Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Know your perforati...
 Correspondence with Canada
 A listing of postal outlets etc....
 Notes on the Ukrainian postal code...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The fieldpost service of the Russian...
 The Spartakiada issue of 1935
 Oval railway postmarks III
 South Russia: New varieties and...
 Still more about Volga-German postal...
 A tale of two Ukrainians
 Postal forms used in Russia
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner
 Back Cover

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00030
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Know your perforations
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    A listing of postal outlets etc. with Ukrainian postal codes
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Notes on the Ukrainian postal code system
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The fieldpost service of the Russian Danubian army during the 1877-1879 campaign
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The Spartakiada issue of 1935
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Oval railway postmarks III
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    South Russia: New varieties and cancellations
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Still more about Volga-German postal history
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    A tale of two Ukrainians
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Postal forms used in Russia
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Review of literature
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

June, 1992

PMnd In Cbmied

P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,

June 1992.


2 Editorial: Know your perforations
3 Correspondence with Canada

7 A Listing of Postal Outlets etc. with Ukrainian
Postal Codes
10 Notes on the Ukrainian Postal Code System
21 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
33 The Fieldpost Service of the Russian Danubian Army
during the 1877-1879 Campaign
37 The Spartakiada Issue of 1935
41 Oval Railway Postmarks III
52 South Russia: New Varieties and Cancellations
61 Still more about Volga-German postal history
64 A Tale of Two Ukrainians
67 Postal Forms used in Russia
70 Philatelic Shorts
76 Review of Literature
79 Journal Fund
80 The Collectors' Corner

Dr.K.Spencer &

Andrew Cronin
Alex. Epstein

Andrew Cronin
Rev.L.L. Tann
G.G. Werbizky
Andrew Cronin
G.G. Werbizky

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.
)1992. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All
rights reserved. All the contents in this issue are copyright and
permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
Readers are reminded that all the coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have the time to
answer individual requests or enquiries. Those of general interest will
be dealt with in future issues of "The Post-Rider". All opinions
Expressed in this issue of "The Post-Rider" are those of the
respective authors and not of The Canadian Society of Russian


... ....



Perforation varieties are important in Russian and Soviet philately, as
some are rare and can easily be overlooked. It behooves the philatelists
in our fields of collecting to become familiar with the various
perforations on the stamps encountered, as they fall into several well-
defined categories. After some practice, it will be found that they will
readily recognize perforation measurements without recourse to a gauge
for verification. That latter ability is especially helpful when one is
examining collections or accumulations of cards and covers, as some
excellent finds and usages can be spotted at nominal prices.

Let us consider some examples of what to look for. In the Imperial
period, the compound perf. 13:11 on the 3+3k. value of the 1905 Charity
issue sticks out a mile. It is a rare stamp and would be an exhibition
item commercially used on card or cover. Not to mention the 5r. Arms of
1906 perf. 11 (see illustration "a").

In the Soviet period, a great deal of confusion has been caused by the
beautiful Dirigible Construction set of 1931. The second stamp in that
series is a 15-k. value in slate-blue, showing a dirigible and produced
by the photo-litho process on "carpet" wmk, line-perf.12 or comb perf.
10:12. Neither stamp is particularly scarce. However, that same design
was repeated in 1932 by the steel-engraving process on unwatermarked
paper in grey-black. It comes in three perforations: line-perf. 12
(common), line-perf. 14 (scarce) and line-perf. 10 (rare; see illn."b").
On several occasions, your editor has bought collections where one or
other of the scarcer perforations formed part of the original 1931 set,
instead of the commoner 15-k. slate-blue photo-lithographed stamp. It is
an understandable mistake.

Of course, the real scoop would be to find the 20-k. Red Banner stamp of
1933 line-perf. 9i (see illn."c") in a collection or accumulation. That
is a very rare stamp and such a stroke of luck has never happened to
your editor, but one never knows.

An even better bargain was witnessed about 25 years ago by ye olde editor
at one of the ASDA shows in New York City. A dealer there had a complete
selection mint of the Soviet museum imperfs of the 1920s and 1930s. As
he could not find them listed as such in the Scott catalogue, he sold
them to a collector in our field on the basis of the issued perforated
stamps! In short, know your perforations or lack thereof.

Gadzooks, dear children, 'tis passing strange.



feature of this journal. Anyone having
interesting Russian mail to Canada is I
invited to share it with our readers,
by forwarding a photograph or xerox A
copy of the item, along with some
explanatory text to the Editor.

(EDITORIAL COMMENT: The article by Matt Hedley on "An
Andreas Lilge Cover" in "The Post-Rider" No.29, p.3
has struck a responsive cord with Canadian postal
historians and our regular contributor Allan Steinhart
is hereby thanked most warmly for having two of them
send in further information on this interesting subject).


by Dr. Keith Spencer.

People of German origin began arriving in Alberta in the 1880s. Most did
not come from Germany, but from German-speaking areas in Eastern Europe.
Attracted by offers of land, local self-government and religious and
linguistic freedom, German-speaking colonists had settled in Eastern
Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Growing nationalism in the
late 19th. century, which brought pressures for them to assimilate, as
well as a scarcity of land, caused many of them to leave for the
American and Canadian Wests. Of the Germans who came to the Canadian
prairies before WWI, only 12% came from Germany proper, 18% from the U.S.,
44% from Russia and 24% from other parts of Eastern Europe.

German-speaking peoples became one of the largest groups in Alberta. They
established several settlements during the late 1880s and early 1890s.
Based on religious affiliation, these settlements were to become the
nuclei of much larger German-speaking communities at the turn of the
century. By 1900, people of German origin were the third largest ethnic
group, after those of British and native origin. Through subsequent
migrations and a high birth rate, Germans became the second largest
ethnic category. A number of factors, including cultural and religious
diversity, geographic dispersion, religious sectarianism and the impact
of the two world wars prevented them from being as visible or as well-
organised as other ethnic groups such as the Ukrainians.

The first German settlers in Alberta came to the Pincher Creek area in
1883. In 1889, settlements were established near Medicine Hat, when
nearly 100 families arrived from two neighboring German villages in
Eastern Galicia in the then Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the Western
* Ukraine). The three German settlements in the Medicine Hat area were
short-lived. They encountered severe drought conditions and the Canadian
Pacific Railway relocated them to farming areas around Edmonton in 1891.
German Lutherans began farming around Stony Plain, where they were the
first settlers. Members of the Reformed faith moved to the Fort

Saskatchewan area around Josephsburg. After the turn of the century, the
Medicine Hat area became one of the largest concentrations of Germans
per capital in Canada.

With the completion of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway in 1891, German
Protestants established 13 communities (Lutheran, Reformed, Baptist and
Moravian) within a 30-mile radius of Edmonton. From this beginning, the
rural areas south and west of Edmonton centered around Leduc and Stony
Plain became strongholds of German settlement. In 1894, German-speaking
Moravians from the Ukraine, seeking free land and religious freedom,
established settlements which they named BRODERFELD and BRODERHEIM, both
east of Edmonton. These original pioneers were later joined by Moravians
from Poland and Brazil, just as many other German group-settlements,
whether Mennonite, Baptist or Lutheran, brought together co-religionists
from many countries.

In fact, the Eastern European origins of the German-speaking settlers
shaped the settlement patterns of Ukrainians in Alberta. The Germans at
Josephsburg were instrumental in encouraging their former Ukrainian
neighbours in Galicia to come to Alberta. This Ukrainian settlement was
sparked initially by Ivan Pylypiv, a Ukrainian peasant, and his employee
Vasyl Elyniak, who came to Canada in 1891 to inspect Edmonton-area lands.
Between 1892 and 1894, the Edna-Star area became the main destination
for Ukrainian immigrants to Canada.

Andreas Lilge
I have attended the Lutheran Historical Institute at 7100 Ada Blvd.,
Edmonton, Alberta T5B 4E4. They have considerable information on Andreas
Lilge and other pioneer ministers in Western Canada. There is a book by
Kurt H. Vitt, entitled "The Founding of the Moravian Church in Western
Canada and the Andreas Lilge Story". It is published by the Canadian
Moravian Historical Society, Edmonton Chapter, 2304 38th. St.,
Edmonton, Alberta T6L 4K9. I did not see any ISBN number, so it is
probably a local and limited printing. There is a cairn at the highway
edge near Bruderheim which reads: "In memory of the Moravian Pioneers
who founded Brtderheim under the leadership of Andreas Lilge in 1895".

Moravian Settlement
In 1894, a number of German families from Volhynia in the Ukraine home-
steaded on land in this area, as set aside by the Canadian government.
The following spring, they organised the first congregation of the
Moravian Church in Canada under the leadership of Andreas Lilge. He was
born in Poland in a German colony named AUGUSTOWOK in the TARSCHEMINER
KEMPE near Warsaw on 2 August 1851 (EDITORIAL COMMENT: Does anyone know
the Polish equivalents of these place-names?). The family was well
established in Poland. Lilge was a cabinet maker's apprentice, but
wanted to be a teacher. His father died when he was young and the family
moved often, due to the unrest and upheaval the German population of
Poland experienced.

In 1876, Andreas' brother Ludwig left Poland and moved to Maidan,
Volhynia in the Ukraine, where German colonies had been established from
the 1860s. Andreas and his family followed in 1878 and he was offered a
teaching position by the Lutheran Church in Volhynia. He had strong
religious feelings and was advised by a U.S. pastor who had come from
Russia to enroll in 1881 in the Concordia Theological Seminary in
Springfield, Illinois. Lilge attended the seminary for some time, but did
not see eye to eye with the authorities. He returned to Volhynia and
resumed teaching. Meanwhile, there was conflict between a couple of the
German groups, the Lutherans and Moravians. Many Moravians had moved from

Volhynia to BrUderthal in Brazil to establish a new Moravian work, but
the land was generally unsuitable.

As there was a history of Mennonites and others having come to North
* America, Andreas Lilge in his function as a representative of the
denominational body of the Moravian Church in Volhynia negotiated the
move of Moravian families to Alberta. They arrived in Edmonton in late
July or early August 1893.

Ref .er .in no to "i,.oen "e e the RevLi

e d 0 95
I:,L -,. f '

V 1895: :

SReferring now to Imperial Russian correspondence sent to the Rev. Lilge
Sin Brdderheim, I can show a cover addressed by the same sender in

Fort Saskatchewan on 18 Oct. N.S. and received at Bruederheim, i.e.
Bruderheim five days later.

Johannes Sillak
He was a pastor to Estonians and Latvians in the Josephsburg area. The
church was called the St. Peter's German-Lutheran Evangelical Church.
The founders of the colony of Josephsburg came into the area in 1886
from Dunmore. They were originally Austrian Lutherans and the town was
named after the Emperor Franz Josef I. They arrived in a dry period and
by 1888 many had left for the Stony Plain area, where they prospered.
The Rev. Sillak ministered to two congregations initially, the Estonians/
Latvians and the German Lutherans. He was pastor in the 1903-1905 period,
after which he moved to Medicine Hat. He preached at various south-east
Alberta points and continued to give Latvian services until the mid-1940s.

Please see the next page for illustrations of a registered mourning
cover in my collection, sent from Gapsal' (now Haapsalu in Estonia) by
Maria Sillak, daughter of Hans at No.361 Suvorov St. and with the name of
the province corrected from Livonia to Estonia. It is obvious from her
handwriting in Russian and English that Maria was a well-educated woman.
The registration label is the Russian type for internal mail, but the
dotted "R" in a circle was also added at front right to comply with
* international requirements. The letter was posted on 7 July 1907 O.S.,
to pass through New York City on 1st. August N.S. on its way to the Rev.
Sillak in Josephsburg, where it arrived on 5th. August. It was then
forwarded to him at Medicine Hat, being handled on the 6th. by the
Moose Jaw-Calgary R.P.O. and arriving at its final destination four days
later. The rate paid was 10k. each for a foreign letter and regn. fee.

On a final note,
the post office '
at Bruederheim
was opened on /
1 Sept.1895. The
post office at
Josephsburg was
opened on 1 June
1890 and closed
on 14 Nov.1917.
The first P.M.
was Joseph
Edinger (1.6 to
7.7.90) and the ,
second John H.
Kern (1.12.1890
to 18.4.93). i
Josephsburg was
dried out in the '
first settlement
attempt, so the
moved and took the name with them.

*( *k *


by Dr. Gray Scrimgeour

The cover shown on the next page is endorsed at top right "Via Germany"
in Russian, followed by the address in a mixture of German and English,
to go to Andreas Lilge c/o Mr. Kartses at the Dominion Lands
Commissioner's Office in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was sent from Zhytomir

S. ., in the Ukraine on 29
: -,- ct.1893 O.S., to
arrive in Winnipeg
/ on 27 Nov.N.S. and
:N7O 2 .- "- forwarded to the
Dominion Government
S' Immigration Office,
\ as shown by the oval
Cachet on the back.
4h "l^ .. ..:, .*~.~_,.'-- Also on the back at
Bottom there is a note
-4. ^t I -in German, reading:
S .- -'". Received on 2 8 Nov.
_- 93 from Brother Ludwig
S-Russia" and probably
AT written by Lilge. The
4 .same date is to be
'""" .", a found in the circular
marking on the front of the cover.


(The preface is given below to this anonymous work, published in Russian
by "Soyuzorguchit", Khar'kov 1932, by authority of the Management of the
Commissioner of the People's Commissariat of Communications in the
Ukraine. A complete set of photocopies of this seminal work has been
kindly supplied by Viktor Mohyl'nyj of Kiev, to whom many thanks are due).

The contents of the Listing and the sequence of its utilisation.
The insertion of stipulated codes in the addresses on mail has given rise
to the necessity of revising several postal manuals and especially "The
Listing of Postal Outlets".

* As the postal code constitutes the basic factor in addressing, sorting
and despatching postal sending, the necessity has arisen for a specific
manual which, in presenting a complete listing of all postal outlets,
would also give at the same time the designation of the postal code
assigned to each outlet. The present manual and listing serves that
requirement. The listing consists of two sections, as follow:- 7

The first section gives an alphabetical listing of all postal outlets
at railway stations, sidings, village councils, machine and tractor
stations and large state farms, situated in the territory of the Ukraine.
These data are arranged in four columns. The names of the postal outlets
and inhabited localities are given in strict alphabetical order in the
first column, the type of postal operation in the second column (office,
station or agency), the names are given in the third column of the
districts within the boundaries of which are to be found the outlets
specified in the first column and, in the fourth column, the specific
postal code assigned to each outlet. The code itself is made up of a
rigidly composed combination of indices (numbers and a letter). The
reason for the letter is to designate the territory of the Ukrainian
Republic (Y).

