Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Collecting in our...
 Correspondence with Canada
 The life and times of Georgi Mikhailov...
 This most monstrous atrocity
 Gor'kii and the red ants
 Philatelic irredentism in...
 The fiscal stamps of the Russian...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Russian postal mail from Roumania...
 Observations on the postal rates...
 Oval railway postmarks - VI
 Mail to "Der Staats-Anzeiger" in...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The collectors' corner
 The journal fund
 Back Cover

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00034
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Collecting in our field
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    The life and times of Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    This most monstrous atrocity
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Gor'kii and the red ants
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Philatelic irredentism in our sphere
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The fiscal stamps of the Russian zone on crete
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Russian postal mail from Roumania (1916-1918)
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Observations on the postal rates in the Ukraine 1918-1920 (Corrigenda)
        Page 66
    Oval railway postmarks - VI
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Mail to "Der Staats-Anzeiger" in Bismarck, North Dakota
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Review of literature
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    The collectors' corner
        Page 88
    The journal fund
        Page 88
    Back Cover
        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text


No. 34

me, 1994

p %td h Cn mwd


P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,

"The Post-Rider" No. 34.

June 1994.


Editorial: Collecting in our Field
Correspondence with Canada
The Life & Times of Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov
This most monstrous atrocity
Gor'kii and the Red Ants
Philatelic Irredentism in our Sphere
The Fiscal Stamps of the Russian Zone on Crete
Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
Russian Postal Mail from Roumania (1916-1918)
Observations on the Postal Rates in the
Ukraine 1918-1920 (Corrigenda)
Oval Railway Postmarks VI
Mail to "Der Staats-Anzeiger" in Bismarck,
North Dakota
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
The Collectors' Corner
Journal Fund

Andrew Cronin
Ya. Afangulskii
Andrew Cronin
P. J. Campbell
Andrew Cronin
Andreas Mitakis
Alex Artuchov
Alexander Epstein
Alexander Epstein
Rev. L. L. Tann
Matt Hedley and
Andrew Cronin

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make this
an interesting issue.
(1994. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All
rights reserved. All the contents of this issue are copyright and
permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.





Collecting in our Field

Years ago, when ye olde editor was a young philatelist, it was accepted that assembling a collection was not
an investment but rather an unavoidable expense. In short, most collections sold for somewhat less than they
had cost to put together. The deficit was supposed to be offset by the pleasure derived from collecting in the
first place. After all, how many hobbies were there, where one could get some of one's money back? In the
rare case where one succeeded in recouping all the money invested in a collection, that philatelist was a source
of envy.

Times have changed greatly since then, as philately has become much more widespread and the appreciation
of postal history has added a huge new dimension to the hobby. Even in these recessionary times, careful and
selective buying over a period of time in one's chosen field will eventually result in an excellent return on the
money invested. Basically, what it all boils down to is the assembly of a coherent collection and not just an
accumulation. In our fields especially, the classification of the material acquired into clearly identified
categories is vitally important. If one's findings are then published, they help to create a climate of interest and
the realisations will be most gratifying.

Probably the best and most extreme example is a registered newspaper wrapper in the M. V. Liphschutz
collection, sent from the Russian post office abroad at Ulangom, Mongolia 23.5.17 to Petrograd. It was
written up in "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad" by Tchilinghirian & Stephen and Mikhail
Vladimirovich told your editor that he had originally bought the item some thirty six years ago from a dealer
in Paris for the equivalent of US$20.00. None of us knew at the time that it would turn out to be a unique
usage, as no further examples of this marking have since been found, even on loose Russian stamps. This
spectacular item was sold on 19 February 1994 at the Harmers International Fourth Liphschutz Sale in
Lugano, Switzerland for sFr. 320,000.-, exclusive of the 15% buyer's premium, i.e. for roughly
US$224,000.00 The buyer was probably from one of the Pacific Rim countries, where interest in Asian
postal history is at an all-time high. Mikhail Vladimirovich regarded this piece as the star item in his collection
of Used Abroad material.

In conclusion, the basic lesson to be learned from the above example is that, despite the current political
turmoil in the former Soviet Union, our fields of collecting are in the forefront of international philately and
we do not need to defer to others in the pursuit of our interests.





"Correspaodence with Canada" is a regular feature .
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it Bb
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph KaHany
or xerox copy of the item, along with sme expla-
natory text to the Editor.

by Andrew Cronin.

"". ..... ." -" . "" ..- ..; .

...-........... .... ............

The illustration shows a 5-kop. Kerenskii card, which has been devalued to a blank status by a double-lined
rectangular cachet in violet, 35x46.5 mm., showing the arms of the RSFSR and the abbreviated motto
"Workers of all countries, unite!", all enclosed in a circle.Below that is a three-line inscription, reading:
BJIAHK BepXHO-Bonixcoro OKpyra CBa3bI (Blank of the Upoer Volga District of Communications).

A fee of 12 kop. was paid in "Small Heads" stamps, gold currency standard, to send the card from Nizhnii-
Novgorod 17.2.25 to Fort Fraser, B.C., Canada. That was the rate for a surface card going abroad, in
accordance with the first series of tariffs fixed after the inflationary period and in force from 16 October 1923
to 30 September 1925.

These "blank" cachets are known from a variety of postal districts in the early Soviet period and classifying
them remains as a project yet to be tackled. There are probably some rarities in the field and volunteers for the
job would be gratefully accepted.

IN )"


by Ya. Afangulskii.

20ANSFIR Dimitrov: I have not only been roundly abused by the
191 press something to which I am completely indifferent -
7 but my people have also been characterized through me as
barbarous and savage. I have been called a suspicious
W4 O character from the Balkans and a wild Bulgarian. I
odLEMa cannot allow such things to pass in silence....... Only
5BWm uAGs Fascism in Bulgaria is barbarous and savage. But I ask
G fraRo
-d3s NRBULGARIA you, Mr. President, in what country are the Fascists
-.. -... .......... not barbarous and savage?
President of the Court: Are you attempting to refer to the situation in
Dimitrov: Of course not, Mr. President. At a period of history when the
German Emperor Karl V vowed that he would talk German only to his horse,
at a time when the nobility and intellectual circles of Germany wrote
only in Latin and were ashamed of their mother tongue, the Saints Cyril
and Methodius invented and spread the use of Old Bulgarian script in my
"barbarous" country......
(G. M. Dimitrov at the Reichstag Fire Trial, Leipzig, Germany, 16.12.1933).
In Bulgarian usage, the patronymic is shortened to end either in -ev or
-ov as shown in the title to this article. One does not "itch" in
Bulgarian. We shall see two other such examples later on.

I. -- I* I -- -

Georgi Dimitrov has been the subject of four Soviet stamps, as shown here.
The first two were issued on 2 July 1950, on the first anniversary of his
death, the third on 16 June 1972 (90th. anniversary of his birth) and the
fourth on 25 April 1982 (the centenary of his birth). He was born in
Kovachevtsi, Bulgaria on 18 June 1882 and by the age of 20 was already a
member of the Bulgarian Workers Social Democratic Party. That organisation
became the Communist Party of Bulgaria in 1919 and he was a delegate to
the Third Congress of the Comintern in 1921 in Moscow. By 1923, he had to
leave Bulgaria and was sentenced to death in absentia in 1926 for his
political activities. He became a professional revolutionary and, as such,
was arrested in Berlin on 9 March 1933, together with two compatriots and
associates, Blagoi Simeonov Popov and Vasil Konstantinov Tanev. All three
were in Germany illegally, Dimitrov and Tanev with forged passports
supplied by a workshop of the German Communist Party. Together with Ernst
Torgler, a Communist deputy to the Reichstag, they were charged with
complicity in setting fire to the Reichstag in Berlin on 27 February 1933.
That despite the fact that a young, intelligent but severely deranged
Dutch drifter, Marinus van der Lubbe, had been caught in the act and had
readily confessed to the crime, as a protest against the recent accession
to power of the Nazis in Germany.

The Reichstag Fire enabled Adolf Hitler to become sole master of Germany,
as the Nazis claimed that it was the work of the Communists. The German
Communists counter-charged that the Nazis had set fire to the Reichstag,
so that they could round up their Communist and Social Democrat opponents


and suspend individual liberties. Both sides contended that, because of
the size of the conflagration, Marinus van der Lubbe could not have
started the fire single-handed and that he was a tool of the
conspirators. However, by getting him to reenact his actions and using
a stop-watch, the police were able to show that it would have been
possible for him alone to have set the building afire within fifteen
minutes, as he had originally confessed.

All the five accused were held in chains and the case went to
preliminary examination at the German High Court in Berlin on 3 April
1933. The chains were not taken off Torgler and the three Bulgarians
until 31 August and for Marinus van der Lubbe until 25 September. The
subsequent trial began at the Fourth Criminal Chamber of the German
Supreme Court in Leipzig on 21 September 1933, in the presence of 82
journalists. Although Dr. Teichert was assigned as counsel for the three
Bulgarians, Dimitrov mostly chose to defend himself, as he had an
excellent command of the German language. It is an axiom in law that,
if one represents oneself in court, one has a fool for a client.
However, both the Public Prosecutor and the panel of judges soon found
out to their horror that not they, but Dimitrov, was conducting the
trial. He had a razor-sharp mind and an acid tongue to match, as can be
seen from the excerpt quoted at the beginning of this article. The
Bulgarian stamp is part of a set of two, issued on 16 April 1971 for the
20th. anniversary of the Federation Internationale des Resistants
(International Federation of Resistors) and the design is based on a
photo-montage of the trial by J. Hartfield. When he mercilessly cross-
examined Hermann Goring on the stand, he quickly showed that the then
Minister of the Interior and Prime Minister of Prussia was nothing but
a blustering thug. The much more intelligent Dr. Joseph Goebbels fared
no better at his hands. In his final address to the Court on 16 December
1933, Dimitrov could not resist a parting shot:-

Dimitrov: I have the right to lay out my own reasoned proposals for the
verdict of the Court. The Public Prosecutor has stated that all the
evidence given by Communists was not worthy of credence. I shall not
adopt the opposite view. Thus, I shall not declare that all the
evidence given by National Socialist (Nazi) witnesses is unreliable. I
shall not say that they are all liars, for I believe that, amongst the
millions of National Socialists, there are some honest people.
President of the Court: I forbid you to make such ill-intentioned remarks!

Both the preliminary examination and the Supreme Court trial made a very
bad impression abroad, a counter trial being constituted on 14 September
1933 in the courtroom of the Law Society in London. The opening address
was given by Sir Stafford Cripps, later to become British ambassador to
the USSR in WWII. It was followed by a final session of the International
Legal Commission at Caxton Hall, London on 18-20 December 1933, handing
down a verdict in favour of Torgler and the Bulgarians, three days before
that of the German Supreme Court in Leipzig.

The Nazi authorities were thus under tremendous international scrutiny
and the Supreme Court had no choice but to acquit Dimitrov, Popov, Tanev
and Torgler on the basis of the evidence. Poor, pitiful and severely
disturbed Marinus van der Lubbe was found guilty and sentenced to death,
despite appeals for clemency by the Dutch ambassador to Germany and many
prominent people world-wide. He was beheaded on 10 January 1934, just
three days short of his 25th. birthday. No court in a democratic country
would ever have handed down such a sentence, but the Nazis needed a
sacrificial lamb for political purposes. His brother, Johan van der

Lubbe of Amsterdam, petitioned the Berlin County Court in September
195.5 to repeal the sentence, but after deliberating for three years,
the appeal was dismissed.

The acquitted Bulgarians arrived in Moscow on 27 February 1934 and were
granted Soviet citizenship. Dimitrov held high political posts there
and returned to Bulgaria in November 1945. By the next year, he was
Prime Minister of the country, but already a very sick man. He went to
Moscow for medical treatment in January 1949 and died there on 2nd.July.
His body was embalmed and put on permanent display in a special
mausoleum in Sofia, as shown below. With the fall of Communism in
Bulgaria, the body has been removed and the mausoleum is now covered
with graffiti. There is a moral there somewhere.

We know only too well that all three Bulgarians worshipped a false god
and, in conclusion, it would be interesting to review in brief the
lives of Dimitrov's two companions.

Blagoi Simeonov Popov was born on 22 November 1902 in Dren, Bulgaria
and he became a member of its Communist Party in 1922. He was
imprisoned twice and first went to the USSR in 1925. After his
acquittal in 1933, he was on political assignments in the Soviet Union
and did not return to Bulgaria until March 1954. He died in Varna on
28 September 1968.

Vasil Konstantinov Tanev was born on 21 November 1897 in Gevgeli (now
in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). The family moved to
Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 1915 and he was a party member from 1923.
Imprisoned twice for political activities, he went to the USSR for the
first time in 1926. After acquittal in 1933, he held political posts
in the Soviet Union and from 1936 to 1941 in Tuva, during the stamp-
issuing period! He must have used Tuvan postage and stationery and-
one wonders if any of his correspondence from there ever survived.
With the outbreak of the German-Soviet War, he volunteered for service
in units operating behind enemy lines. On 6 October 1941, he was part
of an armed group headed by I. Kiskinov which was parachuted into the
Thessaloniki (Salonica) district of Northern Greece. He was killed
three days later in a firefight with German occupation troops near the
village of Evangelistria.

* *


The story of the Katyn' massacre and related matters

by Andrew Cronin.

Modlitwa za dusze wszystkich wiernych zmarlych: 19 40
Prosimy Cie, Panie, niech dusze naszych braci, zamordowanych l
w Katyniu, w Charkowie i w Miednoje dostapili udzialu w
wiekuistej swiatlosci, skoro wieczniego milosierdzia zadatek EI -
wzieli. Przez Pana naszego.
(The above Polish prayer for the dead has been specially modified for
this article from a traditional text supplied by Wanda Kamiefska of

I. Historical Outline:
The Treaty of Non-Aggression of 23 August 1939 between Nazi Germany and
the USSR was probably the greatest political bombshell of the 20th.
century and one of its most important and secret protocols concerned
the impending partition of the Polish State by the two signatories.
Your editor is of the generation that lived through that era and when
the Red Army started entering Makopolska (Eastern Poland) on 17th.
September 1939., we all thought: "Thank God the-Germans are not going to
get all of Poland. The people in the eastern territories will be much
better off, as they will be ruled by fellow Slavs". HOW NAIVE WE WERE!

As a result of the short campaign against the badly outnumbered Polish
forces, the official military newspaper "Red Star" stated in one of its
issues of September 1939 that the Red Army had taken 181,000 Poles
prisoner, among them about 10,000 active and reserve officers. Further
arrests by the NKVD in the eastern territories brought the total up to
about 242,000 officers and other ranks held in captivity. In addition,
many civilians were arrested and it has been estimated that the grand
total of Polish citizens deported by the Soviet authorities in the 1939
to 1941 period came to about 1,050,000 persons, out of a total pre-war
population in Malopolska of about 13 millions.

Most of the rank and file were released, but all the officers were
still held, the majority in three groups of camps, as follow:-

la. KOZEL'SK I in Smolensk province, 20 km.(12 miles) south-east of
Smolensk, which functioned from some time in the last quarter of 1939
to May 1940, with about 4420 prisoners.

lb. KOZEL'SK II, from about July 1940 to September 1941. The second phase
of Kozel'sk I. Data on the number of prisoners may be incomplete.

2. OSTASHKOV, on Lake Seliger in Kalinin province from some time in
the last quarter of 1939 to May 1940, with about 6380 prisoners.

3a. STAROBEL'SK I, on the Aidar river in Voroshilovsk province, near
Khar'kov in the Ukraine, from some time in the last quarter of 1939
to May 1940, with about 3840 prisoners.

3b. STAROBEL'SK II, from some time in the latter half of 1940 to
September 1941. Second phase of Starobel'sk I. Prisoner data fragmentary.

Mail and telegrams from Kozel'sk I, Ostashkov and Starobel'sk I from
the officer POWs to their relatives in Western Belorussia and the
Western Ukraine, Lithuania and the parts of Poland occupied by the
Germans (the General-Government, Upper Silesia, West Prussia, etc.)
had come to an abrupt end at the very latest by the beginning of May 1940.


Subsequent mail and enquiries from their frantic kin, by the Polish
Red. Cross in occupied Warsaw and by the International Red Cross,
directed to the three camps and the Soviet authorities,were returned
to the senders with one or other of the following markings or

RETOUR/Inconnu (RETURN/Unknown) RETOUR/Parti (RETURN/gone away)
RETOUR/Moscou-rebuts)(RETURN/ Adresata net (No such addressee)
Moscow-unclaimed)( Obratno/Zheneva (Back / Geneva)

In May 1940, the NKVD transferred 245 persons from Kozel'sk I, 124 from
Ostashkov and 79 from Starobel'sk I (from the last camp including Lt.-
Col. Zygmunt Berling, who was to become in 1943 Commander of the
Tadeusz Kosciuszko Polish Division in the USSR) to the POW camp at
Pavlishchev Bor in Smolensk province. From there, some 432 officers
were sent on to the camp in Gryazovets, province of Vologda. Some of
the officers at Gryazovets and from Kozel'sk II were transported on
10-11 October 1940 to the Butyrki and Lubyanka prisons in Moscow for

After the German attack on the USSR on 22 June 1941, the Soviet Union
established diplomatic relations with the Polish Government-in-exile in
London. An amnesty for Polish officers and other ranks was declared by
the Soviet Council of People's Commissars on 21 August 1941 for the
inmates at Gryazovets, Kozel'sk II, Pavlishchev Bor/Yukhnov and
Starobel'sk II. However, it rapidly became apparent that something was
hideously wrong, as about 14,000 Polish officers could not be
accounted for and no trace of them could be found. All enquiries to the
Soviet side were fruitless and relations between the two parties
deteriorated rapidly.
The highest ranking officer released was
General Wladystaw Anders (see the sheetlet
at left, designed by W. Marynowicz and
engraved by the noted artist Czeslaw
Slania for the 25th. anniversary of Polish
XXV participation in the battle of Monte
Cassino), who was asked to reconstitute
the Polish armed forces on Soviet soil and
fight the Germans on the Eastern Front.
His fellow-officers and he, some 2430 men
in all, deliberately dragged their feet as
they had all suffered greatly in Soviet
captivity. Their refusal to fight for
what they regarded as a bloodstained
_0_2_ regime proved wholly justified in the
light of events that happened later.
MONTE CASSINO Between March and August 1942, a total of
15. VIII 1096 around 75,490 military personnel and
37,760 Polish civilians were evacuated
from the USSR to the Middle East.

The scene now shifts to the Soviet
territory occupied by the Germans. In
1942, the "Organisation Todt", a German
entity which carried out construction projects, sent some of its
Polish employees to work on the railway lines in the Katyn' area, some
15 km.(91 miles) west of Smolensk. They naturally started talking to
the local Slav population who, on learning that they were Poles, told
them that something dreadful must have been perpetrated against Polish
military personnel in 1940 in the forest between the villages of

Katyn' and Gnezdovo,which were 8 km.(5 miles) apart. The Poles dug
and soon uncovered some bodies in Polish uniforms. Two birchwood crosses
were.placed in the area and the German Secret Field Police began
digging in earnest on 27 February 1943. The result was that many corpses
of Polish officers in uniform were found in a very good state of
preservation, i.e. mummified, as the executioners had made the mistake
of burying them in sandy soil. On 13 April 1943, the Germans scored a
massive propaganda victory by announcing to a shocked world the
discovery of eight mass graves of murdered Polish officers in the Katyn'

Capitalising on this discovery, the German authorities set up an
International Commission of Enquiry, consisting of representatives of
the International Red Cross in Geneva, the Polish Red Cross in Warsaw
(which had been allowed to continue operating during WWII in the General-
Government), two Polish officer POWs each from the camps at Woldenberg
(Oflag IIC), Gross-Born (Oflag IID) and Neubrandenburg (Oflag IIE),
other Allied officer POWs in German captivity, as well as a Medical Team
drawn from 12 countries, both from the Axis Powers and three technically
neutral countries: Vichy France, Spain and Switzerland. Its findings
were published in the official organ of the German Nazi Party, the
"Vl1kischer Beobachter" in its issue of 4 May 1943. The one discordant
note was that the officers had been shot with German GECO bullets of
7.65 & 9 mm. calibre, but Polish sources countered that such bullets had
been exported by Germany in the 1930s to the Baltic States and the USSR.

Thousands of objects of identification, none dated later than March 1940
had been found on 2815 of the 4143 bodies exhumed, the results being
published in typically thorough German fashion in a book entitled:
"Amtliches Material zum Massenmord von Katyn" ("Official Material about
the Mass Murders in Katyn'", Berlin 1943). A typical entry reads thus:-

Body No.2022: ADAMCZYK, Stefan. Lieutenant of the Armoured Corps, born
1897, identity tag, letter, regimental insignia, notebook, a ring with
diamonds, two postcards sent by Genowefa Adamczyk of Warsaw, 174
Czerniakowska street, apt. 9.

The unidentified bodies were described just as minutely, except that
they could not be named. It is ironic to note here that the Polish
officer POWs in German captivity were treated with the full honours of
war and had even issued local stamps in four camps (Gross-Born, Murnau,
Neubrandenburg and Woldenberg) to pass away the time, but a dreadful
fate awaited most of their counterparts who fell into Soviet hands, as
will be seen hereunder.

