Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 The early period of registered...
 Some notes on Imperial Russian...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 The North-West army: Stamps and...
 Brest-Litovsk treaty mail: An early...
 Post Brest-Litovsk mail
 Something more about the Brest-Litovsk...
 An overview of the Brest-Litovsk...
 A few more ovals
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner
 Back Cover

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00037
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00037 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    The early period of registered mail in Russia
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Some notes on Imperial Russian postal rates
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The North-West army: Stamps and postal history
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Brest-Litovsk treaty mail: An early cover
        Page 65 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 66
    Post Brest-Litovsk mail
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Something more about the Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    An overview of the Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    A few more ovals
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Review of literature
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text




No. 37
December, 1995
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately

Printedin Canada

r. CaHKT HeTep6ypr

October 14,1995.
Alex Artuchov with Pavel Pavlovich Mepekaev

TopryeM MapKaMH:

- POCCHH (HOBOfi H CTapoii)
rocynapcTB 6bIBmero c01o3a
- cneirameHHas

O6pauafiTecb no anpecy:

POCCH1I, 191186
r. CaHKT IeTep6ypr
KaHaj rpH6oeAOBa, 27

Ten: 095-314-7268
KaKc: 095-314-7272

The Union of Philatelists
of St. Petersburg

II .r i~-*
Ii iI~
14' :'rij

(1), Konstantin Alimovich Morozchok (r)

Dealing in the stamps of:

- Russia (present and former)
- stamps of the independent
states of the former soviet union
- special cancellations


Russia, 191186
St. Petersburg
Griboedov Canal 27

Tel: 095-314-7268
Fax: 095-314-7272


; r


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2


December 1995.


2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 The Early Period of Registered Mail in Russia
22 Some Notes on Imperial Russian Postal Rates
29 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
41 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt
46 The North-West Army: Stamps and Postal History
65 Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail: An Early Cover
65 Some Brest-Litovsk Treaty Memorabilia
67 Post Brest-Litovsk Mail
69 Something More about the Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail
73 An Overview of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail
76 A Few More Ovals
78 Review of Literature
79 The Journal Fund
80 Collectors' Corner

Dr. A.J. Schlichter
Harry von Hofmann
Andrew Cronin
Alex Artuchov
Alex Artuchov
Alexander EpStein
G.G. Werbizky
Alfred Kugel
Robert Taylor
Alexander Epstein
Andrew Cronin
Rabbi L.L. Tann

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.

1995. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this
issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.


Your editor has always felt that, especially at international shows, the jury should be so drawn up to cover the
broadest possible spectrum of collecting interests. So far as our own areas were concerned, that criterion was
being met while M.V. Liphschutz was alive and active internationally.

Upon attending the APS Convention in St. Louis, USA 24-27 August 1995, your editor heard many critical
comments about the conduct and results of FINLANDIA '95. Reports in the philatelic press have also managed
to restrain their enthusiasm. The show was increased from 1500 to 2950 frames without a corresponding increase
in jury size or adequate time to review carefully all the exhibits. For example, one collection, awarded a large
vermeil at POLSKA '93, received a large silver at FINLANDIA '95 and a gold at SINGAPORE '95 (three grades
higher !). That is far too great a spread and makes the awards at FINLANDIA '95 look worthless. The argument
has been made that competition was very stiff at FINLANDIA '95. All that should have meant was that more
higher awards should have been given out. In short, international standards should be the same, whether the
show is held in Paris or in Timbuktu.

All of which raises the question as to whether it is worth the time, effort and money to compete internationally. It
is much cheaper and a lot more fun to show at the national and regional levels. We in North America have the
opportunity of exhibiting in at least 18 national shows around the USA and leading up to the Champion of
Champions section of the World Series of Philately. In Europe, they have FEPA and the Asian countries FIAP.

While participation and the subsequent exchange of knowledge are the main advantages of any exhibition, it is
certainly most important that the jury knows what it is looking at and, where there are doubts about a particular
point, that it be given the opportunity of consulting any visiting experts in a particular field.

December, 1995

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

by Dr. Andrds Jorge Schlichter.

'I,". / "C I/- IN VIA0 .e- 1V
Uy .-.e 4 ,-4-a /44 /.. '* .
"*WO`Oq "'A47 47/< fV^e, 14v^} Ge^^^ ._
~C)t.~ 'wr ~I~c JL&tc4fL44r ii 4
4**tdf..4'.4. "<9, t^ m i; 4Si.y-.-.. -Vi-v

'*Ae4~. ?/(*r 'rr'4We- V *,C9oLLAI ...^X-^-'-<

December, 1995

i i

The illustrations on p. 2 are of the front and back of a postcard written in Tobol'sk on 2/15 March 1915. The
postage was prepaid by a 4-kop. Peter the Great stamp of the 1913 Romanov set, being sent from and cancelled
in Tobol'sk on 3 April o.s. The card shows on the front a carmine single-line marking in French, reading
"Correspondances des Prisonniers de guerre", probably applied at the censoring office, together with the oval
military censorship mark used in Omsk in the same colour. This is a named censor mark and it reads "Military
Censor city of Omsk / D. Ts. (Passed by Censorship) / Braunfeld". The card was sent to a Mr. F. (Fritz) E.
Menzel at 205 Mutual Street in Toronto and was redirected to Silverthorne Avenue (he had probably moved).
The front also shows a machine arrival postmark of Toronto, dated Aug. 17, 1915 at 2.30pm and with the slogan
"Canadian National Exhibition TORONTO / Aug. 28, 1915 Sep. 13".

The view side shows a picture of the sender (Horst) and a number "211". He writes: "Here you have me with a
number. But not a Hamburger. As I still have some money, my condition, even if not nice, can still be bearable
(the picture shows him in pretty good condition for a prisoner !!). The winter was not too hard, even when
temperatures reached -45 Celsius You have it better in Canada than we. To hear that Martin was on the
"Emden" was a pleasure for me (this is a reference to the German cruiser S.M.S. Emden, which was sunk by
H.M.A.S. Sydney off the Keeling [Cocos] Islands on 9 November 1914). He goes on to say that he hates "to be
so far away and doing nothing, while others are getting their laurels". He hopes to see Mr. Menzel after the war.
The name Menzel is of German or Austrian origin and he was probably a relative of the prisoner.
We thus see that there is quite a story to be gleaned from this card.

by Harry von Hofmann, Germany.

(A paper, originally presented at the World Symposium for Collectors of Russian Philately in Helsinki, Finland on
12 May 1995 and reproduced here by kind permission of the author).

When considering the registration of mail in Russia, one question still cannot be answered: that of the exact date
when this service began in Imperial Russia. It is not possible to say with certainty when the first registered letters
were carried in the Russian Empire. However, it is clear that this method of carrying mail was used in early times
and not, as is sometimes asserted, only from the 1870s.

The essential features of a registered item are that:

(a) Evidence of the conveyance of the item exists in the form of a record of its acceptance and of confirmation of
receipt by the addressee.
(b) A receipt is held by the postal official who delivers the item.
(c) In the event of loss of the item, the Postal Department is liable to pay compensation in a fixed amount, and
(d) The item carries no indication of its value.

The concept of compensation in a fixed amount is a very important point. The Postal Department in Russia
recognized three types of postal service:-

(1) Ordinary mail, without any liability.
(2) Registered mail, with limited liability, and
(3) Mail of high value, with liability according to the declared value.

In the early days of the postal service, when few letters were carried, ordinary letters were also recorded and
given a reference number. This was done purely for internal purposes and had no meaning with regard to
compensating the sender in the case of the item being lost. With the increasing use of the postal service, the
December, 1995

number of items lost also increased and senders began to demand that the Postal Department should be held
financially liable in the case of loss. It was therefore necessary to calculate the cost of appropriate insurance for
valuable items sent by post.

Registered letters for which compensation could be claimed in case of loss are known from the 17th. century in
England. According to HITger, the first mention of a registration service is in the postal regulations of Saxony
dated 4 September 1677 and in the Austrian regulations of 1695. A special registered rate was first mentioned in
British sources in 1787. Prussia, which played an important role in regard to exchanges of mail with Russia,
introduced the designation "Recommandirt" or "Registered" for the Rhine provinces on 1 August 1821 and in
general on 18 December 1824.

From the beginning of the 1870s, we know of letters with the Russian designation "3AKA3HOE" to indicate
registered letters. The well-known mark "3AKA3HOE" occurs about the mid-1870s and was used into the
1880s. Later on, this mark was replaced by handwritten endorsements by the sender, or by private handstamps.
Additional handwritten registration notes are typical of covers from this period, at least in the form of a
registration number and usually also the weight or postal rate.

The above letter was sent on 2 July 1874 from Kostroma to St. Petersburg, having the registration number at
upper left and the indication of the weight "8 lots" (102.352 grammes or roughly 3 1/2 ounces) at upper right. It
has a splendid franking of 95 kopeks, i.e. 8 x 10 kopeks for a letter of 8 lots and an additional 15 kopeks for

December, 1995 5

Here we have a letter sent on 2 July 1875 from Vil'na to K'dnigsberg, showing the new "3AKA3HOE" mark
together with the additional German label "Eingeschrieben", so as to indicate to the non Russian-speaking
German postal officials that the letter was registered, as they could not be expected to understand the meaning of
"3AKA3HOE". There is at left a handwritten Russian registration note, with the registration number and the
weight "30 gr.", which was taken as equal to two lots. The franking is therefore 2 x 8 kopeks for postage and 15
kopeks for the registration fee, as represented by a 30-kopek and 1-kopek stamps.


Another 31-kopek franking can be shown on this letter, which was sent on 28.1.1877 from Revel' (Tallinn) to
Rome. There is also the "3AKA3HOE" handstamp, accompanied by the handwritten registration number with the
Russian weight "2 L" (two lots) and, under the word "Recommandirt", we find the additional information "g 18"
for the actual weight of 18 grammes (just over 1/2 ounce). Although it was not permitted at that time to use
postal stationery items with additional franking, we can find many letters formed in that way.

December, 1995

%Irtifef 12.
& fr fir bent 3erfe nbetr jei, %3tiefe ju recommanbiten. Cergtcicen ticfe mfiffen
frantirt ipcrben. Ci wirb far bicfe[Ien bag Tiorto tric far ge~bn[idfie %'Ariefe unb cine 9Ne.
cornuanbationa. (6ififr erbobcn. Ticfc Ci51ciir bctragt 2 qgr. resp. 'I .tocfen Zi[6er
far jcber reconlinanbirten- Brief oabt lUntcrfricb btg 65etvi~tg; biefcbbe iirb aur--fu[ic~fi
,vn ber spofitiertuafrung beg I(bfenbun9gqebicdte ero6en unb be3ogen.
Ecm 9Jbfenbtr eirieg rccomrnanbirten Z3rieft9 Pftet bit S3cfugni 3u, S au f bet NIbrtrje
pu tcrIangen, baj ibnm bag ron bent (Qmp.fanger iboUI-ogene Reeei iife 3upgefict trerbt; in
biefenr aafle m4t bit Miidftnbung ber- D0o9ogenn Chnpfangqcfin* nacb b ent1 Jufgabtorte
be6 3rifet untcr36gett erfodgen. 3iir bic BcfcSafjfung btg Necepiffe frt bet NIbfenber bci
bet r 1uf1iefcrung beg Iriefeg eint iveittre @icbfir ton 2 C-r. resp. 7 R~opefn lai[6er
Su entritcn. Zitft (0e6brt rirb q[ficbjaff g on ber abfenbenbtn TIirtrwaltung unge.
t~eift 6beogen. -ei ber !Wfenbung ber Recepiffe finbet tin @e~ibrenanfat ni~t fratt.
Gebt tin rerommanbirter !rief t'erloren, fo foil bie Tiofwerwaltung, in beren Te.
reicb betrfebe f aufegeben. ift, gebaften fein, berm Nbfnbtr, fobifb bet Ttrdufi fefrgeftefft
iti, eine Cinrtfdbigqung ioon 14 :-afern in Tirtu~en obet 13 Nubeln Ei[ber in ffulu1anb
au Sab(tn, iote6t~ rt(icf bt4 Rtgrefje an biejenige !Pofiverwar[hng, in beren Tereicb bet
'Reruft eriweifid ftatrgtfunben ai.
Zie iReeiamotion mut innetruob eineg 5o~re~, r'am %age ber NIufgabe bet g riefeg
an gertccnet, erboben tirrben, tvibrigenfail jebe !3erptictung jur Qntfac$ bigung aubtrt.
(int tert6gangabt ill, irit bei affen Iriefpoft.enbung enj fo au bei recoinman.
bitten Oritfen unpulaffig.

1865 22.08. Postal treaty between Prussia and Russia
Amtsblatt des K. Post-Departements v. 2. January 1866

December, 1995

But what happened in the period before the designation "3AKA3HOE" was used?
We can sometimes find letters with the handstamp "PEKOMEHHOBAHO". This word "Rekomendovano"
was first mentioned in the postal treaty between Prussia and Russia dated 22 August 1865. Russia thereby
adopted the international terminology for registered items. In that treaty Article 9 mentions that:
"Letter post includes ordinary and registered 'recommandirt' letters....."
and in Article 12 (please see page 7):-
"The sender may have letters registered. Such letters must be franked. The normal postage rate is required in
addition to the registration fee. This fee is two Silbergroschen or 7 silver kopeks for each registered letter,
regardless of the weight; it will be charged by the postal authority at the place of dispatch.

The sender of a registered letter may require an advice of delivery to be obtained from the addressee. In that
case, the certificate must be returned to the place of dispatch immediately upon delivery of the letter. For this
service, the sender has to pay a further charge of 2 Sgr. or 7 silver kopeks at the time of posting. The whole of
this charge is to be retained by the postal authority at the place of posting. There is no additional charge for
the return of the certificate.

If a registered letter is lost, the postal administration, in the area where it is accepted, is obliged to pay to the
sender, as soon as the loss is established, compensation in the amount of 14 Talers in Prussia or 13 roubles in
Russia, on condition that recompense is obtained from the postal authority in whose area the loss has been
shown to have taken place.

7The claim must be made within one year of the date when the letter was posted, failing which the responsibility
for compensation will cease.

As with all items of letter post, a declaration of value is not permitted for registered letters".

im Uiodfdjetn (l0ouoentnicnlis- Vt-( onipteir.
1o8dfiiaften, Tclinnente, rcecontm nblrfe !lricle unb $~dddjn ttrren an.
genoninen: aur Illeute naO unb fiber Snithu, eC-aulcn, Taurongen:
Bart~urn 'PlOle ulub been 2ludfanbe (fiber Tauroogen) Zonnerdlag !or1.
ton 8 bid 10 11or unb eonnabenb 91aitni. boll 4 bid 6 Ubr; Aurr ioute
nato unb fiber ipernau, 9Wlaf, llrendbug, Glenteen, 8l0iii, 2Bette, T]iffow,
2emrai unb 1olberal t tendtag ullb ltritog Vtiorgtn uon 8 bid 10 1lbr. -
Dlecornranbirlt ritfe innd Itudlaub, vinli Wlngnaet clae 2Berlbtd, betr.
ben Aug6cici nit bet GenariBniun POreflpoiibrul bOribll 0110111grutnin
unb Maimn bon t bbetber Ietbp nut btri eiegelci lreriegclt irerbnil.
Bu alIen ibrigen aouttn: 8aarrl(aficu, Z'euiicunte unb rC(Cluinllbifft
Triefe TIcuulag unb Zounuurotaq Rioriu. ton 8 bid 10 Ube; 'iijuddcn:
j Uloute :uou Spofinar, Sall, WRara, Zorpat, 3ewt, ainburf, 61.
uetterdburgiU. Iodfau, unb uac belln (5ouuu. Oiler et. Veteedbiueg
unb 1od6an tieitudiag unb arritog 9Uorm. rou 8-10 Ibr.
ltdideixt nacb ariebritfiabl, 3otobflabt unb 311urt, fo wic file tell Tract
fiber Zriinabur8. unb SJilebef aIitoo unb Tionuueedliag von 8 bid II)
Uor otrgend.
Crbinaire iGorecIponben;. 3ur Slouti fiber Vilta, eD-auteit nub 133 iSit,
(a wit nai rein 8atribuin 'oerit Zor'uuerdna utb Euaintag %orinitlag
von I1 bid 2 11br.
914t Liutlanb (atudgenonitten ribrlikbtfabt, 3afoblabi unub 311ur) eonn.
1ag unb Zonuterotog 91iadjniiing vci 4 bid 6 1b1r.
ad) Tltau *", ectnulti. lauroggnn nub beeni 9Itubauibc Conoitag, Viend-
tag, 2Yitturodi, Zounerdiag, at itagii.C-onnabcab v0114-6 Ube 'Jiatbn.
Iat un(V tibtr1eeOcrreiq9 eontog unib Donerdton TOTr1n. ron t 1-2 1b1r.
Taib 'Tmeuuau, SohnIar, gBall, Zorcat. 3rime, a ':sainlbnrn, fc imWe
nad ben ECtatioten nutb Ojitern a "I bet Sloult vonl 9liga bid Crt. 'Pe.
terebuieg 11iOttag, Zirnutug, Zounerdtlg ullb jrcj14g lortiuitaqg oon
11) bid 12 Ll1r.
944c 91eraf unb bhn Areidflbbtn U(ofliaubd, fo Itc 1lrendbulr, 2filfal,
BlUin unb Strro irndrig unb B "ta a Sormtllitg ron 10 bid 12 11r.
Bear tenben uub jillon .intag, Zieidtaq, Tlittiod), ieeitag unb
Connabtnb Niadmiztag toll 4 bid 6 Ib0, unb aunjerm nZiiciftog
imb ajeitdo Toenuiag ron 10 bid 12 11b.
glad;b tn etabttn bcr Ollurertenenld et. Vcierdburg, OIoneol, Ireban-
fled, 91ow qrob, Saotolird, oloeoniua, MaIltat, lJJologra, Traet,
2914)bMiti, 91fbni.?O9rgoreb, lrrnl, Safan, !lfira4au, eOCarato, eim.
bite!, 2arrbrl unt nact; Cibitinie Tolonig, Zieiudtoag. 'Iilln;O4h, jrit
tao nub 6onnabeuub 9t'acbutitlag ron 4 bid 6 jIbr.
3ur X ounte iibtr tinaburg naco !Eitcbdf Sionfag unbi Donnetdlag Von
2 bid 4 Iber 91aibmittagd.
) lluittecal no itt u taujinl iu r, ant Inodn(slluti.

1cIicr hic 15v.31411?rfirni.
3tbtr nibt it tintin aefcrtrilrcun Crenre1 atjufrrIiqrrtr Sfrn-rife
Brief nruu ait tine r Inil(rtedieiibn Iio1Vaiarr rerfbrn feri:i, tir in camn
VFnPll~t~n.li Niwarrnb brr [nnotnlrei1. forric an jerern !Jrrmilrncr. ter.
lauft trerben. Gid GiObt bermn filcisftfI brei eorlin: jn 10 lrr. fft
tinIj1bige. lu 20 top; ffr lirtifi8Iige unb an 30 Scp. far trrilaftir Zrinrf.
Zit Tiorfen wettest ton ben 91bfttzen cidbn cuf tic 11rrcr Id frifdre
Gefrbt. Z'ie rnil birirn 17arfrn trtrrrenrn Trirfe Uenre alrir.fnall in tie
tilt I1tifilablu ter fit e el .ulrcqrUe'ert ab'izsornftme Zrirffr trlrenrnen
Jaflnr bit imgpelet irrttri. !Iudi tr Ton-ale a Eint nor fur Srirtt 111
triefe L eilimint, wtibrenb bad jIefRlher l i-:r t et O .tfmnrrrn. rrre ,n.z.
tit Ior 0Trefronten unt Trtirfe in'd !lu lant in bumrein tIefle critiirt
Irctbeli inuR.

Livlindischer Kalender 1861

Riga 1860

December, 1995

In the Livlindischer Kalender" for the year 1861 and published in 1860 (please see the relevant excerpt on the
previous page), the following information appears in regard to postal rates:-

"Money, documents, registered letters and packets will be accepted in the direction of or via Mitava,
Schaulen, Tauroggen, the Kingdom of Poland and for foreign countries (via Tauroggen) on Thursday
mornings from 8 to 10 o'clock and on Saturday afternoons from 4 to 6 o'clock; in the direction of or via
Pernau, Reval, Arensburg, Wenden, Fellin, Verro, Pskov, Lemsal and Bolderaa on Tuesday and Friday
mornings from 8 to 10 o'clock. Registered letters destined for abroad, without indication of value, will be
accepted along with ordinary foreign correspondence and may be sealed with three seals by the sender.
For all other routes: money, documents and registered letters on Monday and Thursday mornings from 8 to
10 o'clock..."
and further:
"Postage stamps are only intended for ordinary letters. The postal rates for sending money, registered
correspondence and letters destinedfor abroad must be paid for in cash".

These calenders are very useful for studying postal history, as that was how the public was informed of the
requirements for correspondence and for using the services of the post office. It is therefore worthwhile
comparing these publications from year to year and to note any changes.

Livlandischer Kalender 1865

Riga, 1864

Livllindischer Kalender 1865

December, 1995

Gorrefpounben Ij oname im 9?igjaftcien
4i u uvcrn enten ts93v ftseo mpto ir
Faarichaften, Zocumente, recommanbirte ffriefe
unD T'adcen Madmmitage uoD 4 big 7 Ubr. 014a(
Ittzaburg, Er. 11tter~burg, iMi,5Fau unb aIen auf Der
afIoue bortbiti belegenen etdBten, nad) Dpotfd~a, Olo
woribera, !bolm, !oroel. 2li9tillt euti, Ugrmidt, leme[l,
ffIorobor, 2eliift, Torertfdic, foord)om, jitebef, Emo.
lenef, 94lu1a, MV1Obiiew. Zfd~ernigoo, Riewm unb Dbela,
nad) alien auf bent Tratt ton oiulatu nadc Eibiricn unD
von WiaPau itadi 0barfom beleenctt DOrte, nad) Romno,
Ac5Silna, Vfilifoitir, DIolte unD in'i; -11ularnb tdglidc; nad)
2uoin, -ebefd,, nadi Den jouten 1o0t 213Bilna nadi Mind
unD uan Roaf1u n1d4 Ufa am C-onutag unb Olittrood);
nRaI allen Drren auf ben "Zraftn Don MIoBfau nad)
Eimbirof am 42onntag, Mlaontag, Ziengtag unt ojrtitag;
aon 2hirobirdo naCh Drenburg utnt :ad, ea:mara am Eonn-
1.t., iiztimodi unti bretae1g; Don Olhnifi nadl iamborD
unb von Kothroi nadi rcilta am CEonntag unD Donc
neurazg; Von l22labimir nadb (ugbaI unb uon Mifbniip
Nowtugirob nadi i]ljdifa am eotnabetib unD Mittmocd;
u1n Et. 3cterlburg Atber Ecd1IttTilburg nad) $Jcttrofaz
moWd unD Wlrdiancil am Gonnrag unb Mirtmood; nad)
g3riebridiiabt unD aafabPiabt am eonnioa, Montag, Mittt
mod) unb Donantrgoag; iad6 bni =raft uon lcitna Atber
~9Qrt nadi Bubno am i2onntaj unD ZDonnergtag; nad)
-2irtu unD T airoggen am eaonntag unD Zonncrgtag;
nadi afen an Der 4rNro;e Don Otlitau nali Tolangen be-
legenen Datn am Mfirtmoo unb Eonnabenb. Mad) ben
SEtlten tivi, unt (BiftnbN VienI ag unD artitag; nad)
21nr-enbet am -onntaq unD Mlirtmocb %3ormittagi von
s bi. 0o lbt. Der (Finvrang nadc ben mit Detr (ifen.
babn jn epebirenben Drten TWiO am folgenben Zormit.
toag Vn 8 big it Ube forgerfebt.
rbinoaire (Yorriefonben3. Oladc!) Dfinburg, Et. Ot,
ter5jurg, Oiotiau, Vvofciajfa, Olerel, (broono, nad) aUen
aui ben ratreto t'ber Ct. ~etetroburg big MolaBau, Don
Iuioodau' n aid ibirien unt nod barfon belegeniin
Dreen, nadi gaono, Vilina, Silfomir, I)oltn, Sitlbi?,
emolengf, Raluga, Mrolbifem, Ti dirnigat, Rienv, Dbieffi
urD Wn'e MIuglanb tiglic1) von S big 12 Ubr.
3ur Efoure Lber WTizau1 nad) Zauroqgen am ionntag unb
Donntroaqg 4betibg Von 4 big 7 UMr.
Oldih firit ttnD Qibau am eonntag, Mittrooch, Donnerl.
tag unD iBonnabenD 91benbs Von 4 big 7 UIbr.