The assignment of the numbers is intended to designate on the one hand
the district and on the other the specific inhabited locality. Thus,
the postal code of each inhabited locality consists of three parts: the
letter "Y" in the middle of the code referring to the Ukraine, the
figures to the left of that letter the number of the district and
finally, at right, the number assigned to the specific inhabited
locality within that district.

First example: According to the alphabetical listing, the town of Olevsk
has the postal code 101-Y-1, with the number "101" referring to the
district of Olevsk, the letter "Y" standing for the Ukraine and the
figure "1" specifying the first postal delivery outlet in that district,
namely the town of Olevsk itself.
Second example: The village of Lopatichi has the postal code 101-Y-15,
as given in the fourth column. The figure "15" is the number assigned to
that postal delivery point within the Olevsk district, namely the postal
agency in the village of Lopatichi.

Since the territory of the large towns in the Ukraine has been divided
into districts, with each town district having its own postal node, each
of them has been given its own number in the general sequence of
enumerating the administrative areas of the Ukraine. Because of their
greatest importance in the exchange of mail, the town districts have
been given the first 100 consecutive numbers, as follow:-

1. Khar'kov, from 1 to 10 11. Kremenchug, from 59 to 61
2. Kiev, from 11 to 20 12. Poltava, from 62 to 65
3. Odessa, from 21 to 29 13. Sumy, from 66 to 68
4. Nikolaev, from 30 to 33 14. Zhitomir, from 69 to 71
5. Dnepropetrovsk, from 34 to 39 15. Vinnitsa, from 72 to 74
6. Zaporozh'e (+ Kichkas), 40 to 44 16. Berdichev, from 75 to 77
7. Stalino, from 45 to 48 17. Zaporozh'e-Kamensk, 78 to 81
8. Mariupol', from 49 to 51 18. Krivoi Rog, from 82 to 85
9. Lugansk, from 52 to 55 19. Zinov'evsk, from 86 to 88
10. Makeevka, from 56 to 58 20. Kherson, from 89 to 91

(EDITORIAL COMMENT: Note that some of these town names were changed
during the 1930s. Lugansk was renamed Voroshilovgrad until 1958 and
G.E. Zinov'ev was executed in 1936 as a result of the first show trial
during the Great Purge. The town name was changed to Kirovograd during
the period of these postal codes. Readers will find another poignant
example in the article immediately following and written by A. Cronin).

The numbers following from 101 and upwards have been assigned to
administrative districts. As many numbers have been assigned to each
town as it has independent district nodes, serving the town along the

the principles of decentralised delivery. Apart from the number assigned
to the district office, each delivery point within the town district has
Been given its consecutive number, which is different for each station.

Example: The llth. district node in Kiev has 5 delivery points (stations
and agencies). Each of these delivery points has its own consecutive
number (1,2,3,4,5). The postal codes of the city network are thus set up
according to the following principle, as shown:-

For Kiev:
1st. node: 11-Y-l, 1-Y-2, ll-Y-3 etc.
2nd. node: 12-Y-1, 12-Y-2, 12-Y-3 etc.

For Stalino:
1st. node: 45-Y-1, 45-Y-2, 45-Y-3 etc.
2nd. node: 46-Y-1, 46-Y-2, 46-Y-3 etc.
Here the letter "Y" designates the Ukraine, the figures at left the
number of the district (according to the district numbering generally
assigned) and the figures at right the specific number of the delivery
point within the town district.

The second part of the listing contains the same data as in the first
part, but they arranged in the columns in reverse order, i.e. the postal
codes for each inhabited point are given in the first column in the
consecutive order of the first figure (from No.l to the end); in the 2nd.
column the names of the postal outlets and inhabited localities to which
the postal codes in the first column have been assigned; in the third
* column the type of postal operation serving this or that inhabited
locality and finally, in the fourth column, the names of the districts
within whose boundaries the points listed in the second column are

The Listing includes in the first instance all the postal outlets
operating in the Ukraine at the time of going to press; secondly, all
railway stations, sidings and platforms along the main railway lines, as
well as on mining and factory railway sidings; thirdly, village councils
of the Ukraine as the largest inhabited localities after the towns which
have the means for receiving their own postal operation (MTS and large
state farms situated at points having an assigned postal outlet come
within the scope of these points).

The method of consulting this Listing
The Listing is mainly intended for the internal needs of the postal
service, as a means for processing mail according to the postal code
system. With the emplacement of the postal codes in the addresses, the
postal service will take all measures to explain to the public in the
shortest possible time the advantages of the new reform in getting the
public to specify the postal codes on their letters.

The present Listing is also a necessary manual for all state, cooperative
and other undertakings which have extensive official correspondence and
would use the postal codes for the despatch of correspondence within the
boundaries of the Ukraine. The methods and forms of popularising the
Sutilisation of the postal code system by the public are given in a
special brochure of instructions. The Listing gives all offices, stations
and agencies from Abazovka to Yashchikovo on pp.1 to 134 and all
districts from 1 to 486 on pp.135 to 267.


by Andrew Cronin.

Your editor was the first to draw attention to this system back in 1970
and further work has since been done by Viktor Mohyl'nyj of Kiev in the
journals "Philately of the USSR" and "The Ukrainian Philatelic Journal",
Vladimir gulc of Prague in the magazine "Information from the USSR
Section of the Czechoslovak Philatelic Federation", as well as by U.
Hildebrandt in the"Deutsche Briefmarken Zeitung"No.24/89, pp.1459-62,
just to name a few investigators.

In going through the 1932 Listing, the following modifications to the
postal code system have been noted, as follow:-

(1) Khar'kov (originally designated town districts 1 to 10)
Only Nos. 1 to 7 had been assigned in the 1932 Listing, the remaining
numbers being apparently held in reserve. The following codes were also
390-Y-1 : Khar'kov Railway Station.
390-Y-lll: Khar'kov Bal Station on the South-East Railway.
390-Y-129: Khar'kov Levada Station.

Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Khar'kov region. Incidentally, the author has
never seen any of the Khar'kov postal codes on postmarks of the period
and he wonders if the city actually adopted the new system. Khar'kov, a
largely Russian-speaking city, was the capital of the Ukraine 1919-1934,
when that designation was given to Kiev, as a more suitable choice.

(2) Kiev (originally designated town districts 11 to 20)
Viktor Mohyl'nyj has dug out of the archives the addresses of the
following postal points, as in 1935:-
Lenin District
11-y-1 : Vorovs'koho 24-26 (district node)
11-Y-2 : Korolenka 15
11-Y-3 : Korolenka 38

11-y-4 ;
11-y-7 :
11-Y-10 :
11-y-1 :
11-y-12 :
11-Y-13 :
11-Y-14 :
11-Y-15 :
11-Y-16 :
11-Y-17 :
11-Y-18 :
11-Y-19 :
Note that

Chervonoarmijs'ka 5
Chervonoarmijs'ka 59
Chervonoarmijs'ka 129
25-ho Zhovtnya No.9
Kriposnyj prov. 9
Butyshiv prov. 26
V-Shiyyanivs'ka 1
School of Communications, Arsenal'na 37
Kamenev School (executed in 1936 during the Great Purge)
Zvirynets', Svyatotroits'ka 1
Tsitadel'na 9
Slobidka, pr. 1-ho travnya No.22
Korolenka 57
Vorovs'koho 5
Proletars'ka 4
11-y-9 had not yet been assigned

Stalin District
12-Y-1 : Passenger Railway Station
12-Y-2 : P'yatakova 106 (executed in 1937 during the Great Purge)
12-Y-3 : P'yatakova 48 "
12-Y-4 : Lenina 44 (district node)
12-Y-5 : Tymofiyivs'ka 8

12-Y-10 :
12-Y-1 :
Note that

Voroshylova 7
Uryts'koho 7
Heroyiv Stratosfery 60
Chokolivka, Tsentral'na 4
Stepana Razina 1
V-Kitayivs'ka 8
Stalinka, Chervonoarmijs'ka 64
Heroyiv Stratosfery 85/1
12-Y-7 had not yet been assigned.

Zhovten' District.

13-Y- :
13-Y-10 :
13-Y-ll :
Note that

Mel'nika 8 (district node)
Corner of Poltavs'ka & Dmytrivs'ka
Osiyivs'ka 7
Artema 6
Neronovycha 51
Hali Tymofiyevoyi 3
Brest-Litovs'ka sosha 39 (Polytechnicum)
Druha Dachna 3
Borshchahivs'ka 127
Syrets'kyj Tabir
13-Y-4 had not yet been assigned.

Petrivs'kyj District
14-Y-1 : Sholoma Alejkhema 8 (of interest to Judaica collectors)
14-Y-2 : Illins'ka 12 (district node)
14-Y-3 : Trukhaniv ostriv, Naberezhna 11
* 14-Y-6 : Frunze 114
14-Y-7 : Kurenivka, Tsukrovyj prov. 3
14-Y-8 : Vyshhorods'ka 4
14-Y-9 : Pushcha-Vodytsya
Note that 14-Y-4 and 14-Y-5 had not yet been assigned.
District No.161 was also allocated to Kiev for the following offices:-
161-Y-1 : Kiev Railway Station
161-Y-60: Kiev No.2 post office
161-Y-64: Kiev Goods (Freight) Railway Station
161-Y-110:Kiev Podol Postal Station

Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Kiev region.

(3) Odessa (originally designated town districts 21 to 29)
District No.300 was also allocated to Odessa for the following offices:-
300-Y-1 : Odessa Postal Station
300-Y-2 : Odessa Post Office
300-Y-3 : Odessa Postal Station
300-Y-4 : Odessa Postal Station
300-Y-5 : Odessa Postal Station
300-Y-6 : Odessa Railway Postal Station
300-Y-39 : Odessa Zastava 1 Postal Station
300-Y-40 : Odessa Posadnaya Postal Station
300-Y-41 : Odessa-Malaya Postal Station
300-Y-43 : Odessa-Bessarabskaya Station
S300-Y-62 :Odessa Goods (Freight) Station
300-Y-63 : Odessa Zastava II Postal Station
300-Y-64 : Odessa Zastava III Postal Station
300-Y-67 : Odessa-Port Station
300-Y-68 : Odessa-Peresyp Station

300-Y-69 : Odessa Freight and Passenger Station
300-Y-72 : Odessa Sorting Office
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Odessa region.

(4) Nikolaev (originally designated district numbers 30 to 33)
District No.322 was also allocated to Nikolaev for the following office:-
322-Y-1 : Nikolaev Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Nikolaev region.

(5) Dnepropetrovsk (originally designated district numbers 34 to 39)
District No.431 was also allocated to Dnepropetrovsk for the following
431-Y-1 : Dnepropetrovsk Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Dnepropetrovsk region.
(6) Zaporozh'e (with Kichkas): no additions
(7) Stalino (originally designated district numbers 45 to 48)
District No.471 was also allocated to Stalino for the following office:-
471-Y-1 : Stalino Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Stalino region.

(8) Mariupol' (originally designated district numbers 49 to 51)
District No.470 was also allocated to Mariupol' for the following offices:-
470-Y-1 : Mariupol' Railway Postal Station
470-Y-9 : Mariupol' Port Postal Agency
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Mariupol' region.

(9) Lugansk (originally designated district numbers 52 to 55)
District No.483 was also allocated to Lugansk for the following offices:-
483-Y-1 : Lugansk Station Postal Agency
483-Y-74 : Lugansk II Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Lugansk region.

(10) Makeevka (originally designated district numbers 56 to 58)
District No.478 was also assigned to Makeevka for the following offices:-
478-Y-1 : Makeevka Station
478-Y-31 : Makeevka Rudnik Postal Agency
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Makeevka region.

(11) Kremenchug (originally designated district numbers 59 to 61)
District No.368 was also assigned to Kremenchug for the following offices:-
368-Y-1 : Kremenchug Station
368-Y-14 : Kremenchug Railway Postal Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Kremenchug region.

(12) Poltava (originally designated district numbers 62 to 65)
District No.374 was also assigned to Poltava for the following offices:-
374-Y-1 : Poltava Yuzhnaya Railway Postal Station
374-Y-14 : Poltava Kievskaya Station
374-Y-17 : Poltava Shvedskaya Mogila Postal Agency
374-Y-18 : Poltava Kievskaya Postal Station
374-Y-51 : Poltava Sorting Station

Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Poltava region.

(13) Sumy (originally designated district numbers 66 to 68)
* District No.348 was also assigned to Sumy for the following office:-
348-Y-20 : Sumy Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Sumy region.

(14) Zhitomir (originally designated district numbers 69 to 71)
District No.117 was also assigned to Zhitomir for the following office:-
117-Y-ll : Zhitomir Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Zhitomir region.

(15) Vinnitsa (originally designated district numbers 72 to 74)
District No.245 was also assigned to Vinnitsa for the following office:-
245-Y-1 : Vinnitsa Railway Postal Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Vinnitsa region.

(16) Berdichev (originally designated district numbers 75 to 77)
District No.214 was also allocated to Berdichev for the following offices:-
214-Y-1 : Berdichev Postal Station
214-Y-29 : Berdichev Postal Station
214-Y-30 : Berdichev Railway Postal Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Berdichev region.

* (17) Zaporozh'e-Kamensk: no additions.

(18) Krivoi Rog (originally designated district numbers 82 to 85)
District No.426 was also allocated to Krivoi Rog for the following office:-
426-Y-33 : Krivoi Rog Station Postal Agency
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Krivoi Rog region.

(19) Zinov'evsk (originally designated district numbers 86 to 88)
District No.316 was also allocated to Zinov'evsk for the following offices
316-Y-1 : Zinov'evsk Postal Station
316-Y-29 : Zinov'evsk Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Zinov'evsk region.

(20) Kherson (originally designated district numbers 89 to 91)
District No.327 was also allocated to Kherson for the following office:-
327-Y-1 : Kherson Railway Postal Station
Other right-hand numbers in this new district number were assigned to
other localities in the Kherson region.