The Soviet authorities heatedly denied complicity in the crime, which
they said had been committed by the Nazis themselves in 1941. They
broke off relations with the London Polish Government and set up a pro-
Soviet organisation, the Union of Polish Patriots. By 25 September 1943,
the Red Army was back in the Smolensk area and the Soviets conducted
their own Commission of Enquiry,reexamining the bodies between 16 and
23 January 1944 and issuing a report by medical experts the next day in
Smolensk. It laid the blame squarely on the Germans, but was not at all
convincing, even though a few unmailed letters dated 1941 were shown.
The well-known English journalist Alexander Werth, who had been born in
St. Petersburg, was there at the time and relates the scene in his book
"Russia at War 1941-1945". He was generally sympathetic to the Soviets,
but even he could not swallow their version of the crime. He agreed
with the opinion of British military officers in Moscow that the
massacre had been carried out by the Soviets, not in 1940 but in 1941,


when there was no time to evacuate the officer POWs in the face of the
German advance. He also predicted presciently that, in either case, the
instigator of this most dreadful crime must have been Lavrentii
Pavlovich Beria, the head of the NKVD.

For years after WWII, the subject of Katyn' was taboo between the
Polish and Soviet Communist Parties. However, with the advent to power
of Mikhail Gorbachev in the USSR and the promotion of the doctrine of
"glasnost'" (openness), a memorial cross was erected in the Katyn'
forest on 2 Nov.1988 and consecrated by J6zef Cardinal Glemp, Primate
of Poland. A joint Polish-Soviet Commission of Investigation was set up
and it came to the conclusion in April 1990 that the Soviet authorities
were guilty of this atrocity, although no documentary proof had been
uncovered. There the matter rested until Mikhail Gorbachev was deposed
in the abortive coup of August 1991. Confirmatory documents about the
massacres in Katyn' and elsewhere were found in a secret file in his
office and, on 14 October 1992, copies were handed over to the
President of Poland, His Excellency Lech Walesa, by R.G. Pikhoya,
emissary of the present Russian head of state, Boris El'tsyn. Two of
the documents, Russian copies of which were kindly supplied to the
author by Piotr Madej of Toronto, are reproduced on pages 11-13
herewith. The translations into English follow hereunder:-

Document No.1.
"USSR Top Secret
People's Commissariat Received 5 March 1940
of Internal Affairs (NKVD)
.....March 1940. Central Committee of the All-Union
No. 794/5. Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
Moscow. To Comrade Stalin.

A large number of former officers of the Polish Army, former workers
of the Polish Police and Intelligence Agencies, members of the Polish
nationalist parties, participants of uncovered counter-revolutionary
insurgent organizations, fugitives etc. is being held at the present
time in the POW camps of the NKVD of the USSR and in prisons in the
western provinces of the Ukraine and Belorussia. All of them are sworn
enemies of Soviet power and filled with hatred against the Soviet State.

The officer POWs and police officials found in the camps are attempting
to continue their counter-revolutionary work and are carrying out anti-
Soviet agitation. Everyone of them is eagerly awaiting to be set free,
so as to be able to join actively in the struggle against Soviet power.

A whole series of counter-revolutionary insurgent organizations has
been uncovered by the organs of the NKVD in the western provinces of
the Ukraine and Belorussia. An active leading role in all these counter-
revolutionary organizations has been played by former officers of the
former Polish Army, as well as former police officers and gendarmes.

A significant number of persons has been discovered among the
apprehended fugitives and violators of the state borders, who are in
fact participants in counter-revolutionary espionage and insurgent

Not counting soldiers and NCOs, a total of 14,736 former officers,
officials, landowners, police officers, gendarmes, prison wardens,
settlers, military scouts, etc. is being held in the POW camps, more
than 97% of them being Poles by nationality, namely:-
(English translation continued on p. 14).

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Generals, colonels and lieutenant-colonels 295
Majors and captains 2080
Lieutenants, sub-lieutenants and ensigns 6049
Officers and junior commanders of the Police, of the Border 1030
Guard and of the Gendarmerie
Rank and file of the Police Force, of the gendarmes, prison 5138
wardens and military scouts
Officials, landowners, ksyondzy* and settlers 144
(* derived from the Polish "ksigdz" = a Roman Catholic priest.
The Polish plural is actually "ksieia").

A total of 18,632 arrested persons (10,685 of them Poles) is being held
in the prisons of the western provinces of the Ukraine and Belorussia.
Former officers 1207
Former police scouts and gendarmes 5141
Spies and diversionists 347
Former landowners, manufacturers and officials 465
Members of various counter-revolutionary and insurgent 5345
organizations and sundry counter-revolutionary elements
Fugitives 6127

Proceeding from the fact that they are all inveterate and incorrigible
enemies of Soviet power, the NKVD of the USSR deems it necessary that:
I. It be recommended to the NKVD of the USSR that:
(1) The cases of the 14,700 persons currently in the POW camps and
consisting of former Polish officers, officials, landowners, police,
military scouts, gendarmes, settlers and wardens and
(2) In addition, the cases of the 11,000 persons, who have been
arrested and are now in prisons in the western provinces of the
Ukraine and Belorussia, being members of various espionage and
diversionary organizations, former landowners, manufacturers,
former Polish officers, officials and fugitives,
be especially examined so as to apply against them the highest form of
punishment: death by shooting.

II.The review of the cases to be carried out without the right of
appeal by the arrested persons and without the presentation of
evidence of guilt, nor the application of the regulation regarding
the termination of the investigation and the verdict of guilt, in
the following order:-
(a) against the persons held in the POW camps in accordance with the
procedures laid down by the Directorate for POW Affairs of the NKVD
of the USSR.
(b) against the arrested persons according to the procedures laid
down by the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR and the NKVD of the
Belorussian SSR.

III.The review of the cases and the implementation of the sentence to
be conferred on a trio consisting of Comrades Merkulov, Kobuzov (?)
and Bashtakov (Chief of the First Special Section of the NKVD of
the USSR).

The People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR:
(signed) L. Beria.
To be read by: I. Stalin V. Mayorov M. Kalinin
K. Voroshilov A. Mikoyan L. Kaganovich."


Document No.2..
"To Comrade N.S. Khrushchev. Top Secret.
9 Mar. 1965
Central Committee of the CPSU, General Dept.
There have been held since 1940 in the Committee of State Security(KGB)
of the Council of Ministers of the USSR registered cases and other
materials regarding the shooting in that year of imprisoned and
interned officers, gendarmes, police officials, settlers, landowners
etc., i.e. citizens of former bourgeois Poland. In accordance with the
decisions of a Special Trio of the NKVD of the USSR, there was shot a
total of 21,857 persons, 4421 of whom in the Katyn' forest (Smolensk
province), 3820 in the Starobel'sk camp near Khar'kov and 6311 in the
Ostashkov camp (Kalinin province). A further 7305 persons were shot in
other camps and prisons in the Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia.

The entire operation of liquidating these specific persons was carried
out on the basis of the decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU
(Communist Party of the Soviet Union) of 5 March 1940. They were all
sentenced to the highest form of punishment, according to the verdict
registered and directed against them as POWs and Internees in 1939.

From the moment of implementation of the above operation, i.e. from
1940 onwards, no data of any kind about these cases were ever
disseminated and all the cases, 21,857 in number, were kept in a sealed

For the Soviet authorities, all these cases demonstrated neither
operative interest nor any historical value. It is doubtful if they can
be of actual interest to our Polish friends. On the contrary, any
unforeseen initiative could lead to the reopening of the operation that
was carried out, with all the undesirable consequences for our country.
Moreover, regarding the persons shot in the Katyn' forest, there exists
an official version, confirmed by a commission which carried out an
investigation in 1944 on the initiative of the Soviet authorities under
the name of "The Special Commission for the Establishment and
Investigation of the Shooting by the German Fascist Marauders of Polish
Officer POWs in the Katyn' Forest". According to the deductions of this
Commission, all the Poles liquidated there are regarded as having been
executed by the German occupiers. The investigative materials of that
period were widely publicised in the Soviet and foreign press and the
conclusions of the Commission were solidly reinforced in international
public opinion.

Proceeding from the above presentation, it would be expedient to
destroy all the registered cases about the persons shot in 1940 in the
operation referred to above.

For the processing of possible enquiries in accordance with the
political line of the Central Committee of the CPSU or the Soviet
Government, one could set aside the minutes of the sessions of the Trio
of the NKVD of the USSR, who sentenced the specified persons to be
shot, as well as the documents referring to the implementation of the
decisions of the Trio. These documents are not voluminous in extent
and they could be kept in a special file.

The exposition of the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU is
President of the KGB at the Council of Ministers of the USSR,
3 March 1959. (signed) A. Shelepin".

The foregoing hardboiled report to N.S. Khrushch&v is obviously an
exercise .in damage control, but it also confirms beyond all doubt what
had been the horrible fate of the inmates of all three POW camps. While
the discovery of the mass graves of the POWs from the Kozel'sk I camp
in the Katyn' forest has been thoroughly documented since 1943, the
analogous arrangements which must have been set up for the murder of
the prisoners from the Ostashkov and Starobel'sk I camps have still not
been fully determined. Some 9800 men are not accounted for to this day!

In a valuable article entitled "Korespondencja KatyAska" by S. Baranski,
J. Falkowski & T. Jablonski ("Filatelista", Warsaw, No.4 for April 1993,
pp.110-115), the authors state that, in the period from 25 July to 31st.
August 1991, diggings were carried out at Khar'kov in the Ukraine to
confirm the fate of the Starobel'sk I prisoners and at Mednoe in Kalinin
province for those who were in the Ostashkov camp. There were 169
skeletons of Polish POWs found at Khar'kov and 140 bodies at Mednoe,
together with a small amount of documentation and correspondence in very
good condition. These finds constitute only a fraction of the POWs who
perished, so the search must go on. It will be appreciated that the
missing bodies have been in the ground for more than 50 years and
identification will be correspondingly more difficult.

II. Postal History Material:

The message in German on the Soviet postcard shown above and sent by

(a) Arrested Civilians.

,: f _t -i i ,-

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Sessy Landau to her brother Alexander Freisinger in Langnau am Albis,
Switzerland, speaks for itself:-
"Lwow, 30.1.40.
Dear Semjika,
I am letting you know that I am alive and am here together
with our dear relatives, who are also well. About my dear husband I can
only write for the moment that he is alive but unfortunately not free.
Because of an illegal crossing of the border, he has been confined here
in the Lemberg (Lw6w) prison for the past four months. However, I hope
that he will soon be freed and then everything will again be alright. I
have informed all our dear brothers and sisters about us and hope to
have a reply soon from all of you. I am very happy that I was able to
get news again from you yesterday and would be happier still if I could
see you again. Many greetings and kisses from your sister
Unfortunately, it seems more than likely that her unfortunate husband
was soon to be doomed, as a result of the letter by L.P. Beria of 5th.
March 1940 to I.V. Stalin.

(b) POW Mail:
For ease of reference, the postal addresses are given hereunder for the
main camps where the Polish officers were held.

GRYAZOVETS in Vologda province (Oct.-Nov. 1939, May 1940 to Sep.1941).
Address: c/o G.P.O. Moscow, P.O. Box ll/s-12.
Mail to and from this camp normally bore also a boxed two-line cachet,
reading in Russian "POCHTOVYI YASHCHIK No.ll/s-12".
Most of the inmates survived, eventually joining the Anders Army.

KOZEL'SK I in Smolensk province (last quarter of 1939 to May 1940).
Address: P.O. Box 12, Kozel'sk, Smolensk province.
Practically all the prisoners were murdered in the Katyn' forest.

KOZEL'SK II in Smolensk province (July 1940 to September 1941).
Address: c/o G.P.O. Moscow, P.O. Box ll/s-41.
Mail to this camp bore a boxed two-line cachet in Russian, reading
Mostly settled by 2352 Polish internees from Lithuania, after
incorporation of the latter in the USSR. They appear to have survived
and joined the Anders Army.

OSTASHKOV in Kalinin province (last quarter of 1939 to May 1940).
Address: P.O. Box 37, Ostashkov, Kalinin province.
Practically all the inmates were murdered, presumably in the Mednoe
area of Kalinin province.

PAVLISHCHEV BOR I near Yukhnov, then in Smolensk province (1939 to 1940).
Address: Stantsiya Babynino, Dom Otdykha Pavlishchev Bor, Smolensk prov.
This would appear to have been a transit camp and most of the prisoners
apparently survived. Arrival mark reads SHCHELKANOVO SMOL. YUKHNOVSK. "a".

PAVLISHCHEV BOR II near Yukhnov, then Smolensk p.(July 1940 to Sept. 1941).
Address: c/o G.P.O. Moscow, P.O. Box ll/r-43.
Mail to and from.this camp also bore a framed one-line cachet in Russian,
This camp was settled with about 2000 Polish internees from Latvia and
Lithuania, after the incorporation of those two republics in the USSR.
Most of the prisoners apparently survived and eventually joined the
Anders Army. This locality is now called Pavlishchevo and, together with
Yukhnov, is currently located in the adjoining Kaluga province.

STAROBEL'SK I in Voroshilovgrad province (last quarter of 1939 to
May 1940).
Address: P.O. Box 15,.Starobel'sk, Voroshilovgrad province.
Practically all the prisoners were murdered in the Khar'kov area.
According to Messrs BaraAski, Falkowski & JabloAski, the latest item
of philatelic importance known sent from this camp is a telegram dated

STAROBEL'SK II in Voroshilovgrad province (1940 to Sept. 1941).
Address: The same as for STAROBEL'SK I. Many thanks to Dr. Jan
Danielski of Toronto for that information.
Apparently settled by fugitives from German-occupied Poland. Most of
them appear to have survived and they eventually joined the Anders
Army, leaving the USSR in August 1942.

On the basis of the surviving correspondence, it would seem that the
prisoners in Kozel'sk I, Ostashkov and Starobel'sk I were murdered by
the NKVD in stages during the period from the last week of March to
the beginning of May 1940. In general, the POWs were allowed to send
one card or letter per month to their relatives. We will now look at
some examples.

(1) The case of Stefan Lesiuk, whose wife Eugenia was living in
Horodyszcze, Lublin province, German-occupied Poland. Please see the
next page for what is apparently his first letter in captivity, dated
20 Nov.1939 and giving his address in Russian as USSR, Smolensk
province, town of Kozel'sk, P.O. Box 12, Stefan Lesiuk Ivanovich. He
writes in part: "Beloved wife, my dear children,
I am well and sound on the territory of the USSR, with my heart and
mind with you, my dear ones, from the beginning of my captivity....
Eugenia, how are you coping in these times without either the proper
means for living or any money? Oh, God, I console myself with the
thought that you have a roof over your head.....Beloved and dear
children, I am not sure how quickly we will meet again but, in any
case, I am sending my sincerest wishes for Christmas, health and success
......They give us quite good sustenance and treat us not badly, while
my longing is to surround you with care and solicitude in the
approaching winter.....", The full Polish text is on p. 19.

His envelope was postmarked six days later with a marking reading in
Russian: D.O. im. M. GOR'KOGO, SMOL. KOZEL.i. 26.11.39. The initials
D.O. stand for Dom Otdykha = Rest Home, named after Maksim Gor'kii(!).
Such rest-homes were normally for the use of party officials, shock
workers etc. That particular post office no longer exists. See the
illustration on p. 20. Many thanks to Dr. Danielski.for the full text.

On 16 May 1940, Mrs Lesiuk wrote to the Polish Red Cross in Warsaw, as
she had become alarmed at the lack of news from her husband and she
received the following reply, respectfully addressing her in the third
person, in accordance with polite Polish custom (see p. 20 for the
postcard from the Information Bureau of the Polish Red Cross, Warsaw,
Czerwonego Krzyza 20, to Mrs Eugenia Lesiukowa in Horodyszcze):-
"Warsaw, 31.5.1940.
In reply to Madam's letter of the 16th. instant, we are kindly
letting her know that, unfortunately, we do not possess any
information about Mr. Stefan Lesiuk and we cannot hold out any hope to
Madam of obtaining such information, as we do not have communications
with the Soviet authorities. However, since Madam had word from her
husband in Kozel'sk, then he probably is still to be found there. The
impossibility of communicating with the Soviet POWs is a general

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problem and does not only pertain to Madam.
In the .case of receipt of such information about the husband of Madam,
we will immediately let Madam know. News has reached us lately that
many POWs have left Kozel'sk and, in a couple of instances, the
relatives have already been receiving news from them from abroad.
The Director of the Information Bureau of the Polish Red Cross,
Maria Bortnowska".

Mrs Lesiuk kept on trying and, on 25 April 1941, sent a registered
letter from Biala Podlaska to Moscow, presumably to one of the G.P.O.
Moscow box numbers that she must have' heard about, but she could not
have received any reaction, as it was on the eve of the German-Soviet
War. The registration receipt is shown at bottom right on p. 20.

On 8 August 1942, she wrote again to the Polish Red Cross in Warsaw
and received the following courteous but inconclusive reply:-

3dU4t3 iP

d at:p

iFOR .-K C:Y -,-,. La' ", .-
,.- .a781^ ..

F .Lesiukowa Eugenia .

SH o r o d- rodye.-c z -e
ose zkiwania .- p-ta Wisznice iubelskie
k S-tefa na. -
ik -S e n .*-.." : --. w, --.: -: i -.: : -- .i- lie "z
W odpowiezina i Pani dn.8.VIII.42r. komunikujemy
uprzejmie, ze w ostatnich? :zasach,:zaczt:y nadchodzid .wiadomosci od
osa6b, kt6re poprzednio zn~jdoway.. ie w niewoli sowieckiej. Wiado-
mosc1i tych jednak jak dotychczas jest.beiako. Byd mote jednak le i
do' Pani .nadejdzie, w tym wypadku .motemy Pania zapewnid, %e natych-
miast ezostanie zawiadomiona. -
Jednoczesnie nadkixeniamy, _e boszukiwanie meia zosta3o
rozpoczete i. z chwil-.uzyseania.i-wadmosci powiadomimy Pani.-h .

SBiura Info cy-nego PCK.

S/ M.Bor nowa a

VI/JS.46'.13.W. -

"Polish Red Cross, Information Bureau, Warsaw, 19 Sept.1942.
Mrs Eugenia Lesiukowa, Horodyszcze, P.O. Wisznice Lubelskie.
Re the enquiry about
Stefan Lesiuk.
In reply to Madam's letter of 8 August 1942, we are kindly informing
her that news has lately.begun to surface about persons who had
previously found themselves in.Soviet captivity. However, such news
is very sparse as yet. Moreover,it is possible that information will
arrive also for Madam and, in that case, we can assure her that we
will immediately let her know.
At the same time, we would mention that the enquiry about her husband
has remained active and, upon the receipt of news, we will inform
Madam. The Director of the Information Bureau of the Polish Red Cross,

A 0





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The scene now shifts to the postwar period, when she wrote to the Polish
Service of the International Red Cross in Geneva on 2 February 1946
and received the reply shown above at left:-
"Polish Service, DP 61.799/EC. Geneva, 18.5.46.
We have the honour to confirm receipt of your letter of 2.2.46
regarding LESIUK Stefan.
Your request will receive our fullest attention and we will not fail
to let you have the information that we can obtain".

