Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 Pre-UPU Imperial Russian postal...
 Soviet stampless mail
 Report on "CAPEX '96"
 Glider sky trains in the Soviet...
 Imperial mail sent to unsual...
 Russian mail from Roumania (1916-1918):...
 An unusual Soviet postwar...
 Post-WWII surveillance of international...
 Looking at some interesting circular...
 Romanov usages after the October...
 The late arms type issue: Varieties,...
 Postcards for the correspondence...
 WWII mail from POWs in Soviet...
 Soviet airmail cachets 1922-19...
 Selected items of Armenian postal...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00038
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00038 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Pre-UPU Imperial Russian postal rates
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Soviet stampless mail
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Report on "CAPEX '96"
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Glider sky trains in the Soviet Union
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Imperial mail sent to unsual destinations
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Russian mail from Roumania (1916-1918): Addenda & corrigenda II
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    An unusual Soviet postwar cover
        Page 36
    Post-WWII surveillance of international mail in the Stalin era
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Looking at some interesting circular railway postmarks
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Romanov usages after the October Revolution
        Page 46
    The late arms type issue: Varieties, oddities and freaks
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Postcards for the correspondence of POWs in the USSR
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    WWII mail from POWs in Soviet captivity
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Soviet airmail cachets 1922-1940
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Selected items of Armenian postal history
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Review of literature
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    The journal fund
        Page 83
    The collectors' corner
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text

r It



No. 38
June, 1996
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately

Printed in Canada

The first three volumes covering the following districts are

Vol. 1 Akhtyrka Byezhetsk
Vol. 2 Chembary Kologriv
Vol. 3 Kolomna Novouzensk

For your copies send $30. (US) each to P.O. Box 5722,
Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1 P2. Please
make your remittance payable to Alex Artuchov.


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2

June, 1996.


2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Pre-U.P.U. Imperial Russian Postal Rates
10 Soviet Stampless Mail
22 Report on "CAPEX '96"
24 Glider Sky Trains in the Soviet Union
30 Imperial Mail sent to Unusual Destinations
32 Russian Mail from Roumania (1916-1918): Addenda & Corrigenda II
36 An Unusual Soviet Postwar Cover
37 Post-WWII Surveillance of International Mail in the Stalin Era
41 Looking at some Interesting Circular Railway Postmarks
46 Final Ovals I
46 Romanov Usages after the October Revolution
47 The Late Arms Type Issue: Varieties, Oddities and Freaks
52 Postcards for the Correspondence of POWs in the USSR
60 WWII Mail from POWs in Soviet Captivity
63 Soviet Airmail Cachets 1922-1940
69 Selected Items of Armenian Postal History
75 Philatelic Shorts
79 Review of Literature
83 Journal Fund
84 Collectors' Corer

Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
John V. Woollam
I. Steyn & R. Taylor
Andrew Cronin
Simine Short
Allan Steinhart
Alexander Epstein
David Link
Andrew Cronin
Rabbi L. L. Tann
Rabbi L. L. tann
L.L. Tann & A. Cronin
George G. Werbizky
Dan Grecu
Andrew Cronin
Robert Taylor
Prof. Henri Siranyan

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.

01996. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this
issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

On behalf of our members, the Coordinators of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately take great
pleasure in extending fraternal greetings and congratulations to the officers and members of The British
Society of Russian Philately on the occasion of their Diamond Jubilee 1936-1996, as well as best wishes
for further progress and success in the years ahead.



The Russian phrase in the title means "Friendship of the Peoples". That policy was strenuously propagated
throughout the Soviet era in order to hold together the multilingual USSR. It was applied most effectively
during the merciless rule ofI.V. Stalin, when the country stood firm during the most gigantic military struggle
in history, the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, and emerged both intact and victorious. It was successful
then because, if people started mouthing separatist sentiments, they were immediately arrested, charged with
"bourgeois nationalism" and either shot or given very stiff sentences in a labour camp. A very brutal but
intrinsically sound policy, so far as the security of the Soviet State was concerned.

There have been several Soviet stamps devoted to this theme, the earliest being the set of two issued on 5 July
1948 and inscribed "AA 3AP&BCTBYET APYIr lHPOOB CCCPl" ("Long live the friendship of the peoples of the
USSR"), as shown above at top. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, that policy fell apart and the
consequences have been dreadful, as we all know. Just the Chechen problem looks like going on for years yet.

Unfortunately, the multilingual democracies are just as fragile as the authoritarian states when faced with such
breakaway tendencies. In our own wonderful country of Canada, with probably the highest quality of life and
the most comprehensive system of safety nets in the world, we were pushed on 30 October 1995 to the brink
of destruction by an over-indulged Francophone province, which is already sovereign in everything but name.
We are still reeling from the effects of that near disaster and many Canadians now think that our dear country
will not make it into the 21st. century.

Such a doleful scenario reminds your editor of an old Greek story where, at a special congress, the various
professions stood up and listed their contributions to the good of mankind. The teachers in educating the
upcoming generation; the doctors in curing the sick; the scientists in promoting progress, etc. etc. Finally, the
politicians piped up and said: "But what about us? We were the ones who invented CHAOS !"

God save us from moronic politicians and demagogues of every stripe.

The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue are those of the respective authors and not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its coordinators.

June, 1996

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.



by Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman.


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*~~hwo ...7~7 10"'C&. 61'.
37 JeC-~Z', ( 27 4 \.

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Pa vo *rnyxc
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June, 1996

tI ~t
i.: .

The illustrations on the previous page show an unusual early airmail cover (1926) from Glukhov/Hlukhiv (in
the Ukraine; 145 km./90 miles west of Kursk) and sent to Geo. Bohdashevskyj, Secretary of the Ukrainian
Baptist Immigration Council in Saskatoon, Canada. The front of the cover is endorsed in Russian at top right:
"Registered / by airmail / to America" and bears a Glukhov/Hlukhiv bilingual postmark dated 10 September
1926. A bilingual Russo-French airmail label, an internal Ukrainian registration label and a Glukhov
international equivalent No. 375 are also present on the front. In addition, a large red boxed Berlin airmail
cachet reading: "Mit Luftpost bef'drdert / Flughafen Tempelhofer Feld / Postamt Berlin C.2" and a small
violet circular "X 2" censor (?) handstamp are evident.

The back of the cover shows a franking of 58 kopeks, consisting of the 20-kop. surcharged airmail stamp, a
pair of the 14-kop. SAT (Esperanto Congress) value of 1926 and a 10-kop. Soldier definitive. This rate is
correct for international registered airmail letters of the period. Transit postmarks on the back include
Moscow 13.9.26, Berlin Luftpost 14.9.26, Winnipeg Canada 24 (?) 9.26 and the Saskatoon arrival marking
dated 26.9.26. Hence, a transit time of 16 days. The last number on the two Winnipeg c.d.s. are too faint to
read. Since there was no commercial air transport from Glukhov/Hlukhiv, this cover was probably transported
to Moscow, or to Kursk and then flown to Moscow. There, the letter was flown via Konigsberg to Berlin and
sent by air to France, or to Hamburg as ship mail to Canada, where it was probably flown to its destination.

Editorial Comment: In examining the rate of 58 kopeks, we can see that it was composed of 14 kopeks for a
surface foreign letter, another 14 kopeks for the registration fee and a surtax of 30 kopeks for air service from
Moscow to Berlin. This surtax for airmail to Germany went into effect as of 1 May 1926 just for the season in
that year; the surtax for air service to France was 40 kopeks in 1926.

by John V. Woollam.

I was delighted to read the article "Some Notes on Imperial Russian Postal Rates" in "The Post-Rider" No. 37
for Dec. 1995, pp. 22-28 and to see that our editor wanted to further the study. This aspect has been so
ignored in the past, especially the foreign pre-U.P.U. rates. Just compare the knowledge of and values for
classic foreign rate covers from other European countries, the U.S.A. and Canada! Has it been caused by the
late usage of Imperial postage stamps for foreign mail or is it because of the lack of material? There were only
11 years of stamped pre-U.P.U. mail in the case of the Russian Empire (1864-1875), while Great Britain had
it for 35 years (1840-1875).

So, if we take 1st. July 1864 as the starting point, what is the earliest recorded date for a stamped cover going
abroad? My earliest example is 30 January 1865 O.S., with two 10-kopek stamps paying the rate to
Constantinople. See Fig. 1 on the next page and note the mysterious initials "P.O." in red (= Postes
Ottomanes ?). Collectors have not appreciated the scarcity of letters to foreign countries in the period from
July 1864 to December 1865, probably because they have not realized that the important Prusso-Russian
Postal Treaty, effective 1 January 1866, changed the rates. Also, the cost of such letters is increased by the
value of the 1864 issue perf. 12 on cover. My examples from this period are as follow:-

(a) Odessa, 30 January 1865 To Constantinople 20 kop. See Fig. 1.
(b) Taganrog,18 July 1865 To Constantinople 30 kop. See Fig. 2.
(c) Astrakhan, 28 April 1865 To Switzerland 27 kop. See Fig. 3.
(d) St. Petersburg, 24 April 1865 To France 37 kop. Fig. 4, p. 6.
(e) P.V. No. 3, 29 October 1865 To France 74 kop. Fig. 5, p. 6.
(f) Taganrog, 27 November 1865 To Greece 30 kop. + 50 lep. due Fig. 6, p. 6.

June, 1996

i "

Fig. 1: Odessa 1865 to Constantinople with mysterious P.O.
marking = Postes Ottomanes ?

g /

w/ <^^^ CJ *

^ ^% A^^lf.^ ^^'^^^/-^*'^

Fig. 3: Astrakhan 1965 to Switzerland. Note MOSCOU transit marking in French.


Fig. 4: A front from St. Petersburg 1865 to Paris.

Fig. 5: P.V. No. 3 in 1865 to Lyon with 74 kop. franking; ig. 6: Taganrog 1865 to Greece with 50 lepta
rate markings "3" in blue and "24" in red at left. postage due.
"f 16" in blue on back.
June, 1996

Fig. 7: Registered letter from Atkarsk 1873 to Belgium. Note the transit and rate markings.

<^?' ; -, -. \ ;iy_ t- --" ~a, -+ "J -,- .

Fig. 8 Registered letter from Odessa 1875 to London with sundry dispatch, transit and rate markings.

Fig. 8: Registered letter from Odessa 1875 to London with sundry despatch, transit and rate markings.

Fig. 9: Registered letter from Surazh 1875 to Switzerland, weighing 2 lots
and with rate markings.
June, 1996

If 'Q.^

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//ff-Cf 'v'0'-4'4 > ^SS
- .. fisaav

1 _j


Following upon the Prusso-Russian Postal Treaty of 1.1.1866, I have the following letters in that year:-

(a) March 1866 To France 30 kop.
(b) April 1866 To Italy 28 kop. (insufficiently paid)
(c) May 1866 To the U.K. (Great Britain) 26 kop.
(d) June 1866 To the U.K. 25 kop.
(e) October 1866 To France 28 kop.
(f) October 1866 To Germany 40 kop.

One of the unsolved mysteries of Russian foreign rates pre-U.P.U. are these variations of 1 kop. or 2 kop. in
the rates for commercial mail letters (i.e. by senders who knew what the rates were) to Western Europe;
certificates of posting, fluctuations in currency rates or what ?

The next rare period in the pre-U.P.U. era is from January 1872 to June 1875 for registered mail going
abroad. I have found only three examples. Why are they so rare?

(a) Atkarsk, 6 July 1873 To Belgium 25 kop. Fig. 7, p. 7.
(b) Odessa, 26 March 1875 To the U.K. 28 kop. Fig. 8, p. 7.
(c) Surazh, 22 May 1875 To Switzerland 58 kop. Fig. 9, p. 7.

Also, I cannot make sense of these rates: e.g. the letter rate for the U.K. was 16 kop. + 10 kop. registration
fee + 5 kop. registration receipt = 31 kop., not 28 kop.
Editorial Comment: The same applies to the cover from Surazh (there are several towns with that name but
this one is apparently the post office in Grodno province). If we subtract the registration and receipt fees, we
are left with 43 kopeks, but the notation on the front at top left states that the weight was 2 lots !

Referring back to p. 23 in "The Post-Rider" No. 37, Harry von Hofmann's letter weighing 8 lots was sent on 2
July 1874, not 1875, so the rate charged is correct at 10 kopeks per lot. Also, on pp.24-25 in No. 37 regarding
Norway, I have a note from the 1864 Russian Almanac that, up to 14 June 1864, the rate via Sweden was 44
3/4 kop. and via Denmark 41 1/4 kop. Therefore, did the Swedish route rate still exist in 1870, when the letter
was franked at 44 kop.? The trouble is that the 1866 Treaty gives only one rate: 30 kop. (see BJRP No. 63,
p.7), presumably via Prussia (down from 46 1/2 kop.). I can confirm this 30-kop. rate, as I have it on an 1869
cover. However, I also have another cover from that year with a 48-kop. franking The reference in the 1861
Listing to a 12-kop. rate via St. Petersburg may link with the note in the 1864 Almanac to: "Via Finland to the
border 10 kopeks". Please refer to Figs. 10 & 11 on the next page.

Editorial Comment: The 12-kop. rate in the 1861 Listing appears to be a misprint. This table states that the
rate to Sweden via St. Petersburg was 22 kop. and via Prussia 41.25 kop., while the rate via Prussia to
Norway was 46.5 kop. It would therefore seem that the rate to Norway via St. Petersburg would have been
either 22 kop. or 32 kop. The situation was also complicated by the fact that Norway and Sweden were
united in one kingdom from 1814 to 26 October 1905; the King of Sweden was also the King of Norway.

Of European destinations in the pre-U.P.U. period, I would rate Spain the scarcest and Portugal next. I would
argue that the scarcest European rate was the 7-kop. border charge between Russian Poland and Prussian
Silesia. I have an example (Fig. 13 on p. 10). For another pre-U.P.U. usage, please see Fig. 12 on p. 9.

HELP WANTED: (a) What was the name of the Steamship Co. running services on the River Lena?
(b) Is there an article or listing of Imperial Russian telegraph forms and envelopes?
Replies, please, to John V. Woollam, Old Ruggs Cottage, The Street, Kilmington, E. Devon, EX13 7RW
June, 1996

Fig. 10: St. Petersburg 1.4.69
with 30-kop. rate to Norway &
backstamped SANDOSUND.
Manuscript "4 1/2" in red and
crossed out in blue.

)22T / .;. 4,7
i. -f-yY'- \e ..)5

Fig. 12: Letter from Odessa 27.9.74 O.S., with 25-kop. franking to island of Mytilene in Turkey and
commercial text written in deferential Greek. Note the Austrian transit markings of Podwoloczyska 10/10
N.S. and Tultscha 14/10 N.S. (now the Danubian port of Tulcea in Roumania).

June, 1996
t'~ ~ I r34~/ -E~~j ~u C ~rY
x If

: Z '.. \" Fig. 13: A letter from
S. Z Kalisz 27.4.69 O.S.
S' prepaid at the border
'L rate of 7 kopeks to
SBreslau in Prussian
SSilesia 10.5.69 N.S.

| ( \ Further data from
CSRP members
S* about other examples
of Russian pre-U.P.U.
Should be greatly

by Ivo Steyn and Robert Taylor.

In a recent article, George Werbizky drew our attention to the wonderful variety of Imperial Russian
stampless mail. In this note, we want to acquaint the reader with some examples from the Soviet period up
to WWII. A fairly large number of organizations was allowed to send their mail post-free in Imperial times.
Of course, the various levels of government enjoyed this privilege, but also churches, police organizations,
courts and any organisation affiliated with the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Letters that were to be sent
post-free had to be sealed with the paper seal of the organisation on the reverse and such seals are worth a
collection by themselves. Post-free cards also existed, the earlier models inscribed "KA3EHHOE
OTKPbITOE IIHCbMO" (Official Postcard) and the later models "JIbFOTHA5I IIOTOBASI
KAPTOHKA" (Privileged Postcard). Finally, some items of mail could also be sent post-free if certain
postal laws were invoked. In that case, the item of mail in question usually had a notation along the lines of
"To be conveyed post-free under Article xxx of the Law ofxxx...", but such items appear to be fairly rare.

Much of this changed after the Revolution. The post-free privileges of many organizations were curtailed or
abolished and the paper seals also vanished quietly. The "privileged" postcards were used well into 1919 but
disappeared after that, although the word "jiroTHoe" was sometimes written on an item of official mail as a
reminder of the old days. We will focus here on the following groups:-
1. Mail to/from Red Army personnel.
2. Soviet Academy of Sciences mail.
3. "Postage on account" mail.
4. Official mail.
5. Cash rankings.

We must confess that our article is based almost entirely on anecdotal evidence. It would take a concerted
research effort by someone with access to the right archival sources to unearth the exact regulations
governing the various categories of Soviet stampless mail.
June, 1996

1. Mail to/from the Red Army.
Naturally, mail to and from the Red Army was free during 1919, but even after the abolition of the free post,
one can find examples of mail to/from the Red Army not having to pay postage. For example, the Yamburg
Archive of parcel cards contained many cards for parcels addressed to men serving in the "BoicKo BHK"
(Army of the All-Russian Special Commission, i.e. the notorious Cheka), often containing food and
sometimes the postage for such parcels did not have to be paid. Instead, there is a manuscript notation
" 6ecruaTHoe-KpacHoapMeficKoe" (post-free Red Army Matter), or something along those lines.

We can show an item of military mail which was sent registered and where the sender did not have to pay
postage, but did have to pay for registration. Such examples appear to be very rare. During the 1920s,
sailors serving with the Red Fleet were given a limited number of "post-free" labels, which allowed them to
send a letter without franking. Examples on cover are rare.

2. The Soviet Academy of Sciences.
The old Imperial Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725, was one of the few Imperial institutions to survive
the Revolution (see "Russia under the Bolshevik R6gime" by Richard Pipes for the conditions under which it
was allowed to survive) and it retained its post-free privileges. But the paper seals which had ensured this
privilege for an item of mail in Imperial times were abolished, to be replaced by a bewildering variety of
cachets. Each cachet basically said "POST-FREE under the law of ..../the Postal-Telegraphic Circular
of.../SovNarKom decision of...". As far as can be told, every institution affiliated with the Academy had its
own cachets and since the laws regulating this privilege were often updated, new cachets referring to new
laws came into use every few years. For the moment, we can only present the reader with the cachets that
we have seen. It is difficult to draw conclusions about the total number of different cachets, but it seems to
have run into the dozens at least. The examples that we know about are described below.

No. City SovNarKom NarKomPT SobZak Dates of usage
1. Leningrad 26.12.1922 20.2.1923 10.2.1925-4.11.1927
2. Leningrad 2.9.1924 18.1.1934-24.12.1934!
3. Leningrad 16.6.1925 1.7.1925 5.11.1929
4. Leningrad 14.12.1926 23.12.1926 1.7.1927 7.1.1929-10.7.1930
5. Leningrad 19.6.1928 30.6.1928 13.3.1929
6. Kiev 4.12.1926 10.8.1927 19.3.1936
7. Kiev 28.8.1929 18.3.1930 15.4.1932
8. Kiev 15.6.1930 1930 10.12.1933
9. Moscow 2.9.1924 16.9.1924 11.4.1929
10. Tbilisi 2.9.1924 16.9.1924 14.3.1930
11. Tomsk 16.9.1924 10.9.1930
12. Perm' 10.8.1927 10.6.1930
13. Krasnodar 28.8.1929 18.3.1930 8.3.1933
14. Samara Vokzal 28.8.1929 18.3.1930 5.6.1933
15. Saratov 18.3.1930 14.4.1930 6.8.1933

The cachets are described in terms of what they refer to: a decision of the Council of People's Commissars
(SovNarKom); a People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs Circular (NarKomPT) or a specific article in
the Collection of Laws (SobZak). A special case is a cachet used during, 1925 celebrating the 200th.
anniversary of the Academy. The simple one-line cachet "BECIJIATHAFI IOBHJIEIHAI" (Post-
free : Jubilee) is shown used on a commemorative envelope. During the middle and late 1930s, humdrum
utilitarian cachets simply saying "BECIUIATHO AKAIEMHI HAYK" (Post-free : Academy of
Sciences) came into use. Here, too, one occasionally encounters registered letters where the privileges of the
Academy did not extend to the registration fee, which is franked with stamps.
June, 1996

Since a bewildering variety of institutions, libraries and museums was affiliated with the Academy, there is
little system to be discovered in the usage of these cachets. Some institutions replaced their cachets regularly
(usually central offices of the Academy, such as the Secretariat and the Congress Office, both in Leningrad),
while others continued to use old cachets that referred to the by then obsolete laws and circulars. That was
by no means a provincial habit; note that cachet No. 2 was used as late as 1934 by a Leningrad institution.

3. "Postage on account" mail.
In some of the larger cities of the USSR, institutions and organizations could make use of a "postage on
account" scheme. This allowed them to post their mail without stamps and the post office kept track of the
postage owed by each of the subscribing organizations. As a rule, such mail bears a special postmark with
the text:"CBOP B3blCKAH O10 PACHETY"(Fee levied on account), or words to that effect. A
number of such postmarks from Ufa, Arkhangelsk and Nizhnii-Novgorod were illustrated in "The Post-
Rider" No. 22, pp. 75-76 in 1988.

In the larger cities, the "postage on account" scheme was handled by a separate department within the postal
organisation of a particular city, the "FopoAcKaH CIyxe6HaaI IIoqra" (GSP Department) and this
abbreviation can be seen in "postage on account" postmarks from cities such as Leningrad and Moscow.
There were other aspects to the activities of the GSP. Mail to one of the organizations participating in the
GSP could simply be addressed to "name of the organisation, GSP No....", instead of to its full postal
address. One occasionally sees cachets from the organizations stressing this possibility: "Our postal address
is...". It is not known to us in how many cities a GSP department functioned. The Leningrad GSP has been
described in an article by Lev Ratner in "The Soviet Collector" No. 25, p. 20. For other cities, the
appearance of a typical GSP postmark is often the only evidence that we have. Incidentally, one encounters
cases where the "postage on account" postmark has been used as a normal cancellation.

4. Official mail.
Surprisingly little mail other than the categories mentioned above appears to exist from the period prior to
WWII. State organizations usually franked their mail, or made use of the GSP if available and only a
maverick organisation such as the Academy of Sciences enjoyed true post-free privileges. Even so, one
occasionally encounters an item of Soviet official mail that was sent post-free.. That would be an item of
mail within the postal-telegraphic network itself (e.g. from post office to post office).

5. Cash frankings.
Finally, we should mention that, during the Civil War, shortages occasionally resulted in a stampless cover.
adorned with a note or cachet saying that postage had been paid. Examples from the RSFSR itself during the
inflation period have been described many times in the literature and, of the non-Soviet areas, Siberia and the
Far Eastern Republic also had to resort to such cash rankings. The odd cash franking that one encounters
from the later Soviet period was usually the result of a temporary stamp shortage at a post office. A
delightful example from the George Henderson collection is shown hereunder (please see Fig. 32).