Postal Codes in the Moldavian ASSR
It should be noted that the Moldavian ASSR (Levoberezhnoe Poddnestrov'e
or Left-bank Moldavia) was legally part of the Ukrainian SSR until 2nd.
August 1940 and Ukrainian postal codes were also assigned there. No
usages have yet been seen due to the rarity of mail from this ASSR
Sin the horrible 1930s. The assignments for the Moldavian ASSR are listed
here in consecutive order as they form a compact group and give a good
idea as to how the system worked.


Anan'ev post office
Tochilovo village council
Mardarovka station
Mardarovka postal agency
Baitaly village council
Kirillovka postal agency
Bol'shaya Kachurovka village council
Bol'she Kondratskoe postal agency
Valegotsulovo postal agency
Zherebkovo postal agency
Zherebkovo station
Selivanovka village council
Gandrabury postal agency
Mikhailovka village council
Novo-Georgievka postal agency
Lipetskoe postal agency
Kommuna "Ot T'my k Svetu" postal agency
Shlyakhetnoe postal agency
Perelet railway siding
Balta post office
Smolyanka postal agency
Berezovka village council
Sarazhinka postal agency
Borsuki postal agency
Obzhila postal agency
Eftodiya village council
Fernatiya postal agency
Pereima postal agency
Lesnichevka postal agency
Cherneche postal agency
Elenovka village council
Moshnyagi postal agency
Mirony postal agency
Sennaya postal agency
Balta station
Balta railway postal station
Kharitonovka village council
Nasitely postal agency
Kozatskoe village council
Urozhany village council
Peschany postal agency
Kryzhovlin village council
Krinichki postal agency
Korytnoe village council
Benzary village council
Andriyashevka postal agency
Gerbina village council
Shlyakhovo postal agency
Rakulovo village council
Passat postal agency
Nemirovskoe village council
Perelety postal agency
Stanislavovka village council
God'ma postal agency
Lyakhovo village council
Puzhaikovo postal agency
Obkhodnaya railway siding
Kodyma post office
Volyadynka village council
Serby postal agency


Pisarevka postal agency
Grabovo postal agency
Shershentsy postal agency
Kodyma Station
Frantsuzskoe postal agency
Labushnaya postal agency
Aleksandrovka village council
Krutye postal agency
Plot' village council
Seminovka village council
Budei village council
Petrovka village council
Abamelikovo Station
Strymba village council
Slobodzeya village council
Burshteny village council
Tymkov postal agency
Timkov railway siding (yes,
Slobodka postal agency
Slobodka Station
Gonorovka railway siding
Lobushnaya railway siding
Kamenka post office
Grushany village council
Antonovka village council
Grabarovka village council
Oknitsa village council
Kuz'min postal agency
Bolgan postal agency
Khrustovoe postal agency
Severinovka postal agency
Podoimitsa village council
Podoima postal agency
Vodyadynka village council
Rashkov I postal agency
Rashkov II village council
Ekaterinovka village council
Alekseevka village council
Rashkovo village council
Strointsy village council
Rybnitsa post office
Rybnitsa Station
Beloch' village council
Badaturka village council
Gederim village council
Vykhvatintsy village council
Zozulyany village council
Malyi Mokish village council
Bol'shoi Mokish village court
Erzhov village council
Voronkovo postal agency
Popenki postal agency
Botushany village council
Zhura postal agency
Krasnen'kaya village council
Andreevka village council
Voronkova Station
Garaba village council
Kolbasnaya postal agency
Kolbasnaya Station

the spelling is different!)


Gershuny village council
Domnitsa village council
Stanislavovka village council
Mokroe postal agency
Gertunya railway siding
Marynya railway siding
Birzula post office
Klement'evka village council
Romanovka village council
Karpeshtskii village council
Nestoita postal agency
Novo-Kul'nyanskii village council
Komarovka village council
Staro-Kul'nyanskii village council
Koshary village council
Ksendzovka village council
Gonorata postal agency
Mar'yanovka postal agency
Borshchi Station postal agency
Borshchi village council
Lyubomirka village council
Glubochanskii village council
Kossy I postal agency
Kosinskaya village council
Giderimskii village council
Bol'skoi Fontan village council
Birzula Railway Postal Station
Kossy II postal agency
Bachmanskii village council
Lunchanskii village council
Knyal'nik village council
Aleksandrovka postal agency
Rozal'evka village council
Novoselovka village council
Lipetskoe postal agency
F@dorovka village council
Gamburovskii village council
Parizhskaya Kommuna postal agency
Poberezh'e railway siding
Okny (Krasnooknyanskii) post office
Tsybulev-Odaevskii village council
Gavanosy postal agency
Topaly postal agency
Alekseevka postal agency
Stepanovka village council
Dubovoe postal agency
Chorna postal agency
Artirovka postal agency
Novo-Mikhailovka village council
Kommuna Shevchenko village council
Tiskulung postal agency
Flery village council
Malaeshty II village council
Gulyanka village council
Novosemenovskoe village council
Trekhrady village council
Stavrovo postal agency
Novo-Samarskii village council
Kommuna Mayak postal agency


* 278-Y-25
* 281-Y-20

Chubovka Station
Marienberg postal agency (an obvious German settlement)
Vladimirovka postal agency
Antonovka postal agency
Kommuna Tkachenko postal agency (named after Pavlo Tkachenko).
Dubossary post office
Malovatoe village council
Kuchiery postal agency
Bol'shoi Fontan village council
Magaly village council
Koshnitsa postal agency
Pererytoe village council
Garmatskoe village council
Tsybulevka village council
Yagorlyk postal agency
Doibany I postal agency
Doibany II village council
Goyany village council
Lunga village council
Pogreby village council
Dorotskoe postal agency
Dubovo village council
Kummuna Komsomolets postal agency
Novo-Komissarovka village council
Reimarovka village council
Grigoriopol' post office
Gertop village council
Glikstal' postal agency (an obvious German settlement)
Klein Bergdorf village council (an obvious German settlement)
Tashlyk postal agency
Butory postal agency
Neidorf postal agency (an obvious German settlement)
Fedoseevka village council
Slupka postal agency
Novo-Aleksandrovka village council
Bergdorf postal agency (an obvious German settlement)
Tiraspol' post office
Speya village council
Tokmazeya village council
Teya postal agency
Krasnogorka village council
Bychok village council
Malaeshty I postal agency
Parkany postal agency
Ternovka village council
Zakrepostnaya Slobodka village council
Tiraspol' Station postal agency
Blizhne-Khutorskoe village council
Slavyanoserbovka village council
Plosskoe postal agency
Sukleya postal agency
Grebeniki village council
Vladimirovka postal agency
Novo-Savitskaya Station (birthplace of Pavlo Tkachenko)
Novo-Andriyashevka village council
Stepanovka village council
Kuchurgan Station
Slobodzeya post office
Karagash postal agency (Turkic word for "black tree")
Slobodzeya Moldavskaya village council

282-Y-4 : Chobruchi postal agency
282-y-5 : Glinnoe postal agency
282-Y-6 : Korytnoe postal agency
282-Y-7 : Nezavertailovka

We can see from the above listing that the 272-282 block of district
numbers was assigned to the Moldavian ASSR, with the right-hand number
"1" designating the district post office or node controlling
operations in each of the 11 districts.

Postal code markings used as cancellations-to-order
-,-.Soviet CTOs are a most interesting study in their
A"I '4T Cno.CP c own right and will be the subject of a special
article in a future issue of "The Post-Rider".
Suffice it to say that the Kiev code 11-Y-l was
.. applied as a CTO on a variety of commemoratives
SNO- and airmails going back to the 1930 Zeppelin pair.
SOther codes possibly exist so applied. What is
"U o striking about Soviet CTOs is that they are the only
ones in philately that often have their purpose
j specifically stated in the postmarks. In the 1930s,
that also consisted of the Russian initials g" and
aISl "k" being inserted at left and right in the
Spostmark inscriptions. These two initials transcribe
as "d" and "k" in English, standing for "dlya kollektsii", i.e. for
collecting purposes. Such examples with a postal code included can be
found cancelling the 1937 Air Force Exhibition airmails, as seen on the
imperf.-between pair shown here. The marking is inscribed in Russian:
"d ALMAZNAYA DONETSK. k 20.12.37 481-Y-85". According to the 1932
Listing, Almaznaya had two postal codes: one as above for the railway
station and 481-Y-86 for the postal station.

Popularisation of the new postal codes
This was achieved by the
issue of at least four
ufw OF'10OBAN KAPTO'IKA l different 3-kop. "peasant
..^..DA, KIAPTA .head" postcards printed in
f-tW.~.~~ n .I. iL' IL blue in editions of one
P 0OS ITA million
POcq, s million copies each, which
AOROMC'E TPEAa went to press at GOZNAK in
ncAoIAorq Moscow on 4 May 1932. One
HA HOWHOMY .,,. .... ..................................... ............... Moscow on 4 May 1932. One
nourTOBOMy "" example is shown here and
............................................................... h as the sam e p osta l code
S: 101-Y-15 for Lopatychi in the
wAcitn illustration at left, as
// .......... ....... ...... also referred to in the
,--,^. |preface to the 1932 Listing.
P"AnWbE TA '" Another code 101-Y-1 for
OAEPMHAHHI ANCTAt .......................... ............. Olevs' k, also given as an
...' ,- ...', .. example in the preface, is
,.;l..",:: I.II.n.. '. ." to be seen on a second card.
The designer had obviously
been given data from the 1932 Listing as a guide. A third card has the
code 395-Y-1 for Zmiyiv in the advertising illustration, while all four
cards have the explanatory texts exclusively in Ukrainian. The fourth
card does not include an example of a specific code. Despite the
relatively large printings, these cards are hard to find, mint or used.

Postal codes as seen on mail
(a) The registered cover shown on the next page has the correct total


-~. 6'c~ ~ *.lc)~* ~i .,

* ~~r. ? .7'

i) ** .
i-~ .

~~4E. aV 1
~Pls;', n~i~


6 -j~

/ I *g.,,41.*13Ik <
11I- .~Iv, 4. Pt /2/

le~raPGT~r!~ big, EAS151i
L, ~)'

rate for a surface letter going abroad and was sent from Mariupol' 9.8.35
with the supplementary code 470-Y-1 to Chicago. It was received on 23rd.
August, making excellent time by today's standards.
S(b) A lot of information
i : .--.. '. can be gleaned from this
,i-'.. .;--: .,. .... .i '_.-'.. *,.* second registered item,
--- featured by Viktor
S LIY -/ .' Mohyl'nyj on the front of
Shis "Ukrainian Philatelic
'z/ -. Journal" for March/April
_. 1 1991. Written in German,
-: .. Russian and Ukrainian by
S., an obviously well-educated
sender, A. Fintiktikov-
P .! Yasinovskii, this cover
Appears to have been a
S/ : 'deliberate provocation
-. :: against the Polish
-.. .: ., :"'" '" -- "-""- authorities. It was
I. addressed to "Austria,
... Galicia, town of L'vov,
-. ..." '^ .."-" Lemberg (its German name),
'' Supins'kyj St.17, to the
Shevchenko Scientific Institute". The sender knew darn well that L'vov/
L'viv was no longer in Austria but in Poland, yet he did not use the
Polish name for the city (Lw6w). The item was posted on 6.8.37 at the
then correct surface rate of Ir. 30k. (50k. for a foreign surface letter
and 80k. foreign regn. fee) and bore the postmark POSTYSHEVO UKR.b.
472-Y-1 (originally Grishino/Hryshyne in the Donetsk region). Pavel
Petrovich Postyshev was an ethnic Russian and Old Bolshevik, born on
6/18 Sep.1887 in Ivanovo-Voznesensk and a member of the Communist Party
from 1904. He was the Secretary to the Central Committee of the

_ __



Ukrainian Communist Party from January 1933 to March 1937, when he was
transferred to Kuibyshev. He publicly voiced disbelief in the wild
accusations made during the Great Purge and paid for his temerity with
his life on 26 February 1939. His wife also perished in the Purge. He
was rehabilitated by N.S. Khrushchev in 1956 during the latter's famous
secret speech at the 20th. Party Congress. A 5-kop. engraved stamp
bearing his portrait was issued in memory of P.P. Postyshev on the 100th.
anniversary of his birth N.S. on 18 Sept. 1987. See just below at left.

"?'. -

.i ."


L.[0 '3 "
CcL O-&t^ 1 71 -.I. .. (y0 --L

/_ r
mLL"~CE I, .

A In': ., in ii rt., I

C~wr k ^ X.

J, r -, /4--

(c) This final 50-k. envelope to an unusual destination, Argentina, was
sent on 24.5.38 from Sudilkov 208-Y-10, the town district No.208 being
assigned to Shepetovka/Shepetivka.

The latest usages of the postal codes

(a) Tne last usage seen oy tne autnor unaer soviet ruxe
mitd49 has been in the form of an arrival marking reading:
I CHERNIGOV USSR 29.6.41 a 131-Y-1 in the first days of
the Nazi attack.

;' tr7 (b) That was not the end of the story as, during the Nazi
occupation of the Ukraine, the German Dienstpost at
: Dnepropetrovsk also provisionally applied a marking there
reading in Russian BLAGOVESHCHENKA a 422-Y-18. It is
E illustrated by Dr. Hermann Schultz with the date 2 .9.42
# in his "Deutsche Dienstpost 1939-1945", Vol.6, p.335.
9a2 This usage is rare. When the author brought it to the
notice of Viktor Mohyl'nyj, the latter termed it a
"pikantna rich" (piquant item).
The curious thing is that town district No.422 had nothing to do with
Dnepropetrovsk but was assigned to localities in the Zaporozh'e-Kamensk
town district! In short, another postal history riddle to be solved.

Further comments and data from the readership would be most welcome.




,r_ .Ir_~_~____~____-L ~---I

By Alex Artuchov

(Continued from No. 29)

White paper, brownish yellow gum, sheet of
on fourth edition placed vertically,

22. 3 kop. yellow brown

14 x 8, same 4 types as
perforated 11.5 and



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2. 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.

Soft white paper, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 6 x 8, same 4 types
as on the fourth edition, perforated 11.5 and imperforate and also
known double perforated vertically.

