoppecnonHemfuu, normoeble MapKU
uMelom 3naienue benee. ,LaI nozauwenuA nonmosoat apvu ... ocmamonno, ecnu ono npo-
u3eooumci nocpeocmeoM KaKo2o-nut60 3HaKa, Komopblt nuwaem mapKy e 4f ennozo
IIoHTOBoe BelOMCTBO npeKpacHO noHHMaJIO 3TO H Bcerga crapaJiocb HCKJioHHTb
Ho, rOTOBsCb K BbInycKy nepBbix no9rOBblX MapOK H yrBepAHB B MHHHTcepCTBe
m)HHaHCOB nepeqeHb pacxoonB no HX BBeXleHmo, foqroBbil AernapTaMewr He npewycMoTpeji
pacxo0AbI Ha H3rTOBJIeHHe H paccbtIKy no cTpaHe cpeacrB yHHrTOKeHHl (norameHHr) Ma-
pOK mTeMneJIekI .
lepBbIMH 3To ynymeHHe 3aMeTHJIH B 3KcnelHHXHH 3arOTOBrieHHa rocygapCTBeH-
Hbix 6yMar (331T) H npeAJIOXCHJ IIH HOrTOBOMy xenapTameHTy npHMeHHTb rim yHIHTOxce-
B ImcbMe IIpaBJieHum 331T or 13 moHHI 1856 roga roBopunocb: "...He 6y)em tu
6o03MOdCHblM nopyVumb ...npu nocame nuceM c uwmeMnejibHblwu apKcam (oT aBropa: no 20
OKTr6pH 1857 roFa, Kora 6blJIO Bblcoqaiime yrBepawneHo Ha3BaHHe "noMTOBbie MapKH",
OHH qacrT Ha3bIBaJIHCb "IITeMneJIbHbe MapKH") nepetepcueamb oHbie tepnwansu, caK 3 mo
dehiaemcA na umeMnejibHbix Koneepmax, vem ycmpamnuacb 6bi He 6owtebula e uctucnemue
pacvemoe no 6eeeenuto umeMnenlbHbaIX MapoK u3c)epmtcra na npuzomoeoienue wumeMneu".2
IlowroBbli genapTaMeHrr npHH3M 3TO nTpeAJiom)eHHe. B pa3pa6oTaHHblX no3AHHee
gOKyMeHrax rOBopHJIOCb o nepeqepKHBaHHH MapOK qepHHrnaMH. Ho noTroBoe BeAOMcTBO
rpeaycMaTpHBuano B fainbHefilleM npHMeeHeHHe mTeMnejIeJe AJIJ yHH4TO)KeHHR IIOqTOBbIX
B "IHpaBHjiax aa AeiiCTBHk no yqpeaeHmo norIOTOBbIX MapoK", yTBepx~PieHHbIX B
Hoa6pe 1857 roaa, cKa3aHo: "IVmo6bi emopurnoe ynompe6tenue 'nol0moebiX MapoK 6bTwo
neeo3Moo3ino, mo, c6o 3aeeeHnu oco6blx umeMneAeit, nepevepmueamb iepHbiMU tepnH amu
HnaooicemHbie na nucbmax mapKu KHpecmoM, KaK amo 7 enaemcA menepb co wmeMnenbiblMu
KOneepman ".3
KaK noKa3ana ripaKTHKa, KpecToo6pa3Hoe nepeiepKHBaHHe no TOBblX MapoK qep-
B aHBape 4peBpanie 1858 rosa B IIo~roBbi, genapTaMeHT HeoAHOKpaTHo nocry-
nanIH nHCbMa 06 HcnHOJb30BaHHH MapoK, paHee npomeAmrx nowry, H npeeAJioxceHHH no HC-
3TOH enJH u mTeMneJII.
HHTepecHbIM 6blIo nHCbbMO H.BoqapoBa, XHMHKa H3 CyanHcJaBJIa, KoCTPOMCKOfi
ry6epHHH, pacKpbriaiormee OAHH H3 nyreiH npeBpalmeHHIa roraImeHHbi MapOK B MHCTbIe. 22
(beBpains 1858 roaa OH HanpasBH B IIorrosBbii genapTaMeHT nHCbMO, B KOTOpoe BJIO)HJI
OqHIqeHHbie MapKH. H. BomapoB HrcaJ: "...-pzuazeaeMbie mapKU, nomomtu eo8oa, a cHunm c
nonyneHHbtx mnceM u ...ceeAi VepniuibHble ppecmbl maeK 1ucmo, 1mo OHU 6Ho06b MOzym 6bimb
nHaicleeHbi Ha nucbMa u omnpaeaeHbl.

June 2004

Ceecmu VtepuH bHble Kpecmbl oteHb jIezKO: cmoum noMa3amb oHbie pacmeopoM
ufaenesoio Kucnombi. Ha poMKh'y zopnefi eo)bl nOAoJl0umb 1 2 so3omnuKa (om aemopa: 1
30onomnu paeen 4,2662) ufacenesoi KucJombZ u Koeza pacmeopumcn, mo KucmblO uwu eep-
xyuiKof nepa noma3amb qepHunbHbiu Kpecm; nomom cnonocnymb o000o u Gbicyuiumb; no-
cne amozo M.apKa 6no0b 2zoumcHC K ynompe6neHuro. ,anzee H. Bolapoe npeojaeaai (wuu
ynompe6umb ,epHuwa, Komopble Heeo3MoWClno ceecmu, ne ynuumooicue 6yMazy, wiu noqmo-
ebie uwmeMnej~ ...Knjacmb nonepeK MapKu: xopotuo ceecmu oiHbe oeHb mpybno".4
B OTBeTHOM ImCbMe AHpeKTopa IIoTroBoro aenapTaMeHTa H. Jlay6e, oTnpaBieH-
HOM B HaqIae MapTa 1858 roga, nocae CJIOB 6narogapHocTH cKa3aHo, wTO COOTBeTCTByIo-
uiHe Mepbi ajiA npeAynpexaeHHi 3ioynoTpe6JIeHHr yxe npHHITbI.
OAHOi H3 3THX Mep 6B Io BBe~eHHe mTeMrneJeii rameHHa. B prHKa3e OIITOBoro
AenapTaMeHTa OT 26 4QeBpajia 1858 roaa N2 138 roBopnHocb o npHMHeeHHH AoMapoHmix
rreMneei xla ramenu i noxTOBBIX MapoK. B caHKT-neTep6yprcKOM H MOCKOBCKOM IOq-
TaMTax Fna 3THX ieneiiH 6blu BBeAeHLI ToqeqHTIie IITeMneJIA.
qacTHB e jmia HeolHOKpaTHO npeAnarajiH ioITOBOMy AenapTaMeHTy, a c 1884
roAa FiaBHOMy ynpaBneHmHo noqT H TejerpaboB (FYFlHT), pa3JIHHbe, nopofi 3K3OTHe-
CKHe, BHAbl I IOTOBHIX MapOK (3aKa3HBie MapKH c KynoHaMH H T.nI.) H CIIOCO6I 3IaiHTbl HX
B KOHIe MapTa 1886 roAa HeKTO eHeBHa npeAcTaBHJn B rYTHaT o6pa3e 1 mTeM-
nejix, npoKarnmiaiomero MapKH. IHcIrTaHHe iTreMIneIJ nopyrmuI caHKT-neTep6yprcKOMy
5 ImoJI 1886 roaa caHKT-neTep6yprcKHu norr-aHpeKTop AoKJImaablBaJ HaHajibHHKy
ryITIT: "IlmeMnelib, u3o6pemenHHibzf ,&eHeegueM, 3acyoicuaaem eHUManuH ... Cnoco6 no-
zauteHwn MapoK nocpeacmeoM nporaubbl6aHzuI ux Moocem ycmpauumb 3stoynompe6iteHue
nomoeblMU MapKaMU". B KaqecTBe HeAocTaTKa, He IIO3BO~JnoIero ipHMeHITB mHreMHIeJb,
InoqT-NHpeKTOp oTMeTHJI, rTO mITeMIIneIb "lnpoKaJlbl6aJl He mOJlbKO MapIKy, HO u KOH6epm, a
Ha 6ejiocenuu nuCbMa ocmaeauia )a6JlleiHbit cned)".5
IITeMnejn JeneBHn a HClMrrniBancs B caHKT-neTep6yprcKOM noxraMTe c anpein
go moji 1886 roaa. BLUIO 6I HHTepecHO HaHTH nIIHbMa, npomeAxmne B 3TOT nepHnoA Iepe3
"lUTeMneJnI BBAa.aH B Mysei FYlTHT (Hbime IjeHTpaJmIHbIA My3ei CmiBH HMeIH
A.C.-lonoBa) 9.2.87r.".
18 MapTa 1887 roaa B FYrIHT inocTyniHIO
i peAnaran BBecTH MapKH C KylOHaMH. jBe TaKHe MapKH
6 i 6&UIm, AJa o6pa3ia, npHKJieeH1 I Ha nepBOM JIHCTe iHCEMa

PHCYHOK 1 IIepBOH rrOrTOBOri MapKH POCCHH, (D. Kenniep rpeAnocmn
21 oKTA6ps 1856 roga loIrroBoMy AenlapTaMeHTy KaK
sacTHoe JHHlO. 3TOT 48aKT IIOATBepxpeH AOKyMeHTaJIbHO H OTpa2eH B ciaTbe B. KaMHHC-
ioro "HCTop1HA Co3XaaHSI H BBeuleHHesI niiOTOBblX MapOIC B PoceCn" ()KypHai "NIHnaTejniH
CCCP", N 6 7, 1970r.).
J; crnpaBKIH: Kennep EDpaHm Mnxaeim, recceH KacceamcKHrI noA-
Aamiumf, c 1 mHapA 1853 roza fnpHHAT "B 9icKcnenmHo 3aroToBaneHl Focygap-
cTBeHHiIx EyMar rpanepOM B HOMOIbE rpanepy KHpxHepy". o0 KOHlpaKTy,
salnomeHmomy (D. KennepoM c 331B, OH MOr "B cBo6OAHoe OT Ka3eHHhIX pa6oT
Bpems nPHHHMaT H HCOJIHM STKa 3Ka3ao C ycano CHe, mTo66i aCTHb e pa6oTo
June 2004
June 2004

TepHajoB H He Ka3emmHHbMHHHTpyMerraMH". Jonroe BpeMiw 6i m capmIM rpaBe-
pOM 3KCneHOIHH. B 1888 roAy D. Kermep yBoJIeH H3 33FB C AOJDKHOCTH
3aBeayMioero TexHHRecKot qacTmbo III OrTeneiHH MacTepcKHx.
IlpH HanHcaHHH CTaThH BO3HHK Bonpoc, KaKHe OTTTHCKH H3o6paxeHHif, npeinarae-
pec ,lJI KOJ-IeKIiHOHepOB, a KaKHe ABJimfOTCa o6b MIHMH KapTHHKaMH? Towmoro oTBeTa B
pyccKOa3blNHOHJ 4HRiTaTejmcTHlecKOH JmrTepaType HaaiTH He ynaaIocb. CyMMHpya MHorO-
mHcJIeHHiIe QopMyJIHpOBKH, BepoaTHeC Bcero, 3a OCHOBy HyXcHO 6paTb OTHomeHHeL OTTHC-
KOB K noTre: H3roTOBJIeHHe HX no 3aKa3y no1TOBoro BeAoMCTBa, paccMoTpeHHe noqTOBbM
BefOMCTBOM H T.I. Iozfo6HaAI oIeHKa IfaeTca, HainpMep, B KOHie 1920-x roAOB B saMeTKe
"HcTopHsa lyx acce" (XcypHaJI "CoBeTCKHEI 4JaTeJIHCT", N 5, 1928r.): "...umeemc 6ea
scce MapKu 6 100 py6aei4 c nopmpemom JIeHuna 19212., ouno paccuampueaeueecs
HKIluT u ne ym6epmc()enHoe, emopoe ba1ice He npeocmaejuieueecq Ha ym6epcd(eHue....
3mo emopoe HUraIKoo qbiuwamejnucmwuecKoso unmepeca He npeacmaeasem".
Kax npaBino, AJii pyccKOri noIqTi xapaKTepHO, rTO o6pa3mi MapoK, H3srTOBJIse-
6oTamHHni pHcyHOK. HeAapoM H. HocHJIOB B CTaThe "HepBbIe noqTOBbie MapKH POCCHH"
IpHBO RHT MHeHHe A. PeiHreiMepa, nmcaBmero B 1893 rofy: "B mo epem.u, KaK 6 6ojib-
uuncmee eeponeicKux zocyoapcme npo6Hbze MapKu uMelom o6bilHO 3aypaIHbi pucynHOK u
ucnojnenHb He oco6enno mujamejnbHo, une HU pa3y He npuxodwtocb Hna6mooamb nooo6noe
Ha npo6Hbix ommucKax pyccKux MapoK".6
KaxeTcsI, MapKtH ypcKoro 3TO eEHHTBeHHbIe, coxpaHHBIImHeca AO HaCTomIero
HH3KorO KaxecTBa pacyHOK.
K nIIrcby InpHnoceiHI Asa KOHBepTa c TaKHMH Wae MapKaMH: Ha OAHoM MapKa
ieiasi, Ha ApyroM c OTopBaHHbIM KYInHOM (PHC. 2 3). MapKH noraimeHb rep6oBoi ne-
qaTmIo C TeKCTOM no OKpyaKHOCTH "3K3eKyT. qacTb. FjaBHoe YnpaBjeHHe noMTb H Tene-
rpa4oBwb. A ra nIceMs". LBeT OTTHCKa qepHibli.