The final card in this doleful file is also from the International Red
Cross in Geneva and is featured above at right. It reads as follows:-
"Polish Service, DP 61.799/EC. Geneva, 15.1.47.
The International Committee of the Red Cross has the honour to inform
you that all the enquiries referring to the subject of Mr. Stefan
LESIUK have remained fruitless.
With our deep regrets,
Yours faithfully,
IRC, Geneva".
Reference to the highly useful work "Katyn Lista ofiar i zaginionych
jenc6w oboz6w Kozielsk, Ostaszk6w, Starobielsk" (Katyn' Listing of
the victims and POWs who perished in the Kozel'sk, Ostashkov and
Starobel'sk camps), by A.L. Szczesniak, ALFA Publishers, Warsaw 1989,
shows that, while Stefan Lesiuk does not appear in the catalogue of


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bodies identified by the Germans, his. name is--included in the
supplementary- section of unidentified persons, his year of birth being
given as 1904.
Niech spoczywa w pokoju! / May he rest in peace!
(2) The case of
-- .--- --.. ," W.adys3aw Ignacy
: "" .Michalski, born
.. 28 August 1892,
nlOTOBAR KAPT 'V,'. Lieut.-Colonel
*I .. c (Infantry),
CARTE PASTA Chief of Staff
,,.. ~of Military
S' District No.IV
in t6da (data
y a a... .. ....... ... ................... .... ... .. kindly supplied
C rIe a r. pai. a aJ C iUHI Hiesolaamae .ke.l, A m. by Dr. Jan
:........ ............ ... ... .... .... ... .;. Danie lski of
.' ."i / b .. Paon, Ce.. ,. a. a peai . .. ," "" -' ." .' -_
S Toronto) The
aua... Soviet 20-kop.
S. .. .. .... card shown here
S-o'y .... '....... *..'-' was written by
.'. ~noapo..Hoe H..e HM f.. .a -. "L,'.t
".-oeORHBM!MH "him at the
....... ... ... ....... .......... .......... : .. ....... ...:......... ..... ....:.. ..... .. ..... .S t a r o b e l s k
-- ... .camp on 22.12.39
p c ...." ,.. ..... ". and it was
A pec ........... ..... .. .... .... ........ :..... "......... .... ..:.. .. :
omnpa .umq r ,- -.. .' ,'...... :... postmarked
a P dresseS L.fo. ,-.Q./. .,J 4 .'., STAROBEL' SK
del'expditeur .. ...... .... VOROSHILOVGRAD d.
... .... ., 17.1.40, to
arrive in L'vov
., r (Lw6w) on 25th.
,-cIS January. He
W wrote to
& ..... "' '. Aleksy
S. f Gaj ewski and
S'"' -''. said in Dart:
,jPl i "Dear old chap,
'I cannot find
S.. out where you
.*.> -- ... /' -..:- :"-, '- .'. ,'/ .. .. ., ...,'-' ... are how you
W.M D e ^^.""^o_.^-^ 4, 6; "'ji.( .^. are and what you
". *uHrn 'eAu."t.. k c-a'L^ed .iz:"' / "L ;Lare doing. I am
,, t o.. '119 ,: also immensely
i" ~ ..~~. -".:.' ,' '., e- .~ .."": worried about
/j the fate of
S-, Jurek. Please,
.. ,-, ... ... o ... '-" i f p o s s ib le ,
/ ,. .send the latest
/ news about you
.;( '^ "//' U. (' /and your
.'".i .. I relatives. I am
.*"^.,.1 J" living in good
'.- i conditions and
.. w.. am not in want
of anything and indeed please do not worry about me frankly. I cannot
write often, also I do not know to which address to write you in the
future. My way of life is quite monotonous. At the same time, I console
myself greatly that Rysio is withme,. with whom we live as years ago,
but with nothing to pass the time....Hearty thanks to Mr. Aleksy for the
information and please send more. W.L." (Rysio is the familiar form for
Ryszard; many thanks to Dr. Danielski for that explanation).

The author has found no reference to Rysio, as there were many
Ryszards. hut Wkadyslaw Michalski is listed by A.L. Szczesniak as
having-been in the Starobel'sk I camp and was thus presumably
murdered somewhere in the Khar'kov area by the NKVD.
Niech spoczywa w pokojul

(3) The case of Walenty Walkowiak:

^^ :.' ?% .-:; ..- ,,.^ ..- ..-,. .--

The illustration here shows the back of a letter sent by Zofia
Walkowiak (apparently his wife) in occupied Warsaw. Censored by the
High Command of the Wehrmacht, it received an arrival marking,
reading in Russian: STAROBEL'SK VOROSHILOVGRAD. OBL. b 3.12.40. It
doubtless was marked "Unknown" and returned to the distraught sender.

Walenty Walkowiak is listed under the Starobel'sk I camp by A.L.
Szczesniak with the rank of captain, born in 1900 as the son of Jan
and Helena.
Niech spoczywa w pokojul

(c) Literature References and Acknowledgements:
There is a considerable and ever growing literature on this harrowing
subject and some of the main titles were featured as a special cachet
applied to envelopes issued in Toronto, Canada in connection with the
Katyn Memorabilia Exhibition held there 3-17 September 1981; see the
illustration on the next page. Prepared by M. Lubinski of Toronto.

Since the appearance in 1943 of the German work "Amtliches Material
zum Massenmord von Katyn", which only contained a listing of the
bodies exhumed in the Katyn' forest, reference has since been made to
two Polish prewar official publications: "Rocznik Oficerski" Warsaw

reading in Russian: STAROBELISK VOROSHILOVGRAD. OBL. b 3.12.40. It

bodies exhumed in the Katyn' forest, reference has since been made to



uvegw -- ----

TOaOTrO 3-17 Ix. 1961.

1932 and "Rocznik Oficerski Rezerwy", Warsaw 1934, to help to
determine who else was in captivity in the various Soviet camps.

The relatives of the missing men have also supplied data, so that we
now know the names of practically all the inmates in the Kozel'sk I,
Ostashkov and Starobel'sk I camps. They are listed in the book by
A.L. Szczesniak already referred to (Warsaw 1989). Further
identification has since turned up from graves in Mednoe (for
Ostashkov) and the Khar'kov area (for Starobel'sk I). The story will
eventually emerge of the full extent of this inhuman tragedy, as
technology is improving all the time.

Thanks are especially due to the splendid work already done by postal
historians in Poland and in particular to Messrs Staniskaw Baranski,
J6zef Falkowski, Tomasz Jablonski and Cezary Rudziiski. Our readers
will find the book "Korespondencja Obozowa w Okresie II Wojny
9wiatowej" by Stanislaw Baraiski & J6zef Falkowski extremely useful
for the study of this subject, as it is richly illustrated. We have
some copies still available from our Journal Fund, as listed on p.88
herewith. Readers are also referred to an excellent article by Cezary
Rudzinski: "Listy Katyiskie" (Katyn' Letters; "Filatelista", No.17
for 1989, pp.385-388), as well as the article "Korespondencja
katyaiska" by S. Baraniski, J. Falkowski & T. Jablofski already
mentioned in the text.

Last, but by no means least, the author extends heartfelt thanks to
his esteemed colleagues in the Kazimierz Gzowski Polish Philatelic
Society of Toronto and especially to Dr. Jan Danielski, Dr. Mieczystaw
KamieAski, Wanda Kamieaska, Mieczyslaw Lubinski and Piotr Madej for
their valuable advice and encouragement in writing this article. It
has been put together only as an introduction to the subject and the
author would be very grateful if readers would kindly send in further
information, corrections and additions to fill out the story of this
hideous act of genocide.
This article has been prefaced with a prayer in the Roman Catholic
tradition. The author is prawostawny (Greek Orthodox) and would light
a candle in memory of these unfortunate men.


by P. J. Campbell.

In "The Post-Rider" No.-22 of June 1988, there was an article entitled
"The Best Kept Secret". The article discussed the Mutual Aid Pact
between Germany and Russia, which was to be the genesis of both the
Luftwaffe and the Red Air Fleet (BBC = Vooruzh8nnye Vozdushnye Sily).

One of the most significant events involved was the establishment of an
aircraft-manufacturing capability in Russia. The site chosen was the
empty Russko-Baltiiskii plant at Fili near Moscow, which will be the
subject of a separate article in this series. The factory was to be
staffed by a group of German engineers from the Junkers Company of
Dessau, which was to provide the designs, tooling and production
expertise, while the Russians were to provide the labour force. The
set-up and operations of this factory may perhaps also be the basis for
a future article, but it is introduced here only to show how the seeds
were sown for the most interesting series of aircraft which were to
follow, all using variations of the basic Junkers design philosophy.

The Fili plant, later designated as GAZ-22, was planned for an output
of some 300 all-metal aircraft a year and, after the arrangement with
Junkers ended on 1 March 1927, production went on with aircraft
designed and built by Russians. All these aircraft used the very unusual
Junkers method of construction: a space-frame of aluminium tubes for
the wings and a fuselage structure of longerons and bulkheads, with all
external surfaces being covered by corrugated aluminium skins. The
result was a light yet robust structure, permitting the aircraft to
perform well in the harsh Russian climate and readily repairable when

The first aircraft to be described is the ANT-4, also designated as the
TB-1, which was a bomber, or the G-l in its freight-carrying role. The
basic requirements for the ANT-4 were decided in July 1924 and the
project was placed under the direction of the legendary Andrei
Nikolaevich Tupolev. The actual design was assigned to the AGOS
(Department of Aviation, Hydro-Aviation and Experimental Construction)
Brigade under Petlyakov. The construction began on 11 November 1924 in
a second-floor workshop on Radio Street in Moscow, so the aircraft had
to be made in seven sections and later assembled at the Central
Aerodrome in Moscow. That, by the way, was one of the practical values
of the Junkers construction method; parts could be made in several
places and assembled at a central location. It was also useful because
it would permit an aircraft to be dismantled and shipped by rail, to
be reassembled at the distant point where it was needed.

The ANT-4 prototype used the rather expensive Napier "Lion" engines
from Great Britain and the first flight was made by A.I. Tomashevskii
on 25 November 1925. Incidentally, the "Lion" was still in production
at Napier's when the author of this article was serving his
apprenticeship! It was a fine, reliable 12-cylinder water-cooled
engine, with the cylinders disposed in three rows of four each in the
shape of a broad arrow. Anyway, the test programme went so well that it
was decided to begin series production, but using the less expensive
German BMW-VI engines, later built under licence in Russia with the
designation M-17. The second prototype first flew on 15 August 1928
with the renowned M.M. Gromov at the controls. This famous pilot was to
achieve the first flights of all the aircraft surveyed in this article;


M.M. Gromov and Crew
[Scott No. 640-642]

Celebrating the test pilot Gromov and his flight,Moscow '1
to San Jacinto, California in 1937. Collotype, line
perf. 1212, stamp designed by V. Zavialov. Print run-
2.8 million (10k), 4.4 million (20k) and 2.0 million
(50k). The aircraft was an ANT-25; see detailed article
in Rossica Journal, Vol. 86/87, 1975.


A.. .. .. .:
. . r.. . . .

i i(i~s-i AWT--sl
0'S-i, R~~)I:.........r G..

Time period 1924-25 1925-44 1926-42

Wing span (ft.) 94 76 137
Wing area (ft.2) 1,292 861 2,524
Gross weight (Ibs.) 16,535 16,535 53,200

Engines (production) 2 X M-17(BMW VI) 2 x M-17(BMW VI) 4 x M-17(BMW VI)
Total power (HP) 1,000-1,360 1,360-1,460 2,400-4,800
Max. speed (mph) 111 143 122
Range (miles) 357 500 1,550
First flight 26 November 1925 11 September 1929 22 December 1930
Factory GAZ-22 GAZ-22, GAZ-31 GAZ-22, GAZ-39
posss. GAZ-31) plus other
Quantity built 218 435 818


Figure 2:
Scott No. C 73.
Stamp Designer: V. Zavialov.
Collotype, line-perf. 12,
print run 1 million of the
50-kopek value.

CC i

Figure 3:
ANT-4 "Strana Sovetov"
Scott No. C112
ANT-4 and chart showing
1929 flight to New York.
Litho. & engraved, perf.
12 x 11, issued 16 August

he is pictured on Scott Nos. 640-642 (see Fig. 1 on the previous page).
Production of the first of some 218 of the ANT-4/TB-1 aircraft began
at Fili in 1928 and Scott No. C73 shows an example (Fig.2). The general
characteristics are summarised in Table 1 on the previous page.

One of the best known exploits of this aircraft was the flight from
Moscow to New York between 23 August and 30 October 1929. This was a
series production TB-1, with the armament removed and named "Strana
Sovetov" (Land of the Soviets), with the registration designation
URSS-300. It was depicted on Scott No. C112 (Fig.3 on the previous
page), superimposed on a globe indicating the route followed. The pilots
were S.A. Chestakov and F.Ye. Bolotov, together with a crew of two. The
flight began on 8 August, but there was a forced landing near Chita. A
second aircraft was chosen and appropriately painted for a second start
on 25 August. The route was from Moscow via Omsk, Novosibirsk,
Krasnoyarsk and Chita to Khabarovsk near the Pacific coast. Floats were
fitted there for the overwater flight to Petropavlovsk Kamchatskii and
along the Aleutian chain to Attu, thence to Seward and Sitka in Alaska,
with a forced landing and an engine change along the way. At Seattle,
the floats were changed for wheels and the flight proceeded to San
Francisco, Salt Lake City, Chicago, Detroit and New York; a total of
21,242 km.(13,280 miles) in 137 flying hours. First Flight covers exist,
dated 7.8.29 and addressed to the well-known stamp dealer A C. Roessler
of East Orange, New Jersey, while a commemorative postcard was issued
by the Artone Post Card Co. of New York, portraying the crew and a
picture of a tri-motor high-winged monoplane, nothing like the ANT-4!

Apart from its regular
FIGURE 4: assignment as a bomber
(TB-1), this sturdy
Test Pilot V.P. Chkalov aircraft was also used as
[Scott No. 1693] a basis for many
experiments. One of the
Lithographed, perf. 121/2 and also 121/2:12, most unusual was the
issued 16 March 1954 to celebrate the 50th "Zveno" (link)
anniversary of Chkalov. Design by V. configuration, which
Zavialov. Print run 1 million, consisted of a slightly
modified TB-1, carrying
an I-4 biplane fighter (ANT-5) mounted above each wing. The idea was
that each bomber would carry two fighters into battle, launching them
when danger threatened. A series of somewhat hair-raising demonstrations
proved that the fighters could be successfully launched in flight, one
of the fighter pilots being the famed test pilot Valerii Chkalov,
depicted on Scott No.1693 (Fig. 4). Other experiments with the ANT-4/
TB-1 were with long-range tanks, supply-dropping by parachute, rocket-
assisted take-off, in-flight refuelling, a radio-controlled (pilotless)
version and on floats as a torpedo carrier. As the TB-1 bombers were
phased out operationally, some 90 of them were converted for cargo use
with Aeroflot, bearing the designation G-l (Gruzovoi or Cargo 1),
remaining in use up to 1945.

A.V. Liapidevskii and ANT-4
[Scott No. C60]

Designer of stamps V. Zavialov
E Collotype, line perf. 14, print
The ANT-4 Landing on the Ice 'n run 200,000 of each, watermark of
[Scott No. 059] maze and flowers.


Arrival of ANT-4 at "Chelyuskin" Camp
m [Scott No. 5248]

SThere were three R-5 biplanes used in the rescue, but the first of
: *84 them did not arrive until long after the landing of Lap ievski,
Depicted on the stamp. Photogravure and engraved, perf. 11"2 x 12,
BQissued 13 April 1984.
Tests with the ANT-4 on skis were very successful and that version was
used extensively in the Arctic, the most dramatic episode being the
events portrayed on Scott Nos. C59 & C60 (Fig. 5 at the bottom of the
previous page)and Scott No.5248 in Fig. 6 above. That involved
Lyapidevskii's rescue of ten women and two children, survivors of the
sinking of the ship "Chelyuskin", which had been crushed in the Arctic
ice near the Bering Strait. The event was described in a previous
article, which appeared in The Rossica Journal, Vol.90/91. The pilot
was A.V. Lyapidevskii and the date of the rescue was 5 March 1934; the
ANT-4 can be seen on all three stamps.

The next airplane to be considered is, unfortunately, not the subject
of any Soviet stamp. It was another Tupolev effort, designated ANT-7
for A.N. Tupolev No.7. Several versions were developed, the KR-6
(Kreiser-Razvedchik, or Cruiser Scout), R-6 (Reconnaissance), the PS-7
or P-6 (Passazhirskii, or Passenger) and the MR-6 on floats. The ANT-7
was a "hot-rod" version of the ANT-4. It used essentially the same
construction but was slightly shorter and with a considerably
decreased wing span. It carried no bombs, yet it used the same BMW-VI
(or M-17) engines. The object of the exercise was to get a lighter and
faster aircraft with increased fuel capacity, so that it could be used
as a long-range escort for the bomber force, or for reconnaissance
missions. Table 1 on p.27 shows how the ANT-7 differed from the ANT-4.

The first flight was on 11 September 1929, with Gromov at the controls.
After manufacture of 45 of the R-6 version at GAZ-22, production was
moved to GAZ-31 at Taganrog, where some 390 more were manufactured in
various configurations: on wheels, skis and on floats. The duties
included aerial photography, glider towing, utility transport and as
trainers. However, one example, piloted by P.G. Golovin, flew many of
the hazardous exploratory flights (including one that passed over the
North Pole), which led to I.D. Papanin's memorable achievement, when he
took four ANT-6 aircraft to the Pole, of which more anon.

The success of the ANT-4 led naturally to its successor, the ANT-6,
which utilised the same construction, but its design involved an
overall increase in size (see Table 1) and featured a four-engine
configuration. Some authorities claim this as one of the first true
four-engine cantilever-wing monoplanes and a good case can be made for
this view. It was designated TB-3 in its bomber configuration and G-2
as a transport aircraft. There are quite a few stamps depicting the
ANT-6 (TB-3) and these can be seen in Fig.7 on p.30. Fig.8 on p.31
shows a rather nice first day cover of the ANT-6 stamp that was
included in the airmail set issued on 10 August 1978(Scott No. C117;
printing was by lithography and engraving.

You may note that we are describing the ANT-6 after the ANT-7. They
were actually built out of sequence,with the first flight of the twin-
engine ANT-7 some 16 months before that of the four-engine ANT-6.

pA\11017)1O'LrA CCCP


First appeared on
Scott No. C71 as part
of the 1937 Jubilee
Aviation Exhibition
set designed by
V.V. Zavialov (1
million issued of
30-kopek value) and,
both as a model and
a real airplane on
the "Aviation Sport"
set of 1938. This
attractive set was
produced by three

designers, but both those
shown are by R.I. Dubasov.
There were 3.1 million of
the 5-kopek value (Scott No.
678) and only 1 million of
the 1-ruble value (Scott No.
686). All were perf. 12,
typographed. In August 1939,
five of the values were over-
printed for use as airmail
stamps (see. Fig. 7D above);
the print run of this stamp
(Scott No. C76D) was only

The ANT-6 (TB-3)

The overprint gives the date of 18 August, Aviation Day. During the Great
Patriotic War, a set of stamps was issued in February 1941 for the 23rd
anniversary of military services, with the 50-kopek value (Scott No. 830) showing
a typical pilot before a TB-3;, this set was the work of two designers, with I.
Dubasov responsible for the 50-kopek value. The Soviet catalogue shows this
value as issued perf. 1212 and also issued perf. 1212:12; print run was 2






ANT-6 (TB-3)
[Scott No. C117]

First day (10 August 1978) souvenir cover with special
first day ca elation. Lithographed, engraved and
perf. 12 x 11s..

Planning of the ANT-6 began under Andrei Tupolev in March 1926 and
detail design was assigned to the Petlyakov brigade. Production was at
GAZ-22 and the first flight was accomplished by M.M. Gromov on 22nd.
December 1930 on skis from Moscow's Central Aerodrome; the prototype
had the American-built Curtiss Conqueror engines. Production versions,
fitted with the Russian-built M-17F (BMW-VI) engines, began to come off
the production line at GAZ-22 and later at GAZ-39. On May Day in 1932,
a flight of nine TB-3s, together with 70 of the TB-1, flew over Red
Square with 86 other aircraft; the Red Fleet was really in business!
In all, some 818 of these ANT-6 aircraft were built in several
versions. They were used operationally throughout the thirties,
including service in the Far East and were still being utilised in
World War II. Later versions had the 900-HP engine designated M-34FRN
and could achieve a speed of 300 kph (190 mph). Special versions
carried parachutists, field artillery and even light tanks; others
were used for glider towing and as freight-carrying aircraft.

One bomber version incorporated a rear gunner behind the fin and
another variant, the ANT-6A, was developed for use in the Arctic. That
one had enclosed cockpits, special heating, anti-icing, an extra radio
and braking parachutes for short landings. Four of these were assigned
to the 1937 Expedition to the North Pole (see Fig. 9 on the next page),
as described in detail in the article "The First Ice Island" in The
Rossica Journal, Vol.93, 1977. Others of this type flew many memorable
rescues in the Arctic and achieved many world record flights, carrying
payloads up to 11,000 pounds.

Following the "Zveno" tests done with the ANT-4, the ANT-6 was able to
carry up to five fighter aircraft clamped to its wings and fuselage,
to make it a veritable flying aircraft carrier. In August 1941, a TB-3
carried two 1-16 fighter-bomber aircraft (see Scott No. C120) from a

o,~. -


ANT-6A's of Aviaarktika
[Scott No. 625-628]

Four ANT-6A's flew from Moscow to the North Pole, where they left
Ivan Papanin and his team to record meteorological and oceanographic
data at "North Pole 1." The four aircraft then returned to Moscow.
See Rossica Journal, 93 for the detailed story. The set was issued
on 25 February 1938, design by V.V. Zavialov, lithographed (0- and
20-kopek) and typographed (40- and 80-kopek values) perf. 12'" x 12.
Quantities printed, 5.1 million of 10- and 40-kopek, 6 million of
the 80-kopek, and 7.5 million of the 20-kopek.

.- ....... .. .. FIGURE 9B:

IANT-6 of Aviaarktica and the team to stay at the Pole:
Krenkel, Papanin, Shirshov and Fedorov

Photogravure vignette issued in several colours
S..... (this one red) in Republican Spain in 1937.
... ............ Issued in Barcelon.in Catalan language.
Black Sea base to bomb a bridge over the Danube at Cernavodi in
Roumania. The result was achieved, but that was the only known
operational use of this curious development. Some 170 TB-3s were
converted as freighters, designated G-2 and these were in use
throughout the war. Regrettably, no ANT-6 aircraft were preserved after
the war.