MglemIewnt fiber Otnuoung ber oWImtarfcn
Zdavt bed %;oft orto'd fiir "ta"[ tEni 9fOiilutbe abrtef
firte orbInalre 93trlef
ton I !rct lreaiiiifn Oeiridlld fait niibeiriii beil 9utiirthen f11nricdltltbI
voan 1t Rep. G.
!Die '.irattliruiia ati~r1.iirtbfer l~irfek mit Vlofltttartei ill wsttr foltgei
a. 2feitn ber Il crtrobirenbe Mrerit wit t ciner 9toloab iarfdei verifiitbr
ifl, vetldit beint ttd t betr Tirre ftilarfegtin inntellit tiub itimtttitltidtd
Torto volttititniitmt c i iift utfrjd ber oliritite ftiorfliI.ht to iiirb Dler Zirf
40ollinj it ran lirtectitettt uib beitt (~nipftr fttlt ?ot~berEitj
rfidi Lzubige r Tongetatilirci btergeton.
b. SNl111tI Cl 3dtt ber dlof bela It ief qcttcbfn 9)lartn mictit uttn
S aitwet 'T'trecberntlic, jci Ci' mttid) mit tocrtiii.cit tttitcrtduicb, eniPteidlte.
totfrb ber 1'irief olt nur bii if r (33 reuet ftantttirt b'erralitet iub
Der beattti(.tlit itt btf 90itteiiirlig be$ qliritefe bagI2lat se, nod) Der Zare
feigtortte, aurtesibitaitt 'l.orto III trcletm.
e. :Oti ra eltcr Vorletiaitcit, bah lbie t0bif obrr ber etrth ter titfi
11 ltt'tetll Vlrlth nieit Sitreidit 1111 felil 0,10 itttier Twitfoorto its
Defitc, ft gilft lar 1brici eal titgnidit fratfirt unla bcr (nisfianger Mae
ball atitic inncre aimlls Jtllbifette iVrto Indiiuaintlett.
l e1 TV11ittlitq Llcr '1tricfilarten rfie allSittbifdifil orreifonbetli
gittell ivigentat 9ze.3cll.r
Si)tj j M3ll iutiten fall tifirt ierbdn a. einfaricleff. tiC-tlIr i. l
too.teict linrtere 'Jrtlbetrr 2ut1b cl.tSd-rowlr rbut~tt t Xct ( unwtnr ift, tVourt
bradi1 tIcIt fat.iitrbiTtteirfu birfetlt'e ill atiartillt ulsiete detliti Iterbito.
2) Z011itt ltbf10tr butte eSl d rirtef, Seitairettprobt obr Snbaung
unter Srrttbatb mitie -i .rt tt iti %'ertrffte covt Dpae eior t0ot, lr j ifclbeit
bii ltide tbe fit Die T'IM i nttrcatl Ut ctbe sitetulttctt ober ettbtidl tic
itfoetiire tit If tilcu. Ilmt Nugiltl61ticb r Ir Z',riefe flit jottlte t ir ttu. itt
treitele iti iitrllf tttt4te i let dt ttetttctli 'rbut Lintn. t CtLnintIc itit finer
itriBanD "lie" 11-1dld) ICU 111lctlllalitn !lqqcl Act! frintart Der V it
fibcaytbcn Ircrku.
31l .1iWF Nittiliit btllitiniittc, ilit TLrtcet Ber(ftiegl l iriffe ttitltio [itt
cle IeidtIijle tjl l tit'Cl'tbil, tic ta II te faitr Trirt Der itn t Ittlsrd orre,
fVoonitb tz Im fair tiitiftmitirtre willlttbisl of t n t 1cnitit irltreai.
4,'irtl Turdiiifttriit be 'Der rilrt trt jtr Tw1t,011111 fratitirter ilie?.
lt~ittifdi~r ltricie trill Die frtifietc -Ntrt itiiir r .ief. afot 1111ttidt~m bit
tbtIclUr tlr fi(lbctl Vetiliettlt3 Wrd1i ilf-1 beltIlotitlltrr-I11itg -:tii rrttitr
? 4n111t irclteim ownt : -it. C-. it ihtiij.ttai,j 311 tniettictiett; Nte 1-imCr
6tcieitlle. n 10o it 1 I11 t 7 ia ill't ttiffitlltt Wridtl4t tiitlo ititin Nloun lfit
V, z:it t DO4 -i'tlFrcrto ifur citicl im fattiricn I* tof rz; dnealn iit
%irlidtidui terrri.-t, to rtnt l faic r tic !ridiiliete I Iftp. E. Octefticre
uil ber 4ttricf fluir ctner 1norediCr1bcn 9)*trte t Virfetlen.
t) 1teritfe i, qtlltllletitwten Q'otwrt! inW a ttifllaito (iutten. it? niilt
ciuitterL Itetb1cn tuololaiitd t 11trtief iti cildlt C!onUlertS in tie 5"4t1cit
gSIt, to gotten life tts uititttlfirt.

Riga, 1864

In the "Livlindischer Kalender" for the year 1865 (published in 1864 and excerpted on the previous page), it is
"Acceptance of correspondence at the Riga General Post OQfice. Money, documents, registered letters and
packets. Afternoons from 4 to 7 o'clock".
and further:
'"tamps may be used to frank (a) ordinary letters (b) printed papers and (c) commercial samples. Registered
(insured) letters, letters containing money and packets must be posted as previously and the postal rates for
such articles must be paid for in cash".

It is clear from the above that registered letters from this period did not bear stamps and. at first sight, they are
often regarded as letters containing valuables, particularly as the Russian text might be misunderstood.

*c -
Jr -





Odessa 1868- 22.10.



The letter at left, sent on 29 Sept. 1866 from Odessa to London, has four markings indicating its registered
status: "PEKOMEHqOBAHO" struck in Russia, "Recomandirt" in Prussia and "REGISTERED" &
"PRUSSIA A OC 29 66 REGISTERED", both applied in England. The registration number is at the upper
right. In accordance with the regulations, there was no franking with stamps, but at the left-hand side we find
the calculated postage with 7 kopeks for registration, 22 kopeks for postage and 7 kopeks for the advice of
delivery (see also the article which immediately follows by your editor about the postal rates of Imperial

The cover at right, going on 22 October 1868 from Moscow to the Kingdom of Hannover has a somewhat
clearer impression of the "PEKOMEHROBAHO" mark. The Prussian Post Office correctly interpreted this
marking on arrival and applied their "Recomandirt" cachet in red. The registration number is above the address.
In accordance with the regulations, this item was also not franked with stamps.
December, 1995

1866 29.9.



December, 1995


The letter at top left on the previous page was sent on 4 May 1870 from Vindava (Windau/Ventspils) to
Arendal in Norway and has on the front only the Norwegian word "Recommenderet" (Registered). There is a
registration number on the back and an indication of the rate: 14 kopeks for postage, 15 kopeks for
registration and 5 kopeks for the receipt. Hence, we can see that the Russian word "Bec" (= weight) has been
used to indicate the postage, while the Russian term "nop" or "nopr" has nothing to do with "Porto"; it was
used for indicating the additional postage payable for the registration fee.

The receipt at top right on the previous page was issued in Revel' (Tallinn) on 24 July 1861 for an item sent to
Hamburg, with 20 kopeks paid for the weight (postage) while the 10 kopeks for the additional "port" fee
shows the usage of the same terms.

The letter at the bottom of the previous page was sent from Petrozavodsk on 5 December 1870 via the
"OJIOHEIIKASI KOHTPOJIbHAI HIAJIATA" (oval marking in green on the back with the same date,
used as a control cachet; the phrase means "Control Point of the Olonets Province) and St. Petersburg to Alt-
Strelitz in the German State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and shows also the Russian "PEKOMEHIOBAHO"
mark and the additional Prussian "Recommandirt" marking. In accordance with the regulations, it was not
franked with stamps and the calculated postage is shown at upper right: "1 14" for the postage of 14 kopeks
for the weight of 1 lot (12.795 grammes or just under 1/2 ounce), under that the Russian abbreviation "por -
14" for the additional registration fee of 14 kopeks and lastly "5", meaning 5 kopeks for the receipt.

In order to understand how registered letters were handled in Russia, an important factor is the use of the
Russian abbreviation "por" or sometimes "port" to indicate the amount of the registration fee charged to
insure a letter for a fixed amount. We will see this later on. Anyway, that was the practice in the 1860s, when,
as we can see, it was possible to send registered letters from Russia. But what happened in the period prior to

The ukase No. 33,447 regarding insurance and postal rates, with the date of 28 July 1843, stated (according
to the official German version published in Riga on 6 October 1843 and reproduced on the next page) that:

"The rates of postage for letters sent to all cities and towns in the Russian Empire and the Grand Duchy of
Finland are:-
(1) For an ordinary letter of 1 lot in weight: 10 silver kopeks.
(7) For an insured letter containing banknotes, bills of exchange, bonds or other documents on stamped
paper, also packets containing coin or documents: 20 silver kopeks per lot".

In connection with the general postal tariff, "the amounts to be charged for insuring letters and packets sent to
all cities and towns in the Russian Empire and the Grand Duchy of Finland" were also published, as follows:-

(7) For all items sent, including valuable goods without exception, a proportionate charge of 1 kopek per
declared rouble will be made".

The rates for postage and insurance can be seen from this statement, but the terms "Einschreiben" or
"Recommandirt" are not specifically mentioned. On the other hand, Article 18 of the postal treaty between
Russia and Prussia (the original text does not reproduce well) with the date of 24 December 1851 specifically
states that:-

"Letters for which the sender requires evidenceof their acceptance by the post office and evidence of their
delivery to the addressee may be registered and will be appropriately marked by the sender. The Prussian
postal rate to be paid for this type of letter will be the same as for ordinary letters, phls a registration fee of
2 Silbergroschen. In Russia, the appropriate rate for an ordinary letter will be doubled.

December, 1995

bt01 6eclliffrrfrlicro tiLler gictiffen,
a it 6 b c tit ID f r i il i r t i b c It t it a t

bit *1ibtilbird e 3uCnwiiitiit e9lediuiic.,

914i0.- ti 2litigrrelto G6Ctrri Gir 30. l. '). mInner wriner Wiffllhit Jriitbliigurrbhr
Dilpr liruir lIifi clotilenii Irirllrliriiiti lburbliX.JsIIidrli Vijeir, nroiiili
,,3irb~eii ll iirt got ~iiI4 brtoirg bid Ji.irrli uodb 01. rewbilb miii irhi-bUur. Li, LV3,1ifISIt
I0rrO ll. *rritr.r t0orlierrunibtiii Cr0 Oir llrtrt ju iidienIi cilllrl gu1ffr pit tiloinif birrt I13oi
1rl.o yo. o rb .i... ..r tiln er Lit, tl o r pLt ll .. 1....i I "oblvt'ti a It" lqub
bairl ~3ri.#rrOnsWri fl'i'be ii4.icri PCii~ alit eoi ... l Oeiftoii.ei inttir.is
ii.e 91,c i 'ut-0 Ia aeliig begett bit vos oreibt~Ielig1irbto Lit I iibtOiirerind Litfrilifini
wrb Ibs I,444,)1b, otcrbbir.nta myi. !trgtr be( ii it uraler wilb $Nori Abelobtll iLC bit III oaut
.0 b dtfe befljilgi oabni, iAhirfirboed 98ir Pitid tellr 7ltli.tie in: tiel rbni emIrit rbb(Itiii It ic
W."oerlrl~ie 10 tdjtmiu, b.0 ilblt late,, tone I. ~3a.rri4C 184~4 orin 1.o1lionlit. *imb
*41 On ZM~l lcolber 61,141 Zrfs(lru; zic 611ildlrclen 711111$668 b(Padicte. Torel
Let 'Mirirtirror. initbe~b~.lgb fa~r big rI~dib opten eilaitei bed 9xirrlrtoi,6 J2, orb bid
Wrmomut'riiitrni. u 11.d 1iiirrgb v uitrbiinb ir oift, Qhieini b 411ritte lead ,rr l r Ler tifer.
bellrIbo Aurribl ejirnigrirt, 5rr Bittirittii etirllulr oi 0b ell bebtelrirort d IeorZl.tgrrdr-tm
iltreai, Jor able i anioii rob Id alkinrr ioririnutrioid. uemb lituCrrhllir ImoeAl qrirrr1fr bri ll ibroter
.ei.b Jut .2uiilirrfrijret ,iri bit J 0witirnit, basgtiiirti~biitrt QLod d itifenli luniriti
bLirX jigs iok iqrudi 6irbi.0birbt uub are Lit (!I)it'jrjiobethirlr lit bfrirLir;
eifIrll 0,iiijo Drigjibr n e9rorb obir tbell M t allkuii PI. Poiftesie ii ntorlr irL Qilblo.
il'fi'm Zipire'alf.14 Lvinef zidgheo'be" 1:3111wo "It Deem Quittingllll liathrltllllll IP if911
0 Cmrrrmrri.ir en0 "er in bi; etirtneitifuiio sbluobieitrr. Mao biik trivlrillitri lirttl fii orlbii

In burn. 1rjlllri tntwtiitriiioi.. 4-11t
)14Doe iiiua tbile ii. wfed, PIi NNItrioeoo ) litbhigiuiog litridiopitoI ~Ptri t ii

,,tcill frti gifil."
ilbulrbof, bino I0. 2rniii 134g.

fir ble (1rbcbuuil intr Torltiilbei far bic 11i6 adtuci %ijbictl b uli4($ Nufifrlt 9(citc
I uli bil (Wrofurllrcllbuiill1 11i1141b0b JI IrcrriIinbbeitI d it I(ri.

:-.5. 4f 1 I l oef t i,
i) ,Vr rrreii ifiirrisrbtei '23iier t iiirtr le .
;) ll, i 'niiiilI I+ elbl; alll: lllrij.ilro..i, i|i|i)oirio .ib li.iridd)f|l a e(i-l ih
Irmltn, Xrlbilbi(lnelr ,; w ubi, 'PlirlllUr u.,b eillbr.luinil unb
ellrt toi iEfitibllllerll Dir Peil t EJieni uirb 3rl tllHbl|uertlll bitrg,
|Ir b | . .
r fr Db. o .i .t .
* ) i- i ii.id' sltrf i di.rer t ru a uil iulfr i nlr, (l I a lf l bu > ll i .ioi t
biiorie go i r bc i f, ,rr tIh t Lilr ni I. .r l
m) i~ r kti i ni t uii mn to1 botfr eal i: i(n i t oir tr I tIr 0f' ) iIi
I' ), N( m 1 11 1 1 . . Z .
fotu, to Vier il I'unlb ntlb) nitr iriif, jut I| bJ "f '*
6) '.r i.n pj;Jb it abrl thidrtei v(riiilrb ie ltiiljr, ifr bi( funb .
") Zi iti.ni n t.dl )ri itii t irilliiton ir XaiblllA.rr iint lcllIIIBroi c l i, elttleb
bri rfrli unob dr,.rmn uf e(riupliippirr otffiil.rr mnDuo lriittil, fo twld onit
Il41 U c( ultlDb o1 ult nrlu' Iu cliurun iioft(, (ar bad old )'


let ill 1ii i ri g fto
a. 3 bit tir mlmdioirblul bDt in lbe 1uiit.e a, 3, 5, 6 uIle 1 tljllte.ld l o~ t if ertfro.brg bt,
bfirlber ibrr (6t ir e it D.itrtitllnbuig a n o i pl i~p giite. r bNTI i 1'j1 hJlii| ig titall beiiiarlr
1i, 1l bl,lt jii iiia. lef.m wit far tlit onl'i.ilibe .biiljm ,. j.i 1bbeti.
I. 3it bigt Itrdm u, b iUniifanrbu n L i lo ben r iierfiui u1 n 4' g( ji.,antie ('Iiurlporbnlj tit
Nll 'JPuro iu crlblll.
c. Js 4irtidit 0iib i14 r Ini lu.tmn Dtir ioir o bri lunt Ii brr1rlitt; fub n fbir j.btr rini.
i (r dal (Il lil) *b tr 'b ullb virtenbrr tirllrtullg mwi Dbal j .rll fut'rli uorll lo0ri o L cD I'i .b,
rni tdIrrbrUI il blfr tirI lo) obrr 'plunob n i dri.l biti tr lib bo ) I'trr(o fI Illud nI t. trobnr .
d. &'r yiPJd t ulb Od err rni t, llrr ,lr II 'jtJadLri i(rrrIbIa se.ir whib blr jtl)IU.. n r rIad) t(r
biol tIiie, tlart irbobrien seoicr im. ib):
~,tl bri <.rifc 'irlnillg ti r ilo uorrrriitrl(tllbr Doet betr oiberu:
Itf ll I bid 0ou 'Brill S Xop. lillb.ipt iper If Illl tNlae imlIIII lirr e u Iop. iltb.
jo- 1u0 - -- -
-- 0im o -- 0o-o -- 3
Inioui--* ii -*tio -- *- -- 4u -
il.riilljriibir.i r 'er bein ltilrii t.,i bide i)iirdrr;'<, i4ul I' uidr i)i.
n lit em wiemCsli eii : Xg(iu i.'1it dlliailtur t. 'Pastrf il.

"( O, idrI l i4. li jAtiri e Jo ilrtlid idit j i.l -t.l .tirr iitr i a fl ,i|.]y i:
r,,iri Ll it() alflo." "
1'1i1ii.,f tire 3u. 3~ ,ii i 3l.

(ir bit irbrt) llig btr'WlfTrur llyrilbrtr fir tic ti iatb i illdi itibllli bct )('i(iftfife(
I1icl)ctd< ill brtc lroii|f'iir liii[bl)iiu ilillliiiti 1iu li u ti tibc ib i (Ultbtr IIlb )ilttii(.

7i mi .( etIifeenuI e
enlb. 11i1' 1.4
i". 'nn 0,m|' lt k rI
1) r rtulllllrll.rbl: .l II I i r. l .I i rb i it l ,.lFe ralll ]q.rib ut |.im ln n t ii i
bl s....... 13. f|| it"u .- i rr'il. Ip l. b, li I X* pr om UIti -
2) iJr Gmoirmrmrrrlc, b lr iX. Le I i e rirorri ir irob iliro .*
a) .I 6 ........ ,ibt | I nit''i. b'e&nb6.1'b i mor"'r ""mi l 'i .W I

br! i...... W. liz l po i X .i(.. .
3) J)(. 6 ......... Der I.. I-. i 0 o 1. u D 14 1
,, '0 .; (*itr Z 2111.1.1. a !. ki). It
3) e'It eunirirl iler I ot t. bir l rl. bit i lj riii, idijlit I"e ienr |ral r -
iF50 A di br I brii a pioe rit, D. I. J t'ier,,i. I (bmi
Sttr 23,.i' bid .o.)00 X.b. 0U. 1.1 j. ti i ini i iril I i.ribrtn r
4) ire4l9ni....en e bo.. J l, o! i. $ 16 fb bit 'li )r lgibir eaie W n ir Iine I 3
3,O o 1. il .rr 'lb 'Prolre l, lfoubml e rte l lllI 1,rrr :
i'l060 I? uIlb ) frhr 18 Il0A 0III .3 ro l. ., ilth.t .
tr S.( a G. f.r el 5+;. a2)4 |. -1 I-' ++ -N.W
S) Gr .m0unr1i lbt" l.olo X. 6.{(m1l bit 31tllutardDiItirrItU 1 Xopdri. -
lu.,oo B.ub. *. All. I 't l Ilrboi tbrl i l .l l ir t .. --
6) lai tHllirr 1ly' frsb .idl bit t iT.eCure.iiiiE r flr t iirplpd. urb D U lr lpplrer, irer
birtbllll, Jl trs btln.
7) Lir alle n(lbulgIII, sdUi) ftOlblre eJ0iin nla r oa lldfiei, mn, luib ri.n Altraiitn:idi larf
voill d~iesin tepiti V.r 'Iub ol, nod, bL t SU rior giole bai te.rdj 'ihl.leill. '
1) ,'I' b0itIt brcu L. 10e0 onrii, maieit u.beCio ptiiropltr iibtr Jriit'.llTouiiualtilbr C iober .
>ij)Bl l jIapril J lli, bit ni.ll lbitbr i,so- ;o n A ilb. 1blt .mo + 2X.b. 1lipi| aeI 1g,11ira i,
1.ib (voi e i Jirlung. lint r0 errin *i0old 3illtiid.. ,l,,llile br Iline I go Jla j rir.
f brti weibfile, elI ti c r it fiuirliarnJdoilbrbr, jJ 1 ilinPl icf n I li i tilfre il oeibe., lli. l .1,14f
ubrr o*a 14 ueillllb r .iflli bifrl etrulilll (o llb li edr efr ubit lifHge jlrs ([ltibil.
to) iJ bir 1 ill r Ve lultllltrlrr bi .rlillu b il t'olllroilr i | l pilllr l 'bretr ft Ji L iri.mbelef b Ii
irpll4.ll, I hi X pint linell 1ilri ri l r O l t l l n. ii i ilro r e eai .a.

I frrJgilt l rira el bin riri lljri elllrf) boll bl(le r g5iig Iolytll 0.lollirllbnfiltsl bill4ti.
Illtr $ullbl i: lt dl rPtr.ltr'roill bd ieiii J.to d tr liaf i er i .Pf)IU.

Sfir e ,., vcrtnrei: .)ifjrrir, di.''rrldtioiirr .r+ gpoodryii.

Ifregistered letters within Russia were charged at a lower amount than this double rate, then these rates,

which have been arranged by the two contracting administrations, will also apply to normal correspondence.

No charge will be made for an advice of delivery to the addressee, which will be sent by return post".

and in Article 19 (the original text is too poor to be reproduced):-
"Apart from printed matter, registered letters and circulars (see Article 37), correspondence between the
Prussian postal region and the Russian Empire may he posted u ilfanked, or franked to the destination. A

partial franking is not acceptable".

Also in Article 41 (again the original text is too poor to be reproduced):-

"For all types of letter post, whether registered or not, a declaration of value is not permissible. The postal

authorities, in whose area a registered letter is accepted must, if this letter is lost and the loss is confirmed,

pay to the claimant compensation of one silver mark, 14 Prussian talers or 13 silver roubles, at the expense
of the postal authority in whose area the loss has been shown to have occurred. The claim must be made
within one year of the date of posting, failing which responsibility for compensation will cease".

December, 1995

The "Rates of Postage...." published for the year 1852 according to the Livonian Calender (passed by the
censor in Riga on 29 October 1851 and shown on the next page) state in paragraph 8:
"Registered letters: 20 silver kopeks per lot",
a statement which without doubt could be misinterpreted, as the 20-kopek charge applied only to the first lot.
After that, only 10 kopeks were required for each lot, without the 10-kopek registration fee. That may be the
reason why, in later years, this text appeared under paragraph 8 of the Rates of Postage:-
Postal Rates
for letters of 1 lot and packets of 1 pound to all Governments (Provinces)
of the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Poland
For 10 silver kopeks per lot, the following will be carried to all parts of the Russian Empire, including the
Grand Duchy of Finland and the Kingdom of Poland.

(1) Ordinary letters.
(2) Letters containing money, treasury notes, credit notes, gold or silver coins.
(3) Letters containing unused stamped (revenue) paper or small gold or silver objects.
(4) Letters addressed to abroad as fir as the Russian border, except for the foreign postal charges.
(5) Packages with valuable contents less than 1 pound in weight are charged at the above rate. If they weigh
more than I pound, a charge of 10 silver kopeks per pound will apply.
(6) Money in pouches or wooden containers: 10 silver kopeks per pound.
(7) Insured letters with banknotes, credit notes, bills of exchange, loan certificates, documents on stamped
paper, money or documents in a packet: 20 silver kopeks per lot.
(8) Registered letters: 20 silver kopeks per lot. If, due to non-delivery at the place to which they are sent, or
the absence of the addressee, they need to be returned to the place of posting, the appropriate rate is to
be paid according to the amounts stated in paragraphs 2,3,5,6, 7 or 8, as was originally paid. For the
return or redirection of those types of correspondence described in paragraphs 1 and 4, no charge will
be made".

As a general rule, parts of a lot or of a pound were not calculated and charged proportionally. An item over 1
lot or 1 pound in weight would be charged as if it weighed 2 lots or 2 pounds. A special rule applied to
packets. For these, the distance from one Government (provincial) capital to the other was to be calculated on
the following basis: for each pound from 1 to 300 versts (a versta was roughly equal to a kilometre) 5 silver
kopeks; from 300 to 800 versts 10 silver kopeks; from 800 to 1100 versts on the same basis.

It is clear from this that Russia had a postal registration service also in 1851. It is important to note that letters
did not carry any indication of value, which would have necessitated an additional insurance fee. That is
confirmed when we examine the wording of the terms for the acceptance of correspondence for the years
1855 and 1856. In the "Livlfndischer Kalender" for 1856, which appeared in 1855 and is shown on the next
page, the following was stated:-
"Money, documents, registered letters and packets will be accepted in the direction of or via.."
and then follows:
"Postal rates for letters and packets for all cities and towns of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Finland.

(1) For ordinary letters: 10 silver kopeks per lot.
(2) For letters containing money and, in particular, paper money, bank notes, credit notes, gold and silver
coins and notes of deposit of the Polish or Finnish Bank: 10 silver kopeks per lot.
(3) For letters with signed stamped paper, or with small silver or gold items: 10 silver kopeks per lot.
(4) For foreign letters, in addition to the foreign postal rate: 10 silver kopeks per lot.
(5) For packets containing valuable goods of less than 1 pound in weight: 10 silver kopeks per lot.
If they weigh more than I pound: 10 silver kopeks per pound.