.... : : "- "



June 2004

MapKH oTneqaTraHi I Ha TonCTOfi 6enoii 6yMare. HeqaTB c eIerKHM THCHeHHeM
IOJIOC Ha ypOBHe H HH)Ce CJIOBa "KynIOHL". 3y6ioBKa 10/2; rpy6as; TOJIbKO Mexcay Map-
KaMH Hn BepTHKajH. HBeT rojy6oii.
IrpHCBOHB MapKaM Ha AOKyMeHTe HOMepa OAHH H sBa, MOxKHO yKa3aT pa3Mep Ma-
poqHoro noJia:
nepBaa MapKa 35x16,5 MM;
BTOpaa Mapxa 35x16 MM;
MapKHH Ha IHHCLMaX 35x16 MM.
B rIHCbMe 6BuH H3JInomeHLI npaBHsa HX upHMieHeHHI: "...HU31CH1CF cmopony MapKU
cMa3amb KieeM He 6C10, a monbKO 1acmb (2/3 MapKu). Mapru naxieueaaomcA na coppec-
noHnenquio, KaK u e nacmosAqee 6peMA, c moi pa3Huyei obna iacmb MapKU (6e3 K eA) oc-
maemca He npu'eeHHno. Hpu no6ave KoppecnoHnenuuu na MapKu naKRadbleaemca
wmeMneb ycmanoenenHblM nOpabKO.M.
B Mecme nonywenup Koppecnonoeniuu He npuKjeeHHanR acmb MapKU cpbzaemcA,
u KOppecnonHenHwu oocmaesiuemc abpecamam c pa3opeanno# MapKOU".
K comKaneMeHIO, OKyMeHT coxpaHHJnca rJIOXO. JIHCTBI 6blIH CHJIHO nopaxceHbI
rpH6KOM, IIpOIanH 4OpMaJHHOByIO KaMepy. TeKCT B paAe MecT 3aTyxaiOLIHH. IIpH pecTaB-
panlIH JiCTbI (B TOM qHCJie MapKH) noKprThbI TOHKOH, THIna nanIHpocHO, 6yMaroii, HTO
npHWaeT JmcTaM KeJrroBaTbi oTTreHOK.
Ha nonsx nepBoro Imcra AOKyMeHTa (pHc. 4) Aana cnpaBKa Ana HarajIbHHKa
rFYIT: "B uione 1886 zo6a nofnopyqUKOM repManoM cbeaiano 6bLo npe~doiceHue o e6e-
oenuu no6ozo cnoco6a noeazuenui Koppecnonoenuuu coeepueuno mooicoecmeeHnoe c na-
cmoAiquu cnoco6oM e-na Fypcrcoo. HpedaooiceHue a. FepMania sa Henpu3HHaueM ezo

r, i- .o--fee"., I..

PHcyHOK 4 OparmeH nepsoro imera nuc** a / ypcKOrO Ha/aHLHHKy TVIHT
CH6yp2,cKi lom- --upemopom ...o'mmoneuo.. B 6Uy ce2o u npe,.'loicenue Typcio.o no-'

laaa,7OCb 6Obi ocmaeUmb 6e3 noCoietCMuuW". 3gecic we pe3o.nolXsq HarajiHHKa FYFIHT
'.--.,. _. / ." : .

-H. Be3K "C"oI ae H" .

KaHx JH6o CBegeHHc o apK C KyIIOHOM, iipe oKeHHO epM aHO, o6,Hapy-
PUcyHOK 4 OparMenT nepBoro jmcra rlcCMa rypcKoro Haqan HHKy rYIlHT
CII6ypzcKuM Hom-bupe mopoM ...omwioHeHo. B suby cezo u npebjioofcenue rypcKrozo no-
iazaeaocb 6bi ocma6umb 6e3 noctebccmeuu". 3Aecb ace pe3omojTiuia HaqarnBHKa ryfTlT
H. BesaKa "CorJIaceH".7
Kaioix JInGo CBeaeHHH o Maple c KynoHoM, npeajoHCeHHOH repMaHOM, o6Hapy-
aCHTb He yAanocB. Ho 3TO 6ba eim oAHa MapKa, npeaFJomaeHHaai Iia paccMOTpeHHE nIOTO-
June 2004

CcuiKa B BbrmenpsHBeeHHOH cnpaBKe
TOJIBKO Ha MapKy c KIynHOM 1886 roaa 3a-
cTaBjiseT o6paTHTrm a K 6onee paHneMy nepHOAy,
K 1864 rosy. 3THM rOgOM SaTHpoBamH B CTaTbe
B. JIo6aseBcKoro "O6mnerocyAapcTemHHie
Ino'TTOBbe MapKiH Pocien" B c6opHHKe
"COBeTCKHii KojuIeKIHOHep", N2 14 3cce
IInoTOBbIXr MapoK. Cpe HI HHX eCTB MapKa C Kyno-
HOM. o306paxeHHe 3TOI MapKH, B TOM HuICne C
Rare essay iaTOHi BbmycKa, HeCKOJIbKO pa3 noaBJniMocb B
1864-65 essay inscribed "B" and "K" ayKiomoHHbIX KaTajiorax (pHc. 5).
PHCyHOK 5 KoMrmoTepHmdi MOHTram jTa HyaKHO OTMeTHTB, qTO CInpaBOHOe gejio
ayruKnOHHOr KaTaTnora 6buIO OpraHH3oBaHO B FYHiHT npeBocXOMHO.
BHe B cnpaBKe Ha pHC. 4 ynOMHHaHIii o MapKe C KyllOHOM 1864 roga bI3Bano cOMHeHHe B
Bonee BHHMaTeJIbHoe H3yqeHHe TeKCTa, npHuBeeHHoro B. JIo6aqeBcrHM: "C pu-
cyHKmaU MapoK zemeepmozo 6blnycKa npoemmupoeaTocb u3danue MapoK 7HOMUHa7aMU 1, 3,
5 u 10 KoneeK, no-eub)uoMy, mo0JbKcO U A enympeHHeu KoppecnonH)ernuu c 6yK6a0M Ha
MapKax "B" u "K". PaccMampueancA maiKtce eonpoc 06 u3Menenuu nopsaKa zaumeHus Ma-
poK nymeM ompblea om Hux cnetfuaJlbHblX KynoHoe, c yejlblO UCKIU JIleHul eo3M03iCHOCmu
yutep6 norme noemopnoeo ucnonJb306oanH apOK co CMblmbfM eaueueeM", BbIaBHJIO He-

1864-65 Essays for Inland Postage

.... .' | -FE '"

l.-Ic l .% *l ": *'_ .
A 3k. essay in black with brown background network, incorporating the letters
"B.K" (Inland Correspondence)
A 5k. essay in black and lilac, a design very close tothe issued stampexceptwith
the letters "B.K"
A 10k. essay in chestnut and blue, virtually as issued except for the incorpora-
tion of the letters "B.K."
Two 10k. essays in green and in brown, using the sameframe as the last essay
butwithoutthe embossed eagle inthe centre and with the letters "P.M."


H HX HOMHHaiIa, BepO ITHef Bcero, MapoqbIe 3cce (pHc. 6) AeiicTBHTejibHO IIOsBHJIHCb B
cepe HHe 1860-x roaoB.
Bo-nepBBIX, B rO1qTOBOM eenapTaMeHTe HHKOrAa He IJIaHHpoBajiH H3AaHHe MapOK,
B KOTopbIX He 6uMIO Heo6xO~HMOCTH. B 1864 1865 roAax TapHIQI Ha BHyTpeHHIOIO Kop-
pecnoHgeHIHIO, onHHna'BaeMyIO MapKaMH (upocTbe niHebMa), 6buIH KpaTHbI 10-TH (,iai ro-
poAcKOf IIOITH C-IeTep6ypra H MOCKBbI 5-TH); BHyrpH CTpaSHBi onnaqHBaTb OAHO- H
TpexKoIIeeMHbiMH MapKaMH 6buIO HeerO. IIoTpe6HOCTc B HHX BO3HHKina c anpeni 1866 ro-
,a =rla onnaTml BBeAeHHBIX, B BHAe Onbrra, BHyTpeHHHX 6aHaepOJIbHBix OTnpaBseHHH, Korga
B o6pamieHHH yxe 6mun 1- H 3 KOneeHmHie MapKH. Ho eme B Hmone 1864 ropa 1lo'TOBsrb
June 2004

enapTaMeHT pa3 i CHHJI, HTO Bce BBbIylieHHbIe MapKH MOryT HCnOJIb3OBaThCaI AIa onIIaTbI
npocTmix IIHeM, KaK 3arpaHHIHbIX, TaK H BHyTpeHHHX.
aJIbHO; MHorHe OTIpaBHTenIH IIHceM He MorTJI 6I npoqecTb 6yKBbi "B", "K". 143 AOKyMeH-
HaceneHHs CTpaHI.
B-TpeTbHX, B apXHBHbIX AOKyMeHTax HorrTOBoro enapTaMeHTa H 33FB HCT .are
B-qerBepTux, npeaj.o)xeHHA o rameHHH MapoK rIyTeM OTpbIBa OT HHX KynOHOB n0-
cTynaJm B IOrITOBbfi enapTaMeHT B TeKCTyajibHOM BiHe H AO 1864 roga, HO AJIII o6Iero-
cyaapcTBeHHbr MapoK 3TOT Bonpoc paccMaTpHBanca, KaK BHmHO H3 panee npHBeaeHHbIx
gOKyMeHTOB, Bnepsue TOJIbKO B 1886 rogy.
COMHHTeJmIHOCTb pacnmI poBKH 6yKB "B" H "K", KaK "BHyTpeHHHa KOppecnoH-
AeHnaH", sacTaBJaeT HCKaTh pyrHe BapHaHTMI. OAHOf H3 BO3MO)KHbIX pacmIH4QOBoK 3THX
6yKB IBJImeTCl "BOcTOHmAs Koppecnon eHIl3I".
,aII o6SacHeHHl npraqHH TaKoro npeanoTreHHa HY)KHO OTOATH OT BbI6paHHOri Te-
MbI H pacCMOTpenT HaqaIbHbmi nepHO 11 noTOBbIX coo6rmeHHi c BOCTOKOM npH nocpeacTBe
PyccKoro 06mecTBa rapoxozcTBa H ToproBJIH (POIIHT). 3TO 6yyeT caejiaHO B OTAeJBHOiH
CTaTre. HoKa MO)KHO cKa3aTE, rTO B nepHog 1861 1867 roAoB POrIHT HeOAHOKpaTHo
npeAnaraj BbIIycTHTn oco6rIe MapKH JIAi BOCTO-IHOH KoppecnOHneeHIHH. HanpHMep, B Ae-
Ka6pe 1866 roAa K AgpeKTOpy IHorrOBoro lenapTaMeHTa nocTyannna npocb6a lpanBjeHHa
POrIHT: "...He u3eonume Ju npurKcaamb u3zomoeumb nWz 06uzecmea normoable MapKu c
oco6bu 3HIKOM bJm omnuwtu om Ka3eHHbix". MapoH'mBe acce, npHBeAeHHBie BbIne, oqeHb
HanOMHHamOT npoeKTb TaKHX MapOK "c oco6,bM 3HaKOM" 6yKBaMH "B" H "K". Hs3 en
33rB H3BecTHO, Iro B eeBpajie 1867r. ynpaBJIaOmlfHt 3KcnegAHIHei pacnoplO nHJica npn-
cTynnIT, "e 6sue npo6bl", K H3roTOBJeHHIO KJIHmne JISiflO norTOBXI MapoK BOCTO'HOH Kop-
pecnoHgeHIAHH. 1 TaK anjee.
B 1889 roxy noqroBoe BeAoMCTBO POCCHH rOTOBHJIO BIImycK 6naHKOB 3aKpbIrrT x
IIceM (ceKpeTOK). 3gecB BO3HHK Bonpoc o 3amnre orneiaTaHHOH Ha 6jiaHKe MapKH, HJIH,
KaK B TO BpeMH rOBopHJIH, mureMneJIa, He OT BTOpH'HOrO HCnOJlM30BaHHa, a OT HnoAgeJKH.
B aoKriae, npecTaBJeCHHOM MHHHCTpy BHyrpeHHHX Aien 18 HOa6pa 1889 roAa, HaqarIbHHK
Fr~HT nmcaj, rrTO pn H3roTOBJIeHHH "o06blX 6jaHKo6 ) I 3aKpblmblX nuceM 33FE npu-
Menuza maofi oice cnoco6 zapanmuposanuA (aBT.- T.e. 3anrHThI) omnewamannozo na 6jauHKe
uwmemnemn om nepe6soa na KaMeHb u PqomozpaibupoeanHw, KaKOfi npuHam npu u3somoneie-
HUU noqmoblx Mapoc. Cnoco6 saKmotoaemc a moM, tmo pucynoK MapKU wiu utmemneium
noKpbzeaemci cemKof, m.e. monvauiwuzUu JitursMU u Ju moIKauu ceemno-Kcopuvne6o2o
yeema, M.ano sa3emHbuMu ~zu Heeoopyicennozo zaJasa. 17pu nepeeobe pucynua na KaMeHb
uiu tpomozpapbuposaruu cemKa npunuMaem memunypo oKpacKy, ecjebcm6ue Tezo pucynoK
cmaHo6umcs ucneufebHHblM iepnHbzMu moHKCaU wzu JIUHwRuU u Konmypbl eZo ympaUuea-
iomcA coeepuienHo".
OnHcbIBaa 3TOT cnoco6 3alnHTbI, Ha'aJIBHHK rFYrIT ccblnaeTCH Ha HCIIOJIb3OBaHHe
qeK Ha MapKax B 4nHaTejnicTHecKOH nHTepaType OTcyrcTByIOT. 06 HX HaJIHMHH Ha MapKax
ynOMHHaeT B.JIo6aqeBCKHri npr ormcaHHH BImyCKOB InoqTOBbux MapoK POCCHH 1884 H
1889 roaoB. B noApas3eee "CnelarHajmn e cBeaeHHn" OH nnnmeT: "OcnoeHbiM omnluuem
pucyUKo6 HO6bix MapOK ...om MapOK npeticHux 6blnycKoC6 a Jlemcr qboH 6binonlHenHblu 6
eude poM6oeuoHou cemKU u3 M)JIKUX tepmoveK u moueK, a no) zep6oM e eube mouKUX
zopu3o0maibHblX utmpuxoe. 0on neiramanic om)bejlbno om rKapa Maprcu pacKoi mozo 3ice
yeema..."; "n; o pucyuHKOM Ka)pa Ka3cC)ou MapKU qboH uacmuvHo 3awumpuxoeaH mOHKUnMU

June 2004

zopu3onmawbHblMU JIUHUIMU u qacmu'iHo (y MapoK KoneeMHbix HOMunHOan) cocmoum u3
MenKux po.6oe" (c6opHHK "COBeTCKH R KOJieKrIHOHep", N215, 1977, c.54).
noBepx pHcyHKa MapKH, a B.JIo6aqeBCKHi IInHmeT o pasMeineHHH 3THX JIHHHH noAi pHcyH-
KOM MapKH. HoBepxHOCTHEbiii npOCMOTp ecSrTKa MapoK noKa3bIBaeT, rTO, Bpo~e 6m, JIHHHH
neraTanjacb H B TOM, H B apyroM BapHaHTe. Ha pa3HbIX BbmycKax MapoK JIHHHH H TOIKH 3a-