There were also some surprising appearances of the ANT-6 outside the
Soviet Union, when the machine was deliberately revealed to the West to
show the capability of the Red Air Fleet. The first was on 28 July 1934
when three ANT-6s under Baidukov (see Scott Nos. 636-639) flew from
Moscow to Warsaw with a delegation of military and civilian aviation
personnel and returned on 1 August. Two similar flights were flown
from 5 to 7 August under Baidukov to Rome and Vienna and one to Paris
under Zalevskii on 15/16 August. Such flights indicated the growing
confidence in these new Russian-designed and -built aircraft.

The next aircraft for this review is the ANT-16 or, to give it the
military designation, the TB-4. By the way, the initials TB stand for
Tyazhilyi Bombardirovshchik or heavy bomber. This was to be the
natural successor to the TB-3, with the wingspan increased from 137
ft. to 177 ft. and the gross weight increased from 53,000 Ibs. to
81,500 lbs. Unfortunately, there are-no stamps depicting the ANT-16,
mainly because it was not successful. A major problem was that,
although the size was increased-considerably, the only type of engine
available was the M-17, so that, as well as the four engines mounted

on the leading edge of the wing, two more had to be added in a large
structure mounted atop the fuselage, for a total of six engines in all.
The first flight took place on 3 July 1933, with the indomitable M.M.
Gromov at the controls. The performance of the ANT-16 was very
disappointing indeed, so the whole project was cancelled and the
prototype scrapped; see Table 2-hereunder for the salient
characteristics. But the ANT-16, although not itself a success, was
the source for one of the most famous aircraft of all time.

: :I::INiiiiiAMT:0.::! :!i!:ANT- ANT-ZO! bis

Time period 1930-35 1933-35 1935-42
Wing span (ft.) 177 206 206
Wing area (ft.2) 4,542 5,231 5,231
Gross weight (Ibs.) 73,370 92,593 99,206
Engines (production) 6 X M-17 8 x AM-35 6 x M-34 RNV
Total power (HP) 4,980 7,200 7,200
Max. speed (mph) 124 137 146
Range (miles) 620 to 1,240 750 800
First flight 3 July 1933 17 July 1934 6 May 1940
(19 May) (late '39)

Factory GAZ-22 GAZ-22 and GAZ-22 or
GAZ-124 (?) GAZ-124 (?)

Quantity built 1 1 1

If you had conducted a poll in North America and in Europe before
World War I and asked what was the world's most famous aircraft, the
answer in North America would probably have been the Wright Flyer and,
in Europe, probably the channel-hopping Bleriot monoplane. The same
question prior to World War II would probably have brought up the Ryan
"Spirit of St. Louis" in North America, but thousands of European
schoolboys would have named the "Maksim Gor'kii", a huge Russian
airplane that, for its sheer size and dramatic appearance, captured
the imagination of the public.

The "Maksim Gor'kii" was actually the ANT-20, designed by the well-
known A.N. Tupolev and his team in response to a suggestion, made in
October 1932 by the Union of Soviet Writers and Editors (YURGAZ), that
a huge airplane be built for the Russian propaganda programme. The
idea came from M.Ye. Kol'tsov, a well-known journalist, who started a
collection and raised some six million roubles. The airplane was to be
named to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the literary and social
activities of Maksim Gor'kii.

The name Gor'kii was actually a pseudonym, taken from the Russian word
"gor'kii", which means "bitter", an apt choice. Born Aleksei
Maksimovich Peshkov in Nizhnii-Novgorod on 16 March 1868 O.S., Gor'kii
lost his parents early and left school at the age of eight. He led a

miserable life. in various; jobs until, when he was a dishwasher on a
Volga river steamer, the cook introduced him to literature. His first
stories were published in 1892, but his tales of a harbour thief
(Chelkash)', published in St. Petersburg in 1895, led to his spectacular
success. Some compared him to Chekhov and Tolstoi. Gor'kii appeared on
Russian stamps (see Fig.10), as well as vignettes of Spain (Fig.ll).
His play "The Lower Depths" described the unhappy life that Gor'kii
had experienced himself. His 1906 novel "Mother" was the subject of a
Russian stamp (Fig.12) and became the basis of a movie and Bertold
Brecht's "Die Mutter".
Maksim Gor'kii
[Scott Nos. 470 and 471]
15 kop.
Printed collotype, perf. 12 x 121/2 (or imperforate)
S-' in 1932 (15-kopek) and September 1933 (35-kopek) to
S. celebrate 40th anniversary of Gorkiis literary career.
15i. 3 5 Design by A. Volkov. Print run was 200,000 of the 15-
.- 7,- .kopek and 100,000 of the 35-kopek value.

alalUI 1937 S.17 97 alaIlIlS.S1937

/ll IL. 3 U

brown blue red
Maksim Gor'kii

Photogravure vignettes issued in several colours in
Republican Spain in 1937. Issued in Barcelona, in the
Catalan language for the twentieth anniversary of the
Russian Revolution [see Yamshik, No. 11 and Rossica, No.
54 and No. 102/103].

:4' M. Gorkii and a Scene from the novel, "Mother" (1906)
[Scott No. 1900]

One of a set of stamps portraying Russian
writers, lithographed and perf. 12 2 x 12.
Design by V.V. Zavialov, painting by V.
Efanov print run of 2 million.

Perhaps one of his claims to fame is that he was one of the few Russian
writers who had made his name prior to the revolution and continued
afterwards. He was an early Social Democrat and, after the split in 1903,
a Bolshevik, but one who did not get on with Lenin. After supporting the

190.5 revolution, Gor'kii's. writings led to his arrest, followed by an
extensive tour of the U.S.A., where his lifestyle caused him to be
ostracised. After living in exile in Italy, Gor'kii returned to Russia
in 1913. In time, he began to get on somewhat better with the
authorities and his autobiographical trilogy, published over the years
1913 to 1928, led to his acceptance as a major-literary figure. In
time, his writings, such as his Social Realism, formed the basis for
Soviet policy and he became a propagandist for Stalin. This work
continued up to Gor'kii's death in 1936, which occurred under somewhat
questionable circumstances. While perhaps not quite a Tolstoi or a
Chekhov, Gor'kii was certainly a major political and social influence
of his time and one of the most prominent of all Russian writers.
Fig.13 is a maximum card issued on the 100th. anniversary of his birth.

Maximum card of Gor'kii.
(Scott No.3450).

Issued to celebrate the
centenary of the birth of
Gor'kii. Photogravure, perf.
12xl2, design by V. V.
Pimenov, print run of four
million stamps. Note that
stamp first day was 28 Mar.
1969 (Gregorian calendar),
which was the same as 16th.
March (Julian calendar).

SANT-20 "Maksim Go r'kii"

Wingspan of 206 feet, six
IaQo t engines on leading edge of
r18-IU68 wing and two more in tandem
MAKC 19 above the fuselage. Airmail
rOPbKM A stamp issued 23 Dec. 1937
for Air Force Day.Collotype,
*I auI perf. 12, design by V. V.
Zavialov, 1 million printed.
Having described the man, we can now return to the airplane named
after him. The project was assigned to TsAGI (Central Aerodynamics and
Hydrodynamics Institute), where Andrei Tupolev was already working on
a passenger-carrying version of the TB-4 (ANT-16) bomber under the
designation ANT-20, with six AM-35 engines: four along the wing
leading edge and two in a tandem nacelle above the fuselage. That
became the starting point for the "Maksim Gor'kii".

Production began in June 1933, using the same basic structure and the
corrugated metal skins of the earlier designs, but increasing the


wingspan to 206 feet and the gross weight to 92,600 lbs. It was also
necessary: to add two engines. to the wing, as well as retain the
tandem arrangement above the fuselage; see Figs. 14 and 15.

-- -- -. -j -

:* *:' .y -- j"

Fig.15: The "Maksim Gor'kii" (Scott No.3677). One of a set issued
25-31 December 1969 for the Development of Soviet Civil Aviation.
Stamp designer A. Aksamit, printed by photogravure and engraving,
perf. llx12, print run of three millions.

The enclosure of the four main landing wheels in huge streamlined
"spats" also made the machine easily recognisable. For comparison, the
wingspan of the "Maksim Gor'kii" was 11 feet more than that of a
modern Boeing 747; also,the gross weight of a "747" is almost eight
times greater. The maiden flight took place on 17 June 1934, with
Gromov at the controls and, on 19th. June, it flew over Red Square as
part of the celebrations to welcome the Chelyuskin heroes back to

Apart from its giant size, the characteristics of the machine
captured the imagination. There was accommodation for a crew of eight
and 72 passengers. The equipment included many radios, a cinema
projection room, a printing shop in the port wing, a photographic
laboratory in the starboard wing, a telephone exchange and a
pneumatic-tube message carrier, a power station and even an automatic
pilot. A huge loudspeaker system allowed messages from the skies to
be broadcast as the airplane passed overhead. There was even a
lighting system under the wings to display information to the ground.
In fact, the size and the equipment were all designed to make the
"Maksim Gor'kii" the ultimate propaganda machine of its time.

Unfortunately, although it achieved world recognition, its operational
life was less than a year. One of the TsAGI test pilots, flying an 1-5
biplane, decided to do a loop around the "Maksim Gor'kii" and a
collision resulted, with the escort pilot and all 45 crew and
passengers of the "Maksim Gor'kii" being killed. It had been common


practice to arrange a fly-past, with the huge airplane escorted by
fighter aircraft, .to accentuate the relative sizes of the machines. In
this case it weht wrong, as the 1-5 hit the wing of the ANT-20, then
broke away and struck the fin, resulting in loss of control. There had
been a plan to make a total of seven of the giant craft, each named
after a famous Bolshevik, but the "Maksim Gor'kii" was the only ANT-20
built, although there was a modified version, designated ANT-20 bis.
The use of the word "bis" comes from the French and Italian, where
"bis" means "twice" or "calling attention to a double occurrence". The
ANT-20 bis was to be an improved version, fitting the more powerful
M-34 RNV engines (based on the Hispano-Suiza V-12) on the leading edge
of the wing and omitting the tandem engines above the fuselage; see
Table 2 on p.33 for the statistics. The plan was to design these
aircraft as carriers of passengers and freight. Production was
transferred to a factory outside Moscow, with the design under B. A.
Saukke, as A. N. Tupolev had been arrested. The first flight was on
6 May 1940 and all went well. The aircraft was then handed over to
Aeroflot, fitted out for a crew of eight and 64 passengers. It was
designated PS-124 and carried the registration CCCP-L-760.

The aircraft soon entered airline service, carrying passengers from
Moscow to Mineral'nye Vody. When war came, it was converted to carry
heavy freight and continued in use until a heavy landing on 14 Dec.
1942, after which it was scrapped, the last corrugated-skin aircraft
to be produced in Russia. Contrary to some reports, this was the only
ANT-20 bis to be produced out of a planned batch of sixteen, because
the outbreak of war in Russia naturally demanded fighters and bombers
rather than passenger transports. It was the end of a great era in
Soviet aviation and the start of another. Unfortunately, the
ANT-20 bis was never depicted on Soviet stamps.


by Andrew Cronin

First of all, a definition. By philatelic irredentism is meant the
depiction on stamps of one country of scenes, symbols, emblems, maps
etc., which relate to the territory of another country. The
implication is a claim on the territorial integrity of another
country, not to mention a hostile political act and such actions are
specifically forbidden by Article 28, Section 1-D of the UPU
Convention, as well as by Circular No.153/1985 issued by the
International Bureau of the UPU. The countries of transmission and
destination have the right to refuse mail bearing postage stamps,
postmarks, slogans, addresses in a language implying former
possession etc., as proscribed by the above Convention and Circular.
Many irredentist examples may be found in philately and some
noteworthy ones in our field are given hereunder.

(a) Armenia;. --
The stamps of this country have often featured Mt. Ararat, the

legendary resting place of Noahs. Ark and a place of great national
national significance. to the Armenian people. Some examples are shown
at the: bottom of the previous page. HKoweer, Mt. Ararat is on Turkish
territory and that republic protested vigorously to the Armenian
authorities against such actions. The Armenians tartly replied that the
Turkish national emblem was the star and crescent, yet neither the
stars in the sky nor the moon were Turkish territory, so that the
protest had no foundation.

(b) Finland.
This small country has "Suuri Karhu" or Big Bear
N:o 93010-11-1992 as a neighbour and the relationship has always
46,00 been uneasy. The tragic Winter War of 1939-1940
........................* ensured that Finland would remain an independent
: -2;30 country, but the price paid was very heavy;
among other things the loss of Western Karelia
and especially the Viipuri/Viborg area, with its
famous castle. The peace terms of 12 March 1940
S.?.f--r-.... basically pushed the Finns into the Axis camp
,. ..230 3o and, on 30 August 1941, a set of three stamps
commemorated the return of the castle to Finnish
D. rule.
SHowever, with the surrender of Finland on 19th.
SUOmiFINLD -- September 1944, that area was reincorporated in
the USSR. The collapse of the Soviet Union has
not brought about any change in the situation, as the Russian
Federation is now the successor power. That did not prevent Finland
from celebrating the 700th. anniversary of the Viipuri/Viborg castle
in 1993, as shown by the FIM 2.30 stamp here.
Currently, Finland is in a serious economic position, as 25% of its
foreign trade was with the USSR and that market has now vanished. The
unemployment rate of 22% is the highest in Europe, but the projected
entry of Finland into the European Union on 1 January 1995 should help
to righten the situation.

(c) Germany.
The Soviet Army captured KBnigsberg on 9 April 1945
D mtscheBunund after very heavy fighting and East Prussia has
0 remained divided between Poland and the Russian
o Federation ever since. The city and the Soviet
province in this area were renamed Kaliningrad in
1946 and practically all the inhabitants are now
ONIEIsEUSSN mNIIIIEUSN Russian. Nevertheless, both the Federal Republic
........... n of Germany and West Berlin began issuing engraved
definitive in 1966 with scenes from towns not within their
territories and specifically a 90 Pfg. value in black on 15 June,
featuring the Zschokk Convent in K8nigsberg (see the illustrations
herewith). Needless to say, the Soviet authorities would have refused
transmission of mail bearing such stamps.

(d) Roumania.
As Mr. Afangulskii has pointed out previously in "The Post-Rider",
this fascinating country is in a most unfortunate geographic position
and some recent highly nationalistic actions have not helped to
improve relations with its neighbours. A recent philatelic example was
the appearance on 1 December 1993 of four stamps and a miniature sheet
in honour of the 75th. anniversary of the Great-Union, i.e. the
creation of. Greater Roumania as a victor of WWI. The miniature sheet
of 1060 lei, with a printing of 200,000 copies, featured King

Ferdinand, superimposed on a map
of Roumania, which :included 75 ANI DL L.A MARIA UNfIR
Northern Bukovina (now part of
the Ukraine) and Bessarabia :
(now divided between the Ukraine .
and the Republic of Moldova): see Y
the illustration at right.

Needless to say, the mamaliga hit I-
the fan. Mamaliga is boiled corn-
meal and the national bread of
Moldova and Roumania; it is 'c :
sliced with a thread. The v k
Russians often refer to the POTA R(OM NA \
Moldavians and Roumanians as *:"--~ .. ***
"mamalizhniki" (mamaliga eaters);
that is not intended as a

The Roumanian philatelic magazine "Filatelie" has stated that the
miniature sheet was withdrawn on 30 December 1993 because of "errors",
with 169,791 copies and 1471 FDCs destroyed on 26 January 1994. A
total of 1001 miniature sheets and five FDCs were kept for the Postal
Archives and there were thus only 26,508 copies and 1224 FDCs sold to

This miniature sheet was reissued on 1 March 1994, omitting the
colours designating the Roumanian provinces, but still including
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Who said that modern philately is
not interesting?

by Andreas Mitakis

A revolt against Turkish rule broke out on the island of Crete in 1896
and resulted in European forces from Austria, England, France, Italy
and Russia landing in 1898. The Russian zone of administration
consisted of the district of Rethymnon and the Ottoman Government was
compelled in 1899 to recognize Crete as an autonomous state, ruled by
a Greek governor under nominal Turkish suzerainty. The European
forces were then withdrawn in that year.

As part of the administrative needs in the Russian zone, fiscal stamps
were also employed and, with the exception of the first issue, the
subsequent emissions all have a link with the first handstamped
postage stamps, as the same control marking was applied in both cases.
They are therefore also of interest to philatelists, particularly on
fiscal documents of the period, which lasted from some time in 1898 to
12 July 1899, when all remainders were supposed to have been destroyed.

(A) The First Issue (sometime in 1898);
This was imperforate and produced by utilising an official
seal with negative lettering, originally being intended to
be impressed on wax for official mail. As shown here, it
had the Imperial Russian coat of arms in the centre and an
inscription between the two concentric circles, reading:
HE4. 3KCnEQMLIOH. OTP5~ A HA OCTP. KPHT'B (Seal of the

Expeditionary Detachment on the Island of Crete). The values were added
in French at bottom in manuscript and they are listed in the Forbin
catalogue of fiscal stamps, as follow:-

"Vingt (20) paras", seal in black or violet) Note: This issue is
"Un (1) piastre", seal in black or violet) apparently rare, as I have
"Deux (2) piastres",seal in black or violet) no examples on documents.
"Six (6) piastres", seal in black or violet) Comments, please.

(B) The Second Issue (early in 1899?)
In this case, the basic gray rectangular design was in
iSr'. Greek, reading at top: KPHTH (CRETE), then in two lines
*,'I''* LEVIED), over which was applied the well-known Russian
1 7 control mark in blue, reading:"Ekspeditsion. Otryad na
Ostrove Krite" (Expeditionary Detachment on the Island
: of Crete) and which also appears on the first postal
r. issues. The values were added by hand, normally in
"2 Z ,^6 figures at top and in French at bottom, all in black:-
S .. 4 4 Quatre paras
XX-XX Vingt 20 paras
1 piastre un, in three lines in red ink (see next page)
ALL THE VALUES .1 1 Un 1 piastre
ISSUED ONLY 2 2 Deux 2 piastres
IMPERFORATE. 6 6 Six 6 piastres

A 0/S&Z& o

71.- i
I~h !:I s%

-fr-) y C'L -6~d" *7

7 ~

6X / ^

A document
at Rethymnon
and bearing
a pair of
the 20 paras
fiscal stamp,

-t~/ Z"L -I/ G


F-a^ C/ C. 6 se'y ee^ L~~g a-'/T t ->
,^ 7 / >
(- it^" '^ <3<" ^SE- ^r LT-^
yu 11 .6

A contract drawn up
at Rethymnon,
49 March 1899
and bearing a
20 paras fiscal
stamp, imperforate.

4 1k
2 '"


-1 ----*-,.

(C) The Third Issue (1899)
This was an improvement on the second issue, made by setting in type
the figures and names of value and enclosing everything in a typeset
double-lined frame. The same Greek inscription and Russian control
marking as for the second issue. I do not know the sheet size, but
it should be possible to plate these stamps:-

4 paras 4 / quatre paras
20 paras 20 / vingt paras paras i
1 piastre 1 / un piastre p 2piastre 6
2 piastres 2 / deux piastres
6 piastres 6 / six piastres

Brigadeer H.L. Lewis lists
in his book "Crete: Its
Postal History and Stamps"
the varieties "parsa" for
the 4 paras value and
piastree" for the "' six p
6 piastres stamp. -- -

\ piastres

SA contract drawn up at Rethymnon on
: 31 May 1899 and bearingan
:. imperforate copy of the two
piastres typeset issue.

A lot of work remains to be done in this field and further details
would be welcomed.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Mitakis is a bank official in Herakleion,
Crete and a leading expert on the stamps and postal history of the
island. His collection has taken many high awards at international
exhibitions, his last showing being at POLSKA '93 in Poznan, where
he was awarded a gold medal and special prize for Cretan postal
history. Many thanks are extended to him for the data presented here.

Interest in the Russian fiscal for Crete is keen in Greece,
especially when found with ROPiT cachets, bringing high prices at
auction. Plans are now afoot to put together a comprehensive
catalogue of Greek fiscal and such a publication would inevitably
increase the already strong demand for the unusual revenues
described in the article presented here.

By Alex Artuchov
(Lokhvitsa, continued from No. 33)

1 KOP.
Type 1 Numeral 1 without serif at the bottom.
Type 2 Numeral 1 with serif at the bottom.
3 KOP.
Type 1 Both numerals 3 with flat heads.
Type 2 Head of 3 on left with serif, round head on right.
Type 3 Head of 3 on left round, with serif on right.

Flat Head Round Head Head with Serif

3 3 3

SECOND EDITION (November 8, 1911)
Additional values of 5, 6, 10, 15 and 50 kop. issued; 10 kop. stamp has 3 types and the 15 kop. 2
types; 6 kop. occurs imperforate vertically.

No. Printed Imperforate Included

5 kop. 2,000 100
6 kop. 2,000 100
10 kop. 1,000 100
15 kop. 1,000 50
50 kop. 500 50

51. 5 kop. brown, greenish blue and lilac 1.00
Variety: Flower ornaments inverted.

52. 6 kop. violet, carmine red or rose and greenish blue 1.00
Variety: Flower ornaments inverted.