December, 1995

Zare be Tq3)orfo'
firt Mriefe ton 1 2otb uinb Q)ad~fdtna n 1. 1iI funb
ad) alUin Gs ouberneinentg beu Muffifdyen Reid~d utnb
Dez arthuntd 'Polen.
Su 1toRov. 5. pr. 3otb merben im panten IXict)e nadb alien
ftinen Utdclitungen int Crinfd)uu beg OIrojifarxicntburni inns
lanD unb 3ariuitng J3oltn beibrtbet: 1) orbinaire Zrieft;
2) Zriefe mit Welbt, a I ,ytei fidiabbilletv, (!rebitbilletg,
(ijib. upb' (ilbtrminai3et; Si Zri3tcf mit unbefd!ribcneim
-temptleniv e ttie t unDlein hn TOO. uinb ilberfaclen; 4)iZriefe,
bit in i u3uslo geben, mit NItzifd[ulu beDd auldxbafdint~)or-
to'g, biu. ;ur !uiidichen (S-r3n;je; ) eCenunqen wit wetlbUols
en Zad)in, nienrz I-e utll i ,)fitnb an (Wsewidih batragen, 9glid).
j.u!d (lroeiid bcricdnet, iemitnn abetr t Jfunb abetr iebr
witseg, pt it to Si. C-. pr. a3f).; 6) aitbl in Zeuteln Ober
Conefn io RoO. e. or. 'iV.; -) uerfterte Zrieie mit
-ibilletten uan teidQ g -rib-r SninrIalen, 129ecbfeln, 2eibbrit.
fen, Zoaumtiitn auj atermnelviliet, OtlBb uil flocutmern.
tilt in tinem '1acet 20 ia. (Z. Or. 2otb; S) trcommnan'
birrte rijef 2o Itay. Z. vr. Loib. SaUg %Dcgtn Olidit.
einyiang in am Orrte Dr be infenzt'tlr ober 01ld~aurmcienbtit
berienigin prionn an biejem Zr:e, a: .ielctbie Dicfenbung
aireffirr ift, Dic le nbung an ben Crt et Derbgabe ouf bDtr !ox
Srticld btfu:bert werbe'n mlus, iD wirb fiar Die sub 0jr. 2, 3,
5, 6, 7 unD S btjeicuieten Eenbungen baffelbe ~ewiditgt'
beoabit, wekbed bei bet erit- in 1brtriigung erboben; fur Die
Riacf. unDti N3eirerfnbunq tcr iub Nr. 1 utnb 4 be3cid)tfctcn
Glorrtiefoncni roirb Itin (5ttoidurtgeb qtpjablt. WId algemeint
iNcgel gilt, bat l beile vom Qoxbe unf 'Tfunbe nit befonbe:B
beredhnet unb beiabit rorcien. C-obalb tint nad) jot iaOber
$junb iu btredinenbe unt jlu beiablentic E5tnunq an rjiewid)t
fiber i "otl) Ober Lber 1i TfunD bitragt, fi 1115 fiat 2 gorb
abet 2 I!uiunb u. f. rw. be.ablr merten. ,iir 1.54cTiicu gjilt
tin befonberetr Slitia. gair folde tit nod) btr (Entter
nung tinler Qjottventmrnti'ttvraett big pxt aunDrn ;u iablen,
unb ;rna:: fiar jebl W)junb : von i bit 300 UIlerii 5 gap.'5S,
VOn 300 Wid 800 RBttjt 10 9p0. C-., von Soo bid 1100 -'Qcrif

Livliindischer Kalender 1852 Riga, 1851

Liviindischer Kalender 1856

Gorrefponben;uiIntuatnn e Im: 9gafpen
(5UUoerUCMent63q30fW% otniptoir.
isarafdaftcn, Zocatm ente, rccommanbitte iZriefe
unb dcbeLjn ~icrben angenommen: jut Moute nad)
unb fiber MRitau, 6dIedln, Tauroggen, Bartbunm 93ole:
unb been Ilud[anbe (8ber Zauroagicn) Donner~tag Tors
mittag ton S bid 10 Ubr unb aonnabtnb %acdmittag
ton 4 bid 6 Ubr;. iut !Route nad) unb Abtr 6etrnu,
!tua[, SLrtndburg, 7-tnben, 2etmfa unb Zolberaa Zitng-
tag unb 1reeitag uon S bit 10 lUlbr.
,U dagn Abrigmn WXauten: Zaarfdhaftet, Zocumente
unb recomnianbirte Zriefe Montag unb Banneritag
T3armittag Van S bid l0 Uber; q,3fdlet: jut Utoute
nacf V3olmar, S34lf, Mtrro, 51ledfau, flaroa, C-t. !Peterg;
burg unb WMo6fau, unb nad) ben @jouatritrentent jenfeitS
et. 'Zttt6burg unb lMofau Dittnizag unb artitag T3or.
mittag Doll S bid io Ufr; ;ur TRoute nadj flWnaburq,
Miteb6f, Wobilen unb eutInenif abct nut Breitag cl~ac.
mittag Von S bi6 10 Ubr.
Orbinaire fforrefvPobtu;.
Sur Uoute fiber Witau unb G5diaulen unD nad) ebm 3artbum
!Doltn eonniag unD Donntr~tag 91adinttdg Von 2 bid 4 Ubr.
0ad) Xurfanib (auggenommen giriebri obabr, jflult unb
lafobfiabt) Gonntag, MIortag unb DonnerVrAg 01a4d)
mittag von 2 bid 4 UbM.
.qadc b itatu), mdPauten, l1tiroggiti nub bent 0julfanbe
(6ber Zaurogqat) Gonnta4, Miontag, Mhittmocl, Dons
neritag unb C-onnabenb Olifmittag Von 2 big 4 Ubr.
gacl unb ibetr Ccfttrrtid veiter C-oflntag unb 2Zannerg.
tag maebmilta lvon 2 bi 4 UMr.
%dad) $rnau Miontag, Ziengtag, Zonnergtag unb 15reitag
Sorinittag von io bid 12 Ubr.
madu NMeUal, 21ren6burg, 3enbetn unrb Nmfal Zitnitag
unb I etitag Mormitztg von 10 big 12 Ubr.
1aad) &eal fiber s2lleftnilin tdglic: MIontag, Ziengtag,
fonntr~tag unb arcitaq vion 10 bid 12 Ubr, eannabenb,
eanntag unb W'iutrocd lIVa 3 big 6 Utr.
91acb ben etationen unb (BDtcztn an Der 9Soutc vao I-iga
nac '5t. ttursburg, ro tair naod Getro unb Vt[Bfau,
Montage unb Zonnurctaq z3ormitt,: lion 10 bid 12 Ubr.
DMadc.bo2mar, Zorpar, %Jarva, famburq unb ben (Bou,
gorob nt fror 't. Rftrormburg, IarfagngclI Ionleb, 0ow
gorob: Saroefara, 4ioiirama, Eiiaif, 9ologba Miontag
unb Tonnerrtag Zoirmittapi Van io big 12 Ior, unb
-IRluient Hl fp Iritau tiglid) Zoe. Unb NaJmmiiHast.

Livlindischer Kalender 1856 Riga, 1855

Tale bet elfjecuran s ttcuer
fitr Gelbs unb Dertbflfebungen nucb aien of btm
beg IXufFitd)tn fRetid:8 bUO artbum5 i 3oletnunb'bi6
Gropfiara~ti~tflum5 finn~anb.
i) !5Ar C-untmnn big -300 IbN. 15. in I prM.; 2) fiAt
'5umlnen iber 300 bid 600 !b[. E5. btr WeU( Zttreai Von.
3 9Rbl;.-.; 3) ftr eunminenfibtr 600 bid 1500 IRbI. ai: vs
~',pt.; 4) far Gummrn fibei 1600 big 3000 ObL.6.befrj
Voale Qietrag Von 7% 9W Jb. e.; 5) ftr i1unimen ?iber 3000
9?bl. 65. '14 rDt.; 6) Iadi biefer -ale ift audi bit fltctut
ran; fuzr 8tenmptis unb c1fled2lepvaier i;u cniriaoten; -) far
alle TIM ben, obnut Nuugnabnit bErictigen mit etbr lobaren
(Badben, tvirb bit !Iliccuranl fiar iebtn Rubtl bet anqtigef
benen Itertbeg mit I gap. (5. entridicet; 8) for bie Iad'
fenbung uan (lbtrn, 'ad )n unb enterPlvapier iti teint
2IEruran; lu ilablen.
dtlduen nadi been 2luBIanbt unb Iinnldnb miitin, tcbe
bee oun W !inoiiaunvoir angenoDmern alierben tbnnen, irafe orn
ben unb bern gcfevlid~cn 3eugni6 bet ~aunojf~na aerfetien feuln.

Riga, 1855 Livlindischer Kalender 1856
December, 1995

Riga, 1855

Share bc8 G(ctidmtgielbe
fr brief unb 4)Acdd)te nad alien Etbticn bcd 9Suf:
f(ifcen Rtid)S, beg arflbuid oaleit unb beW @Jros
fbrfir iltiitinz inlanIa b.
1) gar orbinaire Srieft, bad Sotb ju in Rov. (.;
2) far Britfe ntit Ielb, unb nantentlid) mit llfflialntionen,
Stiid()fd)tinen, (Greitbililtten, Wiolb unb Eilbernlin.
ien unb Depoitten.Zinctten ber qolnifdycn ober iinnlanbi'
fd)en Sant, bad gotb Iu 10 Rop. C-.; 3) far triefe nmit
unbefd)tricbnem n ttmptipaDit c ber nit fleinen -ad)en on
gilbtr ober taolb, bad 2otb 1o0 Ro. 6.; 4) fur audldnbi.
fdhe Zrieic ill auftr bent audldnbifdicn 9Iorto, fir itjeb
2gotb iu jatlen o1 fop. G.; 5) f lr Pdcfd)n init foilbaert
'Gopen, toenn it toeniger ale i1 funb tpicgen, fiar itt6 g otb,
tcnn fit aber 1 Pfunt ober nmcr luiegen, fat jebtg SPfunb
o0 Rop. E.; 6) far flitingttbe 6umnten, rtoldit in E nn.
dctn obetr ieuttn abgefertigt itirben, ill bag (ietidtgelb
fir itbet Wfunb ju ;iblen mit 10 R.op. 6.; 7) fir vert
'idtcferte riefe, fur Briefe mit Billetten ton (rchit,2InBia(.
ten, Scldifeln, Dbligationen unb anbiern Documenten,
torIde auf etempelpapier gfdihrieben (ini/, btegleti(hdn mit
(@lb unb Documenten in tinein gpbcte, ba6 2ot) Iu
20 ROP;: .
a.'Vfr Settour6tenbungen an lben Sbgtber tr in btm
2., 3., 5., 6. unb 7. $unite etnantnttit (orrefponbenj obetr
far bie Utitcrfcnbung Dcrielben an ben Stire litn, tcenn
betTen 9lnuftitinltiort befnntn il, luir) cbcn fo viel an Qie,
tvid)tgclb cntridc)rt, wit bci bDe crficn blfcntbutng beiablt
b. gtir b bit J oA Ober nriterfcnbuntq bt in betm 1.
'unb 4. 'Iunlft gcllanlttln (Yorrefut lnben; ii frin !porto itr
c. a Oititidit twirb nidit nach 2otb. obet )funbtbeis
Int btrcditet, fottbcrn Itut fiat iec lJbfcrtiquing, (it mag
winter tincin 2otb obcr 9)funtb fe)n, bad (SWeidttgdeb ftr
tin volltg otb ober 3fiint be;abit rocrbcn. Bolte bad ( e
loidt i -2otb ober $'fuiti Aberitigcn, fo nmu f(tbigcd fur
; 2otb ober 2 9 uunb getbit rocrben :c.
iAr )c tdchen unib folche 'ocumentre, nidche edi db
ditn abgtfcttigt Rratben, ill bag .oi widctgelb nad) folgenbtr
Zate iu entriditen. unb iwnr: indi bet:n (nti rntungen tincr
(SIouvctritntclttd tab t big itr anbtrit, fir jebeg I)funb':
con I bid 300 lUrii 6 Rop., mnit Docuinieten 1o.ir p. 0.;


(6) For coins in wooden containers or pouches, 10 silver koperks per pound is to be paid.
(7) For insured letters, letters with banlknotes, bills of exchange, promissory notes aid other documents,
written on stamped (revenue) paper, also money and documents in one packet: 20 silver kopeks per lot.

and later on (see the German text at bottom right on p. 15):-
Rates of insurance for money and valuable items sent to all cities and towns of the Russian Empire, the
Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland.
(1) For amounts up to 300 silver roubles: 1 per cent.
(2) For amounts over 300 but under 600 silver roubles: 3 silver roubles.
(3) For amounts over 600 but under 1500 silver roubles: 1/2 per cent.
(4) For amounts over 1500 but under 3000 silver roubles: 7 1/2 silver roubles.
(5) For amounts over 3000 silver roubles: 1/4 per cent.
(6) The above rates also apply for the insurance of stamped paper and bills of exchange.
(7) For all packets, inchlding those with very valuable goods, an insurance fee of 1 silver kopek for each
trouble of declared value will be charged.
(8) No charge for insurance is to be made for the return of money, goods or stamped paper.

Packets to foreign countries and to Finland must, before they can be accepted at a post office counter, be
sealed with the official lead seal of the customs authority".

Although the rules for accepting letters used the term "registered", that designation was not generally used in
relation to valuable items. Under item (7) above, the term "insured letters" is used for the double rate of
postage as applied to registered letters. Registered letters were often referred to as insured letters, despite the
fact that the postal rates for letters with declared value were calculated in proportion to the value declared.
That a registration service for letters existed in Russia before 1851 is also shown by the existence of advice of
delivery forms dating from the years 1847 and 1849. 1

1847 7.3.


December, 1995

1849 Rigi

Zedc Empfdnlere
etanb. M ine. B0oBung.

S / /
- m )nu ijdf inbe(untrfe(nr lu

m. bictelbo einm rtcfommanbirt(aIIrirf

Srdtivonb(> r~tt'in^yr CL(
i ri(>tit3 erb n bO inilt. bitnmit.

ben /c h-v 184 "

Sulttirt ufuddluftnben mit trBotI an bao


j(b hinpfdigtcr^
Slatnd. tTa me. 'ohnort.
d = ,< -^ ^< / "/.

DU-r irl Emunudiwrirhriuurt atr dim-
I tiqlirtJl Port u,,Z hiUtluZ 5nS.

i uricltlig Fdmlat, -rrhrinige hitrnitl

.dt .. r. .

Iitillirl inil rrsir 1Ast nauAzRiia z.uiickd-tudm.


----- --~ ------i~ J I

The advice-of-delivery form, dated 7 March 1847 and shown at bottom left on the previous page, was used to
confirm the safe delivery of a registered letter from Hamburg to Riga. This certificate of the Prussian General
Post Office in Hamburg has the following inscription:-
"I, the undersigned, hereby certify that I have received here from the Imperial Russian Post Office a
registered letter from Mr. Jul. Campe of Hamburg.
Riga, 7 March 1847.
J. Deubner.
Receipt to be sent by the first post to the Prussian General Post Office, Hamburg".
As Russia had an Emperor rather than a King, the word "Konigl." (i.e. Royal) was crossed out in Riga and the
word "Kaysl." (i.e. Imperial) substituted. On the back of this certificate, there are impressions of the Riga
postmark indicating the acceptance and return of the certificate.

The second certificate, shown at bottom right on the previous page, was used for a "registered letter" from
Riga to Nuremberg. It was found in the archives of the Nuremberg General Post Office among papers for the
year 1849.. It remained there, as the letter evidently could not be delivered and, while the letter had been sent
back to Riga, a certificate confirming delivery was not possible. The Nuremberg postal authorities therefore
retained the certificate and lodged it in their archives. This certificate is interesting and informative in several
respects. It shows that it was possible to send registered letters out of Russia in 1849 and it also shows that
the German language was used for international communications in Riga, such that postal forms were printed
in that language.

A letter, shown below at left from Reval (Revel') in the Government of Estonia to Kupferzell in the Kingdom
of Wurttemberg, is dated 16 December 1849 and marked "registered", providing further proof that registered
letters could be sent out of Russia at that time. This letter is endorsed "recommandirt" in manuscript and has
two impressions of the well-known boxed "Recommandirt" mark in red. That is especially remarkable,
because it is the earliest known letter with this Prussian "Recommandirt" mark to indicate registered letters.

Another registered letter, shown below at right and sent on 15.3.1855 from St. Petersburg to Schwerin, has
the Prussian "Recomandirt" mark and an interesting indication of the postage due "7/10" in the upper left
corner. As this is a letter from the later Tsar Alexander II at the time of death of his father Nicholas I and

-- *, "-- -" 1' i


1849- 16.12. Reval (Talli/n)
THE POST- RDERIAMM12K No.R37 18 Sll 1n.
December, 1995

royal correspondence between Russia and Prussia was carried free of charge, this postal rate represents the
charge for carrying the letter inward to Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The "7/10" means that 7 kopeks = 2 silver
groschen for the registration fee and 10 kopeks = 3 silver groschen as the postal rate for a distance of 20 miles
had been paid. The letter therefore carries the mark "FRANCO" in red and "FRANCO TOUT" in black.

It is particularly difficult to identify registered letters carried in the inland post during the early period. The
"Recomandirt" mark stems from the French language and was not suitable for use in Russia. Before the
russification of that word into "PEKOMEHjOBAHO" and the adoption later of the purely Russian term
"3AKA3HOE", one can only recognize registered letters from a registration number, or an indication of the
weight. Such letters are rarely found and, even in regard to the postal rate, a franking of 20 kopeks can
represent a heavier letter, for which that was the normal rate. A registration number can also be confused with
an official number, as all official letters were given a number by the government office which sent them, under
which they were recorded in the official records. When a cover is found with a registration number and at
least double the normal postal rate, then it is possible that this is a registered letter. When the sender is a
private individual or a company, then there is little further doubt that it is a registered item.


The letter shown here, dated 8.2.1863, was sent by a merchant
in Riga and addressed to another merchant in Perau. It is
therefore clear that this was not an official letter, but it bears
a registration number on the back and was franked 20 kopeks.
That represented the then current rate of 10 kopeks for an inland
letter and an additional 10 kopeks for registration.

We have now seen that it was possible to send registered letters
from Russia in the 1840s and 1850s. But again the question:
what happened in the period before that?

The ukase of His Imperial Majesty & Autocrat of all the Russias
etc. etc. No. 34,470 of 20 June 1830 regarding postal rates,
stated the following (according to the official German translation
published in Riga on 24 June 1830 and reproduced on the next

"(1) The postal ratesfor letters of I lot and for large packets
of 1 pound will relate to the amounts of compensation stated
(4) The rate for double-weight documents and insured packets
is to be determined according to these rules".

These rules therefore did not apply to "Einschreiben" or "Recommandirt" letters in particular, but also to
documents and insured letters. A clear definition is therefore still not possible.
However, in the Mitauischer Kalender", published in Mitava in 1836 for "the year 1837, the following
information is printed, as shown in the lower part of the next page:-
"Time of acceptance of correspondence at the Courland Government (Provincial) post office in Mitava.
On Monday and Thursday from 7 pm. to 12 pm.: money, documents, registered letters and high-value small
packetsfor the whole Empire".

That is the first time I have seen the term "rekommandirt" = "registered" stated in an official publication for
the public in the Russian Empire. We can be sure from this that registered letters must have existed in Russia
also in the first part of the 19th. century.

December, 1995

.~, I

1863- 8.2.


bcd (ci6e5rOCaerd oIfcr MXcuffert,
a tt g b e in. ` r US I -ve t (1b c n 6 'd it a t,
atzc ~ern.da~li gi-tcnbeu 5ntcgt aZS
a n
bict )Iilobircf)e ot Invl9flC1CflZtit Xtd D ttbi Ito.

9fuf ben Mamentlide WH M)pftt e" M tol e tieine SRc1fert1idfn Oflejanlt, MIt.
djer bent Mirigircabot erc0t c nt.4. -uni biclcS 30ens $ilE .nitdf bosac Unttrp
(d)ritt i n er- afle0at ertntl~t rormt unbo barn Wooltec n at i(:b
a, Bur Cfd)I~ceuiqU3 ue!)(ob .cIeiCbtruFcug bar (Oe3affctcmIaoueng In brt fiofgtri(d40
,,bbrrcit bei batia:: (mpfauti unb ber 2bfartiguog bet 0brioef unb (ptqiate ble eon bam Ober-
,Ttrroalter beg 'piaRpX tortarnaetl vorlal3001 2ele oaoerSl jur -Mtrcfirjong bra gesatcare
,,aig 4Cqeteabll aabeebtln rtcCiIs'Zartinunqg bar bet emlotgar of d na3IiD ftinotob, 23a.
,,faelan 'ir in Utberriilllimmunug it bern stsd)tan bag VAtCrb(di4O:'"
,,I) Oie GOemicrlar fir 'ritfle torn ioto unob f1r tpaqote tomr 1ruub von tinont
,,grebaaao Lo Urnrce, oi4 bla atStnmartld, nods bet Oier goenbolaeaan Ditportition, cesu(a11at.
,,) 93ad)bicfar 71tpoitiOnio, Autr Motor 1etranuog bar gealfrnung bic juar Woatvrqa
,,moeil.Gt1bt besiaeiget tO u0ern malnt, P(O!C wvald(trn bao.!.ricf obar bad 'poquot gacet,
,0bit OarnIdgcsaI0cr in trte0Om. "r it b coW.
5 riefe uncob quale, wel4it inttntc Quuctrin1Cn 6oen CinjCGlbt jur anbe.
,,rtt gefac eetrbce, In tealcbr 'Entcferaog bitfirpthty F 'c ud. on tinanbar befinobn alb.
t 8ao if bit cinfartniga u3ablunj.von so .opaa unob $matr: bit lZriefeaa fAr bog 1ot5, b11
6 ,,pcquertn boet far bodi Pfuob 1 t aru i tO. X21trucidh Gab oatn 4i1 jmifan gewiffin Gribo
Z ,,tin hiaipebuclbrat btafoebrn a lo utgulngon curploebeft.'
4.') Zia GCtaar bcr bopcciten 0atwiibtSalbar ved Zlotumrnein uab eordcrptraon Ipoqua.
,,te0 ig nod) tbenbiefae ll Oeunbf( tiltu trUtbtn.'
,,"55 Zie 6Jwidjclteuer (a. tilbea, veeldja bid fOiqu on geligea Dorta orcblitbae, iri auf.
,,3oftbcut unb frlbige IleoatIalbai: notb ollgitrninor 23(rorEnung in SupfarmnAnle uno 21jfiga
,,aotionea, obar aotd) in (ilbar, jebod) nod) bamjaaeigen Rour bog Ecilber.Robdic ; 0tl rid).
,,ten, weldar ju acitna fir bit erCebuns gamiffir.21biobe t raftmafot eirb; cud) icrbai C~ne
,,tlnreafdoiob iteifd)tn iroZcr uub Mloinareilborrnio. Uon boa 'I[efcrung baiaOs Seurfis
,,ueb eon jebaa.er earllbertal in baofalbarn IR boO incoqrnnlfttraurn SC04ltn. ,bia .aoflpto
,,apeli.Obalsteit, etjut 2cfauioecbbung In bet 3Sicagaau, '&u benacbridgccl91 bie SRaintroa.
ieaber tommrnicirei l itr(iber uiaowriftglid) baa "pop-obriliftiten."
,,(!in ZirigirtbCr 6ciait mirb nlice c icolaffat, ridradiclidi biferd bia scsig~n ?(no
,,obe a1ungn iu .rafjael."
.0)a Ein Zicigircnber C-uat Zlefoblte: Mocd ) taoerlIlattiSem Zrude bar erforbatli,
darn 2bijill eamrplare von bar, (li born Malneloo ad~ QtefO1e Gaintr 5( st fei(ea n
1)1 s i a p Ar ongrbogenean 2ilacr6d).f befltrigren ONepartitin, falbigo, jur gtOirigatn gaf~llung,
born .1)rrn Obrrearwslwtrr oem 'j)oI3. Oepliernent ejipferrigen; jur M3odr(det unob aoflltl.
dcan Z3afannwmrndung bdl e gt n foldia bri Ufofan oudi an age (lJouoeernemed. ucob 'prooelt.
1iut.'ge~lcrtiga. sunb Termaltutoaac, bit XtriregsRaneilleio, RSrntrott~ff unb OjridjrSa
beD6rbuia, an bit fqcrrct Mlinilir, bRriec.llsnertoaoIuvertoau, bci tia (boO il Zdd) reainol[
lanban gria6O.eueuctlacuo, Qjancr41- )0UVIr.MCeu t6 UoRIb 6(06tfobtfISr u eoefaobat ;
barn ari~gqIiriqirenbl1a P-piub, denoa Zapartemrne l bed ijrigirtnbtn CaotO1 so1b barta
a(i80010iean Tarf,1em1unIie Ift lit abdr nobialdbilidi) Au rommuniciaou. Zee eI'ge baffan finb
von benI .' ZcflzIoc farrn i3afo !Xtfsrme apccrltion 75 eeionplore itr acgbogaa.
Za1t 20. ZuOni 1830.

% ber:lefretair Uomrm I iaitcl ff.
Celctafit SfoiobowoBfp.
~Fpcbitctur Zerdlooo.
~lio3 bern oficto ~cartenmcnt.

U644fmc: Ditoend: lroeOlcer (or. ~ outr.

a. ..I

Wilr bore Drisinal a6en GtInt SaIFeUtr icoiopSt 414Pohut&ni5 goflrla1:
ltdeain .Robnce,
bell. 4. Zuni .830- "zoll fa) afnlo."
MttCI; ion bi 1ol Oeael lbor PC Zriaff voem IbO,, Fur 'Paqsoe abe orn lcIfaunbe.

t~ 100 Drift .- Lao
51r20 io, 1600g tIt .o .gi .u o 8 0.
200 20. 1'00
23 0. 20 .aI,1750. .. .
800 80 a18X 93
*3400 .9
bw00 80. .2 00 .
600 40. 2100 9.
700 40; 2200 94.
*750 40. 22S50.
9) WO 991t 1 91
9o 0 0 50 2 4002 W.
9 0 o 0 8 0 2 9 .
1100 ()0. 2600 .. 9.
..1200 ..2700
I5 C A. 27S. 98.
1300w. I 70. 2800 *.
.1400 70. 2900 100.
iS( a 3000 a ub neer 100.

Kodnoe, June 4th 1830

Riga, June 24th 1830

Mitauischer Kalender 1837

December, 1995

Rtfau rI c U

10 ater b nah Cb'ioi i

13 POW;

mtl~cc c. O 346C VilI Dl 363 Z49t1I Ip

P f e oi l bal j aj ah'b Pa .t

hubsl ~~

a It a t 1 8C
bar anlmmmbinb Tofrrn bev brm Surldnbifitn ouvemrament.iTofflrmpleir p Rhon
bro gurem nMeg.
tit %ol aoare Vol CI2 SLtO. o bd DaszSAS Mi. 'p4 op e4uslt 1 inofloq1 .b 1arstglo
lob tvfm s p"Ste. 90'sgf.
V I teicbre ToLr oaI el. pnataibrl 9.UadsgI gb Vic 9.p at as.d. 9Poout... Lbs., RBides
Zic (etaue.l 0.0 ou L 0 a.taebae9 c O td s Nub traelOIi Ih
waqlsg 10. Tznrfdr it ~ ga. zs .b MAGOI, e...agi gob
Zitapait cud haltlsuteOlbdIUlhI il.11a~o Memel.
sub i 2.., 1 bed.h
Mii, 9.11 "I nano. MisIMP32, evossabauh mob Z)ia 15tift M 3.I~blobCta no bei4pAbt oabu
counssts5,il sslfo Dmi bt atpo pe w eLptterebbrs ti.3
Saft bit 6loabmo bce Sorrcfoonbo3 feg been Ruttimbifibea emoumrare.nt')isy mptoir
35 CiliIlt.
Utut.ol .sb Dl-.ursl6. t30aIUS9tq D4011 7 bit I rblitm Gornu.aannto, U4 Z.bJsi sub BIi.
12 Ubeb. nalrfloafte. aoltatant. Wolamrn.1uaia batf0bL
larif sub neanbploites ..4 hams 1.a.1 3.04.. T&OS bien liuvissb. wlfudb. tihbtat notb bs
S.o bat befalbas 3.) ib Lait t. anb $.5.0 waf!idn. ahsm5nta-1 00.1.56 nas 8aeaqai
Iareafpask injasu et~. iga nab bat Ul.muiall soat n 7 6.0 3 2b..