HOBBimeHHbIH ypOBeHb 38aIIuTBI. 1IoJiyqnT HX H3o6paKeHHue c 6ojee-MeHee CTKHMH JIH-
Ha KaKHX MapKax 6luia rIoIO6Haa 3amHTra? KaK OHa IOKpbIBaia pHcyHOK
MapKH? HeH3BecTHO; HCCJiefOBaHHS B 3TOM HanpaBJieHHH He npoBoaHnHCb. TaKHe
JnmmHHHH (TOcKH) CqiHTaJIHCb o6bmHbIM 4OHOM, a IujiJI HX HaHeCeHHSI 3aitHTa MapOK OT
KOiHpoBaHHS, G6buia HeH3BecTHa. Ho KparlHe Mepe, gaAce onbrrHbie KOJMeKIHOHepbi, K
KOTopuM npmnocm o6painamcsA sa pa3sacHeHHAMH, He CMOrJIH HHmerO yrTOHHTb B
3TOM Bonpoce.
C Haajiana 1890 roAa no Tpe60oBaHHio MHHHCTpa dHHaHCOB B 33FE 6Luia co3gaHa
KOMHCCHA H Hanajiacb pa6oTa no upefoTBpaueHHIO BTOpHHHOFO HCIOJh30BBHHSa rep6obEix
MapoK. OAHOBpeMeHHO c 3THM, B 3KcreIIAHiAHH CHOBa Ha'ajica HOHCK nyrei 3aUiHThni no'qTO-
HOO MHeHmo niO 3aCIHijTOB 33rF Ha n rpoHoc T coeAHHCHHA 6 iee-MeHMneHOHe Kpac-
KH c MapKOH BjRMaH: a) KpacKa giJa nerIaTaHHI MapOK H ApJIHIa mTeMnbIIJe 6) 6yMara; B)
pHcyHOK H dOH MapKH. Pa6oTa B 3Kc6nea noHH BaJ acb n BCCM TpeM Ha npaaBaeHHCM.
M19 Ma 1890 roAa XHMHK 33rc B H. TyroBecOMB HanpaBneH B H paoBoeHHe 33F TaoKy-
MeHT CIIa Ha3BaHHaM "Coo6paxeHHA OTHOCHTeCIHo INeoaTaHHS n repo60Bix H rOITOBbIX Ma-
poK". HaoncaB O C ia6oTM 3aniKCe rep60oBx MapOK, OH IpoAojni 3ai : "Eue 6oAee
necoeepuwenHbi 8 3moM omnoueuuu noimoebie MapKu". OnHcaB B03Mo)cHie cnoco6M
CHsTH c HHX rreMBnejie, H1. TyrojMeco yOKa3a, wTO MTejOBHHa5 6yMara, nppI eH3ieeeM
aisI neraTaHHA MapOK, cBJIeaTCA ciTOa6o 3Ha nHTOH. "...CIUmeMnHebHOai KpacKa O oicumcf
IlUub a noeepxii cmu a) pyUaeKa u ne aocmuaem 6yMa aCHbix 6JKonH. rpyHu)noa He U3-
Mensemci om maKux eeufecme, KaK cnupm, 6eH3un, a nomomy CMbleanue u cqucmKa
zumemnenuH Moacem npou3eo umbCH 6ecnpenmmcmeeHHo ", oTmeTHJI OH.
19. co Ta, HTO peiHTB 3Tyror s3ay MaaHO, eCJIH HpaBTH An J ie 33aTaHH
necCJneoBaJ opraHHnecKHe KpacKH.

June 2004

K AoKJIany 6sEia npHIJIo)ena TeTpaAKa c HaKjIeeHHbIMH B HeH MapKaMH. Ha pHC.
10 11 noKa3aHbi #parMeHTbI AByx JICTOB H3 3TOi TeTpanKH. H. TyrojiecoB IIcan:
"...npuloiceHHube o6pa 3ybi Mapol nHaneuamaHbz npo6nblmu opzanuvecKiMU KpacKaMu;
...onu u eHiomcu om eufcmeui maKux seutecme, KomopblMu ebzmpaejilomcAi o6blKHO-
eenHble (codepnocautue 3ocene3o) iepnuia Ha 6yMaze. KpacKu npuzoudbl ~Rsz nelamanUi
zep6o0blx Mapoc. ... 3mu KpacKu .MOicCHO npuMe~umb u Ojm1 noimo6blx MapoK, nomomy imo

I U., 1 I

PacyHOK 10

6a mo.M cinyae MocuHOc npueomosumb uwme.neibiuylo KpacKy, Komopan 6ybem yiutvmo-
3icambcA nuulb c KpacKou .MapKu". TaOmeK H. TyronecoB oTMeTna wro npeacTaBJieHHMie B
TeTpaaxe MapKH IneaTanJHCb Ha pa3JiHsanm 6yMare.
HecKOJIKO MapoK Ha JHcTax OTcyrcTByioT. B HacToainee BpeMS Ha 6 JncTax TeT-
paAKH HMeeTca 21 MapKa. MapiK oTIneaTaHbI KpacKaMH roJiy6oro, oJIHBKOBoro, KHpnHq-

U U ,I~1 r -


.. .

June 2004



., ..~
1. i
'I; .SLI1

-~ --------

~w~tE~ ~4~/Z~ZM71CLG~I~~

P~~-c----- ----


HOTO H T.A. IUBeTOB Ha 6yMare c o6bmIoii KJieeBofi npOIITKOHi H cJIa6onpoKJeeHHOH. qep-
Ho-6ejoe H3o6paxKeHHe rnoxo nepegaeT oco6eHHOCTH B03AeACTBHE~ Ha KpacKy MapoK xJiopa
H inaBejneBOH KHCJIOThI, KOTOpbiMH CxHmIaJIHCb qepHHJIbHbIe HalIHCH (rameHuH). B nog-
cocTaBa KpacKH, a Tarxce OT BeJmI'HHbI KJeeBOi upOHHTKH 6yMarH.
KOMHCcHAI 331, 3aHHMaioimaAcA IIpo6jieMoii 3anrTI MapOK OT BTOpHqIOrO HC-
noJI3OBaHHI, B KOHn e Ma 1890 roaa paccMoTpena pe3yJIbTaTbI pa6oTb cneinIanjITOB
3KcneeHITHH B 3TOM BOnpoce. H. TyrojecoBy nopy 'n nupozonm j Tb pa6oTy no noncKy
gpyrHH KpacoK H IBeTOB H "nO OKOHVaHuu Hanevamamb MapKu coanacuo yKa3aHuwM", K 15
S IInoKa3aTejiM opraHHnecKHe KpacKH He
'o | nooIIImr ans H3rOTOBjneHHn MapoK. B
,-. -:. | OTmeTe 33FB OT 17 moH a 1890 roaa
I l HaiHcaHO, qTO neqaTaHHe MapoK
S- j 1 I aaHumEHHOBbIMHI KpacKaMH He npHBejiO K
ii^ i 2KeniaeMbaM pe3yJsTaTaM.
Mg HHTepec npeAcTaBniaeT paccMOT-
A B peHHe pHcyHKa Tex nOITOBblX MapoK,
S-.-. i~ 3 KOTOPbIe HCnojIIOb3BaJIHCb B olurrax 1H.
,_ -, i TyronecoBa.
B yIoMHHaBmeicAs paHee CTaTbe
S.'-. B. JIo6aneBcKoro 3TH MapKH OTHeceHbI K
... ,.' 3cce, a Hx pHcyHOK noMeIIeH IIOa
AM :--' HHAeKCOM E Ha cTpaHHue 73 c6OpHHKa
r A "COBeTCKIHx KOJineKI~HOHep", N2 15. 3gecb
xce, noA HHleKcaMH A, B, B, F, ,
PHcyHOK 12 noMemIeHbI H3o6paKCeHHa eiie IIRTH 3cce
(pnc. 12). TeKCTyaJIHo o HHX cKa3aHO:
"HseecmHbi 3cce munoe A E, 6blnyueHHbie e 1896 zody c 3y6ziamu u 6e3 3y6yoe. Haneva-
maHbi munozpabCKUM cnoco6oM Ha 6yMaze pa3HblX copmos, KpacKcau pasnuWmiHbx 46e-
gaHHbix 3cce 1896 roA, He yanjiocb. PHCyHOK acce THia A (c H3MeHeHeHHbM HOMHHaJOM)
AefiCTBHTeJbHO HcnoJnI3OBaH AJnaI MapKH, OTineaTaHHOH Ha 6JIaHKe nIIqTOBOro nepeBoga
1896 roAa. Ho, KaK IOKa3aHO Bbime, 3cce THia E rpHMneHIIHCb B 1890 roAy. H. TyronecoB
CaTaji, HTo MapKH Ha 6yMare c uBeTHoH ceTKOfi (rHjuonmpoBaHHOii 6yMare) 6onee 3ailH-
ImeHB OT BTopHIHoro HcnonII30BaHHa. BoJhmmHHCTBO 3cce THna E, BKJeeHHbIe B TeTpaAKy,
oTneraTaHxi Ha TaKOil 6yMare.
PaccMaTpHBaeMie 3cce THna A E HMelOTCS B rocyAapcTBeHHOH KOJeICKIAHH Ino-
TOBBIX MapOK POCCHH IleHTpajILHoro My3esa CBI3H HMeHH A.C. IonoBa. 3cce oTTIeqaTaHbi
KpacKaMH pa3JiHIHMIX BeTOB Ha 6yMare AByx BHROB: HMeiomefi o6bLHyfo TOJIIIIHy H Ha
oqeHe TOJICTOH, 6JIH3KOfi K nonyKapTOHy. 1IpocMOTp 3THX 3cce noKa3aJI, HTO OHH HeTKO Ae-
JIaTCa Ha TpH rpylnnB: 1) c rjaiAKzM UBeTHbiM 4OHOM no BceMy pncyHKy MapKH, 2) c pH-
B 1889 1890 roAax 33FB BBmoinuma pa6oTbx no ycHieHHIO 3aIIHTBI MapoK c

June 2004

MemnaX TOqeK, a TaK~oe B 3TO BpeMa IIpOBOAHJIHCb OnblTbil nO IOHCKy 6yMarn H
KpacoK AJ iyq nysIImeH s3aIHITB MapoK;
B. JIo6aqeBCKHIi yKa3bmaeT, TO 3cce THHIOB A E "HanetamaHbi ...Ha 6yMaze
pa3Hblx copmoe, KpacKaMu pa3sulHbiX zfemoe"; -
MO)KHO c 6ojnmoii i oniefi BepoSTHocTTH peAnoniox)HT, HTO H acce THna A -
Taloe 6brU L H3TOTOBICeHLI B KOHLe 1880-X Haqane 1890-x rOAOB B xoge pa6oT no
InoHCKy oIITHMaJbnHbX IBeTOB KpacK, COpTOB 6yMarH H cneinlaIbHoro pHcyHKa
(onHa gAj ycHnneHIH 3aIImHT I MapOK OT BTOpHqHOTO HCnOjIIO30BaHHa.
rIowTOBoe BCegOMCTBO POCCHH o6Jnasao MOHOIIOJIHeC Ha BbmycK pyccKHX noirTo-
BbIX MapoK. Ho3TOMy HHTepecHO paccMoTpeTb, KaK IIneaTaJIHCb HX H3o6paxceHHI B THnO-
B )eBpane 1891 roaa B FnaBHoe ynpaBJneHHe (FY) no aenaM nenaTH (OT aBTopa:
rocygapCTBeHHfIm opraH, BmoJIHmomIHI H ITeH3ypHbIe 4yHKIXIHH B OTHOImIeHIH IneqaTHOri
ajnh6oMOB c H3o6paxeHHeM MapOK pa3JiHMHblx CTpaH H. KpeBHHr. OH npoHJI pa3pemeHHra
H3roTOBHTb "iIuute no o6pa3 yaM pyccKux nofmoeblx mapOK u tumemnetief 6)aA eocnpou3-
eebenuA ux e ajab6omax qepnof KpacKoit".
FY no AejaM neqaTH 3anpocHJIO MHeHHe rFYlHT, KOTOPSIH pa3pemuin H3rOTOBHTb
rInnme wia arm6oMa npn ycJnoBHH, rTO OHH 6yayT He MeHee, qeM B TpH pa3a 6onJime pa3-

1N 'f i:f ^i~i*.*^'


,/ ,. 7 -,
I. 1 ... .. ... ..

June 2004
.__ -'-- ... 7 .

B/ / .. ,' "

... ,,,
P/cyno: 13 -
June 2004

H143aT ajnT60M C H3o6paxceHHsMH MapoK TaKoro pa3Mepa 6bulO neBO3Mo)KHo. B
HoI6pe 1891 rola H. KpeBHHr lOBTopHO o6paTHrnrc B FY no genaM nerqaTH c npocs6oH
pa3pemibr eMy nexaTaume KJHme qep HbIM BeTOM B HOJIOBHHy MeHbnero pa3Mepa OT cy-
ImecTByIOHmiH MapoK (pHc.13). Ha ero upomeHHH BHAlHa Ha nrIHCL BO3MyMeHHoro ITeH3opa:
"KaRa, amo numepamypa! Omxezo smo omHocumci K Hna?"
B 3TOT pa3 H1. KpeBHHr nonJyin paspemeHne H3TOTOBIHTb KIImme AJI ajmI6oMa
pyccKxIx InIOTOBbIX MapoK upH yCJIOBHH, oqTO OHH 6yAyT BOCIIpOH3BeCeHbI B "66eoe yeenu-
,enuHHM uWu HanonoeuHy yMenHblueHOM om ux HamypawbHol 6eJlUUHbl uCe".10
BuaHMO, 3TOT ajnb60M 6bulI H3laH. B BOCIIOMiiHaHHAX H. JIAlOBa "PyccKa 4QIura-
TeJIM B KoHIe XIX BeKa" (XypHajr "CoBeTCKHE KOIJIeKuIHOHep", No 1-3, 1929r.) roBOpHTcI,
qTO H1. KpeBHHr "um3ecmeH KaK unuquamop cocmaeJeHWu nepeozo u eduncm6eHHnoo aJlb-
6om a jnlS apoK Ha pyCCKOM m3blKe".
06paTHBIsmHIc B aeKa6pe 1892 roAa B FY no aejiaM neaTHH 3. Q(OH Barro (Baggo)
noScaHHJ, rTO, 3aHHMaACB IInKyIKOH, npoaaweri n o6MeHOM IIOtTOBbIX MapOK, OH xoqeT Ha-
neraTaTb Ha CBOHX nHCbMeHHbMX JHCTax, npeficKypaHTax H T.n. H3o6paxeHHe 3/2 py6neBoiH
pyccKOfi oIrrOBOAi MapKH. "HpuwloomceHue e mol MapKu umieem e eauy zeib pemaaMbi u yKa-
3anue Ha cnel4UaJlbHOCmb MOlo", IIHcaii dOH Barro.
EMy pa3pemnmjm ixeaTB TaKyEo HagnieaTKy c yCJIoBHeM, HTO IIroaTOBie MapKH 6y-
IyT BABOe yMeHbnmeHL OTHOCHTeJIbHO HX no~nHHHoro pa3Mepa.
B mone 1893 roga onH Barro CHOBa o6paTHca B rY no aejaM neraTHI sa pa3pe-
HBie 7 py6jeeBue noTOBBse MapKH (pHc.14).

"a, t,,,,; ?(l %.Mi; ,

*, : vt- ,tX '1 v ,f4 L- ','

,L .. .

i' / '4 4 j -.