53. 10 kop. black, carmine rose and gray blue 2.00

54. 15 kop. brown red, greenish blue and lilac brown 2.00

55. 50 kop. saffron yellow, black and brown red 5.00


10 KOP.
Type 1 1 in right circle with serif at the bottom.
Type 2 1 in both circles without serif at the bottom.
Type 3 1 in both circles with serif at the bottom.

15 KOP.
Type 1 Both numerals 1 without serif at the bottom.
Type 2 Both numerals 1 with serif at the bottom.



According to Schmidt, 151 proofs in all values and combinations of colour have been recorded.
The paper, gum and perforations are similar to the issued stamps. Some of the proofs are
overprinted with OBPA3EMI Specimen and some of the stamps were printed on the 1st and
3rd sides of a folded sheet as illustrated below:

3rd side

1st side

1 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 1
2 2 3 3 3

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2 2

The known proofs are listed below in the following colour combinations:
Ornaments and Numerals of Coat of Arms and
Frame ("O") Value ("N") Inscriptions ("C")

gray green, greenish blue, lilac and black
greenish blue, carmine rose, brown red
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, black,
carmine rose
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, black,
brown red
gray green, bluish green, lilac, black,
brown red, red, carmine red
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, brown red,
carmine red
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, black,
brown red

Without ornaments
none black







brown red
brown red
brown red

brown red
brown red
brown red

saffron brown red
Without ornaments
none brown red

gray green, greenish blue, lilac, carmine rose
greenish blue, black, brown red, carmine rose
gray green, greenish blue, carmine rose, lilac,
black, red brown
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, black, brown red
gray green, greenish blue, black, brown red
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, black, red, brown
red, carmine rose
gray green, greenish blue, lilac, brown red,
carmine rose

gray green

5 KOP.
-green -lilac -gray-green, greenish blue, lilac, black or carmine
-lilac -lilac -greenish-blue, black, brown-red and carmine rose
-brown -lilac -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black, brown-red,
or carmine rose
-violet -lilac -gray-green, greenish-blue, black, lilac or brown-red
-black -lilac -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black or brown-red






brown red

brown red

-brown-red -lilac -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black, brown red or
-saffron yellow -lilac -gray-green, greenish-blue, brown-red and carmine
-without flower -lilac -greenish-blue

6 KOP.
-green -bluish-green -gray-green, bluish-green, lilac, black or carmine-
-lilac -greenish-blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, carmine-rose, black or
-brown -greenish-blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black, brown-red or
-violet -greenish blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, black, brown-red or
-black -greenish-blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black or brown-red
-brown-red -greenish blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black, brown-red or
-saffron-yellow -greenish-blue -gray-green, greenish-blue, brown-red or carmine-
-without flower -greenish-blue -carmine-rose

10 KOP.
-black -navy-blue -brown-red

15 KOP.
-without flower -brown -greenish-blue

50 KOP.
-lilac -brown-red -gray-green
-saffron-yellow -brown-red -gray-green
-without flower -brown-red -black

The 50 kop. proofs are also known in changed colours and without
indication of value:


- 50 kop. dark violet and analine rose

THIRD EDITION (December 1, 1911)
2,000 stamps issued including 100 imperforate, 2 types.

56. 1 kop. emerald, carmine red and black

Type 1 Arabic numeral 1 in both corner circles.
Type 2 Roman numeral 1 in right corner circle, 14th and 23rd stamps on the sheet.



FOURTH EDITION (April, 1912)
The 3 kop. stamp of the 1st editionin changed colours, numerals in block letters, 2,000 stamps
issued including 100 imperforate.

57. 3 kop. violet, blue green and red 1.00
Variety: Flower ornaments inverted.

30 different proofs of the 4th edition have been reported. The paper, gum, perforation and shades
of colour are similar to the stamps of the 2nd edition. The numerals of value are always in red.
With and without overprint OBPA3BEUL (specimen).

- 3 kop. yellow green,
- 3 kop. lilac
-3 kop. brown
-3 kop. violet
-3 kop. black
-3 kop. brown-red
-3 kop. saffron-yellow
- 3 kop. without flower

-gray-green, lilac, black and brown-red
-gray-green, greenish-blue, black or brown-red
-gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac and brown red
-gray-green, greenish blue, lilac, black or red-brown
-gray-green, greenish-blue, lilac, black or brown-red
-gray-green, greenish-blue and brown-red
-gray-green, greenish-blue or red-brown

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2 1
11 1 11
1 1 2 1 1

Similar to the first edition of the stamps of 1910 but with changed colours and with minor
differences in the shape and the position of corer numerals, lithographed on white paper, sheet of
5 x 5, perforated 11.5, 2 editions.

FIRST EDITION (March 1914)
Space between stamps 4-4.5 mm, size of printing plate 112.25 x 133 mm soft white paper 0.07
mm thick, streaky yellowish gum, stamps known double perforated horizontally.

58. 1 kop. yellow 0.50

59. 3 kop. dark black blue 1.00

Space between stamps 5.5 6.0 mm, size of printing plate is 117.5 118.5 x 134.5 -135 mm,
smooth white paper 0.112 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of 5 x 5, the 3 kop. stamp is
known double perforated horizontally.

60. 1 kop. yellow 1.00

61. 3 kop. gray lilac 1.00

Several constant plate flaws occur on the sheet. Stamps 13 and 18 show a white line (scratch)
which extends across the SW corner circle of the 13th stamp and it shows up again across the
NW corer circle of the 18th stamp.

The 21st stamp has a ball on the right flagpole and the 24th stamp has a horizontal white line at
the SW corer circle.

L L 13h stamp.

21Ft stamp. [ 24th stamp.

18th stamp.

Similar to the previous issue but in a larger size of 29.5 x 32.75 mm, lithographed in 2 colours,
on white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 5 x 5, roughly perforated 11.5, 2 editions.

FIRST EDITION (January 1, 1915)

62. 6 kop. bluish lilac and carmine rose 1.00

63. 10 kop. brown 1.50

64. 15 kop. carmine red and emerald green 1.50

65. 50 kop. yellow, lilac brown 8.00

66. 50 kop. carmine red and emerald green 125.00

SECOND EDITION (April, 1915)
Colour change and additional 5 kop. stamp, the 50 kop. cliche was removed from the sheet of 15
kop. stamps.

67. 5 kop. brown and blue green 1.00

68. 6 kop. reddish lilac and carmine rose 1.00

69. 10 kop. black and carmine rose 3.00

70. 15 kop. carmine rose and blue green 1.50

71. 50 kop. yellow and black 5.00

1915 (May)
Similar to 1st edition of 1914 issue but with differences in corner numerals, the yellow
1 kop. stamp has a break in the lower right circle, lithographed on white or yellowish paper
0.08 mm thick, yellow gum, sheet of 5 x 5, perforated 11.5, 4 editions.

White paper, printing plate of 119.5 x 135.5 mm .

72. 1 kop. yellow 2.00

On yellowish white paper, printing plate of 120 x 137 mm the 4th stamp on the sheet is a cliche
error that created the 1 kop. stamp by mistake.

73. 3 kop. light gray lilac 1.00

74. 1 kop. light-gray lilac 50.00

THIRD EDITION (July, 1915)
On yellowish white paper, in a darker shade and with the cliche of the 1 kop. error removed from
the sheet.

75. 3 kop. dark lilac 1.00

FOURTH EDITION (October, 1915)
White paper, printing plate of 116.5 x 133.5 mm.

76. 3 kop. blue lilac 1.50

1915- 1916
Similar to previous issues but in two colours, white paper, sheet of 5 x 5 perforated 11.5,
5 editions.

FIRST EDITION (October, 1915)
On white paper 0.11 mm thick, 117.5 x 138.5 mm printing plate, the 1 kop. stamp occurs
imperforate and imperforate vertically.

77. 1 kop. yellow and dull rose 0.50

78. 3 kop. dark green and gray lilac 0.75

SECOND EDITION (November, 1915)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, 1 kop. plate of 115.5 x 133 mm, position of upper right numeral
1 is straighter than on 1st edition, on the 50 kop. stamp the 2 cures at the side of the bottom
inscription of value have been removed, perforated 11.5 and imperforate, the 1 kop. stamp
is also known imperforate vertically and and double perforated horizontally.

79. 1 kop. yellow and dull rose 0.50

80. 50 kop. dark blue and emerald green 4.00

(Stamp 20 is inverted)

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 OZ

21 22 23 24 25

THIRD EDITION (January, 1916)
Same plate as for the 1st edition, 1 kop. stamp with slightly different numerals of value,
colour change on 3 kop. on smooth white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum.

81. 1 kop. yellow and dull rose

82. 3 kop. dark green and lilac



FOURTH EDITION (February, 1916)
Printed from the plate used for the 50 kop. stamp of the second edition, printed in one colour
with red numerals of value, smooth white paper 0.10 mm thick, white gum, coarsely perforated
11.5, known imperforate.

83. 5 kop. emerald and dull red



111 2 2 2
1 21 1 2
2 21 1 2
2 2 2 2 1
1 2 1 2 1

A study of the sheet indicates that two transfer types with minor differences were used.
They are arranged on the sheet as shown above and are as follows:

Type 1 Very small period after TPH K..
Type 2 The same period is larger, there are two dots of colour between the letters II and

O and O and N in the word IIOWTA, the dot between O and N is very faint.

According to Schmidt, this stamp was printed from the same plate as the 50 kop. stamp of the
second edition but, this may not be so because none of the copies of the 50 kop. stamps that
were examined display the above characteristics.

The 5 kop. stamp of the 4th edition overprinted by hand in violet.

84. 1 kop overprint in violet on No. 83


The 1 kop. stamp of the 3rd edition with changed colours, white paper 0.08 mm thick,
white gum, perforated 11.5 and known imperforate.

85. 1 kop. orange yellow and dull rose



1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 7
7 5b
8 6
9 8
10 9
11 18
12 19
13 20
14 21
15 10
16 11
17 12

18 13 35 36 52 49 70 64
19 14 36 37 53 50 71 65
20 22 37 38 54 51 72
21 23 38 33 55 52 73
22 24 39 34 56 53 74 58
23 25 40 33b 57 54 75
24 15 41 34b 58 55 76
25 16 42 39 59 56 77 70
26 17 43 40 60 78 72
27 26 44 41 61 57 79
28 27 45 41a 62 58 80 74
29 28 46 43 63 61 81
30 29 47 44 64 63 82 73
31 30 48 45 65 66 83 75
32 31 49 46 66 67 84
33 32 50 47 67 59 85 71
34 35 51 48 68
69 62


(St. Petersburg Province)

Luga is located in the south central portion of the province about 85 miles south of St.
Petersburg and close to the boundary with the province of Novgorod. In 1897, the
population was 5,687.

Luga was an agricultural community. Dairy farming and the growing of vegetables were
among the main accusations.

Luga issued stamps between 1869 and 1900.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Blue background with golden ship on silver water.
Bottom: Red background with golden ladder.

Embossed oval shaped stamp 24.5 x 29 mm printed in single copies on white paper 0.10
mm thick, yellowish white gum, letter JI of JIYKCKAFO is shaped like an inverted V,
small ball on crown under cross, large star under shield.

1. 5 kop. blue

(2 known)

1870- 1876
Similar to previous issue, 24.5 x 28.5 mm, ball on crown under cross is larger, star under
shield is smaller, inscription in smaller letters, printed in single copies on white or
yellowish white paper 0.13 mm thick, white or light yellow brown gum, 4 editions.

FIRST EDITION (February 1870)
With light brown gum initially and white gum later.

2. 5 kop. dark blue 5.00
with white gum 10.00

SECOND EDITION (End of 1871)
Yellowish white or brown yellow gum.

3. 5 kop. milky or light lilac blue R
(? known)

THIRD EDITION (October, 1872)
White gum.

4. 5 kop. prussian blue RRR
(5? known)

FOURTH EDITION (1874-1876)
White gum.

5. 5 kop. dark ultramarine blue 20.00

1877- 1878
Similar to previous issues, printed in single copies, oval shaped, 23.5 x 27.75 mm,
embossed on white paper 0.10 0.13 mm thick, 22 scallops all around the stamp, oval is
more pointed, crown is smaller and rounder, the inscription is more spread out, the star
under the shield has a dot in the centre, 3 editions.


by Alexander Epstein
In their classic book on Russian stamps used abroad (Stamps of the
Russian Empire Used Abroad, part two, BSRP 1957), Tchilinghirian and
Stephen make only a brief mention about Russian field post offices
operating in Roumania after its entry in WWI, adding that they were
purely military postal services. Nevertheless, this period represents
an interesting part of Russian postal history, having found almost no
reflection in the literature, with the exception of a short article by
August Lepp& in BJRP 63. The present paper deals with Russian postal
services and mail posted on the territory of Roumania within its
present frontiers or, more specifically, in the Roumanian provinces of
Moldavia and partly of Wallachia, that were parts of the Kingdom of
Roumania as long ago as before WWI, and Southern Bukovina, having been
before and during WWI a part of the Habsburg Empire. Bessarabia, a
former province of the Russian Empire and now mostly in the present
Republic of Moldova, as well as Northern Bukovina (now a part of the
Ukraine), both having belonged to Roumania between the two world wars,
are outside the scope of this paper. Since the Julian Calendar was
officially in use in Russia before 1918 and the corresponding dates on
postmarkers of the Russian field post offices were set up in
accordance with that calendar, the dates in this article are also
given according to the Julian Calendar, being 13 days earlier than
those of the Gregorian Calendar. Some exceptions are mentioned

The entry into WWI on 14 August 1916 on the side of the Entente Allies
was not successful for Roumania. Its offensive towards Transsylvania
was soon brought to a stop and the invasion that followed by the
German 9th. Army under General Falkenhayn in September forced the
Russian High Command to come to the aid of Roumania, bringing Russian
troops into Roumanian territory. Initially, the Russian High Command
believed that it could make do with rather small forces. Moreover,
before Roumania joined the Allies in WWI, troops of the Russian 9th.
Army, particularly the 3rd. Cavalry Corps, in the course of a general
offensive started in May 1916 on the South-Western Front under General
Brusilov against the Austrians and Germans, entered Southern Bukovina
and captured a number of towns, including Kimpolung (now Cm&pulung
Moldovenesc in Suceava province, Roumania). However, in October 1916.
the whole of the 9th. Army was moved southwards and entered Roumania

Soon after Roumania came into the war, a detached army corps, the 47th.
under General Zayonchkovskii (a Polish surname, properly spelt
Zajqczkowski) was formed from two Russian infantry divisions and sent
together with a Serbian voluntary division to the Dobrudzha (Dobrogea)
area to assist the Roumanians against an expected offensive by troops
from Bulgaria, an ally of Germany and Austro-Hungary. However, that
did not help and, under great pressure from the Bulgarian forces, the
Russian and Roumanian troops were forced to retreat northwards to the
lower reaches of the Danube.

Having in mind also the German troops advancing from the south-west,
the Russian High Command started now to form a special army for that
sector of the theatre of war, i.e. the Danubian Army under General
Sakharov. Russian troops sent to the Roumanian part of Moldavia made
up one more army: the Fourth. In December 1916, a separate Roumanian
Front was created under the nominal command of the King of Roumania,
with the Russian General Sakharov as his deputy. The latter actually

was the real commander of this army group. The Front Headquarters were
located at Jassy (Iayi). The front line only became stable in January
1917, when sufficient forces had been transferred to Roumania from
other fronts to stop the German advance.

On the southern wing of the front, the Russian 6th. Army (former
Danubian Army) under General Tsurikov was situated along the lower
reaches of the Danube, with its headquarters at Bolgrad in Bessarabia.
Still to the left of the 6th. Army, along the Sulina estuary of the
Danube delta, the so-called "Detachment for the Defence of the Danube
Delta and Estuaries" was brought up under General Fabritskii, with the
Baltic Naval Division as its main component. This detachment,
initially subordinate to the Black Sea Fleet, was later included in
the 6th. Army.

At the centre of the Roumanian Front, with the Roumanian 2nd. Army on
the right flank and, somewhat later, the Roumanian 1st. Army on the
right, there stood the 4th. Army under General Ragoza, with
headquarters originally at Roman (Nov.1916 to Jan.1917), then for a
short time at Birlad and finally at Bacau. The 9th. Army under General
Lechitskii, with headquarters at Botogani (Oct.1916 to Jan.1917), then
at Roman until Oct.1917 and still later at Botogani, again defended
the northern part of Roumanian Moldavia.

The Russian 8th. Army to the right of the 9th. Army was a part of the
South-Western Front. One of its corps on the left flank was operating
in Southern Bukovina. After the defeat of the South-Western Front in
July 1917, the 8th. Army was subordinate to the Roumanian Front at the
end of that month. In addition, for a very short time in July 1917,
one more Russian army, the First, operated in Southern Bukovina
between the 8th. and 9th. Armies.

Each Russian army was composed of several corps, as well as some
detached divisions and smaller military units. However, not all those
corps and divisions ever operated on the territory of Roumania, being
held in reserve in Bessarabia or the Odessa area. In its turn, a corps
consisted of two, three or more divisions and some smaller units. All
large military formations were served by field post/telegraphic

The Russian field post network included Main, Return, Control,
Headquarters, Corps, Reserve and Line-of-Communications field post
offices. The sole Main FPO and Return FPO were subordinate directly to
the Postal/Telegraphic Department at the Roumanian Front Headquarters.
Both were located on Russian territory. The Headquarters and Control
FPOs were attached to army headquarters, the Corps FPOs to corps, the
Reserve and Line-of-Communications FPOs (more specifically, the latter
were called Line-of-Communications Field Post/Telegraphic Sub-offices)
mainly to divisions.

At least the following FPOs are known to have functioned on the
territory of Roumania in either of the periods (some of them during
the whole period of time from the last months of 1916 to the end of
the war, or at least to December 1917):-
Desig. Entity attached to Period Location
A 1st. Army July 1917 Suczawa (Suceava)
r 4th. Army Nov.1916-Jan.1917 Roman
Jan.-Feb.(?) 1917 Birlad
56 Feb. (?) 1917 to war-end Bacau

Desiq. Entity attached to
E 9th.. Army

4 2nd. Army Corps
6 4th. Army Corps
9 7th. Army Corps
10 8th. Army Corps
12 10th. Army Corps
20 18th. Army Corps
25 23rd. Army Corps
26 24th. Army Corps
40 4th. Sib.Army Corps
47 45th. Army Corps
49 40th. Army Corps
56 Danubian Army
47th. Army Corps
104 6th. Cavalry Corps
127 29th. Army Corps



30th. Army Corps
36th. Army Corps
44th. Army Corps
26th. Army Corps
3rd. Cavalry Corps

5th. Cavalry Corps

Oct.1917 to war-end

Dec.1916 to war-end
End Oct.1916 to war-end
Nov.1916 to war-end
Dec.1916 to war-end
July 1917 to war-end
Aug.1917 to war-end
Oct.(?) 1917 to war-end
Nov.1916 to war-end
Dec.1916 to war-end
Dec.1916-June 1917
Nov.1916 to war-end
July 19177 to war-end
Dec.1916-Feb.(?) 1917
Aug.1917 to war-end
Nov.1916 to war-end
Dec.1916 to war-end
Oct.1916-July 1917
Jan.-May 1917




CSmpulung Mold.
C&mpulung Mold.


111 9th. Army Oct.1916 to war-end
114 3rd. Turk. Rifle Div.? ?
130 2nd. Infantry Divn. Nov.1916 to war-end
147 ? ?-July 1917
150 103rd.Infantry Div.?Dec.1916 to war-end
153 78th.Infantry Div.? Nov.1916 to war-end
169 Baltic Naval Divn. Nov.1916 to war-end




3rd. Don Coss.Div.
Ussuri Coss.Div.


Transamur Coss.Div.?Dec.1916-?

1st. Don Coss.Div.?
12th.Cavalry Divn.
6th. Don Coss.Div.?
8th.Cavalry Divn.?
Orenburg Coss.Div.?

NOTE: war-end = end of the

Jan -May 1917
end Oct.-Dec.1916
Jan.-May 1917
war for Russia.

Undoubtedly, this listing can be considered neither as complete, nor as
fully reliable, especially concerning the time periods. Very few
archival documents from the Roumanian Front have been found up to the
present and the existing military historic literature (e.g. "Strategic
Account of the War 1914-1918, Parts 6 & 7"and "Strategic Account of the
War on the Roumanian Front", Moscow 1920-1922) gives only a fragmentary
presentation about the displacements of various military formations and
their staffs. One should have in mind that FPOs attached to either



military formation were usually situated in the same localities as the
corresponding headquarters or staffs. Some additional information was
deduced from the available postal history material, particularly
messages, addresses etc. on covers and 'postcards from and to the front.