Ze iafroofe 04ctfoo1rmunu fd11d
lo4 c ibO: 5etA1 am 1rn2 Mbar Ttt Dil, gohlbawul DaseacPSj I TOacatlg t relamew.


Start. MClI Ofbtbuatln Aber biet fiil vaj Claisr bup booinlirotetibr.a, boatC el ietota
aon ainao Valtas In tteofdiobee E5etaeaoemtnauti gabr, ift in oten lboat sn ober slujfffirm
ten nickt bleR boot a Oao boi a etabi. jenbeot aatobet (soubtae nti;a~a sob ber 93aasis, it
madeither fie belt oe&Slabea; aid oct voafa th eahoase bit 'l70baigtit tai Ttbariciasi
jut 90o4:fbt cilue 1baen In bti (4tafrog~limm rna cfjat(Oaffna oar; sees obtr XOtte, bio
ticbe Au tafau atolrbac, an4 biafem 91lfegtnip a alof t 21tioot aftca lotlle, oilbftaw ma jon
tit %Sl)obtbaoae Ueb RObiacon ieatt bobirpio far... .

Z46.0rIiin riot untcrfdtieben -
T3r~tib cdt bcg 9tcid)9rd(t64r raf 913. 5kotfdubai .

'.ar~rFo: !XrgierusoOa.2r~eloar ~(EOr. 2 otter.



>.-f ,, I.s.--2 -,K ..-

^/^.fs" A

/^ / .K)? '-' / ^^
/ 6?- : ... -." ~>L C .L.x.-'s.-C /I1

2< ^ ^^^ 62e^c^i6.^. 9c a'.
...," ) .___. "

/ .

- .- ^j yf'?
c.^ /^ \^ _^a ^^ .^^a^
--~c~~ s- /

A letter exists dated as early as 1810, sent
from Mitau to G'dttingen, with
"recomendirt" in manuscript. GCttingen
was at that time occupied by the army of
Napoleon and the letter does not show
any specific registration marks, apart from
the usual reference number, but it was
clearly intended for registration at this
early time. From the appearance of the
ink, the word "recomendirt" was
written by the same person and so was
not added elsewhere. This letter could
be seen in the "FINLANDIA '95"
Championship Class in the collection of
Mr. Sven Kraul; all others are taken
from my own collection and most of
them were also presented at that

.,. f,
1!~- I


1835 21.2. Walk (ValkaNalga) (Gouv. Livland)
Another letter, as shown above, was sent on 21 February 1835 from Valk in the Livonian government
(province) to Vienna. On this letter, there is nothing to be seen such as "Registered", "Recommandirt" or
anything else which could give an indication that this letter might be a registered one. But there is a note in
Russian at the lower left edge: "Hepes- PaA3HBsu oH o", meaning "Via Radzivilovo", which was a place on
the then border between Russian Poland and Austria. Under the note "Hepe-b PanstBHJaoBo" we find the
calculation of the postage, which is given as "1 L 60 kop." and "por. 1 rub. 60 kop.". Again we find the
Russian abbreviation "nop." for the additional registration fee. According to the tariff of postage given in the
"Mitauischer Kalender" for the year 1837, the postal rate introduced in 1830 for a letter from Courland to
Radzivilovo in the Volhynian government (province) was 60 kopeks for one lot. As the postage was
calculated from the distance between the capital of the government of posting and the capital of the
government to which the item should be delivered, we can be sure that the postage from Livonia was also the
same from Courland, because the capitals of both governments, Riga and Mitava, are very close together.

December, 1995

v- H,

.. /
.. y /
^r~~~ '/ :l"

^ ^-f: ^. .s
~ ~ ~ ~ P/p,.,J '


`-~0---~~ ~n^mp-m

irr~L^ I r


As this letter has no indication of value and no wax seals, we can therefore be sure that it is really a registered
letter. The relevant section of the "Mitauischer Kalender" for the year 1837 is shown directly below.

S a Y e
fur baS Surlalbbiictd Oloubtriument, Sur Lr&46utg be5 q3ofrporto:
flir Oriefe toein botf) unb j~ir Benbungmn.bont 'fuib.

-Macdj ben (Bouverniementl u.$: Ou 1nit n:
V14d) been 91rineniftien
S s 21rrdanaeflrnf
s XS 15etrabieu
S ~ialoidaI
a a lfolcgbafdhen .
0 iito(bcnifdz .
a ~L3oronelfd~(df n .
@ @Jrobnofd~ct
a OtfntgrinoE[(lrcen *
L 1anbe ber Zonijfden *orafen (rfifier
a afanfcbn ..........
a VaIugafdmen.
R 'icifbmrfln
g olroinfdien .
O surstirdmen..
a inji~iiidc..........




macbf benl (ouvenerncntd u. 'Drovincn:
M~ad) betm Mmobilctrftbut
a i0e!traorabfc en.

t mdfifeicn... ......

0r eDrnburgidben
$ c'nfafcbt
a gjoltaitlc,cn .
e et. ictcrstburofdet
9 ejitaltOtOfrftit .
S Eirblr6[ifctn
e lobobilo- Ufrninfcbern
9 : cEroIcnj1ijidtcn
,- Zuri4cn
z (C~iignh
t obo[Sfifdl~en
a a (bcrfonfcfis
z 'Zfdferniqd). ..cn.

5~r 'ridtf unb etnbungen auI tiner etabt in bit anbre be ffDuruinbiidiciu ouuvrnmints itlbibi, bie Tiilance mino
fcrn rmcld)c fie tolt, iit ba $ojlvporto mit 2o top. Fpr otorb fr Zri ic unb per $funb fur etntungen bciii:tmt.
)aS olipoorto far au. linbifdje ricfe iii otne Sic 3iringie 5binberunij nad1c ben fritern Za~E n ,t ;:!cbtn.

ladf ber @ouI(tnemcnnt bt(r robcri0ogtBumn ginnIanb. .
-lad) bem 2lbo*icrnebargfd-cn (in f(ebigem' bie etibtc: Vbo, Sierneborg, indeI, aiiltdbolm, Olobtnbtab,
Slittlt, Saumo,ia ammrfarm e ftrrb) ... 60
Mad) ,mn ~SfafCbCn (in ftlbilgm bit et.ib l : Lafia, janmliida:l5;, rfnsAf, G(tilinniia r, esufr SliuatlcSb
unb Lafobflabt) .. So
Sadi Dnm aibergfd)cn (in fdbigcm tic EtIbt:: 6iborg, 'ifandilranb, erb.o(m, ecrbobol unb giritcridsf'am) o4
M.ad) bem Riumenogorsifidfen (In (fdbiqcrm bie etibir: Ptrfunola, orgo, S2otifa, emrthtoln un.D et. lirdl) Co
Jad) Dm liuaInbo.atrafibusfdun (in ( fribigerm nit e-ti: JlITin0for", (~angrus, tfnt, "iri5, ee(aborg
unb San illbus) 6
Olad) bem GareoIa*fiardfitn (in f(Ibi.enm bie Ei bte: Ruoriu, joroil, rliufd)fot unb eucmoiarini) 60
rJla~ brm Ulcaborg9Raianifdn (in felbidm bit etiAbt: Uliaborg, aragrintab, taiana unB ZTrneo) o
Za4 :Original bat untcrijtinct:
Sberverralter ber 5)olDfpcartcnmiet8,. girji tIleranter olijiln.
B~glaubtgt: Sirector be3 Soil $t rarttrr.(tf, Olitolai Bu Iaisf ;.
Sild:1: e<(aionsS orl(ter crtmoIlain.
taI 27fitn Zun; 1S33o In fidem: i. be [ (tji;, Secr.

Mitauischer Kalender 1837

In conclusion, it is indeed not very easy to recognize registered letters from Russia, which were posted before
the introduction of the designation "3AKA3HOE", but it is a very fascinating field of research for people
interested in postal history. Without the possibility of going through the Russian archives, my report can only
be an attempt to make the first step. I would be grateful for additional information at any time, to be sent to
Harry von Hofmann, Postfach 52 05 18, D-22595 HAMBURG, Germany.

December, 1995


EDITORIAL COMMENT: First of all, readers will have noticed from the foregoing text that the word
"Recommandirt" has been spelt with either one or two "m"s. The German custom in the last century was to
add a horizontal stroke above the "m", meaning that the consonant had to be repeated. Examples of such a
usage may be seen in the manuscript version on the letter from Odessa 29.9.1886 on p.10 and as the
handstruck cachet "Recoimandirt" on the letter from Petrozavodsk 5.12.1870, shown on p.11.

Readers are reminded that Harry von Hofmann has published a comprehensive book "3AKA3HOE
Recommandirt" in German, covering registration procedures in the Russian Empire from the beginning of the
19th. century up to 1917 (obtainable direct from him at DM 68,- postpaid). An English translation of the
German text by Philip Robinson is now available, from Harry von Hofmann at DM 22 + postage or by airmail
from P. E. Robinson, 2 Rydalhurst Avenue, Sheffield S6 4BG, England for L10 or US $ 18.00 postpaid.
by Andrew Cronin.

Quite apart from the ground-breaking research conducted by our esteemed colleague Harry von Hofinann on
the early period of registered mail in the Russian Empire, his study is also most valuable as it sheds light on
the postal rates of that era. The pieces of mail that he has illustrated demonstrate some interesting tariffs,
which we will examine after summarising some facets of the rates in force (all dates given henceforth are in
Old Style, unless otherwise stated). The tariffs were sometimes complex, but the main features have been
extrapolated from a series of seminal articles by Boris Kaminskii in the yearly manual "CoBeTCKInf
KoJrneKrIioHep" Nos.22-27 (Moscow 1985-1990):-

(a) Pre-UPU Rates for Internal Mail.
Until 1 January 1844, the postal rates for letters sent in Russia were based on distance. Following the example
set by the great British postal reformer, Sir Rowland Hill, a uniform rate of 10 kopeks per lot (12.794
grammes or just under 1/2 ounce) was instituted for ordinary letters despatched within the Empire, regardless
of distance. The rates for insured mail as of 1 January 1844 were those as given on p. 16 herewith of the
previous article by Harry von Hofmann.

On 18 October 1845, the autocratic Tsar Nicholas I confirmed the rate of 5 kopeks for the City (Local)
Post. As a result, St. Petersburg issued on 1 December 1845 die-stamped envelopes, which sold for 6 kopeks:
i.e. 5 kopeks for the postage and 1 kopek for the envelope. Moscow followed on the same basis on 27
February 1846.

Apart from the registration and insurance procedures detailed by Mr. von Hofmann, the internal rates were
not modified again until the Postal Department suggested the following changes, partly to accommodate some
new classes of mail:
Period of validity: 1 January 1872 to 18 June 1875.
Ordinary intercity letters, per lot 10 kopeks
Ordinary local (city) letters: (a) In St. Petersburg and Moscow, per letter 5 kopeks
(b) In other towns, per letter 3 kopeks
Intercity postcards 5 kopeks
Local (city) postcards, for all towns 3 kopeks
Intercity wrapper sending: (a) of 1 sheet 1 kopek
(b) of 2 sheets, or a sheet of double size 2 kopeks
(c) of 3 sheets, or a sheet of triple size; SPB & Moscow 3 kopeks
ditto; for other towns 2 kopeks
(d) of 4 sheets, or two double sheets; SPB & Moscow 4 kopeks
ditto; for other towns 2 kopeks

December, 1995

Registration fee 10 kopeks
Postal receipt for registered, money and declared value sending 5 kopeks.

The fee for a postal receipt is very important, as we will see that it resulted in some interesting frankings. For
a proper analysis of registered mail during the period that postal receipts were charged for (1 January 1872 to
4 April 1879), it is best to work backwards. Let us take as an example the beautiful registered letter from
Kostroma 2 July 1875, shown by Harry von Hofmann on p. 5 of this issue. The total franking was 95 kopeks,
so the first thing to do is to subtract 5 kopeks for the postal receipt and then 10 kopeks for the registration
fee, That leaves us with 80 kopeks, which must be a multiple of the postal rate, i.e. 10 kopeks per lot or
fraction. The weight of 8 lots is marked on the letter at top right, so the entire rate checks out.

(b) Pre-UPU Rates for External (International) Mail.
As already seen from some fascinating examples given in the Harry von Hofmann study, such rates were very
complicated, both in the pre-philatelic and adhesive periods. The charges were fixed in bilateral postal
conventions concluded with specific countries, taking also into account transit fees, so that the accountancy
was very time-consuming and the rates often difficult to analyse.

The study of foreign rates during the pre-philatelic period would certainly fill a large volume, so it is proposed
here to look at the situation as of the dates when postage stamps were first introduced into Russia. The
famous imperforate stamp of 10 kopeks (Russia No. 1) was distributed to the post offices on 10 December
1857 and between then and the official day of issue (1/2 January 1858), some 10,510 copies had been sold. It
is important to remember here that the first issues of the Russian Empire were intendedfor internal mail only.
External mail continued to be paid for in cash until 1 July 1864.

Let us now look at what happened to mail going to France in the pre-UPU period of 1858 to 1875. According
to the Cercle Philatilique France-URSS Catalogue for Imperial Russia, the postal rate up to 1 lot for a letter
going from Russia to France up to the year 1865 consisted of the following components:-
Russian internal rate up to 1 lot 10 kopeks
Rate placed to the credit of Prussia 10 kopeks
Transit fee 16 1/4 kopeks
Total 36 1/4 kopeks
It would appear that the transit fee was the equivalent in kopeks of the Prussian fee of 4 or 4 1/2
Silbergroschen. Of course, there were no 1/4-kopek stamps, so the amount would have had to be rounded up
to 37 kopeks; at least one such example has been noted in the M. Liphschutz Auctions. The Postal
Convention of 10/22 August 1865 between Prussia and Russia as reproduced by Harry von Hofmann on p. 7
of this issue stated that 2 Prussian Silbergroschen were taken as equivalent to 7 Russian silver kopeks. In his
book on "Russian Postal History 1858-1918", Martin Holmsten notes on p. 79 that the Russian prepaid rate
for a letter of up to 1 lot for Paris in 1861 was 38 1/4 kopeks, which is not very different.

Anyway, just to quicken the pulse, let us now examine an astounding cover, shown at the top of the next page
and sent through the St. Petersburg No. 7 City Post on 11 November 1863 to Paris. It is featured in the
Cherrystone Auction of 25-26 October 1995 with an estimate of US $ 3000.00. It was sent during the period
when external mail still had to be paid for in cash, yet the cover was franked with a pair of the 5-kopek
Local Post stamp which had just been issued a few months before in July 1863! The auction description says
that there is an additional red St. Petersburg city postmark and departure cds, both on the back. The present
writer cannot fault this cover, as the "D" of "PD" struck in red ties one stamp in the pair and the St.
Petersburg City 7 Post cds is correct for the period. It would seem that the sender paid the 10 kopeks in
stamps for the Russian internal rate up to 1 lot in weight and the balance in cash, as "PD" was the
international designation in French for "Payd(e) jusqu'A Destination". The figure "4" in red crayon on the front
may refer to the Prussian transit fee of 4 Silbergroschen.
December, 1995

Continuing the story of pre-UPU mail to France, a postal convention was concluded between that latter
country and Prussia in 1865, reducing the transit fees and, as a result, the total prepaid rate from Russia to
France fell to 28 kopeks. Several examples of such a franking may be observed in the M. Liphschutz
Auctions. All mail going via Prussia was despatched "A decouvert", i.e. in open or unsealed mail bags.

A final pre-UPU Franco-Russian postal convention was concluded on 1 November 1872, whereby the mail
bags were sealed for the first time and the transit fees calculated on the weight per bag, rather than per letter.
That led to a further reduction in the postal rates from Russia to France: 13 kopeks for prepaid letters and 28
kopeks for unpaid mail, calculated on the basis of 1 kopek equal to 4 French centimes and a weight of up to
10 grammes (0.78 lot, or roughly 1/3 ounce).

An example is now shown above at right of a lovely letter fully prepaid at 28 kopeks and sent from St.
Petersburg 31.12.1868 O.S. via Prussia (TPO/RPO XI Eydtkuhnen-Bromberg 13.1.69 N.S.) to Geneva,
Switzerland 16 January, being forwarded to Paris with a Swiss 30-centime stamp affixed. The French entry
mark is dated the next day and that unusual combination sold as Lot 170 at Harmer's of London 16 December
1992 for L 3575 or US $ 5580. Martin Holmsten says that the rate in 1861 to Switzerland was 26 1/2 kopeks,
which is not far off.

Also, Mr. Holmsten shows on the front cover of his book an illustration in colour of a beautiful letter from St.
Petersburg, via Prussia 5.6.1870 N.S. to Norway and prepaid at 44 kopeks (see at the top of the next page).
His 1861 listing says that the rate to Norway was 12 kopeks via St. Petersburg and 46 1/2 kopeks via Prussia.
Quite a wide difference in the rates! The present writer assumes that the 12-kopek rate covered the despatch
by a Russian vessel direct from St. Petersburg to Christiania (now Oslo), while the route via Prussia would
have involved both land and sea journeys, hence the higher rate. Can anyone confirm that theory? The rate
paid via Prussia does not differ much from the one listed for 1861.
December, 1995

It may well be that the
.slight discrepancies
noted above in the
actual rates paid were
N due to currency
S'\ fluctuations. In any case,
Si / it is obvious that the
study of pre-UPU
4/ -. external mail from Russia
is a fascinating field, with
S.many unusual rankings
.A ..' '- ... : :. '-2 ":. -- .:' and destinations waiting
: to be discovered. Further
\- information on this
:-. .. 7'," subject, including data on
S. the various postal
______ conventions, would be
(c) Post-UPU Internal and External Rates.
In 1873, the German Ambassador and the Swiss Consul-General in St. Petersburg invited the Imperial
Russian Government to take part in September 1874 at a postal congress in Berne, Switzerland, with a view
to organising a Universal Postal Union. One of the decisions of that congress stated that the first rate step
for an ordinary letter should be fixed between the limits of 20 to 32 gold centimes (5 to 8 silver kopeks). The
result was that the following rates went into force in the Russian Empire.for internal & external mail:-
Period of validity: 19 June 1875 to 12 February 1879.

Ordinary intercity and external (international) letters up to 1 lot or 15 grammes 8 kopeks
Intercity and external postcards 4 kopeks
Intercity & external wrapper sending up to 4 lots or 50 grammes 2 kopeks
Registration fee 10 kopeks
Registration receipt 5 kopeks
Return Receipt (Acknowledgement of Receipt for a registered article) 10 kopeks

Now for some examples of internal registered mail:-

t "(1) A registered item
from Tupichino, SPB
province 30 May 1877
to SPB 1 June with a
/ .. franking of 31 kopeks:
5 kopeks for the
receipt, 10 kopeks for
registration and a
balance of 16 kopeks.
It was therefore a
-.. double-weight letter.

December, 1995

(2) A registered sending from
from Sestroretsk, SPB prov. r n. / f
30.5.1877 to SPB the next / / '
day, with 31 kopeks -//
postage: 5 kopeks for the/ -
receipt, 10 kopeks for t ( V
registration and a balance of
24 kopeks. It was therefore
a triple-weight letter.

(3) Another registered item
from Tupichino 23.3.1887 .
to SPB, with the weight -
stated by the postmaster at -9 9 .
top left (4 1.). Note that he -'-
affixed the receipt fee of ;
5 kopeks separately at "
right. The rest of the
franking (42 kopeks)
consisted of the 10-kopek //e. *...
registration fee, leaving
32 kopeks for the postage. z .
This item was therefore a
quadruple-weight letter. 111, .../ ., /. < /, .
That postmaster certainly
knew what he was about!

So far as international mail was concerned, we can now look at two external examples, taken from p. 6 of
Harry von Hofnann's article herewith:-
(1) A registered letter from Vil'na 2 July 1875 O.S. to K'dnigsberg with a franking of 31 kopeks. In the same
category as the first internal item described above and therefore charged as a double-weight letter. That is
confirmed by the notation of weight = 30 grammes. Kindly remember that, for external sending, the weight
steps were in increments of 15 grammes, i.e. slightly more than 1 Russian lot (= 12.794 grammes), which
had remained the basic weight step for internal mail.

(2) The registered letter from Revel' (Tallinn) 28 January 1877 to Rome weighed 18 grammes, thus putting
it into the double-weight category, as confirmed by the "2 1." notation. There is postage of 11 kopeks shown
on the front of the cover and there would have to be a further 20 kopeks in stamps on the back.

At the Second International Postal Congress held in Paris, it was decided on 28 May 1878 that the rate for
an ordinary external (international) letter should be fixed at 25 gold centimes (= 7 silver kopeks) and new
rates therefore went into effect in the Russian Empire, as follows:-
December, 1995

Period of validity: 13 February 1879 to 7 March 1889.
Ordinary intercity and external letters up to 1 lot or 15 grammes in weight 7 kopeks
Local and intercity postcards 3 kopeks
Local, intercity & external wrapper sending up to 4 lots or 50 grammes 2 kopeks
Money & Declared Value Packets, open or sealed, up to 1 lot or 15 grammes 7 kopeks
Postal receipts for Registered, Money & Declared Value sending Free
Postal receipts for the despatch of parcels, leather goods & courier mail 5 kopeks
Return Receipt for registered and insured sending 7 kopeks
Registration fee 7 kopeks
Note that, from here otwards, there was no charge for a registration receipt.

S ,r/ tj As an internal example of these
d new rates, please refer to the
illustration here of a registered
C- .<, 2. letter from Buinsk 29.3.80 to
'JJ,~ t / ,7 ,/ Simbirsk the next day.
,, Subtracting the registration fee
S..',."'" / '"" of 7 kopeks, we are left with
S/14 kopeks postage and the
/X / P J "/"/," sending was therefore a
7.' a() cl double-weight letter.

From now on until the end of the Empire, the postal rates were fairly straightforward, with few
modifications. The main features were as follows:-

On 8 March 1889, the fees for external (international) mail were raised as hereunder:-
External letters per 15 grammes, or fraction 10 kopeks
External postcards 4 kopeks
External registration fee 10 kopeks
Note that the internal registration fee remained at 7 kopeks.

As of 15 March 1909, the following rates went into force:-
Local letters up to 4 lots in weight 3 kopeks
Local letters from 4 to 8 lots in weight 4 kopeks
For every 4 lots or fraction, above 8 lots 2 kopeks
Printed papers & books in Braille for the blind: per 16 lots or fraction 1 kopek

With the outbreak of WWI, the rates for some classes of internal mail were raised:-
Period of validity: 21 September 1914 to 14 August 1917.
Intercity letters up to 15 grammes 10 kopeks
Local letters up to 4 lots 9 kopeks
Registration fee 10 kopeks
Return Receipt for intercity sending 10 kopeks
Return Receipt for local sending 5 kopeks
Application for tracing an intercity sending 10 kopeks
Application for tracing a local sending 5 kopeks

December, 1995

1.inioe OTKPI.iTOe na Py6. 7-i /
- ^ -- -- C ''

4. j

. 0 L-..r 1n H -A up vi :n :



Application for the return, change of address or delay of a postal sending 20 kopeks
Special supplementary fee for the despatch and delivery of cash by ordinary declared letters 10 kopeks
Delivery of telegrams by mail or messenger: as ordinary mail 10 kopeks
as registered mail 20 kopeks
Advice of receipt of telegrams: by ordinary mail 10 kopeks
by registered mail 20 kopeks.

As a parting shot and to thicken the blood, please refer to the illustration above of a declared value letter,
sending the sum of 41,493 roubles ( then equal to US $ 20,746.50) in cash from Warsaw 30.6.14 to Plock
2.7.14. The weight is noted on the back: 55 2/3 lots, with the postage calculated at 3 roubles 46 kopeks and
the commission at 15 kopeks per 100 roubles coming to 62 roubles 25 kopeks, to total 65 roubles 71
kopeks. That sum was paid mainly by 13 copies of the 5-rouble Romanov stamp. A goodly item, methinks.

That completes the survey of rates for the main classes of mail during the Imperial period. Unless otherwise
stated, the examples featured in this article have been taken from the collection of the present writer.
Comments, corrections and additional information are all earnestly invited.

The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue are those of the respective authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its coordinators.

December, 1995

f~, rOP.

3eMECOMy JP eHiiT~oiri

r -4

~E~i I


by Alex Artuchov

(Yekaterinoslav Province)

Pavlograd is an inland city some 38 miles east of the provincial capital of Yekaterinoslav.
In 1897, it had a population of 17,188.

Pavlograd was an agricultural community and the shipping point for the crops of the

Pavlograd issued stamps between 1869 and 1884.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Golden background with a white horse.
Bottom: Green background with a silver, diagonal stripe.

22.75 x 27.25 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
roman numerals "V" in the covers, imperforate.

1. 5 kop. blue

(7 known)

December, 1995

1872 1876
Similar to previous issue but with arabic numeral 5 in the covers, 21.66 x 26 mm,
lithographed on white paper, imperforate, several editions of which only 2 are
distinguishable due to a lack of material.

First Edition (1872)
Clear print, the centre spots just over the horse's back and the inside botton tip of the
shield are barely visible and become even less clear on later editions, the centre spots
become larger and rounder with time as less and less attention was paid to their removal,
yellowish white paper 0.1 mm thick, shiny white gum, sheet of 4 x 6.

2. 5 kop. blue (various shades) 2.00

Second Edition (1876)
The large round centre spots on the horse's back and on the bottom of the shield have
been removed but not carefully and traces of them often remain, on white horizontally
laid paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, sfheet of4 x 6 with stamps placed closer vertically
and further horizontally (6.5 mm) from each other than on the previous edition,
imperforate and privately perforated 14.

3. 5 kop. bright blue 3.00

1876 (July ?)
A circular design in a square formed by thin framelines 29.33 x 29.33 mm, lithographed
on white paper 0.07 mm thick.