,* -'in nf" .m d H ,,_ f. *-., "..
._ ..1 */
L,~ i' /

June 2004

FY no genaM neiaTn OTBeTmrIO OTKa30M, C-HTaSI, ITO H3roTOBjneHHe TaKHX 3THKe-
TOK "MoOcem noeneb HeeopasyMenum npu omnpaese K7onepmoe no nome".
IIpaKTHiKa ETHaTejiHH nOKa3rBaeT, rHO 4OH EBarro Be ace
---- HHegopa3yMeHHi1 c nIOTOii) COBMecTHO CO CBOHM rITeMnleJIeM,
PQI KOTOpbii "racHJI" TaKylo 3THKeTKy. Ha pHc. 15 3TiHKeTKa H
murreMneJm QOH Barro, noMeile1HHie Ha o6opoTe nrcbMa, oTnpaB-
inemoro B ceHri6pe 1894 roAa B repMaHmo ("IMIgIHK / The post
PCHOK 15 rider", N 52, c. 30).
CBeAeHHi o6 H3rOTOBJIeHHH HX Ha poTanHnonHHbx MaulHaX B BHge pynOHOB (neHT) HeT.
TaKwce B iHTepaType HeT yKa3aaHHH Ha HcnoI3soJBaHHe IIoqTOBbr MapOK POCCHH B JIeHTaX.
OAHaKo AOKyMeHTajibHO H3BecTHO, HTO B 1912 1914 roaax noHTa POCCHH npHMeHuiaa Ma-
HpeaicTopIs aTro Bo onpoca TaxoBa. B KOHue 19 HaaIane 20 BeKOB B HeKOTopbix
MapOK. TaK, BecHOfi 1906 rofa "lowroBo-Tenerpa Hbli acypHaj" coo6maan: "B nacmozutee
epeM.u e Eep.une ...ycmanHoaeHbt ceMb aemoMamoe dBu npodaxcu no'moebzx MapOK e 2, 5
u 10 nqeHHunuoe".11
Ajia o6ecneqeHHa pa6oTli TaKHx aBTOMaTOB inpmHMeHLMnai MapKH B neHTax. Iep-
BOe BpeMa OHH H3aroTaBJMHBaJmHCb "u3 paa cIeeueaeMbix o6UH c bpyzuM nucmoe noqmo6bix
MapoK, ...Komopble nomoM paspesanucb Ha ienHmb u HaMambl6aJlUCb Ha KamyuiKu".12 C 1
Maa 1911 rona B repMaHHH nocTYynnHJI B npoXawy InoqTOBble MapKH, OTIneqaTanHHbe Ha po-
TaTnOHOofi MamHHe. TaKas MammHHa nenaTaJna MapKH pyIIOHaMH AJIHHOi B 1000 mUyTK H
mHpHHOii B 10 urryK. 3aTeM oco6oe ycTpOiicTBO pa3Aejjio lix Ha JneHTbli mnpHHOi B 1 Map-
B PoccHH aBTOMaTbI m~Ia npogaxH noIIroBbIX MapOK 6bUIH npeiano eHbL noN'roBO-
My BeAOMCTBy HHmeCHepoM A. TynajibcKHM OCeHbio 1911 roAa. B aeKa6pe 1911 roaa carKT-
neTep6yprcKHH nHOqTaMT nojnyIan pa3pemeHHe 3aKynHTE OAHH TaKOf aBTOMaT.
6 4)eBpajm 1912 roAa HaqaJIbHHK ryI-HT o6paTuHnca B 33FB c nperJIo2)eHHieM 06
H3rOTOBJIeHHH nO'qTOBbX MapOK B 3 H 7 KOneeK B BHfIe 6ecKOHeHoii JCeHTbI. IIpaBieHHe
33rB oTBeTHIo OTKa30M, yKa3aB, rTO 3KcneIIa~a I "6 nacmoAutee 6peMf saHanma noozo-
moeioi pa6om bsJ ucnoFlJenuH ro6utefHbix 1913 z. MapoK, KaKo6bie pa6ombi 6yoym npo-
6ojicambCaI 6 meenue ecezo 1912 zooa. ... KcneouzWif He Momcem npucmynumb Hnme K
noOeomoeumetbHbUt pa6omaM no nevamanumo MapoK 6 6eue Jlenmb".13
H3-3a OTKa3a 33FB OT BbmycKa MapOHbl nieHT, H3rOTOBJIeHHe HX 6biJio Ha~JaeHo
B caHKT-neTep6yprcKOM noTraMTe.
15 deeBpans 1912 rofa IIOMOIIHHK caHKT-neTep6yprcKoro nIorT-lHpeKTopa nicaji
ynpaB~inoaeMy KOHTOPOi ra3eTbi "BeqepHee BpeMa" o cornacHH IInoraMTa ycTaHOBHTb B
nomereHHHl KOHTropb "aemoMam tn)r npocdacu ceMuKoneeMHbix noinmoeblx MapOK ...Ha
cuie)yiouiux ycjoeuAx:
1) AemoMam cocmaesiiem co6cmeennocmb notmaMma.
3) MapKu 6 KamyiuKax 6ydym omnycKambcR nomaOmoM, nputeM
...oHdo6pemeHHO 6ybem 6bulaHo aeaHcoM b)ee KamyulKu no mblcae wlmy. Ma-
poK 6 KaxcCoi.
4) 17o mepe pacxoboeanuw a6aoca rKomopa moyicem nonytamb Ho6ble KamyMKu
om 3K3eKymopa normamma, no npedba6snejiuu benez 3a npoaHHblie MapKu".14

June 2004

B 3TOT xKe ema H3 KOHTOopb ra3eTb "BeqepHee BpeMa" B IIorraMT nOCTyIHJIO co-
o6mreHMe o nonyjeHHH 2000 mTyK MapOK Ha KaTymuKax.
Pa6oTa nepBoro B PoccmH aBTOMaTa iJaI npoaaxm MapOK HaqanJacb c 1 MapTa 1912
B cepeaHHe MapTa 3TOrO xce roga HaanaJIHHK 1 oTAena nepeBo3KH HOT no xcejie3-
HLIM AoporaM 3sanpocn paspememIe rYIHTT Ha noKymcy 5 aBTOMaTOB aJia npoaaacH Ma-
pOK H ycKa3aJ, HTO Ao ineqaTa RHH MapoHbix JieHT B 33FB HX 6yneT H3rOTOBJITb CamHKT-
neTep6yprcKHH noHrTaMT. HaqaJILHHK ryHHT pa3pemnu 3aKxynHTb aBTOMaTHI H npeApnoxac
pemrHTi c HHwCeHepoM A. TynancKHM Baopoc o nepeHacTpoiKe HX B 1913 roAy, KorAa
HawHeTcr npoAaxa io6HnneHHfi nOI'TOBblX MapoK.
HHTepecHue cBeaeHHs coAepxcaTcq B IIHCMe MOCKOBCKOrO norT-AHpeKTropa, Ha-
npaBneHHOM 21 MapTa 1913 rola HnaqajbHHy 3KcneA.zIMiI pneMa H pacc unKH 3HaKOB
no1TOBofi onnaTmi rYIHT. IIoqr-Alpecrop coo6imaeT, TO B MOCKOBCKHHi noiTaMT AOCTaB-
jeHBi gBa aBTOMaTa Aia npogama 3 H 7 KOneeqHbiX io6uHieiHMix MapOK; H3BCeaeT, rTO
33FB yxe npHo6pena MalIHHbI I H3TrTOBJieHHa MapoK JIeHTaMH H, "npetcmaeans o6pa-
sety o6wueiuHbix MapoK na Kamyutrax )anJL npo)6aicu aemoMamaMu", InpOCHT BicJIaTb, TaKle
ce npH inojyeHHH HX H3 33FB.
noqroBux MapOK B BH1e 6eCKOHe'HmEx JneHT HaqHeTca He paHee 1914 roaa.
OTBeqaa B Haqajie ceHTr6pa 1913 roga Ha 3anpoc OG6mecTBa Michelius, FYITHT
coo6mia, wro "notmoebie Mapru e 6ube 6ecKoneHnoi nejmbl a Poccuu eute ne uszomaenu-
ealomci, no uwMeemcA 6Ud iuy us3omaeaueamb maKue mapotHbie ienmbi 6 6y)yuleM".15
ABToMaTI Eria npogaxma MapOK HcnoJIb3OBaJHCb B CaHKT-rleTep6ypre, MocKBe,
Pnre, CapaToBe H T.A.
,OKyMeHTaJIbHO H3BecTHo, qTO upoaaBaJIHCb H3 aBTOMaTOB H, cJIegOBaTeTJIHO, 3a-
roTaBJmBanJHCb B jierrax no 1000 mryK 7 Konee IHie MapiK BOCeMHaiaaTorO BLmycKa H 3
r 7 KoneenHMIe MapKH iO6HmleiHOiC cepniH 1913 rosa.
TaKwCe AoKyMeHTaJIbHO InofTBepxieHO H3srTOBJCeHHe MapoqHbux JneHT B CaHKT-
B 33rF, BepoaTHeii Bcero, He ycneJIm Haia HTB BbmIycK IIO'TOBXbI MapOK B BHge
JneHT H3-3a HaqaBIImxc JICeTOM 1914 roAa BoeHHbiX gIeHCTBHH. BbuiH JIH OTIIeqaTaHbI npo6-
Hue MapoHbie ineHTb B npoiecce HacTpOHKH H peryjinpoBKH poropHbix MaMHIH? CBeCe-
HHA o6 3TOM o6HapyxmrTb He yLAaiocb.

OT aBTopa: B cTaTbe HeT eAHHoro CIOKeTa. Bce, HarIcaHHoe BIIIIe, co6pa-
HHe pa3aJrnHbl cBeAeHHiii o noHOBbix MapKax PoccHH. MHoroe B cTaTbe MOCeT BM-
3BaTa 3aMeqaHHII H BO3pa)KeHmH. ~oKyMeHTaJajbmHe CBeAeHH,, npHseieHmHie B TeKCTe,
6eccnopHbl, HO TpaKTOBKH HeKOTOpUX BOUpOCOB, H3-3a Manoro KoJIEHecTBa HH4opMa-
EciIH KTO-JIG60 H3 'HTaTeJIeH cypHajia HMeeT AOCTOBepHblii OKyMeHTajIbHbIil
HnIH QHjaTenHcTMHecKH1r MaTepHaJI nO CnopHbIM BonpocaM, TO XOTejioCb 6b ycjnmaTb
HX MHeHHe Ha CTpamHHax mypHaJia.
3apaHee 6naroxapeH. .PaTep

1 H. COKOJIOB "JoroBop noToBoOf nepecmuIKH". IIoWToBo-Tenerpaq~Hmi xypHan, Heo4munHamiHin A eKa6p, 1906 r., c.
947 949.
2 PoccHticKHt rocynapcTBeHHblM HcropHNecKH i apxHB (PFHA), 4)ona 1289, onmch 1, Aeno 1249 "O BBeaeHHH MapOK ARJI
npHeMa npocrEix nnceM ...", j.45.
3 "IIpaBHja An iAes CTBHfi no yspex aeHmo nOqTOBIsi MapoK", C-HIerep6ypr, 1857r., n. 7.
4 PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 1, g. 1249, n.322.
5 PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 2, a. 1216 "O BBeCeHHH IIpHcnoCo6neHHoro ImreMneM IJIa norameHnHi MapoK", n. 5.
June 2004

6 H. HOCHJOB "lepBBIe nIOTOBle MapKH PocciH". ITpHnoCemme K ~KypHany "COBeTCIKHf KOjiceKiHOHep", 1931 r., c. 6.
7 PHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A. 1216, n. 20 22.
s PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 2, A. 1888 "0 BBeaeHHH B ynorpe6neHHe fnoHTOBLIX 6aRHepoinei H 6naJIHB AJi 3axpbTrsix nHIceM",
J. 17.
9 IlemrpanLHbul rocyaaperBeHHhIt HcropHRecKHim apxHB C-Herep6ypra (LUHA CII6), QD. 1458, on. 2, A. 658 "O npo3-
Bo;cTBe onIITroB K ycTpaHCHHIo BlrrpaBmBIHanUH 3HaKOB noratmeHHm...", n. 45 48.
10 PFHA, 4). 776, on. 20, A. 1225 "O pa3pemeHHH KpeBHmuy H3roTOBjurr Kmme as Im HraeHaTaRHi ar,6oMa pyccmKH noH-
TOBIlX MapoK", n. 12.
1" lorroBo-Tenerpa4HmI mypHaJI, HeouHiHaHJIbHbIm, anpens 1906 r., c. 327.
12 H TOBo-Teierpa4Hftt wcypHan, HeoHfIHmanJbHmIt, aBrycr 1911 r., c. 823.
13 PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 12, ,. 25 "06 aBTOMaTax A i npoflaxH MapoK H InpHeMa 3aKa3Hbml IIHCCM", j. 36.
14 'ITHA Cn6, 4). 1543, on. 2, A. 792 "O nocTrauHBe aBTOMaTa aNi npoaaXH 7 KoneeqmHHl MapOK B noMeImeHHH KOHTopM
raserm "Be'epHee BpeMa", n. 1, 2.
15 PFIA, Q. 1289, on. 12, A. 25, J. 113.

by L.G. Ratner.
As a result if digging into the Russian State Historical Archives, Depository 1289, Inventory 1, Subject 1210 with the
title: "Re the transmission of mail on the ROPiT steamers", Part 2, I can now present the following information:-
Sheet No 127: An order of the 1t. Section of the Postal Department to the Economic Section, dated 26.10.1862, i.e.:
The Middle Eastern ports of Batum, Trebizon, Metelin, Smirna, Mersina, Aleksandretta, Afon and Saloniki should be
provided with special cancellers for the designation on letters of the point of presentation, month and day of the
despatch of letters and postmarkers for cancelling stamps.
Sheet No 143: The ROPiT Board (whose seat was in St. Petersburg) informed the Postal Department on 14.1.1863
that ledgers, cancellers and forms had been received on 27 December 1862 at the ROPiT Main Office in Odessa from
the Border Post Office in that port.
(The names of the ports have been given word for word according to the spelling on the document, as pointed out by
me. The order of listing the ports for the purposes of distribution is the same as that set out in the Agreement of the
Postal Department with ROPiT in 1862. The dotted numeral cancellers were not specified here, but were obviously in
accordance with the order of enumeration given in that latter document, i.e. 777 Batum, 778- Trebizond and 787 -
Saloniki. As ROPiT planned to start accepting mail in a series of other Middle Eastern ports where it had agencies,
the Postal Department later assigned a further six numbers for them. However, the situation there evolved according
to a different scenario already by 1864).
Sheet J' 371: The ROPiT Board asked the Postal Department on 8.5.1864 to include in the list of ports the following
points for the acceptance of mail: Samsun, Kerasund, Dardanelles, Chios, Rodos, Latakie, Tripoli (of Syria) and Aru
and to provide the Agents of the Company with ledgers and forms.
Sheet J 379: An Order from the 1"s. Section of the Postal Department to the Economic Section, dated 9.2.1865:-
The Middle Eastern ports of Samsun, Kerasund, Dardanelles, Chios, Rodos, Latakie and Tripoli should be provided
with postmarkers for designating the points of presentation on the letters, together with the month and day of
despatch of such letters and with cancellers for postmarking the stamps.
Sheet JN 380: The Economic Section of the Postal Department informed the 1". Section on 23.2.1865 that the order
had been carried out for the immediate preparation of cancellers for the Middle Eastern ports, designating on the
letters the points and dates of acceptance of the letters and that these same cancellers should be utilised for
postmarking the stamps.
(The question about the acceptance of mail in the new group of ports took some time to be resolved and Aru was
deleted from the listing. The main point was that the Economic Section did not carry out the order about the
preparation of dotted numeral cancellers for postmarking the stamps, but specified that the date-stamps should be
used for that purpose. The Economic Section had a subordinate executive function and the documents for the
disbursement of money in the preparation of equipment were signed by the Director or Deputy-Director of the Postal
Department. That leads to the conclusion that the refusal to prepare cancellers for the postmarking of stamps, i.e. the
dotted numeral cancellers, was a decision taken by the Management of the Postal Department. It can therefore be
regarded that the dotted cancellers with the numbers 812 and 823 to 827 have remained undiscovered so far, not
because of their rarity, but because they were not prepared at all, or at the very least, were not utilised by ROPiT).
Editorial Comment: Mr. Ratner has provided valuable data here, for which we are most grateful. It can also be
argued that, in dispensing with the idea of preparing separate numbered cancellers to postmark the stamps, the Postal
Department was following the example set during that period by other European postal administrations, notably by
France and Greece.