Fig. 1: One of four covers from a Red _4 4 ^-
Fleet sailor to his girl friend. This was. \ u-
sent from Sevastopol' 15.4.26 to ,, "
Moscow. The annotation. .y V-r" Z "
"KpacHoCbNOTCKoe" was enough to '-" .
ensure post-free privileges. The
sailor was serving on the submarine
"Communist". 7,. M ,, _y'
1 /f, "-

June, 1996

--. A

..a..r r. I.......
.. -.

nepecR MP mq kr w 'arm ha aLuraei l
fz.." ..0. L. P -6' 0'.r K

t'-, .. +,l' H K.JI. I I" r 4 ,* I*.,3 p. "-
I ,14- ... ... .

xA reg'd cover from the HydroMet Bureau
in Kiev 15.4.30 to Leningrad. The rect. cachet
in Ukrainian ensured postal freedom, but the
regn fee still had to be paid with a 15k. stamp.
reg'n fee still had to be paid with a 15k. stamp.

t 'L ,^?.)I~ .- Fig. 2: A Red Army cover from
.. ."-- Eri an' (Armenia) 20.8.27 to the
,;.-: s'- U.S.A. Ms. "KpacHoapM." on
-,'-, l*-the front and a triangular
,i-..... -. --: military cachet on the reverse.

. . -,.. [ ... .. _-'i.

.( Fig. 4: Reg'd express (TERMINOVOYU
.d POSHTOYU) cover from Berdychiv
S-" 2.7.29 to Moscow. Large PO AVANSU
,,/ i; F-, ----I' b -- 0 .
S' ~~n (paid in advance) cachet of the Berdychiv
.-- 1 District Office of Communictions.
f I 0 1;

i- i / ....... y ,, I
0 ,- 1 io
u epaIIBsc. H toroap3o '.-

i-t. 5: Rq'd cc.%er
-i' ~EeciruniechanicaI
J1' ____ s 1 Factor% in Nloscow

A -, I- -o, Oplacdeno po
.. ^ J ,' raschetu (Paid on
..l .,. l o t & Schet-
.-'..'" -- -'' Fakiura (Account-
am ZRll. W,,l,, MFl. [ = n % oi ce .

'-, L "
.. -.. .- '. '

Fig. 6: A typical "On account" marking from the
-Leningrad GSP, Smolnyi Raion, 1936.

Fi. 7: 1918 usage of a "privileged postcard" to Moscow. THE POST-RIDER/IIMIUHK No. 38
June, 1996 13


c. l i2G 21I26 "

KyAa 4.< s
SHouy P,1;1, esiei .

I .............- ................. 192 r.
^ OT k<7' / Al Z .
2 BcOawat aOnaa nowMacra Ma aTOnfl aapTro4 an A O aHU o seanse.

Fig. 8: 1927 usage of a Soviet equivalent


6OlI i.T-le. -rlU ta re' ..(14 -

Fig. 9: Official post office correspondence from
May 1918 to Perm' with the P&T seal.

EpoHHnHIai YesAHri B-L--------- -sorc* H
CoB.'en CoESe:
OrTpej C6 ;aro Yrna,.,teia n
Aea,,i~,p /. 191~~ |

,r= .: *. :- "- -
IIoperc!amz- a n,--- -.:0:7era -c

ACC a WI: ~ -tt :.e n :ass e o- .paI-,sa C
-0:roTezuro $Oz eAC
ir; e.T \; .'-..:r.... r-:: ie 43 Ze-o Lc-'iLcOcl -C a t

reie Cnm-ro r;i.e;. An. E ie 3 3aooc acu:ccseae.
3ae3ft5;pcrt at?;enoCn --j
cfraro 7:;a?.atnf

Ce per-

Fig. 10: Official mail from the Bronnitsy Soviet to Krivyakino Soviet with lightly applied post-free cachet.



-u i

Fig. 11: 1919 post-free (as with all mail) letter from Pokrovsk District Workers' Office to Moscow.

June, 1996


A" "4,. x I n -e

Top. tpos. B w. a n r -1.
I ~ ~~'-"-I--" -.-.

. ,


6I(nz~e ~PC--Y

* a..

t.',, J e,
.4 ; .

Fig. 12: 1919 post-free official mail from the Bronnitsy District Income Tax Office to Bykovo.

I' --a C 4C''


,o^y :: 7' : .

Fig. 13: A registered cover from Kozlov, Tambov province 3.5.20 to Staroe Yurevo in the same province.
Ms. "JIbroTHoe" on the front meant that the sender only had to pay the reg'n fee of 5 r.

Sc* ..-- .-. _- -_",- .__ .._ __ __ .. ..__ -_
Fig. 14: Reg'd official mail (" Komissiya" cachet) from Simferopol' 9.4.21 to Brilidirovka, Poltava province.
Crimean 5 r. surcharge used as a "trophy" stamp to pay for the registration fee.

!- ":

L --

B ...,,


j __w$"i
Eri "O""1 /O^. ?
ri~et'f^3 ty -'*^" ___ -
--^ ^ "'' r''' -



5C'b rLJ~.ltHM..

-~zC; 4.c L.-Y

.s'. '1-4-- -~ ""~

1% -'J

44 L~i~

I J ClyKE6Hblf OTMtT.

Fig. 15: Parcel card from Irbit 5.11.21 to someone
serving in the 156th. Detached Batallion of the
Cheka Army. Ms. "Krasnoarmeiskaya" at right
ensured postal freedom.

-.' C. .d'^tn -'mnn .O.DW.. i.;,. '-


S_ .. ..... .

Fig. 17: Official postcard from Dashiv, Podillya
25.1.29 to Moscow.

:-' -a--........,
:~ ~..... '.. .-.. .. --..... .' .. .. .
............ ...
7 7 -, ..-~ 7 7. .


."3' .,-

Fi. 16: Parcel card for a food parcel from Go
Ms. "Besplatno" at lower left.- -

j. .-- ..T. ._A _-. -_;

-; .: -- _-, -A ?. .

Fig 16: Parcel card for a food parcel from Gora
Novgorod province 14.11.21 to a soldier in the
165th. Detached Batallion of the Cheka Arpmy
guarding the Estono-Latvian frontier of the RSFSR
Ms. "Besplatno" at lower left.

4 -..-F ..- ---,j -.- ...

E 17 L 7 --....

Fin. 18: Late use (1934) of a Moscow "Paid on
account" mark as an ordinary receipt postmark or
just an odd postmark of the Moscow-11 post office?

-" ,;;. { L "" -" .- ....:-...

c-~p ,
(ag, il!~~p


30astivTa II gEPATOPCICI mim EK n, c rt'

"postmark Fig. 19a: A letter from the Zoological Museum of the
31. Imperial Academy of Sciences, SPB 20.8.08 to Urusov
22.8.08 with a handsome blue post-free seal on the back.
June, 1996

Fig. 19: "Postage paid on account'
of the Leningrad GSP, 19


The Imperial Academy of Sciences

For postcards, official forms were available that
automatically ensured post-free status. Up to
1909 these were called Otkrytoe Kazennoe Pismo
(Official Postcard), and in 1909 their name was
changed to L'gotnaya Pocshovaya Kartochka or
Privileged Postard.

Fig. 21.

The Imperial Academy of Sciences

Finally, one could also hope that the postmen knew what

-8 1.14.

I -^ ^

/ /

"-. Or- IIeprcr oft ropojCKuc _
S. 6riecTsenl6iW n-in3loeKm -l j .

Official Postcard ftr 1908 and Privileged Post-
card from 1914, from Mo';ow and Pem, respect-
ively. both to StPeshburg.

Fig. 20.

The Imperial Academy of Sciences
One could also appeal directly to the relevant par of the Postal Laws to avoid paying postage, as in this example.

C.- leTlor ypr I .

2 cpowa. /. va...,to _,, '_, ,rp .
n '..A L.? c. L *I AKaleia HayKa.-
2 M -. 4 ^ 'f/ .' ^ ~ -

/ no1Aea Tz 6eainnT1ai nepecI[rir Ha oca"naHtir 374 cT. cT.
585~,ir;, t .'-

A 1914 letter from Oek, Irkutsk Gub. to the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St.Petersburg. The sender typed : 'To be sent without charge on the
grounds of Article 374 of the Postal Laws. It worked: a "doplatit' mark ca,3d out.
In StPetersburg, the letter ran into problems as the address was incomplete, hence the attached 'sprava', which covers the departui mark of Oekt
they were doing. Some of them did.

/~ ~-La~ 6/~~L

A 1902 lear from Warsaw to the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Sent unfranked, it atracted the wrath of the postmen, who gave it a doplatit" mark
and an angry red cachet saying the address had better pay for this!
However, a better-informed postman crossed out the 'doplatit" mark and covered the whole mess with a label reading To be sent without charge
(signature), an interesting improvised postal label.
June, 1996

Fig. 22.


NI PI tin I Plsllsllll 1 .
rr' ^ ll '. n. A.,, v ^ll' v.


The Academy of Sciences of the USSR

TIe earliest of the BESPLATNO cachets
of the 1920s. It refers to the
SovNarKom decision of 26-12-1922 and
the NarKom P&T circular of 20-2-1923.

Used by Leningrad affiliates of the
Academy from 1924-1927. Below. a
1925 sea-green strike, right a 1927
violet strike.

V t

Fig. 24.

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR

As the Academy's post-free status was renewed every
year, new cachets referring to the updated SovNarKom
decision or NarKom P&T circular appeared.
The total number of different cachets is not known
but could be in the dozens.


.5 c l
I cC;

' ,

'r< / (-' ./ < --

i ..


The Academy of Sciences of the USSR
A very similar cachet with the same text was used by the Library of the Academy in Leanigr


-n~eli~ ~ 7~ ,~r~c, l
^l^-fi-pet- hdf C7/ ce re~z otd

5,/' / .

(y^-.- < ^ &K*. cr:o;t~ sIf
A .r u
Ay. a-n-

Fig. 25.


HMI OCOAOa'4i r.CtTa-.
Cos- Hap. Ks.-. CCCP
cr 19 ,otin-1918 r. *
utpPKyJnp H; K. n. T
;i 30 'oum 1928 r.
38 o V?/218.



A cachet refering to the 1924 SovNarKom decision, used
very late indeed in 1934 (top), and a 1928 cache used in
1929 (left). Presumably. some institute didn't bother
getting a new cachet every year.

3 V

a tea. r' cc.

... .

'/ ** .zr!. i.,-.'a.t* '-

2 ri
; c. C l-.
.= 47. 2 1Y i- 2 F,

fanelr,- -n U0 50,2 ;

Eri; a :! -; ,
Li ~u;;.~LBirpV

II.. .. | ,. I
June, 1996

Fig. 23.


oHa aOcosaHHH
nocraH. Coe. Hap. kon.
or 26. 11. 1922 r. i

QHpW. 9KcnFi. TeXiH. Ynp.
H. K. n. r T.-or 20. !;l
1923 r, sa N2 52-2!2.

I --I--

- -- ---



* (

Alm, \o wiwtl

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR
Academy ffiliates elsewhe in the USSR also had their
BESPLATNO cachets.

il, ittfTli


-_ -_r'P.L, '

nO'TOBAa KAPTO p .. ,,.

-/1JJt1 8"6 "-j

rc/t4. l'dWdA.uLc..aC ;n

Fig. 27.

nOTOBA5 KAPT(i" n f r
1, 1 >li. Ai. ..

lo if %.h --" -

A 1927 ccheL fiom the Ltary of Perm Univerity ii pi
a 1924 cachet from the Georgian Museum in T-.,i .
(middle) and a 1924 cachet from Tomsk University (left).
used in 1930, 1930 and 1931, respectively.

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR

it-.- .- li~.* ii n 4n -7>*u r*^

Preprimed vemo of the 19221
1923 Leningrad cachet (right)
and a 1926/1927 Kiev cachet.
the latter in Ukrainian.

Sometimes, the cachet was prprinted on an envelope or
card, but this seems to have been the rare exception rather
tan the rule.


S..u i wa'nI

OT Aileume BIayn CCCP.
,* un e. ,Hjyua .y B am p, m.r&. CCCP
Anw.arn j .O T7lyu- "t ?2
r- -'

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR I
During the late 1930s, rather boring cachets became the norm, such as these two (slightly different!) examples from Leningrad.

:c I C.nA.TF.o. A,

A0cg O M h1 cccR -

j / rue f4.v


"',,..-, i -. .., p----.T
.' '. .- .

Utilitarian BESPLATNO cachets from the
Zoological Institute ad the Secretariat
of the Academy. both in Leningrad.

?-" J P~\




Fig. 28.

lin *otYAiHIRS I *tAlX COCPi.

June, 1996


no uwp iK5. n. I .

or 10 aarycTr~ 1927 r.

X, 37 /310

Fig. 26.


URipKyx H.K..fT.

OT 16 ix 24 r.


........... -+T-, "' u-- !




a+ iua ,.

- ---- --1

L~ i


JS~E~~ "

The Academy of Sciences of the USSR

Even among these simpic cachets, one finds
the occasionl design varition

- 7 -- El

I----- F~




The Academy of Sciences of the USSR

'The most claborat cachet of all
was the version used in Leningrad
during the late 1920s. It referred
to the Stauites of the Academy,
the appropriate section of the law-
books, a SovNarKom decision and
a NarKom P&T circular.
Okay, okayl

6LA ItaWl n4rx WJ1

An unboxed BESPLATNO cacher from the Secre
tariat (top), and a BESPLATNO cahct from ih.
Academy's publishing house ilet) which states it
origins. Both frm Lcningrad, 1937.

Fig. 29.

rpn R~

i'.I~t 1N X rr~



1P1.ir it r m-, U410111l
v ~.4rLe l4,l33m elo l
,I(L~ii( Fiv~r ,~r i ,

I .

l~ 5. '

The Overkill Cac et. used on a local letter (up) and on a letter
from Britain (left). Tie aulrr s profeltor SlKlicrhtialLao
wamn't at tl h Ituteu fr Buddlistr Cuturet in Iertingtad
arynllor, so lte lkiter was sted on to Tve' where he rclidcd It
attrcted a superb lstike of tll cachet to get It frura lInIngrad ti
Tver' pst free, Tirues two cacishet, although obvioustly front thic
larne rold, are rtually diftTcrtl ratlrit, Fig. 30.


The Awidemy of Sciences of the USSR

Oddest ae the Io. the Lachri L.d during 1925. when the 2D3%rh Annerseaory of dle AMcadeIPy
foundation a celrbraned. ihe only knonrsn caw of a CommcmnorM c pol-tife Cad.ke

L G 'b~in: _-_1 I Cup1i;



ila orHor. cir, (34 u iG5 Ycra1a Rxan.
IMayp CC(P, (Co6p. 3.11ii It Paciio
nfl pj u (CcJ
V11VI, 192rVr. 142~ 35, ()Ilk. llt-PS611A,
ry, 367) ii Fj()CTrjjrjsnCI4W Coo. HO.,.
I(oM.lQ orVl. or II. 1926 r nbrovrii
1iq ncg)m. t)o4 r.-ten. 1-dipatin i
(H 4 of!k; I til Ijil K o: 11 j, 2 .3 X 11. 1 9Z6 1

* The commemoranve "BESPLATNAYA YUrILEINAYA' cachet ed on a local letter during
Ihe Jublee year 1925. The envelope Iislf also celebrates thi amnn ersary. as soun by the
lluarnrdon and text on the flap (below).

:Fig. 3 1.

INC RaTiABasloslEn1x

i 5*'



aywww '- i.'jawfr' ;m i ...' ,' "&" .. "?
Kt v;,':;" 0)KII :; 7. --,

,-'' /./'7- Fig. 32: Reg'd letter from Leningrad 6 City P.O. 28.2.26. The;
_.. _- L .,-- correct rate was 28 k., but stamps had apparently run out. An -
.." iinprol id label in French was added: "The dJeicit has been
paid at the office oforigin".




and the

Academy of


* ~ -


Commemorative postcard, issued in 1925 for the
200th Anniversary of the foundation of the
Imperial/Soviet Academy of Sciences.

Fig. 33Registered postcard sent from Leningrad GSP, 1933. A portion
- at least of the postage and/or registration was "on account" Note the
Leningrad Smolnyi Raion GSP registration cachet.

Items 1-14 & 33 are from the Robert Taylor collection; items 15-31
from the George Henderson collection.

Examples from the Imperial period:
19a, 20, 21, 22
Red Army mail:

from the Ivo Steyn collection and item 32

Soviet Academy of Sciences:
3, 23-31
"Postage on account" mail:

Official mail:
7-14, 17
Cash frankings:

* * *




by Andrew Cronin.

This international exhibition under FIP patronage took place 8-16 June 1996 in our fair city of Toronto. The
general economic climate now prevailing in Canada must have been one of the reasons why, despite a
determined and consistent advertising campaign, total attendance was only about 30,000, i.e. about half the
visitors for "CAPEX '87". Moreover, it is believed that the show almost did not take place, as its subsidy had
been withdrawn about a year ago as a budget-saving measure and it was restored only after herculean efforts by
Charles J.G. Verge, Jury Secretary, Denis Hamel and Alain Doucet. In fact, our francophone brethren, headed
by Executive Director Denis Hamel and Research Member Gregoire Teyssier, rendered yeoman service in
making the exhibition as successful as possible. Your editor was one of the volunteers who put in four days to
set up and dismantle the show, aided by such pillars of strength as O. White, Ted Nixon, Bill Liaskas, Henry
Blum, KarlV.Laas and other colleagues too numerous to mention. All for the good of Philately!

Unfortunately, the fees for the booths in the Bourse Section were quite high, such that only about 70% of the
available space was sold to dealers. We would have loved to have seen more of the most important U.S.
professionals at the show, as we in Toronto have always appreciated what they have to offer. In spite of that
problem, it was very gratifying to see 90 exhibits from the U.S., that country being by far the biggest participant
at the show. We thus see once again that no international exhibition can be considered successful without
strong American support.

So far as the CSRP was concerned, the highlight of the show was the presence of a six-person delegation from
The Union of Philatelists of Russia and from the "MOSCOW '97" Organising Committee, namely V.V.
Sinegubov (member of the "CAPEX '96" Jury), Professor A.S. Ilyushin ("CAPEX '96" Commissioner and
President of the UPR), his son Ya. Ilyushin, noted airmail specialist L. Ya. Melnikov and, from "MOSCOW
'97", Galina Vinogradova and A.N. Oreshkin.

As all the evenings during the exhibition were taken up with other functions, the CSRP put on a special sit-
down dinner on the eve of the show, Friday, 7 June, inviting members who could attend. It was a resounding
success and, in addition to the Russian delegation, the following were present: Mr. and Mrs Harry von
Hofmann (Germany); Norman R. Banfield (New Zealand); Michael J. Carson (U.S.A.). together with Henry
Blum, Owen White and your editor, all of Toronto.
Most of us were also able to attend the excellent reception staged for "MOSCOW '97" on Tuesday, 11 June.
where a great time was had by all. Useful discussions continued with the Russian delegation during the
exhibition and we were assured that "MOSCOW '97" would take place with maximum security. We are now in
the process of arranging to put together a North American group to visit "MOSCOW '97" at a very
advantageous rate, leaving from and coming back to Toronto. Members interested in such a tour are urged to
contact us as soon as possible; the more people participating, the cheaper the excursion will be individually.

Turning now to the "CAPEX '96" awards, the results were often severe and, for example, sometimes lower
than at "SINGAPORE '95". In fact, they were more like those given out at "FINLANDIA '95" and there must
be a moral there somewhere. The results and point scores in our fields of interest were as follow:-

Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman (90): Via the Red Skies (undervalued, as it barely made it to a gold!).
Paolo Bianchi (92 + Sp.Prize): Imperial Russia (low award, as many gems were ex Liphschutz).
Harry von Hofinann (91): Latvian Forerunners (many Russia No. Is used there & lovely Wenden!).

F. Warren Dickson (85): Estonia 1918-1940.
June, 1996

Alexander Mramornov (85):
Roger P. Quinby (85):
Angela Ruiz Vegas (88):

Alexander Artuchov (81):
Anatolii Bogdanovskii ((81):
Jorgen Jensen (84):
Diana Johnson (80)
Alfred Kugel (83):

Arkadii Pevzner (82):

Igor' Druginin (79):
Vesma Grinfelds (77):
Anatolii Il'shtein (78):
Vladimir Kalmykov (75):
Dr. A. Ross Marshall (76):
Philat. Fedn. of Finland (75):

Erik Johansen (74):
Avedis Ketchian (73):
Karl Valdo Laas (71):

Kirill Osyatinskii (71):

Artioucha Minasian (60):
Levon Minasian (60):

Russians in Arctic & Antarctic (some nice usages here).
Russian Stamps & Stationery used in Finland 1891-1918 (fascinating!).
Russian Levant (many lovely items).

Dots Postmarks of Imperial Russia (beautiful presentation).
Soviet Field Posts during WWII (a wonderful exhibit).
Russia 1777-1900 (many excellent pieces).
Tsarist Arms Issues of Russia 1857-1923 (she obviously loves her stamps !).
Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1925 (much under-appreciated, as many
rare items were present; the same thing happened at "FINLANDIA '95" !).
Soviet Definitives: 3rd. to 10th. Issues (a very comprehensive study).

Airmail of the USSR (nice items!).
Latvian TPOs/RPOs (a very intelligent study).
Railway Post in Russia 1851-1917 (comprehensive, with relevant maps).
Numeral Postmarks of Russia 1858-1905 (many nice covers).
Russia 1917-1924 (a useful survey).
Imperial Russian Zemstvo Post (Literature: Oleg Faberge Collection).

Estonian Postal History 1678-1944 (some interesting pieces).
Armenia (needs more write-up to explain his rare usages).
Russian Field Posts used by Estonians 1914-1918 (much under-appreciated,
as he displayed considerable research in identifying many units).
On the Roads of Russia (thematic exhibit).

Armenian Motives in Philately (a good effort in the international arena).
Armenia in Maximaphily.


In 1997, the city of Moscow will be 850 years old. Part of the celebrations will include the World Philatelic
Exhibition "MOSCOW '97", which will run 17-26 October 1997 under FIP patronage. It will be held in the
Manezh Exhibition, not far from the Kremlin and where, over 5000 sq. metres, collectors from more than 60
countries will present 3000 frames of exquisite philatelic rarities.
This will be the first international philatelic exhibition to be held in Moscow and a new record of visitors is
expected. The other tourist attractions of Moscow are also worth a visit and its theatres and museums have
become legendary. To UNESCO, these institutions are of such importance that they will be included in the
sponsoring programme for the conservation of the Cultural Heritage of the World in 1997.
The medals to be awarded will be designed by Ivan Kopitkin, an artist of nationwide renown and struck by the
State Mint in Moscow. The Organising Committee will include ministers, business people and famous
collectors, under the chairmanship of Vladimir Bulgak, Minister of Communications.
The main sponsors are MARKA (a publishing house and business centre under the authority of the Ministry of
Communications) and IEC (an export corporation: International Economic Cooperation). The FIP Coordinator
is Michael Adler of Germany. For information, please contact:
The Organising Committee of "Moscow '97" Tel.: + 7.095.209 3452.
12 Tverskaya Street, Fax: + 7.095.230 2117.
June, 1996

Glider-Train Air Mail latest by Simine Short.
S There are many reasons for writing in the philatelic press. Articles in the
S N5LVA A catalogue of an aerophilatelic exhibition, which is also hosting the annual FISA
.~' Congress, will bring a certain benefit; they are read and noticed by collectors
,', /, NEW / who are also knowledgeable in areas outside their regular expertise. The
SI purpose of this article is simply a request for help, asking unknown collectors
-----.......-.-;-- E /Y to share their knowledge.

aipmaiservc, b Y fr flights. Earlier findings were published in the 1986 COMPEX Directory of
Nationwide airmail service by glider trains
is presad by opening of service between Chicago, Illinois in "Sky Trains; Aerial Transport with Mixed Success" and also
New York & Washington as illustrated in the LUPOSTA '87 Exhibition Catalogue in Berlin, Germany in the article
her. "Loomotive" polanedsoil detacnd "Frachtschleppzug der Luft; eine bunte, interessante und abenteuerliche
pilot at Pittsburgh and Baltimore. Same Entwicklung in der Fluggeschichte" (Freight-carrying Trains of the Air; a
system can be used for "way station"
passengers and building roofs in big variegated, interesting and adventurous development in the History of Flight).
cities can be used as landing places.
A sky train is defined as an aerial combination of one or more "locomotive" towplanes, pulling one or more
glider cars for the purpose of increasing the carrying capability of the towplane, or allowing the glider to release
independently to the land in otherwise inaccessible locations. In the early 1930s, high-powered locomotive
airplanes, towing a number of unpowered glider cars, seemed a reasonable high technology answer to efficient
movement. Thus, glider sky trains and their development earned a definite place in the development of air
freight Editorials from around the world started about 1930 to predict popularity for gliders and even their
commercial potential. The practicability of these aerial trains was not known then, but they were thought to be
feasible. Reading accounts of gliding and airtowing activities in the Soviet Union, I wondered what may have
happened there. Was mail actually carried by glider sky trains on significant flights, or even commercial airmail
feeder lines ?