23. 3 kop. brown, light or dark




1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4

Change of colour, white paper, greenish yellow gum, sheet of 7 x 8,
transfer block with 4 types placed vertically, imperforate but also
perforated 11.5 in Feb. of 1915, also known double perforated
horizontally or vertically or diagonally through the stamp.

24. 3 kop. blue, light or dark


1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 .3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4



1902 (June)
Design similar to the first issues of Kobeliaky, lithographed in
3 colours on white paper 0.08 mm thick, 22 x 22 mm white gum,
sheet of 3 x 10, perforated 11.5.

The remainder of this issue appeared at a later date without the

25. 3 kop. black, rose and light blue
it It


1904 1913
Four editions, lithographed in 3 colours on white paper, perforated
11.25 and imperforate.


On white paper 0.08 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 7 x 9,
perforated 11.5 .

26. 3 kop. black, gray and blue


Similar to first edition but imperforate, sheet of 3 x 8 with a
transfer block of 3 stamps placed horizontally.

27. 3 kop. black, light gray and light blue


White paper 0.07 mm thick, shiny brownish yellow gum, each stamp
has short yellow guidelines on 3 sides and some of the stamps also
show tiny black guide dots, sheet of 7 x 9 with a slightly wider
spacing of the stamps, transfer block of 2 x 1 placed horizontally,
perforated 11.5 and imperforate, issue of 2,000 perforated stamps
and 2,000 imperforate stamps.

28. 3 kop. black, olive yellow and blue gray



TYPE 1 The letter K in the word 3EMCKOR has a hook at the bottom
of the right leg. There is a black spot in the letter K of
3 K .
TYPE 2 The second letter A in MAPKA is damaged. The numeral 3 in
the SE corner is connected to the oval by a thin line. A
black dot to the right of the letter T of TPM which does
not always show.


Similar to the third edition, all guidelines are in black, sheet of
7 x 9 with the same 2 types as on the third edition and the
transfer block placed horizontally, the 4th and 5th stamps in the
8th horizontal row, 2,000 perforated and 2,000 imperforate stamps

29. 3 kop. black, orange yellow and blue gray



111 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 Z T 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2

1907 1915
Similar the the issues of 1904 1913, inscriptions in the central
oval are smaller and the inscription of value at the top and bottom
are in larger letters, the corner numerals are larger and the
shield is longer with a dot at the bottom, lithographed in 3
colours on white paper, perforated 11.5 and imperforate, 4

White paper 0.12 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 10 x 6,
4 types, perforated 11.5 with top and bottom margins of sheet being
imperforate, 4,000 stamps issued.

30. 3 kop. black, gray brown and blue



K 1

TYPE 1 The left leg of A of YI35BA is deformed.
TYPE 2 Dot inside the left wavy line on the 6th scallop from the
TYPE 3 Dot between P and K of MAPKA Dot in SW corner and SW
oval near head of 3 Small vertical dash after KOnb1MT
TYPE 4 The letter q in noTSai is defective.
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

S PK /V 1

Soft white paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 6 x
8 with the same 4 types as on the first edition, small black guide
lines at the side of each group at the centre of the stamps,
perforated 11.5 .
31. 3 kop. black, gray brown and lilac gray 1.75
Type 4 on this edition also shows an additional break in the wavy
frameline on the left. The second H of ADmITbH is damaged.


White paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish gum, sheet of 10 x 6 with the
same 4 transfer types as on the previous editions laid out in a
2 x 2 transfer block, the top and bottom margins of the sheet are
imperforate, rough perforated 11.5 and imperforate, also known
imperforate vertically and horizontally through the middle of the
stamp, 1,000 perforated and 1,000 imperforate stamps issued.
32. 3 kop. black, black brown and blue 1.75
olive brown 10.00

FOURTH EDITION (Jan. 1, 1913)
Similar to previous edition, change of colour, sheet of 10 x 6 with
same types as on previous editions, perforated 11 .5 and

33. 3 kop. black, brown yellow and blue 0.50

Schmidt reports that proofs were prepared for an issue that was
contemplated for May of 1913. One, three and five kop. values
were printed on the same sheet in the order of 5+1+3. The proofs
are black on yellowish white paper 0.14 mm thick and are
imperforate and without gum.



Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Sch 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Ch 19 20 21 22 -- 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 31


Kungur is located in the central part of the province, some 58
miles from the capital city of Perm. In 1892, the population was
12,400 and grew to 14,324 by 1897.

Kungur was an active trading centre. Leather and metal products
were among the major articles produced. The trade of these products
and the export of locally grown cereal grains, linseed oil and
tallow along with the importing of tea from China were the major
economic activities. Kungur and the surrounding communities were
also known for the lace produced by its women.

Kungur issued stamps between 1890 and 1897.
Top: Red background with a silver sheep on green grass and golden
scripture and siver cross above.
Bottom: Blue background with a golden cornucopia rising from wheat
Printed by the government printing bureau in Perm, 15 x 22.5 mm
lithographed in black on coloured paper 0.06 0.08 mm thick,
perforated 11.5, white gum, 9,228 1 kop. stamps issued and
10,217 2 kop. stamps issued, 2 editions.

FIRST EDITION (Jan. 1, 1890)
Space between stamps 6.25 6.5 mm, sheet of 10 x 5 with a transfer
block of 3 x 1 placed vertically and 3 types, the types resulted
from the change of the district name as well and the coat of arms
and the numerals and value from the first issue of Osa, the 2 kop.
stamp exists imperforate according to Moens.

1. 1 kop black on dark blue paper 1.00

2. 2 kop. black on rose paper 1.00

1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
2 1 2 3 1 2 3 12 3
3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Type 1 The periods in the corner circles are very small and the
numerals are very long and thin. The 1 in the SE corner is
situated at a 45 degree angle.
Type 2 With larger periods and thicker numerals. The 1 in the SE
corner is situated at a 60 degree angle and the 1 in the
SW corner and the 1 of 1 kop. above in the oval are almost
in line.
Type 3 Periods and numerals are the same as in T. 2 The 1 in
the SE corner is at a 55 degree angle. The 1 in the SW
corner and the 1 in the oval are not in line.

Type 2 Type 3

Type 1 Tiny bump inside the NW corner circle to the right of the
numeral 2 and a tiny dot over the letter E of 3aEMKO>
Type 2 Bump on numeral 2 in the SW corner.
Type 3 Bump on the outer frameline in the NW corner circle. Tiny
dot at the top between the vertical strokes of the H of
KYHirPCKOR There is an uninterrupted line the length
of the bottom band of the crown. This line consists of
dots and dashes of various lengths on the other types.

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Space between stamps 7.5 mm sheet of 10 x 10 with 2 types of each
value placed horizontally, on the 2 kop. value the star to the left
of 2 kop. is missing, on the 2 kop. sheet the first pair of
horizontal stamps in the first horizontal row and the third pair in
the ninth horizontal row are both inverted, the 1 kop. stamp is
known imperforate vertically.

3. 1 kop. black on dark blue paper 3.00

4. 2 kop. black on rose paper 2.00



Type 1 The horizontal centre lines of the oval if extended to the
left would have the bottom line pointing to the letter P
on the left and the top line would pass over it.
Type 2 The top centre line points to the letter P on the left
while the bottom line passes just below it.

Type 1

Type 2


Type 1 The horizontal centre lines of the oval if extended to the
left would have the bottom line pointing to the letter P
while the top line would pass over it.
Type 2 Both lines would pass just under the letter P.

Type 1

Type 2


1891 1895
22.5 x 30.25 mm printed by Saosersky in Perm, lithographed on
white paper, perforated 11.5, three editions.