At least one correction can now be postulated regarding the original numerals assigned to ROPiT agencies in
the Levant, namely NoN-o 777 to 787. Based on the material in the hands of postal historians, we have already
identified the existence and allocation of ten such numbers, while Messrs Tchilinghirian and Stephen thought in their
series of "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad" that the missing N2 786, which had not yet been found on
mail or loose stamps, may have been assigned to the port of Volos in Thessaly (in the Ottoman Empire until after the
Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878). On the basis of Sheet JNM 127 as quoted above by Mr. Ratner, we can now say
that the original allocation of numbers was as follows:- 777 Batum; 778 Trebizond; 779 Mytilene; 780 -
Smyrna; 781 Mersina; 782 Alexandretta; 783 Beirut; 784 Jaffa; 785 Alexandria; 786 Mt. Athos and 787 -
Saloniki (Thessaloniki).
In short, 786 must have been assigned to Mt. Athos, which makes sense, as the non-alphabetic listing stated
by Mr. Ratner from the Order given on Sheet JN 127 above follows the same sequence as the allocations previously
established by postal historians from ROPiT mail.
Mr. Ratner also seems to be correct in claiming that Noo 812 and 823 to 827 (for six ports in all) were never
assigned. However, there is an anomaly here, as the late Dr. A.H. Wortman gave a display and paper on Imperial
Russian postal history at the Royal Philatelic Society, London in 1965, showing among other items a cover to
Alexandria with the Latakiya circular date-stamp of 1880 and with the ROPiT postage cancelled by a rhomboid of
dots 8 x 8, struck in the same shade of blue as the circular date-stamp. He thus assumed that the ROPiT office in
Latakiya applied this type of Egyptian "retta" dots to cancel the stamp. However, that is a tenuous assumption, as the
similarity in shade of the cancelling ink may have been a coincidence and the 8 x 8 "retta" of dots is known to have
been utilised by the Egyptian postal service. Comments are invited on any of the facets covered in this article.

by Richard Clever and Andrew Cronin.
It is not generally known that the high values of the well-known pictorial set of 1932 were surcharged in
1941, because of the shortage of the lower values generally required for mail. These handstruck surcharges are listed
in the "KaTajior HOWTOBrIX MapoO MoHronjicKoA HapogHno Pecny6jHKH 1924-1979" (Moscow 1981, compiler
not stated) on p. 14, as follows:-
5 mu/MyH on 5 tug, in black (A. Cronin collection) and in violet.
10 mu/MyH on 50 mung, in black.
10 mu/MyH on 10 tug, in black.
15 mu/MyH on 5 tug, in black (R. Clever & A. Cronin collections) and in violet.
20 mu/MyH on 1 tug, in black (A. Cronin collection) and in violet.
30 mun/MyH on 3 tug, in black (A. Cronin collection) and in violet (R. Clever collection).
Note the abbreviations to "mu" and "Myu" in the Mongolian Classical and Cyrillic alphabets respectively.
In short, there were ten stamps in all and we can only account for five of them so far, as indicated above and
shown below. It has been suggested that, because of their crudity, these surcharges could easily be forged. In fact, the
opposite is more likely the case, as crude overprints have many variables which are very difficult to duplicate.
These stamps are at least as rare as the better-known Tuvan provisionals and the late S.M. Blekhman stated
orally that none had been found on cover, as the stamps were peeled off by the recipients and the surviving copies are
therefore generally damaged to some extent. That certainly is the case for the ones held in the Cronin collection. In
order to try to fill out the picture, we appeal to interested members to advise us of their holdings, especially after
examining the examples featured hereunder.

4 ki] f L I &ta" Atom IL

R. Clever Collection 15 & 30 mu/My surcharges. A. Cronin Collection: 5, 15, 20 & 30 mu/Myn surcharges.

June 2004

by Robert Taylor, Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, Dr. vo Steijn, Norman Banfield and Andrew Cronin.
(The original article under this title in "The Post-Rider" J 53, pp. 53-58 has excited much additional comment from
our esteemed contributors below, to all of whom many thanks. The illustrations of the cards and covers have been
reduced to 65%, but the relevant labels, notations and markings are shown full-size where practicable)
Robert Taylor:
As far as possible, the items are given in chronological order, with comments added as necessary.

e _............-..-.. -..

Ha /,n !T //.
H a mno4 mopol ',ttutemcA ,noamo a.pecw own pnaui.u&.
^ i

Fig. 2: Petrograd 27.12.22-Moscow-
Petrograd on a return receipt card
for Express Mail. Same label as

Fig. 1: Rostov Rlwy Stn 8.12.22, numbered 434
by hand and with imperf. RSFSR Express Mail
label in black on cream. Presumably charged at
500 r. (1922) rate and my earliest cover.

setting of
Express nOCITA.
Mail n ad. .
Fig. 3: Express Petrograd 8.3.23 Moscow paid
in cash at 12r. 50k.(1923) per rectangular cachet.

Fig. 4: Moscow 25.4 23 Petrograd with 18r. 80k.
paid in cash per 2-line mark (overpaid 5k.) See top
of next page and note handstamped Express Mail.

June 2004

'r- U A 11 F W
*ri nO TA
;H lyTL

These same markings
are shown in actual size.

Fig. 5: Different setting of RSFSR
Express Mail label.

----,--- y-... *.~~

Kiev 5.5.23 -Tiflis. See "B cnetunocmu"
= "In haste"

.; -
i' .Jt-..
I-. I

Notation on back in indelible pencil, paying 25r.
in cash. That rate existed for three weeks only.

.X-~~! q T---- -l. ie

as *1O To Actuali

4 f.f. L T.

Fig. 6: Groznyi 18,7,23 Moscow paid at 75 r. rate. My
earliest example with stamps. Express Mail cachet at top left.
"55 zp." = weight of letter or roughly 2 ounces.
June 2004


*^^lrop. m -, BA.- A 278
--T- Tcposj.
r .." .,p 06,J.

rjias ioe a 1fEIeBHe no-aonrnMny /ri.P' .
Yfipa Genbie HIeTRHnof IIpoImeHocT LIo
S". rp. H. H. CTrPHABY. c,
.. ~9 .7
rop. rpoafmt IlpoiixcnooeB. Ynphn eHune ro3HEMTl
x.o. lou. Hou. mIpe Topa no cTpoixTejracTy A.A. L.BETKDB.

Fig. 7: Syzran' 21.8.23 -Moscow with 113r. (1923
franking = 90 gold kopeks + 2r. charity label). Weight
of 9 grammes. (1/3 oz.). Two handwritten Express Mail
notations in violet ink and red pencil.

Fig. 8: Voznesensk 22.8.23-Moscow with 124 r. 1923
franking (= 90 gold kopeks. Stated weight = 7 gr. See "The
Post-Rider" No. 11 for other 1923 Express Mail with rate
conversion from 1923 roubles to gold kopeks.

June 2004

Fig. 9: Moscow 21.2.24 Tiflis with Moscow
U.S.S.R. Express Mail label in black on carmine
No 202. and paying the 60 gold kopeks rate.

,4, .


Yh N
Q. :. C. i.

pain -kpe rat
]{ .t j .;['fr,,,a n,, ,
I" I "' .,,

i. -,- tr t'C. C. :C.-,P.

with per Express Ma.. label red on crea and violet
I__ 1. T T

,; --cachet -IIEII-HO O 4. .O.ITOI1" possibly added IN M ,
"* by the bank. Cotton Trust rect. cachet also applied..- -,
:.p. U. .-" ~ _. '. ; .::t .. .., \ .. .,
v : r: -~"9 'r r o "' 2-;' J

.-5 ,,, ,.,,, '~ ~ O'
..,I~IC T,.. ".' ".7. C. '"" "' ;"t ;- ~C '
"' "*'- ",.' I.IC='? .. .

",,-. ; .|-.: ., .d .'
.lg b'. --k e I t .hL,.. ,~ ~ i ._K. ,!,,,.. ,.-.. : ,- .r ,.. --
. ,t, ",.,''ls ',z. '- 7'4.- .';- t .i.," .'.-, ''', -R .. ,. ,,. ; '
| ,&r j~.-, r-h _'34..< ),'q-i"b* 7 'a r--t Fg 0 dsa1092-edsy aig7-oe ae :I ,FI H I

...r ;.r .'., /$
'.-[,.".'N !: { ,-_. cachet "CE.H r1tTI" osby de 'I... .-
S0:1 "'"? ,t .w-av.: .,.-.,. ytebn.C tonTutrc.cce loapd ... ....

Fig. 11: Voronezh 16.10.24-Moscow, paying the 70-kopek rate with imperf. U.S.S.R.
Express Mail label black on carmine and Voronezh-Birzha (= Stock Exchange)
cachet No. 101.



-. "- -B- -- t-- I
.' .. ,.. .-...r. .'./ *.



*C /,2r~r.~


,,-. i.

'1'-t* W' '0
-S i~-

Fig. 12: Pokrovskii Glass Factory
23.10.24-Moscow, paying 70-kop.
rate, with "Cnetuno" at top left and
"B" (= Important) rectangular
cachet No. 319 (my earliest
example). Note also at top right:
"Cnetuimo nogmor".



June 2004

' I



, ,-- *

* 4'- "



r-- &A/ -c&*-tr2-- -.


IM i ,-

HpraPapeKaR, M 31.

"'.:.. *. 0 't .
^--&$jf la/^


Fig. 13: Kokand Rlwy Stn 28.2.25-Moscow, paying 70-kop.
rate and with specific Kokand label black on carmine No. 941.
The cachet "CIHIEEIHOfI IIOQTOf" at upper right was
probably applied by the bank.

C. Cj C. P,
KoKaHd,-).-a- n. o
0epneiBpofl o0.
J- ,; fi -.._. / --i
III MM W^ ^M~M^ ik

Fig. 14: Nizhnii-Novgorod M 2, 31.3.25-Sormovo
paying 70-kopek rate and with a specific label for
Office M 2 in black on carmine XJ 961, imperf.

June 2004



:.. .

,.-a~,il,?` sJ'~Fry' L_!jT~~j~J


''*. .


''{ A /;... .. ;

;'"." u E7 b f A ls nrCT _FEKHH fn 0 TZE I. ...-
2 "f l t. -- ,- r -

Fig. 15: Khar'kov 3.11.27 -
'4 Moscow, paying 68-kop.rate
with E.M. cachet 329 and
perf "B" label; my earliest use
and ex-Blekhman.

!2 ---,.-- ,-, .
C..1L ~~ newa nora

j.. s / ',' i ,

." / Fig.'16: Kokchetav 16.1.28-Moscow, paying 68-k.
;'P/ ,i. t, /L M,.-C. rate and with boxed black on carmine label reading
Li L- "Express Mail /People's Commissariat of Posts
and Telegraphs", plius _644 idded just above.

\ \, -k -

P. c. o. ,,. L..eu.
C ]E ICIIEIH IH\ ... Expes
*T o ., .: .. '." ''

M H 2 01 ......... ... ; P .
... ... 1. .. ..:'": "'* Fig. 17: Usol'e
S 1-*-- R: 23 r p17.2.28 to
\ *.. ".' ,j. Sverdlovsk with
S'.. '70-k. rate (over-
paid by 2 kop).
P"" C. 4. .. Late usage of
." .i" -EIHOA Mail label red on
-. n. T. cream imperf. on
___ >rI- ," ;cover made from
j -*. ^ ^ *. *._". a newspaper.

June 2004


.....L.. I

Fig. 18: Moscow-30, 26.7.28 to
Cheboksary at 71-kopek rate
(overpaid by 3k.) and with
perf label black on carmine
plus Moscow-30 R-label
N 501.

0opMa )N 7.

Fig. 19: Achinsk 3.11.28-
Moscow to pay 70 k. rate
Plus "B" label imperf
black on carmine
"Form XJ 7".

)NTQP itffI.,L .TI-.Q~.
'. '.osTo 0 KA ..R ; T
\ ; i...
\ai I-.


Crapan ...T1oI


S. .........: .. CTpaxHacca

Fig. 20: Kologriv 29.5.29-Moscow
paying 65k. postcard rate and with
"B" label imperf black on carmine.

June 2004

.,".'~k.1 ,~ ~

'~'6, Q c



ROb. Iv j

P A V.

; .Y.

BepM9Is~cb~nU Monosapooloa *-;-

/ I (-.'.o{(f?/IZ//

I.. s 'i'



Fig. 22: Kirsanov 14.11.29-Tambov
paying 70-k. rate and with "B" label
black on carmine plus R-label X- 251.

Fig. 23: Sverdlovsk Rlway Stn. 6.4.30-Moscow
paying 65k. postcard rate and with large imperf.
"B" label "Form 4" in black on carmine.

June 2004

&'- (I 9I*


.Ch c '

'I .i1

T-7 7T,3

,"HA PO0HHi:M--

; ; J ;J' ..-.