The Sky Train Concept.
In an editorial in "The New York Times" on 15 February 1933, the writer envisioned that sky trains ...mam-
mark another stage in the evolution of aerial transportation.... Visions are conjured up of trains hauled
through the atmosphere by powered "locomotives". Philadelphia looms into view and the last car is cut loose
to glide with its passengers and mail to the airport below, while the rest of the train roars on. In Wilmington
and Baltimore, other cars descend. Thus, it is conceivable that an air train may start from New York with ten
cars and arrive at Key West with but one car, namely the "locomotive ", which has covered the whole distance
without a stop. The "Cuba Limited", "Tropic Express" great names do not suggest themselvesfor these future
aerial counterparts of the "Twentieth Century Limited".

The basic idea of this concept was executed one year later with the Lustig Sky Train (see Fig. 1 on the next
page). On 2 August 1934, the sky train with three gliders, each carrying a payload of about 2000 covers, left
the Bennett Air Field in New York, with the first glider releasing over Philadelphia, the second at Baltimore and
the last glider landing at the Ellipse in front of the White House in Washington, D.C. Similar airtowed sky train
flights over some short or long distances were executed around the world, sponsored by philatelic events or
aero clubs. Fig. 2 shows a cover flown on a double airtowed flight from the gliding centre in Brasov 25 October
1935 to Bucharest, Romania as part of an international aviation meeting at the Baneasa airport. According to a
report by the organiser written thirty years later, this event was the first with a large number of pilots from the
Soviet Union participating. It was a good moment to support glider flying, but also to highlight the importance
of transporting mail. The flight was sponsored by the Brasov Aero Club, which had just purchased a new two-
seater glider from Germany. Note the official postmark.
June, 1996

Fig. 1.



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Gliding and Sky Trains in the Soviet Union.
Contemporaneously, events in the Soviet Union seemed to indicate thinking about developing sky trains in that
country as well. I recently purchased an advertising envelope, printed in 1932 by VNUPP, a venture of
Osoaviakhim (see Fig. 3 on the previous page). I had never seen such a Soviet Air Fleet propaganda envelope,
either postally used or in mint condition. On the back of the envelope, the information was given that 1,000.000
of these postal stationery envelopes were printed! The advertising, also found on the back, clearly gives the
impression that someone was eager to publicise the sport of soaring. Gliding championships were held in the
Crimean peninsula near Koktebel as early as 1923. Koktebel was a beach resort town, south-west of Feodosiva.
After the successful early glide meetings, the town was later renamed Planerskoe, meaning "glider site". Today,
one can visit the Glider Museum and see the glider monument which was erected there in honour of the 50th.
anniversary of the sport of gliding in the Soviet Union. The first day postmark of 3 November 1973 was applied
in three different cities for the postal stationery envelopes commemorating the 50th. anniversary of gliding.
Planerskoe was one of the First Day of Issue sites, with Moscow and Kiev the other two (see Fig. 4-next page).

Lenin and the other Soviet leaders saw the importance of aviation, not only for military defence and the
transportation of troops, but also as a rapid communication link in the vast Soviet territory. In their eyes, flying
stood for progress, amid the general backwardness of their surroundings (see V. Wrieshevsky: "Red Pilot", The
Right Book Club, London, 1940). To make civil aviation grow in the Soviet Union and to stimulate interest in
aviation generally, the government sponsored the formation of aeroclubs in major cities, as well as in small
communities. In 1927, Osoaviakhim was formed out of OSO (the Society for assistance to Defence) and
AVIAKHIM (The Air and Chemical Defence Society). One of the many ventures of this organisation in the late
1920s and early 1930s was the manufacture of light planes and gliders.

During the 1932 Congress of the All-Union Communist Party, a resolution was passed that: air travel should
expand in all directions, as it is one of the important communication links with remote rural regions and with
other major industrial centres. At the same time, plans were made to build a plant with the capacity to
manufacture 5000 gliders annually. In that year, Osoaviakhim actually built the first glider factory in Moscow,
naming Oleg K. Antonov, an aircraft designer and engineer, to head the design and engineering effort of the
plant. Reportedly, about 1000 gliders were manufactured in the first year. It is of interest to note that a
sailplane costing 300 roubles was designed as the standard type for all glider training.

In the following year, additional plants were built in Leningrad and in the Ukraine. By 1934, the Soviet could
boast ten gliding schools, 230 gliding stations and glider circles (clubs for study without gliders) and 57,000
trained glider pilots. During the latter half of 1933, 42 local airmail lines were said to have been established in
agricultural areas. According to a report in "Flight" for 12 October 1933, gliders were being employed to carry
mail between Koktebel and Simferopol' in the Crimean peninsula. Did the mail carried receive any special
markings? It is reported in "Planyeri SSSR" that, during 1934 and 1935, the GN-4 glider, which was designed
for towed flight and able to carry up to five passengers, was used on the Moscow-Orel and Moscow-Khar'kov
routes, where the GN-4 carried mail, freight and personnel of the Civilian Air Fleet. Was this mail specially

Around 1934, the head of the Scientific Technical Administration of the Civilian Air Fleet conceived the idea of
using a low-powered freight glider-plane, which was easy to produce and cheap to operate, to solve some of
the long-distance fast freight needs of Russia. Soviet air officials expected these airtowed flights to be the
forerunners of a regular glider-train service, carrying mail, priority freight and even occasional passengers from
one city to the next. By the late 1930s and prior to WWII, gliding was reportedly enormously developed and
popular in the USSR.

The ultimate sky trains were used during WWII. Troop and cargo gliders were designed and used in many
countries. The Soviet GR-29 of 1941 is shown on a stamp issued on 20 August 1982. Several Soviet troop and
June, 1996

cargo gliders, in conjunction with other Soviet-designed sailplanes, were honoured on postal stationery
envelopes issued in the 1980s (see Fig. 5 on the previous page).

Possibly illustrating the wartime development of the Sky Train concept, Fig. 6 depicts a fieldpost cover posted
on 29 May 1943 by a soldier at the Glider Training Camp Group B in Fassberg, Germany to his brother in the
3rd. Reconnaissance Squadron, 17th. Infantry, stationed on the Mius River in Southern Russia. German G6-
242 and DFS-230 cargo gliders supplied the bases along the Sea of Azov continuously from the Kuban
bridgehead. delivering supplies including gasoline, food for horses, medical supplies and military mail. On the
return trip, casualties were evacuated and also mail from the battle front was picked up for forwarding to
Germany. War documentation indicates that mail carriage of such letters by cargo glider was possible and
likely. But, of course, there were no "Carried by glider" markings!

The following table compiles in chronological order some of the published instances of possible mail-carrying
Glider Sky Train flights in the Soviet Union between 1932 and 1935. Information was taken from American.
British, German and Russian publications, which included magazines and newspapers, as well as reference
sources on the economics, transportation and aviation developments in the Soviet Union.

Date of event: 10 October 10 November 1932.
Source: Economic Review of the Soviet Union, Vol. 7, p.431:
Planyeri SSSR, by A.P. Krasilshchikov, 1991, p. 86.
Information retrieved: The feature of the 8th. All-Union Competition on Gliding at Koktebel, Crimea was
the arrival of a glider towed by airplanefrom Moscow 29 September 5 October 1932, proving the feasibility of
long-distance airtowing. The pilot of the G-9 machine, V.A. Stepanchuk, accomplished a number of
manoeuvres never before achieved in the history of gliding.

Date of event: 20 August 20 September 1933.
Source: "Flight", issue of 12 October 1933, p. 1030.
Information retrieved: 9th. All-Union Competition on Gliding in the Crimean peninsula gives a clear
indication of the extent to which gliding has been developed in the Soviet Union. Pilot Yudin flew over the
Orenburg-Moscow-Koktebel route, towed by an airplane and pilot Pleskov made a long flight (5025 km./ 3120
miles in 34 hrs) with a passenger towed by an airplane. Gliders are now being employed to cany mail between
Koktebel and Simferopol'.

Source: Planyeri SSSR, p. 98.
Information retrieved: At the meet, trials were carried out, aiming to give a role to the national economy.
Glider pilot I.I. Shelest was towed to an altitude of 1600 metres (a little less in yards) by the U-2 towplane,
delivered mail to the town ofStaryi Krym (Old Crimea) by dropping it from the glider and then returned to his
starting point. In another flight, N.S. Yudin in a G-9 glider delivered mail to the city of Simferopol' from 3500
metres above the take-offpoint.

Date of event: May June 1934.
Source: Handbook of Soviet Union Transportation and Communications, pp. 268-269.
Information retrieved: Several successful flights were made by "aerial trains" consisting of a plane towing
two or three gliders. The longest flight was from Moscow to Koktebel, Crimea. Plans are being worked out for
the commercial development of air routes using glider trains.

Date of event: 1934- 1935.
Source: Planyeri SSSR,. p. 172.
Information retrieved: In the course of 1934-1935, the GN-4 glider was used on the Moscow-OrH and
Moscow-Khar'kov routes, on which it carried mail, freight and personnel of the GVF (Aviation Research
June, 1996

Bureau). Such experimental flights were carried out by V.G. Borodin, who worked at the GVF.
Date of event: 8 May 1934.
Source: The New York Times, 9 May 1934, 1:4.
Information retrieved: The successful picking-up of a glider on the ground by an airplane in flight at Samara
was announced today. The value of the new system, if it can be put into actual operation, is that it obviates the
necessity of large landing fields and will enable air trains to take on as well as to drop freight-laden gliders at
almost any point.
Date of event: 14 May 1934.
Source: The New York Times, 15 May 1934, 5:6.
Information retrieved: According to an announcement today, a Soviet mail plane pulling three gliders will
make the 1000-mile journey from Moscow to Koktebel in the Crimea. Only one halt is planned, at Khar'kov,
and the trip is expected to take 10 hours. The decision to make the glider train journey was taken today after a
second successful test within two days of flying a train made up of an airplane and three gliders. Soviet air
officials expect the flight to be a forerunner of regular glider train service carrying mail, rush freight and even
occasionally passengers. The gliders had been designed by glider experts of the Osoaviakhim. Each of the three
used in the test carried a pilot and can carry about 45 pounds (20 kg.) of freight. Pilot Fedorosev, yound Red
Army aviator, who is to make the flight to the Crimea, started the plane.
Date of event: 22 May 1934.
Source: The New York Times, 23 May 1934.
Information retrieved: From the Osoaviakhim glider field near Moscow via Khar'kov to Koktebel. The cross-
country journey, which carries Soviet aviation a long way towards the objective of fast delivery of mail and
freight over the enormous expanses of the Soviet Union, ushers in an active season of gliderwork.

Source: "Flight", 31 May 1934, p. 534.
Information retrieved: Soviet "Air Train".

Source: Private correspondence: 0. Bilaniuk.
Information retrieved: Towplane pilot: Fedesev. Glider pilots: Antonin, Shepet, Simonov.
..---------------------------------- -. . . ..---------------------------------------
Date of event: 11 June 1934.
Source: The New York Times, 12 June 1934.
Information retrieved: Batisk, North Caucasus Soviet flyers completed their third successful long flight
with an air train today, with a landing of a plane towing two gliders. The trip from Moscow was made in six
hours flying time.

Source: "Flight", 14 June 1934.
Information retrieved: ... at an average speed of 140 mph.

Source: "Flight", 21 June 1934, p. 611.
Information retrieved: The Samara Glider Club has succeeded...lifting a glider (Gribovskii G-9) from the
ground... by means of a special device invented by M. Popov, Vice President of the Samara Osoaviakhim.
Date of event: 9 July 1934.
Source: United Press report in a German-language newspaper.
Information retrieved: On the basis of the successful course of the recently completed first flight of a "Sky
Train" along the 1700 km./ 1065-mile Moscow-Koktebel route, the Russian Civil Aviation authorities have
June, 1996

decided to organise a second flight over the more than 3000 km./ 1875-mile route from Moscow to Samarkand.
to the north of Afghanistan. As with the first flight, the "Sky Train" will consist of a high-powered aircraft and
three gliders connected to it by a towline. The flight will take place at the beginning of August under the
leadership of the well-known Soviet Russian pilot Borodin.
Date of event: 7 September 1934.
Source: Private correspondence: O. Bilaniuk.
Information retrieved: Khar'kov-Koktebel. Towplane P-5. Glider: XAN (flying wing glider). Glider pilot:

Date of event: 10 September 1934.
Source: Private correspondence: 0. Bilaniuk.
Information retrieved: Squadron flight from Moscow to Khar'kov and Koktebel with three towing planes
and three gliders.

Date of event: 1 September 6 October 1934.
Information retrieved: 10th. All-Union Gliding Competition in Koktebel.

Source: "Flight", 13 September 1934, p. 948.
Information retrieved: The Moscow Glider Works have recently produced a large passenger-carrying glider
for use with "aerial trains". It is a five-seater cabin glider (GN-4), designed by Grobshev. It is intended to be
towed by a P.5-type aeroplane.

Source: The New York Times, 9 October 1935.
Information retrieved: G-XX, a giant glider, seating eighteen persons...will be flown from Leningrad to
Moscow this month. Built at the Experimental Institute in Leningrad.

Many aviation events and activities have been documented with covers in the 1930s, but I have not seen any
Soviet philatelic or commercial covers so far which support my theory of having been flown in a glider, or by a
glider sky train. Have you ever seen a cover reported to have been flown by glider? Do you have any additional
information? I would like to hear from you, so that a follow-up article reporting on this research can be
prepared for a future FISA publication. My address is: Simine Short, P.O. Box 291, Downers Grove. Illinois
60515-0291, U.S.A.

Many people have helped in the research, but two very patient collectors of Russian airmail and historical
aviation material enabled this article to be written. Special thanks go to Oleksa-Milan Bilaniuk. a long-time
glider pilot and Professor of Physics at Swarthmore College and to Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman. an accomplished
aero-philatelist and Professor of Cell Biology at Ohio State University. Like myself and other readers of this
article, they will be looking to prove or disprove the existence of that elusive Russian sky train mail!

by Allan Steinhart.

I propose that we start looking at mail, despatched from the Russian Empire to out-of-the-way addresses
abroad. Such items would definitely be scarce to rare, not only because of where they have been directed, but
also on account of the low rate of literacy then obtaining in the Russian Empire and the consequent low
number of Russian philatelists and postcard collectors. Exchanging picture postcards was all the rage around
the turn of the century and some of them sent through the post have turned out to be of great value from the
point of view of postal history.
June, 1996

St s t L T It i a t a i-.Les ..Mayn. a. the AmericaH.onsurat

in Sandakan, British North Borneo. En route, it received the transit markings of the Penang to Singapore
Mobile Post Office, dated 21 September N.S. and ofJesselton, British North Borneo on the 26th. It finally got
to Sandakan on 30 September.

This item would appeal to a variety of collectors as a piece of "Americana", to other topicalists and picture
postcard enthusiasts, as well as to postal historians. Although remote, British North Borneo was then very
popular among philatelists because of its colorful and beautifully engraved postage stamps; the very epitome
of an exotic land.

In retrospect, it is a pity that the sender had not posted this item aboard one of the steamers with postal
series, plying upa and down the Volga River from the port of Nizhnii-Novgorod. Many of such steamer
postal markings of that period are not rare, but such a usage would have added considerably to the value of an
already desirable piece of postal history.

It would be interesting to see if other CSRP members will delve into their collections and be able to come up
other unusual routings and destinations. It really pays to attend picture postcard shows and bourses, to look at
the address sides of the cards on offer there. Those sides are sometimes far more interesting than the views
they depict!
June, 1996

by Alexander Epstein.

The Russian mail posted in Roumania during the final years of WWI continues to present us with new
surprises. Fig. 1 on the next page depicts a stampless postcard to Petrograd, written in Fokshany (Focani)
on 13 December 1916. The message reads:-
"Dear Mummuy,
Greetings from Fokshany. where I am spending the night. For the time being, I am alive and
healthy. I expect to arrive soon on the spot. My compliments to Godmother and Uncle Kolya. Do not wait
for many letters. Volodya".

That was the time when the Roumanian army, having been defeated by the Germans and having abandoned
the capital of Bucharest, was streaming back to the north-east and east, while fresh Russian troops were
arriving from other fronts to stop the German advance. It was at the point when, only about 50 km. (31
miles) to the south near RTnnicu-Sarat, the 7th. and 30th. Army Corps of the Russian 4th. Army, together
with the remnants of Roumanian troops, firmly resisted the attacks of the German 9th. Army and suffered
heavy losses.

It seems that the above postcard was written by a young Russian officer, making his way with his unit to the
place of battle The card has a transit postmark of Odessa dated 14 December, i.e. the next day after the
message had been written. If we suppose that the card were posted the same day as written, it could have
reached Odessa in one day. Although such was possible from the purely theoretical point of view, that could
hardly have happened even under normal conditions, to say nothing of the chaos in December 1916. There
was a sole railway route functioning in those days, along which postal mail could be carried from Fokshany
to Odessa. It led via Tecuciu northwards to Jassy (Iasi) and from there via Ungeni, Kishindv, Bendery and
Razdel'naya to Odessa. Anyway, going the whole way in a day in those conditions, with the abominable state
of the Roumanian railways and the overloading of the whole railway system by military transports, seems a
fantasy. However, that is not the oddest feature of this postcard. There are also two censor markings on the
card. One is that of the Odessa Military District (O.B.O), Censor No. 448 in violet. The place where the
censor was operating under this number has not yet been ascertained. The other is a Roumanian censorship
c.d.s. in red, which is known to have been in use in Jassy, the temporary capital of Roumania at that time.
after the fall of Bucharest.

As has been pointed out in the Editorial Comment to my original article in "The Post-Rider" No. 34, the
New Style or Gregorian Calendar was introduced into Roumania only as of 1 April 1918. However, the
combinations of dates on the Russian and Roumanian postal and censorship markings on some sending
described in that article can be explained better if we suppose that at least the postal and military censorships
of Roumania were using the Gregorian Calendar still earlier, as far back as 1916-1917. Be that as it may, the
date of 1 January 1917 on the Roumanian censorship marking indicates that it was applied in any case later
than the postmark of Odessa. Thus, it turns out that the postcard, after having been handled by the post in
Odessa, was sent back to Roumania to be censored there also, instead of being forwarded to the addressee
in Petrograd. Such an action seems quite nonsensical.

The only logical explanation for this paradox would be if the Odessa postmark had been applied. not actually
in Odessa, but in Fokshany or elsewhere in Roumania. In other words, it appears that, either a Russian
postal service other than the field post was functioning in Fokshany in December 1916, or that this particular
cancelling device was used for some reason by a Russian field post office instead of its normal canceller. Of
course, additional postal history material would be needed to come to firmer conclusions. A curious
observation on the state of affairs about the postal mail to Russia is contained in a letter written on 7 January
1917 by General Anton Denikin, then the commander of the 8th. Army Corps on the Roumanian Front to his
June, 1996


Romania EI
Carta Postal ,

Fi. 1.

_ I I(
'7, "'- i / ". "-

Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.




Fig. 2.

ft. 4.

future wife (cited in the book "Whites against Reds: the destiny of General Anton Denikin", by Dimitrii V.
"It resembles the good old times of the Caucasian wars, where they communicated there with Russia only at
a convenient opportunity. The Russian armies are defending the remnants of a sovereign Roumania, but foul
bureaucrats are arguing about a postal convention and our mail is being sent when a convenient opportunity
arises or by special delivery".
Unfortunately, no documents about such a postal convention between Russia and Roumania etc. have yet
been found in the archives.

Some more Russian field post establishments are revealed to have been operating in Roumania during WWI.
Fig. 2 on the previous page shows a picture postcard with a view of Jassy and a message written in that
town on 19 February 1917. The card was postmarked at the Line-of-Communications FPO No. 215 the
same day. It is thus obvious that this FPO was functioning in Jassy at least in February 1917, although its
allocation remained unknown

The third postcard (Fig. 3 on the previous page ) was postmarked at the Line-of-Communications FPO No.
218 and is also from Roumania. It is a Roumanian picture postcard with a view of some town in Roumania.
but any indications about that particular place have been thoroughly struck out by a Russian censor, so that
it is impossible to ascertain either the place from where the card was despatched or the FPO allocation. It
should be mentioned here that an archival document pertaining to the censorship in the Russian 9th. Army
and issued in December 1916 lists the Line-of-Communications FPO Nos. 216, 217, 218 & 228. Since that
army was fighting in Roumania in December 1916, all these FPOS should also be located there.

A further postcard of interest is depicted in Fig. 4 on the previous page. Although a sending from a soldier
(there is a cachet reading "From the Army in the Field"), it is franked with a Roumanian 5-bani postage
stamp cancelled at the Russian Reserve FPO No. 114 on 6 June 1917. The necessity for such a franking is
questionable at the very least, since two other postcards from the same batch of correspondence were sent
post free through the same FPO in April 1917. Both of the latter are picture postcards with views of Jassy.
This fact can be considered as an additional corroboration of the hypothesis about the attachment of FPO
No. 114 to the Roumanian Front in Jassy, as put forward in the Addenda & Corrigenda I to my original
article (see "The Post-Rider" No. 36).