The available information allows us to assert that Russian FPOs were
functioning in the following towns of Roumania during various periods,
the designations of such FPOs being indicated in brackets:-
Adjud (10) Fa1ticeni (217) Roman (r, E)
Bacau (r, 47) Focsani (230) Sipote Cameral
BIrlad (F, 139) Galati (40) (147)
Botogani (E, 49) Pascani (155,216) Sulina (169)
Braila (56) Piatra-Neamt(26,136) Tecuciu (9,128)
Campulung Moldovenesc (140,148) Rimnicu-Sarat (148)

There were of course other towns and localities where FPOs were
operating. However, neither they, nor the exact days or even months of
the relocations of any FPO from one town to another can be
ascertained yet in the great majority of cases. The Russian field post
office network served principally the servicemen and the attached
personnel of the Russian troops. According to the regulations, they
were allowed to send ordinary letters weighing up to 30 grammes (= loz.)
and postcards free of postage. Some such sending are shown hereunder:-

SFig.l. HQ FPO "r"
,,OTKPbITOE IHCbMO. CART TAL attached to the
4th. Army. Card
mailed 11.10.17 to
Fellin (Viljandi).
"- : ./ ".^" : 'The FPO was then
located at Bacau,
S. .-. .... .-.'.... in the central
part of Roumanian
'WWV" .. .... Moldavia.
*: ...Fig^

.. ,.. .

Postkaart' -OTr.puroe nIx0o o A
19"attached to the
,..- 9th. Army. Card

.. mail 9.11.17 to
F .* .. : : (Paide), when
r. Al the FPO was
located at
S. ., Boto ani.
F; P a : : OO ni M ir/i i-..-f ur

- i V i i ii i I I 1 I i

*.: *. I*-----'----
I ~ ~ ~ ~ .% ~ ~ *.. .


* .1.. *L.i I



Fig.4. Corps FPO
No.40 attached
to the 4th.
Siberian Army
Corps, a part of
the 6th. Army. A
cover of a
soldier's letter
sent on 10.6.17,
when the Corps
staff and FPO
were in Galami.
Addressed to

Fig.5. Corps FPO
No.136 attached
to the 36th.
Army Corps, a
part of the 4th.
Army. Card sent
on 1.4.17, when
the FPO was
situated in
Addressed to


-.-ripO ndanc.ri *
I r-I l

*' :

4" u
-I I.,~h6S"
* 7 ,
~c L.
-* % *%*.'*,-



3. i

'3 '4' a


Fig.3. Corps FPO
No.10 attached to
the 8th. Army
Corps, a part of
the 4th. Army.
Card postmarked
on 13.9.17, when
the Corps staff
was located in
Adjud and
received in
Odessa on 16th.?

- -- -- ----- -----

-- ---- --

i a

-- -

1'' r~

I 4. I

Fiq.6. Corps FPO
No.140 attached to
to the 26th. Army
Corps, a part of
the 9th. Army.
Card written by
soldiers of 259th.
Olgino Regt. and
sent on 16.2.17
from Cgmpulung
Note usage of a
canceller of a
former Reserve
FPO, although
the FPO had been
reorganised a
long time ago.

Fig.7. Corps FPO
No.148 attached to
3rd. Cavalry Corps
a part of the 9th.
Army. A Roumanian
postal stationery
card used as a
blank for
military free
presumably from
Pascani 14.10.16
to Mogiliv. Note
also usage of an
old canceller.

Fig.8. Corps FPO
No.155 attached to
5th. Cavalry Corps,
then a part of the
9th. Army. Card
mailed 6.2.17,
when the FPO was
in Pascani,
having replaced
FPO No.148.



.i t~7 f
(, --A

'Union Posta ~eit

'j~otie iseri t
A '

~~artc ) e osaeri4 t
.Vtirti rlae

.: ...' I:; '.

-AL&44 A44M. ~,4,
jllCA~;(z 1L444.4(44

~A~.e0~rCI~I~~ a) CLL;~

(V-t IA CO4 e W-t.~c

1 U
tu ya. ~

~n/L~_C_~~L__ __..j

I. r.rz"



I~ ./ -o A .. '.9"--:

t~~t* -4.

e Postale_ .....-. A'

______ A-r---I--- *- '' .~ ~~

IQ r

... .. ...
I it

* .-: .~ z

* ~ -'~ i

un1lor1 PoDjr,9LE UrIJVEKSELLe. v;r~

a Carta Postala .
F, / -I.
-: I. -
? (I
s f
I- i..

'~I- I I
/ ) ">~'
~~ /". i

. . .

~ I ..
'' ~' r
1 ..?.:.,1..cSti~" rl ; ;
"r` 'I'~

~' !~ r

.1 :- I- .I~I~:
"'~?' I -
r''r r
3 i, Y!

.r~t ?
~2 Y~.......L
~.* '"~~I
1; I I r ( r ~~

Fia.9. Reserve FPO
No.147, with the
attachment still
unknown. Card sent
10.6.17 when the
FPO was at Sipote-
Cameral, Southern
Bukovina and
addressed to
Pustyn', S.P.B.

Fig.10. Reserve FPO
No.169 attached to
the Baltic Naval
Division, then a
part of the 6th.
Army. Card sent on
13.6.17 from Sulina
to Revel' (Tallinn).

There are sending
from Roumania,
especially when
posted in the
period,i.e. at the
end of 1916, that
do not seem to
have been handled
by FPOs. Such a
postcard is shown
here in Fi. 11.
This card was
written in
Southern Bukovina,
judging from the
beginning of the
message: "In
Austria" (written
in Estonian) and
the view of a

; ---


r I

sawmill in Suczawa (Suceava) district on the picture side. There is no
FPO marking, however, and the route of transmission remains somewhat
of a puzzle. The message was written on 3 November 1916, but the card
was not censored until the 20th. The place is unknown where a boxed
censor mark of the Odessa Military District was applied with the
personal No.66 of the censor. It took a month more before the card was
postmarked in Odessa on 19 December, to be despatched to Petrograd.
Even if we assume that the month, either in the censor's mark or in
the postmark, is indicated in error and that the censorship had taken
place just a day after postmarking, the gap between writing the message
and despatching the postcard still remains too long. It appears that
this sending came from a serviceman in a unit that was a part of the
3rd. Cavalry Corps, stationed at the beginning of November in the
Suczawa (Suceava) area and transferred soon afterwards to Wallachia to
fight against the advancing German forces. During such movements, the
functioning of FPOs was usually interrupted, such that this card had
probably been directed to Odessa to be handled there in either case.

Almost all the sending shown above look somewhat dull. However, that
is normal for Russian military mail during the last stage of the war
or, more specifically, from the second half of 1916. It was then not
only permitted but also strongly recommended that the former military
cachets with the names of military units, institutions etc. be
replaced by those with an inscription such as "From the Army on Active
Service", or not to apply any such cachets at all on sending mailed
at FPOs. Nevertheless, such sending remain as authentic documents and
witnesses of that period and its events.

Apart from the free mail, the Russian FPOs also handled sending
prepaid by postage stamps, such as ordinary letters to home, or other
military postal articles weighing more than 30 grammes (roughly 1 oz.),
ordinary postcards and letters going abroad, money and parcel cards,
as well as any civilian mail. It is not known if local inhabitants in
Roumania were allowed to use the FPO services, as had been the case in
Eastern Galicia, when it had been occupied by the Russians in 1914-1915
and there were no other means of postal communication available. In the
present case, the Roumanian State Postal Service was functioning,
albeit very badly, as will be shown hereunder. However, FPO services
were made available for civilians attached to army institutions on
Roumanian territory. In BJRP No.48, a cover to Greece was featured,
franked with an Imperial "Arms" stamp of 7 kop., surcharged 10 kop.
The stamp was cancelled at FPO No.150 on 10 March 1917, but the sender
remains unknown.

An examination of the sending handled by Russian FPOs shows that their
periods of transmission were rather stable, with only a few exceptions.
The corresponding dates are given hereunder of departure and arrival
for some items of mail sent from Roumania to present-day Estonia via
the Russian field post offices:-
Date of Point of Date of Days in
FPO departure destination arrival transit
F 11.10.17 Fellin (Viljandi) 21.10.17 10
E 10.11,17 Veisenshtein (Paide) 5.12.17 25
26 8. 5.17 Yur'ev (Tartu) 20. 5.17 12
26 12. 7.17 Yur'ev (Tartu) 22. 7.17 10
26 26. 8.17 Yur'ev (Tartu) 5. 9.17 10
40 10. 6.17 Revel' (Tallinn) 22. 6.17 12
136 1. 4.17 Vezenberg (Rakvere) 11. 4.17 10
140 18. 2.17 Yur'ev (Tartu) 7. 3.17 17
150 19. 6.17 Yur'ev (Tartu) 1. 7.17 12
169 28. 1.17 Revel' (Tallinn) 20. 2.17 23
169 13. 6.17 Revel' (Tallinn) 25. 6.17 12

Thus, in the great majority of cases, a sending to Estonia took 10 to
12 days. About the same length of time--was also the case for
Petrograd, a day or two less to Moscow, etc.

There is postal evidence that Russian mail was also handled by the
Roumanian Postal Service, particularly in the areas where no Russian
FPOs were operating. Among the first such sending is one shown in
the above-mentioned article by Lepp&. It is a postcard sent from
Medgidia in the Dobrudzha (Dobrogea) area to Fellin (Viljandi). The
postcard is franked with a Roumanian 10-bani stamp that is cancelled,
however, not by a postmark but by a marking of the Roumanian
censorship. There is also a mark of the Russian censor in Odessa,
postmarks of Odessa dated 28 & 30 Sept.1916 and an arrival postmark of
Fellin dated 7th. October. Written on 14 September, the card was in the
hands of the Roumanian Post for two weeks and, after three days in
Odessa, delivered to the addressee in eight days.
S..Fig.12 shows a
S.. ...- card with the
*/...1... 7' i/i{/. 7 ~ cachet of a
OA. O' TOBAR'T APT Russian Red
S' ... Cross unit,
C'N/1 written aboard
"' -J ll\fZ, a 'a Roumanian
: river-ship on
l'".^;YJ l. its way from
*.- .. Reni to Galati,

4 [SI ^f .^ ^to Moscow. The

.... .:. Post. It was
;"* I.. a '.,. q cafirst
Pe.i. Ka.t-eqH.. c 66p-b postmarked on
Rn G athtdrale, 4.7.17 (Julian
..'I .. .. ., /.'..' Calendar) at
Birlad, then
the seat of the H.Q. of the Roumanian 2nd. Army. It was received later
at Jassy (lasi) on 16 July and despatched from that town only on 31st.
July, when the card was evidently handed over to the Russian postal
system. In the meantime, it had been censored by the Roumanian
censorship which applied two markings: oval and circular (very

Another soldier's card mailed through the Roumanian Post is shown in
Fig.13 on the next page. As seen from the message, this postcard was
written on 24 February 1917,i.e. 9 March according to the Gregorian
Calendar, at Tirgu-Neam, a town in the northern part of Roumanian
Moldavia. It was also handed into the Roumanian Postal Service. The
date of the Jassy postmark is 16 August 1917, i.e. more than five
months after the message was written (!) One can only wonder where the
card was wandering about all that time. Eight more days had to pass
before the card was censored by applying two circular date-stamps in
red and an oval censorship mark in black. The card arrived in Revel'
(Tallinn) at some time in September, but the day is illegible in the

The postcard in
Fig.14, however, j
is the mostA

enigmatic item. ROA- I A .. k:
It is franked RTA OS AL.
with "Arms"
stamps of Russia ". "e
totalling 4 kop.,.
in accordance &
with the Russian .,.
foreign rate for -
o rd in a ry c a rd s .. ..
The stamps wererd i
cancelled at the M

Roumanian State V r _-__i ,
Post Office int.
Birlad (as for A
the card in
Figl2) on 5th.-
(Julian Calendar) c".. 'Fig.14. ...-..

censored at a
Russian office on the same day, as the note "5/IV" in pencil shows above
the censorship mark. The personal number of the censor within a boxed
censorship marking of the Odessa Military District in violet, seems to
be 339 or 335, although very indistinct. The card arrived in Jassy ten
days later, i.e. on 29 April, that date being confirmed by the
corresponding postmark. On 18 May, the card was censored at a Roumanian
office, which applied also oval and circular censorship cachets, both in
black. The card was evidently handed over to the Russian Post on the
next day. It arrived in Revel' (Tallinn) on 19 May, also in accordance
with the Julian Calendar.
This is a genuine case of Russian postage stamps used in Roumania but,
as far as I know, such a usage has never been recorded before. This
sending thus raises quite a few problems. It is unclear whether Russian

postage stamps were sold over the counter at the post office in Birlad
or at any other Roumanian office. In any case, their validity for
franking would have had to be confirmed by an official agreement between
the Roumanian Postal Service and the Russian Post or military
authorities. That does not seem improbable, if we remember that the
Roumanian Postal Service in the unoccupied territory was experiencing a
great shortage of its own postage stamps, since the main supplies had
been left behind in Bucharest under the Germans. Thus, the usage of
Russian stamps, at least by Russians or on mail going to Russia, would
have been a great help to the Roumanian Postal Service. It also appears
that a Russian censorship office functioned at the Roumanian State Post
Office at Birlad and perhaps at some other towns as well, a fact that
can be regarded as confirmation of the existence of some kind of an

Anyway, as can be seen from the examples above, the transmission of
letters by the Roumanian Post took much more time in comparison with the
Russian field post and was also rather unreliable. In any case, this
period still harbours quite a few puzzles connected with the postal
history of Roumania and Russia.


Answering Mr. Epstein's last question first, your editor has the above
cover in his collection, franked with a 10-kop./7-kop. "Arms" type and
cancelled: ETAPNOE POCHT. TELEGR. OTDEL.N 39? a? 19.5.17 (Unit Post-Tel.
Office No.39?, serial a?). The sender's name and address is on the back
in German and translates as "Ecaterina Buznean, Schoolmistress, Costana,
Suczawa District, Bukovina". It passed through Odessa on 1.6.17, where
Censor No.339 examined it. Both dates were in the Julian Calendar and
the letter was finally received by the POW Agency of the Danish Red

Cross in Copenhagen on 20 July 1917 (Gregorian Calendar). At the very
least, we can now say that the Russian field post in Southern Bukovina
(formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) did provide civilians
with mail services and had Russian postage stamps for sale. The point
of mailing, Costgna, is not listed in the 1977 edition of "Nomenclature
international des bureaux de poste" issued by the UPU in Berne,
Switzerland and it has probably undergone a name-change in the interim.
The pencilled notation in German on the front of the cover, translating
as "Sender/Bukovina/Russian field post office" may have been added upon
receipt by the Danish Red Cross in Copenhagen.

A further item
in the
collection of- /
your editor c 6Pj W / 4L8-&_
yoursandr / .
confirms the 4 "-4 5e -/
operation of /. -L ;- -
Reserve Field
Post Office
No.128-g at .
Tecuci in
Roumania n Co lAGCLa thee we tn mJ
19 5 17, as -~s
shown by this r
card, sent by -. t

Riganas to his t- i t-Hgi
mother Mariya are i
Georgievna ._
Rigana (note A Russ
the grave
accent "" / ''
over the final
"a") in Odessa.
That is a typical Greek surname and there were then many Greeks living
in Odessa, including merchants who traded with the paternal grandfather
of your editor. The Odessa arrival date is indistinct.

75o EAI Finally, a word about the utilisation of the
t i75DE ANI 4\ Julian (Old Style) Calendar in the
API i~ ADOPTAREA 1 In d r to i and
I ADOPLARUA S. "pravoslavnyi" (Greek Orthodox) countries.
199 CAENDARLI In deference to its Austro-Hungarian and
GREGORIAN ?O7TS German allies in WWI, Bulgaria switched to the
Gregorian (New Style) Calendar in 1916. Russia
followed suit on 1 February 1918 O.S., which immediately became 14th.
February N.S. The Roumanians made the change on 1 April 1919 O.S., thus
going to 14th. April N.S. (see the special Roumanian marking herewith,
commemorating the 75th. anniversary of the adoption of the Gregorian
Calendar on 14 April 1994). Greece did not change until 1923.

Comments and additional data about these field posts would be welcomed.

by Alexander Epstein.

Just after publishing this article in "The Post-Rider" No.32, the
latest and, unfortunately, the last issue of "Ukrainian and Russian
Philately" has come out with the final part of the article about the

postal rates of the Ukraine by A. Ivakhno. As can be seen from that study,
the postal rates of May 1920 cited in my article on p.42 with reference
to Dr. R. Ceresa should be corrected in the following manner:-

Printed matter: Local, per 15 grammes (roughly oz.)
Ordinary postcards:
Ordinary letters: Local, up to 15 grammes
Registration fee:
Money orders by post: up to 100 hryven'
every further 100 hryven' or fraction
Money orders by telegraph: up to 1000 hryven'
1000 to 6000 hryven'
above 6000 hryven'

6 hryven'
12 hryven'
10 hryven'
20 hryven'
40 hryven'
40 hryven'
80 hryven'
40 hryven
+500 hryven'
+750 hryven'
+1000 hryven'

One hryvnya was equal to half a rouble. Aleksandr Ivakhno also suggests
that sending from that period and area (although not found up to now)
should be found mainly without stamps at all, since there were almost no
stocks of postage stamps in the post offices and sending were prepaid
in cash.

by Rev. L. L. Tann.

By mutual agreement of our editor and myself, the
Postmarks chuffs on!

saga of the Railway Oval

A. Oval Postmarks of TPOs/RPOs.


.Fig.1.... Fig. 2.

Let us look at some of the remaining uncommon types.
In "The Post-Rider" No.30, p.41, I showed examples of the NEREKHTA 78
MUROM marking including at the base a four-leaf clover device instead of
a sub-letter. Fig.1 here gives the reverse route MUROM 77 NEREKHTA. This
has the four-leaf clover at the top between the route names and the route
number 77 at the base, being dated 20.10.09. Does anyone else have this
type, so that we can see the period of usage before replacement with the
more normal types?
Fig.2 shows the oval TSARITSYN*121*TIKHORETSKAYA 29.3.17. Route 121 is
much less common than No.122. This postcard is unfranked but has no
postage due handstamp. It is unclear why.
Fig.3 reads TSARITSYN 108 OREL 22.1.16; the serial letter is not clearly
struck. This has larger lettering than is usual.
KA. !' Fig.4 shows MLAVA*72*VARSHAVA 22.3.14 with
KA serial letter A.
.i --- Fig.5 on the next page features two strikes
(rof the oval ZVEREVO 80 MARIUPOL' 25.2.15
with serial letter g.

S ,. OST.f .............. -
,L, ... 1 Fig.8.

Fig.6 is part of a small postcard with the oval L'GOV 144 BRYANSK 25.8.16
with serial letter V (Cyrillic letter B). I recorded serial B earlier.
In "The Post-Rider" No.29, pp.37-38, Mike Renfro showed a superb cover
with Romanov and Arms stamps and fine postmarks of the local unnumbered
mail van KHAR'KOV-MEREFA/POCHT. VAG. In "The Post-Rider" No.31 in
additional notes on the Ovals, I presented a Soviet cover of 1928 bearing
the same postmark. Fig.7 shows an earlier use than both in 1912: three
light strikes cancelling three 1-kop. Arms stamps. The picture side has
a view of Khar'kov.
Fig.8 has another marking in the 300s range. This is on a postcard and
reads NOVO-NIKOLAEVSK 327 SEMIPALATINSK 17.1.16 with serial letter "a";
hitherto unrecorded.
mail van KAK-EE/O .V.I" o-Rid n .31n

c .. .PTO'KA I

____ Fig.9 Fig.'12.

Fig.9 just above has parts of two postcards, both with ovals of VALUIKI
120 ELETS-APOSTOLOVO, one with serial letter A and dated 2.6.12, the
other with serial letter G (Cyrillic F) and dated 22.1.13.
.. ... -

-. 9'... ,

-- -F ig .

justab h p ot h

120 ELETS-APOSTOLOVO, one with serial letter A and dated 2.6.12, the
other with serial letter G (Cyrillic r) and dated 22.1.13.


To Poti

Saed -ibon T To Tiflis and Baku

To Batum T

Some routes retained the earlier circular type TPO/RPO mark, such as the

The final oval TPO/RPO I show here in Fig.11 with reat pleasure, because

it is one of the very rare ones. I must thank my friend Alexander Epitein
of Tallinn for sending the photocopy of this postcard, as the item is
Viljandi in Estonia). This item.predates other examples. In his new book

"Georgia: Postal Cancellations 1918-1923", p.143, Peter Ashford lists
this oval, stating that it was already in use by 1920. In fact, it seems
ha eeen 11 an 1 he latet rere e t ere b arel

five or six applications of this railway marking. The map given at top
indicates the location of this branch-line of the main Batum-Baku
railway line. Although the branch was extended from Kutais to Tkvibuli,
thSome sole datestainmp used on the singerle postal van that shuttarled upch and the
the previous page. one might have expected the circular type to have been

downeplaced was never updated., as It remaineth the KUTAIS-eea local mail seice.RION.
another loa ma ser e th retained the tati tal er mark as the

h"ee os" peooal Td, nmely O / he inL 18.4.21. ith reat pleasure thea
it is one of the very rare ones. I must thank my friend Alexander Epstein
of Tallinn for sending the photocopy of this postcard, as the item is

prevstill in a collectmee i the same postmark, but dated moreems two years earlier:
4.319.Transcaucasia (Peter Ashford territory) has some of the rarest of the
unnumbered oval types. This is one of them: KUTAIS-RION. The example here
is dated 8.7.12 on a postcard to Fellin in the Baltic provinces (now
Viljandi in Estonia). This item/predates other examples. In his new book
"Georgia: Postal Cancellations 1918-1923", p.143, Peter Ashford lists
this oval, stating that it was already in use by 1920. In fact, it seems
that, between 1912 and 1923 (the latest recorded use), there are barely
five or six applications of this railway marking. The map given at top
indicates the location of this branch-line of the main Batum-Baku
railway line. Although the branch was extended from Kutais to Tkvibuli,
the sole datestamp used on the single postal van that shuttled up and
down was never updated. It remained KUTAIS-RION.