I ,
1:~ '''':
!L I
i 111: I I
1 I
: i
i I
j I
~~~I. c; .--
L ''"

White paper 0.12 mm thick, shiny brownish yellow gum, the 1 and 2
kop. sheets are unknown, the 5 and 10 kop. sheets are 8 x 5 with
the left half inverted on the 10 kop. sheet, quantity of stamps
issued: 1 kop. 5,000; 2 kop. 10,000; 5 kop. 3,000; 10 kop. -
5. 1 kop. ochre 0.25
6. 2 kop. blue green 0.50
7. 5 kop. dark blue 0.50
8. 10 kop. carmine rose 1.50
While no mention is specifically made about the transfer block and
its layout on the sheet it appears that the 2 types are arranged
Type 1 The left numeral 5 has a ball on the upper stroke, the
letter C of KYHEMYCKAI has a short vertical line connected
to the lower end and resembles the letter G.
Type 2 The ball on the left numeral 5 is poorly formed and has a
small bump at the bottom, the circle framing this numeral
has a break in the bottom and a damaged section.
Type 1 Type 2


On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, change of colour,
sheet of 8 x 8, perforated 11.5 the 1 kop. stamp is also known
with double perforation and the 2 kop. stamp with diamond shaped
perforations horizontally.
9. 1 kop. blue 0.50
10. 2 kop. rose 0.50

Colour change, on thinner paper 0.05 mm thick, white gum, the print
is often permeating, sheet unknown, perforated 11.5 and also known
double perforated vertically.

11. 2 kop. yellow rose

1893 (March)
18.5 x 27.25, lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick,
brownish yellow gum, sheet of 5 x 4, imperforate.

12. 1 kop. orange or yellow orange

13. 2 kop. green





1896 (May)
17.5 x 27.75, lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, sheet
unknown as it was never received from the printer in sheets but
cut into single copies, imperforate.

14. 1 kop. green

15. 2 kop. carmine rose



1897 (October)
17 x 22.5, lithographed on white paper 0.1 mm thick, brownish
yellow gum, sheet of 9 x 4 for each value, 2 types for each value,
perforated 11.5.

16. 1 kop. blue

17. 2 kop. red



1 2 12 1 212
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1

Type 1 The 1
Type 2 The 1

in the NE corner has
the Y in KYrYPCKAI.
in the NE corner has

Type 1

0 Y.

a long top stroke, small line

a short top stroke.

Type 2

Type 1 The 2
Type 2 The 2

in the NW corner has an open head, the star to the
of the 2 in the centre has a long ray.
in the NW corner has a closed head, the star to the
of the 2 in the centre has a short ray.

Type 1

Type 2

- -







CAMPAIGN by Alexander Epstein.

Up to the present time, there has been published a lot of information
* about the Russian fieldpost service during 1877-1879 in the Balkan
theatre of war, but a full and systematic treatment of its history is
still missing. In this connection, the articles by Franz See (1), P.F.
Mazur (2), R. Trbovich (3) and Georg D. Mehrtens (4) should be
mentioned, as they have done much to describe and systematise the
existing postal history material. Unfortunately, their researches were
not based on archival documents. On the other hand, D.N. Minchev
published a few articles containing very interesting information that he
had found in the archives of his native Bulgaria. However, those data
related mainly to a late period of the Russian fieldpost activities,
after the signing of the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878.

The present paper, which is based upon official information taken from
"The Report by the Military Communications Administration of the Army in
the Field" (5), contains a brief outline of the fieldpost activities of
the Russian Danubian Army during the 1877-1879 campaign. It does not
touch upon the activities of the Russian Civilian Postal Administration
in Bulgaria after its liberation, as this matter was dealt with very
well by D.N. Minchev.

All the fieldpost establishments of the Danubian Army came under the
Fieldpost Administration that had been formed according to an order of
19 Nov.1876 issued by the Imperial Minister of Internal Affairs and it
began its activities in Kishin&v at the end of November. Initially,
this Administration was subordinate to the Chief of Army Headquarters
(HQ), but it later became part of the Military Communications
Administration. The latter also included the Postal & Telegraph
Department, whose activities covered only the supervision of postal
stations. At first, the fieldpost network was outlined as consisting of
a Field Post Office (FPO) and five Field Post Sub-Offices (FPSO), four
of which were attached to a corps each and one in the army rear. Indeed,
after war was declared on 12 April 1877 (all dates O.S.) and Russian
troops were marching through Roumania, twelve FPSOs were opened in April/
May in addition to the FPO: five were attached to a corps each and seven
were sedentary.

The subsequent development ofthe service was connected with the changing
situation in the various periods of war:preparations for crossing the
Danube, military operations in Bulgaria, as well as the occupation of
Bulgaria after the signature of the Treaty of San Stefano on 19 Feb.1878.
New FPSOs were opened in connection with the arrival of new corps from
Russia and the changing military situation.By the time the Treaty of San
Stafano had been signed, there were 20 FPSOs in operation. During the
war, as well as in the post-war military occupation, many of them were
moved from one point to another. Some FPSOs, after having been closed in
1878 after the evacuation of the corps to which they had been attached,
were re-opened as sedentary sub-offices. The FPO and FPSOs dealt with
any kind of mail that had been permitted in Russia at that time, with
the exception of parcels sent by private persons and declared value
parcels. Official parcels were accepted only by permission of the Chief
of Army Headquarters. Ordinary mail from soldiers in the form of
* postcards and letters up to 2 lots in weight (25.6 grammes or almost
1 ounce) was free of postage. Mail from private persons had to be paid
for according to the postal rates of Russia.

During the summer and autumn of 1878, in connection with the beginning

of navigation along the Danube and across the Black Sea, so-called
Postal Points (PP) were opened in many localities for the receipt and
delivery of ordinary mail. The Field Post Administration was divided
into two separate entities: for Bulgaria and Roumania, respectively. The
latter section was located in Bucharest (Order No.271 of 20 June 1878 of
the Chief of Military Communications). A list of the fieldpost
establishments operating in Roumania, Bulgaria and the European part of
Turkey is presented in the table below. This list includes some of the
data reported by D.N. Minchev.



Army Headquarters Moved together
with H.Q.:
Gorna Studena)
Sedentary Sistov(Svishtov)
Rushchuk (Ruse)
Army Headquarters Adrianople(Edirne)

Periods of time


1877.10 -1878.2
1878.2 -1878.10.14
1879.2.3 -1879.3.1.

FPSO (Polovoe Pochtovoe Otdelenie)

No.1 Sedentary
llth. Army Corps

No.2 Sedentary

No.3 Sedentary
11 I!

No.4 12th. Army Corps

No.5 Sedentary
Ii 11
No.6 Sedentary

No.7 Sedentary

No.8 Sedentary
1i I
13th. Army Corps

No.9 8th. Army Corps

No.10 14th. Army Corps

No.11 Sedentary
II if

moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps

? -


1877.12 -1878.12.1.
1877.8. -1877(10-12)x


1877.8 -1877.12.
1877.12. -1879.2.15
1877.4.2. -1877.8.
1877.8. ?

(1878.11) -1879.2.28.
1877.5.14 -1878.9.15.


(1878.11) -1879.2.22.
1877.7.15 -1877.8.
1877.8 -1878.2



No. 11

Assignments Locations


No.12 9th. Army Corps

No.13 Sedentary
II it
No.14 4th. Army Corps

No.15 Sedentary

No.16 Guardian Corps

No.17 Grenadier Corps

No.18 Army HQ

No.19 Sedentary
it 11
No.20 Sedentary

PP (Postal Points)

Notes to the Table:

Periods of time

Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together
with corps
Moved together with
HQ (Bokhot,Slivna,
San Stefano,
Plevna (Pleven)





-1879 (8-9)


(1878.11) -1879(8-9).
1877.10.10 -1878.9.15.

1878.10.22 -1879(8-9)
1877.10.16 -1878.10.25



Aitos 1878(7-9) -1879(8-9)
Yeni Zagra(Nova 1878(10-11)-1879(8-9)

Kotel (Kazan)
Kustendj e (Constanga)
Osman Pazar(Omurtag)
Shumla Road

1878.10.20 -1878.11.13.
1878(7-9) -1879(2-3)
1878(7-9) -1878.12.21
1878(7-9) -1878.10.24

1878(10-11)-1879 (2-3)
1878.(7-9) -1878.11.1

x: Months in brackets for the periods of time mean that the transfer
of an FPSO or PP to another location took place within the limits
of these months, i.e. the exact time is not known.
xx: Location and period of time in brackets are those reported by
D.N. Minchev.

* S.V. Prigara (7) reports a postmark of FPSO No.22 dated 4 Sept.1879.
Any other information confirming the existence of this FPSO is missing.

However, it is worth mentioning that there exists a document issued by
the Military Communications Administration and entitled "The Current

Status of the Posts, Telegraphs and Lines of Communication of the Army in
the Field and Comments on the Railways", issued probably in October or
November 1878. It follows from this document that military postal
establishments for receiving and delivering mail of various kinds (FPSOs
in fact) were also operating in Berkovitsa, Gabrovo, Lom Palanka, Selvi,
Sistov, Sofia and Vidin in addition to those listed in the Table above
and a further two FPSOs were in a state of readiness to be assigned if
necessary to a corps. Additional Postal Points are also mentioned for
Tatar-Pazardjik and Eski Djumaya (T'rgovishte). As the Fieldpost Service
suffered constantly from the lack of personnel, one may assume that the
postal establishments of the Russian Civilian Administration were
transformed temporarily into the fieldpost establishments named in the
above-mentioned document. From the beginning of the war and until the
opening of traffic by the railway connecting Bendery in Bessarabia with
Galatz in Roumania, mail from Russia to the Army and vice versa was
forwarded via the frontier post office at Ungeni in Bessarabia. The mail
was directed from that office to the FPO attached to Army Headquarters.
That FPO had the largest amount of personnel in the fieldpost
establishments: 8 postal clerks and 8 postmen, who sorted and delivered
mail to other postal outlets.

However, after the Army Headquarters had been transferred from Zimnicea
to T'rnovo, it turned out that all mail, excluding that for the Army HQ
and the Advanced Detachment, had to be forwarded backwards after sorting.
That circumstance delayed mail delivery. Therefore, the task of sorting
mail was transferred to FPSO No.2, located at that time in Bucharest,
i.e. at the rear of the Army. In December 1877, after Travelling Post
Office (RPO) No.75-76 began to carry mail between Bendery and Galatz, all
mail for the Army excluding that for the troops in the neighbourhood of
Jassy (Iapi), was ordered to be directed to Bendery, instead of Ungeni.
FPSO No.2 was moved at the same time to Galatz. As for the FPO, after
transferring the Army HQ from Gorna Studena to Bokhot, it was found that
there were no appropriate premises for that office. The FPO was moved for
that reason to Sistov (Svishtov), where it functioned as a sedentary
postal establishment. It was again attached to Army HQ only in November
1878, when the latter was situated in Adrianople. FPSO No.18 was opened
in the meantime especially for serving the Army HQ.

When the Army HQ together with FPSO No.18 were located in San Stefano,
postal communications were opened across the Black Sea. The border post
office in Odessa became the main transfer point for mail to the Army.
During the period from February to September 1878, Odessa exchanged mail
with FPSO No.18. Immediately after Army HQ had been transferred to
Adrianople, the exchange of mail took place from September to mid-October
at FPSO No.16 in Burgas. However, when the FPO arrived in Adrianople from
Rushchuk, all mail from the Army to Russia began to be carried by rail
from Adrianople to Constantinople and thence by ship to Odessa. Mail from
Russia to the Army in South Bulgaria and around Constantinople was
carried along the same route, but in the opposite direction.

In February 1879, the FPO was moved to Burgas and mail was again
forwarded via Burgas. However, mail for the troops stationed in Roumania
and North Bulgaria continued to be transmitted via Bendery and FPSO No.2
in Galatz. When the Danube was open for navigation, mail to North
Bulgaria and Roumania was ordered to be carried by ship from Reni in
Bessarabia directly to Danubian riverside towns. Later on, the mail was
transferred from Izmail to Tulcea. After FPSO No.2 was closed, the mail
to Roumania and North Bulgaria went via FPSO No.l in Rushchuk.

During almost the entire period that the Russian Army operated abroad,

i.e. from May 1877 to March 1879, the Fieldpost Service forwarded
18,027,377 ordinary postcards and letters, 1,649,532 money letters and
279,157 parcels, with a grand total of 19,957,066 sending. The various
postal establishments handled very unequal amounts of work, with the
* bulk of the mail falling to the FPO and FPSO No.2, while FPSOs Nos. 6
and 9 were the least busy. As a result, the staff of some FPSOs
differed from the numbers officially stipulated, i.e. 3 postal clerks
and 3 postmen. For example, FPSOs Nos.6 and 19 were operated by a single
clerk each, as were also the Postal Points.

In postmarking mail, the FPO and all FPSOs used uniform double-ring
date stamps. The assertion by D.N. Minchev that the figure "1" in
brackets in the lower part of the FPSO postmarks indicates the ordinal
number of the FPO,to which all the FPSOs were allegedly subordinate,
seems to be wrong. In fact, the sole FPO had no number at all and the
FPSOs, together with the FPO, were all subordinate directly to the
Fieldpost Administration. In all probability, the designation "(1)"
simply indicates the number of the cds. As no postmark has yet been
found with the designation "(2)", one may suppose that the FPO and all
the FPSOs used a single cds each. The Postal Points had no postmarkers
whatsoever and their mail was marked at the nearest FPSO.

Most of the Russian fieldpost establishments in Bulgaria, Roumania and
the European part of Turkey had been closed by 1 March 1879. The
remaining four FPSOs were transferred to the authority of the Postal
Administration of Russian Troops (see Order No.261 of 15 Feb.1879,
issued by the Chief of Military Communications in Bulgaria). These
FPSOs, in Burgas, Plovdiv, Sliven and Yambol, operated until August or
September 1879, although their closing had been ordered by 1st. July.

(1) Franz See: "Rossica" No.39 (287); 70 (63-64).
(2) P.F. Mazur: "Philately of the USSR" 1977 No.6 (29-30); No.9 (45-47);
1978 No.4 (46-49); No.9 (54-55); 1979 No.10 (42); No.3
(42-43); 1980 No.6 (48-49); No.10 (50-51): in Russian.
(3) R. Trbovich: "Rossica" No.96 (105-107); No.98 (115-117).
(4) Georg D. Mehrtens: "The Post-Rider" No.27 (23-44).
(5) D.N. Minchev: "Rossica" No.64 (13-16); No.81 (6-88); No.83 (45).
(6) Collection of Materials concerning the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-
1878 in the Balkan Peninsular, St. Petersburg, 1910, issue No.82:
in Russian.
(7) S.V. Prigara: "The Russian Post in the Empire, in Turkey, in China
and the Post in the Polish Kingdom", New York, 1941:
in Russian. Subsequently reissued by the Rossica
Society of Russian Philately in an English translation.


by Andrew Cronin.

In response to an enquiry from Mr. Sherwin Podolsky, a U.S. collector
of Olympic material, your editor has dipped into his files to assemble
data on this issue and its genesis. The information is now set out
under the following headings:-

* The "Spartakiada" concept
The USSR was for many years excluded from participation in the Olympic