On the other hand, as the newly surfaced postal material has shown, the Line-of-Communications FPO No.
240 was actually attached to the 79th. Infantry Division, which never fought in Roumania and not to the
Caucasian Native Cavalry Division, as was wrongly assumed earlier. Moreover, FPO No. 20 was shown in
the original article to be functioning in Roumania from August 1917. It appears now that this happened one
year earlier. Although the 18th. Army Corps was fighting in Southern Bukovina as of August 1916, its
headquarters are known to have been located then at Seletin, a town situated in the present Northern
Bukovina, i.e. outside Roumania. However, there is a postcard franked with a 3-kop. stamp cancelled at
FPO No. 20 on 17.8.17 (see Fig. 5 on the next page). This picture postcard was printed in RAdutui, a town
in Southern Bukovina (at present in Roumania) and depicts a view of that town. As it follows from the
message, the field post office was also situated there and not at the same place as the Corps HQ, at least for
some time still to be determined. Thus, the corresponding additions and corrections should be made in the
relevant list of the Russian FPOs operating in Roumania:-

FPO No. Entity attached to Period Location
Corps FPO
20 18th. Army Corps August 1916 to end of war
Reserve FPO
114 Roumanian Front (?) ...April 1917 to end of war Jassy
June, 1996

FPO No. Entity attached to Period Location
Line-of-Communications FPO
215 ? ...February 1917 (?) Jassy
216 ? ...December 1916 (?)
218 ? ...December 1916(?)
228 ? ...December 1916 (?)
240 Deleted
Note: The dots (...) before the date indicate that this FPO may have been operating in Roumania prior to this
date. Jassy (114 & 215) and Rgdiui (20) are now certainly added to the list of Roumanian towns where
Russian field post establishments were functioning during WWI. 0
Editorial Comment: (a) Referring back to Fig. 1, the Roumanian marking is inscribed BIROUL DE
CENSURA MILITARA* BUCURETI SCRISORI (The Office of Military Censorship Bucharest -
Letters). Roumania entered WWI on the Allied side 27 August 1916 N.S., but Bucharest was taken by the
Central Powers by that December. It would therefore seem that the retreating Roumanian or Russian armies
took with them the Roumanian marking in Fig. 1. We can only conjecture as to its subsequent applications !
(b) Your editor has a view card from Bacau, sent by a Russian serviceman 12.2.17 O.S. through FPO No.
47, serial "z" (see Fig. 6). The FPO No. is correct, but the card looks fresh, there are no censor, transit or
arrival marks and the entire postmark has been carved by hand. Is it a forgery ? Honk if you know the
answer! *
June, 1996

by David Link.

vy-4 ,, /
ISz<^?^^^s/ -

I originally thought that the registered cover shown here was from the Kaliningrad (formerly K6nigsberg)
province. Further examination indicated that the female sender, M.S. Gladilova, had mailed it at Kashin.
Kalinin province, i.e. 192 km. (120 miles) north of Moscow. Addressed to another Russian woman. Anna
Stepanovna Weith, the postage (overpaid by 30 kop.) was cancelled on 14.5.47 at the provincial centre in
Kalinin. The letter bears a French language transit marking reading URSS / P 4 / 20.5.47 / 8 EXP./
MOSCOU and was received in Gmunden, Upper Austria on 3 June, after having been censored by the
Western Allies. Comments on the unusual Soviet treatment for this registered item would be appreciated.
June, 1996

by Andrew Cronin.
The preceding note by David Link brings to mind the whole gamut of the various Soviet systems for
monitoring mail addressed abroad, from the "three triangles" markings of the early 1920s, the "poorly sealed
and/or damaged" cachets of the 1930s, the necessary military censorship of mail during the BOB (The Great
Patriotic War of 1941-1945) and the postwar controls during the last eight years of the Stalin epoch, to
culminate with the application of the boxed "ME)KYHAPOaHOE" cachets. The latter started appearing
in 1950.

Relations between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union during WWII were tepid at best and they
deteriorated quickly after hostilities ceased. The well-known "Iron Curtain" speech of Winston Churchill at
Fulton, Missouri on 5 March 1946 confirmed the worst fears of an already highly suspicious Soviet
government and made it apparent that there would be no reparations from Germany as a whole in
compensation for the enormous devastation suffered by the USSR. The Soviet zone in Germany was mainly
agricultural and hence of little economic value. The last years in the life of Stalin were characterized by his
increasing anger and growing conviction that the former Allies in the West were depriving his country of the
fruits of a very dearly bought victory. That problem has not been solved to this day. We now know from the
recently disclosed holdings of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow that many valuable treasures were
removed as war booty from Germany by the Soviet Army and the Federal Republic of Germany wants them
all returned. It also seems certain that no Russian government of whatever political stripe would ever agree to
do so unless it gets back the more than 200,000 priceless objects of art looted from the USSR during the Nazi
invasion (now mainly in private collections in the West), including the famous Amber Room at the "CTapblif
AJBopeu" in Tsarskoe Selo (now Pushkin), which was removed to K6nigsberg and then "disappeared", the
irreplaceable memorabilia at the P.I. Chaikovskii Museum in Klin, etc. etc.

With the above outline in mind, we may now look at the methods of postal surveillance introduced in the last
eight years of the Stalin era, as relations with the Western world steadily worsened. While it is unlikely that
every piece of mail going abroad was specifically examined, it seems certain that the names and addresses of
the senders and recipients were carefully recorded by the controlling authorities for all items, not just
registered mail. It would seem from the material accumulated by the present writer that, as the "BOEHHAM
ULEH3YPA" system was wound down, certain provincial and/or republican centres were designated as
monitoring points for international mail. The tentative findings are as follow:-

1. KALININ (provincial centre).
Please refer to the illustrations on the preceding page for the article by David Link. It would appear that his
registered letter from Kashin was forwarded in an open state to the provincial centre at Kalinin, where the
contents were checked, the postage cancelled on 14.5.47 and the item then sealed. Actually, his example is
even more remarkable as it really went through two controls, the second one being the monitoring point for
foreign mail in Moscow, which applied carefully over the flap at centre back a marking in French, reading
URSS /P 4/ 20.5.47 / 8 EXP. / MOSCOU. Please see below under MOSCOW for details of further usages.

2. KIEV (Ukrainian SSR centre). 4'*.. Dp .'
This office applied a marking entirely in French: URSS / KIEV BUREAU D'ECHANGE {,
ETRANG, always with the serial letter "" in the observed period from 5.2.47 to o '
20.2.50, as given here.With a diameter of 29 mm., it appears struck carefully over the .
envelope flap at centre back, or on the face of postcards. Has anyone ever seen this i f'
marking with serial letters ""' or "5"?
June, 1996

3. KISHINEV (Moldavian SSR centre).
The control marking SSSR / KISHINEV 8 GOR. MOLDAV. SSR with serial letter "a" has
been observed in the period from 6.11.46 (card from Beltsy in the John V. Woollam
collection) to 20.4.49, as held by the author on a registered cover originally from Tiraspol'.
.- ^ Both items have been previously described and illustrated in "The Post-Rider" Nos. 26-27.
Mail going abroad during the Stalin era is apparently rare, probably for political reasons.
See also the bottom half of p. 76.
4. L'VOV (Western Ukrainian provincial centre).
A transit marking in French, reading URSS / LVOV BUREAU DES POSTES 7.6.48
',s t with serial letter "M has been seen on a registered card to Poland. It was probably
manufactured in Kiev, since it has the same diameter of 29 mm. as the Kiev French type.
(- Mail from this period is rare, as L'vov (L'viv) was the scene of a savage war from 1944
,,"- between the Ukrayins'ka Povstans'ka Armiya (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) and NKVD
~ i Special Forces, with neither side giving quarter and lasting past the death in battle of UPA
Commandant Taras Chuprynka (Roman Shukhevych) on 5.3.50 in the woods near L'viv.

S5MiP. SS en .

5. MINSK (Belorussian SSR centre).

Q)s rif



An unusual type in Latin letters, inscribed SSSR / BELORUSSKAJA SSR and a diameter of 29 mm. No
serial letter and seen in the period from 17.9.46 to 12.2.49, as shown above at left.

6. MOSCOW (RSFSR centre).
The present author has a selection of cards and covers with the French URSS / P 4 / 8 EXP./ MOSCOU
marking from 12.4.46 to 18.10.48. With a diameter of 25 mm., the original points of posting were from
Aldan Yakutian ASSR, Kazan', Moscow, Parabel', Rostov/Don and Taiga-Tomsk TPO/RPO, as well as the
Kashin example held by David Link (please refer back to No. 1 under Kalinin provincial centre). See above.

7. ODESSA (Ukrainian provincial centre).
This unusual double-circle type with a diameter of 29 mm reads USSR / ODESSA POSTAMT / N, dating
from 1.5.46 to 12.11.49 and handling mail from Chernyvtsi (Northern Bukovina) and Odessa. See above.

8. TALLINN (Estonian SSR centre).

, ~ECO~4A~Cut

eZ -;

zu""I 1 c: 9
.... 3W1' dl l.

June, 1996

2o7 East 94 Ztr.
Box 2CS f i
revIora-, 0A. 4n
U. .3. A.

I I I -'- ~-




*- '*tJ -JA ^Lj*'J T-f..-z i

illustration in the middle of the previous page). Registered mail going abroad from other Estonian offices.
from KABLI 1'2.IXA.48 at te b m of te pvios Type 2 had te stars i
21.V.49 on the registered letter No. 980 from PRNU as given above at left and the present author has
J4L ,1 q < h ; ; tk ^ -^ *:

9. UZHIOROD (Ukrainian provincial ce e). .., .
,.2- \ J : .., : :P; :* -

This control point had two "N" types, giving the name of the capital in Latin letters as TALLINN. Type 1
had two full stars in the marking during the observed period from 27.VIII.46 to 21.X.48 (see the second last
illustration in the middle of the previous page). Registered mail going abroad from other Estonian offices
had to be forwarded to Tallinn for checking and sealing before being postmarked; see the two examples
from KABLI 12.IX.47 and PAtRNU 10.ap .48 at the bottom of the previous page. Type 2 had the stars in
outline only, as shown in the last illustration in the middle of the previous page. It has been seen applied
21.V.49 on the registered letter No. 980 from PXRNU, as given above at left and the present author has
another example dated 27.XII.49. We note on 20.12.50 a registered letter sent from and cancelled in
Parnu, together with a boxed "MEXeYHAPO) HOE" (International) cachet. It is in a much darker

9. UZHHOROD (Ukrainian provincial centre). rih in
This was the last Ukrainian province to be incorporated into the USSR (29 June 1945) and H^uga ia
Soviet stamps went on sale as of 15 November. Mail in the Stalin era is hard to find and is a it 7
mainly addressed to Czechoslovakia next door. That latter country had ruled the province .
as PodkarpatskA Rus from 1919 to 1939. The first two Soviet items held by the author were
considerably delayed and the reason appears to have been political. The details are as follow: s t.

Elapsed time: 52 days THE POST-RIDERtaIMIdHK No.n38 39
registration label: Hungarian place-name HUSZT barred out and Russian handsta1996p "3aKaHoe" added,
backstamped UZHOROD ZaKaRPaTSKOj "s" 2.4.46 (!) and not received in Czechoslovakia until 5 May.
The total elapsed time was 78 days for such a short trip next door !

(b) A further cover originally mailed the same day from Perechin 16.2.46 and with another French "s" type,
diameter of 30 mm. and reading URSS / UZGOROD BUREAU DES POSTES 9.4.46 (please see overleaf).
Elapsed time: 52 days! THE POST-RIDER/AMIWHK No. 38 39
June, 1996

This type is apparently rare, as the example shown here just above is the only one seen so far b) the writer .
Note: By the next year, the period between the time of posting and passing through the "s" control point
was down to a couple of days.
(c) Another rare French "s" type, of which only one strike has so far been noted dated
10210.2.50 over the flap ofa registered cover from Palanok 7.2.20 to Czechoslo-akia It
is inscribed URSS / OUJGOROD ZAKARPAT. OBL. and has a diameter of 25 mm.
n r. &\771ti h I A


June, 1996

(d) By some time in 1952, the "s" markings had disappeared and the four covers shown in the bottom half of
the previous page from Uzhhorod 31.10.52, Bychkov Velikii 26.11.52, Rakhov 29.11.52 and Mukachevo
31.1.53 all bear a boxed "MEXHYHAPOAHHOE" cachet, identical in all respects, down to imperfections
in the frames. It would therefore appear to have been applied in all cases in Uzhhorod. Please see further
comments below on this type of cachet under "Conclusions".

10. VILNIUS (Lithuanian SSR centre).
A bilingual type reading CCCP / VILNIUS C.JIHT. CCP. BHJIbHIOC I and with
Cyrillic serial letter "c" (i.e. Latin letter "s") has been noted from 28.7.47 to 1.7.48, as
illustrated herewith.

The author feels that he has only scratched the surface of this subject and further data from
readers would be most welcome. The boxed "ME)AYHAPOAHOE" cachets are a study in themselves
and, while they may have been useful as a sorting procedure, that does not appear to have been their primary
purpose. Indeed, the random breaks observed in the frames do not seem to be accidental, as they are mostly
clean-cut and appear to have been deliberately made with a hand file, presumably as an identification mark
for a specific censor. Further investigation is required to determine which offices received these boxed
cachets, as well as to find out how many were allocated to any particular control point.Meanwhile, please see
the fine article "The MEZHDUNARODNOE Markings" by D.M. Skipton, ROSSICA No. 125, pp. 6-18.
On a final note, it seems certain that the Latvian capital of Riga must also have had a control point, as the
Baltic republics in general were a special security problem in the Stalin postwar years. It is known that
Western intelligence services repeatedly violated Soviet air space in that area and even dropped native
volunteers to test the local defences and gather data. Books have been written on that subject and provide
interesting background information which one can link with the activities of the control points covered here.

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

Having written at some length in this journal, as well as in the journals of fraternal societies on Oval railway
postmarks, I thought it would be of use and interest to conclude all these notes with a look at a few
interesting circular railway postmarks, particularly for those who imagine that I cannot tell the difference
between an oval and a circle, or a triangle and a triplet In general, I will not touch on the standard circular
railway types that preceded the oval ones. With many collectors having continuing contacts inside Russia
and more and more material coming to light, many hitherto unknown types and unrecorded routes are
appearing. At the very least, the Russian philatelic fraternity deserves to be informed and kept abreast of new
types and discoveries, for knowledge is strength and aids us all in our collecting.

Fig. 1. The illustration on the next page shows the front of a cover with a very fine
strike of the despatch postmark (enlarged herewith at right) and, on the reverse, a 30
pair of the 14-kop. Arms (1889-1894 issue) sealing the flap down and bearing l
further strikes of the marking. It reads: STARO-RUSSKOE P.O. / 1 /
NOVGORODSK. UZKOKOLEIN. ZH.D. / 30 June 1898 (Staraya Russa
[Station] P.O. /1/ Novgorod Narrow Guage Railway). This ran from Chudovo on
the main St. Petersburg-Moscow railway through Novgorod, then curving south-east around Lake Il'men to
Staraya Russa. It joined there the main Pskov-Bologoe railway. Russia had a number of main railway routes
which were narrow-gauge but, whether this one was converted to Russian standard gauge later on, I cannot
at present say. The year 1898 was also quite early in the process of Russian registered mail. Note the
handwritten notation top left at front, just over the fancy "P" of Petersburg in the address.
June, 1996


t Fig. 3.

-.- .- ,,--, ,, ,--

r4 ^ ^ AA$l4JiUL I,

",.,-I, ".'t ,tt^ "-ri^H^ 'J

Fig. 5.

AS~i;I- -t; i ,L, "

M- -

THE POST-RIjDER/ MI K No.- 3 Fig. 7.
June, 1996 .I
Jue 1996

Fig. 6.

Fig. 2. There are a number of errors of spelling or notation known on Russian postmarks and labels. This
one is obviously unintentional A 3-kop. Romanov stamp franks a postcard addressed in 1914 to St.
Petersburg from Central Asia. The postmarks read ST. GRACHEVKA / TASHK. D. ZH. Of course, the
two Cyrillic letters ")K. a." meaning Railway are reversed. The markings are struck in mauve. Grachevka is
a tiny halt on the railway line east of Samara, on the branch that curves south-east towards Orenburg,
Kazalinsk and down to Tashkent.

Fig. 3. In "The Post-Rider" No. 36 for June 1995, I drew attention to the quite uncommon machine
cancellation of the Nikolai Station of St. Petersburg. For some reason, perhaps the machine was faulty or the
staff could not get used to it, the usage of this machine postmarker at the Nikolai Station seems to have been
limited to a period of some eight weeks only: from 26 November 1912 to 25 January 1913. I commented
then that it would be scarce on the Romanov issue, as its use seems to have ended just 3 1/2 weeks after the
issue of the Romanov stamps had commenced. The item here shows a 4-kop. Romanov stamp used on a
postcard to Helsinki, Finland with this scarce machine station-postmark. It is dated 16.1.13 and is not a
good strike. Perhaps by that time the machine was not working well and gave a poor impression, which
might have led to its being taken out of use.

Fig. 4. A 3-kop. Arms stamp franks this postcard to St. Petersburg. It bears two strikes of the postmark
KUSINSK. PLATFORM SAM.ZL. ZH. D. (Samara-Zlatoust Railway).

Fig. 5 shows a 3-kop. Romanov stamp on a postcard to Moscow with two strikes (one overstruck) of
PLTF. NEMME / SEV. ZAP. ZH. D. (Platform Nemme / North-Western Railway).. This was a stop on the
railway in Estlyand (Estonia) province, from Revel' (Tallinn) to Baltiskii Port (Paldiski). It would seem that a
platform, in this sense, was what we might term a station-halt, which had a small postal desk. Such
"platform" postmarks are uncommon and interesting. It demonstrates that the Imperial Russian Postal
Service was endeavouring to offer the widest and most comprehensive service possible in the last years
before the Revolution.

Fig. 6. A 3-kop. Romanov stamp franks a postcard to St. Petersburg, with the postmark reading SPASSK.
RAZ'EZD RYAZ. (Spasskoe Siding, Ryazan' province). There are a number of postmarks known reading
RAZ'EZD or Siding. Frequently, the postmark just gives a number Siding No. 25 with the lower half of
the postmark indicating the location: Moscow-Kiev-Voronezh Railway. As with the platform postmarks,
these too are desirable and uncommon. However, we need to ask the question: what was the difference
between a "platform" and a "siding"? My hazarded guess is that a siding was a loop in the railway line to
allow trains to pass each other on a single-line branch railway. I would also hazard a guess that a postal desk
was available for passengers or for people in local scattered houses or tiny villages to post their mail here.
Perhaps the postal clerk was only there at very restricted times, as when a train would be due, cancelling the
mail handed to him and putting it in the mail-van of the train as it stopped briefly.

Fig. 7. TPO/RPO postmarks Nos. 243 & 244 (Chita-Bochkarevo) never existed in the later standard oval
format; the earlier circular types were succeeded by larger circular types. The item here shows a postcard to
St. Petersburg franked with a 3-kop. Arms type and with two postmarks reading POCHTOVYI VAGON
No. 244 (serial "1"), with cross-set date 26/III/19-09. However, it will be noticed that the figures of the
route number 244 have been set inverted. It ought to have been virtually upside-down to be compatible and
in line with the rest of the postmark, as it is read around the circle. Of course, there were a number of
standard portmarkers into which route numbers were inserted. Here, it was set inverted.

Fig. 8. One of the confusions that has beset collectors of railway postmarks has been the circular markings
that included the word VOKZAL or station. It has only recently been established beyond question that these
circular vokzal postmarks are from post offices located at or near stations and this confirmed their location:
June, 1996

Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

June, 1996

the post office at or near the station. This item shows us one such, the marking really almost convincing us
that it is a railway postmark. This is a very fine registered cover (the reverse has superb red seals) with the
postmarks and the registration label declaring: BRYANSK / MOSCOW-KIEV-VORONEZH RAILWAY
(see at the top left ofp. 46). This example is dated 29.3.07, some years earlier than previously listed. Circular
railway station postmarks were so made to distinguish them as being post offices administered by the Imperial
State Postal Service, not by the Railway Postal Administration Some collectors do consider them to be part
of the "railway postmark era" and, as with all things philatelic, the collector may please him/herself.

Fig. 9. There was a branch line in the Baltic provinces, mainly Liflyandskaya (Livonian, now in Latvia), that
ran from Smil'ten to Gainash (Smiltene to AinaZi), crossing the Valk-Riga line. This short line had five or six
stations serving towns and villages.. This was the Vol'mar Railway. So far as we know, three of the stations:
Erkul', Lap'er and Daugelen (Arciems, Ozoli and Dauguji) had station post offices. At the top was the name
and around the base the wording VOL'MARSK P.P. = Vol'mar (Valmiera) Railway Siding. Fig. 9 shows a
fine postcard to Rakke (now in Estonia) with a 3-kop. Romanov stamp and two strikes of the ST. LAP'ER /
VOLMAR RAILWAY SIDING (i.e. on the Vol'mar Branch Line). The Daugelen station postmark had at the
base the letters )K. ,). for railway, instead of the HII.. (HIIorAiirnift Iyrb).

Fig. 10. Notes have been written on the Kolyushki-Lodz local railway (see BJRP No. 70 for 1991), a 15-mile
line which had its own cancellations on mail vans of trains. This illustration shows a nice incoming cover of
1905 from Germany. Franked with two 5-Pfg. Germania types, it would have come into Russian Poland and
directed via the Kolyushki-Lodz railway, with the cancellation at left reading POCHTOVYI VAGON / 1 /

Fig. 11. An example addressed to a railway station. Directed to ST. LISINO / NORTH-WEST RAILWAY
(postmark under the stamp), it had travelled via Gatchina The receiving postmark is dated 3.8.13; the station
post office had in fact opened only a month or so earlier, although the railway station on the main St.
Petersburg-Moscow line had opened much earlier. The interesting despatch postmark, one on the 3-kop.
Romanov stamp and another strike next to it, is one of the very scarce private postal agencies in the Baltic
provinces. At the top it reads VENDAU LIFL. (i.e. in Livonia province, now Vinnu in Estonia) and around
the base: CHASTN. P. AGENTSTVO = Private Postal Agency (see BJRP No. 59 for 1982, the major article
by Eric Peel and Ian Baillie on Estonian Forerunners and also p. 9 for notes on the centre-page illustrations).
Apparently, there were three of these private postal agencies in the Liflyand (Livonia) province. Others are
known from Lithuania and elsewhere. They were situated in private shops or offices and had their own postal
cancellers, acting on behalf of the Imperial Mail. They were later absorbed into the official system and the
agencies lost their "franchise".

Fig. 12. A cover registered at the St. Petersburg Baltic Station postal desk 5.V.19-09. As it was addressed
within St. Petersburg (see the front of the cover and under the registration label the word "3atcb", meaning
"here" = locally), the postal rate was 7 kopeks for registration plus a local in-town rate of 3 kopeks. This was
paid with the two 5-kop. Arms stamps on the reverse. The circular postmarks read: S. PETERBURG /
BALT. (1) ZHEL. D. The cover is addressed to Bailiff Gladkoi of the St. Petersburg District Court. On the
reverse, there is a label glued to the cover, tied by a St. Petersburg town postmark, dated 6.5.09 and reading:
"Bailiff Gladkoi lives at B. Pushkarskaya No. 36; signed Postman Kuznetsov".

Fig. 13. Finally, as much a tribute to human fallibility as to the Russian Railway Postal System, we see this
little cover of 1901 from St. Petersburg to Gostilitsy in the Petergof district. Franked with a 7-kop. Arms
cancelled by the "4 in cross" geometric postmark, it travelled on the Petergof Local Railway (see on the back
at bottom left the faint circular red marking "2 / IIOqTA" i.e. the second train that day on the Petergof
Railway) and on to Gostilitsy. The front of the cover shows a clear St. Petersburg 1st. Desp. canceller No. 9
(the numeral at each side inside the two circles), the date very clearly reading 26 / HOI. / 1801. It is an "8"
June, 1996

and not a blotted "9". The error of the postal clerk in putting in the date plug gives us a nice railway cover
some 35 years before railways even started in Russia !

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

I am sure that CSRP readers will be interested in the two splendid and recently acquired items shown below.
edge and reading KOROSTEN'-320-ZHITOMIR, *serial r "" in AprTEil 1917. Route No. 320 has not been0 P
is clearly 17, ToBaprwhiecTBa ,BlPOBAwh CKBAfiKrHA"

Cdt^ ^ SZL f / M^ ^ l--Cq

The postcard at le, ranked with 2-kop. & -kop. Ars stamps, bears an oval postmark just slight off the
edge and reading KOROSTEN'-320-ZHITOvIR, serial letter "sy" in April 1917. Route No. 320 has not been
recorded until now. The Kutuzovo arrival postmark says 1918, which is in error. The year date on the samps
is clearly 17, while in 1918 the postcard rate was not 3 kopeks.