4. 5 kop. gray lilac RRRR
(2 known)


December, 1995

Similar to the previous issue, the white vertical lines in the background are missing, the
horse is slightly different and its tail is lower, the lettering and most particularly the "5 k."
is different, lithographed on white paper 0.13 mm thick, brownish yellow gum that is
brittle and applied in spots, 30 mm square, used copies unknown.

5.5 kop. red lilac or yellow brown (faded)

(20 known)

Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
The stamps are listed identically by both catalogues.

(Penza Province)

Penza was the capital city of the province, located in the in the south central section of the
province. In 1897, the population had reached 61,851.

Fishing, agricultural and trade in corn, tallow, oil timber and spirits were the main
commercial activities. Penza was founded in the early part of the 16th century and was
under Russian control in 1666. It was one of the larger cities to be captured by Pugachev a
century later. It was swept by devastating fires in 1836, 1839 and 1858. Penza was
culturally rich with libraries, an Imperial Botanical Garden, a museum and a theatre. A
cathedral was built in 1820 21. Two agricultural fairs were held annually.

Penza issued stamps between 1899 and 1912.

December, 1995

Coat of Arms Colours:
Green background with golden wheat sheaths.

1899 (Feb. 1)
21.5 x 31.75 mm lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 9 x
10, perforated 11.5 .

1. 1/2 kop. black

Block of 9 x 2


1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4

2. 2 kop. blue


There are similarities between the plating flaws of this stamp and the 1\2 kop. value
including what appear to be 5 types. Some of the plate flaws found on this stamp appear
to be common to all of the types while others are found only on specific types.
Accordingly, five distinct groups (types) have been identified:


December, 1995

A. Large blue dot under the letter O and a small blue dot under the letter C of the word
HIEH3EHCKAFO. A break in the bottom of the letter Y of Y'b33A.

B. Break in the lower bottom corer of the shield.

C. A blue dot under the C and a spot of blue on the left inner dotted frameline under the
first E of the word HEH3EHCKAFO. Blue dot under the 2 in the SE corer.

D. Three dots of colour under the HC in the word HEH3EHCKAFO. A blue dot
outside of the right outer dotted frameline about 1\4 of the way down from the NE corer.

E. With none of the flaws found on the other stamps. There is a blue spot under the top
inner dotted frameline over the letters CK of the word 3EMCKASI. This stamps also
shows a damaged letter A of the word FHOTA and 2 breaks in the inner frameline over
the 2 in the SW corer.

Through the availability of some limited sheet material, it appears that the 5 distinct types
are arranged horizontally in a 5 x 1 transfer block.

3. 3 kop. brown orange 2.00

(the yellow-ochre shade, according to Schmidt, showed up in 1910 and is change of
colour as a result of chemical means)

Without any appreciatible quantity of sheet material it is not possible to provide much
significant information on the flaws let alone the types of this issue. From the limited
resources that were available 3 groups were identified:

A. A round coloured spot between the letters K and A of the word 3EMCKASI.

B. Damaged letter C in the word HEH3EHCKAFO.

C. The letter F of the word nEH3EHCKAFO has a long vertical stroke which is
curved at the bottom.

4. 10 kop. green 2.00

Similar to the other values of this issue, the 10 kop. value also shows a number of plate
flaws. Without more material and particularly of the sheet variety is not possible to
provide any more information except to note that a green dot appears under the letter 'D
of the word Y3'3AA.

December, 1995

1904 (August)
Similar to the previous issue, 21.66 x 32 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick,
brownish yellow gum, sheet of 9 x 10, perforated 11.5.

5. 3 kop. dark red


Variety: Dot between 3 and K on the left side of the shield.

1907- 1910
Similar to the previous issues but with a larger crown and with the second letter of the
inscription on the top inverted, 22.5 x 32 mm, 2 editions.

First Edition (August 23, 1907)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, the 1/2 kop. stamp is made from the 3 kop. stamp
by changing numerals of value and resulting in 2 types placed side by side and distributed
very evenly on a sheet of6 x 6 perforated 11.5.

6. 1/2 kop. black

7. 3 kop. rose



Variety: Dot after the A of the word IIOHTA.

The 1/2 Kop. Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

December, 1995






December, 1995

The 2 Types:
Type 1 The 1/2 in the upper right corer is small, placed low in the triangle and upright.
Type 2 The 1/2 in the upper right corer is larger, placed higher up in the triangle and at
an angle.

Type 1. 00000
Dot over "k".
Constant Plate Flaws of the 3 Kop. Stamp
-7th Stamp Break in the tip of the shield.
-14th Stamp There is a dot at the bottom between the inner and the outer
framelines. There is a second dot inside the inner frameline above the first
dot and slightly to the right.
- 28th Stamp- Period after the 3 in the SE corer.

Second Edition (1907 1910)
Stamps of the first edition with changed colours, a 2 kop. value in the same design has
been added, the 1/2 and the 2 kop. stamps are both made from the 3 kop. stamp by
changing the numerals of value and resulting in two types for each stamp in a 2 x 1
transfer block, the 3 kop. stamp has 3 types in a 3 x 1 transfer block, white paper 0.08 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 10 x 5 for both values, perforated 11.5 with the 1/2 kop. stamp
also known perforated horizontally.

8. 1/2 kop. lilac 0.50
(April, 1910)

9. 2 kop. blue 10.00
(December, 1909)

10. 3 kop. carmine red 3.00
(April, 1910)

The 2 Types of the 1/2 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The !/2 in the left bottom corer is nearer to the inner frameline and the diagonal
in the 1/2 is almost touching it.
Type 2 The 1/2 in the left bottom corer is nearer to the outer frameline.

Additional Differences:
In addition to the foregoing, the following differences have been found in the central part
of the design:


December, 1995

Type 1
A. Short numeral 1 with serif reversed.
B. Numeral 1 on the right side of the shield is long and very close to it.
C. Short diagonal line.

Type 2
A. Long numeral 1.
B. The numeral 1 on the right side of the shield is short and is further away from it.
C. A spot of colour connects the left sheath to the top of the shield.
D. A long diagonal line.

The 2 Types of the 2 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 The 2 in the upper right corer is almost horizontal.
Type 2 The 2 in the same corer is at a 45 degree angle.

The 3 Kop. Sheet

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
12312312 31

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3
1 2 3 13 1 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

The 3 Types of the 3 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 The letter H of the word nEH3EHCKAFO has a short left leg, the fourth
pearl from the bottom in the right outer frameline has a shite spot.
Type 2 The right botton corer pearl is crescent shaped.
Type 3 The numeral 3 in the right bottom corer has a filled back.

December, 1995


Type 2 Type 3

1911 (December 1)
20 x 27 mm, local printing similar to design of State Printing Office in St. Petersburg,
lithographed on white paper 0.07 0.09 mm, shiny or dull brownish yellow gum, sheet of
5 x 9, perforated 11.5 with rough or clean cuts.

Quantities Issued:
1/2 kop. 30,000
2 kop. 10,000
3 kop. 40,000
10 kop. 10,000

11. 1/2 kop. orange brown

12. 2 kop. violet rose

13. 3 kop. dark lilac

14. 10 kop. yellow green





Constant Plate
5th stamp on sheet, white spot on the letters A and AI of the word 3EMCKAIl.

1912 /
Similar to the issue of 1911 but larger in size: 23.33 x 31.75 mm and 23.66 x 31.25 mm,
lithographed on white paper 0.07 0.09 mm, white gum, sheet of 6 x 7, on the 3 kop.
sheet the 4th stamp on the last horizontal row is inverted, perforated 11.5 .


December, 1995


Type 1

15. 1/2 kop. yellow 0.50

16. 3 kop. blue 1.00

1911 or 1912 (?)
According to Schmidt the 1/2 kop. stamp of 1911 was reissued, on very white paper,
slightly yellowish white gum, cleanly cut perforation of 11.5 .

17. 1/2 kop. brown orange unlisted

There is also some reason to suspect that the 2 and 3 kop. values of 1911 were reissued in
1912/13. There is some sheet material containing these two values that seems to be on the
same "very" white paper that the 1/2 kop. value was printed on and the gum is also the
slightly yellow rather than the brownish yellow that was used on the 1911 issue. The
colours are also a little different. The 2 kop. value is a brighter violet rose while the 3 kop.
stamp is a brighter lilac.

There is also some sheet material that suggests that some of the issues of 1912 were also
reissued. The sheet in question is again on a "very" white paper and gum that is slightly
yellowish white. The colours are somewhat brighter and the perforations are sharp and
clean cut. The same plate must have however, been used as the inverted stamp is found in
the same position as on the 1912 issue.

Schmidt/IChuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:

The stamps are listed identically by both catalogues but, there is no concurrance on some
of the dates of issue. There is also no mention of the stamp listed above as no. 17 in either
catalogue even though it was Schmidt himself who suggests that at least the 1/2 kop.
value of 1911 was reissued.

(Vladimir Province)


December, 1995

Pereslav is some 45 miles northeast of Moscow. In 1897, it had a population of 8,662.

The city was founded in 1152 by Yuri Dolgoruki, the Prince of Suzdal some 5 years after
he had founded Moscow. Pereslav is noted for its ecclesiastical institutions and cotton
manufacturing as well as fishing in nearby Lake Plescheyevo.

Pereslav issued stamps between 1873 and 1914.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Red background with a golden lion.
Bottom: Black background with golden fish.

1873 1878
25.5 mm in diameter, lithographed on coloured paper, imperforate, 2 editions.

The First Edition (1873)
On coloured paper 0.11 mm thick, shiny white gum, sheet of 3 x 8 with the lower half
inverted, transfer block of 1 x 4 with 4 types.

1. 3 kop. black on green paper 10.00

The 4 Types
The space between the beginning and the end of the circular inscription is different on each
type. All types have the abbreviated word BJIAA. .

Type 1 The space is 6.66 mm, the star is placed at an angle.


December, 1995

Type 2 The space is 5.25 mm, the star is straight and slightly to the left.
Type 3 The space is 7.25 mm, the star is placed at an angle.
Type 4 The space is 5.75 mm, the star is placed straight.

The Sheet

1 1 1
2 2 2
1 3 3
2 4 4
V r Z

z z

Second Edition (1877 ?)
Similar to the first edition, on darker coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, 5 different types,
some of the stamps are known printed sideways.

2. 3 kop. black on blue green paper R
(20 known)

The 5 Types
The are actually 2 main types, one reads BJIAR. and on the other it is BJIA)RHM. .

Type 1 Star placed straight, with the word BJIAAHM..
Type 2 Star is placed at an angle, with the word BJIAJIHM..
Type 3 Star is placed almost straight, with the word BJIARHM., the word FYB. is
farther away from the word BJIAIH4M., the centre circle is barely visible, the letter k of
3 k is damaged.
Type 4 Star is placed straight, with the word BJIAJR..
Type 5 Star is placed at an angle, with the word BJIAj. .

(to be continued in No. 38)


December, 1995


by Alex Artuchov

In addition to having some new and interesting information to share with readers, it is very
timely to publish an update in order to continue the "hunt" and to rekindle and maintain an
ongoing interest in the subject matter.

Since the last consolidated list was last published in No. 21, in November of 1987, it
would be fitting to very briefly reacquaint old subscribers with the topic and to explain the
"hunt" to new ones.

The "hunt" is an ongoing search for dot and numeral cancellations of the "truncated
triangle" type with numerals between 848 and 1700. Postal authorities released the
names and corresponding numerals for numbers 1 847 only, leaving questions of not only
what location was assigned to what number but even if in fact some of the numerals were
even used. In order to deal with both issues, this writer uses categories of "known" and
"location". "Known" simply means that there is proof that a particular number was actually
assigned and that a post office using that particular number functioned. Cancellations on
loose stamps are ample proof. "Location" means that both name and number have been
matched. The discovery of covers such as the one listed below, with a straight line
cancellation identifying the place of origin and a "truncated triangle" with a numeral have
been instrumental in identifying some 75 locations.

In a recent article published in No. 11, 1994 of Filatelia (EHniaTenua) the author, V.
Kalmikov, uncovers and illustrates five locations four of which were previously unknown.
These locations are:

1144 Schebrzheshin, Lublin prov.

1260 Turki, Saratov prov.

1330 Dandvorovo, Vilna prov.

1413 Teikovo, Vladimir prov.

The appearance of this article and a keen interest in the topic is a very welcome sign for
the "hunt". We hope that it will spark interest in Russia and be instrumental in uncovering
many more previously unknown locations. The author is in the process of encouraging a
cooperative CSRP/VOF effort in order to bring our knowledge of this topic even further.

The other new information relates to the ability of the author to identify 1060 as
Konstantinov of Piotrok province. As readers will recall, your author in an article entitled
"A Dot and Numeral Dilemma", appearing in No. 28 of the Post-Rider dealt with this


December, 1995

"A Dot and Numeral Dilemma", appearing in No. 28 of the Post-Rider dealt with this
location. The author illustrated a cover in his possession that clearly illustrates the names
of the location and the province but an unclear impression of the number. The dilemma is
or course that in the vast majority of cases it is always the number that is clear and the
location that remains the mystery. In this particular case the circumstances are reversed.
The match between number and location was made as a result of a recent auction
catalogue. Lot No. 1429 of the May 31.1995 auction held by Kronenburg A G of Basel,
Switzerland contains an illustration of a marvelously clear "1060" in combination with
an again extremely clear boxed cancellation with the name of the location and the
province. This illustration is shown below as Fig. 1 The author's cover is illustrated as
Fig. 2.

We again encourage readers to come forward with information from their collections, so
that we can continue to expand our knowledge and break more new ground on this
intriguing topic.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2
*- -. -* l

1ei'prI lasy18 7

42 -- -

December, 1995





Krasnoyarskoi, Samara

St. Khimenki (or


Bryn, Kaluga
Tabriz, Persia (?)

Chutovo, Poltava

Novoselitsy, Bessarabia

Kliuchischi, Simbirsk


Parisi, Minsk

December, 1995


Dzulek, Syrdar

Brzesc Kujawski,Warsaw

Osieciny, Warsaw
Radziejow, Warsaw

Sanniki, Warsaw

Ciechocinek, Warsaw
Jablon, Warsaw
Baldrikow, Kalisz (?)
Blaszki, Kalisz
Warta, Kalisz

Dabie, Kalisz
Zdunska Woda, Kalisz

Kleczanow, Kalisz
Klodawa, Kalisz
Ozorkow, Kalisz

Turek, Piotrkow

Sompolno, Kalisz

Uniejow, Kalisz

Known Location



Aleksandrow, Piotrkow
Zawierce, Piotrkow
Gorszkowice, Piotrkow
Zarki, Piotrkow
Ozorkow, Kalisz
Zielen, Piotrkow

Klomnice, Czenstochowa

Konstantinow, Piotrkow

Rokiciny, Piotrkow

Tomaszow (Rawski),
Piotrkow (?)
Zlotoria, Lomza
Zwolen, Radom

Klimontow, Radom

Przysuchi, Radom
Szydlowiec, Radom

Wolbrom, Kielce
Dzialoszyce, Lodz

Koszyce, Kielce
Pilitsa, Kielce

Chmielnik, Kielce




December, 1995

Tomascow (Zamojski)

Opole, Lublin

Frampol, Lublin

Szebrezeszin, Lublin

Malkin, Warsaw

Seini, Suwalki (?)
Sereye, Suwalki (?)
Spotskin, Suwalki (?)
Suwalki, Suwalki
Wysokie Mazowieckie,

Narmanskaya, Kazan

Palekh, Vladimir



Known Location





Turki, Saratov


Myagushev, Novgorod

Gonczyce, Siedlce

Bogorodsk, Nizhnii
Novgorod (?)

Edintsi, Bessarabia
Dandvorovo, Vilna

Ekaterininshtat, Samara

Glowno, Piotrkow
St. Borokhudzhirsk, (?)

Faleshti, Bessarabia
Lemzal, Lifland
Schlok, Livonia

December, 1995

Teikovo, Vladimir

Glubokoe, Vilna



by Alexander EpStein.

Collectors specialising in the stamps and postal history of the Russian Civil War are familiar with two sets of
postage stamps, which are listed in various stamp catalogues, either under a common heading (e.g. in Mvichel
& Zumstein), or separately (as in Scott, Stanley Gibbons and Yvert et Tellier). A very detailed listing of
these stamps can be found in a specialised catalogue of Estonian stamps etc., compiled by I. Weiner
("Verzeichnis der Briefmarken, Ganzsachen und provis. Abstempelungen Eesti's", Tallinn 1934-1939). The
usages of such issues are also considered part of of the postal history of Estonia, because of the close
collaboration between the Estonian and White-Russian forces in the fighting against the Bolsheviks; see also
the work "Estonia: Philately & Postal History Handbook-Catalogue", by V. Hurt & E. Ojaste, 1986.

The question is about the Imperial Arms stamps of the 1908-1917 issue with the overprint "C-B. 3an.
ApMia" (North-West Army) and a set of five stamps in original designs, issued on behalf of the "OKCA"
(OTIhsJIbHbI KOPIYC7 CIBBEPHORI APMII), i.e. Detached Corps of the North Army. The
catalogue information about both issues is incomplete as a rule and the corresponding historical references
are also inaccurate in the majority of cases, or sometimes plainly false.

Several articles have been published on these stamps in the philatelic periodicals, especially about the set
with the NWA overprints (see: [a] A. Behrsin: "Der Baltische Philatelist", No. 2-3/1920, pp.33-35; No.6-
8/1923, pp.21-22, [b] G.H. Jaeger: "Der Baltische Philatelist" No. 2-3/1920, p.45, [c] K. Freyman: "BJRP",
No. 7/1951, p.138-139, [d] A. Rosselevich: "Rossica" No. 51/1957, pp. 42-28; No. 55/1958, pp.26-29, [e]
A. Rosselevich: "Russian Philatelist" No. 3/1963, pp.3-6, [f| E. Ojaste: "Eesti Filatelist" No. 14/1973, pp.
43-48), which besides giving interesting and important information, include some fantasies as well.
Unfortunately, a recent article by the present author that remained unfinished because the publication of the
journal "Eesti Kollektsionar" had been discontinued (see A. Epstein: "Eesti Kollektsionar" No. 2[3]/1992,
pp.2-5; No. 4/1993, pp.43-51), where an attempt was made to summarise the available information, is no
exception. The main reason for that was the lack of any documentary evidence about the postal activities in
the area occupied by the North-West Army. Hence, all the available information was based on the accounts
(often contradictory) of the eye-witnesses and on entire franked with those stamps, the bulk of which being
of purely philatelic origin. All that could only and actually led to some wrong conclusions.

Only quite recently has it been possible to unearth in the Estonian Main Postal Administration Fund of the
Estonian State Archives in Tallinn some documents concerning the relations between the Posts of the
Republic of Estonia and the Postal Administration of the North-West Army (see [a] Estonian State Archives
[Tallinn], Fund 54, List 4, File 27 and [b] Tallinn City Archives, Fund 1D419-478, File 5), which shed new
light on the problem under consideration. Such were the circumstances that induced me to write this paper in
an attempt to describe as reliably as possible the historical conditions under which the above-mentioned
stamps had been issued. Also, to present a brief philatelic description of both issues, as well as the main facts
about the postal activities in the relevant area during the corresponding period of time, based on the newly
found documents, previous research and the available postal material.

1. The historical background.
On 18 February 1918, after the Soviet Russian delegation had rejected the German terms for peace and had
broken off the negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, the German forces started a big offensive along the entire front.
Meeting virtually no resistance on the part of the demoralised remnants of the Russian Army, the northern
flank of the advancing troops had reached bythe beginning of March a line consisting of the River Narova,
Lakes Peipus and Pskov and the River Velikaya. After having occupied the towns of Pskov and Narva, the
Germans brought this further advance to a stop.
December, 1995

Several months after the conclusion of the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, i.e. in the second half of 1918,
military units consisting of Russian servicemen of anti-Bolshevik orientation were being formed on the
occupied territory under German protection. In October 1918, those units were brought together into the
so-called North Corps, under the temporary command of General Wandam, being quartered in the areas near
Pskov and Dvinsk (now Daugavpils in Latvia). However, in connection with the defeat of Germany in WWI
in November and the beginning of withdrawal of its troops from the Baltics, the North Corps disintegrated.

Some of its units retreated to the territory of the newly proclaimed Republic of Estonia and, as of the end of
1918, took part in the fighting on the side of the Estonian forces against the Red Army of Soviet Russia,
which had invaded Estonia. In January 1919, they were brought together once more into the North Corps
(also known under the designation of the Detached Corps of the North Army or OKCA) under Colonel,
later General K. Dzerozhinskii, followed by Colonel Neff and, as of June 1st. General A. Rodzyanko, with
their headquarters in Tallinn.

By February 1919, the units of the North Corps which had become part of the Estonian Army settled in a
small strip of Russian territory occupied by them along the eastern bank of the River Narova and the north-
eastern shore of Lake Peipus. A detachment under Colonel, later General S. Bulak-Balakhovich was
operating in the southern sector, north-east of Pskov. This detachment was only nominally part of the
OKCA and its commander was very reluctant to subordinate himself to the orders of the Corps Command.

In mid-May 1919, the North Corps forces, having broken through an ill-organised defence of the Soviet
Russian 7th. Army, pushed towards Petrograd, being supported on the left flank by the 1st. Estonian
Division and members of the Krasnaya Gorka and Seraya Loshad' forts, whose garrisons had revolted
against the Soviets. After initial successes, the advance was brought to a stop near Gatchina and the OKCA
forces were later thrown back. However, a small part of Russian territory east of Lakes Peipus and Pskov,
together with the towns of Gdov and Pskov (the latter of which had been occupied on 25 May by the 2nd.
Estonian Division and by the detachment of Bulak-Balakhovich, which had arrived in Pskov four days later),
remained in the hands of the North Corps.

In June 1919, i.e. at the peak of its successes, the Corps was expanded into the North-West Army (until July
1st. called the North Army), with General Rodzyanko as the direct commander and General N. Yudenich as
Commander-in-Chief in North-West Russia. The latter also became the army commander as of October 2nd.
This army, as a military formation now fully independent of the Estonian High Command, consisted initially
of two Corps (among them the former OKCA, which became the 1st. Corps) and the 3rd. Corps was formed
as well in August.

On 11 August, the so-called Government of the Russian North-West Area was formed in Tallinn, with S.
Lyanozov as the Prime Minister and Phillipeo as the Minister of Posts & Telegraphs. However, the territory
under occupation by the North-West Army was in fact chiefly administered by the military authorities.

The NWA troops were forced out of Pskov on 29 August, three days after the 2nd. Estonian Division had
abandoned that town. However, on 28 September, the North-West Army, together with the Estonian forces,
started a large-scale offensive towards Petrograd along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland and the
Narva-Petrograd Railway, as well as from the south-west via the town of Luga and also to the south in the
direction of Pskov. This time, they reached the outskirts of Petrograd near Pulkovo and Krasnoe Selo, but
failed to cut off the most important railway from Moscow to Petrograd. Having received the necessary
reinforcements by this railway, the Reds counter-attacked on 23 October and, by the second half of
November, the NWA troops were hurled back again, this time to the territory of Estonia, where they were
disarmed and interned. In January 1920, the North-West Army was disbanded.
December, 1995

2. Organisation of the postal service.
After the occupation of Gdov, Yamburg and then Pskov by the forces of the North Corps and the
detachment of Bulak-Balakhovich in May 1919, a Civil Administration was organised for the territories
freed from the Bolsheviks. However, the Postal & Telegraphic Service remained under military control.
Initially, it was administered by the Foreign Relations Department of the North Corps HQ in Tallinn. Later,
when the North-West Army had been formed, the Postal & Telegraphic Department, with engineer Fedorov
as its head, was created at the Military Communications Administration of the North-West Army HQ, which
was transferred to Narva at the end of June. It appears that the creation of a regular postal service started
only in mid-June 1919. This process can be retraced from the correspondence between the NWA authorities,
the Estonian Main Postal & Telegraphic Administration, heads of the post & telegraphic offices (PTOs) in
Narva and Pskov, etc. (see the Estonian State Archives (Tallinn), Fund 54, List 4, File 27 and the Tallinn
City Archives, Fund 1D419-478, File 5).

According to the reports of Seeman, the head of the Estonian post & telegraphic office in Narva, to H.
Rikand, the head of the Estonian Mail Postal & Telegraphic Administration, mail addressed to Estonia from
the areas of Russia occupied by the North Corps (Gdov, Yamburg etc) began arriving in Narva, where it
accumulated because of lack of official postal connections between those areas and Estonia. On 16 June, the
Pskov post and telegraphic office advised about the beginning of receipt of civilian mail and asked for what
localities such mail could be accepted. To start exchanging mail with Narva, it was necessary to arrange
matters about the postal rates, as well as to open an Estonian military censorship office in that town.

By the beginning of July, a temporary agreement was concluded on the exchange of mail between the area of
Russia occupied by the North-West Army and the Republic of Estonia. Ordinary and registered letters and
postcards could pass through the Estonian post and telegraphic office in Narva. The parties also agreed to
apply to such sending the foreign postal rates of Estonia then in effect, with the exchange rate fixed at 1
penni = 1 kopek. With the exception of official mail, unfranked sending could not be forwarded at all.

The postal rates for the areas under occupation by the NWA were approved on 25 June 1919 while the HQ
of the North Corps was still in Tallinn (see Fig. 1 on the next page). In particular, they were as follows:-

Local letters, per 15 grammes or part thereof 15 kopeks
Inland letters, per 15 grammes or part thereof 35 kopeks
Foreign letters, per 15 grammes or part thereof 50 kopeks
Inland postcards 15 kopeks
Foreign postcards 20 kopeks
Local printed matter, up to 15 grammes 5 kopeks
over 15 grammes: per 100 grammes or part thereof 10 kopeks
Inland printed matter, per 50 grammes or part thereof 10 kopeks
Foreign printed matter, per 100 grammes or part thereof 10 kopeks
Inland registration fee 30 kopeks
Foreign registration fee 50 kopeks

Both the inland and foreign rates conformed exactly to the corresponding postal rates in Estonia. Postal
rates were also established for other kinds of mail, e.g. for the transfer of money by post or telegraph,
parcels, letters with declared value, etc. However, it remains doubtful that such sending were actually
handled by post offices during the period under consideration.