Games and the Spartakiada athletic events were in part the Soviet
response to such isolation. They were open to factory workers, as well

as students of schools and higher institutes of education and collective
farmers. The name was taken from Spartacus, the well-known Thracian
leader of the revolt of the slaves in Ancient Rome 73-71 B.C. The first
All-Union Spartakiada was held in Moscow in 1928, with more than 7000
athletes participating from the union republics and with 15 delegations
from workers' sports clubs abroad. Two further important Spartakiadas
of trade-union athletes were held in Leningrad (1932) and Moscow (1935).
The latter was especially noteworthy, as it was designated "Vsemirnaya"
(World-wide) and that word appeared on the ten stamps specially issued
for the event on 22 April 1935.

The postal rates covered by the 1935 Spartakiada issue
An examination of the internal and external rates in force in April 1935
shows that the values on the stamps covered the following categories of
mail originating in the USSR (first rate step in each case):-

3 kop.: Unsealed printed matter going abroad
5 kop.: Local (intraurban) postcards
10 kop.: Local (intraurban) letters
Surface postcards going abroad
15 kop.: Surface letters going abroad
Intercity postcards
20 kop.: Ordinary intercity letters
Registration fee for internal and external mail
35 kop.: Combined rate for a registered letter going abroad (surface)
40 kop.: Combined rate for a registered intercity letter

Note that the only stamps not accounted for are the 1, 2 and 4 kop.
values. They were probably assigned to cover the rates for sending
intraurban visiting cards, intraurban and intercity printed matter and
material for the blind. It can be seen from the rates above that it cost
5 kop. more to send a registered letter within the USSR than abroad.
That anomaly was corrected on 1 May 1936, when the foreign rates were
substantially increased.

Postal usages
Cards or covers bearing any of these stamps are extremely rare. After
years of searching, your editor has only found two items, as follow:-

(a) A registered letter with the correct combined rate of 35 kop. for
a surface item going abroad, sent on 1.10.35 by H. von Sch&fer at the
Foreign Workers' Office in the Chelyabinsk Tractor Factory to a lady in
Vienna. The Austrian postal service did not normally backstamp
registered mail, so we do not know when it arrived (see top of next page).

(b) Another registered item, still within the same surface foreign rate
time-frame, but overfranked by 5 kop. Bearing the 20-kop. Spartakiada
stamp, it was sent on 17.3.36 through the Moscow-67 post office and
obviously contained a philatelic request, as it was addressed to
Zumstein & Co. in Berne, Switzerland. It was received on 21.3.36.
Although it also bore the 20-kop. Stratosphere Record airmail of 1933,
it went overland and got to the addressee in only four days! See the
second cover on the next page.

Referring back to "The Post-Rider" No.28, p.35, we see that Robert
Taylor also has the 20-kop. value in combination with a further 60 kop.
postage on an airmail cover from Leningrad 8 Oct.1935 to London and
forwarded to Vienna, Austria. A lovely non-philatelic item!



t ze ef- f--

- ~ f ~-;c~9*i

The printing method
The process utilised was unusual in philately, but not for the USSR.
* Called "phototipiya" in Russian, it is known as the collotypee" method
in English. It was popular in Europe at the turn of the century in
producing illustrated postcards. It is basically a granular
photogravure process and gives the most exact reproduction of
complicated images. The printing forme consists of a thick glass plate,


LluilcP~rn; i1%0 WIM,~~i41
ca F Z.

.-- .. ~:
"` ,,-
: .:-

.. .: ;: ~- i
~ ~


14% 4- LLI i

- c c. YZc Yn; "L. :
ic v- -

4i -""cZ:-:
- a ..

covered with a layer of sensitised chromium-treated gelatine. When
examined under a magnifying glass, stamps printed by this process show
impressions from the gelatine grains of various sizes and distributions
which make up the images, rather than the characteristic screen used in
the photogravure method. The gelatine layer has to be moistened with a
mixture of water and glycerine to give it printing capability. The
production rate is slow and large printing runs are not possible as the
former tend to break down after a while.

The process was first used in philately by the Poltava Zemstvo in the
Ukraine, showing a typical Ukrainian "khata" (peasant cottage) on seven
stamps issued in 1912. The design was copied from an exactly similar
illustrated postcard of the period. The USSR first employed this method
for the 50-kop. Dirigible Construction stamp of 1931, followed by many
commemoratives until 10 April 1959. Specifically for the "Spartakiada"
set, the numbers printed demonstrate the limitations of the process:-

1 kop. to 5 kop.: 200,000 of each 20 kop.: 100,000 copies
10 kop.: 75,000 copies 35 kop.: 60,000 copies
15 kop.: 60,000 copies 40 kop.: 100,000 copies

Hence, only 60,000 complete sets can theoretically exist. The stamps
were designed by a well-known artist, V.V.Zav'yalov and printed by
GOZNAK (the State Printing Works in Moscow). Only one plate variety has
been noted so far: a white tilde or wavy line (,/) in front of the
initials CCCP at top left of the design on the 10-kop. value. Its
position on the sheet is so far unknown. As with all Soviet stamps
issued since the introduction of the gold standard late in 1923, the
Spartakiada set was valid for postage until the Currency Reform of 1st.
Jan. 1961.

During the Stalinist period, only isolated values of Soviet
commemoratives were distributed to post offices, the complete sets
being kept for sale abroad. Reference to an excerpt below of a KOGIZ
price-list issued in 1940 shows under item No.149 that, five years
after the appearance of this set, only the 2,4,5,10 & 15-kop. values
were still available, at a price of 4r. 50k., i.e. almost 13 times face
for an incomplete set!

5g10 K*. *. . 2 Sp.00s.
154 1935 Konrpec apanoxoro 'cayccesa, 10,

157 1935 ToUe, ra,,, ble 4 --. 95 x.
Han.leuoEanee BapoK UJEHA

149 1935 L;nopTnBHaa cepwq, 2, 4, 5, 101
15.K. .. .. .. .. . 5 4 p. 50 x.
152 1935 40-AeTHe COAHi 0eppTii Op. & .reAboa,
5 H 10 . . 2 p. 00 t.
154 1935 KOHrpecc Hpanacoro KCKyCCTBa, 10,
15 H 35 K.. . . 3 6 p. 50 x.
756 1935 60-AeTme M. H. KaAHmaIia 4 2 p. 25 x.
157 1935 Tome, ramue. ..e ........ 4 95 .
158 1935 25-AeTke co A-HR CMPTH A. H.
ToAcToro .. .. .. 3 2 p. CO K.
159 1935 Tome, rameHble ... 3 90 .
Final note
The competition for finding cards or covers franked by any stamps of
this set, particularly in relation to the 1935 World-wide Games
themselves, has become much greater now that Olympic Games enthusiasts
have joined in the hunt. Any further usages notified by the
readership of "The Post-Rider" would be much appreciated.



by Rev. L. L. Tann
* With the kind permission of our editor, this is the third and final part
in this trilogy of a look at the oval station and railway postmarks.
Illustrations for this article come from my own collection (LT) and
those of three other philatelists. Two of them are most eminent in our
field of collecting: John Woollam of England (JW) and Dr. Edward Kossoy
(EK) of Switzerland. I express my sincere thanks to these two fraternal
colleagues, who have provided us here with some absolutely dynamite
stuff. Finally, some pieces from a relative newcomer to our field: Timo
Bergholm (TB) of Finland, a very enthusiastic philatelist, who has
amassed some very fine items in his two years of collecting.
We are retaining the now traditional four sections:-
(1) Oval postmarks of travelling mail vans
(2) Oval postmarks of station postal desks
(3) Registration labels of station postal desks
(4) Covers registered on travelling mail vans
Section 1: Railway mail vans

-----c..-" ..,Z .. :E -., .-3
*i 2 E.. ..

Fig. 1. Fig. la. Fig. lb.

clearly seen that, instead of the usual sub-letter, it has a four-leaf
clover ornament. Did this occur on just one of the early cancellers?
Any twins to this? Fig.lb shows a strike reading MUROM-*77*NEREKHTA and
dated 30.5.24. A late usage but it is obviously a Tsarist oval, with the
final hard mute sign replaced by a dash to signify an abbreviation.
(EDITORIAL COMMENT: A similar Tsarist-period abbreviation is known for
the IRKUTSK-CHITA TPO/RPO). Had this been a new canceller (and Bolshevik-
period replacements are known), there would have been no need for a dash,
but a rebalancing of the words within the oval.

c ^^O "' .,. >^

S .. ,i..............3. .

.. Fig.2. PV ____23

In Fiq.2 we see two examples of the MOSTY*213*ORANY oval with different
sub-letters and, in Fig. 3 two strikes of URAL'SK 152 URBAKH dated
28.3.11 with no dots, dashes or stars but a sub-lettering IX in Roman
numerals. That must mean that types I to VIII were also in use (both LT;
see the bottom of the previous page).
(EDITORIAL COMMENT: The URBAKH part of the marking is also interesting
in that the station later wound up in the Volga-German ASSR and the name
was unchanged almost to this very day; the German spelling is Urbach).

__ 1~~s- k:r~iA

Fig. 4. Fig.5. .. 'Fig.. Fig.7.
Now to some magnificent items from Dr. Edward Kossoy. Fig.4 shows a fine
oval of the un-numbered ROSTOV-BAKU OTD (6 or B) with sub-letter "b";
Fig.5 another strike of the un-numbered SACHKHERI-SHORAPAN' route in
Transcaucasia and Fig.6 a 3-kop. Romanov on card with two strikes of the
very scarce BORZHOM-MIKHAILOVO un-numbered oval, also in Transcaucasia.
These last two are illustrated in Part V of Peter Ashford's
Transcaucasia series. Fig.7 shows two Romanov stamps that I suspect were
probably together when franked, showing the extremely scarce KUTAIS-RION
oval dated 7.8.14 (all EK). .

i Fig.8. Fig.9.

Fig.8 shows a postcard to Athens with a very large oval of ROSTOV 237
TSARITSYN 17.11.14 and machine transit of Odessa (EK). Fig.9 shows part
of a cover to Canada, franked with a 7-kop. Romanov and 3-kop.Arms and
cancelled with very fine ovals of the un-numbered KOVEL'-VLADIMIR-
VOLYNSK marking, dated 19.7.14; no sub-letter, but a star. This must
also rank as scarce (JW). Fig.10 on the next page shows two Romanovs(LT)

........ .... .. : .......... .............. ................................... 0

/Y / Fig612.

Fig.11. Fig.lla. Fig 12.

with part postmarks of the fairly common WARSAW-25-SOSNOVITSY route.
But Fig.1Oa shows an enlargement of the 3-kop. stamp showing BOTH
numbers of the route on the single cancellation: 25/26. Who has a twin?

Fig.ll (LT) and lla (EK) show fine ovals of the Lithuania-Kovno(Kaunas)
(LT) shows an inward-bound card from Germany to Helsingfors. The 5-Pfg.
stamp was insufficient and a DOPLATIT' oval was applied of Post Van 5,
route Verzhbolovo-St.Petersburg.

Fias. 13 & 14 (both EK) show the un-numbered TULA-LIKHVIN and the
scarce SARYKAMYSH-KARS route of Transcaucasia. Beautiful! A fine early
oval KHAR'KOV-19-ROSTOV of 21.12.07 (TB) with a DOPLATIT' alongside is
shown in Fig.15. Timo also has some fine ovals of the Leningrad-
Murmansk route; the 1916 Tsarist route was Petrograd-Kem', but mail
vans later ran on the entire route to the Arctic port of Murmansk. He
has fine strikes of ANDIZHAN-208-TASHKENT on the 1914 War Charity
stamps and Romanovs. Fig. 16 (TB) and 16a (EK) both show the rare

.- : I Xn r
JliBua: 112 A,rr

. .. 8. .......I1-.
Fig. Its

EISK-295-SOSYKA, with both cancellers having the sub-number "3". There
must be types "1" & "2" as well. Fig.17 (LT) shows part of a full card
with a 3-kop. Arms stamp and oval SLAVGOROD 174 TATARSKAYA 27.3.17 and
sub-number "6". Philip Robinson in his Siberia book (p.165,Fig.R173.1)
records the 173 route of this Siberian branch-line, but this is from
the terminus of the branch-line up to the main line at the Tatarskaya
station. Both numbers of this route have now been recorded, but his
oval has the sub-number "5", so there are at least nine other
cancellers of this route waiting to be recorded.

Let us turn our attention to the routes of 300 and over. Here we have
some exciting items. Figs.18(EK) and 18a(LT) both show POW cards sold
at the nominal price of kop. and with ovals of KOLCHUG(INO)*332*YURGA.
Both with the sub-letter "v", predating the "v" type shown in Philip
Robinson's Siberia (p.175, type R332.1) by several years. The examples
here are mid-1916. Route 332 will figure later in this article.


Fig.19 shows two pieces with routes 309 & 310 (both TB) BAKHMACH 309
KREMENCHUG and the reverse route KREMENCHUG 310 BAKHMACH. Fiq.20 at the
top of the next page has two pieces (LT), the first BAKHMACH*309*ODESSA


.-Fic. 22.

Fig. 23... -____ \y

being the earlier termini and a pair of 1-kop. Romanovs showing
KREMENCHUG 310 BAKHMACH (many thanks to Philip for the 309 drawing!).
Fig.21 features a postcard with an added 20kop. Arms stamp making up the
late-1917 5-kop. rate and part postmarks of the scarce KREITSBURG*352*
PSKOV, dated 17.12.17; the Stomerzee arrival marking has overstruck the
best of the ovals, but it is still a very nice item indeed (JW).
A surprise item: route 353. Fig.22 (EK) shows a 13 APR.1919 oval of
NARVA 353 PSKOV with star at base.(EDITORIAL COMMENT: This find in post-
Tsarist style confirms the postulation by Alexander Epstein re Nos.353-4 in
"The Post-Rider"#28 p.39). Fig.23 (EK) is on a 7-kop. letter-card with
13.12.16 postmarks of BUGUL'MA*304*CHASOVNYA, also a scarce item.
Finally, to conclude this section on oval mail van postmarks, some fine
items. Fig.24 shows a pair of routes (EK), both on imprinted 7-kop.
* designs: BREST*277*KHOLM & KHOLM*278*BREST. The first is from Feb. 1907,
the second from March 1907. Neither have sub-letters;only a star at base.
Now to Fig.25 (LT). This is one of the earliest recorded ovals and was
made to conform exactly to the post office circular. It is the oval of
MOSKVA-S.P.BURG/4 OTD. 4, dated 15.2.04. Note that there is no route
number. A second example of this type is known: MOSKVA-S.P.BURG/5 OTD. 5

and dated 1.2.04. These types are undoubtedly scarce, as they were
almost certainly rapidly replaced with the numbered types.

lSC:; M!I'!llill liiOtlTOl]lI!l COIO..I I-.'.^
Unioin ipost:al. uni'vcrselle. I 11, 'ji....
~ ~ b'i''

UAPTOtI{P A /..--


Fig.26 (JW) is superb! It is a card from
Karakul Station on the Transcaspian Railway
and addressed to Sesvegen in the Baltic
province of Livonia. It was underfranked and
,the 2xl-kop. stamps were cancelled by the oval
CHARDZHUI-205-TASHKENT marking, dated 15.7.12.
At the left of the card there is a magnificent
and very scarce oval reading:DOPLATIT' / POCH.
VAG. CHARDZHUI-TASHKENT, though no figure is
written in, fixing the tax to make good the
deficiency (double the deficiency = 2 kop.).

2. Ovals of postal station desks.
Fig.27 is a station-to-station postcard. Sent
from SAMARA/VOKZAL 15.4.10 to Omsk. There are
two town postmarks of Omsk, one at centre
bottom and dated 20.4.10 and the second over
the stamp at top right, dated 21.4.10, with a
final receipt postmark of OMSK/VOKZ.21.4.10(LT).

Fiq.28 (LT) shows LUNINETS/VOKZAL "b" 25.3.15 on a postcard. Fig.29(LT)
features two examples, both on cards, of the TAIGA/VOKZAL Trans-
Siberian station marking. In both cases, if there were a sub-letter at
far right, it has not become evident. One of these cards shows a
picture of the Taiga station bookshop. Timo Bergholm has some beautiful
examples on pieces of the vokzal markings for Andizhan, Merv and
Samarkand and two 2-kop. Romanovs on piece with postmarks of KISLOVODSK/
VOKZAL, but the copies he sent were too dark to reproduce. He also has
covers with a later Soviet oval of ODESSA/VOKZAL in 1923.

3. Covers registered at station desks.
All the items in this section are from my own collection (LT).