B. Ovals of the station postal desks.
In "The Post-Rider" No.29, p.67, our editor showed a station oval in the
"free post" period, namely DNO / VOKZAL 18.4.21. Here in Fig.12 on the
previous page is the same postmark, but dated more than two years earlier:

(2 f ......i .....

/ .& / ...."'p. .... .. ........ .....^ ^1 i< ^'''*
/ o\it / )
Sut u )n4rr TO.114o IIPCb.p Cul# rtserte excl
I__ _8Fig. 15.
I- __.SW^ rly.J.3.--- -

As with the TPOs/RPOs, some stations never changed to ovals. Fig.13 gives
the circular marking, reading: KARS/ZHELEZNODOR. P.O. 19/XII/19-09;
there were later ovals of this station. Kars was in an area later ceded
to Turkey.
Fiq.14 is KRUTY/ZHELEZNODOR. P.O. 9/XI/19-16. This is in the Ukraine;
apparently here in 1921 college students stood against the Bolsheviks in
a heroic and bloody resistance, remembered till today.
Fig.15 shows part of an unfranked postcard, posted at Rovno ststion in
1903. At right we see the circular marking, reading ROVNO/ZHELEZNODOR.
P.O. ll/VIII/19-03 and at left a very fine oval DOPLATIT'/ROVNO ZHEL.P.O.
with manuscript "6".

C. Registered items at station postal desks.
When is a station postal desk not a postal desk? A lot has been written
lately on the circular postmarks containing the word VOKZAL and
identifying most of them as being ordinary post offices run by the State
Postal Service, with the name designating their location near the station
or, in some cases, actually in the station plaza. Philip Robinson has
written explaining the position regarding some postmarks, where there is
no doubt as to the precise status and confirmed in private correspondence
to me. What does one do, then, about Kislovodsk?. Fig.16 shows part of a
postcard with a 3-kop. Romanov adhesive cancelled with an oval KISLOVODSK
VOKZAL 2.7.13. This postmark was sometimes struck in mauve. It depended,
I suppose, on the ink pad available. Also, the oval shape is more like a
rectangle with rounded corners, but it still falls within our general
definition of an oval marking. However, circular postmarks are also known
reading KISLOVODSK VOKZAL, the place-name radiating in the top half and
the word VOKZAL around the base sector. The cover in Fig.17, which is
dark and may not show up well, has two 10/7-kop. Romanov stamps, both
cancelled with the circular station mark and a confirmatory strike
elsewhere, being annotated "zakaznoe" (registered) in manuscript. Was the
circular type issued to the station office in error? Fig.18 on the next
page reproduces a postcard with a picture of the spa and station at
Kislovodsk, with a train just pulling out.

Conversely, Fig.19 on the next page shows part of a registered cover from


Kncionomacr Kyp3axi 11 BoI33ajL.

_ _~I_
__ __
: I __1



Sit" ,. I "

'1Z/ '~
I ..,-.




1l -

A& _. -U I

7/ ^ 'V t,, ,

-. ^t^ ^ .^ ..,. .i / -. .-

"^^ ,, ...-.. -.rt^ -

Fig. 24. iJ1-H-{l ^ .yA f[- Y-
BU opL"i M. ."
.Fig. 23.^-

720A A ^vt CA, ,, & :-

W. n. -
: v ^ w~fl~~o. $
? <9 -i>Q)<^ 72 ^. i u /\ ":--;
^pvO(0^Cfc OfSa^^i^ ^^-K0' ____ .-

SAMARKAND/VOKZAL. Seeing a standard oval postmark, one would assume that
this was the Samarkand railway station post office administered by the
Railway Postal Department. But the registration label does not carry the
letters ZH.D.P.O., which usually confirm such an administration. Was an
oval canceller issued to the Samarkand station post office by mistake?

Figs.20-22 on pp.71-72 feature real station postal desk registration
procedures: KOZLOV, PETROGRAD-BALTIC STATION (red handstamp rather than
adhesive label) and REVEL' SEVERO-ZAPADNYKH. ZH.D. (Tallinn, of the
North-Western Railways). Then on to Fig. 23: a nice cover registered
from Vyborg/Viipuri, Finland on the Helsinki-St.Petersburg Railway.
The cover is addressed respectfully to Mariya Pavlovna Ivanova in
Tsarskoe Selo.

Another example here is in Fig.24 on the previous page from my friend
John Woollam, being a fine cover of 8.8.17, registered at the station
postal desk at CHARDZHUI ZH.D.P.O. in the Khanate of Bukhara. The cover
is actually from Khodzha-Dovlet, which is east of Chardzhui. John writes
that he has a 1912 cover with a similar registration label, but with
slightly larger lettering.

Any other business.
When is an oval station postmark a circular one? When it
is a NEREKHTA-VOKZAL, as shown in Fig.25. Whereas most of -
the circular types reading VOKZAL (such as Vil'na, Orsha,
Kalish etc) are from offices run by the ordinary State '
Postal Service and were located near or at railway L67 01 |
stations, this postmark is clearly a station one, since \ /(
it clearly designates the railway line: SEV. ZH. D. =
Northern Railway Line. In another exchange of >
correspondence with Philip Robinson, we agreed that, if
this were a station postmark, it should have been Fig.25.
inscribed ST(ANTSIYA) NEREKHTA/SEV. ZH. D. in circular
format. If it were a full vokzal, it should have been an OVAL type,
inscribed NEREKHTA/VOKZAL. As it stands,it is a bit of both. Another
tribute to the individuality of the Russian postmark system.
Here now are
five more ovals,
which we will
OTKPbITOE f1HCbMO -/ consider in
O: turn. Fig.26 is
card to St.
Petersburg with
.... .oval OB'*186*
SOMSK 22.1.07.
This is like
.......... ...-. ........ h- Robinson's
S/ Siberia type
........ ......... R.186.02, with
-A no sub-letter,
S r but a star at
..- -....... .. ... base and dated
S. about two years
S R ^ -e '_--., .? sl--e? earlier.


Fig.27 features a
postcard to Moscow
with two strikes
of the oval
dated 15.12.06.

Fig.28 is interesting,
though perhaps it does
not belong here! A card
from the free postage
era of 1921, it is
addressed to Petrograd.
Notice, no hard sign b
at the end of the word.
The oval reads CHUDOVO
*271*ZVANKA 7.1.21 with
smudged and illegible
sub-letter. This is a
reassigned route, as it
used to be Valk-
Shtokmansgof in Tsarist
Livonia. By 1921, that
route was in
independent Latvia, so
the number was

Fig.29 is a card with
most of the oval
14.10.10 and, as it
was unfranked, it
bears a matching
though incomplete
VAGON/149, with "14"
written in, being
twice the deficient
letter rate! The
notes across the top
by the oval postmark
are in Yiddish.


'-. r :~T~:-& ;~
G:.;UGZi llL3
;;~t ~' ,

-7t c~i~GL~.


4/~ a ;r&L~t+.trc4L

?JrZI73L~-t/rE. ''Miil.gnem

* .

-. :. .... .
A/22~ -- -

e- e ----F


j t4L 12/i-Cc'lc' /;L-*

,L; )4,9rfrZ< i~ /vzt-/ ~- A

h-2.;r 1--Y
I z- A It


OTKPb[TOE. [11HC b~

AMI nHCbMa- AMx AKHTyasuxA


KPHM. 5lAT8-Ha6e!,xphcxw cymepincs.
ETnOA A. B. na 108a.

~ruuuu c --

1T 1 -r -.: 'ir-- -~-;c~--~~

which, as far as I can see, matches exactly. The marking bears the date
28.8.28, which is confirmed by the written message. Mike's item was dated
June 1916. That the same canceller should be in use some twelve years
later should excite our interest!

Here we terminate yet another look at railway postmarks. Until next time...
Readers are reminded that all coordinators of the Society are fully
occupied in earning their livings and thus do not have the time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!
The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and are not necessarily those
of the Society or its coordinators.

Inr2 -troducfL .r g:


The authors are pleased to announce the publication of
"Russian Railway Postmarks", the first book to appear on the
subject. This 180-page, A4 size book is the result of several
years' research, and includes over 2,600 Imperial Russian
railway postmarks, dating from the 1850s until the end of the
Tsarist period, all of which are described in detail and valued.
The postmark data is arranged in tabular form, making the book
very easy to use, and there are almost 2.000 full-size postmark
illustrations. There is also a detailed list of over 1,400
railway station post offices, with the names of the stations
printed in Russian and English, and including names of
railways, dates of operation etc. which will help the reader to
identify station postmarks. There are also lists of numbered
and un-numbered travelling post office routes which are the
most detailed yet published, giving dates of introduction,
changes in termini etc. Eleven detailed maps show the locations
of about 95% of the station post offices, and four further
maps enable the reader to locate travelling post office routes.
Supporting chapters on railway postal history and other
aspects of the subject complete the study.
Price postpaid US$30.00 or g20-00
or the equivalent in convertible
banknotes of your country.

All orders to be sent to:
Philip E. Robinson, 2 Rydalhurst Ave.,




.... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ...

........ .

.. ...... .... ..

-- -- i .-Or

Fig.30 is really
remarkable! In
"The Post-Rider"
No.29, pp.37-38,
Mike Renfro
showed a superb
cover franked
with Arms and
Romanovs and
cancelled with
oval postmarks
of a local mail
route Khar'kov-
Merefa. The
item here is a
Soviet postcard
franked with a
5-k. Peasant
type and a 90%
strike of


by Matt Hedley and Andrew Cronin.

As the title suggests, we are considering here in chronological order
pieces of mail sent by Soviet citizens of German ethnic origin to a
German-language newspaper ("The States Announcer"), published in a
German-speaking area in the U.S.A. The period for which we have material
ranges from 1929 to 1933, a most tragic era in Soviet history when the
collectivisation of agriculture was carried out at a hideously high
cost by I. V. Stalin and his cohorts.

There were 26 million individual peasant holdings in 1929 and they were
eventually replaced by 235,000 "kolkhozy" or collective farms. The most
frightful result of this policy was the artificial famine of 1932-1933,
in which millions of innocent, harmless and uncomprehending peasants
perished, mostly in the Ukraine. The irony of the whole operation was
that, when the Nazi invaders occupied the western areas of the USSR
during WWII, they bitterly disappointed the local peasants by
maintaining the collective farm system, as the best way to feed the war
machine of the Third Reich. Their rationale was that the concept was
fundamentally sound; what had been horribly wrong was the way it had
been implemented in the USSR.

With but one possible exception, practically all the examples in our
possession would appear to have contained appeals for help during this
terrible period, as they were sent from rural localities. These pieces
are full of philatelic interest, as we shall now see:-

(a) A reg'd
by Johann Chr.
Dank in the
village of
Neusatz and
sent through
the P.O. at
Odessa region
violet cancels)
at the correct
28-kop. rate &
Odessa 13/10,
25/10 and
Bismarck 28/10.
(A.Cronin colln).

(b) A newspaper
wrapper sent at
the then 3-kop.
foreign rate from
Moscow 14.12.31.
(A.Cronin colln).


Publishers and printerss

%wisuhimB ismark

North Dacota, U S A

Der Staatsanzeiger 12 Sixth Street





'. I~~1

67/F ,,/e

I. .. I'- -( .

A letter written by Heinrich Witt in Temesh, Crimea (per the pencilled
notation made on arrival) and posted at Oktoberfeld (bilingual Russo-
German cancels) on 15.5.32. The foreign surface rate at the time was
15 kop. for the first rate step, so this may have been a double weight
item (A. Cronin collection).

(d)E^_- --- -- -`------
A letter sent by J.J. Gradwohl, ;c/o Kurskaya P.O., Kanova Colony, Mozdok
region in the Northern Caucasus and postmarked NOVO-KANOVA SEV.KAZ.#a#
12.10.32. Overpaid by 5 kop. (A. Cronin collection). 77

') .

j/- \i
/ /^ ^J
f-^ */


n0 e Y. Ka Ci.3AO.
, *, PPA ABOJ3 5 .


I i



Another letter from
the Crimea, this
time from Friedrich
F. Hass of 51 Rosa
Luxemburg Street in
Dzhankoi (CANKeJ,
meaning Darling
Village in Crimean
Tatar)and cancelled
27.5.33. Overpaid by
10 kop. for the
foreign surface
letter rate (Matt
Hedley collection).

-. -, ,i .
yc'-{. 1 l l <",*". i. ?-

4,,, $IfiiCI


I ft

"fv^.'rMf' ^^ yj^

.- j0e4( {.1c'- /1 1
CFfiC71 '*,~;


I / I

A letter from
R. I Schafer,
district in
the Moldavian
ASSR and
*a* 23.6.33.
Overpaid by
5 kop. (Matt

;p~ ,> :'t3^^ C ^^>U~~i

,' f \^t^ ^wL :iJ 1 ^ w u/^ .
".~21 1. (tI^^^

r^'^^^^- ^I >^^r. ^ ..
" ^- ^% 1 ;;':1 1^5<%^

IC~t ;/


crp .: .
L.. :.-.

7~ .
/ tZ2 A~'d~C? ; 5

Details of further usages would be welcomed from our readers, as the subject
is far from having been exhausted. Your editor has other harrowing items
addressed to Good Samaritans and Aid Committees in Germany and the U.S.A.
during this terrible period and they will be described in the next number
of "The Post-Rider".

c7). 7 /

Ito- ~ -



i. ---


Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there o*
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some o0 O o0
newly acquired item ? o c0 Os,

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers
Robert Taylor, California, U.S.A.
(a) Internal Postage Due Procedures
Re my article on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No.33, pp.8-40, it has
brought forth some comments, now including a letter from Alexander
Epstein in Tallinn, who is a most helpful correspondent and who has gone
back to previous Soviet and Ukrainian research, with the following
information and corrections. The effective date of the changed postage due
system in the RSFSR/USSR was 1 December 1922 and it lasted until February
1939. The new system was based on a registered sending less any franking,
rather than the intercity letter rate plus shortage. The actual system
put into effect and my mistaken presumptions come out to identical
charges in all but one instance. That now explains the anomaly I refer to
in my chart for 1 February 1926 which, of course, is the only brief
period throughout this time where the registration fee was not equal to
the ordinary letter rate.
Mr. Epstein also confirms that, starting in 1925, there were arrangements
with the Petrograd Hydro-Meteorological Institute (i.e. weather
forecasting!), as well as the editors of various farm-related
publications (Krestyanskaya Gazeta, Batrak etc.), where the senders had
the right of free postage, with a single letter-rate postage-due charge
to be collected from the addressee.
Finally, he has also informed me that the 5-kop. Poste Restante/General
Delivery fee was originally established in 1926. All very helpful!
(b) Blagoveshchensk Money Orders. I have been
fortunate to get
.. .:: a handful of

So -I, in writing them
S* up, I noted the
r_ h two shown here
W addressed to the

I Revolutionary
Committees in
Co Radde and Posilok
SPuzinovskii, with
bfd arrival cancels
Sof Radde and
Ire Ekaterino-Nikolsk,
?small Amur River
QU towns in what was
oto become the
6 E.A.O. (Jewish
Autonomous Prov.).

S- 4 -

)ymmy ... s, .:yf/ BET-40 nII 1 Abb maI0 Tnd

up qu o p a 1 & -L..

" ... -M ,c p?- --H-Oe ,/-. ----- -

... .. ..... ..' -..i ..

-.I, Y'a, .', .-.e- -.... ...... : ....... ..........^---...
... anMX- ROM... 1.. .~00nsoos o u::
(IlosTopuTh CIMMY py6JOIl l iO h a K/o*A itIlh wtIpmrU). .

30.11.20 frank apt correct 2% ratnA = 63 ... ..-. / N... .

unusual boxod "PAID" mark, dated 13 Dec. 1920. i "7 t
ffy 'Oa ............ ..,.... .. ...

At right: M/O for 38,453r. 12k. (!) 17.1.21 via .
3EkatHrino-Nikol's 20/3 to Puzinovskii Poslok a 11n
11/4, franked at correct 2% rat = 770r.
________- IlpiM. I. m np-'eoL me 0
At~ riht Mb fo 843. 2.)1.12 i

Xs wama-03(9a
0 ^ b a)mtnp a,6M60)n POTA KARTO A,.

: .... .....
b. n- Io3o a ,o 8301'-(ocIob3 eo hjo o) arli) o o i 5 '-
.... S...cl. .. .-.... .. L
Ivo Ste.on, Amster, dam, The Netherlands. T

(a) Early Soviet Bilingual Cards
Re the bilingual Russo-Armenian cards shown by Professor H. Siranyan in
The Post-Rider" No.33, p.69, I can present a later issue intended for

use in Georgia and sent from Tiflis 11.1.29 to G8teborg, Sweden. We see
on the back an Armenian charity label with an additional inscription in
CHILDREN OF LENINAKAN. That town was known as Aleksandropol' until 1924

and is located 88 km. (55 m.) north-west of Yerevan in Armenia.
S........ .... .(b) A card from.

hg AOpOti~MY ~ .)aeTc. TOJ6o BIIyTpII C c C P Oirot-Tura.
CTpoStenAmsy T NnToto r a .h -ands.

(eth bilngu al Rs rn CARTE PsOSTA obscure places.
"h Pr .6 I ca This item was
Sin f swen de. 1 7.36

Kya ... :2 an Autonomous
O,, ....o.... .... ..... .. .. Ob last' or
o the,. oic. aerei 'hrt ..n aiolformed in 1922
a*i k. (5 m.). fs o Y and situated in
Ko yty.. the Altai

:o9.-. -.... mountainous
( (ab, area. It is ah
"The Post-Rider" No.33, p.69, I can present a later issue intended forul
use in Georgia and sent from Tiflis 11.1.29 to G.teborg, Sweden. We see

on the back an Armenian charity labeldistrict with

CHILDREnow known as Gorno-Altaisk and the province was renamed the Gorno-
Altaisk Atonomous Oblast' in 1948. Oirot-Tura.
A" 'Poll norIn .-, 9 gi ) A E 0Sobscure places!

/* ~ CiSi j8''f t7Q, anAutonomous
8 AN hc ty&Illtrtcn n"mc acna .B. wexio bke A 'rmi Oblast' or

1 a :- ff epe' formed in 1922
and situated in
the centre of

.* ..... .. / ^ '] 17 ]"" ^ '' m o u n t a i n o u s
CIL V.. area. It is a

w ffew l'- and healthy
CIL I- district with
J% 221. 9.j I iCC MotoaniM. 1111934.. tourist
Top. Tp.3o.(X>as. MocrA x. WMA,.- facilities. The
mailing point
is now known as Gorno-Altaisk and the province was renamed the Gorno-
Altaisk Autonomous Oblast' in 1948.

r r -ii. -t Ci

... ..-A-1

I i.* '* s

: .i *i '. I

I. .. .,-" .

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.
(a) An Unusual Polonica Item
This 7-kop. postal stationery envelope was posted on TPO/RPO No.30 (Minsk
to Warsaw), dated 16.8.1882 O.S. by Crew No.4 and backstamped the next day
by TPO/RPO No.27 (Warsaw to Aleksandrowo) Crew No.2, passing through
Antwerp 31 August N.S., on its way to Montevideo, Uruguay 2 October N.S.
Both the addressee, Ryszard Powal-Czyszkowski, an ethnic Pole, and the
destination are unusual and I am deeply indebted to mgr. Roman Tustanowski
of Montevideo for a biography of this remarkable man (reproduced on the
next page for the benefit of our Polish readers). He was born in Warsaw on
5 April 1842 and took part in the 1863 Uprising against the Russians with
the rank of Lieutenant in the National Guard. He then migrated to France,
where he studied at Montpellier College. He left for Montevideo in 1871,
where his qualifications as a pharmaceutical chemist were recognized and
he was soon appointed Inspector of the Chemical Office of Health. In
addition to supervising pharmaceutical procedures and ventures, he was
also involved in applying standards for the food and drink industries. He
died in Montevideo in 1893.

(b) Confirmation of a Polish TPO/RPO in Belorussia
One of our members, Ryszard Poddubiuk was kind enough to translate a fine
article "Polish Post Offices in Byelorussia and the Ukraine 1919-1920" by
the well-known Polish postal historian Janusz Zbigniew Piekut for the 1991
Yearbook of the American Philatelic Congress (pp.27-34). The author listed
20 offices, but we have so far found strikes only from Kamieniec Podolski,
Kojdan6w, Miisk Litewski, Urzecze and Zaslaw Minski. He also noted a proof
impression in the Postal Museum at Wroclaw of a TPO/RPO marking, reading:
BRZE9C LIT.-MINSK LIT. b Nr.281 and dated 3.VII.20, i.e. running from
Brest-Litovsk to Minsk, the capital of Belorussia, but was not sure if
this datestamp were ever put into use.