At the end of June, a mail car began running between Pskov and Narva. Its route coincided with the former
TPO/RPO No.353-354. As of 15 July, another mail car was put into service between Narva and Yamburg.
Actual exchanges of mail with Estonia began around the same time. A little later, both TPO/RPO routes
December, 1995

25 s '' '919 r. r. r,



; .CTHbul, 3a Kaicbae 15 rpao,. .'. .-py
; BHyTpeHHia, . . .
SMe)KcayHaponHbn 3a KI(n ,bI 15 rpaMMon .
Btcs HeorpaHlmieHHMfl.

'o'TrrosaS KRapTOZERiH


BHyTpeHHia: OaHHapHbln . .

S. Me)myHapoaHhl R: onAluiapilh . .
C, Il Ol a tn.'tllll .lMtI. O lll.l. ..MI .
I ile 60.ohute 14 X 9 caIITHMCTp.
Pa3M'pb KapTO(KIft I MCellbue 10 x 7



MtCTHbiR: cb ntenTHbrM nepon:3aBeAlnintL nAo 15 rp. -- 5
S anabe 3a Kawitble 100 rpaMmohnh 1111n a1 cT 10 ,
HatHmetiblMan I.l:Ta aIT al.t nl;ix'., tiym.art, u o6pan3
IHKOaBb ToanpoB. . . ... 10 ,
BHyTpeHHia: 3a Kmmicte 50 rpaiMon . 10
HamneHbuaiaa triJTa Al akionti xi, 6yMar, I o06pas-
tltKOsb TOBapOB. . . 25 .
MeflcayHapoAHhlil: 3a Knl)KUAbi 100 rp. IItII 'laCTblIx, 10
SaHMetlbiUaR niaTa am ahaonBxI 6yMar ...--- '50 ,

J it o6pat3'ltton' Tonapon --
HalBbniciifi nbci, neiarnll.lui, npoliicnciaeniitb it At;-
OBbiMb 6yManraMb .-- i l.iorpauMMia: panihpoMi.
45 C/M. x 45 c/M.' X 45 chl. itaII cnepIyrlTIJfl Ir
Tpy6Ky: 75 C/M. x 10 cMt.
I HaBlucmit n I;ci. o6pn3a'llti :'Most: pa3Mtpo-:; 35 c/. 'x 20 C/4. X 10 C/M.,
; HA CBCepnyThII a-h TpyOK(y 30 c/M. x 15 C/M.

.Beas ounarTi, lnin nle nnojnb onna'ieHtIbig, 06,1-
i.raiOTca cGopoMth ltBnnoliH, KOTOpilt nI3,tcIlHnaeTCn
:b noAnyqaTeAr.

t3:3a aKas-b, KpoMB sBtCOBbaX-b. B3ucIKHuaerTCA 3a Kat-
A" C pp,, aJoWc e!=.. k .e *Me- -
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aIlyrpcilie. no 25 py6nerf . .. 25 ,
S orn 25 ao 100 py6anc .. .... -- 50 .-
3a catnayotuie 100 py6., IIjIn acTb IXI. ... .. -. 50
3a Tenerpaqilnuil nepenooAn, n:1i1CKIIInaTCRI cite:
s3 nepenon, no 100.py6c . .. 5 --
3a ncpenonab cBlme 100 pycfn . 7 .
H3eashlclic rno Tenetpa'liy o npyieliltn IIepeoaHofl
y, y Mbi . . . 3 .
" CyMua nepesona le orpattleila. .

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nfocuns i 6e3 t UiHU .
\ 3a 3aa31K 6. U. nOC.MIKH. -py6.30
HasHBcmii Bicb -, 50 KHaorpaM OBa .
135m cl. 40 c/M. 30 c/.,
Paa2Mtpu6: HnH 10O c/ X 50 C/M.X 50 ci.,
HnH 60 c/H X 60 1c/M<. 60 /cM.
HanHBaulcuran UntHocTbitHHO i nocbi-tr- 10.000 py6.
i -.
9. O6paTaa pomnnoxa .. 50
06paTHIs .ponHCKH 'ycTaHOBaeHUl' onbKo, an oT-
npanneni, Ia KOTOpub Bula'IorTCFaojpoinHctH .-
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o posaucaniHi nlOtTOBUXirx oTnpa2neHif. ..... 40
o eo3spart, Hun HsatiHeHiH aApecal...I. ,.... .. .. 60

11. HanozenHna l InaTelM :
3a niamane 100 py6ne .. .. i.. 50
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12. Aoc0T8BEH8 a ,1OMS'' /
3a xaWaoe utHHoe nHChMO HHI nepesoA-l He cabume
500 py6... ........ -..... -. 60
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Fig. 1.

Yonyra ny6axir :
HanHcaHle aapeca .
HanHcaHie nucbsa H aipeca .. .... ...
IIanmrnlHi iaanxpIaiI Cts fnnHpna.nlel, K HTa Huli .

. 10%
.. 8%

py6. 10
- 25
- 2s

December, 1995







BHyTpeClia: nilconot c3op, nK:iK'>;: IIpocrTIa nRlChMa.


were united into a single one between Pskov and Volosovo via Narva with the train Nos. 21-22. After the
failure of the first NWA offensive and the subsequent loss of Pskov and Yamburg TPO/RPO Nos. 353-354
ran between Gdov and Narva.

On 20 June, a post office was opened at the Foreign Relations Department of the North Corps HQ in
Tallinn. Its task was to handle the mail of the Corps servicemen. This post office could in no way accept and
forward any mail of private persons; it was only on this condition that it was allowed to function by the
Estonian Main Postal Administration.

However, the headquarters, having just been reorganised into the Army HQ, were transferred very soon to
Narva. On 10 July, a postal & telegraphic establishment under the designation "Field Post-Telegraphic
Office of the North-West Army" (NWA FPTO) was opened at Ivangorod, a suburb of Narva on the eastern
bank of the River Narova (now a separate town in Russia). Initially, this FPTO did not have a large staff;
just the head (Ognev), a single postal clerk and a postman. Later, however, the staff had grown so much that
it could not be accomodated in the existing premises and, in November, the NWA Postal & Telegraphic
Department asked the head of the Narva PTO to allow twenty of its postal officials to be quartered at the
Narva PTO.

Giving again his permission for the functioning of the NWA FPTO on Estonian territory, the head of the
Estonian Main Postal Administration demanded that the FPTO handle only the mail of NWA servicemen. In
the case of accepting mail to or via Estonia, the sending had to be franked with Estonian stamps, in full
accordance with the corresponding rates. Answering him, the head of the NWA Postal & Telegraphic
Department confirmed that the FPTO would not accept private mail, either to Estonia or to the areas under
NWA administration. This restriction was later abolished, but sending to and via Estonia could only be
franked with Estonian stamps, in any case.

One more function of the NWA FPTO, which was also approved by the Estonian Postal Administration.
related to sorting in cooperation with employees of the Narva PTO and forwarding in either direction the
mail forthcoming from the mail cars or the Estonian PTO in Narva. In applying for such a function to be
approved, Fedorov substantiated it by the fact that, instead of true mail cars, freight cars were running (at
least in July 1919), adapted to carry mail bags, but without the facilities necessary for sorting such mail
there. The NWA FPTO ceased functioning as of 10 January 1920.

As for the mail to and from Pskov, it was initially directed via Narva and that caused some inconvenience.
Therefore, a separate agreement was concluded with the head of the Estonian PTO in Tartu about a direct
exchange of mail between Pskov and Tartu. According to that agreement, ordinary and registered letters
could be accepted to and from Estonia and only ordinary letters could be addressed beyond the frontiers of
Estonia. The mail between Pskov and Tartu was carried by steamers of the Lake Peipus Military Flotilla
twice weekly. From Tartu, the mail was carried to other Estonian towns or to Latvia by railway; also via
Tallinn by ship to Helsinki, Finland and from there to other countries. However, there were still no postal
communications with Lithuania and Poland. The mail of Estonian servicemen in the Pskov area, sent within
the Estonian field post system, began to be carried by steamers as far back as 8 July (see Fig. 2 on the next
page). Strangely enough, the agreement did not mention other classes of mail, such as postcards and printed
matter. As a consequence, among a lot of items (mainly philatelic) sent from Pskov to or via Estonia in
August 1919, there were no postcards (at least, they are not known to the present author).

There was no direct railway connection between Pskov and Valk (Valga in Estonian, Valka in Latvian), as
an Estonian TPO/RPO was running from Valk just to Pechery (Petseri) and only military trains connected
the latter with Pskov. An intention to extend the TPO/RPO route to Pskov was not carried out, as Pskov
was abandoned at the end of August.
December, 1995

Fig. 4.

inin mmmmmff

-- Y-L~-~41~rrarr*a~ou~WIXYSMCPPI~'

3. The postage stamps.
Postage stamps were necessary for a normal functioning of the postal service, as all mail, except that of postal
officials and persons in military service, had to be prepaid according to the rates mentioned above. As A.
Behrsin, the head of the Pskov PTO in that period, confirms in his article (see "Der Baltische Philatelist", No.
2-3/1920, pp. 33-35 & No. 6-8/1923, pp. 21-22), Imperial stamps without any overprint were initially used
for franking the postal sending. Unfortunately, up to the present time, not a single entire from that area and
period has yet been found with such a franking.

The stocks of Imperial stamps at the post offices in the territory under NWA administration were limited and
supplies of new stamps were not possible. Moreover, the illegal infiltration of such stamps from Soviet
Russia, where they were used for postage as well, made possible the availability of considerable amounts of
stamps in private hands and, in passing through the mails, subjected the postal service to financial damage. As
a consequence, it was decided to put into use new stamps of an original design. It seems that such stamps
were ordered to be printed at a private printing shop in Tallinn at the same time as when the NWA postal
rates were approved. However, their manufacture was delayed.

Therefore, as a temporary measure, a control overprint was ordered in mid-July by the NWA Postal &
Telegraphic Department to be applied to the remaining stocks of Imperial postage stamps of the Arms type
(1908-1917 issue), as available at the Pskov PTO, or received from the other postal establishments in the area
occupied by the North-West Army. This work was done at the Pskov Zemstvo (Rural Administration)
printing shop on lithographic stones by the lithographer Matveev, under the supervision of Behrsin himself, as
well as Belyaev and Stepanov, who were employees of the Pskov PTO.

The overprint consisted of the words "Grfr. 3n. fIMi'A" (North-West Army) in two lines in stylised Church
Slavonic letters. Two settings were used: one for the kopek values (sheets of 100 stamps) and the other for
rouble values (sheets of 50 stamps, plus 6 coupons with interlaced Roman "V"s). Both overprints differed
slightly from each other by their dimensions and details of the design.

The date of issue of the stamps is traditionally considered as 1 August 1919 when, according to Behrsin, the
following stamps were put on sale over the counter at the Pskov PTO: 2k, 5k, 10k, 15k, 20k, 25k, 50k, Ir.
and 10r. perforated and 3k, 3r. 50k. & 7r. imperforate (see Fig. 3 on the previous page). Somewhat later, a
portion of the 5-kopek value was surcharged with a new value of 10 kopeks and put on sale on 15 August.
Behrsin states that it was done to replenish the stocks of the 10-kopek stamps, which had been used up in
franking postcards (supplementary to the 5-kopek die on the Kerenskii-type postcards) and for printed matter
(see the postal rates above). However, in his "The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923", vol. 3, parts 1-
2/1981 & parts 19-21, 22-24/1991, Dr. R. Ceresa doubts that version, believing that the stamps were
surcharged at the instigation of stamp dealers to create a new variety.

The quantities of stamps issued were the following (the figures reported by Behrsin and repeated by Weiner,
Hurt & Ojaste, as referenced previously and also Michel, should be considered as the most reliable):-
2 k. 9000; 3 k. 10,600; 5 k. 14,600 (i.e. 29,600 less 15,000 surcharged 10 kop.); 10 k. 8400; 15 k. -
7600; 20 k. 8400; 25 k. 5800; 50 k. 9700; 1 r. 8850; 3r.50k. 3200; 5 r. 7050; 7 r. 1000; 10 r.-2650.
All overprints were done in black, except for the 10-kopek stamp, which received a red overprint, as a black
overprint would not contrast with the deep blue colour of the basic stamp.

According to Behrsin, after the overprinting process was completed, the lithographic stones were destroyed.
However, some authors, e.g. A. Rosselevitch (see "Rossica" No. 51/1957, pp. 42-48, No. 55/1958, pp. 26-
29) assert that a number of sheets coming from private hands was overprinted as well. Such stamps (if they
exist) have not been taken into account in the figures stated just above and, having been overprinted from the
same stones and with the original ink, can hardly be distinguished from the main printing.
December, 1995

Moreover, if this information, as well as the statement of Behrsin about the destroyed stones, are correct,
those "private" sheets would have been printed together with those from the postal stocks, i.e. there could
have been no "second printing", as Dr. Ceresa believes.

All the stamps listed above exist with inverted overprints (see Fig. 4 on p. 51). Behrsin claims that only one
sheet of each face value was overprinted in such a way and Rosselevitch suggests still lesser quantities: 25
copies of each. However, a reciprocal comparison of stamps with genuine inverted overprints shows that, for
some face values (e.g. 2k., 3k., 25k. & 50k.), there should exist in any case at least two such sheets. The 10-
kop. surcharge is known inverted as well on stamps with the NWA overprint also inverted, i.e. with both the
overprint and surcharge inverted. All that strongly supports the supposition that the inverts were made

.-_ ...... Initially, the stamps of high roublee)
S.;.-, ;. -- face values were intended to be
S overprinted in red. However, after a
proof sheet of each of the Ir., 3r. 50k.,
5r. & 7r. stamps was overprinted, this
S" / idea was abandoned and the further
Soverprinting continued with black ink.
Most catalogues treat these stamps as
.. -2 trials. Nevertheless, Behrsin reports that
Si they were put on sale over the counter
at the Pskov PTO and K. Freyman (see
.7-" '. ( "BJRP" No. 7/1951, pp. 138-139) adds
"/. -, < ".z / that they were sold out in an hour. It is
.-4 / now impossible to establish how it
.-Y / actually happened, but at least two
.. 'registered covers were franked with
Sa I r. stamp in red, which made their
S / o .-- a way through the post from Pskov to
S 7 R, Tartu, bearing departure and arrival
Fig. 5. postmarks and a censor mark of the
Estonian censorship office in Tartu
(see Fig. 5 above). Moreover, an obviously philatelic cover to Estonia exists, registered at Pskov and franked
all four values bearing the red overprints. Consequently, such stamps were accepted for postage and should
not be treated as mere trials.

There also exists a number of minor varieties, such as overprints shifted in either direction (2k., 3k., 5k.,
10k./5k., 50k.& Ir.), overprints offset (10k./5k., 50k., lr. & 3r. 50k.), overprint on the back of the stamp
(2k.), basic stamps without varnish lines or with them on both sides (5r.), with shifted background (50k.),
with background printed on the back (20k.), etc.

As the numbers of overprinted stamps were relatively small, most of them are characterized by a nearly
constant shade of colour, or sometimes two slightly different shades. This circumstance makes easier the
expertising of the NWA overprints, permitting a judgement about their genuineness without a thorough
examination. The variety of a distinct shade is found only on the Ir. stamp: a reddish-yellow centre instead of
the common orange-red. In addition, the NWA overprints were extensively forged and there exist a great
number of very different types of forgeries: from qtiite primitive to exceptionally dangerous (see the handbook
by Dr. R. Ceresa: "The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923", vol. 3, parts 1-2/1981 & parts 19-21, 22-
December, 1995

Quite apart from the stamps listed above, which
are considered as having been officially issued, a
B...3,d. few other stamps are to be found mentioned in
the catalogues (i.e. Scott) as never placed in use.
,,a-, They are the values of 20k./14k. surchargedd in
1917) and the imperforate 1k., 2k., 5k., 15k.,
35k., 70k. and Ir. (see Fig. 6 herewith).
According to the most reliable sources
(I. Weiner, V. Hurt and E. Ojaste), their
numbers were only 300; 500; 200; 100. 300;
50; 300 and 100 copies respectively. Their true
a origin still remains unclear. Behrsin did not
mention them, but "remembered" about them a
a, few years later. According to his evidence, the
Fig. 6. basic stamps allegedly came from a provincial
post office, were overprinted by oversight and, after having been discovered, were confiscated by him, sealed
in a package and sent to the Postal & Telegraphic Department of the Army HQ. Behrsin also asserted that
there was only one sheet of each value.

There are some doubts concerning this version. While the imperforate stamps mentioned above are found only
mint, a couple or more local postcards cancelled in Pskov and franked with the 20k./14k. stamp, among other
values, are known from auction sales. Notwithstanding the dubious origin of such postcards (see hereunder),
the fact is that there was also a quantity of the 20k./14k. stamps in the stocks of the Pskov PTO. Furthermore,
there are values among the "unofficial" imperforate stamps (2k., 5k., 15k. & Ir.) that were officially released
perforated also, while the 20k./14k. stamp had an official analog: the 20k. perforated stamp. However, only
the face value of a stamp and not its method of manufacture was essential for the postal service. Therefore,
one can hardly understand why these stamps should have been confiscated. These considerations, together
with other inconsistencies in the account by Behrsin give rise to a strong suspicion that the issue itself and
particularly its distribution were influenced by stamp dealers and other interested persons.

Up to the present, the NWA stamps were believed to have been put on sale initially only in Pskov and sent
from there to other post offices in the area, including the remainders evacuated from Pskov when that town
was abandoned at the end of August 1919. However, a document found in the archives lets us look at this
problem quite differently. This document, an official letter from the head of the NWA Postal & Telegraphic
Department to the head of the Estonian Main Postal Administration and sent under No. 179 with the date 31
July 1919, reads in a free translation of the Russian:-

"I have the honour to inform you that, at the Field Post & Telegraphic Office in Ivangorod, the sale of
Russian postage stamps, as well as those of Estonia, has been organised for servicemen, who wish to use
some of them during trips to the area occupied by the North-West Army. Moreover, the sale of the same
stamps is contemplated to collectors".

This letter does not specify which stamps, but they could hardly have been unoverprinted Imperial stamps or
those of the OKCA (see hereunder), which to all appearances came to light several weeks later. The date of
this letter, just one day before August Ist., leads to the almost inevitable conclusion that they were the stamps
with the NWA overprint being sold at the FPTO. The fact of selling the NWA stamps at the FPTO can
explain also the inconsistencies in the report by Behrsin about the so-called "unofficial" stamps: some of them
could have been sold through the FPTO. Finally, this letter confirms the surmise about the philatelic
background of the NWA issue.

December, 1995

Fig. 7.

Fig. 8.

In any case, the quantity of NWA stamps issued was too small to satisfy the actual postal needs in the long
term, the more so as a great part of them had been purchased by stamp dealers and philatelists. Hence, the
need for definitive was real. The so-called OKCA issue of five stamps should be considered as such
definitive. The face values of the stamps: 5k. violet, 10k. blue, 15k. yellow, 20k. rose and 50k. green (see at
top in Fig. 7), corresponded with the OKCA/NWA postal rates. Although there were no stamps for ordinary
inland letters or for the inland registration fee, the relevant rates could easily have been met with a
combination of two values, e.g. 15k. + 20k. or 15k. + 50k. respectively. It seems that the printing of the
OKCA stamps was ordered at the end of June 1919, just when the postal rates had been approved. The choice
of the printing shop, that of B. Mans, seems logical as well, since it was located in the same street (Lai, or
Shirokaya in Russian) as the OKCA headquarters, at a distance of about 300 metres (roughly 333 yards)
away. Their designs had evidently been completed a little earlier, when the North Corps had still been in
existence and not the North-West Army.

The date of issue of the OKCA stamps remains still undetermined. According to I. Weiner (see his
"Verzeichnis der Briefmarken, Ganzsachen und provis. Abstempelungen Eesti's", Tallinn 1934-1939), it was
20 August 1919. However, the earliest postmarks found on these stamps are from the second half of
September. Notwithstanding, the latter circumstance is no indication that the stamps could not have been

December, 1995


-*h ~:
II 4i' ~8~~

released in August. Evidently, the stamps first went on sale in August at the NWA FPTO, when it did not
have its own date canceller yet. In any case, the OKCA stamps should be considered as the second (definitive)
issue of the NWA Postal Administration, i.e. catalogued after the stamps with the NWA overprint.

The OKCA stamps were typographed in sheets of 200, divided into two panes of 100 units, turned upside-
down relative to each other to form horizontal tete-beche pairs, shifted vertically more or less (see Fig. 8 on
the previous page). They are found on different grades of paper of varied thickness and are usually divided for
catalogue purposes into those on wove and those on pelure paper, although there are still differences in paper
density, structure etc. within each group. There are as well different shades of colour for the basic stamps.
The 5k. and 10k. stamps exist only on wove paper and the 50k. stamp only on pelure paper. The 20k. stamp is
found on wove and pelure paper in about an equal proportion. All those varieties are common. The 15k.
stamp also exists on both sorts of paper, but the pelure paper variety is extremely scarce. A number of minor
varieties of the OKCA stamps, such as full or partial offsets, cliche varieties etc. are also known.

The overall number of OKCA stamps is reported to have been 3 million copies, according to G.H. Jaeger, but
the distribution between particular face values is unknown. There are also sound grounds for believing that,
after the collapse of the North-West Army, the Mans printing shop made new, unofficial printings of these
stamps from the same plates, in response to the demands of stamp dealers. However, it is hardly possible
nowadays to distinguish these new printings from the original one. There also exist forged OKCA stamps,
differing from genuine copies by some features of the designs (see the work by Dr. Ceresa, cited previously).

: |- 1 -
i.'- L


Among the various proof impressions of the OKCA stamps on different kinds of paper, including with text on
the reverse, trial printings of currency stamps are of particular interest. Such tokens printed on thick card
would have the design of the relevant postage stamp on the front and the Russian inscription "Has circulation
on a par with coinage" and the Imperial coat of arms on the back. However, trial copies printed on both sides
have not been found up to the present. Combinations have survived where the front and back designs of the
50k. token have been printed on the same side of the sheet, opposite each other in vertical tete-beche form
(see Fig. 9 just above). That points to the fact that the tokens were intended to be printed on the front and
back from two separate plates, in two operations at the same time, but, in the case illustrated here, only one
side of a few sheets had been completed when the printing process had been cut off.

Trials only of the 50k. token have been found on two grades of card (smooth and rough) and in two colours:
light green as on the postage stamps and blue-green. The 20k. stamps also exist printed on card, but as only
the front design has been found, it remains unknown whether they are unfinished currency tokens or merely
trials of postage stamps.

3. Postal usage of the NWA and OKCA stamps.
There is no doubt that the NWA and OKCA stamps were legally used for postage. In addition to numerous
copies of used stamps, loose or on pieces (mostly cancelled-to-order, but also genuinely used), there exists a
number of covers and postcards franked with these stamps. If we set aside clearly faked items and philatelic
covers of a souvenir character, which had never been delivered in a normal postal way (see A. EpStein,

December, 1995

"Rossica" No. 124/1995, pp. 62-69). there were sending which made their way through the post. Although
many of them were mailed by philatelists and stamp dealers, there also survived a very limited number of
entire, representing the normal mail of private individuals.

The question that still remains open is about the area where both issues were used postally. When the stamps
with the NWA overprint were released, the area occupied by the North-West Army was limited to a rather
narrow strip of the Petrograd and Pskov provinces, east of the River Narova and the lakes of Peipus and
Pskov. This area contracted still more by the beginning of September, when Pskov and the territory around it
had been lost by the Whites. Moreover, a part of Russia freed from the Bolsheviks north of the Narva-
Petrograd Railway to the Gulf of Finland, was occupied by the 1st. Estonian Division; the North-West Army
had no administrative power over that territory. True, during the October offensive towards Petrograd, rather
large territories were occupied by the North-West Army. G.H. Jaeger states that great quantities of the
OKCA stamps were allegedly delivered to post offices in that area, including Gatchina, Strugi Belye etc. and,
after the failure of the offensive, the stocks of stamps became trophies of the Red Army. Again, however,
there is not a single piece of evidence that the OKCA stamps were actually used in that area. Taking into
account the short time (about one month) during which the main events in the rapid offensive and no less
rapid retreat took place, one can hardly believe that any regular postal service could have been organised there
during such a short period.

Thus, to determine the probable area of usage of the NWA and OKCA stamps, one should look for the post
offices situated in the above-mentioned territory that the North-West Army held steadily during August-
November 1919. According to the information drawn from the Imperial Postal Guide, 1916 edition, and the
official Postal & Telegraphic Journal for 1916-1918, the following postal establishments were located in the
territory under consideration, although it is doubtful that all of them were actually functioning in the second
halfof 1919:- STAMPS OF

Petrograd Province
TAOB'b (a)

Gdov (a)
Dobruchi (b)
Dolgaya Mel'nitsa
Koz'ya Gora
Simanskii Log


December, 1995

-IL-II- vV~


5LMBYPF- (c)

Pskov province
nICKOBs (rFOB'b)-
HAPBA (H o6paTHo) (d)

Spitsynskaya Rudnitsa
Yamburg (c)

Pskov 1
Pskov Railway Station
Pskov (Gdov)-Narva and
reverse: TPO/RPO (d)




Designations: PTO = Post & Telegraphic Office
PTB = Post & Telegraphic Branch (sub-office)
PB = Postal Branch (sub-office)
(a) = Used the circular date cancellers of Polna.
(c) = There are doubts about the genuineness of this canceller.

SPO = Railway Station Post Office
TPO/RPO = Travelling Post Office

(b) = Only manuscript cancellations known.
(d) = Used a datestamp of TPO No. 126.

In the above listing, the known cancellations on the NWA and OKCA stamps are marked with an "X".

Let us consider now in more detail the several postmarks found up to the present on the NWA and OKCA
stamps (occasionally also on unoverprinted Imperial stamps and postal stationery cards).