Succursale de Rostow s/Don.


Fig.30 demonstrates two examples of registered labels of the Rostov-on-
Don Vokzal, both on their respective covers. The second item is also
* addressed to Germany and a label in Latin characters has been affixed
below the Cyrillic one. The first item is dated 27.4.06 and the oval
postmark reads ROSTOV n/DON/VOKZAL, whereas the second item, dated in
June 1909 has the marking reading only ROSTOV/VOKZAL.

| B ap ,w a a.a.

SFig. 31..
"~A i4..^ -


SFv'ti' ~~

I 1



MJ- thWIOl1TUBIAft COIW031. L'000121 A


... .. .- .. ... ..... ...
ii r A : I

............. Htext 13OX....X. 11. 0- .... .... ....... .. ... .. ................
0e'i t~~
j 3 M TA ..........,...-...,Ievue rermr ve ot. ..
32.sop"'I. 0. r L

Fig.31 shows a cover with a 7-kop. imprinted stamp and a pair of 7-kop.
Romanovs, all with oval postmarks of VARSHAVA/VENSK. VOKZ. and a
Cyrillic registration label of Warsaw's Vienna Station. Fig.32 is a
postcard with oval postmarks of RIGA/VOKZAL and the registration label
in Cyrillic; wrong for Germany. Fig.33 features a pair of 7-kop.
Romanovs with oval postmarks of RIGA/VOKZAL. What does not show up so
clearly is the major part of the Riga Station registration handstamp in
red, in Russian and French. See the BJRP No.64 for Dec.1987, p.30;
Fig.33a is taken from that journal and shows the handstamp; it is not
Fig.34 on the next page is my response to the l-r. Romanov on cover that
we showed last time from Mike Renfro. My item is a cover to Chita,
registered at the Vladivostok Station desk and bearing the 10-kop. and
50-kop. Romanovs. There is a perfect wax seal on the reverse with the
imprint of the Agency of the Russian East Asiatic Steamship Company.

4. Covers registered at railway mail vans.
It is my great pleasure to show some incredible covers here. Fig.35 is a
fantastic cover (JW), mentioned earlier in this ovals series. This is a
cover, registered on postal van No.332 KOL'CHUG(INO)-YURGA on 27.10.16
and with an oblong registration handstamp. The number of the postal van
P.V. No.332 is part of the actual handstamp here, unlike others where
the number was filled in. No.l at the top indicates that it was the
first registered item for the day. The arrowed handwritten note at the
bottom on the back was made by the clerk, stating that it had been

I _


/ Fig.34.:

W .op.n.D o .

/ '/// ,o............... .
..,..B. N ,3332.

S: Fig. 35.

"taken out of the box". A traveller had put the letter bearing the two
10-kop. Arms stamps through the letter-box in the side of the mail van
and the clerk dealt with it. Presumably, no receipt was issued in this
case, as the clerk did not know who had posted it.

Fig. 36

Fiq.36 (JW) bears the four values of the War Charity issue on white
paper, cancelled by the PONEVEZH*201*BEREZVECH "b" oval dated 4.4.15.
The registration handstamp has the route number 201 written in by the
clerk and it was also item No.l registered for that day.
Fig.37 is
also a J.
Woolam _
cover. It is 3 6 -,
from 1913, -
before the
1914 o ^ 4- Zf y
authorisation I
for mail van
with a mail was b ls : ite ist
van hand- ..
stamp. The *!k
are of MOSKVA /7
24.6.13. In "*d|is s th b 2
the top right '
corner, the '
clerk had 5 0! -* ... -
written Fig.37.
5 0 -: .. ... .
oval p.. .,m-..- ...- k s: .-. .

"pv 15/N 1" in two lines. The cover bears 20 kop. in stamps to pay for
registration to the USA, where the numbering was repeated in the lower
left corner in typical American fashion: "#1". Our sincere thanks to
John Woollam for allowing us to show these magnificent items.

P wM'i C H a R HOH Top.a T paTbeS Ho enb i:''-i
-.. TB S.. .: Ep7

"' "I ;" .II* *1* '.;., F" 1 ;
';, *' "' y 1..3'

Our grand final pi.ce de resistance is a cover from Dr. Kossoy (Fig.38)
and sincere thanks are due to him. The pair of the 7-kop. Arms is
cancelled with wartime mute markings of the Riga railway station. The
route number in the mail van registration handstamp is also left blank.
The receipt postmarks of the capital city tell us that it was handled
in August 1914. I tentatively suggest that the 389 in the top section
of the handstamp was not the number of the piece of mail registered on
the train, but possibly the number of registration at the station

office, the clerk from the station handing it to the clerk on the
train. Alternatively, the railway postal clerk himself carrying the
letter from the station office, being told the registration number as
it would have been at the station office and registering it accordingly.

In closing this series, my sincere personal thanks to the collectors
who contributed the items illustrated. There were many items I would
have liked to have shown, such as John Woollam's cover with Chardzhui/
Vokzal registration label and Dr. Kossoy's 1917 cover with fair strikes
of KHAR'KOV-315-NIKITOVKA, but space has beaten us. The study of the
* railway ovals has barely started. I am sure that future "Post-Riders"
will touch on the subject and readers are always encouraged to write in
with photocopies of examples, to amplify what we have written, to pose
questions and to help expand our understanding of this fascinating
aspect of the totality of Russian philately.
of thehandsamp ws notthe nmber f thepieceof m(ailrgstrdo
the~;. train but posibl th bro rgsrto a h tto
office,~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~B the clr rmtesainhnigi oteceko h
tri. leraivey th alaypsa cekhmsl aryn h
lettr frm te sttio offce, ein tol th regstraionnumbr a


by G. G. Werbizky.

It never fails; when one thinks that it would take several years to
collect new varieties, they suddenly surface! What took years to collect
is supplemented by a number of stamps that one wishes were shown in the
previous article published in "The Post-Rider" No.29: "Postage Stamps of
South Russia: Comments and Illustrations". Therefore, let us consider
this offering as a continuation of the previous article.

The Kuban Government
It turns out that the surcharge
25/1 kop.(Scott No.20) is found
displaced all the way to the
top, as well as to the bottom.
Fig.1 clearly shows the
extremes. The extent of
horizontal, as well as of
vertical shift is shown on the
imperforate version of this
stamp, Scott No.35.

5The same stamp is found with
double surcharges, as shown in
Fig.2. ---

Fig. 1. 25
goal -M M & T
The 70/5-kop.
stamp, perf.
and imperf.
Scott Nos.45
& 46, are
found with
the surcharge
3 shifted, as
S Fig.3. shown here in
-1 U

7 K10on

Fig. 4. tJ Fig.6.
The "wide zero" variety of the 50/2-kop. stamp Scott No.21 (basic stamp)
is well known, as well as No.21b with the double surcharge. Far less
known is the "double wide zero" variety, as shown in Fig.4. Its
existence was to be expected, although it is rare. The previous article
did illustrate the inverted 10r./15-kop. and we see here in Fig.5 two
varieties: the surcharge shifted upwards in the vertical pair and the
centre shifted on the basic 15-kop. Arms stamp. The Scott catalogue lists
the 25r./3-kop. under No.41 only in unused state; it can also be found
used, but not easily (see Fig.6).
The three Savings Bank stamps have also
been surcharged and are fairly rare.--
All three stamps: 1,5 & 10 kop. were
surcharged "10 roubles". An interesting
shift in the surcharge occurs on the -. ..*.
10-kop. stamp. It is shifted downwards 7**0*** 41-+t:
so that the "10" appears in the top row

reversed, as shown in Fig.7. The last
row should have only "rublei" with "10"
on the selvedge. Hopefully, a reader of
"The Post-Rider" can show that variety.

The 5-kop. stamp exists with double
surcharge, but one needs a magnifying
glass to see it. The second surcharge -
is faint, with a small shift and it is
therefore not illustrated here. It is
reported that only one sheet exists of
the 10-kop. stamp with shifted

The last stamp shown in this group is
a controversial one. It is the l-r./
* 3-kop. imperforate, Scott No.39. Note
the fat "p" in Fig.8 on the next page.
It was brought out of Russia recently Fig.7.
by a philatelist. His understanding was
that one position on the sheet has the fat "p" by error. Once discovered,
the fat "p" was replaced by a normal one. Comments are invited.


. ;, .. ,.Fig. .'8b -
:,,,, .- ... "- .Fig. 81,.


The General Denikin issue.
As stated in the article in "The Post-Rider" No.29, the rouble values are
rich in varieties and are considered printer's waste. Only a few more
will be shown here, including the 3-rouble value, which was absent from
the previous article. In Fig.8a we see a triple centre on the 10-r.stamp
and a quadruple centre on the l-r. value. Fig.8b shows two varieties of
the shifted centre on the 3-r. stamp and, in Fig.9, the last stamp in
this group may be considered a valid error as it features a double
impression from the frame plate and a normal centre on the l-r. value.

The Cancellations of South Russia.
In "The Post-Rider" No.17 for Nov.1985, there is a list compiled by A.
Artuchov and the late A.M. Rosselevitch of hypothetical post offices that
were in operation during the White and early Red administrations. That
list was expanded by Dr. Ceresa in his volumes on South Russia. Actual
postal cancellations are illustrated when available. What follows is an
addition to both these studies.

Black Sea Chernomorsk province.
Please refer to Fig.10 on the next page. This is an interesting
cancellation, although the complete name of the post office is not
readable. The province name is clear: CHERNOM. and the date is 11.12.21.
A zero for the year was apparently not available and a rectangle was
substituted. The late date suggests usage under the Red administration.
As to the post office name, one can only read ...INOVSKOE, with the first
letter possibly a V. In the examples that follow, almost all are portions

Fig.10. Fig.11.
of money-order or parcel cards and show late usage, i.e. under the Red
administration. The stamps are from the General Denikin issue and,
since a wide area is represented, it would seem that the usage of
stamps of the White administration was an accepted practice.
(EDITORIAL COMMENT: Such occurrences have been given the apt
designation of "trophy stamps" by Soviet philatelists).
It would be very helpful if readers were to publish illustrations of
complete money-order, parcel-post and other postal forms that bear
stamps, so that the purposes of their usages could be clearly

The Don province
Fig.11 clearly establishes the use of General Denikin stamps by a post
office during the Red administration. The piece is large enough to give
sufficient information; the parcel post form was cancelled ROSTOV na
DONU.p.24.3.20. The translation of the text is as follows: Red Army
(handwritten), Accompanying Form for a parcel (printed), value 1000 r.,
to Nina Ivanovna Kaleinikova, to the town of Uglich in Yaroslavl'
province, 13 Moscow St. The town of Uglich is famous (or infamous) as
the place where the young Tsarevich Dimitrii was murdered in 1606 on
the orders of Tsar Boris Godunov. Part of the receiving postmark of
Uglich is to be seen in the top left corner of the back of the form.
Please see also Fig.12 on the next page with the same Rostov marking
and sub-letter "p", dated 25.5.20 on a piece of card with a franking
of 6 roubles. This sub-letter has not been recorded previously.
Further usages from this province are to be seen in Fig.13 on the next
* page, from Novocherkassk 13.5.20 (in the Red period) and from
Kaganitskaya (date unreadable).

Ekaterinoslav province
Fig.14 on the next page shows a block of four 10-kop. Denikins

Figi. g. 1

Fig. 15a..

.. ;* .

Fig.5 a.

cancelled 11.5.20, i.e. under Red rule(ED.COMM.:Revalued 100 times?).

Kherson province
Fig.15 shows a pair of 15-kop. Denikins on piece cancelled APOSTOLOVO
SKHERS.a.2.7.20 under Red rule (EDITORIAL COMMENT: Apparently revalued
100 times).
The next two items in Figs.15a & 15b show usages at the Bobrinskaya
railway station. In the first example, the date 17.4.10 cannot be
correct. "The Post-Rider" No.17, p.44 lists this office with a comment:
"No date". The date was apparently stuck and could not easily be
removed. Upon removal, the correct date was either not available or
damage had resulted, so that the date could not be inserted. Note also
the use of the 3r. 50k. Arms stamp along with the 5-r. Denikin value in
Fig.15b (EDITORIAL COMMENT: It seems more likely that, for this
canceller, the roller for the first digit of the year did not go beyond
the figure "1" and no replacement was forthcoming due to the Civil War.
For the year 1920, the postal clerk would have had to use the "10"
designation and thus the proper date of usage in Fig.15a would have
been 17.4.20, i.e. within the Soviet period. The same would appear true
for the mixed franking in Fig.15b).


Fig.16. Fig.17.

A late usage 4.11.19 is shown in Fig.16 for
the White administration in Odessa. The
cancellation is unlike those shown in "The
Post-Rider" No.17 or in Dr. Ceresa's book.
Fig.17 features a pair of 5-kop. Denikins
with early usage during the Red
administration at TIGE KHERS. 2.2.21.

Kiev province.
Fig.18 shows a usage of the White admn. in
Kiev on the block of four 10-kop.Denikins.
Kiev was occupied by the Red Army for two
days: 13-14 Oct.1919 and the usage on 15th.
could be considered as the first day of
re-occupation by the White Army.
The block of four of the 5-kop.Denikins
is cancelled LEBEDIN-ZAVOD KIEV.a.
6.4.20, i.e. a usage during the Red


Ekaterinoslav province (addition).
Fig.19 displays a block of four 5-kop. Denikins on piece, postmarked
PAVLOGRAD EKATERIN.G.a.8.8.20 and demonstrating use during the Red

Kuban province.
We first see in Fig.20 two examples from ABINSKAYA 7.10.19 and 21.11.19.
Abinskaya is located SW of Ekaterinodar (Krasnodar) and both usages
represent the White administration.
Fig.21 has the postmark of EKATERINODAR GOR.(abbreviation for GOROD),
dated 17.4.20, i.e. exactly one month after evacuation by the White Army.
Fig.22 reads GORKORECHENSKAYA 7.9.20 on a pair of the 10-r./15-kop. This
cancellation was reported in "The Post-Rider" No.17 with a date of
8.8.20, but was not illustrated. Both dates place this post office under
the Red administration.See the illustration on the next page.
Figs. 23 & 24 on the next page show usages under the Red administration
from PLASTUNSKAYA 9.9.20 and STAROMINSKAYA 14.9.20 respectively.


Fig.25 is a piece with the
postmark EISK KUB.v.
28.11.19, which is a
possible very late usage
under the White
administration. "The Post-
Rider" No.17 records sub-
letter "b".

Fi r.26

Tavrida province (northern part).
The piece in Fig.26 shows a strip of three 10-kop. Denikins, cancelled
BOL'SHAYA LEPETIKHA TAVR.a.29.5.20. It is located 50km.(31 miles) NE of
Kakhovka, on the Dnieper river. The location and time of use suggests
the Red administration.

Tersk province
The next four examples (three shown, one reported) are all usages
during the Red administration. They are listed alphabetically.
* Fig.27 on the next page is from GROZNYI 8.6.20. "The Post-Rider" No.17
states: "known May 3, 1920". The second item in my collection is dated
9.6.20, i.e. both items represent a later use.
Dr. Ceresa shows KISLOVODSK 30.6.20. I can report 10.6.20, also with
sub-letter "g" (see Fig.28 on the next page).



t [\j TjF I g. 30. I

The piece in Fig.29 is cancelled PYATIGORSK.b.24.5.20. "The Post-Rider"
No.17 carries this cancellation as "assumed", while Dr. Ceresa shows an
indistinct one, with the date not discernable.
Ship mail.
"The Post-Rider" No.17 illustrates the ODESSA-BATUM ship cancellation
with sub-letter "b", dated 28.12.19 and states that "this cancellation
appears on many Gen. Denikin rouble issues. The general consensus is
that this cancellation is a forgery". It is the opinion of Dr. Ceresa