The cover at right, addressed to Olomouc in Northern Moravia (now inr the Czech Republic), is anked ith
7-kop. & 3-kop Armd s stamps ana d shows superb p ostmarks of the unnumbered route ZhytKOP-ARMiod IR

by Rabbi L.L. Tann & Andrew Cronin.

After the fall of the Monarchy, the stamps of the 1913 Romanov Tercentenary issue were supposed to have
been taken out of circulation. However, there were exceptions and the most spectacular example has been
given to us by Alexander Epstein in "The Post-Rider" No. 32, p. 27, with a pair of the 3-rouble value used
together with Tridents on a parcel card sent from Katerynoslav 19.11.18 to Zhytomyr during the period of the
Ukrainian National Republic.

We have since been able to come up with two further usages in that same year, namely on a card in the L.L.
Tann collection and a cover in the A. Cronin collection. Both items were properly franked in accordance ,ith
the internal postal rates that were in force from 28 February to 15 September 1918, namely:-
Intercity postcards 20 kop.; Intercity letters 35 kop.
The details are as follow:-
(a) A card sent from Moscow 25.5.18 N.S., with a pair of the 7-kop. Romanovs in the franking and received
two days later in Petrograd.
(b) A letter from Petrograd 16.5.18, with the franking including a strip of three 10/7-kop. Romanovs and
backstamped two days in Moscow.
Note that, in both cases, although spelling reforms had come into effect by decrees issued in 1917-1918, the
senders were still using the old orthography. In the case of the cover, the recipient wras referred to as
"Citizeness", in the style of the French Revolution. Please refer to the next page for the illustrations.
June, 1996

/cv X JI'ie.

"I ,
T v'j

7 A non-philatelic card
t: .';"- .-. 'V- in the Rabbi LL. Tann
d i, -L "0 1 -- r,-.:: collection, sent from
L 13,'; !.npa i e? ~.no-.'t- Moscow 22.5.18 to
o .......- n ..-- .O............ Petrograd and
including a pair of
1 5. JIT) 7-kop. Romanovs
/ ^ ^ -^ '^ /y /./ j ...........': ..L. '..........'.L,.u.,...... .. ... .....-.......-. t
in the franking.

F. 7 .. r.


A non-philatelic porp
cover, Cronin S. .
collection, sent '
from Petrograd A"i
16.5.18 to
Moscow and
showing a strip
of 3x10/7-kop.
Romanovs in m-,
the franking.

by George G. Werbizky.
As a rule, certain errors which occur during stamp manufacturing are highly prized by collectors and are
accorded an individual catalogue number. Such errors repeat themselves on a specific sheet position, or occur
on every stamp in the sheet. Errors frequently command high market value because of their scarcity. There is
a second class of errors that may not be as spectacular as the "inverted centres" on the early Arms issues, but
are clearly unique. These errors are random, i.e. they do not repeat themselves and their manifestations
frequently take very unusual forms. They are not catalogued, but should not be neglected as they do enhance
a collection. This article shows some of these errors. A collection of these oddities can be formed, but one
June, 1996

should be warned: the varieties shown here are not plentiful and, most of the time, loneliness will be the
companion rather than another collector. Finally, Russian stamps at the turn of the century were printed with
vertical or horizontal lozenges of varnish on the image-face side. The lines of varnish were applied to prevent
the reuse of cancelled stamps; during the removal of a cancel, the varnish would also be removed along with
portions of the stamp image. Occasionally, the lines of varnish would be deposited on the gum side. Of
course, such stamp errors exist only in mint state.

Printing failures: misalignment.

K ^ y ^r--}-

i Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. -. -------------

A multicoloured stamp requires several printing steps. If the alignment between the first and subsequent
printing passes is lost, unusually printed stamps will result. Such an example is shown here in Fig. 1, where
the centre of the stamp is grossly misaligned with respect to the stamp frame. The shift is downwards and
slightly to the right.

Fig. 2 shows initially four further examples of centres, all shifted to the left, while the 3r. 50k. stamp has both
the centre and the frame background shifted to the right.

As unrest was building up throughout 1917 in Russia, the quality control of stamp manufacturing was
deteriorating. That is best exemplified by Scott No. 131, the one-rouble imperforate stamp, as shown in Fig. 3.


I .iE ".I .Fig. 3. '

June, 1996

The varieties illustrated in Fig. 3 are examples, from left to right of (a) outer frame and centre omitted; (b)
centre missing; (c) frame and centre shifted with respect to the background; then in the bottom row: (d)
misalignment between the background, frame and centre; (e) centre and numeral of value inverted and, finally
at right: (f) a vertical pair with the centre and figure of value doubled.

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig.6.

Misalignment of the background with respect to the rest of the stamp design also occurred on the kopek
values, as can be seen in Fig. 4 above, where there is a shift of the background to the left.

Inverted backgrounds.
A number of Arms type stamps have the background inverted. The background on these stamps consists of
dots and dashes and needs magnification to be seen in detail. An excellent article on this subject was published
with clear illustrations by the Editorial Board in "The Rossica Journal" No. 48 of 1956. This type of variety is
mentioned here for completeness; stamps with inverted backgrounds are listed in the Scott catalogue.

Background omitted.
Such a variety occurs when the background fails to print, resulting in many white areas in the stamp design.
Please see Fig. 5 for a typical example.

Printing smears.
When, by accident, printing ink is smeared across the face of a stamp, a very indistinct design results. It is
different from a "double impression" variety, where a sheet goes through the same print station twice.In this
latter case, the features of the design remain distinguishable but with some displacement, while a smear
obliterates the design. We see in Fig. 6 a smear on the stamp at left and a double impression at right.

Fig. 7. Fig. 8.
Partially printed stamps.
An interesting case occurs when debris or a piece of paper covers a portion of the sheet as the stamps are
being printed (paper folds result in similar failures and will be discussed after this section). Some partially
printed stamps are featured above in Fig. 7, namely (a) an irregular white spot at the 12 o'clock position on
the 7-kop. stamp, probably caused by debris; (b) the main design partially missing, but with the background
still present and (c) the background almost completely and then partially omitted on the pair of 2-kop. stamps.
June, 1996

Paper folds.
No two paper folds are alike and results can be truly spectacular. On occasion, the paper fold is found only
after the stamp is removed from the piece of mail. If the sheet is processed with the fold intact, then
misperforation also occurs. We see in Fig. 8 on the previous page three examples of a paper fold. When the
fold is opened up, a partially printed stamp is the result.

Turning now to Fig. 9 on the next page, the stamp at left had the fold opened up when attached. Note the
continuous cancel across the stamp design and the blank space. The fold on the stamp at right was only
discovered after the stamp was removed. Note the break in the cancel.

If a large piece with a fold has survived inspection and removal, then in addition to partially printed stamp(s),
there is also misperforation when the sheet or portion thereof is opened up. Such a large piece is shown in
Fig. 10. Only two of the stamps are partially printed; the remaining positions have an albino impression.

Perforation errors.
As with folds, such errors can take just about any form. They can be displaced, doubled or missing. All of us
are familiar with imperforate-between stamps. Only two items will be shown, as they appear to be more
unusual. In Fig. 11, the perforations are at an angle with respect to the stamp images. For this error to occur,
the sheet must have been fed into the perforating machine also at an angle. The upper left-hand corer of a
sheet of the 10-rouble Arms type is featured in Fig. 12, where the vertical perforation has shifted to the right,
thus cutting the stamp in half.

This term is used to describe the printing of the mirror image of the stamp on the back, i.e. on the gummed
side. It occurs when the inked image is transferred onto the support plate, because a sheet failed to feed. The
next sheet that comes along receives an impression on both sides. In Fig. 13, we see at left a complete offset
of the 3-kop. Arms single-coloured stamp, while at right we have an offset of the centre and figures of value
for the 20-kop. Arms bicoloured stamp.

Editorial Comment: To round off this interesting study by Mr. Werbizky, we are illustrating in Fig. 14 a
spectacular sheet of 50 of the Soviet reissue of the 1-rouble Arms type imperforate stamp, printed from
electro No. 6 and showing considerable displacement to the right and downwards of the centres, figures of
value and backgrounds. This item was lot No. 20259 in the David Feldman auction of 1-5 November 1994.
Such an item would certainly be an attention getter and confirms what happens when quality controls are
allowed to slip because of the prevailing political situation; in this case an example of the aftermath of the
Revolution of October 1917.

Mr. Werbizky makes a very important distinction between constant and random varieties. The former are the
ones that are included in the catalogues, since they occur repeatedly on a specific position of the printing
plate or sheet, form part of a special setting, etc. In other words, all interested parties are afforded an
opportunity of acquiring such varieties; it is just a question of the price and availability.

With random varieties, we are faced with items that occur only by chance and are one of a kind. It is for that
reason that they are not highly regarded when judged at international exhibitions, however striking they may
seem. Basically, what that implies is that one must view such varieties as objectively as possible and not be
tempted to invest a great amount of attention and resources in them. If one shows a large array of these items,
particularly at an international exhibition, one runs the risk of having the exhibit viewed as being merely a
collection of printer's waste. One would certainly get little or no marks for research, as no philatelic
knowledge can be derived from showing or examining such varieties.

June, 1996

Fig. 10.

Fig. 9.

Fig. 13.


Fig. 12.

Fig. 14.

June, 1996

Fig. 11.


.- '__



r r-i

@ n




i.Qo o Qo **oo~o


by Dan Grecu.

In the notes that follow, I will be referring especially to the postcards encountered during the period from
1942 to 1953 in the mail of Roumanian, Hungarian or German POWs, all of whom were born in Roumania. It
should be stressed that the types described below were also used by POWs who were bor in Hungary,
Germany and Austria. The latter subsequently also used other specific types of postcards, which have not
been found in the mail to Roumania and which have been, or will be published by the specialists who are
studying the postal history of those relevant countries.

All the mail for Roumania from the POWs found in the USSR was centralised and transmitted through the
intermediary of "The Union of Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR", while in
Roumania, it was centralised and handled by the National Society of the Red Cross of Roumania up to the
middle of 1946. After that date, it was handled by "Federatia DemocratA Femeilor din Romania" (FDFR or
The Democratic Federation of Women in Roumania), "Unirea Femeilor Antifasciste Romane" (U.F.A.R. or
The Union of Roumanian Anti-Fascist Women) and "Apirarea Patriotica" (The Patriotic Defence League).
Finally and probably in 1948 (?), the mail arriving from the USSR was transmitted to the addressees directly
by the Roumanian Postal Service. Markings of these institutions can sometimes be found on the mail,
especially of the Patriotic Defence League and of the Red Cross (see Fig. 13).

During the period when Roumania and the USSR found themselves in hostile camps (until the autumn of
1944), POW mail was exchanged through the intermediary of the Agency for POWs in Geneva (Switzerland);
see Fig. 13. In practice, I have encountered evidence of such transmission only for mail leaving Roumania for
the USSR. The result of the foregoing procedures was that all mail went by necessity through Moscow and
Bucharest, where it was censored in the following ways:-

(a) In Moscow: Circular censorship markings were applied during the period of war with the inscription
"BOEHHAI UIEH3YPA / CCCP" and, in the centre, a fraction with the censor number above and the
capital letter "M" below (Fig. 1). After the war, rhomboid cachets were applied with the censor numbers
running from 1 to 459 at the very least, struck in violet or black (Fig. 17 ). The designs of such markings can
present minor variations, while cachets with a very different aspect are rarely encountered.

(b) In Bucharest: Censorship markings appeared only until January 1946, when both the internal and external
cernsorships were suspended in Roumania (Fig. 1). For further details regarding Roumanian external
censorship, see the articles in English in "The Roumanian Postal History Bulletin" Nos. 8 & 9, pp. 16-25; No.
15, pp. 4-11, as well as in "Stamps of Hungary" No. 122 for Sept. 1995 (a bulletin appearing in England).

1. The postcards of the Union of Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR.
These were used by all European POWs in the USSR, regardless of the country of origin. In the majority of
cases, such items are to be found in the form of double postfree cards, with the outgoing or enquiry part
having characteristics slightly different from the reply portion, as can be analysed in Figs. 5,7 & 11. In
essence, the difference consists in the form of the French sub-title on the outgoing part: "Carte postal du
prisonnier de guerre" (Postcard of the prisoner of war), while the reply portion reads "Carte postal au
prisonnier de guerre" (Postcard to the prisoner of war) and the designations for the address of the sender. The
outgoing part has "Names" and "Address of the POW", while the reply portion has "Names" and "Address of
the sender". Moreover, the reply portion sometimes has in the bottom margin a French inscription reading:
"Priere d'6crire sur carte postal, autrement ces lettres ne seront pas remises au destinataire./ Lettre au verso."
(Kindly write by postcard, or else these messages will not be forwarded to the addressee. / Message on the
June, 1996

The typeset formula cards were printed on the face, having measurements of 145 x 200 + 5 mm. and
sometimes coming in larger sizes. They were folded and torn in the middle along the double line. These cards
are found both for POWs properly speaking, as well as for people deported "for labour" in the USSR. In the
latter category, one can also find women (see Figs. 5a, 8, 10 & 11).

The sole clear element which distinguishes the various types is the typographic indication in the imprint at
bottom for both the outgoing enquiryy) and reply portions of the cards. Within the settings of each type, there
can exist many varieties during the printings in successive instalments, which determine the small variations in
the measurements or positions of the lines of text in one part or the other. Moreover, many varieties of card
are to be found, differing in quality and colour. In my personal view, such variations are of very little
importance, as tracking them down is also difficult, especially because of the fonts which were mainly used
and the many reprintings (see the types A.2, B.3 & B.4 described below). The form in which the title is
inscribed, i.e the name of the issuing authority: "The Union of Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of
the USSR" is indicated as follows: title in two or three lines. The types identified up to now are as follow:-

A. Postcards with the emblem of the Red Cross at left and of the Red Crescent at right.
Type A.1: Two-line title, used during the period of hostilities and for a short time afterwards. It has on the
back the imprint "L 151473 Moskva Goznak 1941" and a text slightly different from that of the following
types. There is on the back the indication "Message of the prisoner of war" in Russian and in French. On
cream stock, with many shades (see Figs. 1 & 2 on p. 54).
Type A.2: Two-line title, without any imprint in the bottom margin of the card. On cream stock (Fig. 3).
Type A.3: Two-line title, with an imprint at bottom right reading: Tip. "Krasnoe Znamya, Moskva,
Sushchevskaya, 21. Zakaz 1922. There is an error in the sub-title of the outgoing card, i.e. "au prisonnier" (to
the prisoner) instead of "du prisonnier" (of the prisoner). See Fig. 4 on p. 55.
Type A.4: Two-line title, with an imprint at bottom right: "TL-4 Zak. 2675 17.IX-45g.", with the same
mistake in the sub-title as for type A.3. On cream stock; printed in black and red (Figs. 5a & 5b).
Type A.5: Three-line title, with imprint at bottom right: "TL-4, 17.IX-45g." on greenish-white stock (Fig. 6).
Type A.6: Three-line title, with an imprint at bottom right: "TL-4, 19.VIII-46g.".
Type A.7: Three-line title, with imprint at bottom right: "T-3, 6.IX-1946g." on cream or white stock (Fig. 7).
Type A.8: Two-line title, with an indication at bottom left "0.21" and at bottom right "2232". Communicated
by Calin Marinescu of Bucharest.
Type A.9: Three-line title. A normal postcard, i.e. not a double card and in a different setting than the
previous examples (see Fig. 8 on p. 56). I have not encountered it used by prisoners from Roumania. Similar
cards addressed to prisoners from Austria, Germany etc. should exist in much greater numbers.

B. Postcards without the two emblems in red.
Type B.I: Two-line title, without an imprint in the bottom margin. On cream stock (Fig. 9)
Type B.2: Two-line title, with an imprint in the bottom margin: "Tip. Kirovskogo RPT. Otpechatano so
Stereotipo 16-T4".
Type B.3: Two-line title, with an imprint at bottom left: "Zak. 395". Many variations exist (Fig. 10).
Type B.4: Two-line title, with an imprint at bottom left: "66-ya Tip. Zak. 395". Many variations exist. On
cream or brown stock (Fig. 11).

In general, the above-mentioned cards have been encountered used in the postwar period and very few in the
years from 1942 to 1944. Also, the great majority are found today as cards torn apart, i.e. either the outgoing
or enquiry part, or the reply portion. Used double cards are rarely to be seen, being caused by one of the
following situations:-
(a) Where a family in the relevant country of destination had not yet replied to the prisoner, for various
reasons (Fig. 11).
(b) Where the reply part could not longer be used, i.e. it had been filled in either incorrectly (Fig. 7), or had
June, 1996

HT I E CHr "Ilo,
1i .. / de port
S Or Ag KAPTOIKA b+ i oro0
S Carte Bstale du prisonnier de guerre
.o Aty (Destinalaire) .... ... .. ......

K.)Oj (Ade'e)
|ijirn r j' jpjMijj ~~r.'j icr

OTupanorea. (Exrpditeur)
OaMuea u uma soeensonomao 'o
Nomr du prisonnir de guerre
lno.noesd aopec euaonon.fuHoo
.Adesse du prisonnier de guerre

7/o. *, Y

-TeKCcT rnxcxa 0oe0HonmeH0oro 44, x
Lettre du prisonnier de guerre

\ .4,T- .,-'..." ,'-,g--" ,-,, /-.

,'a d -e%
4* --e 44at d' fr '-

Yr e. ~. t c

STenr nceya, soeeinxo; e tuOr ~ G tv
^ Sr. ,a f- <_ W t .

a. .- ,. & S
X z

A a 1 u aJ- 44:- XIL;

3 .S_ (^~aF-^, ^^- <, M,-c bi^ -<-^T~ -'* bZ-/
^ *.<^ jcn:r-c+ ,-______~ 7 / ^ __ _

Fig. 3.

Fig. 2a.

June, 1996

* 0' -'Oc 'Carte postal du prisonnier de guerre
Ko y ......................

Kyda (Adresse) .... t ............... ..
-' (Cipiu, ropoji, yauulu, MI olo^. aYfl r>H*"i M| --

S...... ........................ ........ ............................... .....: .. ...............
AOrupaBTresi. (Exp6ditour)

,.,onoAsuw aopec rHnonAenoto .. "< u ..-,X,. .<. ..
Adress du prisonnier de guerre
.... ---............. ....... ....... ................ .......... ........... ........ .......

Fig. 5a. Fg. 4.

;aoro I(PECTA x KPCiiOfa-Oyi Ca IIA
TO An'P, 1 .

,Tora Boe HH ... p.:
;la au prvsonnjr de gut Pro 4, C0103 ObIUE(
. c. -. CCCP
pCarte poat du
:=-s=m=^-----^t^^--^ / i~ Komy (Dstinataire)X^ eosaep

-0 ... I .. ......... .... i
.; "(|erpas. rapon, yrja. N

~e~sd / ^k W W c_ *OTnp:anres.l (Expedileur)
I cs lellres e cro pas rmmt s n o des ai.e. Nom du prrsonnier de gurre
/7 ,~ Lelciz U erN th *
ST.l-4 3... 2 s 75 7.1X- r.
i fJle, la M*50 |>n pe, w ,miiensI scro
Adre se du prisonnler de guerre

Fig. 5b.

,Se ,.l ",- *'.+ B CO)3 OBmIE(
TA H KPACHOrO IIOnYMECIIRA Ca rte. pte prSonn' i
CCCP troNy (Destinotaire aa

r'opo a. y oe.i ". os oopyr. e oi xepeasi) < ,,nt.i a ,,sM o,.pa,,,tfe,, '- ci
Nom de 1'expditeur

I'" n. -'* J tgfe 1'-- 9 ,, ., p...e.. e.. .
Adresse de I'expCditeur

U.. S /ff3 PIlt red'crtre sur cartepostale,autrementeeslettres

e--4 267 51.XI-4Sr.

Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

June, 1996

' : o- H cccP.4 P < .,--em-, -
S 1 Tiosal HaR pTuin1 BOernH in neHHoro v, ',, ''
." Cd.ine r au I ...l- ,..c it. ui. _

dre ./d -snr u ._ ,. r

'*re- s / *..
......- rp .....-.-m ..r,,.. .. c..: .,.

-* # '.- ..:..,.


STiBan Ka;

Kouy (Destlnn-alre) I- -

d -
_ _.__.;. .. .^/.
Ornp Basre (Expedllter)
4ltun.1s1 H HUBs oTnp3nlTrC.S---
Norn de expfdileut

IloOmroaun nipec otnpi.lte.lr --
Adresse de e'xptdlct .
Prl re d'ecrlc sur carte postl:, t, i


,- ; ^ o

Kossy (D taire) ...

IKya (Adresse) s -

OrnpaN'Trai. (ExpEdit
0.ins u..m n oN enO tero -
Nom du prisonnter de guerre

ilonro.ui A ipeso .ieuonreoro
Adresse du prisonlier de guerre


orono ,"c(iv'

r de ee Frnc de port

" p-r-. a 'e o-t....

( 4 /
Z --?1,:^

)ro no YmECaA-

SdT Ie-r. Frlnc da porl


LUttre au verso.
T-3, 6J IX--I+H r.,

H- ach Mdmimu.ra~
N T B:ZaS MaapTo'nl BoeHHOIlaeHHOMy
I o.poaWe a prhoioii~r do ~urna

Adresel CCCP MoMie- ECPLCHbIH Epecr l/Si
( oupat, ropoi. ya.oo ii oou, M pyrr.eato. ipeas
~:,60 f "ZZ107 'VI~nL~LCq

mar cuts postal.. autro oita C. I .tt. t. .. aose..
: L~tlr tooSO.-

COG0 CflUIECTB I "'ACHOrl I(PECTA U :'ACl,3rori miw!F

Ko~y. (feitfmLtatr- esp U/ -1


0Ovnpaeamte a (Exptditeur) N :Y*'

Nom du prionnier de Cuerrm

j ROTrooeo. zm Bs.-oim e, "-'

Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

foqTosan HapTo'Ka SoeHHonne15-1o -0ro ~ne
C t~,vCpos.t Co rsionnim(Cgl~ ~ ~;:~
L' !
K"'I (DC311a (air -i-Z :1//A.,t7 A 'di

Ky.J3 (Adrtoo;- "X A~jZ

(jrtipaB;,-reri, (Exioddilcur) ccc.
'baunmig it im coo ...... it ...... C .. F ....
Noint du prisonnuer de gucrre Y7&"

tttoha.e oow eoir .. ~- '-~

Fig. 10.

Cat.e podtutl de raspuns a prixonierulul de rgzbriu

I -,. ---

------- ________ ---
A /? L
i Ir r1'

.......... C .'
h i


Fig. 12.

June, 1996

TJ13eo smrsC KPAcHoro KPECTA I IHIt l d

y. Y

anxw~uwmR- aoeroeC. (9/ dht~tJU

-in pz j o.