This oval postmark (see Fig. 10a on the next page) is usually found on the OKCA stamps, more seldom on the
NWA stamps cancelled-to-order, as well as on philatelic covers which were not delivered postally (the so-
called Sturm covers; see A. Epstein, "Rossica" No. 124/1995, pp. 62-69 for details), with dates from
September to December 1919. There are also covers franked both with the NWA or OKCA and Estonian
stamps, the latter being cancelled at the Estonian post office in Narva, in accordance with the prescribed order
(see above). Such covers, although genuinely delivered by the post, are as a rule philatelic in character. There
may also exist postally used covers with the NWA or OKCA stamps only, or stampless sending of
servicemen, postmarked with this datestamp and addressed to places in the area under NWA occupation, but
no examples have been found yet. There also exist several forgeries of this postmark.
B. Pskov PTO.
As Pskov was the main distribution centre of the NWA stamps, the bulk of used items is found with Pskov
cancellations. Most of them are cancelled-to-order, a small quantity used on letters or cards, with philatelic
entire substantially prevailing. There are two main groups of such entire mostly offered in auctions.

December, 1995


Fig. 10.

(b) (c)

(i) (i)

C.-3. A


Fig. 10.

December, 1995


( 9 1119)


1 25
S 121 iH.1919.


Fig. 11.

The first group is composed of covers addressed to Jaeger, a well-known stamp dealer in Leepaja (now
Liepaja in Latvia), or to other persons in the same town, but all addressed in the same hand. All such covers
are franked with a set of stamps regardless of the rate and notated by hand as registered, but have neither R-
labels nor R-handstamps with the number written in. This circumstance excites no wonder if one remembers
that, as mentioned above, registered letters going abroad were accepted only to Estonia. These covers (I call
them Jaeger's NWA-covers, as distinct from Jaeger's OKCA-covers, see hereunder) have arrival postmarks of
Leepaja (strangely enough on the front), but there is, nevertheless, no full certainty that they were actually
delivered by post. There are other philatelic covers, sent to Latvia as ordinary letters. A peculiar feature of
such covers is that they are all prepaid at 60k. (if not franked only with a set of stamps), instead of 50k., as the
relevant rate demanded.

The second main group of philatelic entire from Pskov consists of local registered postcards (usually Imperial
or "Kerenskii" 5-kop. postcards or formula cards), where the additional franking includes rare stamps, e.g. the
20k./14k. value, or stamps with inverted overprints. There is a strong suspicion that these postcards were
made up by the Pskov PTO officials (a story that repeated itself 22 years later with the local issues of Pskov
during the German occupation in WWII; see Dr. R. Ceresa: "The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923",
vol.3, parts 1-2/1981; parts 19-21 & 22-24/1991). Again, there is a peculiarity in their franking which comes
to 65k. or 70k., instead of the required 45k. for local or inland registered postcards (i.e. the registration fee
was assessed at 50k., as for foreign mail). It appears that the NWA postal rates were poorly known at Pskov,
even to the postal clerks.

Putting aside obviously philatelic covers, including those franked with nearly complete sets of the NWA
stamps, or stamps with a face value above 1 rouble, the majority of philatelic covers, to say nothing of
ordinary or registered commercial entire from Pskov to Estonia, are franked correctly. It is also worth
mentioning that only ordinary or registered letters and postcards sent from Pskov or elsewhere have been
found. No money-transfer or parcel cards, nor letters with declared value nor printed matter have been found
up to now, although printed matter might still have survived. Hence, NWA stamps with the face values of 3r.
50k. up to 10r. used on covers are always philatelic productions.

The following datestamps were used at the Pskov PTO in August 1919 (illustrations on the previous page):-

(a) Pskov "a" (Fig. 10b). This most frequently used cancellation is found on cancelled-to-order stamps and
ordinary philatelic letters addressed to Latvia, as well as on stampless postcards from Estonian servicemen
stationed in Pskov (see Fig. 2).
(b) Pskov ".," (Fig. 10c). This cancellation is a little scarcer than the previous one and is usually found on
ordinary and registered letters to Estonia, as well as on the local registered postcards mentioned above.
(c) Pskov "a" (Fig. 10d). Known cancelling a 1-rouble NWA stamp on piece.

Dr. R. Ceresa (as referenced above) also illustrated a Pskov "t" postmark, adding that it is usually found
applied very indistinctly. I have not seen such a postmark and suspect that it is actually a Pskov "a" or "-"
cancellation with a poor impression of the serial letter.

C. Pskov Railway PO.
An oval cancellation of this post office with serial letter "a" (Fig. 10e) is known on obviously philatelic picture
postcards with views of Pskov, where NWA stamps of high face value have been stuck on the picture side, as
well as on genuinely used stamps, loose or on piece (Fig. 11; see the previous page) and on covers that have
gone through the mail.

D. Polna.
Postmarks with the text "Polna" and the serial letter "a" (Fig. I Of) are found on NWA and OKCA stamps
December, 1995

postally used or cancelled-to-order in sheets or on pieces, as well as on philatelic or commercial mail, including
as an arrival postmark, with dates from 31 August to November 1919. There is no doubt that this canceller was
actually used at the Gdov PTO, which had been completely evacuated by the Soviets without leaving there any
postage stamps and equipment. There are known a few registered covers bearing a manually designed
registration marking inscribed "Gdov" (see Fig. 12 above) and the stamps cancelled with the "Polna" postmark,
as well as covers and postcards addressed to Gdov and having "Polna" as the backstamp. Until 9 November,
when this town was captured by the Red Army, the NWA and OKCA stamps were used at Gdov in
concurrence with unoverprinted Imperial stamps and Kerenskii 5-kop. postcards, all being cancelled by the
Polna "a" datestamp. Hurt & Ojaste in their Estonia Handbook-Catalogue of 1986 illustrate another postmark
of Polna, this time with the serial letter "6", but give no details about its usage. This datestamp was most likely
used at Gdov as well, since from the beginning of September, Polna found itself just in the vicinity of the front
lines between the Whites and the Reds; thus, any postal activities were hardly possible there.

E. Chernevo. :
Fragmentary strikes with serial letter "a" have -.
been found on several loose NWA stamps, all f ,
with the same date of 2.8.19. This may be a '
philatelic usage; see Fig. 10g.

F. Dobruchi.
Manuscript cancellations are known on a
registered letter to Estonia franked with a
mix of NWA and unoverprinted Arms
stamps; see Fig. 13 herewith.

G. Dolozhsk. / 7 /- /
This postmark with serial letter "a" has been
found on a cover to Finland with a 50k.
NWA stamp, sold recently at the Kaj .
Hellman auction of 13 May 1995. n. c,..,: :....
Fig. 13.
H. Ludoni. .
This cancellation with serial letter "a" is illustrated by Dr. R. Ceresa from the article by K. Freyman in the
"BJRP" No. 7/1951, pp. 138-139, cancelling four NWA stamps on cover.

December, 1995

hi I I &M
If .17' '

IFig. 12.

;(*,Iak3 x;;,A ~ -

1. Maslogostitsy.
Another postmark from the Kurt Freyman collection, probably cancelling-to-order a Or.
NWA stamp, recorded by Dr. Ceresa as per the previous reference.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: That same value is shown here with the postmark
"MACJIOrOCTH1 bI TIETPOFP. 29.8.19 a". The gum has been washed off
the back, but it may still have originally been a cancellation-to-order (Fig. 13a).

J. Rudno.
A fragment of this PB postmark has been found on a loose 50k. NWA stamp.

Fig. 13a.

K. Staropol'e. .


This postmark with .
serial letter "a" (see
Fig. 1Oh) exists on a
few covers to Estonia .

postcard as shown ., '..... "
here in Fig. 14,
cancelling NWA .... ....
...a .t e a ... 0 ... ,- .- -- ; ._ "

Fig. 14.
L. Zadvor'e.
The postmark of Zadvor'e (see Fig. 10Oi) is recorded only on philatelic covers which have never gone through
the mails (the Sturm covers) and on loose NWA and OKCA stamps or blocks of stamps apparently removed
from such covers; see Fig. 15 at the top of the next page.

M. Yamburg.
This district centre, the other besides Gdov in the area under consideration, was held by the North-West Army
from 17 May to 5 August and then from 12 October to 14 November 1919. If any usage there of the NWA
stamps were hardly possible in the first period, those and the OKCA stamps could have been used at the town
PTO during the second period. However, not a single cover from Yamburg has been found up to now. A
postmark of Yamburg (Fig. 10j) exists on loose OKCA stamps, probably cancelled-to-order. Dr. Ceresa doubts
the genuineness of this postmark because of its unusual design. However, there are reports that the Yamburg
PTO had been evacuated with all its equipment already during the German offensive in March 1918. The
Germans did not occupy Yamburg and the post office later resumed its activities, but no cancellations of
Yamburg dating from 1918-1919 have been recorded on mail. This circumstance points to the fact that date
cancellers had not been returned to the post office in that period and thus a date canceller manufactured locally
could have been a way out of the situation. Anyway, the true character of the postmark in Fig. 10j remains

N. Moloskovitsy.
This village and railway stop is outside the area of possible usage of the NWA and OKCA stamps outlined

December, 1995

Fig. 15. .3 :

above, as the period of time during which the North-West Army held this place (12 October to 7 November)
appears too short for any regular postal service to have been organised. Nevertheless, the postmark of
Moloskovitsy with serial letter "6" (Fig. 10k) is the one most frequently found on the OKCA stamps, besides
the NWA FPTO cancellation. It exists on stamps cancelled-to-order in sheets, or on covers franked with one or
more sets of the OKCA stamps. The dates are usually 11.9.19 or 9.11.19, neither of them possible if the date
canceller were actually used at Moloskovitsy. This postmark with the date of 9.11.19 is found even on the
stamps of the Belorussian Corps of Bulak-Balakhovich, which did not appear until 1920.

The covers with the OKCA stamps cancelled Moloskovitsy were initially made up unaddressed, i.e. simply as
souvenirs. Later, some of them were provided with fictitious addresses and "arrival" postmarks of Tallinn,
struck from genuine but illegally used datestamps, or simply forged. Not even normal philatelic covers or those
of the Sturm family are known to me with this cancellation. There is almost no doubt that this canceller, having
been carried off from Moloskovitsy after the failure of the first NWA offensive in the summer, later came into
the hands of some dealer, who used it for cancelling the OKCA and other stamps to increase their value.

O. Pernov 126 Pskov.
This oval TPO/RPO postmark (Fig. 10-1) was described in my article in "The Post-Rider" No. 28/1991, pp.37-
39. It appears to have been genuinely used in the mail car from Gdov to Narva, but for auxiliary purposes, as it
did not correspond to the actual TPO/RPO number, i.e. 354.

P. Pskov 125 Pernov.
A similar postmark (Fig. 10m), but for the reverse route, is recorded only on loose OKCA stamps, including
with dates that are too early, e.g. July 1919. To all intents and purposes, this datestamp, probably of legal
origin, later fell into the hands of an unscrupulous person, similarly to the Moloskovitsy canceller.

December, 1995

In conclusion, a table with the main characteristics of the postmarks found on the NWA and OKCA stamps
which may be genuinely applied, including cancellations-to-order, is set out below:-

Outer Dim-

Recorded Period
of use in 1919.

In..T. KOH. C.-3. APM.

double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring
double ring

a 31 x 25
a 27
n 28
ji 28
a 31 x26
a 29
6 30
6 25
a ?
a ?
a 28
? 30
a 26
a 30
a 28
- 33 x 26

6.8 24.8
4.8 23.8
4.8- 24.8

The table does not include the postmarks of Moloskovitsy and TPO/RPO No. 125, which were not applied
postally. Also, a two-line marking of the FPO at the Foreign Relations Department of the NWA (Fig. 10n),
recorded on OKCA stamps cancelled-to-order in violet, which was evidentally not destined for the purpose of
cancelling postage stamps.

Peter Bylen
Ukrainian Philatelic Resources
P.O. Box 7193
Westchester, IL 60154-7193
Ukrainian Philatelic Resources initiated a series of affordable resources which would make
Ukraine's rich philatelic past accessible to the wider philatelic audience. We are nearing completion
on two other installments in our UPR series. We are also reluctant to offer subscriptions because of
our inability to predict the pace and cost of the various UPR projects. At this time, however, we can
honor advance orders for certain titles that will insure prompt delivery once they are available.
Quantity Number & Title Unit Total
Order Price Price
No. 1/Western Ukraine: A Catalog-Checklist (Peter Bylen) $5.00

No. 2/Soviet Ukraine: A Catalog-Checklist (Peter Bylen)
No. 3/Carpatho-Ukraine: A Catalog-Checklist (Peter Bylen)
Advance orders accepted for
No. 4/Belarus: A Catalog-Checklist (Bohdan O. Pauk
and Peter Bylen)



No. 5/The First One Hundred. A Catalog of Stamps of Independent
Ukraine, 1991-1995 (Ingert Kuzych) $5.00*
Total enclosed

*Advance orders will guarantee pre-publication price. Dealer inquiries welcome. All prices are postpaid for North American
orders (other destinations please add an additional $1.00 per publication). Payment strictly in U.S. currency drafts payable to
"Peter Bylen/Ukrainian Philatelic Resources".

December, 1995





by G.G. Werbizky.

'Mr. Cronin commented on the Treaty of Brest-
1-, Litovsk in "The Post-Rider" No. 36, pp. 15-19
*." and showed two interesting covers, both from
1918. Before presenting an earlier cover, some
additional historical notes are in order.
Less than a month after the Bolshevik coup,

and peace negotiations started on 9/22 Dec.
1917. After all, it was German money and
permission to cross Germany in a sealed train
/'' that gave Lenin access to Russia. Therefore,
_______ _'__ negotiations with "old friends" were to be
__The main motivation for Lenin's actions was the
fear of losing power, especially since the Germans were advancing. He was willing to give up just about any
portion of Russian territory, in order to keep power for himself as supreme dictator. An excellent book was
published in 1994, first in Russia and then in the U.S.: "Lenin", by D. Volkogonov, Free Press/Simon &
Schuster. Dr. Volkogonov is a well-known contemporary Russian historian and in the referenced book presents
an accurate and frightening image of Lenin.

The cover itself was cancelled in St. Petersburg, then Petrograd, 7.12.17. In the lower left corner, there is a
handwritten instruction in Russian, translating as "via Brest-Litovsk". In the middle of the cover, one finds a
framed "107" in violet. In his book "Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918", Mr. A. Speeckaert describes this
mark on p. 144 as follows: "Identification mark: numbers between 2 & 134; in the 'control mark' category". The
destination was Vienna in Austria. There is no return address. Upon arrival, the street/city were crossed out and
a new destination written in: Unterach am Attensee, a town on Atten Lake, located east of Salzburg. There are
no Austrian censorship markings. If one accepts this cover as genuine, (why would anyone want to forge such a
cover?), then the postal service between the newly-born Soviet Republic and the Central Powers was resumed
almost immediately after the November 1917 Bolshevik coup. Rather interesting!
by Alfred Kugel.
Re the article by Mr. Cronin on Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail,
S.. I do not have any covers reflecting the postal implications
StraBe E mit Borse. Feldpostkarte i of the treaty, but can show herewith a few items which
', //'/, / d. \ relate to the armistice between Germany and Soviet Russia
S and the negotiation of the peace terms:-

-< w" -_ __ (a) A postcard from Andrei A. Toshev, the Bulgarian
S i ,/ Minister Plenipotentiary in Vienna and one of the future
designers of the Peace Treaty, sent through the German Field
Post Office in Brest-Litovsk with serial letter "b" and

(b) A cover, illustrated at the top of the next page, with
S'-" the same field post marking "b", dated 29.2.18 and sent by
Senior Postal Inspector Sachse, a German delegate at the
(a) peace talks, to his wife in Berlin.

December, 1995

Wattenfatlllstand mit RusslaodI
Deutsche und Russigche SoldaLea
am OgInski Kanal


s-- -i
ii~- x


..r~* -.

o Va

G "1 -


"Die ersten Friedensverhandlungen
am 20. XI. 1917. Die russischen
Offiziere soeben von Front im

Coupe General von Woyrsch".

December, 1995
-i-~ -I--.



(c) A picture postcard, inscribed in German "Armistice with Russia. German and Russian soldiers on the
Oginski Canal". Should that be the Ol'ginskii Canal? See on the previous page, also for succeeding
(d) Another picture postcard, inscribed in German: "The first Peace Negotiations on 20 November 1917. The
Russian officers just from the front in the coach of General von Woyrsch".
(e) An historic card, inscribed in Russian and German: "At Brest Litovsk / Arrival of the Russian Delegation".
(f) Another historic card, inscribed in Russian and German: "At Brest Litovsk / Members of the Ukrainian
Delegation in conversation with German officers".
(g) A most interesting card, portraying the delegates to the Peace Negotiations:-
Count Ottakar Czernin von und zu Chudenitz; Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Major-General Max Hoffmann; Chief of the German General Staff and C.I.C. in the East.
Baron Richard von Kiihlmann; Imperial German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
General Pet'r Ganchev; Member of the Bulgarian General Staff, ADC to H.M. King of the Bulgarians.
Ibrahim Hakki Pasha; Envoy Plenipotentiary of H.M. the Sultan to Berlin.
Anastasiya Bitsenko; Russian Socialist Revolutionary delegate.
Adol'f Avraamovich loffe; the first leader of the Soviet Russian delegation.
Ahmet Nesimi Bey; the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs.

It would be interesting to know if fellow members have other collateral material related to this historic treaty.
by Robert Taylor.

The rate assumptions made by Mr. Cronin in his article on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No. 36 are correct
as per the tables given in "COBeTCKHui KonneKIAHOHep" No. 9 for 1971, going into effect on 10 March 1918
and in use as late as November 1918. I am showing here some photocopies of Russo-German correspondence,
almost all commercial, in the period from June to November. Most are franked correctly at the foreign rates in
effect from 10 March, although one card is at the internal rate and a couple of covers are overfranked by 10k.
or 15k. It is interesting that, from 10 March to 14 September, the external rates were quite a bit lower than the
charges for internal mail, especially for registration. Here are the details:-

(1) A postcard sent from Tula 11.6.18 to Berlin with Petrograd censor No. 8(?)17, requesting technical
information and paid at the 20-kopek internal rate: 5-kopek Kerenskii card plus 3 x 5-kopek Savings Bank
(2) A registered censored (Censor No. 439?) cover from Moscow 11.6.18, paying the proper 60-kopek
registered rate to Berlin, but not backstamped at the destination.
(3) Another 5-kopek Kerenskii card with added postage of 7 kopeks from Moscow 15.6.18 and indistinct
Moscow censor marking to Munich. Correct external rate and apparently delayed for a month, with
handwritten date 24/7.18 at top.
(4) A correctly paid registered cover from Petrograd 6.7.18 to Berlin 23.7, with a tape at right inscribed
nETPOFPAJqCKIIfJBOEHHbIHf IIOHTOBblI/KOHTPOJIb in three lines and tied with the
cachet of Petrograd Censor No. 1709.
(5) Another correctly paid registered cover from Petrograd 2.8.18 to Warnemiinde 10?.8.18 with the
cachet of Petrograd Censor 1071 and a boxed three-line German marking at top front, reading "Gepriift
und freigegeben / Uberwachungsstelle / K'dnigsberg i Pr." (Examined and passed / Supervisory Point /
Konigsberg in Prussia).
(6) A further registered letter from Moscow 27.8.18 to Berlin 11 Sept., paid at the correct rate and with
both Moscow and Berlin censorship tapes.
(7) A registered letter from Lakhta-Ol'gino 15.9.18 to Hamburg 26 Sept., censored both in Petrograd and
Kinigsberg. I have a series of covers to Schroder & Peters, all sent by a Mr. Russwurm (obviously of
December, 1995

'"*{ IO4TOBA9 KAPTOqk' 1' Q nO'ITOBA5I KAi-TOII K' .

/: .. -. ...: ? ...-..
;6~.., W-

Item 1. f Item 3.

41 14
________ te f________ron__ aI b. Ite 3-.

.---..----..-= ---. ,: >.,-- -*

Item 4: front and back._ ...._-___ __ _

I i, = ,

THE 1 T-,E, *., 37

68"" .,... Item 6: front and back.19

I4 /
--'" \Item 9: front and back.
8 ^ December, r199
~a2/2rTHER P~foSTa-RIERaMUH No 37
00 Deember 199

LY^ kA&kwf' Iki (srtt^'- *^^/ *-/ C

i tiS & -A .' ,i Item 10:
front and back

German origin, as can also be seen from the precise handwriting) in Lakhta-Ol'gino, but all the others are
cancelled from Petrograd.
(8) A registered item from Petrograd 12.10.18 to G1ittingen 26 October, again with the "Petrograd Military
Postal Control" tape at right and the K'nigsberg "Supervisory Point" cachet.
(9) Another example from the Russwurm correspondence, sent from Petrograd 19.10.18 to Hamburg 1st.
November, with tape at right tied by the Petrograd censor No. 149?, Kinigsberg cachet on the front
and overpaid by 10 kopeks (total postage of 70 kopeks; see at the bottom of the previous page).
(10) A final Russwurm item, sent from Petrograd 11.11.17 to Hamburg 23 November and treated the same
way as before, with unreadable Petrograd censor number and again overpaid by 10 kopeks (shown at the
top of this page).

I have several other covers addressed to Schrdder & Peters, the earliest dated 22 August and the latest on 11
November; the latter is the latest example of truly external mail that I have seen from Soviet Russia until 1920.

by Alexander Epitein.

I would like to add the following information to the article by A. Cronin about the Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail, as
printed in "The Post-Rider" No. 36.

The postal rates deduced from the analysis of the available sending are quite correct. However, they are not
rates specifically for mail to the Central Powers and to the former Russian lands occupied by Germany, but
general foreign postal rates of Soviet Russia, introduced as of 10 March 1918. Postal sending to the USA,
England, Switzerland, Japan and other countries are known as well franked in accordance with these rates. The
specific date of resumption of a direct postal service between Russia and Germany (including the lands
occupied by Germany, save for the Ukraine) was 8 June 1918. Only ordinary and registered letters and
postcards were allowed.

Re the map given in Fig. 1 of the article by Mr. Cronin (No. 36, p. 16), the solid line denoting the fullest extent
of German occupation is not drawn quite correctly, particularly in the Northern Caucasus. Novorossiisk was
never occupied by the Germans and they actually held a much smaller area on the Taman' peninsula. On the
other hand, Rostov, which is shown on the map outside the solid line, was occupied by German troops May 8th.

Now for some more examples of Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail (illustrations on the following pages):-

(a) An ordinary postcard sent from Or'el 11.6.18 to Riga. The total franking is 20 kopeks, i.e. according to the
internal postcard rate (see Fig. 1). The card was examined in Petrograd by censor No. 511 and by the
German censorship in Riga. There is no arrival postmark, as according to German postal regulations,
ordinary mail needed not to be postmarked on arrival.
December, 1995

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

December, 1995

(b) A registered postcard under No. 987 from Kazan' 25.6.18 to Revel' (Tallinn) 20.7.18. The total franking is
42 kopeks, i.e. in full accordance with the corresponding foreign rate (Fig. 2 on p. 70). The postcard has
markings of Moscow censor No. 33 and of the German censorship in Riga (encircled "R").
(c) An ordinary postcard sent from Kyappesel'ga, Olonets province 22.8.18 to Revel' (Tallinn; no arrival
postmark) and franked at 20 kopeks in accordance with the inland rate (Fig. 3). Censorship took place in
Petrograd (censor No. 783) and Riga. There is an inscription in pencil: "Deutsch, Russisch schreiben" =
"Write in German, Russian", since, according to the regulations, only German or Russian written messages
were permitted. Nevertheless, the card was delivered to the addressee with the text written in Estonian.
(d) An ordinary postcard sent from Novorossiisk, Black Sea province 27.8.18 to Fellin (ViljIndi) in present-
day Estonia. The franking came to 20 kopeks, as for an inland postcard (Fig. 4). Contrary to most other
sending from Russia, routed via Moscow or Petrograd on the one hand and via Riga or Konigsberg (if
to Germany) on the other, this one was from an area cut off from the main part of Soviet Russia (those
were the last days of Soviet rule in Novorossiisk; a few days later, the town was captured by the White
forces under General Denikin). The postcard was directed first to Rostov 31.8.18 under German
occupation, but administered by the Don Cossack Government under General Krasnov, with Russian
post offices continuing to function. There, it was evidently handed handed over to the German postal
system, which delivered it to the addressee. The card was examined only by the German censorship in
(e) A registered postcard mailed in Moscow at the Vindava Railway Station post office on 5.9.18 to Valk
(now Valga/Valka, a town divided between Estonia and Latvia). The registration number "22" is hand-
written and there is another number "1116", whose purpose is unclear. The total franking is 60 kopeks,
corresponding to the foreign registered letter rate (Fig. 5). Such overfranking is not understandable.
After having been examined in Moscow by censor No. 88 and in Riga, the postcard arrived in Valk on
24.9.18. The handstamp in German: "Genaue Angabe des Absenders / Ausnahmeweise befordert" =
"Accurate directions required of the sender / Delivered as an exception" point to a clause in the
Regulations, stating that the name and address of the sender should be written on the postal item.
Actually, a great number of sending, especially ordinary ones, did not follow that directive and were
without or with such a cachet or manuscript note, i.e. this rule was not strictly enforced and the German
authorities treated it rather tolerantly.
(f) An ordinary postcard sent from Saratov Railway Station post office 22.9.18 to Pernau (Pernov, now
Pmrnu in Estonia). The total franking of 12 kopeks is in full accordance with the corresponding rate (Fig.6).
The card was censored in Moscow and Riga. No arrival postmark, but the same handstamped marking
as on (e).
(g) A registered letter under No. 607, sent from Nizhnii Novgorod (1st. Post Office) 22.9.18 to Leipzig,
Germany (the arrival date in the postmark on the back of the cover is illegible). The total franking of 60k.
conforms with the foreign rate for registered letters (Fig. 7). The letter was censored in Moscow by censor
No. 24 and in K'onigsberg.

A good example of sending in the reverse direction is described below, the more so as it is from a Russian town
occupied by the Germans to another Russian town, but under the Soviet administration.