Fig. 21: Berdichev 22.7.29-Moscow
paying 70 k. rate "1n0 ABAHCY"
(in advance) with bilingual Express
Mail label imperf. black on carmine
and underlined cachet "By Express
SPost" in Ukrainian plus R-XJ 670.

. fta

@"Mw- I

(6.) yHPATHI g ll li HOMITETY K n. (d) Y.
xap.ia, nymw.ima. 3', a PEA AH 14 I Ter. a i2 08

Z :.- ,


r. .t* i. '" "-

-Fig. 25: Pyatigorsk Riwy Stn 16.5.31 to Luga

in black on carmine under 353
I ) -/ + "| ... "", "

"' in black on carmine under 3 353 "

.. Bh .:".-xl.- a, ,-i-y

1/ ------..-- ---

i .

C 7 ..

... ,' V ,, I Fig. 27: Leningrad 17.11.32-Moscow paying 80k.
Fig. 26: Yurga 1.8.31-Novosibirsk paying 80 k. rate with rare usage of Express stamp Scott E 3.
rate with note at top "Cnetunoi nomofi" Note R-MN 708 and late usage RSFSR red label.
Communist Party mail. THE POST-RIDEI/aMIMHK N_ 54
June 2004

~Ct uLL. L~


I .

-" n'' & v ,.3
- :' .. -c/,- '- L" "O -' ,,, ,.:
/ 1Q j,
-^*e.--t 7'^ (^ ^Z /L /2A-.$.oxjs

'* .. J */ -i "



.....Fig. 28: Essentuki 24.2.33-Tiflis paying
80 k. rate with imperf. EXPRES label black
on pale carmine and R-cachet illegible M.

." r -" .. .. ,"'_

... "" ... H

-! '. *', 1.

r) n -

SFig. 29: Leningrad 30.4.34-Tiflis paying 80 k. rate
with boxed violet "9KCIPECC" cachet and R-
cachet 407.

* -- i- k i" '-,


Fig. 30: Moscow 10.11.35 to Frunze paying 80 k, rate
j^c>---^---J.-~ c, 1

(40 k. on back) witb per[ boxed "B" red on cream,
plus bilingual Express Mail cachet, Moscw R-cachet
e. 77 and oval "'IOfl' ATI4Th 10" for the Poste
Restante/General Delivers fee.

June 2004


F., 'q
;~.cl c ~.
-'--- i.

'---; 7^.-

M(*- ,'1- I 11

9 1

unemoaenne mecra, rae azxa HTrcs nora, otacrni H.n Kpaa .
a a.i crTalUR -niaHMeuaHH o ae. oee3HOa jioporn
/ yA ela, .k .oua n K1aprpu
-, ~,.,--a .r e

. AOpec omapasume.an _.S-- ti-.L' cl L; 1 .1.
r !' 3-' 7 ,1 /I

SSpwaHb .....

* -.

Fig. 31: Erivan' 5.7.36 to N.I. Yezhov (!), NKVD Chief in
Moscow, paying 80 k. rate with perf "C" label N 593
black on carmine (standardised type coming into use
around 1935).

q 14~ e j w P -7,/

/ L. ( e "-

A4 .4 .LLCl i.' o*- -- A -.
S. Av

/ u.- .1 3a.9~ t i v

-s 1n^^ r^?'''
., .)J1eFiJ j^
U- *p l AL- .Cr ~_1
//r A-t n^ ~ i-i^1f.^- ~/^ -,o,

I.- ~

-.-- -. ,.;- ,

,". -.. ._ .
Fig. 32:T
'r paying 801
S bilingual(
.----.- -.--. cachets an

bilisi 5.2.38-Erivan'
k. rate with three
d R-_M 453.


Fig. 33: Moscow-9, 6.2.38-Leningrad paid at 80 k.
rate by airmail stamp and with standardised perf
"C" label for Moscow-9, J 746 in black on

June 2004

CI10 cc~~ ~-C

~tr9cu~ (L~C

t^'JjT ^-I-. .* ,.""^
C '' = !.' *J : ; '; 1

p e fo. m

;. t r


OCOEO -'e~- 41L-1
I f-: -..:Jj r

Ky a:.,zt' 6 I elf

K 53

. .. .. . . ...

No 53
lcA.,/, ,! '9,. !
'..... JI..... ....-n. T. N. .

Fig. 34: Local letter Erivan' 26.4.20
paid at 65k. with boxed perf. label



Fig. 35: Vnmnitsa 16.10.37-Shepetovka, notated by hand ".Qco6o aLKHoe",
paid at 80 k. rate and with private cachet of a philatelist at bottom right.
I" ------ >-----------------------~ / -^^.--

fe-4V NeIIO32 PelT2, me "4oAnTCX nOgla* 0nO6nOci In
AnA nmlll--4RA-H ll ) HtnC3HoR A AOr

/ pa, Nce2lo 1n 1 a9cNNI

ynowe, rs fih Nonpampb
Koi~y: l~. ...~ ~ L~ 4Gi~l:~'*~

j- :;-----*

Adpec omnpaamwexA -
7-4 7---:--7 --

. CCPOqHO. '.
.- ,.



Fig. 36: Nagorovo 4.4.37-Moscow
to I.V. Stalin with 60 k. postage,
which does not comply with the
Express Mail/Important rate. Note
"CPOHHO""(= Urgent) perf
label red on black, handwritten
"B" in black on carmine imperf.
label and "Cneuunoe" M 94/21.

June 2004

'1- --

P,;~ .

.. f- i.-:Z-

*-- Az0~3' *--

cs~ 74~.

t~G oc-"'-i-/9"ci r

(CjLeU5/ ~/ /O9_~7 2

Fig. 37: Kirovobad 25.10.37-Moscow to I.V. Stalin, paying very
high Ir. 20k. rate and with bilingual Azerbaijani-Russian "V/B"
label at top left front written as 401 / Kirovobad. Azerbaijani text
is in the Unified Latin Turki Alphabet.

Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman:


Fig. 38: This is a Communist Party routing ticket of
the Special Office for mail addressed to I.V. Stalin

p ,,- .. .

:. .cir: Fig. 39: Moscow 31 12.25-Leningrad, paying 81 k. rate (k.
t N'" overpaid), with at top "o'Cpoono notmoi" and at bottom
Right "B" handstamped in violet on Moscow Express Mail
perf. label XJ, 327 black on carmine.

4- ,'r.44


I .- Fig. 40: Frunze 3.10 28-Moscow, paying 70k rate with perf
Sboxed "B" label black on carmine and at top left a boxed
Cachet J 498 with "BOJIbbIHA5 CfnEIIHOCTb"
(= GREAT IHSTE) in the bottom line, being received
in Moscow the nest day (by air?)
June 2004

rUpo-a.pa. .ce p .... x ...kii11-0


... -( A. ........

A4i~ Ajisr pac tpnx
S 0 nocJiitneymue pacniopsaceHHH1 flPOCbda COO6HIITb 3asinh~ewitOI
it KoflHll CeIxperaphmaTy T. cTaxtina.
ige i d


T E:

j:.' *..*: &
j'ta' ~

o. .

1 1 i I




r -


I 3I45, I. ..ea pnr ul

1..... i."i.. .. .... ,
I .. .

...... .. l A >c4,.\, C,' F
. .' -

-- Fig. 41: E\patoriya 30.9.34-Yaroslavl', paying 80k. rate -
with "Cnetua oe" written at top and R-XJ 166 cachefat left.

Kt40 -C.

B- ; .y r.^. ............. y -

KY 06 u im: r,
%:ICl -~-.pC^.44 -ZI

si -i ';~ S. *- .* :,"-- ^."

r"l lr I

6 .._'. L. r -,
Vi eft., '-:- I

SI ", .
f--' 17

Jyu" ii. i.. i ":J. .Ilr n ..... a.l -
/ i.UB.,kBI All~l*IUIYII

A. ] 4 .4.i- -* / 7^a

Koxy ;'*-l^tdfiV 4 6AAcaqtV

A*ppri orarpIDur- u. 'eii,< e4L 1c-Jzy.- .^ A a
/7/t-y t t4 -


Fig. 42: Kuibyshev 16.9.35-Moscow
paying 80k. rate with note "Cneutnoe".
standard "C" label for Kuibyshev and
Express cachet Xo 928

C-- Al(- (t. -t-. .


.4 --

Fig. 43: Moscow 26.7.38-Alupka, paying 80k. rate, marked "Aeuo"
(= Air) at top and with standard Moscow "C" label No 893.

June 2004

." |..~..~. .,.>. ...>.r I.. ,. n J. .. .u. ..... .'

I.. -- .. I IF. "" H I ='|
z ., is.,; l rql |l. I I~ll ); u,,.l ,, .

"--.-K-- --.
SoroPOakI ME:HAY 3AL, i

B 2-3 PA "9ai '
oBouR,. U3AmLfU 00 .lOlC0
C 3ACYXOII, 3A nOBEIlEHHbil 11)CT70 'ql
*1 l .-

3D H .. .... _-
I -: f 'z
," -- -"---

_l -z .., ,_ _
... . / -" .. -'-" --

.I. _.1 | 1
t; t AMT

-- .j





. ._ .


Dr. Ivo Steiin:

Fig. 44: Ulala, Oirot Auton. Prov.
29.5.28-Moscow, paying 68 kop.
rate, endorsed "CneumHoii nonmoa"
at top, also with Expr6s label Form
XM 7 imperf label black on carmine
and R-label N 326.

1. .- .' -


S.--,: .



I ,.



S Fig. 45: Enormous bank cover, showing only salient features
full size, Leningrad 17.5.30-London, paying unusual Ir. 78k.
rate and with R-label M 885 plus '"CnEIU HA5I fIOTA"
and "PAR AVION" cachets apparently applied by the bank.


-. Fig. 46: Lebedskoe, Oirot Autono. o. 1, p i 8
N It 15.6.32-Moscow, payng 80k rat(
bilingual label "HapoqEim / Ex"
-- ---J. -.--,* I C

'.1. '. -/

q\ .tC,. Ca. /''- Fig. 46: Lebedskoe, Oirot Autonc
4s *: IS.6.32-Moscow, paying 80k. rat
~ bilingual label 'H"i-JapoqhM /Exn

R-cachet JN 18.

m. Prov.
Sand with
res", plus

June 2004

_I__ _

I f

-- .. .l

~&~c.P -
_ --_811


h.' /f A i. i0, w'-.I /.
^*fij~B /^^4^^.

I .~b~
,_~~~,i~ ~*Ly) -

Fig. 47: Moscow-46, 25.7.32-Tuapse, paying 80k. rate
With rare usage of Scott E3, endorsed "CneumHoe" at
top left plus bilingual cachet and Moscow R-MN_ 674.

Fig. 48: Leningrad 17.11.32-Kuvandyk, again paying 80k. rate with rare usage of Scott E3, endorsed "Cneusmoe" at top left and
with additional cachets "CIEIIHOE" and Leningrad R-- 946.
Editorial Comment: Dr. Stein has two of the four recorded rare usages on cover of the 80-kopek Express Mail stamp
/ .' ._, .. ,..

* -""- p ii^ I
_p-t' .:'

IR Sverdlovsk
7.- ,

B Hi V. s, ,li i. ul.
Fig. 49: Sverdlovsk 23.11.32-Dresden, paying Ir. rate registered express airmail per endorsements at top left. The "MIT
LUFTPOST" and "Durch Eilboten / Exprds" labels were apparently added in Germany, with the letter 12 days in transit.
June 2004

'Lit zZ: ,
MA ...
- -.- o ,{ I.\ c;LKLA -- -": L
',dq u ui -"'

N 1'. 1. ,l .
I LI k_-o cu P el
.. ....:~ : .7"-." "


I v..... ... .. .

*'[ .'
-' -' 1 *- - -


Expr .s

Fig. 50: Moscow-9, 26.4.34-Berlin, paying the 75k.
rate with bilingual Express Mail imperf label black
on carmine and Moscow-9 R-label X 195.

/U (fl(,/(


* 4,..p .y'~.


42'!' / e-

~2 A<~X2,

t,. \ou ,
(" -\ -

.\ "..
"' L *5ti*.' i 1 ,. "t!* ; >" K ^.

| |I.. ... -

Fig. 51: Leningrad Moscow Rlwy Stn 6.9.34-Berlin, paying 85k. rate for Important Air Express ("B" cachet at bottom left)
Editorial Comment: A remarkable item, as it also bears a Leningrad boxed cachet in French, monitoring mail going abroad.
S .'.' : --- 7 .'-_" ] : _. -- ,. .- : -.' I. -.- '- :

S- .. ...

J .. -. -1A .. ... -c ,,

-d / g k d_ i j .

-. .
,"..r2 A 4 .. --t q. ..... c C. z t.' 5 -

a -C / ~-a
s '*:: *::^ ; *__________

gfi --.--'-

Fig. 52: Leningrad 26.9.35-Moscow, paying 80 kop.
rate and with standard Leningrad "C" M 25. label.

June 2004


(h~ ^z.^.ciric'-i^ "



~e~ .c~c~c~ ~-6

E-2. Mosenw. Red Squtre and Mausoleum. -f --I /-
M4skau. P.oer Platz und Mausoleum
Moscou. Place Rou-e et Muoalee.

Fig. 54: The 5- & 10-k.Express used on other mail:
foreign postcard and surface letter rates.
Editorial Comment: Can anyone confirm that these two
lower values were for express local cards and letters?

Norman Banfield:

.4T- .i ,ole pxoe OCilecoae
I"'- :,- "' UCKR a (PO H IPMO na- "

T 'ae ,eon e. 2-64-46 '
"/" Te orpaegHbli aApec-.MonKa-Poc.EuW'



SA -

IL) G.

1 e n M r a\L fY

'YJI.Po/bcH a .iei 2.

Y /Y/npa.sneHae AxTeaTpoB/.

o y.

To.leco or. o- .;

'\''' p -. *.
J^l;/:* :- ;. -*'P --ur-; :

C. C. C. P.
MocBa, ., ." rop. noS q ..

*j'.r -N r .

Fig. 55: Moscow October Rlwy
Stn, 23.10.26-Leningrad, paying
70k. rate and with perf. U.S.S.R.
Express Mail Moscow JMX 229
label black on carmine.

June 2004



li-..~_.- ~- .. -1 --- -


*" 'Z I ,.,',, -- -

Fig. 53: Chechersk 19.6.37-Minsk paying 80 kop.
rate endorsed "Cnetuoe"and with imperf. "B"
label black on carmine.


Fig. 56: This was Lot 1646 in the Van
Dieten Sale 593 of 12-14.1.2004 as a
philatelic cover from Kursk, paying a
5Ik. rate and with framed "B" imperf.
black on carmine label added in
Moscow 21.7.26 to Berlin same day.

II :


Fig. 57: Khar'kov 4.9.28-Riga,
paying 58k.. with perf. "B" label
in black on carmine, endorsed
"Ehcnpecc" (should be spelt
3Kcnpecc) with "CPOqHOE"
J- I 494 cachet (=URGENT).