Adrmi dinpitnlegde gumc
IS- .. a- Bot

flor4aaR Kapm~a aoemmorineH Hlouy -

lRomy I~eottttilta)- & -n

_.Ky, AALC
wn-r. ..tlrPrCI.Le- -5a

vo~an l wmui': -rrr
'1 Now de I exp6dIfe=- .'.-

floruadi Mott Tapet. piflwTtAm
Adrem de I expiditeur
*Priten d tertr esurutt postale, aIntremet cuo lettri co: orrout p5t tnor i a2 u "3e5;l o
S- Le:tr a.. ver.
IG oitc. 3 19

Fig. 11.


Eb hll A J

Itull A 1. 1 A -1

been stamped while in the mail stream.
2. Postcards of the Roumanian Red Cross.
Used only by prisoners originating in Roumania. Two types are known:-
(a) The one shown in Fig. 12 on p. 56, with the title in Russian and Roumanian. The Russian inscription reads
"Postcard of the prisoner of war" and the Roumanian version is "Reply postcard of the prisoner of war". This
example implies that there must exist the outgoing or enquiry part, which I have not yet seen, so as to be able
to say that this card was a double type.
(b) The item in Fig. 13 on p. 58. which is most probably an ordinary postcard without a reply part, with the
title of the issuing authority given in Roumanian as "The Red Cross Society of Roumania" and in Russian as
"The National Society of the Roumanian Red Cross". All the other inscriptions are also bilingual.
(c) Mr. Calin Marinescu advises the existence of yet a third type with a designed frame of leaves on the face
and an inscription in Roumanian reading "Amintiri din prizonierat" (Recollections from captivity), which I
have not seen so far, nor can I illustrate it.

3. Postcards of the Red Cross in other countries.
As I have pointed out in the beginning, I am not able to survey other cards in this journal, but I am showing in
Figs. 14 to 16 (see p. 58) as examples three different types of postcards of the Hungarian Red Cross. Two of
them were issued by the Central Office of the Red Cross on Budapest and the third by its branch in Szeged.
All three went from Szeged to the USSR and bear several markings of the Hungarian Red Cross: a two-line
Hungaro-Russian cachet applied in Budapest and reading HADIFOGOLY-LEVELEZES / FIEPEIlHCKA
BOEHHOHJIEHHblX (POW Correspondence) and a circular type in Hungarian, applied in Szeged and
reading HUNGARIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY / SZEGED, together with the address. Fig. 13 is addressed
to Camp 7251/16 and Figs. 14 & 15 are to Camp 421/3. Both of these camps were at Rostov-na-Donu.

B. Illustrations.
Fig. 1. Postcard of Type A.1, sent on 10 June 1943 from Camp No. 160 at Suzdal, Vladimir province,
through which the majority of the Roumanian prisoners encircled at Stalingrad went. It bears the Soviet
marking of Moscow Military Censor No. 7 and the Roumanian external censorship manual cachet No. 8,
applied at Bucharest. The message is from Major Gheorghe Paun and, in his lines, there is also word about a
certain "Deciu", a prisoner from whom I have two other cards (they are described just below), as well as a
reference to "the Roumanians Lici and Nelu". They were two soldiers, father and son, namely Rudolf Roman
and Nicolae Roman, whose story of captivity was published serially from 1991 up to now in "Revista de
Istorie Militarai" (The Journal of Military History) in Bucharest. All these men were taken prisoner in
Stalingrad during the encirclement. They were members of the 6th. Infantry Division, which was quartered in
Focsani in peacetime and they were together in the same Soviet camps.
Fig. 2. Another card of Type A.1, sent by Major Constantin Deciu and written on 12 December 1943, i.e.
about one year after his capture. It is interesting that I have found some details about his falling into captivity
in the work "Romanii la Stalingrad" (The Roumanians at Stalingrad), which appeared in Roumania in 1992.
Thus, it states there that Deciu was the Chief of the 3rd. Bureau of the 6th. Division and specifically on 22
November 1942 between 9pm. and 10pm. was found in a dugout near the Divisional Command Post at
Golovskii, Stalingrad province (a village being occupied at the same time by Soviet forces). A sergeant-major,
sent as a scout by the Roumanians withdrawing from the Command Post, bumped into and asked him: "Why
are you still staying here, major ?". The latter did not reply and went back into the dugout. As can be surmised
from the text of the postcard, the major must have been taken prisoner by the Soviet forces on that particular
Fig. 2a. This shows the back of a third card in Type A.1, sent by Major Deciu after the war from Camp No.
7185 in Mikhailovo (there are several towns with that name in Northern Russia). As the drawing showing him
is dated "V. 943" (May 1943) at Oranki in Gor'kii province, then this type of card must have been distributed
during 1943 and not after the war.
Fig. 3. A postcard in Type A.2, sent on 9 April 1948 from Camp No. 7307 at Kirov, Vyatka province. It
June, 1996

Fig. 13.


ii i 'Ilap hadilogoly r6szre ro .

l yro~.al atr .-.... ....... .
A hadifogoly clme:
,..... ..<."-" .. .. .& .^ I.. ........... ........
K : el d nev......................
Ity : relad6d cime: A /
S-/l, .... .......

Fig. 15.

: ... ......... .. ..--
Coos OiuecTs HpacHoro HpecTa H KpacHor no
cccP .
Tloss Jl mo apTO Ka oeeHHson1neeaHo

Ad ree du sioqCnie d d p er der g.

Sp... p ; .. -.. % v

Ju (Ene
..._.. U;_ 9 c --



lluiona.it it oraBO PyMUAiuoro IXpaenoro KpecTa

Fig. 16.

.. ,. .- m a U d%,c i : & i o i& I -* /
r- *-. -Lt U" u t .

.t- t. u (.- C t o- ". w .

i*L4Z lLk l ,, f U AA. _i C L .
1 ,-1 .' e--
.. r,-I, -k-

- l^ ,tu.t ,, ,< ,. .






nai & ( I (~ 6' ?


W/<7 -- C C. P.,
,1 / -



J3^ BElBrEr PC-n KPAC!Orp Ec-A Am *

Onruroe nasses asn s geess i -'

I a

--- .-- .----- ....---- ..------- .------------ .------ ---. .- -
0-r _/ifogoy' de
-__ <-- C.c.c .P. =

---Fel-p-ad- --.- .2 '.--
Felad fme .------ ----- -- ------------.... --..-.----

Fig. 14.
o. axp. rwp-a--

A M A G YA i : .' : ':;

'- -. I ul ,,*A ?' lle;- .

,. _;, _. /__,,_,",.,, ,.'...... .. .
: .. :A' ...A
., ,, ) ,1 i / /


arrived in TArgoviste on 20 April 1948.
Fig. 4. Type A.3, sent on 17 December 1945 from Camp 1501 at Zaporozh'e by a German from the Banat
region ofRoumania. Note that he has given the address of the camp as Field Post Office No. 1501.
Fig. 5. The outgoing or enquiry part (Fig. 5a) and the reply portion (Fig. 5b) of postcard Type A.4. The
outgoing part was sent on 19 November 1947 from Labour Camp No. 1028 in the Donbas by a German
woman deported from the Banat.
Fig. 6. A postcard of Type A.5, sent on 14 July 1949 from Camp No. 7153 (at Nizhnii Tagil in Sverdlov
province) by a German prisoner and addressed to Leipzig in the future German Democratic Republic.
Fig. 7. A complete double postcard of Type A.7, sent in 1948 from Camp No. 7260 at Orsk in Orenburg
province by a Hungarian originating from Roumania. The reply part could not be used anymore because of the
incorrect completion of the text on the reverse, which was also postmarked.
Fig. 8. A Type A.9 card, sent from Vienna in May 1948 by airmail with an additional franking of 20 Groschen
to a detained Austrian woman in Camp No. 7099 at Karaganda. It also bears a marking of the Austrian
censorship in Vienna.
Fig. 9. The outgoing or enquiry part of a card in Type B.1, sent on 5 April 1948 from Camp No. 7362 at
Fig. 10. The outgoing or enquiry part of a card Type B.3, sent on 29 March 1948 from Camp No. 7472/1050
at Gorlovka in the Stalino, now Donetsk province by a deported German woman from the Banat area.
Fig. 11. A complete double card in Type B.4, sent from Camp No. 1028 (Donbas) on 22 July 1949 by a
German woman deported from the Banat. The reply part was not used by the family.
Fig. 12. The reply portion of a card issued for Roumanian POWs, sent on 29 August 1949 from Camp No.
7159 (Odessa) and arriving on 25 September 1949.
Fig. 13. A postcard of the Roumanian Red Cross, sent on 8 August 1943 to Camp No. 74 (Oranki in
Gor'kii province), bearing a circular marking reading: COMITE INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX ROUGE
/ GENtVE and the cachet of "The National Society of the Red Cross of Roumania / The Bureau of
Refugees". Upon leaving Roumania, it was also censored by Censor 156 of the External Censorship Service.

The remaining figures have already been referred to in the body of the article.

Editorial Comment: Mr. Grecu has done us a valuable service by looking at these interesting POW cards
from the Roumanian viewpoint. To round off his study, we can now direct the attention of our members to
Fig. 18 for the front and back of a card in Type A.2, held by Dr. Robert M.S. Bell of the U.S.A. and written
on 28 October 1946, the address of the sender given as Moscow, P.O. Box 74 (assigned to Oranki in the
Gor'kii province). Upon arrival in Roumania, it was handled by the Bistrita-Naiisud branch of the Union of
Roumanian Anti-Fascist Women (U.F.A.R.), as shown by the circular marking with an overall diameter of 32
mm. at top left on the front of the card.

Mr. Grecu also raises a valuable point in directing attention to the rarity of these cards in the years from 1942
to 1944, as shown in his Figs. 1, 2, 2a and 13. Readers are directed to the article that follows, written by your
editor and explaining the significance of such items.

Furthermore, a comprehensive article is being prepared for "The Post-Rider" No. 39, examining these and
similar cards from the Hungarian viewpoint. It should be pointed out here that, in all these cases, we are
studying the cards issued for European POWs in the USSR. There were also cards issued with special
inscriptions for Japanese POWs and they command high prices at auction.

Those of our members who would like to pursue the subject further are also advised to consult a truly
excellent survey of the numbering systems used to process POW mail, published by our member Dr. Peter
Michalove in BJRP No. 71, pp. 30-36 and entitled "Mail from German POWs in Soviet Captivity 1945-1956".
He includes a comprehensive bibliography on the subject as a help to identifying the camp numbers.
June, 1996

by Andrew Cronin.

It is not generally realized that, while the Red Army suffered heavy defeats during 1941. it also managed to
take prisoner some of the Fascist invaders. When it began pushing back the Nazi forces from Moscow as of 6
December 1941, the German General Staff knew then that WWII was already lost. That conclusion also
da\\ned on the general population of the Axis powers a little more than a year later, after the crushing
surrender at Stalingrad on 2 February 1943.

By that time, the Soviet government had many thousands of Axis POWs on its hands and it quickly realized
that they were a very valuable propaganda asset. As we know from the previous article by Mr. Grecu, special
bilingual cards were being printed for such POWs by Goznak already in 1942, as shown in his Figs. 1, 2 and
2a. All three are of the same setting in Type A.1 and are also illustrated by Werner Boddenberg in his seminal
work "Die Kriegsgefangenenpost deutscher Soldaten in sowjetischem Gewahrsam und die Post von ihren
AngehiSrigen w5hrend des II. Weltkrieges" ("The POW mail of German soldiers in Soviet captivity and the
mail of their relatives during WWII", Berlin, 1985).

It would seem that the POWs were encouraged to write to their relatives and that the mail, after being
examined in Moscow as deduced by the application of the familiar circular BOEHHAII LIEH3YPA
markings, was forwarded through the Red Cross Society of neutral and neighboring Turkey for onward
transmission. Judging by the material held by Mr. Grecu, it appears that, by 1943, the mail to Roumanian
POWs was first being sent to the International Red Cross in Geneva (see his Fig. 13) and from there
presumably via Turkey to the USSR. It also seems from that example that the Roumanian Red Cross was
trying to cooperate by issuing postfree bilingual cards in Roumanian and Russian. The sender in Fig. 13 was
obviously the wife of the addressee Sub-Lieutenant Gabriel Cioculescu and she had already received a card
from him, as she was writing to him at Camp No. 74 (in Oranki, Gor'kii province). In spite of such
cooperation, it is puzzling that Roumanian POW mail in the period from 1942 to 1945 is still so rare.

So far as mail from German POWs is concerned during that same time frame, we know why it is so hard to
find. The research carried out by Mr. Boddenberg makes it clear that, as such items started arriving in the
Third Reich after the Stalingrad disaster, the Gestapo realized that their delivery would have a devastating
effect on German civilian morale. They were therefore confiscated without exception and the few surviving
items owe their existence to special circumstances. The earliest card recorded by Mr. Boddenberg is in Type
A.1 and was written on 28 March 1943 by Sr.-Lieutenant Fritz Berner at Camp No. 74 to his uncle Fritz
Berner in Zuirich, Switzerland, thus bypassing the German postal system. It had been passed by Military
Censor No. 3 in Moscow and he stated, among other things, that it was permitted to send him 50 roubles and
a package of up to 10 Kg. in weight (22 pounds) every month.

Another card in Type A. is listed by Mr. Boddenberg as being sent on the same day from the same camp and
was written by Captain Alfred Klein-Wisenberg to his father in Vienna. It was examined by Military Censor
No. 23 in Moscow, went through the German mail stream unnoticed and was received on 22 June (!). He
noted that his first letter was written on 15 March 1943 (probably the first day that such correspondence was
allowed). He asked for confectionary and tobacco, but not to send any food.

The Soviet authorities quickly realized that the POW mail was being intercepted, so they started dropping the
censored cards over the enemy lines, with a covering request to German soldiers to forward the same to the
addressees. Mr. Boddenberg illustrates such an example in Type A.1, found by Vasilii Tkachenko at
Koschedary (Kaisiadorys in Lithuania). It had apparently been dropped during the night of 24 September 1943
and had been written on 17 June at Camp No. 97 (Elabuga in the Tatar ASSR) by POW Carl Gminder to his
parents. Interestingly, Mr. Tkachenko says in his covering letter that he had been a POW in Germany during
June, 1996

WWI. Neither this card in Type A. 1 nor another one written the same day from the same camp by Captain
Karl Frister to his wife in Riesa on the Elbe in Germany bore any Soviet censorship markings.
..-..~. .' ... ,. "- 2 2,, I -/ ^- I.-

.c1 .OB1iECTB KA r'CHaO rECTAu it PACiOTO UBt_..CT l.UA B

fnowTOnn KapwO4Ia aoe!H Ornmo -po t
_Cn rIs 4an rT iu^ zc? de Eirrrr: '# 4

KI, (A .., l r "

7 OTnpas.teax (Exp6ditekr) ./ S k rn -
: M fNom dfa erre mofwu' RoKrev-

- .Ad.. -- 0.iom 7j '.- .
T- Xpa- M- Cy 2L

We now come to a postcard in Type A.3 as shown above, smooth on the message side and rough on the
other, held by the present author and showing the double separation lines at bottom, indicating that it was
originally a double card. It was written by POW Karl Leykam on 20 November 1944 at Camp No. 107/8
(Camp No. 8 in the Kaluga Complex) to his parents in Nuremberg, Germany. It reads as follows:-
"Dear mother and dear father,
I am alive and am doing quite well and I hope that you are the same. I am
healthy and my thoughts always stay with you. I will now close with best wishes for the quickest and healthy
reunion at home. Your always thankful son, Karl.
Be well and remain healthy. Many greetings to everybody".
The card also bears a very clear and sharp strike, indicating very recent introduction, of a rhomboid
censorship marking No. 80, of the type which Dr. Michalove believes was applied within the camp complex
and is one of the numbers assigned to locations inside the RSFSR. The card has no German censorship
markings or other notations, so it was presumably another one of those dropped over enemy lines, together
with a request for forwarding. Both Dr. Michalove and the present author have further cards in this particular
setting, the stock being smooth on the message side and rough on the other, but all of them have dates
starting from around April 1946. What is the reason for this hiatus ? We know that, as WWII was drawing to
a close, the total number just of German POWs rose to 3.2 millions. That may have led to the temporary
suspension of mail privileges, as the Soviet authorities may well have been overwhelmed by this problem.

To round off the discussion, the present author is also showing from his files a Soviet leaflet dropped on men
of the German 544th. Infantry Division, as it has a reference to mailing privileges. It translates as follows:-
Soldiers of the 544th. Infantry Division !
To trick you into making your senseless and difficult trench work seem somewhat more enticing, your officers
have assured you that this is the preparation for the coming winter. Your Divisional Commander General
Erich has told you the same thing, as he has ordered you to build your bunker quarters behind the HKL (Rear
Concentration Line ?).
In the last two years, it was never the case that an HKL could ever block the advance of the Red Army, no
matter how strong it was. All the strongest and best-known "ramparts" and lines of defence have fallen like a
house of cards under the blows of the Red Army. Indeed, tens of thousands of German soldiers who carried
out resistance in such lines of defence have perished.
The same thing will happen to you !
June, 1996

~"~dG Af~j~ji~ -t~4'

Do not believe that you can sit out the winter here However, if you really want to spend the winter in safety
and get back home in good condition, then GIVE YOURSELVES UP WILLINGLY AS PRISONERS !

(Page 2). ATTENTION!
The German men and officers who give themselves up willingly as prisoners will live according to especially
stipulated conditions. In accordance with the instructions of the High Command of the Red Army. the
following privileges will be granted to them:-
1. Increased food supply.
2. Accomodation in special camps with pleasant climatic conditions.
3. Privileges in the choice of employment in their own line.
4. Privileges in the sending of letters to relatives in Germany.
5. Priority in returning to Germany or to any other country immediately after the end of the war,
with such a choice in accordance with the wishes of the prisoner of war.
(In Russian): This leaflet serves as a pass for German soldiers and officers upon giving themselves up to the
Red Army for captivity. No. 362."

Most of the above promises were honoured more in the breach than in the observance in the postwar period.
The reasons were obvious: at least one third of the infrastructure and of the agricultural natural and industrial
wealth of the USSR had been destroyed during the Fascist occupation. That was followed in 1946 by the worst
drought in fifty years and an abrupt cancellation ofUNRRA aid to Belorussia and the Ukraine, leading to the
deaths by starvation of many thousands of civilians and POWs. At least 1.2 million German POWs died in
captivity, as they were used to a high caloric intake and could not survive on the pitiful rations then available.
That was one of the doleful consequences of what happens when an affluent and arrogant nation attacks
another country which is desperately poor, but totally committed to defending itself regardless of the cost.
The Italian POWs also suffered badly, as they could not stand the climate and, of the roughly 600.000
Japanese POWs, at least 46,000 perished, as they were used to a rice diet and refused to eat kasha
(buckwheat); see "L'ultimo inferno", by Egidio Franzini, pp. 179-180. The Hungarians and Roumanians
fared best, as they were mostly of tough peasant stock and were already inured to hardships. Sic transit gloria.
June, 1996


-' ~ ,S'oldafo.en d er 544.;!. D.I
S" Euch Eure '.-nnlosin. schweren Schanz-
r abeiten eiwas schmockhafter ru machen
SbebrggeD. Euch Eure Olliziere mit der Ver.
/ ;cherung.dadies ddieVorbereftungen lrden
auch Euer Divisionskommandeur, General Erichk als er
Euch befohl, Eura Wohnbunkep hinter der HKL zu bauen.
Merkt Eu ch:
in den le'zten2 2Jahren ar e's hoch 'fiirgends der
Fall, daS eine HKL, so stark se'aducih'-'in mochte,
den Vormarsch der'Roten Armer'dveihindern konnte.
Unter den Schlagen der Roten Armee fielen noch alle,
auch die stlrkster, und bekonnfesten .Walle" und
Verteidigungsiniedwie ein Kartenhaus zusammen.Zehn.
tausendedeuts:her Solatenaber, die insolchen Ve'rei di-
gungslinien Widerstand leitfetengingen dabei zugrunde.
So w'ird" es aucH- E'u:ih "ergehen!
Glaubt nicht Fiei ruberwintern zu k6nnen!
Wolit lhr aber den Winter.. rWidch in Sicher-
heit verbringen und wqhlbehalten in die Hei-
m t zuriickktehren, dann
I i ~ '~;.... i~

Deutsche Mannschoffen und Offiziere,
die sich freiwillig der Roten Armee ge-
fangengeben, leben nach besonders fesf-
gelegten Bedingungen. Lout Anweisung
des Oberkommandos der Roten Armee
werden ihnen folgende Vergunstigungen
.1. Erh6hfe Verpflegung.
2. Unterbringung in besonderen La-
gern, die unfer gfnstigen klimati-
schen Bedingungen gelegen sind.
3. Vergiinstigungen bei der Wahl
der Beschiiffigung im eigenen Fach.
4. Vergiinstigungen bei der Absen-
dung von Briefen an die Ange-
hSrigen nach Deutschland.
5. Riuckkehr als ersfe nach leutsch-
land oder In ein beliebiges on-
deres Land, le nach Wunsch des
Kriegsgefangenen, sfort nach
sra uAmere a cAyzrr npony~roN JA revec j
COAarT f eqxqgepoa npn cA.e a axs Kparni
:- ^

by Robert Taylor.

Another interesting sidelight in Soviet philately is the variety and usage of airmail cachets and handstamps.
This correlates with the article on Air Labels in "The Post-Rider" No. 29 of 1991. In fact, the earliest Soviet
airmail designations were applied by handstamp in June 1922, only a couple of weeks after the first flight on
4th. June. A variety of airmail markings is still seen in the early post-WW\II period. Messrs J.H. Reynolds
(BJRP No. 14 of 1954 & No. 17 of 1955) and Fred Speers (Rossica Journal No. 80 of 1971) provided early
and most helpful efforts in cataloguing Soviet air cachets. Although Petrograd issued airmail labels as early as
1922, Moscow, which was the point of origin for the vast majority of early Soviet airmail items, used only a
variety of air cachets prior to the 1926 airmail season, when the first Moscow-origin air label came into use.
An important aspect of this effort will be to differentiate between official postal air cachets actually applied by
postal clerks on mail intended for air service (not always flown on early examples, however, due to seasonal
and weather conditions), as opposed to cachets applied by commercial senders (typically by various Soviet
trading agencies, banks etc.) and, finally, those applied philatelically by dealers, agents and just collectors. I
will not repeat an area of air cachets, which has been at least partially covered in the literature over the years.
These are the markings used only for specific flights, such as the well-known Zeppelin flights of 1930 & 1931,
the Moscow-Teheran flight of 1924, Moscow-Irkutsk and return of 1929, etc. Such cachets, although official
(either postal or of the Soviet Philatelic Association) were used only on the specific flights involved and were
never intended for general airmail identification.

The pattern of official cachets changed over the years, from the 1922-1925 period when they were the
primary airmail identification applied at the Moscow General Post Office, to those which are noted later in the
1930s and often represent district post office cachets, applied at branch post offices upon initial receipt of the
letter from the sender. Air cachets applied in cities other than Moscow are few and far between. Only a
handful are noted from Leningrad (including the pictorial dated Leningrad-Berlin marking, which is actually a
cancellation) and a few other cities. Another type of cachet noted in the 1930s is the air-routing cachet,
presumably applied in Moscow and typically in French, reading: "Par avion jusqu'a.....", identifying the city
which was the termination point of air service. Berlin was used exclusively until the late 1930s, when the
political tensions between the USSR and Nazi Germany required alternative routings to Paris, London,
Stockholm, Prague and perhaps others.