(h) An ordinary postcard sent from Pskov to Nevel' and franked at 10 Pfg., in accordance with the German
foreign rate then in force for ordinary postcards (Fig. 8). The message is dated 6 September 1918 and a
single-line marking inscribed "Pleskau" (not intended as a cancellation!) was applied at the Pskov sub-
office of the German "Postgebiet Ob. Ost". The stamps were cancelled at Valk (Valga/Valka) on 9.9.18
and the sending, after having been censored at Venden (now Cesis in Latvia), was routed via Riga to
Moscow, where it arrived on 4.10.18. After having been examined once more, now by Moscow
censor No. 69, the postcard was directed on 9.10.18 to Nevel', where it was received the same day.
Thus, it took more than a month to cover a straight-line distance of approx. 220 km. (137 miles)
that, under normal conditions, would hardly take a day!
December, 1995

Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

KA pToM-KlA 4TsSul 61.*n

....._.. .. .-.....

-. ----- .. > -- ---- -i--

Fig. 9. Fig. 10.


D r19

S. .. .. .. ------

Fig. 12.
December. 1995


F7. 7



- ;

-;- -i

The story would not be complete if we ignored the mail addressed to the parts of the Baltic area still
unoccupied by the Germans at the time of posting and not delivered in proper time for either reason. After the
occupation of the remaining parts of Latvia and Estonia, those sending were kept in Moscow and Petrograd
and delivered to the addressees only after the resumption of the postal service on 8 June 1918. See below for
some examples of such mail:-
(i) An ordinary postcard franked in accordance with the 5-kopek rate then in force (Fig. 9). Having been
postmarked in Moscow as far back as 27.12.17 O.S. (9.1.18 N.S.) and examined in Petrograd by censor No.
807, it was for some reason not despatched right away and was delayed for at least more than five months.
After having been censored in Riga by the Germans, it was delivered to the addressee in Revel' (Tallinn).
(j) A postfree ordinary postcard from the Army on Active Service, sent from Kuokkala, Finland (now Repino in
Russia) on 27.1.18 to Pernov (Pirnu in Estonia). After having been sorted by Petrograd sorter No. 122, this
card was also delayed until the resumption of the postal service between Russia and the Baltics occupied by
Germany. It was then censored in Riga and delivered to the addressee, who had in the meantime moved to
TsintenhofFactory (Sindi, near Pmirnu); see the notation by a German postal official in the lower part of the
card (Fig. 10).
(k) An ordinary postcard sent from Atamanskaya Stanitsa (a suburb of Omsk) 16.2.18 to Valk (Valga/Valka).
The franking consisted of 3 x 2-kopek stamps, i.e. the card was overfranked by 1 kopek relative to the rate
then in force (Fig. 11). This item, having been examined by Petrograd censor No. 601 (note that all the
words have been cut out of the cachet, leaving just the number of the censor, since in that period the
censorship had been officially abolished and replaced by a so-called "Military Control", essentially with
the same functions), by now could in no way be delivered to the addressee, as Valk was occupied by the
Germans on 19 February. Delivery evidently took place in June 1918 after the censorship operation in
Riga. There is also an inscription by pencil in the lower part of the card: "Absender Angabe" =
"Directions of the Sender", having the same purpose as the handstamp mentioned previously under (e).

Finally, a cover mailed after the German troops had already begun their withdrawal from the occupied
territories in accordance with the terms of the armistice of 11 November 1918 concluded in Compiegne, France
and preceded by the denouncement a couple of days before of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by Soviet Russia.
(1) An ordinary letter sent from Zhadovka, Simbirsk province 9.12.18 to the Pernov/P'rnu district in Estonia.
The total franking is 30 kopeks, i.e. in accordance with the foreign letter rate (Fig. 12). There are no transit,
censorship or arrival markings, so one can only speculate about its routing. It seems most probable that the
letter was directed as before initially to Riga, which was occupied by the Red Army on 3.1.1919.
It was not possible then to despatch the letter to the addressee, as the line of fighting between the Reds and
the national forces of Estonia and Latvia passed between Riga and Pirnu. Therefore, the letter was kept in
Riga until the second half of 1919, when postal connections were restored between Latvia and Estonia.

The concept of "Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail" may be extended to the correspondence exchanged between Soviet
Russia and the Ukraine. Although the latter was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian troops, it had its
own postal administration and postal regulations. The postal connections between Russia and the Ukraine were
restored on 17 July 1918 on the basis of a separate agreement. Ordinary and registered letters postcards and
printed matter could be delivered according to the inland postal rates of both countries. However, such mail
deserves to be the subject of a special study.

by Andrew Cronin.

Your editor is most gratified by the response of CSRP members caused by his original article on this subject in
"The Post-Rider" No. 36, as it has brought a great deal of further information to light. That has also opened up
a whole new field of postal history in our areas of collecting, as has now become evident in examing the
valuable contributions by the four authors printed immediately above in this issue of our journal. Let us look at
each of them in turn:-
December, 1995

(a) The contribution of George G. Werbizky.
His cover was properly franked at the 15-kopek foreign letter rate in force as of 15 August 1917. As the peace
negotiations were begun on 9/22 December 1917, it appears that there must have been a preliminary
announcement in the Russian press, at the very least in Petrograd, that letters addressed to the Central Powers
and endorsed "Via Brest-Litovsk" would be accepted "rnoaBaeMbie OTKphITO", i.e. presented in an open state
and the bags of mail handed over by the Russian delegation to the Central Powers on arrival in Brest-Litovsk.
Can anyone confirm that theory by consulting the contemporary Russian press and who has further examples of
mail so endorsed?

Your editor is reluctant to discuss the policies and character of V.I. Lenin, as we are primarily philatelists.
However, he has read the works of General Dmitrii Volkogonov, whose access to the now partially opened
Soviet archives has basically confirmed the conclusions reached by most Western historians as far back as 70
years ago. In short, Lenin was never the agent of anyone or anything but his own single-minded dream of a
socialist revolution. He blatantly took any money and/or help from the Germans and went on doing as he
pleased. One must not forget the classic definition of an honest politician: "One who, having been bought, stays

(b) The contribution of Alfred Kugel.
Great stuff Mail from the delegations of the Central Powers during the negotiations is particularly desirable.
The card portraying the original leaders of the various delegations is historically important, especially regarding
two personages:-

(1) Adolf Avraamovich loffe was a brilliant Karaite Jew and a close associate of L.D.(Leon)Trotskii. He and all
the other Soviet delegates were appalled at the terms of the Treaty and it was finally signed by a subordinate,
Grigorii Sokolnikov. Adol'f Avraamovich then became the first Soviet ambassador to Berlin and proceeded to
break every rule in the diplomatic book. He openly spent millions of marks during 1918 to subvert the German
government and avoid the terms of the Treaty. With "friends" like the Bolsheviks, the Germans did not need
enemies. The final straw came on 2 November 1918, when he threw a dinner party at the Soviet Embassy for
the newly released German Spartacists Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. The outraged German
government of Prince Max of Baden then deported the entire Embassy staff to Pskov on 6 November. Adol'f
Avraamovich subsequently became the Soviet ambassador to Japan and returned to Moscow in 1927, as L.D.
Trotskii was being expelled both from the Central Committee and the CPSU. Leaving a note of protest,
Comrade loffe committed suicide on 16 November 1927. For Soviet historians, he became a non-person.

(2) Anastasiya Bitsenko, whose name is spelt Biecenko on the card. On 5 December 1905, she assassinated the
former War Minister, General Viktor Viktorovich Sakharov and was sentenced to 17 years penal servitude in
Siberia. The fact that she was a woman saved her from the noose. Released after the October Revolution, she
was a Left Socialist Revolutionary member of the Soviet delegation. When the Treaty was signed, the S-Rs left
the Soviet Government and she appears to have disappeared after a demented Anarchist, Fanya (Dora) Kaplan,
seriously wounded Lenin on 30 August 1918. Your editor could not find out anything more about her and
historians appear to have regarded her with distaste as a dour murderess.

(c) The contribution of Robert Taylor.
Robert can always be depended upon to come up with fascinating material whenever points of postal history
are raised. He has confirmed the foreign rates that went into force as of 10 March 1918, as well as the incorrect
application of the higher internal rates to foreign mail. He also raises the interesting question of the latest date
for foreign mail leaving the embattled Soviet Republic at the height of the Civil War. Further discoveries,
December, 1995

(d) The contribution of Alexander Epstein.
Our Estonian collaborator is strategically placed in the Baltic area, to which an important volume of mail was
addressed during the period under discussion. As we have seen from the material presented here, he has made
excellent use of his position and possibilities. Several points made by him are most pertinent:-

(1) The resumption of a postal service to the Central Powers on 8 May 1918 and examples of Russian mail
delayed until then (his Figs. 9 to 11).
(2) Mail from the Soviet enclave of Novorossiisk until the end of August 1918, forwarded through the German
field post service in Rostov-on-Don to the destinations (Fig. 4).
(3) Mail in the reverse direction from a Russian town under German occupation to a Russian destination under
Soviet administration (Fig. 8).
(4) Mail to the Baltic area after the WWI Armistice and German withdrawal, being delayed into 1919 by the
Civil War (Fig. 12).

(e) Final notes by the editor.

i a'rnaula Esperantista soci
,,no-ntACTfl. KOTOPUR koryT ipo- .He tAa yCTana l w c l.
a30rOT yCaoein Bct. nm, acne A I ". Pa IN Mem CTpa.
pa-HTO TaK orpou..... TO Hen3 CA- nycTb COTrwau It CtM-et a (y6nT BDeIR-
arTb a TO nonbuIn". Mu T .noct eo actx yr 4q" t
11. TonCTO. EPeranto"' 3abrl / /

The present writer has a delayed postcard, somewhat similar in treatment to the example from Atamanskaya
Stanitsa in Omsk noted by Mr. Epitein (see his Fig. 11). The item shown above is an unusual card issued by

female Esperantist, it translates as follows:
"Dear female colleague, 8.3.1918.
I read in 'Esperanto' No. 202 that you wish to correspond with foreign female
Esperantists. If you want, I will correspond with you with pleasure.
My address is Barnaul, Altai province, 76 Pushkin Street, Miss Aleksandra Nikolaevna Gulyaeva".

It was mailed on 11 March with a franking of 20 kopeks, i.e. the higher internal rate rather than the new lower
foreign fee of 12 kopeks (there is a possibility that Barnaul may not have received yet a notice about the new
foreign rates). It was censored en route westwards at Omsk by Military Censor No. I / B.A.K. (struck in red at
top left: Speeckaert's Type 39 and two months past his latest date). It then apparently sat in Petrograd, where it
received a boxed identification mark No. 127 in violet at bottom right, to the left of the stamp (Speeckaert's
Type 27; see his pp. 144 & 151). According to the manuscript note at top left by the female recipient, the card
arrived on 22 October, a transit time of 225 days or more than seven months Note the boxed Dutch
postman's (sorting ?) mark, inscribed "A 415" and t typical Dutch way of writing the numeral "8": '.b

In conclusion, CSRP members are reminded that other possibilities in the delivery of mail during this turbulent
period may still be awaiting discovery. It would therefore be worthwhile rechecking ones material dating from
that particular time and any further details would be welcomed. Many thanks once again for the valuable
information furnished here by our four contributors.

December, 1995
December, 1995

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

In "The Post-Rider" No. 36, I offered an article "Final Ovals", saying that all series must come to an end. More
than one of my dear friends wrote to me saying they did not believe that for a moment; something new would
come along that I would want to share with fellow collectors. Well, I did leave the door open in case something
really important and stunning came along and it has !

Fig. 1, shown here on the next page, is probably one of the most important oval railway postmarks I have
mentioned in this series and possibly also the scarcest. It is struck on a 3-kopek Romanov postal stationery card,
addressed to St. Petersburg Province, Shlisselburg Prison and one of the cells there. The addressee was one
Yakov Davidovich Blinnikov who, as the message tells us, was the brother of the writer of the card. The brothers
were obviously Jewish and anyone who knows anything about Jews in Tsarist Russia will realise that they were
discriminated against and badly treated. The oval postmarks read KUENGA-URYUM ZAB. / PEREDV. P.O.
(Mobile Post Office in the Transbaikal Province) 24.7.13. One strike is on the imprinted 3-kopek die and the
other underneath. Neither is perfect and I am grateful as always to Philip Robinson for the improved and tidied-
up impression alongside. There are along the base of the card transit markings of St. Petersburg and part of a
Shlisselburg arrival postmark.

In this period of 1913, extensive work of improvement was being carried out on the railway from Sretensk that
skirted the Manchurian border. This was a railway postal van (Mobile P.O.) that served both the villages along
this stretch of the line and the work-gangs on the railway. Kuenga is at the exact point of the railway junction
where the line runs to Sretensk, the other branch being the main line around Manchuria. Uryum is a town further
along the Siberian line. Once the work on the line was finished, through trains and postal vans ran along it,
ending the need for a temporary Mobile P.O. Thus, the life of this postal van was very limited and we must ask if
there is a chance that another example of this postmark will surface. Knowing that much new and desirable
material is coming out, not the least from the many contacts collectors have with exchange-friends in Russia,
there is always a possibility.

The brilliant and scarce oval railway postmark is not the only stunning thing about this card and I am indebted to
my friend and philatelic colleague David Skipton for much of the information that follows here. Turning to the
back of the card, it becomes evident that Vasilii Blinnikov, the writer and brother of the addressee, was also in
trouble. He was in a forced labour chain-gang, working on the railway in the Kuenga region. Having written the
card to his brother and other associates in Shlisselburg Prison, the card had to be approved by the authorities in
charge of the gang. The supervisor applied on the reverse his handstamp, reading "HPOCMOTPEHO" =
"Examined". As this was a temporary prison-gang working there, it was a provisional handstamp issued for the
time being. It is exceedingly rare and struck in mauve. Upon arrival at the prison, the card was again checked and
there is the rectangular "IIPOCMOTPEHO/ IIJIHICCEJIBYPrCK....." marking on the back in bluish-
mauve, which is certainly more common. Russian philately is indebted to the Blinnikov brothers, one imagines
long since deceased, for this item of their correspondence. It has preserved for us a scarce card, now forming
another fragment in the vast area of Russian postal history, which we are trying to understand and catalogue.

Now, a couple more ovals. A 3-k. Romanov franks this card to Ligovo Station, St. Petersburg Province early in
1917 (Fig. 2). There are two strikes, both only fair but certainly readable, of the oval BATUM*96*BAKU with
serial letter "u" (the Russian "i"), dated 25.1.17. It is, I think, rather late for a Romanov stamp, just squeezing in
a few weeks before the February Revolution. Later usages of TPO/RPO No. 96 are known into the postfree era
of 1919-1921. Finally, a cover with two fine strikes of the unnumbered route BOROVICHI-UGLOVKA 4.1.15,
without serial letter but having a tiny star at base and addressed to Petrograd (Fig. 3). That is it for now !
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Who knows anything more about the Blinnikovs ? Were they revolutionaries ?
December, 1995


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t 7 0/ vr' Mobile P.O. oval pink.
made by P.E.Robinson.

Y.1. 7-1--- -- ---rr~--l----.--~P--L17~~ll*~--~ Ir ----- -~Z-:-ii--- i-.~n~~~~---*---- ----~- --r -r --q --- I


I1HOTA No. 18 for July 1995. A 57-page softbound magazine in A4 (legal size) format, issued by The
Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Secretary-Treasurer Terry Archer,
313 Mahurangi East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand.

This journal contains Correspondence Russia New Zealand & Australia; Readers' Follow-Ups; Reports on
FINLANDIA '95 & MOSCOW '97, Across Russia by train, New Russian Revenues, New Issues & Literature
Received, all by Dr. A.R. Marshall; Stamp Imprints on Ukrainian Postal Stationery & Russian Postal Stationery,
both by S.A. Chudakov; Drift Station NP-3 of 1954, by S. Tropin; Fake (?) Cancels of Soviet Drift Stations, by
A. Walker; Early Soviet Postal Rates, by A. Epstein; Estonian Enigma, by J.R. Tollan; Envelope Sizes & An
Unusual Cover, both by G.G. Werbizky; DBP Postal Stationery, by Col. A. Prado, to close with an Update of
Railway Postmarks, by B. Sokolov et al. An excellent issue !

3AKA3HOE Recommandirt, by Harry von Hofmann. A softbound Addendum to the original German version
of 1993 in 16.5 x 24 cm. format, consisting of 80 pages of excellent English translation as done by P.E. Robinson
(see also p. 22 of this issue). Available from the author at DM 22,- plus postage or from Mr. Robinson.

We have previously reviewed this seminal work by Harry von Hofmann and the English translation will be of
great use internationally, coupled with the truly excellent talk that Mr. von Hofmann gave on the subject on 12
May 1995 during "FINLANDIA '95" and reproduced in this issue of our journal by his kind permission. Armed
with all that knowledge, one can face unafraid the fascinating world of Russian registration procedures.

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area) No. 26 for June 1995. A 77-page softbound journal in A4
format, issued by the Dutch Society of the same name. All enquiries to the Secretary, A.C. de Bruin, Ten
Passeweg 10A, NL 8084 AN't Harde, Holland.

This number has Society Notes; Unusual "Postgebiet Ob. Ost" Reply Paid Cards (wonderful!), by A.C. de Bruin;
Russian Postal Censorship in the Baltics 1914-1917 (very comprehensive!), by A. Epstein; Postal Developments
in Present-Day Estonia, by J. van Heeswijk; New Developments in Latvia, Place names in Baltic Postal History
& Literature Reviews, all by R.W. van Wijnen; Mistakes in Soviet Latvian Markings, by J. Ozoligi, to end with
Stamps of Latvia-Part V, by the late Jan Poulie. Some very solid work here.

HISTORIA POSTAL DE LA DIVISION AZUL (Postal History of the Spanish Blue Division), by Manuel
Vizquez Enciso. A 382-page softbound book in 16.5 x 24 cm. format and available from Lindner Filatdlica S.A.,
Felix Boix 3, 28036 MADRID, Spain. No price stated.

This beautifully produced book is in Spanish throughout and printed on high quality paper. It is very easy to
follow because of the hundreds of clear illustrations. Some of them are astounding, including one of a cover sent
by a Spanish serviceman to Madrid from Berlin on 28.4.45, just three days before that city fell to the Soviet
Army This study is most certainly the definitive work on the subject, written by a Ph.D. and Professor of
December, 1995

Telecommunications Engineering. The author is also a noted Spanish philatelist, a member of the Executive
Committee of the Philatelic Society of Madrid and a frequent exhibitor in his country.
Our member, Salvador Bofarull of Madrid, is acknowledged for his article on the same subject "A Brief Military
and Postal History of the Spanish Blue Division", published in "The Post-Rider" No. 23. This present work is
most highly recommended for postal historians working in that area and/or German WWII military posts.

HCTOPH5I MOCKOBCKOit nHOqTbI (History of the Muscovite Post), by M.A. FHdorovich, A.F. Orlova
& A.G. Medvetskii. Two softbound volumes in A5 (large paperback) format, totalling 400 pages and issued in
cooperation with the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow 1993 in an edition of 5000 copies. No price stated.

As the title implies, the approach of this work is primarily historical, starting from the 9th. century. Some
interesting early documents, seals and letters are shown and a mass of facts given. Most interesting, but a more
detailed and systematic attention to postal history would have increased immeasurably its appeal to us.

MHP MAPOK (The World of Stamps 1992-1994). A booklet of 32 pages in A5 (paperback) format, published
by A. CTpbIrHH, 123056 MOCKBA, B. Fpy3HHCKaa g. 62, KB. 78 (Russia).

This issue contains a range of philatelic articles in Russian and a catalogue of CIS issues for the 1992-1994
period. Interested readers should write to the publisher for further details and succeeding numbers of this journal.

SOVIET DIARY 1927 AND OTHER WRITINGS, by Sergei Sergeevich Prokofev. A hardbound book of
315 pages, issued by Northeastern University Press, Boston 1992.

This great Russian composer, whose death on 5 March 1953 was overshadowed by that of I. V. Stalin 15
minutes later, had left Russia as a result of the revolutions and did not return permanently until 1936. He did
come back to Russia for short stays in the interim, particularly for recitals in the period 19 January to 23 March
1927. A confirmed diarist, the book is mainly an account of that stay. The sense of ever-increasing anxiety and
fear as Stalin relentlessly consolidated his power, is apparent from the guarded notes of the composer. Five
stories and an autobiography written by him are also included, as well as an introduction by his son Oleg, who
now lives in London. The fascinating picture emerges of a highly gifted, patriotic and quirky man. One does not
have to be a musician to appreciate what he says in presenting a stark picture of his times. See also Journal Fund.
Orders should be made out to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W1P2. All previous
titles are unfortunately sold out.

SOVIET DIARY 1927 & OTHER WRITINGS, by S.S. Prokofev. A fascinating book by this great composer,
including interesting illustrations and pertinent comments. Limited supply Price postpaid USD 9.50.

DOWN THE VOLGA IN A TIME OF TROUBLES, by Marq de Villiers. Written in last months of the USSR
with much data for Volga River postal historians. Fascinating! Published at $27.95. Price postpaid USD 9.50.

by I.I. Kreving, Moscow 1889. Russian text reprint. Of historical interest! Price postpaid USD 4.00.

RUSSIA ZEMSTVOS, by F.G. Chuchin. The English edition, reissued by John Barefoot in 1988 with clear
illustrations of all issues in right places. Cerlox binding & handy very reference. Price postpaid USD 18.00.

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA, Vol. 12,1986 with entry about Philately & two pages in colour of
Armenian stamps & foreign related items.In Armenian & great conversation piece! Price postpaid USD 16.00.
December, 1995

Are you still missing that elusive item from your '
collection or philatelic library? Do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell? We can publicise your want-list or duplicates
for the extremely reasonable rate of .25 per line,
with a minimum of $1.00 and a maximum of 16
lines. Ads from collectors only are requested. z
The Society disclaims any responsibility for any
misunderstandings between exchanging parties.

FOR a study of Georgii Maksimilyanovich Malenkov, Stalin's successor as Prime Minister of the USSR. I would
appreciate any details of his medical history or personal life.
GEORGE M. WELLER, 1130 Griffith Avenue, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, U.S.A.

OFFERING postage stamps, booklets, envelopes, blocks, small sheets, FDCs, postcards, phone cards, coins,
banknotes of Moldova, other CIS & USSR. Tel.: (0373-32) 31885; Fax: (0373-32) 26830.
GENNADI UZDENSKII, P.O. Box 179, 278100 BENDERY-15, MOLDOVA, Europe.

WANTED: Covers, postcards, AR-cards, newspaper wrappers, bookpost wrappers & any other postal history
material of new republics of former USSR 1992-1995. Especially wanted are correspondence chess cards and
newspaper wrappers. Please write with prices.
PAUL BUREGA, 16 Aldgate Crescent, Nepean, Ont., Canada K2J 2G4.

WANTED: (1) Bugulma Zemstvo 1-38 numeral overprints. Any issue. Mint or used. Singles or Multiples.
Double, triple, inverted and other overprint varieties of particular interest. Would also like to correspond with
other collectors of these issues. Bugulma Zemstvo Chuchin Nos. 8,11,15 & 16 in full sheets or blocks of any
size.(3) Wish to correspond with anyone having or knowing the whereabouts of a complete or partial copy of the
Schmidt & Faberge Catalogue of 1907-1916. It appeared in 20 sections, comprising two volumes of more than
800 pages and covered the districts Akhtyrka to Luga. Please write to:
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55412, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers from Klaip6da (Memel) Lithuania, from all times but especially the period of Soviet control
(1945-1900). Please send photocopies with prices.
DAVID LINK, 14745-51 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6H 5E6. Tel.: (403) 482-6667.

WANTED: Covers Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroads and Baltic Forerunners. Buy or trade. Please send
photo or description and price to:
M.R. RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

MY newly revised and greatly expanded (130 pages) Philatelic Library Listing has been published.The cost is
US$ 6.00, deductible from first order of over US $ 30.00. Many low-cost but excellent reprints are available.
ALEX. SADOVNIKOV, P.O. Box 210073, San Francisco, California 94121-0073, U.S.A.
reprint of this rare work, covering the first postal code system in the world. Published in Khar'kov in 1932, with
thousands of POs arranged both alphabetically and numerically. Price USD 20.00 postpaid anywhere.
All orders to The Canadian Society of Russian Philately, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont. M5W 1P2, Canada.
December, 1995

Vol. 3 Kolomna Novouzensk

The first three volumes covering the following districts are

Vol. 1 Akhtyrka Byezhetsk
Vol. 2 Chembary Kologriv
Vol. 3 Kolomna Novouzensk

For your copies send $30. (US) each to P.O. Box 5722,
Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1 P2. Please
make your remittance payable to Alex Artuchov.

3AKA3HOE Recommandirt
The Imperial Russian registered post from the beginning of the 19th century
until the end of the First World War in 1918
by Harry v. Hofmann
published 1993 in German language,
now available with an completely translated English language addendum
translated by P. E. Robinson, FRPSL

German version with 320 pages 16,9 x 24 cm with more than 240 illustrations and English addendum of 80
pages, both volumes softbound DM 90,-- (circa 40 or US-$ 68) plus postage.

The early period Rekomendovano 3AKA3HOE The St.Petersburg Registration marks Additional Foreign
Registration labels The Registration labels of 1899 "3" labels and "R" labels of the U.P.U. type A new type
of "R" labels The Double Registration labels Temporary improvisations The "numerator" cachets With
advice of delivery To be delivered by postal notification Registration for the serving of writs From the letter
box With corrections Redirection "spravka" Registered at telegraph offices Acceptance at sub-post offices
- The railway post Ship mail Used abroad Registered field post "Self-registration" Registration machines
- The "mute period" during the World War I Registered letters and war censorship The rubber registration
marks of 1916-18 Receipts Cash on Delivery Packets and small packets Zemstvos Investigation and
compensation The Russian post in Poland (The Russian post in Finland, only as a note) Postal exchange
during the war Late usage.


Harry v. Hofmann Verlag
Postfach 52 05 18
D-22595 Hamburg

Please supply

copy/copies "3AKA3HOE Recommandirt"
German edition plus English addendum DM 90,- (circa 40 orUS-S 68)*
copy/copies "3AKA3HOE Recommandirt"
German edition only DM 68,-- (circa 30 or US-$ 50)*
copy/copies "3AKA3HOE Recommandirt"
English addendum only DM 22,- (circa 10 or US-S 18)*

plus postage

Please do not send money in advance and wait for the invoice which will be send together with the bookss.

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