SFig. 58: L'gov Rlwy Stn P.O. 16.1.31-Moscow,
/ paying 70k. rate, with handwritten boxed "M59"
; f and imperf. "B" label black on carmine, being
.. endorsed "Cneun-oe" at top right.


June 2004

Andrew Cronin:

: _, ~ T -AT P b -- Z71
X> .

n -.:--~.. `- ~iK ;'
Ia b

-'---'Y~)BueTO fepre'senial
~-~ptllpo~a C-C-C~fne

- ~----~I --

-i Fig. 59: Moscow-30, 18.10.31-Sutton, England,
Spaying 75k. registered express rate N 115 with
S "Expres" label black on carmine, incurring a
.further 6d. express fee on delivery in England!
S. oscc Who has other examples of two Express fees?

rate, endorsed "C.,IEIIHO" at top, Fergana name

.__ ______ I,/- / Fig. 60: Fergana 11.11.33-Moscow, paying 80-kop.

S, at bottom in Turki spelling and with bilingual
"'"" ," EXPRES label imperf. in black on carmine.

f BaHK "epa i --- .'


F o.cysa e a re B .o..A ,,Miiii B-. ,^ ,' Me3Kpynaponoe 3aKa3Hoe BecLMa cpownoe,

SFig 61: Nikolaev 13.1.34-London, paying 75k. rate
with airmail express reg'n label R-X2 162 and
Central cachet reading: "International registered

designations "3", "C" and "B" in 'The Post-Rider' 53, bottom of p. 57), those classifications became blurred in practice. The
special rates were maintained for Express and Important Mail and it was up to individual postal districts to provide their own
labels and/or cachets for such services until the designations were standardised and the airmail service basically assumed the
requirement for urgency. Many thanks to all our contributors and, as a fcentral treat, see the next page for two outstanding examples
R '+"' I (lttr..ey-ren"involt

by Robert Taylor of handstamped Express Mail cachets applied on examples of conversion rates in December 1923 at the

June 2004

by Robert Taylor.

tslariR~ O;ms.1i

l- '-
.* '
.* :i [
:. '. 1 ,

Express Mail
boxed cachet
applied at
Rlwy Stn P.O.

'4 *~.'.~f~
l Cr~

1 I: F
r; Q~

"Fee paid 1278 r."
= 90 gold kopeks
for Express Mail
letter weighing
35 gr. = 2/4 ozs.


- 7.


"Paid 25,000,000
roubles" = 90 gold

June 2004

1 m "

.1 -

IItzet S

- .A #

by Ing. Cristian-Andrei Scliceanu.
During the years of WWI, Russia was the only link for Romania with Western Europe and the USA. The
mail originally arrived at Arkhangel'sk (Archangel) and from there it was forwarded via St. Petersburg to Romania.
After the Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917, the relations between the two countries began to
deteriorate. As a result, diplomatic relations were broken off in January 1918 and were then followed by a short
conflict, which was patched up in March 1918 by a regulatory convention. Various diplomatic contacts between
Romania and Russia took place in quite a few European cities between 1920 and 1934 and diplomatic relations were
finally re-established with difficulty in 1934 by meetings of negotiation between M.M. Litvinov on the Soviet side
and the Romanian Foreign Minister Nicolae Titulescu. The first ambassadors in Moscow and Bucharest were
appointed in December of that year.
Throughout December 1934, Romanian and Soviet engineers held meetings in Chisinau (Kishiniv) and
Tighina (Bendery) to formulate the technical conditions for preparing the railway bridge across the Dniester river from
Tighina to Tiraspol' (see the illustrations in Fig. 1). These photographs show a test with locomotives, which took
place after reconstruction and repair of the entire bridge, when its functions were resumed. A convoy of locomotives
is seen crossing the bridge and submitting it to testing of stress.
During that same month of December 1934, an agreement was concluded to regulate river and maritime
navigation between the two countries, while telegraphic, telephonic and postal links were also renewed.
The first examples of mail exchange between Romania and the Soviet Union known to me date from 1935.
We can thus see in Fin. 2 a large fragment of a cover sent from Odessa 28.2.35 to Cemauti (Chemovtsi in Northern
Bukovina). Unfortunately, the arrival marking on the back is illegible so it cannot be determined how long it took
for this letter to reach its destination. We also have from 1935 a Soviet viewcard sent from Gor'kii 3.4.35 to Craiova
10.4.35 and thus only 7 days in transit (Fig. 3). Another viewcard was also sent from Gor'kii 2.3.36, to arrive 9 days
later in Craiova on the 1 1.(Fig. 4).
A further example is a registered letter from Kerch' 7.5.35, via Bucharest 19.5.35 to the University at lasi
(Jassy) 21.5.35; see Fig. 5. A very interesting newspaper wrapper, which was a class of mail very rarely encountered,
was sent from the Astronomic Observatory at Stalinabad (now Dushanbe in Tadzhikistan) 16.5.37 to its counterpart
at the University of Iasi (Jassy see Fig. 6).
We can thus observe that postal links began to develop slowly between the two countries, but up to 1948, the
exchange of mail between Romania and Russia was very rare.
Please note Fig. 7 which also falls into our category, but in the RSFSR period, being a registered letter with
a very nice franking of 3 x 250r. + 1 x 1000r. from the 4m. Anniversary set, sent from Moscow on 14 November 1921
and addressed to Romania. Its arrival in Bragov is confirmed by a postmark in a Hungarian type, which was still
being applied there in 1921, but the date is unfortunately illegible, so we do not know how long the letter was in
transit. Note also the most interesting oval marking below the stamps, but which is difficult to read. This is the first
recording of a registered letter going from Russia to Romania in 1921! Comments on the above subject are invited.
Editorial Comment: The Romanian Foreign Minister Nicolae Titulescu was a very perceptive diplomat, especially
during the tragic days in 1939, leading up to World War II and his memoirs in English give a devastating picture of
the dithering and incompetence of politicians in the West. The oval marking in Fig. 7 reads MOCKBA
3KCIIEajIIU HI 15.11.21, with three solid triangles at bottom. Such markings existed for quite a few cities and
even at least for one Field Post Office in the early Soviet period. They denoted monitoring/censorship functions.

F-utP ,ESI ?ENNI TU i- jI 7i i jA

The collapsed bridge across the Nistru/ Fi. 1. Testing the strength of the repaired
Dniester river at Tighina/Bendery. bridge with locomotives.

June 2004

"k h

~ aT
-~ ,. -

~~1*f .-

'I d' i+c i, -.T ;

L-4" _76-
-~~~~ Fi.3 SALIJEO
11.5 Sr a-


------------ .Py LI B

a-, Rumn
he- ?..'i:~
F2 % I C) 0D
114 AB

7 -
ii: rc~ T t7

14..~ ii. --

Figi 6l

r C 9. 2~~~ rP iIm ~s c

Ilblull ~llisllril~ liliW~p / LL2CI 7.k

June 2004

B. TERRITORIES 1940-1941
by V. Yu. Malov.
After being incorporated in the USSR in June
:"I.r .',.. a .... 1940, the territory of Bessarabia was divided into
e~.M GL-A. 4. two parts. The larger and northern part went to set
S-- up the Moldavian SSR, formed on 2 August 1940.
S............ The lower and southern section went to form the
A..o,,. 0. / a Akkerman province of the Ukrainian SSR. That
province was renamed as Izmail on 7 December
SI, t-.- a- 8. 1940, remaining so until 1956 when it entered
into the Odessa province of the Ukrainian SSR.
r '. \ I,, / 4 lA 4-4 5. i )i The town of Akkerman was itself renamed as
BejropoA-JlHecrpoBcKHii / Bijropon-
SIAHicrpoBcLKit in August 1944.
?I Postal sending with postmarks of the Akkerman
province are extremely rare and they could have
".". ," ...- -- been applied from the end of August or from
i ,., September 1940 until the end of that year, or in
S isolated cases until the middle of 1941, i.e. for 4
J,: U ., ,,t/ ,Z; ,,,,L,,,4^.. to 10 months. Postmarks wih the original
-'r --- 1i '....'. '*"'-'._' r- ..... i Akkerman designation were presumably prepared
in 1940-1941 and applied in some inhabited
S... -... ..... points, followed by types renamed Izmail', but
,t.-i: ...r, n a. II/,I,~' specific examples are not known to us.
....'(* r We will now examine two postal sending with
S. postmarks of the Akkerman province as shown
here, both dating from October 1940:-
1. The upper postcard is from Nizhnyaya Kiliya 15.10.40 to Stuttgart, Germany. The Soviet rate for an international
surface card was then 30 kopeks, which was exceeded twice in this case (!). There are two German censorship
markings on the card, the subscript "b" signifying that it was applied in Berlin. The bilingual postmark with a
diameter of 29 mm. reads H-KHJIHMI AKKEPMAHCK. OBJI. in Russian at left and H-KIJIII in Ukrainian at
right and the serial letter is "e". It is interesting to note that the return address of the sender includes the former name
of Bessarabia.
2. The lower item is a postcard from Tarutino (also shown as Tarutinskaya on a 1938 map) 25.10.40 to Hannover,
Germany. The Soviet postal rate for an international surface registered postcard (Ir. 10k.) was exceeded by 45
kopeks (!). There are German censorship markings and the Hannover arrival dated 9.11.40. The bilingual postmark
with a diameter of 29 mm. reads TAPYTHHO AKKEPMAHCK. OBJI. and the serial letter is "a". The
registration cachet is in violet and with the name of the inhabited point written in by hand. Once again, the return
address of the sender includes the old designation of Bessarabia.
In summing up, it would be desirable to direct attention to the following points:-
1. It would seem that the Soviet postal rates had not been communicated in a timely fashion to the postal clerks in
this part of former Bessarabia.
2. The cancellers for the post offices in the Akkerman province were apparently prepared simultaneously and in one
3. It goes without saying that we need to study a great quantity of postal sending from this province, in order to
arrive at more analytical conclusions about the periods of application of postmarks in the Akkerman province, as well
as about other questions relating to the workings of the Soviet posts in this territory in 1940-1941.
There are now two paperback editions available with 176 pages each in A5 format, Moscow 2003 & 2004 of this
important work by Prof. AS. llyushin and O.V. Forafontov. Richly illustrated and priced thoroughly in the national currency,
they are an indispensable guide for Imperial Russian postal stationery collectors. Issued in Russian by the Union of Philatelists of
Russia. Interested CSRP members are strongly advised to contact their favourite Russian-area dealer or auction house to obtain
either of these highly useful editions.

June 2004

by Andrew Cronin.

The references to this subject in the two immediately preceding articles by Ing. Cristian-Andrei Scaiceanu
and Vitalii Malov evoke further expansion, as both contributors have raised some very interesting points.
In the first place, Ing. Sciiceanu was very tactful in not emphasising that the reason for the rarity of mail
exchanges between the USSR and Romania in 1918-1934 period was because the Soviet Union did not recognize the
acquisition of the province of Bessarabia by Romania as of January 1918, at a time when Russia was being distracted
by very serious and impending internal problems.
In the second place, Vitalii Malov has given us valuable data about the Soviet incorporation of Bessarabia,
which took place in the period of 27-30 June 1940. Incorporation is the key-word, as there was nothing liberating
about that action and the NKVD was soon busy with wholesale arrests and deportations of "class enemies". That is
the reason why mail from the former Bessarabia during the Soviet period of 1940-1941 is hard to find.
The only people who were not subjected to such treatment were the Volksdeutsche in Bessarabia, who were
mostly in German farming colonies. The repatriation to Germany of that ethnic group was provided for in
negotiations between Joachim von Ribbentrop and V.M. Molotov, as a result of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression
Pact of 23 August 1939. The two cards shown by Vitalii Malov on p. 91 herewith were almost certainly written by
well-educated Germans in the farming colonies and they are thus also interesting examples of "Germanica". Such
items are well-worth looking for.
Vitalii Malov has also raised the question as to where the Soviet cancellers were engraved for Southern
Bessarabia (then part of the Ukrainian SSR) and we will now look at some pertinent material:-
Cancellers with a diameter of 29 mm. and inscribed "AKKEPMAHCK. OJIL" (Akkerman province):
(a) Inscribed PEH4 PEHI 8.10.40 with serial "e" on a registered airmail postcard paid at the Ir. 35k. rate, with
the designation "Bos)yumaa" crossed out at top Fig. 1 Sent to Budapest 19 December with a short note of
greetings in Hungarian by "Anti" (=Antal). What on earth was he doing in this port of Reni in the Danubian delta?
(b)The Santiago Rubin Correspondence: He had apparently migrated to Argentina from Bessarabia before WWII
and was on a visit back home when he suddenly found out that he could not get out after 30 June 1940. However, he
did manage to send at least three registered letters to his relative Alfredo Rubin in Buenos Aires, as follows:-
Li) A registered airmail letter endorsed via Berlin and paid at the Ir. 80k. rate, postmarked I3MAUI-H3MAHJI
10.10.40 with serial letter "6". He gave his address as 24 Shkosyanaya St. in Izmail, Bessarabia and an undated
Argentinian marking "Certificados 330" is on the back (Fig. 2).
(i) A registered airmail letter endorsed via Moscow and Berlin, paid at the correct 2r. 30k. rate and postmarked
BOJIrPA-EOJIrPA)J 7.2.41 with serial "6", the sending address now given as 50 Kotovskii St., Bolgrad, with
the Argentinian "Certificados 446" marking on the back (Fig. 3).
(ii) A registered airmail letter, again endorsed via Berlin with the correct 2r. 30k. rate (4 x 5-kop. stamps on the
back) and postmarked BOJITPA)-BOJITPAA 23.5.41 with serial "6", the sending address now shown as
Bulevarnaya 147 in Bolgrad (Fig. 4). There is no Argentinian Certificados marking.
It seems safe to assume at this point that Santiago Rubin was doing his best to stay ahead of the NKVD!
(c) Here we have a philatelic strike on piece, reading H. KHJIHI-H. KUIII 11.10.40 with serial "e"from Novaya
Kiliya-Nova Kiliya (Fig. 5.
(d) A registered letter paid at the correct international surface rate of Ir. 30k. and postmarked AKKEPMAIT--
YCCP-AKKEPMAIH '. 23.1.41 with serial "6 via Odessa 1.2.41 to Bucharest 16.2.41 (Fig. 6).
(e) An international surface postcard paid at the correct 30-kopek rate and postmarked BOJITPAA-BOJITPAA
14.3.41 with serial "e" (?) to Tel-Aviv, with the handwritten arrival 13/V on the back (Figs. 7 & 8). Can anyone read
for us the message in Yiddish?
Attention is now directed to Fig. 9. showing a sheet of paper, to which were affixed the 14 different Soviet
stamps on sale at the Akkerman post office on 26 July 1941, when the Romanian Army came back as part of the Axis
alliance on the Eastern Front. Both the Soviet and Romanian cancellers were applied as a philatelic souvenir and they
are also given in actual size here above at right. The diameter of the Soviet canceller is 25 mm. and it is inscribed
AKKEPMAH 1 r. H3MAHJIbCK. OBJI. 26.7.41 with serial "6".
We can now formulate some explanations and conclusions, as follows:-
First of all, the place-name Akkerman was really derived from two Turki words "Ak Kerman", meaning "White
Fortress" and that is what the Romanian name "Cetatea Alba" stands for in the canceller dated 26 IUL. 941 (Fig. 9).
Re all the cancellers so far described with a diameter of 29 mm., Odessa was the nearest big city and it seems
that the Odessa Postal District engraved and supplied these bilingual markings. The place-names were haphazardly
inscribed in Russian-Ukrainian or Ukrainian-Russian order on the left and right sides of the postmarkers.
June 2004

O~% -N--~~

w.A! li

c~rani~nri ^,^

Fig. 5.
Actual size.