Certainly, the most widely recognized and sought after Soviet air cachet is the first one that came into use in
June 1922 and continued up to mid-October 1923: the well-known boxed "Mit Luftpost" (see "The Post-
Rider" No. 16 of 1985 & No. 18 of 1986). A case can be made that there is more than one variety of this
cachet, with the apparent size and degree of serration in the border (due to wearing) showing considerable
variation over the year and a half of use. However, I prefer to list this as a single cachet, with the realisation
that various degrees of repair and smearing on application make for marked differences in appearance. Note
that this cachet is seen as early as 26 June 1922 and on almost all Moscow-origin covers intended for air
service from late July 1922 until early August 1923 and, thereafter, on all registered airmail covers until mid-
October 1923. Unlike later Moscow-origin air cachets often applied during transit in Moscow, the 1922-1923
"Mit Luftpost" marking is never seen on covers originating outside Moscow.

This study will be restricted to postally applied markings and will not attempt to classify the myriad of cachets
used by trading agencies, private parties, etc. A clue to the use of non-postal air cachets is that such covers
almost always also carry an official postal air label or air cachet, in addition to any commercial or private
markings. The detail and accuracy of the following list is fairly complete into the early 1930s. However, by
1932-1933 we begin to see a proliferation of markings, both postal and commercial and there are undoubtedly
many air cachets that readers will note in their collections, which are not included. I would welcome any
additions, corrections etc. that readers may wish to send along, either directly to me or c/o our editor.
June, 1996






mft"' f -
June, 1922

_Nay, 1923

S-Sept., 1) 23


C B03JIV91I00.


nI ir ii iii ini ii ii riii' i

SIit L uftpost.

T6 Pa.r /ion

T6 -- i 1
- <- Cs?^'- .

*--T' :-

:_'____ ^ ^
I*-., I

1922-1923: Moscow. Earliest noted use 26 June 1922.
Seen struck in violet and black.

1923-1930: Moscow. Earliest noted use June 1923.
Airmail receiving cachet applied in black on incoming
airmail, both addressed to Moscow & in transit elsewhere.

1924: Moscow. Seen in black on 28 August 1924.
Note the different lettering style and accent marks.

1924-1925: Moscow. Struck in violet and most of the
usage restricted to the period 13 May-9 June 1924.

1924: Moscow. Struck in violet and only two examples
noted, both on the same day: 10 June 1924.

1924-1925: Moscow. Struck in violet. Used consistently
9 June to October 1924.
1931-1933: Moscow. Struck in violet. Used occasionally
from 1 August 1931 to 1933.

1925: Moscow. Struck in violet. Used consistently 8 May
to October 1925.
1930-1931: Moscow. Struck in violet and used on rare
occasions 10 September 1930 to 1931.

1928-1931: Sverdlovsk. Struck in violet as of September
1928. Bilingual Russo-French pictorial airmail cachet. Note
the misspelling'Y" instead of"V" in "AVION".

June, 1996


d___ /i 9 2.
nv,:.-rnr. ^yx-aumv

1928-1931: Sverdlovsk Tov. Bir. Struck in violet as of
September 1928. Companion cachet to Type T6, used on airmail
posted from the Sverdlovsk Commodity Exchange post office.
Note the same misspelling.

1930: Smolensk. Struck in violet on 15 May 1930, Airmail
receiving cachet applied on incoming airmail. The only noted
example other than Type T2 for Moscow.

T9. B 0 3-A -i-fK t i 1930-1931: Moscow. Struck in violet on 25 August 1930.
Probably applied at the Moscow 9th. City Post Office.


T1 -1.

U13 ," -""----- Cal LI*





T16. -~p~i p,

1931-1932: Moscow. Struck in violet and black as of
14 July 1931. Probably applied at the Moscow 9th. City
Post Office.

1931: Moscow. Struck in red-violet on 16 August 1931.
Probably applied at the Moscow-1 or Main Post Office.

1931: Moscow. Struck in black on 16 September 1931.
Probably applied at the Moscow 9th. City Post Office.

1932-1936: Moscow. Struck in black, blue or violet as
of 7 February 1932. Applied at the Moscow 3rd.
Despatch Office.

1932: Moscow. Struck in black on 22 May 1932.
Probably applied by the Moscow-25 Post Office.

1932: Khar'kov. Struck in black on 19 June 1932.
Ukrainian language air cachet with an overlapping air label,
probably reading HOB1TP5IHA LIOUITA,

1932: Moscow. Struck in red on 1 July 1932.
Probably applied at the Moscow-46 Post Office.

June, 1996

1tqe,-f, 1- .

T17. i A
Par avion
T18. -. -
O 3 L


f Par avion.


S-W AY.-BC... i^.A-
a<- iQ -^


IJ~ *f~rau7ido

1932: Moscow. Struck in black on 15 July 1932.
Probably applied at the Moscow-46 Post Office.

1932: Moscow. Struck in black on 11 August 1932.
Probably applied at the Moscow 3rd. Despatch Office.

1932-1948: Leningrad. Struck in red or violet as of
10 August 1932. A Leningrad cachet which continued
in occasional use into the post-WWII period.

1932-1939: Leningrad. Struck in red or violet as of
23 September 1932. Another Leningrad air cachet in
long running use.

1932: Moscow. Struck in black as of 21 September 1932.
Probably applied by the Moscow 3rd. & 5th. Despatch

1933: Minsk. Struck in black on 19 July 1933. Probably
an early example of Type T24 (see below), applied during
transit in Moscow.

T23. -"*-,1 1933: Moscow. Struck in black on 25 July 1933. Applied
'W J on a commercial cover, also bearing a trade agency air cachet.

-L -A

Oct. 1933

Oct. 1934
cO t *S 1 9 '- "- .. ..

1933-1936: Moscow. Struck in violet, black or blue as of
18 August 1933. A widely-noted Moscow-origin and transit
cachet, in use for several years with minor variations in
lettering and size, at least partially due to wearing.


1934: Moscow. Struck in black on 13 June 1934.
Probably applied by the Moscow 5th. Despatch Office.

June, 1996




T20. ..


T26. -.am ansmssawasa a
n Eft W

S0 3nb!, JHA A.
f J C4TA ';


n O4TA


T31. L-


( __ ~ ~'-- n c Mr ^ i nilHillrin 'llrl"

- T3. v i 0


Examples of privately applied air cachets.

1925: Tashkent & Kursk.
A cachet in violet, applied on covers
to the German dealer Stolow.


1934-1935: Kiev. Struck in black or violet as of 17 June 1934
in the Ukrainian language: IEPECJIAHO /

1935: Moscow. Struck in black on 24 June 1935.
Probably applied at the Moscow-17 Post Office.

1936: Kiev. Struck in black on 27 April 1936.
Probably applied at the Kiev 1 -Y-1 Post Office.

1936: Moscow. Struck in black on 27 May 1936.
Probably applied at the Moscow 3rd. Despatch Office.

1937: Kiev-Moscow. Struck in black in June. This is a
pictorial Moscow-Kiev cachet used on a cover stated to be
the First Direct Flight Paris-Prague-Kiev-Moscow. It is
unclear as to whether this cachet saw any general use.

1937-1938: Vladivostok. Struck in black as of 7 October 1937.
A Vladivostok airmail cachet, combining a notation for

1938: Nikolaevsk-na-Amure. Struck in violet on 27 May 1938.
A Nikolaevsk-on-Amur air express cachet on an internal cover
to Moscow.

S 1940: Leningrad. Struck in violet on 15 Oct.1940. Applied
Si i by the Leningrad-36 Post Office on an internal cover.

1940-1947: Leningrad. Struck in violet as of 24 October 1940.
Earliest noted use of a Leningrad air cachet in use post-WWII.

1940: Kiev. Struck in black on 24 December 1940.
Applied by the Kiev-1 Post Office on an internal cover
to Riga.

Bo3 ywUiHoi norTOA

mit IUiftpost
1926-1927: Moscow.
par vio. A bright red-violet cachet used
m- on philatelic covers to Paris.

June, 1996

~F-L-~Prr~ae~k~cp~paR~~ -~-r~c rv*B


Examples of commercially applied air cachets.


Luft Post. ,
Trading Agency "Elektroinmport".


Trading Agency "Rustransit".

afYIM Iwir4i.

iBOs3.,LL H A
fnOH TA.

Trading Agency "Stankoimport". Kontrol Co. of Hamburg; Moscow Office,

T.A. "Soyuzpromeksport".

j --DBD3iOEP 8lt t lllrTog ABO-FLiOqT'L
Telegraphic Agency TASS. Trading Agency "Metalloimport" Trading Agency "Soyuznefteksport".
The last two letters in the adjective for "Air" in the cachet of "Soyuzpromeksport" are unclear. These and
many other similar cachets for airmail, as well as registration, express etc. were applied by a wide variety of
Soviet trading agencies and banks from at least 1926 up to the late 1930s.

Examples of airmail termination cachets.

1933-1936: Moscow-Berlin, in violet & black.

Par avioY /_us -___ ,, (2^? f i" ./ "

1939: Moscow-London, in violet.

Directional air cachets, indicating the terminating point of airmail service, have also been noted for Paris,
Stockholm and Prague in the 1937-1939 period.
Lieut.-Col. John Bates, U.S. Army. We are saddened to report the death of our member John Bates, who
passed away on 20 September 1995 in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Born 15 May 1910 in St. Petersburg. he was the
son of Capt. Oleg Pantyukhov of the Tsar's Household Guard, whose story was reported in "The Post-Rider"
No. 36. The family arrived in the USA in 1923 and the son, Oleg Jr. adopted the name of John Bates. He
subsequently became a Lieutenant-Colonel in the U.S. Army and acted as interpreter for the meetings between
Marshal G.K. Zhukov and General D.D. Eisenhower, as well as for the meetings of General D.D. Eisenhower.
Field-Marshal B. Montgomery, Marshal G.K. Zhukov and Mar6chal Jean de Lattre de Tassigny in Berlin and
for the meetings of F.D. Roosevelt, W. Churchill and I.V. Stalin at Teheran in 1943.

Lt.-Col. Bates is survived by his wife Hester and three daughters. He was one of that group of philatelists
born in Russia before the Revolution and he will be sorely missed. P.J. Campbell.

Marcel Lamoureux, an enthusiastic and appreciative member of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately,
passed away suddenly on 14 December 1995 in Providence, Rhode Island. We wish to thank his best friend,
Donald J. Peters of Providence, for being kind enough to let us know. Both our Society and Mr. Peters were
able to advise in the disposal of the collection and philatelic library of Mr. Lamoureux in the best interests of
his family, the successful bidder being a prominent dealer in our fields of interest. Last, but not least, the
CSRP extends its deepest condolences to the Lamoureux family in this their sad loss.
June, 1996


Continued from
"The Post-Rider"
No. 36, June 1995.


1;- Cover from Constantinople *
,'fi-to Echmvadzin 1.2.08 O.S. ?
,.; >:- ; ;:** .. ^ ; .' .,

L';.. *... ..JA "- ;.4
?i"", ., : '*" i.*^ .*- "" ;- -
v? .'-'- '-.'- '-.- '*:AC "' -*'-''

'--.. .. -
/;*'*;* '^^-<^^

",:.***.'.:.' ..- /"/ .- *. : .- ***'.:.:,..,;
" '^ /y; > "'"' :'"" *'-,"^ "
^ .'. "- "

0-'' *.

by Professor Henri Siranyan.

.2-v9 .


*F--j~- B-


~, ?.
I i
" 'o

I -
-i'": -

-'I AfZ!rkL




%- -p

(:L4U 6/

-,Ni tt
N :

1 -. .

SCover from Elisavetpol'
15.11.09 to Vagarshapat

Cachet Depart KANTZAK
le 15.11.1909
le 20.11.1909

June, 1996

Cachet du Patriarcat
de Constantinople
Arrivee A Etchmladzine
le 01.02.1908




r ..:~i :




Z- 47 7

From Shusha


Arrival marking of
Erivan' (Yerevan),


June, 1996

At untie -

Li I


c.dr C Nj..

..J:. *rt

--i .. .1 '
IS~ *M

,' '. .

Cover from Kars St.P.O. "
8.5.06 to Vagarshapat .

L part L 1IOSDOV
le 5.10.1007
le 14.10.1907
Affranchissement Russie 32

-.UVc IIUIIi al uvt IvatnlI
Don 5.10.07 to Echmyadzin

:i ".V.

Cachet Gare de KARS
Depart le 8.05.1906
le 13.05.1906
Affranchissement Russie 43

Since WWI, the district of Kars
has been part of Turkey.

June, 1996

~- ---~



Ar mniv



.iItS .I

... .. 1 "
-' 4. Lj I ." 14.-
..to Baku 4.7.12.

Cachet du KHARABAGIH Dpart CHOUCHI le 02.07.1912
Arrivee A BAKOU le 04.07.1912

.'*..'.. / .* *'- .,,:,' '.' cr ,/ *
,. Card from Kars 10.7.10 '
to Batum 12.7.10.
Cachet D6part KARS le 10.07.1910
Arrive A BATOUM le 12.07.1910

June, 1996




c ^W^
5 1,,9,

Three cards with markings and views of Kars.

June, 1996

19 IV,


Armu nic



t 2r

Rectorat de l'Acad6=ie
ffranchissement Russie 67

The bottom part is unclear,|
but appears to refer to the MR

(to be continued).

June, 1996



Dear Reader,
Is there a question or point that you would like to put
across to the membership? Is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe? Is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on
some newly acquired item?
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom with the
rest of our readers in the confines of some paragraphs!

Professor P.V. Florenskii, Moscow, Russia.

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.


e C u ^ f I ............. .............
"Ityux r O..'Sur ...;., LO. ........ .. *
C ra f .. ..........
f ..... ..... *****. .. .'" .
MEooa, nm o... .o o I... ..n.......... ... ...

... op : ".......... .. ......... ... .. /.... /.....-......... 3.. ... ..


I.V. Stalin is making a comeback!

Shown here is a photolithographic copy made in
Moscow 1994-1995 of a Soviet souvenir sheet,
originally issued 21 December 1949 in the
collotype (aBToTAnnA) process for the 70th.
birthday of I.V. Stalin. This sheet is not listed in
the Scott catalogue and is a very scarce item,
although printed in 1 million copies. It has been
deliberately listed without illustration in the
Soviet catalogues and was originally printed in
three variants: (a) On cream paper, with the
frame and inscriptions above and below the four
stamps in gold, (b) on white paper, with the
frame and inscriptions in bronze and (c) on white
paper, with the frame and inscriptions in gold.
Note that this new copy shown here has no
inscriptions above and below the four stamps.
The sheetlet measures 158 x 195 mm.

Further Staliniana.
(a) The special delivery letter shown here bears
80 kop. in postage and was sent from Stalinsk,
Western Siberian Region 29.11.36 to Novosibirsk
1 Dec. This item is also a tragic voice from the
grave, as it is addressed to Roberts I. Eikhe, a
devoted Latvian Communist and Party Secretary
at Novosibirsk. A candidate member of the
Politbureau, he was arrested in April 1938 and
tortured into signing a false confession. He then
repudiated the confession, appealing to Stalin for
a Central Committee review of his case. All to no
avail and he was shot in February 1940. Many
thanks are due to L.Ya. Mel'nikov of Moscow as
the original source of this cover.

IMTIIIK No. 38 75

June, 1996


(b) Enver Hoxha, the General Secretary I
of the Albanian Party of Labour 1945-
1985, was a fervent Stalinist to the day /,
he died and the main town in the oilfields
was renamed QYTETI STALIN (The
Town of Stalin). The reg'd example ....___ i
given here shows a typical canceller '" j
supplied by the Czechoslo.aks and the Sy f/ ffI k/
letter was sent on 27 May 1975 to p / / o. d 3.AH
Comrade Marko Rita (yes, that is a
surname), President of the Central
Committee of the Albanian Federation ]__.- _i
of Labour. Albanian mail is rare, for the Nr. 919
same reason as Soviet items at the
height of the Great Purge, since the recipients destroyed out of fear much potentially valuable postal history
material. With the collapse of the Albanian Communist Government of Ramiz Alia in 1992, the town reverted to
the original name of Kugove.
(c) In 1954, Avon Publications of New -
York City issued for 25 cents a novel ,gd "-- ,,
in paperback entitled "I KILLED "' KILLED STAL ... 7 i
STALIN" and used a Pitney Bowes 2. \ A 3
meter No. 135920 in red to advertise At All Newsstands ? ---
it on 7 July 1954, as shown here.
This title has long been out of print and Avon could not even give the present writer any further details. Does any
reader have a copy of this monumental work, or at least would he/she please let us know who was the author?
Further Soviet Post-WWII Mail Control Point Markings.

OB' r T.

..... .... ...z .., % ^ C *" -
Aw l" r :. ..........Z......

bottom left a c.d.s. with diameter of30 mm. and reading TA KEHT M.C. CCP. TAKENT 18.4.46 ".
.. ...... ............... .... ...... _. ../.,.-

Further to the article on this subject already set out in this issue of "The Post-Rider", pp. 37-41, two additional
items have just been acquired upon going to press, as featured just above. The details are as follow:-

() A registered postcard from Bendery, Moldavian SSR 29.7.48, which passed through the Kishinev 8th. City
Control Point post office on 11 August and thus confirming such activity, as already noted on p. 40 of this issue.
(2) A card written in Polish and sent with unusually high postage of 80 kop. from Bukhara 9.4.46. It bears at
bottom left a c.d.s. with diameter of 30 mm. and reading TAHIKEHT M.C. Y3CCP. TAKENT 18.4.46 "a".

The foregoing material would seem to confirm the three stages of international mail control: the wartime
BOEHHAI I.EH3YPA, the post-WWII control points and, finally, the ME)K4YHAPOIQHOE cachets.
June, 1996

Michael Kuhn, Bamberg, Germany.

(a) From the mail of Friedrich Breitfuss.

~.. .....

I ~ .f.&~a4a~t~e.. eIka pea ~ IIi .n .tl ............ ..... .....
flat,'H"-' 4IW le.

-(a --t- m-a -o-f Friedrich Breitfu

As the 4-kop. reply card of 6/19 April 1900 shows, Mr. Breitfuss was the President of the St. Petersburg Section
of the International Philatelic Society of Dresden. That Section was the leading philatelic society at that time in
the Russian Empire and Mr. Breitfuss was a very advanced philatelist, possessing a most important collection of
Imperial Russia and other countries. One can also see that he had an excellent grasp of the French language.
(b) A registered Imperial letter from Chechnya.

":.. *..1-

.' .. I-
**..' I. -. .b1j T

.Mu1 N/lA ~e- E~I\_1; .
.. .... Sam "AP
S7T A3JAA3 H 0


Onaw 101a C

.-d d,,,.,IHY .

Chechnya is very much in the news these days; in a most unfortunate light, sad to say. Times were much better in
Groznyi on 17 Feb./1 Mar. 1912, when this registered letter was sent by the firm ofM.Ya. Makeev, a maker of
musical instruments as of 1884. It took nine days to go from the Caucasus to Markneukirchen in Germany.
(c) A wrapper sending from Moscow to Sverdlovsk.

: This wrapper sending shows a special low
S: ,iv *--"-_ ^i......... rate of 2 kop., as given by the "tombstone"
,$ 1W4%j- 1: 9 marking at left and reading: "WRAPPER/ PAID
0o2 OFFICE/ -8.XII.25.(1)". It consisted of a
"collection of statutes for the military tribunal in
S ". ., .. A Sverdlovsk, where it was received 12.12.25.

June, 1996



4NI k I 4n

c~~c~ ~ '. )e kP-Vak 2,

o~- t&LkAV -& ari 4
Ue e, .14.,41e) k ,

dcltdnse;M~th ~P~~ ~AAG3~f;r~-

(d) Postal Code Markings of Kherson.

Sent unpaid from Zinov'evsk 2.7.34. Note Ukrainian "AOnJIATHTH" marking of Kherson 89-Y-1. G.E.
Zinov'ev (Radomysl'skii) was shot 1936 in the Great Purge. Original town name for Zinov'evsk: Yelisavethrad.

(e) Maksim Gor'kii Mourning Ovpts.

3, -- I-


3AKA3HOE. ,.iVhl'

M 0 G K-B A-, -ii

A p 6 aT A.20 uB.46

C. M.1 KJA EO YH e'

.',:~-' Ulooa 25,, ;n.C~epgzoea. '*

Maksim Gor'kii died 18 June 1936, probably from the after effects of TB. The mourning frames are bogus and
were probably inspired by the Yugoslav King Alexander mourning issue. The postal rate is correct for a local
registered letter at that time. Ex the S.M. Blekhman collection.

(f) German Refugee Control Commission

in L'viv.

/vlc ^ --
yrr .,
'-" / i'-

-. 'N,

-.3 N.

-3- .-
-- r-' -- -

_J^ q.t U.
CUL- -

One of the clauses of the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact covered repatriation to Germany of ethnic Germans in Eastern
Poland and the Baltics. In this case of A. Neumann, writing from Taropil' 3.6.40 to L'viv 5.6.40 (Western
78 June, 1996



s....... .... ... ....

AApec o0nipaBdTQjrn:
*1- -jyJC^'-7sy.**
^^ ~r//&^ ^^ IL-SS

Ivo Steyn, Amsterdam, Holland.
The 15th. International Physiological Congress Leningrad-Moscow.

". J '- '' f
'- ^ *


* J~-'~7=,~/ /' /v

24' A~~-,n.

Re the article "Congress Mail to Canada" in
"The Post-Rider" No. 36, the 15th. Intemat'l
Physiological Congress took place 9-16 Aug.
1935 in Leningrad. A special postmark was
applied at a temporary postal branch office at
the Congress site: the Palace named after M.S.
Uritskii. Note the misspelling CONGRES in
the marking. The covers from earlier in 1935
illustrated in "The Post-Rider" No. 36 must
therefore have been pre-congress mail from
the organizers to potential participants.

Dr. Peter Michalove, Illinois, U.S.A.

Georgian registration mark used on receipt.

I I. (. If ':r 04 HA T ~ -

~ ..- -. .... i. Ls7b[ai U aT9


R...4 M L W-...r-
Ziz r. p ji--, v.a

After my query in "The Post-Rider" No. 36,
Ivo Steyn was kind enough to send me the card
shown here with the same single-line marking
also used on receipt in Tbilisi. This 5-kop. card,
originally posted on TPO VLADIVOSTOK 266
BOCKHAREVO TRAIN No. 3 "t'" 21.8.31,
has an oval marking at top centre indicating 20 k.
postage due. This charge was the interurban rate
of 10 k., plus the reg'n fee of 15 k., minus the
amount already paid (5 k.). It would appear that
the single-line Georgian cachet was a memo to
postal workers to collect something from the
addressee. Can anyone elucidate this further?

* *


June, 1996

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY. The official organ in A4 size of The British Society
of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Secretary, N.J.D. Ames, Ashton House, Ashton Keynes, SN6 6NX.

No. 78 for June 1995 contains an Editorial; Obituary; Stamps of Przedb6rz (comprehensive), by A.T. Blunt;
Postal Use of Russian PSB & Control Stamps (excellent!), by A. Epstein; Postmarks of Amur Railway, by P.E.
Robinson; Current Events in FSU & Tridents of Kiev, L'viv and Chernihiv, both by Ivo Steyn (famous for his
courage in tackling these fields), to end with reviews.
No. 79 for Oct. 1995 has an Editorial; Two Intriguing Estonian Covers, by A. Gilliam; Cartographic Problems,
by G. Henderson & I. Stone; Odessa Postal Fiscal Cover, by B. Pritt; Errors in Russian Registered Mail, by G.
Miskin; Origin of word "vokzal" & Siberian Pictorial Postcards, both by P.E. Robinson; Imperial Russian
Formular Cards, by Ivo Steyn; Crimean Railway Postmarks, by L.L. Tann; Transcaucasian Railways: Addenda.
by P.T. Ashford; Operation Polar Bear Material, by W. Stoten; Who can help?, by P. Walker & E. Peel, to finish
with Armenian New Issues, by T. Pateman. Both numbers are up to the usual high BJRP standard.

standard North American format (22 x 29 cm.). All enquiries to the Treasurer, Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct.,
Millersville, Maryland 21108, U.S.A.