In checking my used copies of the Polish 2-mark definitive
f this period, I can now confirm that this ambulant post
office actually functioned, as can be seen from the
Reasonably clear strike shown here at left and dated
g -5.III? (March?) 20. Needless to say, the future discovery
of this marking on an article of mail would make it a very
desirable item indeed!

Ryszard P 0 V A C ZYS ZKOWS K I

Urodzi% sig w Warszawie 5 kwietnia 1842 roku.
W roku 1863 porzuca studio uniwersyteckie i tak,jak wielu jego koleg6w przyxpcza
sie do powstaAc6w i dosfuguje sie stopnia porucznika Gwardii Narodowej.
Po upadku powstania 1863 roku udaje si9 do Francji i tam,w roku 1864 kofczy
studia w 'Wyiszej Szkole w Montpellier.
Musimy tutaj zaznaczyt wielk. prace i ofiarno& Polskiego Komitetu Centralnego,
kt6ry niesie bardzo skuteczn. pomoc material. w koAczeniu studi6w wszystkim
polskim uchddisom politycznym.Kilka lat przcuje na terenie Francji, a nastgpnie
udaje si9 do Urugwaju i w Montewideo w 1871 roku rewaliduje sw6j tytu/ farmaceuty
przed w4adzami Republiki,i w kr6tkim czasie zostaje Inspektorem Chemikiem
Wydziafu Zdrowia.
Z ca4ym poSwigceniem oddaje sie tej tak niewdzigcznej w tych czasach pracy,
kt6rej celem byxa opieka nad 7drowiem mieszkaAc6w,przez walk z brakiem higieny
i falszowaniem produkt6w yiwmosciowych, i napoj6w alkoholowych .i bezalkoholowych.
Musimy zda& sobie sprawge,e w tych czasach bylo to r6wnoznaczne z atakiem na
wlasnoA6 prywatni. i wolnoA6 handlu i przemysu.
Jest pierwszym,kt6ry starajac sii o podniesienie poziomu higieny odwiedza naj-
biedniejsze dzielnice i kieruje nastgpnie do nich instytucje humanitarne,tak
nieliczne i niepopularne w tych czasach.
W roku 1874 przeprowadza pierwszq analize wody rzeki Santa Lucia ,kt6rej utywali
wszyscy mieszkaAcy Montewideo.
Jego skrupulatnob6,umiej9tno ci i poswigcenie zyskay mu wiele slawy i uznania,
gdy weimiemy pod uwaggy,e w tych czasach brak bylo koniecznych instrument6w,
aparat6w i Arodk6w chemicznych.
W tymne czasie Czyszkowski zakfada swoj. wfasn farmacjq,gdzie poddaje analizie
wszystkie dostarczane mu plyny,mineraXy,produkty rolne i pzemysxowe,nawozy i tp).
co podnosi bardzo jego popularno66 wir6d rolnik6w,przernysowc6w i wascicieli
Nie poprzestaje tylko na tym;studiuje metereologip,zajmuje sig problemami chowu
bydla,konserwacji migsa i produkcji sk6r.
PoSwigca si9 r6wniei geologii,produkcji,analizie i praktycznemu zastosowaniu
gazu ziemnego do obwietlenia.
Wyk/ada chemi9 w Szkole Uniwersyteckiej i jest pierwszym profosorem chemii
w licznych szkolach Arednich.Projektuje Statuty Zwipzku Parmacji i Drogerii.
Ulepsza i organizuje Laboratoriu Bakteriologiczno-Chemiczne Zarzfdu Miejskiego
Umiera w roku 1895 cieszsc si zaw-se wielkim uznanieni powszechnym .

Colonel As bal P o Ca B969

Ano he Re isteer RussDe d'Asio


Colonel Asdru.bal Prado, Curitiba, Brazil.
Another Registered "DBP" Cover
Further to the example addressed to Canada and shown by Derek Palmer, RDP,
FRPS,L in "The Post-Rider" No.33, pp.3-4, the above item was posted some
eleven months later, by which time the rate for a registered surface
letter going abroad had gone from 30 to 50 kop. Cancelled with the
VLADIVOSTOK "t" postmarker on 24.12.21, the envelope was backstamped
SEATTLE Jan. 12, 1922 in violet and a faint REGISTERED applied apparently
there on the front. It passed through the New York Foreign Registered
Div. on 17th. January and reached Salzwed in Germany on the 29th. It was
then redirected to Greifswald, where it arrived two days later.


:LTE in .eP3,


52-page softbound magazine in A4 format, issued by The British Society of
Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Treasurer, A.T. Blunt, Riber House,
13 Auden Close, Osbaston, Monmouth, Gwent NP5 3NW, England.

This issue leads off with an obituary of Oleg Faberg6, followed by Russian
Mail to the West 1693-1843 (excellent for rate calcs!), by W.J. de Jongh &
I.J. Steyn; Vologda-Arkhangel'sk Railway (very detailed study), by L.L.
Tann & A. Epstein; Soviet Georgian Postal History 1924-1949 (useful survey)
by Dr.P.A. Michalove; Post-Soviet Issues 1991-1993 (valiant attempt to
sort out the CIS chaos), by T. Pateman, to end with Literature Reviews.
Some solid work here!

THE ROSSICA JOURNAL No.122 for April 1994. A 100-page softbound magazine
in standard North American format, issued by The Rossica Society of
Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Treasurer & Editor, Gary A. Combs,
8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, Maryland 21108, U.S.A.

This number begins with a pertinent editorial, then Autonomous Regions of
Russia, by G. Shaw; Notes from Belkin Books & Free Frank Mail in Imperial
Russia, both by G.G. Werbizky; Introduction to 1913 Romanovs, by M.
Ercolini; Military District Field Post Envelopes, Postcard Improvisation
& Prison Censorship Markings, all by D. Skipton; Anti-Plague Disinfection
Rules & Vologda-Arkhangelsk Railway, both by H. Weinert; Aleksandrovsk de
Castri (excellent!), by P.E. Robinson & H. Weinert; Sitka:Russian America,
by F.E. Risvold; Polish Deportee Mail from Kazakhstan 1940 & Near East
Relief in Caucasus, both by Dr.P.A. Michalove; Rural Mobile Post Cover
from Volga-German Republic, by I.J. Steyn; Mail between Russia & Baltic
Area 1917-1921, by A. Epstein; Money Stamps by C. Rehwinkel; Russian
Tobacco Strips (most unusual), by J. Barefoot; Registered Mail in Russia,
by G. Miskin; Corinphila Zemstvo Auction, by M. Kessler; Calls for Comment
by M. Kessler & G. Combs, to end with Society Notes and Literature
Reviews. A lot of ground has been covered in this bumper issue!

TIOVTA No.15 for January 1994. A 51-page softbound journal in A4 format,
issued by The Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. All
enquiries to the Secretary-Treasurer, Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi East
Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand.

This issue features an editorial, Correspondence Russia-Australia & New
Zealnd; Readers' Comments; Notes on Exhibition Awards; German Field Post
Usages of Russian Cards & Revenue Stamped Paper, both by G.G. Werbizky;
Romanovs used in Field Post 1915, Editorial Comment on Reg'd Mail
Machines, Aviation Cinderella Stamps, Piano Sale Receipt 1924, 1914 War
Invalid Charity, New Issues, Literature & Book Reviews, all by Dr. A.R.
Marshall; Postal Reg'n Machines in Russia 1912-1916, by H. von Hofmann;
Some Interesting Railway Postmarks (excellent!), by P.E. Robinson; Black
Chambers, by N.R. Banfield and NKVD Mail (the initials PKM probably stand
for Raboche-Krest'yanskaya Militsiya), by Dr.P.A. Michalove.
An interesting range of very useful information!

THE INTERIM REPORT Nos. 3 to 6. A voluminous series of sheets in standard
North American size, issued by the Society for the Study of the New
Republics of the former USSR (SSNR/USSR). All enquiries either to Michael
Padwee, Box 023138, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11202-3138 or to Peter Bylen, P.O. Box
7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154, U.S.A.
These reports are an absolutely indispensable aid in trying to understand
what has been going on postally in the CIS, the newly revived Baltic
Republics and the dismembered parts of Yugoslavia.

THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA 1917-1923. A series of softbound volumes in
A4 (legal) format, compiled and issued by Dr.R.J. Ceresa, "Fairview
Cottage", Quarry Lane, Gorsley, Ross-on-Wye HR9 7SJ, England, to whom
all enquiries should be addressed.

Volume 4: Transcaucasia, Parts 8-12, Georgia, Section A contains 236 pages
with an enormous amount of information on the complex issues and usages of
this country, from the 1917 Forerunners to the Handstamped Surcharges of
1923. The price postpaid is F24 for the U.K., US$37.50 for Europe and US
$48.00 for North America, Australasia and the Far East.
Volume 4: Parts 8-12, Georgia, Section B has 256 pages and covers in a
minute analysis the handstamped and machine-printed surcharges, TSFSR
issues, postal history including Registration & Postage Due markings,
postal rates, forged and doubtful markings, addenda and corrections,
checklists and a bibliography. The price postpaid is E25 for the U.K.,
US$39.00 for Europe and US$50.00 for North America, Australasia & Far East.
Volume 4: Parts 13-16, British Occupation of Batum, Section A runs to 170
pages in the same vein, including forerunners, Postmaster handstamps, 1st.
Aloe Tree Issue, surcharges on Arms types, 1st. BRITISH OCCUPATION Alce
Tree issue and the 10r. & 15r. BRITISH OCCUPATION surcharges. The price
postpaid is 922 for the UK, US$34.50 for Europe & US$44.00 rest of world.
Volume 4: Parts 13-16, British Occupation of Batum, Section B comprises
114 pages, thus covering the 25r. & 50r. surcharges on Aloe Tree issue;
2nd. BRITISH OCCUPATION Aloe Tree issue & forgeries; Batum markings and
postal rates; addenda & corrections; checklists, bibliography and a List
of Historical Dates supplied by David Link. Price postpaid is E16 for UK,
US$25.50 for Europe & US$34.00 for North America and rest of the world.
It is refreshing to note that the illustrations are much improved in all
these handbooks!

IIO4TA, the journal of the German Study Circle for Russia, USSR and the
Successor States. A softbound magazine in A4 (legal) format. All enquiries
to Hans Kupec, Jurastrasse 30, 93161 SINZING, Germany.

Due to administrative problems which are now resolved, we can now note the
main articles that have appeared in Nos.50-59 in the period from April
1990 to Dec.1993, namely:-
No.50: Russian Parcel Cards 1904-1917, by I.J. Steyn; Ukrainian Postal
Codes, by G. Unger; Soviet Advt. Cards 1927-1934, by K. Schauritsch; Three
Triangles Markings, by E. Rombaut, also separately by P. Aerni.
No.51: Ship Mail on Caspian See, by B. Hartmann; Soviet Airmail Service,
by Dr.K. Herdt; Soviet Advt. Cards 1927-1934, by K. Schauritsch and
Stamps of Azerbaijani Soviet Republic, by W. Nagl.
No.52: Russian Mail sent abroad, by W. Hermann; Soviet Advt. Cards 1927-34
by K. Schauritsch; Azerbaijan Part 3, by W. Nagl and 10-kop. Arms Imperf.
Postal Forgery, by E. Fomin.
No.53-54: Azerbaijan Part 4, by W. Nagl; Inflation Covers, by Dr. A.
Stollberg; Soviet Advt. Cards 1927-1934, by K. Schauritsch and WWI
Censorship (excellent!), by Horst Taitl.
No.55: Azerbaijan Part 5, by W. Nagl & Black Sea Shipping Co., by M. Jakel.
No.56: Azerbaijan Part 6, by W. Nagl; Inflation in USSR & Successor States
by W. Nietsch and, separately for the Ukraine by Dr. A. Stollberg.
No.57: Current Ukrainian Provisionals & Civil War and Intervention in
Soviet Russia, both by Dr. A. Stollberg.
No.58: Stamps of Soviet Armenia, by S. Saltykov, trans. C. Ebnet and
Ukrainian Provisionals, by.Dr. A. Stollberg.
No.59: Azerbaijan, by W. Nagl; Armenia Part 2, by S. Saltykov, trans. C.
Ebnet; Early Mail from Siberia (nice items!), by H.R. Dietrich and
Ukrainian Provisionals, by Dr. A. Stollberg.
It is heartening to note that, at-present, three of the officers of this
Study Group are from East Germany, including the President and Editor!

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area). The official organ in A4 (legal)
format of the Dutch Study Group of the same name. All enquiries to the
Secretary, A.C. de Bruin, Ten Passeweg 10A, NL 8084 AN't Harde, Holland.

Once again, we are catching up by reviewing the main articles in Nos. 16
to 23 of this most useful publication for the period from July 1990 to
Dec.1993, namely:-
No.16: Latvian TPOs after 1945, by R. van Wijnen; 1919 Grodno Local Issue,
German Ship Markings in Baltic Harbours 1920-1940 & Postgebiet Ob. Ost to
Estonia Transition, all by A.C. de Bruin; Types of Latvia Nos.3-5, by M.
Zuidwegt & W. Bachman and Latvian Africa Flight, by N. Jakimovs.
No.17: History of Lithuania on Stamps, by J.H. van Peursem; New Lithuanian
Stamps & Estonian Transition, both by A.C. de Bruin; Latvian Postcards, by
H. von Hofmann and Latvian Airmails, by R. van Wijnen.
No.18: Estonian Reverse Sort, by R.W. Reuderink; History of Lithuania on
Stamps, by J.H. van Peursem; Cholera Mail in the Baltics, by A.C. de Bruin;
Latvian Postal Stationery, by H. von Hofmann & separately by N. Jakimovs.
No.19: Lithuanian Review & the First Two New Issues, both by I.J. Steyn;
History of Lithuania on Stamps, by J.H. van Peursem; Lithuanian "Berlin"
Issues, by A.C. de Bruin; Stamps of Central Lithuania, by A. -aszkiewicz;
Latvian SS Units WWII & Kuressaare Air Cover, both by R. van Wijnen.
No.20: Stamps of Latvia I, by J. Poulie; Vilnius Markings 1989-1991, by
G. Hahne; Latvian New Developments, Lithuanian TPO on Latvian Mail &
Danish Volunteers in Estonia and Latvia, all by R. van Wijnen, the last
article also together with P. PRnberg.
No.21: Stamps of Latvia II, by J. Poulie; Lithuanian Postal Rates & Dutch
Maritime Contacts with Baltics in 1715 (magnificent!), both by A.C. de
Bruin, the last together with A.A. van der Houwen; Latvian SSR 1940-1941,
by R. van Wijnen & I.J. Steyn; Latvian New Developments-II, by R. van
Wijnen & N. Jakimovs; Latvian SSR Markings 1940-1941, 1944-1991, by A.
Birznieks and Plating Ir. Kurzeme Liberation Stamp, by an anonymous Dane.
No.22: Stamps of Latvia III, by J. Poulie; Latvian New Developments-III
& Red Latvian Riflemen 1915-1917, both by R. van Wijnen; Estonian
Developments since Jan.1991, by J. van Heeswijk; Anglo-French Blockading
Fleet 1854-1855, by A.C. de Bruin & H.C. Berneaud.
No.23: Stamps of Latvia IV, by J. Poulie; Large Latvian Markings 1962-92
by A. Birznieks; Lithuanian Stamps & Rates 1990-1993, by P. Kaslauskas;
Estonian Postal Developments 1991-1993, by J. van Heeswijk; Latvian SS 15
Grenadier Divn., by A.C. de Bruin; Russian WWI FPOs in Latvia, by N.
Jakimovs and Latvian Rectangular Advertising Markings, by R. van Wijnen.
Lots of solid data in all the above for the Baltic specialist!

KOLLEKTSIONER: CK-29. A brochure of 112 pages in A5 format, being a
continuation of the annual "Soviet Collector" manuals and issued by the
Union of Philatelists of Russia, Moscow 1993, in an edition of 5000 copies.
Sale price by agreement.

This issue contains RSFSR Postmaster Provisionals, by B. Kartinskii;
Numbered Markings of SPB City Post (very comprehensive), by L. Ratner;
Zemstvo Stamp Issue Beginnings,by M. Minskii; Russian Levant Postal History
& Bogus Last Issue, by N. Pobetov; Additional Data on Numbered Dots, by V.
Kalmykov; Red Triangle Riddle, by M. Kosoi; Trans-Siberian View Cards, by
Yu. Tolstov; Russian Monetary System, by I. Tindo; Statistic Method for
Determining Exchange Equivalents of Soviet Coins, by E. Gavryushin; Pre-
Petrine Coins, by Yu. Klochkov; Patron in Russian Numismatics, by M.
Smirnov; Soviet Army Banknotes for North-East China & Korea, by B. Senilov;
Unissued Banknotes, by M. Abrosimov, to end with book reviews about medals.
It is obvious from the above articles that this brochure is maintaining the
high standards set by the previous manuals in the "Soviet Collector" series.
87* *


Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some -. -
duplicate material that you would like to trade or -
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your 5-
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 254 / line f.
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the.catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted-. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of Pope John Paul II (previously Karol Wcjtyla), I would
like to hear from people who have, or know of firsthand accounts concerning
him, particularly relating to events that affected the Cold War or the
world at large, or reflect on his past, his thought or his personality.
JONATHAN KWITNY, Box 7333, James A.Farley Station, New York City 10116,USA.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-cf-exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil
War or Soviet. Will purchase or exchange.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 W. 12th. St., Huntington Stn, L.I., N.Y. 11746, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers of Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroad and Baltic fcre-
runners. Buy or trade. Send photo or description and price to:-
M.R. Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

WANTED: "OSTARBEITER" mail of forced labourers from occupied USSR, working
in Germany during WWII. Please send offers (xerox or photo preferable) of
covers, cards, OSTARBEITER cloth patch and related material.
GEORGE G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y. 13850-3246, U.S.A.
All orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, TORONTO,
.Ont., Canada. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

Period of WWII), by S. Baranski & J. Falkowski + free gift vcrth $8.-0.
Part II covers Soviet areas. Many illustrations! Price postpaid US $20.00

CELISTVOSTI RSFSR V OBDOBI INFLACE 1921-1923 (Covers of the RSFSR in the
Inflation Period 1921-1923), by J. Podhijsky & late V. Zeman. In Czech, but
easy to follow. Many illustrations! Price postpaid US $ 9.00

Traditional Philately) with an excellent and well-illustrated study of the
USSR Small Heads of 1920s. Easy to read. Price postpaid US $ 6.00

RSFSR-SSSR (RSFSR-USSR), being a series of well-illustrated studies on
stamps and varieties. In Czech but easy to read. Price postpaid US $ 6.00

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA, Vol.12, 1986 with entry about philately and
2 pages in colour of Armenian stamps and foreign related items. In
Armenian and a great conversation piece! Price postpaid US $16.00


Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some -. -
duplicate material that you would like to trade or -
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your 5-
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 254 / line f.
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the.catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted-. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of Pope John Paul II (previously Karol Wcjtyla), I would
like to hear from people who have, or know of firsthand accounts concerning
him, particularly relating to events that affected the Cold War or the
world at large, or reflect on his past, his thought or his personality.
JONATHAN KWITNY, Box 7333, James A.Farley Station, New York City 10116,USA.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-cf-exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil
War or Soviet. Will purchase or exchange.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 W. 12th. St., Huntington Stn, L.I., N.Y. 11746, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers of Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroad and Baltic fcre-
runners. Buy or trade. Send photo or description and price to:-
M.R. Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

WANTED: "OSTARBEITER" mail of forced labourers from occupied USSR, working
in Germany during WWII. Please send offers (xerox or photo preferable) of
covers, cards, OSTARBEITER cloth patch and related material.
GEORGE G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y. 13850-3246, U.S.A.
All orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, TORONTO,
.Ont., Canada. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

Period of WWII), by S. Baranski & J. Falkowski + free gift vcrth $8.-0.
Part II covers Soviet areas. Many illustrations! Price postpaid US $20.00

CELISTVOSTI RSFSR V OBDOBI INFLACE 1921-1923 (Covers of the RSFSR in the
Inflation Period 1921-1923), by J. Podhijsky & late V. Zeman. In Czech, but
easy to follow. Many illustrations! Price postpaid US $ 9.00

Traditional Philately) with an excellent and well-illustrated study of the
USSR Small Heads of 1920s. Easy to read. Price postpaid US $ 6.00

RSFSR-SSSR (RSFSR-USSR), being a series of well-illustrated studies on
stamps and varieties. In Czech but easy to read. Price postpaid US $ 6.00

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA, Vol.12, 1986 with entry about philately and
2 pages in colour of Armenian stamps and foreign related items. In
Armenian and a great conversation piece! Price postpaid US $16.00



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