June 2004

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Ky8a.- i1GAr Q nt3a1 .
(* 1i .Ai u ri- .7. c &ii i :,T ,* c^i Aj n,-ta, c t.i .- .
i7B-t ^ ......:~3 *,,"q ,,-, i, ** 6 \ .

Aapec omnpaaume.r I.. ;.,,,c ..
KI "4 ".. ... .i :C."

6 I CI, I. A-
Kg 1 6-

a ,Ci P/-/P "I j.,
, ,', l P".^.\,- /' vj,, ',A .' i^,o/"-."- '
ff t ..r ,J u i Jvf "f :

," ,A ,,re I' ./;.b
r 7l,,P e-4' A

Z^ r /3 T// -cc'
Ir/jg^. ~ ~ Mp i ,ni / H /A .F/'^ 4 ~yr ^ ^,// ;.-*


... } .- d '. ... ...
__ _____ r CL n 4-^^v~. ...... .......

ofinpaaume.AR r-| 7 1 d
Adresse r

Fig. 7.

As implied by Vitalii Malov, no attempt was made
to correct the provincial designation on the
cancellers to reflect the name change to Izmail. The
only one with the new name was the Soviet
example for Akkerman in Fig. 9 with a diameter of
25 mm. As pointed out by M. Kossoy & VI.
Berdichevskii in "The Post-Rider" No. 53, pp. 81-
82, that type of postmark was authorised in April
1938, being produced and distributed from
Notice also the continued reference by the senders
to "Bessarabia", despite the changes in the
territorial sub-divisions, since 30 June 1940.
Further data on this subject from CSRP members
would be most welcome!

Fig. 9.

Actual size.

June 2004

I r._


i 1


May, 1922. Third (Famine Relief) Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan.
Gold kopeck surcharges by single handstamps on the Second Essayan set
Introduced by a Decree of the Armenian Government of March 14, 1922 as a compulsory tax
in amount of 50% of the postage rate for charity in aid of the starving. Being in use up to June 1923

1 kop and 2 kop. surcharges by rubber handstamps (two types) in black ink

Type 1

Type 2

Type 2
Type 2

Type 2

1 kop.(Type 1) on a pair of 250 R. on a Registered local underfranked letter sent and received in Alexandropol on 15.07.22
franked at 3 Gold kop. rate (4 kop. Registry fee not charged). Thus, the Third Issue 1/250 stamps cover the postage for an
ordinary local letter, and the Second Issue copy of 1 Rouble surcharged 1 kop. covers the Famine Relief tax at 1 kop. rate.

A block of 500 R.
with the variety of
the 30-th stamp (../f)
on the left vertical pane
each of 9 X 9
two in the sheet

Type 1
Note variations of the
2 kopeck Type 1 surcharge
due to degree of inking and
angle of handstamp strikes

June 2004


I-- -, ~L ---=--~ -aiiaart~i~b~'~i~l~F~EH~

May, 1922. Third (Famine Relief) Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

2 kop. surcharge by rubber handstamp Type 2 in black ink

A single 500 Rouble bearing 2 kop. Type 2 on an Unregistered local letter sent and received
in Erivan on 23.02.1923 used to cover a postage rate only. No Famine Relief taxed for official mail

Three copies of 500 Rouble with 2 k. Type 2 on a Registered intercity letter sent from Kamarlu, 27.11.22
to Erivan, 30.11.1922 used to cover the Famine Relief tax at 4 k. rate, and partially the Registered postage.

(to be continued)

June 2004

by M. Kossoy & VL Berdichevskiy.
The present material is a continuation of the article published in "The Post-Rider" N_ 53. In the time which
has gone by after the appearance of that last number, still more information about some postal sending connected
with this subject has come to the notice of the present authors. Their description has been set out hereunder and, in so
doing, the authors have followed the same order as before in presenting the material, based on the classification into
three different periods of the postal sendngs. The illustrations have been numbered in ascending order from "1"
onwards, followed by the capital letter "A".
The cover of an ordinary letter is shown in Fig. 1A (information from an Internet Auction), sent from
Kamenka station in Saratov province to Kegel' in the Estlyand province (now in Estonia), being endorsed "via
Revel"' (now Tallinn) in the address. The envelope was franked with an 8-kopek stamp (Michel XM 24) and
postmarked on the address side with two similar strikes of a two-line despatch marking reading "Kamenka st sar gub
/ 11 November 1878". There are three transit markings on the back, two of them from Saratov and bearing two
different dates: 12 & 13 November 1878, as well as a Revel' postmark. It could be said that this is the earliest known
usage carried over from those described in the pre-stamp literature and utilised in the territory of the Volga Germans.
Fig. 2A features a 7-kopek postal stationery envelope of Russia (information from an Internet Auction). It
was sent from Sarepta to the Kalisz province, located in the territory of present-day Poland. The stamp die on the
address side was cancelled with the despatchj marking "Sareptskoe Pocht. Otd. / ? / June / 1882". There are several
transit markings of postal wagons on the back and the arrival postmark of Zduiiska Wola postal station in Kalisz
province (20.6.1882). This type of postmark for Sarepta is shown in [reference 5, p. 38], but has an 1884 date. The
marking in Fig. 2A is earlier, as it goes back to 1882.
We have in Fig 3A the envelope of an interesting money letter (packet) enclosing 7 roubles in silver,
indicated in full words with the numeral "7" on the address side), sent from Pokrovskaya in Samara province to
Constantinople via Odessa. The cover was not franked, as "The payment with postage stamps on money letters and
packets of valuables was introduced as of 1 July 1904 in accordance with an order dated 1 May of the selfsame year
by the Minister of Internal Affairs" [24, p. 48].
The cover was cancelled with a three-line despatch marking and date in crosswise fashion, to read
POKROVSKAYA SAMAR. G. 7.XII.1894 with serial number "1". The postmark shown in [5, p. 39] differs from
the one in Fig. 3A in that it has the date in three lines.
In accordance with the postal regulations, four wax seals with a small diameter were placed on the flaps at
the back of the cover, reading: "POKROVSKAYA KONT. / CHASTN. KOR." with serial "1". In the centre where
the flaps meet, there is a large wax seal of large diameter and bearing the text "STRAKHOV. KOR. /
POKROVSKOE / G. (?)" with serial number "1". The arrival marking of Odessa 14 Dec. 1894 is also there.
There is shown in Fig. 4A a most interesting postcard from the collection of Dr. R. Casey of England.
Unfortunately, it was sent from an unknown place to the town of Baronsk in Samara province, then named
Ekaterinshtadt. It is possible that it was from Nizhnii-Novgorod or from one of the inhabited points or quays on the
Kama river along the Nizhnii-Perm' steamship line (see Fig. 5A). The fact is that the postcard has been struck with
two similar markings of that line (on the stamp and just below it), reading: "TIAPAXOl'b 'HIUKHIf4 -
IIEPMb' / 30 / ABF. / 1895" with serial number "1". It could be assumed that the card was mistakenly sent on this
route, instead of having been sent to Kazan', where it would have been transhipped to the Kazan'-Astrakhan'
steamship route plying the Volga. However, it did not turn out that way and the card went on its way along the Kama
river in the incorrect direction to Perm', although Baronsk was situated not far from the Volga river below Samara
and in the direction from Kazan' to Astrakhan'. Upon arrival in Perm', the mistake was discovered and the card was
thereupon quickly sent in the opposite direction, which is confirmed by the steamship markings: "IIAPAXOJ'L
'IIEPMb HH)KHIfI' / 3 / CEH. / 1895" with serial number "1", as well as a similar type with the date "5 / CEH.
/ 1895" (it is possible that this was the date of arrival in Kazan'). Upon arrival in Kazan' (as can be seen from the
map, Kazan' is located between Perm' and Nizhnii-Novgorod on the Volga river and not far from where the Kama
flows into the Volga), the postcard was handed over to the steamer plying the Kazan'-Astrakhan' route. That is
indicated by the steamship marking: "IIAPAXOJ'b 'KA3AHb-ACTPAXAHb' / 6 / CEH. / 1895" (at the right
and on the centre). It was only after this that it reached the addressee, as shown by the arrival marking at upper left
and reading: "EKATERINSHTADT SAMAR. G. 8.9.1895", with serial number "1".
Similar markings have been described in [5, p. 41; the photo at left] and in [6, p. 41], but there are some
differences given there in the name of the town: EKATEPHHEHIIITAJT. It is possible that this was linked with
a much earlier date of "our" postmark, then as in [5] where a 1905 marking is described and in [6] for one dated in
June 2004

In this way, we see on the card two names for one and the same town (Baronsk and Ekaterinshtadt). In
addition, we also note a very rare example in transmitting an absolutely non-philatelic card by means of three
steamship routes.
A cover from an international surface letter sent to the U.S.A. is shown in Fig. 6A. The postmark of despatch
is on the address side and reads: "SOSNOVKA PRIV.(OLZHSKAYA) SAR. / 30.8.22" with serial ;letter "a". The
cover is franked on the back with 4 x 10r. stamps (Michel JM 130) and a 5-r. value (Michel M 128), which were all
postmarked with the same canceller. The total amount of 45 r. represented the rate for the transmission of an
international surface letter, in force during the period of 1.7.22 to 14.10.22 [26, p. 121]. It should be borne in mind
that the definitive stamps of Russia with the values of 1, 5, 7 & 10 r. were utilised at their face values during that
period [26, p. 122]. Sosnovka Privolzhskaya was a village in the Balzer canton (according to reference [16], it had
been assigned to the Golyi Karamysh canton) and the population was German. It therefore also had a German name -
Schilling, which is listed in [15].
Fig. 7A features a cover from a international surface letter and sent to the U.S.A.. The despatch postmark
reading "POKROVSKAYA SAR. 13.11.22" is on the address side. The cover was franked with 15 x 10-kopek stamps
(Michel N2 70), with a total of 150 kopeks. It should be taken into consideration here that, in this period, the
definitive stamps of Russia with face values up to 14 kopeks were revalued at 100 times face (1 old kopek = 1
rouble) [26, p. 122]. The 150 kopeks now had to be reckoned as 150 roubles, which was the rate in force at that time
for the transmission of that class of mail [26, p. 121].
The postmark noted here is similar to the one shown in [5, p. 39, the photo at right], but differs from the
latter in the size of the letters and in comparing the diameter of the inner circle. In addition, the canceller in Fig. 7A
was applied in 1922 and dates from 1913 [5].
The address side of a cover from an international surface letter is featured in Fig. 8A [31], sent from Rovnoe,
Samara province, to Germany. The postmark of despatch on the front reads "ROVNOE SAM. / 26.04.22", with serial
letter "6", which differs from the one shown in Fig. 15 (the provincial abbreviation there is SAMAR.). The cover
was franked with 2 x 7500r. stamps (Michel Mo 178), plus a 22,500r. value (Michel 2M 180), to total 30,000r. That
corresponded to the rate for the transmission of that class of mail, in force in the period from 1.4.22 to 19.5.22 [26, p.
120]. The well-known oval marking reading MOCKBA 3KCIIEqHI[AHSI, with three solid triangles at bottom,
was also added, confirming that the letter went through the censorship and a German marking reading "ENTLASTET
/ 21.5.22" was applied on arrival. (Editorial Comment: "Entlastet" is a German word, meaning "Discharged" or
"Dismissed" and one wonders whether the German authorities were also monitoring Soviet mail during that period!).
The cover from a surface international letter is shown in Fig. 9A and sent to the U.S.A. The postmark of
despatch on the address side reads "KAMEHKA CAP. / 9.2.23" with serial letter "a". The cover was franked with 31
x 5r. stamps (Michel VM 128), to total 155r. It should be noted here that, in this period, the definitive 5-rouble values
of Russia were utilised as 5 kopeks 1923 currency (up to 31 March 1923) [26, p. 123]. For that reason, the letter was
prepaid at lr. 55k.; that did not correspond with the rate then in force for such a class of postal sending, which then
came to 3r. 50k. [26, p. 123]. A large capital "T" (= Tax) was therefore applied on the cover to denote that postage
was due because of the underpayment in the franking. A circular postage due marking was therefore applied on the
cover in the U.S.A., with the amount due noted as 12 cents and U.S. postage due stamps were affixed to that amount.
We see in Fig. 10A the cover from an international surface letter sent to the U.S.A. The postmark of despatch
on the address side reads "STEPNOE SAM. / 3.6.24" with serial letter "6". The cover was franked with a 20 gold-
kopek stamp (Michel NV 235) and that value corresponded to the rate then in force for the transmission of that class
of mail [32, p. 274]. Stepnoe was a village in the Kukkus canton (according to reference [16], it had been assigned to
the Vol'skoe canton) and the population was German. It therefore also had a German name: Stahl and it is listed
under that designation in [15].
Fig. 11A shows the front and back of an Acknowledgement of Receipt card (information from an Internet
Auction). The text referring to the Acknowledgement has been set up in the same manner as for the one featured in
Fig. 16. The Acknowledgement, together with the money order, was despatched from Moscow as a registered
sending. That was confirmed by the handwritten ",2 245" on the address side of the Acknowledgement and the
postmark reading "MOCKBA / 7.4.24", applied on two Soviet 6 gold-kopek stamps (Michel J 233 I) to total 12
kopeks and with which the Acknowledgement was franked. That franking was in accordance with the rate for the
transmission of an interurban registered letter. The text on the back of the Acknowledgement reads: "A postal
sending, accepted under receipt N2...at Nizhnyaya Dobrinka, Province of the Volga Germans...in the name of....in
the amount of....Am. doll. ($15)...received personally (signature)"
The Acknowledgement was returned to the sender as a document testifying to the handing over of money to
the addressee and, for greater security, it was therefore sent as a registered article. That is confirmed by the postmark
of despatch reading: "VERKHNYAYA KULALINKA SAR. / 30.4.24" with serial letter "a" applied on the back and

June 2004

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