No. 125 for October 1995 has an Editorial; The "Mezhdunarodnoe" Markings, by D. Skipton; Express Mail &
Declared Value Mail in New Republics, both by P. Burega; 1916 Russian Soldier's cover from France & Belgian
Armoured Car Division in Russia, both by M. Ercolini; Alands Revisited & Weights, Rates and Routes, both by
L.L. Tann; SPB Residence Permit Adhesives, by J.G. Moyes; Russian Field Post in Russo-Turkish War 1828-
1829, by I.W. Roberts; Collateral Zemstvo, by G.G. Werbizky; Moscow's Southern Railway Postmarks &
Moscow's Dotted Numeral Postmarks, both by G. Combs, to end with What's it worth?, by P.E. Robinson.
Society Notes, Literature Reviews, etc.
No. 126 for April 1996 contains Soviet Free Frank Period 1919-1921 (interesting), by M.J. Carson:
Czechoslovak Legion in Russia, by M. Ercolini; WWI FPOs in Baltics (highly informative), by A. EpStein; SPB
Hospital Tax, by J.G. Moyes; Railway Postal Stationery Cards, by A. Speeckaert; Express Mail from Ukraine, by
I. Kuzych; Miropol'e Bisects, by T. Page; Armenian Essays, by G.G. Werbizky; Rapid Delivery Cover, by Dr.
P.A. Michalove; An American in Vitim, by J. Goodwin, to finish with Eurasian & Hamiata Air Routes, by Dr. G.
Adolph Ackerman, Society Notes, Literature Reviews etc. Some solid work here!

THE AMERICAN PHILATELIST. The prestigious monthly journal of The American Philatelic Society. All
enquiries to P.O. Box 8000, State College, Pennsylvania, 16803, U.S.A.

This magazine has in its January 1996 issue two fine articles in our field: La Legion des Volontaires Frangais, by
Rene Chavez and Polish Officers in Soviet Captivity 1939-1941, by J.J. Danielski & M. Lubinski. This was
followed in February by Patriotic Medals and Russian Philately (in glorious colour both on the magazine cover
and in the article itselfl, by J. Selko, while the March number has our member P.E. Robinson with A Tale of
Two Post Horns (not in our field). Quite a feast.

IIOITA No. 19 for January 1996. The journal in A4 size of The Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian
Philately. All enquiries to Dr. A.R. Marshall, P.O. Box 7, Otorohanga, New Zealand.

This issue includes an Editorial; Readers' Notes; Far Eastern Republic cont'd, by G.G. Werbizky; Postal
Arrangements Russia-Austria before 1874 (wonderful!), Achievements, Literature & New Issues, all by Dr. A.R.
Marshall; SPB Post 1992-1995, Russian Local Post Issues, 50th. Victory Anniversary & Ryazan' 1995, all by
S.A. Chudakov; Little known Imperial Russian Postal Rate & New Estonian Postal Rates, both by A. EpStein;
Railway Oval Postmarks in Free Mail Period, by L.L. Tann; Late Crossed Date Postmark, by T. Archer and
terminating with advertisements. A lot of ground covered here!
June, 1996

Marcilger et alii. A softbound 323-page volume in legal size, absolutely crammed with thousands of illustrations
and data. Available for USD 50.00 postpaid from Jonas Michelson, Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

Originally announced in "The Post-Rider" No. 36, p. 65, this comprehensive work lives up to its expectations as
given in that outline and will be a great aid to specialists in that field, combined with studies already published in
the Western world. The only point we might dispute is about the first circular stamp of the Wenden (Cesis) Local
Post, which the authors, among others, state was never issued. We feel that it did come into use, but was soon
discarded because of its small size. Well done, sirs!

SPEZIAL KATALOG RSFSR-UdSSR 1918-1960. by Rolf Weinbrecht. A 516-page work in legal (A4) size,
supplied in a sturdy three-ring binder and available for USD 97,50 postpaid from the English-speaking author at
Kastanienallee 15, D-76789 KARLSRUHE 21, Germany.

This wonderful work is the last word in specialisation of the stamps issued by the RSFSR & USSR 1918-1960
and it includes a highly useful Introduction and Guide in excellent English. An extensive description of the
contents is given by the author on the outside back cover of this present journal and he lives up to all his claims.
For specialists in the Soviet field, this is an investment which will repay itself many times over. In short, it
cannot be recommended too highly!

BALTISCHE POSTORTE 1632-1917/8, by Harry von Hofiann. A softbound book in 17 x 22 cm. size,
available postpaid for USD 34.00 from the author at Postfach 56 01 56, D-22551 HAMBURG, Germany.

This is the second and improved edition of Baltic Post Offices 1632-1917/8 and is very easy to follow as it
includes comprehensive introductions in several languages, including English. The scope of the work is outlined
by the author on the inside back cover of our journal. Once again, it is highly recommended!

1914-1921: BAND 2-SIBERIEN (The Austro-Hungarian POWs in Enemy Camps 1914-1921: Vol. 2 -
Siberia), by Horst Taitl. A hardbound book in A4 (legal) format, obtainable from the author at Kiesquellenweg 1,
A-6840 DORNBIRN, Austria. No price stated.

A 306-page and richly illustrated study, this work in German is a MUST for the specialist in the field, as the
author presents much hitherto unknown information, including about the Allied Intervention in Siberia. While the
POWs were treated humanely by the Tsarist authorities, the collapse of the Empire and ensuing Civil War meant
that some 500,000 to 600,000 of these men never returned from Siberia, for a variety of reasons.

(Vignettes of 1993-1995: Catalogue and Handbook), by Yu. B. Zemskii, V.P. & .
P.V. Florenskii. A 44-page booklet in A5 size, issued privately in 50 copies and i
obtainable from: H.B. O(opeHncKHi, 11743 MOCKBA, APUHMOBmIa 8,
KB. 72, Russia. No price stated.
This is a catalogue of vignettes made by privately overprinting sheets of valueless ",~olElEH flBA ~O FEAR PBKVH.'
Soviet and Russian stamps for various causes, some of them hilarious: the Party of Beer Lovers and the Block of
Ivan Rybkin (his surname comes from the Russian word for fish, as confirmed by the sexy fish shown here).
Quite a conversation piece, but they are NOT postage stamps!

KOJUIEKUHOHEP (The Collector). A softbound manual in A5 size of collected articles, a continuation of
the manual COBETCKHIf KOJIJIEKIHOHEP, as issued by The Union of Philatelists of Russia, 103831
June, 1996

MOSCOW GSP, 12 Tverskaya Street, Russia under the Editor-in-Chief L.Ya. Mel'nikov. No price stated.

No. 30 for 1995 has 144 pages, with USSR Definitives, by B. Kaminskii; Censorship Markings of Russia, by V.
Kalmykov; Osa Zemstvo Post and Stamps (magnificent!), by M. Minskii; Additions to Catalogue of Air League
Labels, by Yu. Turchinskii; Private Posts in Khar'kov & Petrograd and Unknown Provisional, both by M. Peisik:
Feodosiya on Old Postcards (lovely views!), by Yu. Kolomiichenko; 1994 Coins, by D. Andreev; 1917 in
Russian Numismatics, by M. Smirnov; Soviet Commem. Medals, by M. Balabanov & A. Shkurko; Proof Coin?,
by A. Fedonin: Medal Legacy ofTeodors Zalkalns, by S. Petrov; Bonds of the Moscow-Yaroslavl'-Arkhangel'sk
Railway. by V. Terebov; First Ukrainian Banknote (it has an inscription in Yiddish), by Yu. Artem'ev; Banknotes
of Nikolo-Pavdinsk, by V. Kochetkov; Vouchers of the Gur'ev Factory, by V. Malyshev; Prices of WWI & Civil
War Banknotes, by V. Rakhilin; Soft Steel Pen, by F. Malkin, to end with obituaries and Retail Prices for Coins.
by D. Andreev.
Double No. 31-32 for 1996 has 240 pages, with Some Varieties of Early Soviet Stamps, by B. Kaminskii;
Russian Field Posts in Galicia 1914-1915 (comprehensive), by A. EpStein; Censorship Markings on Russian
Prison Mail, by V. Kalmykov; Estonian Mail Routes, by A. Saardson; Soviet Pictorial Envelopes 1985-1992, by
A. Lapkin & Yu. Modin; Cards for Advertisements & Clearing Money Orders 1929-1940, by V. Pantyukhin: St.
Eugene Society, Red Cross & Artistic Cards, by V.P. Pozdnyakov; Petrograd Mint 1914-1914, by M. Smimov,
Counterstamps of Tsar Ptr Alekseevich 1701-1709, by V. Kleshchinov & I. Tindo; Three Phases of the
Nemtsov Vouchers & Bonds, by Yu. Artem'ev; Soviet Trade Tokens, by A. Shishkin & V. Lebedev; Meal
Tokens, by V. Shandurov; Lotteries in USSR, by V. Terebov; Trade Tokens, by V. Kudryashov; Wartime
Calendars, by D. Odintsov; Collecting and Medicine, by E. Gribanov, to finish with a Price List of Imperial
Russian Coins, by I. Rylov. Surveying all the foregoing studies, one can only say: "Rusland zal herrijzen!".

BELARUS': A catalogue-checklist of national and local postage stamps, including foreign administrative issues
of 1916-1920 and 1941-1944, by Bohdan O. Pauk. A 45-page booklet No. 4 in standard North American format.
published 1996 by Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154-7193, U.S.A.

Information about orders and the contents are given on the inside back cover of this issue. Our esteemed
colleague is to be congratulated on assembling so much interesting data about this little-explored subject and his
work should stimulate further research in the field. The CSRP will get around to running a series of articles on
the postal history and stamps of Belarus', as time permits.

AMYPCKAAI MAFHCTPAJIb), by Athol Yates, with photographs by Tatyana Pozar-Burgar and editorial
consultation by Rashid Yakhin. A 362-page softbound book in 12 x 18 cm. size, issued 1995 by Trailblazer
Publications, The Old Manse, Tower Road, Hindhead, Surrey GU26 6SU, England at I12.95 plus postage or
USD 27.00 postpaid. Also available from Bradt Publicns, 41 Nortoft Rd., Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks. SL9 OLA.

This truly astounding work has been written by an Australian engineer with a further Graduate Diploma in Soviet
Studies and extensive study of the Russian language in Melbourne, Moscow and Hungary. His economic,
systems analysis, historical and political insights of the current Russian scene in general are given in unbelievable
but authoritative detail, with comprehensive emphasis on the 3400 km. (2125-mile) Baikal-Amur Railway, which
traverses Siberia from Taishet eastwards to Sovetskaya Gavan' on the Pacific Ocean, mostly under permafrost
conditions. This is the gateway to the rarely visited region known as the BAM Zone and the book is a kilometre-
by-kilometre guide to the railway, with incredible anecdotes, analyses of the daily lives of Siberians, data about
the Stalin-era GULAG and POW camps, 27 detailed city and village maps, as well as 57 photographs. Place-
names, captions and listings are given also in Russian, as well as postal codes, fax and telephone numbers, names
and addresses of local guides and officials etc. etc. There are understandable typos throughoutthis extensive work
and the fonts chosen could have been larger, not to mention a more liberal application of printer's ink, but
TPO/RPO enthusiasts and armchair travellers will have a field day delving into this fascinating study.
June, 1996

EESTI FILATELIST No. 36 for 1996. A 264-page softbound book in A5 format, issued by The International
Estonian Philatelic Society. All enquiries to IEPS, c/o Eesti Filatelistide Liit, Box 84, EE 0090, Tallinn, Estonia.

This issue contains Hiiumaa Postal History until 1944, by E. Viigipuu; Estonian Postal Stationery 1991-1993, by
V. Hurt & E. Ojaste; Tartu Private Postal Stationery 1992, by U. Laul; Unknown till now OSTLAND card, by P.
Erelt; WWI Military Censorship of Mail in Estonia (wonderful!), by A. EpStein; 1940 Carrier Pigeon Issue, by H.
Lukaschewitz; Mail of Baltic Germans removed to Germany 1939-1941, by P. Erelt; Soviet Special Cancellers
used in Estonia, by A. Kaldver; ESTICA & BALTICA in European Postmarks, by E. Ojaste, to end with Special
Cancels & Cachets of Eesti Post and Reintroduction of Estonian Cancellers 1991-1993, both by A. Lohrmus.
A very fine effort and it is gratifying to see the publication of this journal moved back to the mother country. We
wish our esteemed Estonian colleagues the very best of luck and success in their future philatelic endeavours.

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area) No. 27 for December 1995. A 76-page magazine in A4
(legal) format, issued by the Dutch Study Group of the same name. All enquiries to the Secretary, A.C. de Bruin,
Ten Passeweg 10A, NL 8084 AN't Harde, Holland.

This issue has Society Notes; Latvian Arms Type Plate Flaws, by N. Jakimovs; Stamps of Latvia-Part 7, by late
J. Poulie; Estonian Chess Postcards, by S. Reurich; 1918 Mail between Ober. Ost & Russia (including Brest-
Litovsk Treaty Mail; very interesting), by A.C. de Bruin; Postal Developments in Present-Day Estonia, by J.
Heeswijk; Krag Machine Cancellers in Baltic Provinces and Russo-Lithuanian-Polish Card with English
Connection, both by Ivo Steyn; Poste Restante in Latvia and 1905 Revolution Card from Riga, both by R.W. van
Wijnen, to end with Literature Reviews. All in all, very solid research here!

SPECIALISED ALBUM FOR STAMPS OF TANNU-TUVA 1926-1943. Issued at USD 33.00 postpaid with
two introductory and a further 39 pages for all stamps, to fit into a three-ring binder and available from The
Philatelic Album Smith, c/o Scott Marusak, 110 Dunhagan Place, CARY, NC 27511, U.S.A.

This album is just the thing for collectors of that short-lived republic. Mr. Marusak is Polish and is also
developing standard albums for the Baltic Republics and the rest of Eastern Europe, including Polish Revenues
and Litwa Srodkowa (Central Lithuania). Please write him for further details.
Orders should be made out to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, TORONTO, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All
previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

COMPLETE GUIDE TO SOVIET UNION (Revised & Last Edition), by V. & J. Louis. 378 large pages full
of historic & tourist data, street plans etc. LONG OUT OF PRINT. Price postpaid USD 16.50.

THE SPY WHO DISAPPEARED (1918 Diary of R. Teague-Jones about the 26 Baku Commissars). A
217-page A5 paperback with amazing Civil War revelations. Very limited supply. Price postpaid USD 10.95.

SOVIET DIARY 1927 & OTHER WRITINGS, by S.S. Prokofev. A fascinating book by this great composer,
including interesting illustrations & pertinent notes re growing terror. Limited supply. Price postpaid USD 9.50.

this rare 1932 Kharkiv work of the world's first postal code system. Thousands of POs, arranged both
alphabetically and numerically. Ideal for Ukrainian postal historians. Price postpaid USD 20.00.

RUSSIA ZEMSTVOS, by F.G. Chuchin. The English edition, reissued by John Barefoot in 1988 with clear
illustrations in the right places. Cerlox binding and very handy reference. Price postpaid USD 18.00.
June, 1996

Are you still missing that elusive item from your collection or
philatelic library? Do you have some duplicate material that
you would like to trade or sell? We can publicise your want-list
or duplicates for the extremely low rate of USD 1.00 per insertion. "
Please note that the Society disclaims any responsibility for any
misunderstandings between exchanging parties. z

FOR a biography of Vera Slonim Nabokov (Mrs Vladimir Nabokov), I would appreciate hearing from anyone
with memories, anecdotes, letters or photographs. I would also be grateful for information about the Slonim
family in general, in its St. Petersburg, Berlin or New York City incarnations.
STACY SCHIFF, 43 East 62nd. Street, New York City, N.Y. 10021, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers. Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroads and Baltic forerunners. Buy or trade. Send
photograph or description and price to:
M.R. RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

MY newly revised and greatly expanded (130 pages) Philatelic Library Listing has been published. The cost is
USD 6.00, deductible from first order of over USD 30.00. Many low-cost but excellent reprints are available.
ALEX SADOVNIKOV, P.O. Box 210073, San Francisco, California 94121-0073, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers, postcards, AR-cards, newspaper wrappers, bookpost wrappers & any other postal history
material of new republics of the former USSR 1992-1995. Especially wanted are correspondence chess cards and
newspaper wrappers. Please write with prices to:
PAUL BUREGA, 16 Aldgate Crescent, Nepean, Ont., Canada K2J 2G4.

Ukrainian Philatelic Resources [Apnl 996J
Titles in preparation:
No. 5 Ukrainian Postage Stamps: A Catalog of Issues from
[expected 4/96] 1991-1995 (Kuzych) $6.00*

No. 6 Independent Ukraine 1918-1995: A Catalog-Checklist
[expected 5/96] National Postage Stamp Issues, as well as Regional
Trident Overprints and Occupational Issues (Bylen) $15.00'

No. 7 The Rural Posts of Ukraine 1867-1916: A Catalog-
[expected 7/96] Checklist of Zemska Postage Stamp Issues (Bylen) +

No. 8 Independent Ukraine 1918-1920: A Catalog-Checklist
[expected 8/96] of the Local Trident Postage Stamp Issues (Bylen) +

Total Enclosed
*Advance orders are accepted and will guarantee pre-publication price.
+Please watch for announcements regarding these titles; advance orders previously accepted will be honored.
This list cancels all previous lists. All orders are postpaid. Orders outside North America will be sent by surface mail; include extra
funds if airmail delivery is desired ($2.00 for first publication; $1.00 each publication thereafter), indicate if excess funds should be
refunded or credited toward future purchases. Payment strictly in U.S. currency drafts payable to 'UPR' or "Ukrairan Ph!atel;c
Ukrainian Philatelic Resources
P.O. Box 7193
Westchester, IL 60154-7193 U.S.A.
June, 1996

Baltic Postal Locations 1632 -


in Russian, German, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish.
With a classification of the postal establishments as well as details of the post towns,
railway connections etc. and inclusion in the subsequent states of Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Russia or Poland.
Researched and compiled from official and cartographic documents by
Harry v. Hofmann
2. Edition
Changing national and political conditions as well as the existence of ethnic groups speaking various
languages, both in mixed communities and next to each other, have led to place-names in the Baltic
area being used in various forms over the past four centuries.
For those interested in postal history, there is the additional complication that in the philatelically
interesting period from 1632 to 1918 Cyrillic characters and the Russian language were used for
most postmarks. Often therefore, it is not easy to recognize the place concerned, to which postal
district and to which of the states established after 1918 it belonged.
With the help of this index it is possible to find out the German, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian or
Polish names for Russian place names or vice versa.
Whilst the first edition was limited in its scope to the period from 1858 to 1916, in this second
edition an attempt has been made to cover the whole period from 1632 to 1917/18.
Preface and Notes for the user are also given in German, English, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian,
Polish and Russian.
240 pages 16,8 x 24 cm softbound, DM 48,-- (circa 22 or US-$ 34).

Ukrainian Philatelic Resources is pleased to announce the publication
of Bohdan Pauk's BELARUS: A CATALOG-CHECKLIST. The publication is the
first comprehensive listing of the postage stamps of the Belarus National
Republic and the local issues of the Belarus Socialist Soviet Republic;
it details the German, Ukrainian, Polish, and Lithuanian administrative
issues, as well as private issues of Sluck, Warwiszki, Homel and other
The publication is available for $6.00 postpaid. Orders outside North
America will be sent by surface mail; include additional funds if airmail
delivery is desired ($2.00 for the first publication; $1.00 each
additional publication thereafter). Payment should be payable to "UPR"
or "Ukrainian Philatelic Resources" drawn in U.S. funds.
Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154-7193, U. S. A.

Kastanienallee 15 Spezialkatalog RSFSR /UdSSR 1918- 1960
D 76189 Karlsruhe erste Auflage 4/1995
Germany 500 Seiten DIN A 4 im Ringbuch

2 0721 572567 RSFSR-USSR Specialised Catalogue 1918-1960.
The catalogue, entirely in German, is the first one, to my knowledge, written in a western language
that deals thus comprehensively with the stamps of the RSFSR and the USSR up to 1960. It is the
fruit of five years of hard labor at the computer. It deals with all postage stamps that have been
issued by the postal authorities of the RSFSR and the USSR. Civil war issues, the use of tax stamps
and Postal Savings Bank stamps, local issues as well as the issues of Soviet republics and
provisionals are not dealt with.

All definitive, commemorative, air, express, postage due stamps and souvenir sheets are catalogued
and priced. It contains all information on papers used, watermarks and their positions, printing
methods and up to 1955 the sheet size and layout. The sheet layout of composite sheets is shown
and the resulting se tenants are listed and their prices given.

The various perforations, including compound perforations, that are merely mentioned by most
catalogues, are catalogued and priced separately. All known essays, proofs and specimen are
mentioned and priced.

Especia!!y the rather complex definitive issues of the inflation period and the twentiess with a!. the
different methods of printing, watermarks, papers, types and perforations are dealt with
comprehensively. These issues are all separately catalogued and priced. The definitive issue of 1948
- 59 which is worth detailed studies itself is catalogued and priced according to shades, types and
printing methods.

The various screen types of the photogravure printing, used from the end of the thirties, are
separately catalogued and priced. The reprints of stamps issued originally during the late forties and
early fifties which are often connected with the use of different screens, are described in detail and,
where suitable, illustrated, These reprints are all catalogued and priced separately. The different
colours of paper, often a sign for a reprint, are listed and priced as well.

The various types or dies of miniature sheets, hardly known to many collectors and entirely ignored
by the major catalogues outside Russia, are described, illustrated, catalogued and priced.

Also catalogued and priced are known shades as well as plate flaws, imperforate and part perforate
Information on the number of stamps issued and where necessary the period of use or validity is
given for every issue.

Forgeries are not only said to exist, contrary to most catalogues, and the current Russian one is no
exception there, but described in depth and where suitable illustrated as well.

Every different design is illustrated in full size (more than 2000 illustrations). Illustrations of Overprints
or surcharges, types and varieties, if suitable, mostly are enlarged by some hundred %. The
illustrations are numbered and these, numbers are given for every catalogue number to enable the
identification of stamps with different designs with the same value or stamps with the same design
and different values. A short description of every design is given as well.

A summary of the a little difficult definitive issues from 1923 to 1960 is enclosed as an appendix as
well as a short German English dictionary of the most important philatelic terms. An English version
of the introduction and guide to printing methods, perforations, screen types, prices etc. for collectors
in English speaking countries is enclosed as well.

The catalogue, over 500 pages in A 4 format, printed both sides, comes with a four-ring binder
especially designed for this catalogue. It can be obtained from the author. Price DM 120 (US $ 97.50)
including postage, by surface bookpost to any place in the world, and packing, cash with order, either
by check (checks from banks outside Germany are accepted) or by remittance to postal giro account
no. 1905 75 752 at "Postbank Karlsruhe" (No.66010075) in Germany.

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