that "the ODESSA-BATUM oval steamship cancellation is common on the
10-r. perf. and is probably philatelic. The reverse is rarely seen and
represents a genuine usage". For the sake of completeness, both
cancellations are shown here in Fig.30. Note that both postmarks are
dated 21.12.20, although the stamps were obtained from two entirely

different sources: the United States and a collection that recently
came out of Russia. The imperforate stamp with the BATUM-ODESSA
cancellation has full gum and it is therefore a cancelled-to-order
example, or possibly a fraudulent one. The most probable explanation is
That both cancellers fell into private hands and were improperly used.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: A clearer example of the BATUM-ODESSA oval
is shown here from the collection of the editor on the 10-r.
perforated Denikin, without gum. It has the sub-letter "e"
and the inscriptions are smaller than those in the ODESSA-
BATUM oval, the latter having the sub-letter "b". Further
comments and notes from readers about the application of
these two puzzling markings would be appreciated.


by Andrew Cronin

Some further material from this republic has been accumulated since
your editor first brought up the subject in "The Post-Rider" Nos.8 & 9.
The area is in the news again, as Russian president Boris El'tsin
signed a decree on 2 March 1992, allowing ethnic Germans to return to
two regions along the Volga where their predecessors had lived decades
ago. The details are as follow:-

t... I, os., .te a. n s a i "'. V aSS R T
7. 7-1-1

,, p:s ,.,k., ad:.TATSY ..ANISOVA 4 RU h AR (Aniso
Station R '.yzan'-" als l Vo.ga .m ASSR). was
liste i th 1' of t U "Dcio d B d

t 7

,(a) The cover above was sent at the 30-kop. intercity rate from Saratov .

Station ', Ryazan'-Ural railway line, Volga German ASSR). Anisovka was '
listed in the 1937 edition of the UPU "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de
--Poste du Monde", but it does not appear in the 1977 edition and its
name has probably been changed in the interim.
'.61 .
j:""', .. `" ,. . .. .. --,.,-, ,- ,, .' ., ,

:, ,., .. ... .,,,- b J ,,$ .. . ,,- ., .3 ,, ,.L- t""' ,' r ,, ,' ".
;1 z t 4 '" '" [ 4 .. "'' "'
'- ;' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : '"%--t%'- ., :", ""- _' ',,:;1_ i ':.' ,"." '' *"
(a) The cover above was sent at the 30-ko~f~p. iintelrciyrt ro aao
to-~ Mosow bu ote ta ery tto i h laGemnASR h
S postmarkY reads : STNTIYAAIOK 144.R hdASN Aiok

1-7` -` -`~ ~--'--- C

(b) This item is a typical triangular letter, mailed two days after Nazi

Germany began its attack on the USSR. It is written in German (with some
spelling errors) on 24.6.41 by Lydia to a soldier Georg Fohs at the
Krasnyanskii Camp named after Voroshilov, P.O. Box 13, Sector 26 at
Chernigov in the Ukraine. The tone is affectionate, but typically
guarded for the Stalin era; the text is reproduced in full on this and
the next page for the benefit of our German readers. The postmark with
sub-letter "a" is bilingual, but the German version is mispelt
FRIDENFELD. It was too early in the war for the letter to be censored
and it was received five days later in Chernigov. Friedenfeld is the
German for "Field of Peace".

(c) Following upon the Nazi attack, the Volga Germans were quickly
rounded up and deported to Soviet Central Asia and Siberia. The ASSR was
was officially dissolved on 28 August 1941. However, that was not the
end of its philatelic presence. In February 1944, the International Red
Cross in Geneva sent a postage-free enquiry through the Turkish
Delegation at Yenigehir in the Ankara province. The unsealed window-type

envelope was examined by Moscow Censor No.16 and received by the Moscow
^ D ~c\


,, I I,',
'I .4'
. '* .* ,. *. .
4 I ., .
" ,t:*.?,"I 1' ',,,
*. ,. *' ., .,1 y '. ':

," ':' [ i.C ,']. ''C V 0 ;: .." "..^;', *'. L. .'" ^ ^'.',
:^ "'' ,,'--. '^ ', "1Y '. ^ *'
,, ,., .% ....' .

.J(:. .,. ,.'', -
"4 I4' '

1r" .*' ,*- .-'-,,

.. *. *^ r ^' -", ,' *. u + i4 ,',', ,. -. :.
., .. ,. / ;+ ',. ... .. / .\ ....
a r)
4. ,' r .
-" i -t ,. + .; ... .
"' ,' '" ,'r :: :" ,/ .-i.," +
II.:- ":" .' "... : ':. ,. x : -

,I",- ,,' "14 ,L I + ,' e' '-,

~'1,,, ''/ :" : '.,C :

,, .%
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"'" "'' "''
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'r ," ". r .',, ,. "' Y.! .

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-.'' ',,' ... ,.
o..~ ~ r. ,


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i-.1 -
I ,Z~S~Ao

, : : ..' '* '. > ..- .. .
L,.' j^, .' /

V 4

#: tA4 t 0t.LV ya .:.- .
., /^a ... : ....1..... ...

'* ^ cait S^ A\J

^ ^ ,.' .. ; ,/.-^/ ^--?^

/11 1


p17 Ljl UhF-
Ic .

;., .- /. ... C ,,.7Pal



^ ^ f i, e -.i J ". : ... '.

.. 1:0. "4 4 c k .-
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.J it 4

4 )" -, ".. \- 6 *

I E ( ,


3rd. Despatch Office on 19.5.44. It reached its destination of Grimm
six days later. Note the unchanged receipt marking (at the bottom of
the previous page) reading: rPPlIMM-ACCPHIT-GRIMM with inverted date
25.5.44! The front of the envelope has a notation in Russian in violet
ink at top, stating that "The addressee is unknown in Grimm". In other
words, neither the place-names nor the postal markings had yet been
changed. There is a further rectangular marking in black on the front,
reading in French: RETOUR / Inconnu (RETURN / Unknown). An unusual and
historic item!


by Ya. Afangulskii

The two personalities in this article are Sydir Artemovych Kovpak(Sidor
Artemovich Kovpak) and Mykola Oleksiyovych Ostrovs'kyj (Nikolai
Alekseevich Ostrovskii). Neither man is popular with Ukrainian
nationalists, as both were dedicated Communists and Russophiles.
Politics aside, however, they were remarkable men and their stories
deserve to be told within the context of Soviet philately.

Sydir Artemovych Kovpak was born on 26 May/7 June 1887 in the village
of Kotel'va, Poltava province and he began earning his living at the
age of 11. He served in the Imperial Russian Army in WWI and fought on
the Red side in the Ukraine during the Civil War, becoming a party
member in 1919. His most famous achievements were as a partisan leader
during WWII, when he conducted five important raids behind the German
lines in occupied territory under conditions of unbelievable danger and
hardship. Two of the raids stood out in particular. In the first, his
band started out from Sumy in 1942 and captured the HQ of the German


Gebietskommissar at Lelchitsy, 640km.(400 miles) to the NW..........
He then drove the nationalist band of Taras Borovets' out noAcccP
of Olevs'k and wintered with Belorussian partisans in the 5
SPripet Marshes. He was back in Putivl' in May 1943. On 12th
June, he was off again, raiding the Tsuman forest in
Volhynia and destroying an oil refinery near Ternopil'.
Part of his force reached the Pruth river at Delatyn and
his presence tied up an entire German division, as well as
Ukrainian nationalist bands. He was back in the Pripet 18
Marshes on Ist. Sept. and finally returned to his base 1967 C.A.KOBnAK
with 300 men, after having suffered severe losses. These
two raids highlighted the tenuous hold of the Nazi forces along their
3200km.(2000 miles) Eastern Front and were a severe shock to the Western
Ukrainian nationalists, since only then did they realise that the Red
Army would soon be coming back to their parts. The Eastern Ukrainians
had already reached that conclusion on 5 Dec.1941, when the Red Army
stopped and drove back the German forces at the gates of Moscow. For
further historical details, readers should consult an excellent work
by John A. Armstrong: "Ukrainian Nationalism 1939-1945", Columbia
University Press, New York, 1955 & 1963.

As a result of his exploits, Sydir Kovpak rose to the rank of major-
general in the Soviet Army and he was made a Hero of the Soviet Union
twice: in 1942 and 1944. He wrote two books in Ukrainian on his
experiences: "Vid Putyvlya do Karpat" ("From Putivl' to the
Carpathians", Kiev, 1946) and "Soldaty Maloyi Zemli: z shchodennyka
partyzans'kykh pokhodiv" ("Soldiers of the Minor Land: from the day-
book of partisan marches", Kiev, 1965). His deeds were much greater
in scope than those of Major-General Orde Wingate, who led the Chindit
* forces behind the Japanese lines in Burma during WWII. He died on llth.
Dec.1967 at the age of 80 and a 5-kop. stamp was issued on the
centenary of his birth 7 June 1987 N.S., as shown above. He has
probably also appeared on Soviet postal stationery several times.

Mykola Oleksiyovych Ostrovs'kyj was born on 16/29 Sept.1904 in the
village of Viliya, Ostrozhs'kyj district in the Volyn' (now Rivne)
province of the Ukraine. He was already a shepherd boy at the age of
9 and the family moved to Shepetivka at the beginning of WWI, where he
endured the appalling working conditions prevalent in those days as a
kitchen hand in a restaurant when only 11 years of age. He was
particularly horrified at the degradation suffered by women and girls
who had to work for a living. Shepetivka was an important junction of
five railway lines and two stations and thus of pivotal value in the
German occupation after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, as well as during
the Civil War. He witnessed the undisciplined behaviour of some
Petlyura units which had been driven out of Kiev by the Red Army on
5/6 February 1919, descending on Shepetivka and staging a really
vicious pogrom there. Symon Petlyura himself also appeared in
Shepetivka but seemed to have had little effective control over his

I ,92 t

By 1920, when only 16, Mykola Ostrovs'kyj was already a member of S.M.
Budfnnyi's "Pervaya Konnaya" (First Mounted Army; see the set of four
stamps shown above which were issued in Feb.1930, as well as a further

4-kop. commemorative which appeared on 30 July
1969 to mark the 50th. anniversary). He was
seriously wounded by shrapnel on 19 Aug.1920 in
a battle against the retreating Polish Army in
the L.'viv/Lw6w area, losing the sight of one eye.
At the end of the Civil War, he first worked in
the Shepetivka area, sleeping on a concrete
floor in winter during one project and later on
in Kiev. It was no wonder that his health
...steadily began to deteriorate and he contracted
ankylotic polyarthritis, a crippling disease. He gradually lost the use
of his limbs and finally, in 1929, the sight in his other eye.
Possessed of tremendous will power, he began writing in his crippled
hand in November 1930 and then dictated in Russian to his wife, sister
and closest friends the novel for which he is noted: "Kak zakalyalas'
stal'" ("How the steel was tempered"; several English translations
exist). It was finished in June 1933, accepted for publication and
became an immediate success. Autobiographical in nature, the first
volume of this work gives a graphic eye-witness account of the Tsarist,
Hetman and Civil War periods in Shepetivka, as well as his experiences
in the Red Army. The second volume is much less noteworthy and written
purely on ideological lines. The author was awarded the Order of Lenin
for this novel on 1 Oct.1935. He also dictated the first part of a
second work: "Rozhdennye burei" ("Born of the storm"), but his wasted
body could not go on and he died on 22 Dec.1936 at the age of only 32.

i Mykola Ostrovs'kyj has been featured on
Stwo Soviet stamps: a 40-kop. commem.
4s issued on 29 Sept.1954 on the 50th.
mom anniversary of his birth and a 4-kop.
nO TA P value, which came out exactly ten years
SM C P y^: later (see the illustrations herewith).
---.-------------- He has been honoured on several examples
of Soviet postal stationery, both unstamped and stamped,
as far back as 1938 and a couple of examples are shown.

M 04 1 96-

A ". OCT'OC-." _____
I'neKc npeanpuimuR CORU u aapec

HnAeKxe npeanpuHm cBss i IH ec npexonpOaTHS CRe3H mecTa 1csa23HaqeHHm

66 *


by G. G. Werbizky

Those of us who collect Civil War issues (1917-1922) find from time to
time portions of money-order or parcel-post forms with very desirable
stamps on them. Of course, the stamps are cancelled and, if the cancel
is complete, i.e. the place and date are readable, then one can start
determining under what government the item was sent. Such sending are
the main source of postally used stamps of that region/period. Favour
or cancelled-to-order items are of interest, but less so.

There does not seem to be a publication or catalogue that illustrates
Russian postal forms available over any period of time. Higgins & Gage
are excellent in listing postcards and envelopes, but show only one
money-order form, front only. A total of five forms is listed but no
parcel-post items are included. I recently came across three complete
and unused money-order forms, which are shown here and reduced to 61%.
The thought is that this will encourage other readers to come forward
with illustrations of other forms in their collections and thus help
to fill this void.

The description of the forms.
All three forms are 205 x 140mm. in size. They are printed on cream-
coloured postcard weight stock. The wording, front and back, is
identical on all three forms. They differ in the font used and in the
absence or presence of the imprinted stamp in the upper right corner.



Om- .

1 0 H "b A h f

2 11l C
1a w ," -c

I1 If.un

l(su ilenaxioe cooelea xualk oipotL urwytvynoanl

nNcbueNKe cosUSeate N06ao OTpt MrO Kynowa.


(,lnimripin- cyMfy py ,.nt .t,.U.HH.~).

O pto. j .

1,4)4~. 4I4J. ~ ~. .. i 4 . ~ ~ ,iI~h4

i ),,iBt.,*1 ~ l~~r I ~ J,,..,f,1.ni4'tlD~~l

Printed in
dark blue.

The translation
of the text on
the front is
given below.


...rub. ...kop.
(amount of the order)

(name and complete
address of the sender)

Written message on the
back of this coupon.


To be sent

Space for

(by post or telegraph)
For the amount of ...rub. ...kop.
(Repeat the ruble amount in writing)
In the name of
(Destination and complete address of
the recipient).
Official notes.
No changes or corrections to the text
are allowed.







Paid....rub. ...kop.
against the signature in the
receipt book for the item
under No...
(signature of the office


.. p 6 ................... on.

OTPt>3HOii KYnOH-b.

i' ..

IllL,,h.L ,ll..' ....nilrt(n, ai 1,i tillC.qI Arrnit'. It) l,,Ih.Y

o .
.o .. .,. .


o H




o .. ,, ,., wi4. I.,,, ene r a. ,,, .'.'g.' .

o rs tri JtstttIH

The back and front of money-order form No.2. The text is identical
with that of No.l. Note the imprinted 15-kop. design on the front and
the change of font on the back.

OTpa3HOf KvYnowH.



jllcmnir.. .i.It.'i.-" y Aip. tImr



pocmtlUey (ns vno.y/'tln.ibtOi viwnb, ah

nloils X' .



BJblOoI .. I ..... on. ,

on c )IMniinui V r, .1" .t


The back of
form No.1.

of the text
is given

Printed in
dark blue.

( u-.n...... YIpara-l4).

-"'... -- .. .. .-- .. i ......m ....... in The 25-kop. money-
OTP3Ho KynoH-b. EPE ,Rb. order form,
SOTPH HEPEBOb. printed in red,
# front and back.
.....w1."- ** The text is
1a?. tm H.,yw |)1/0. ton. identical to that
....--- .. on the previous
SI. ,.t ,, o p ..p.. ... ... forms.
The back is the
same as on the
B6 15-kop. form.

( to0o Mflarnei. CeApohilllzA papeos foysWfl.f.
I lla Ap' M$R ,D,,WfllUI.

[Iu..,,iwen, i r. o.irtai t, onfr ad o ,o r ,o, r .., IEAritrIJa Bo. n I tK n u nnInIift(1ioKn 0o itetnKiftb we flOtiyrrKhnicn.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The field is far greater than the tentative survey
given here by Mr. Werbizky would suggest. Both categories of cards:
money-order and parcel-post, may be divided into four main groups, as

(a) Cards with the Imperial coat of arms and an imprinted stamp, issued
Sby the General Administration of Posts & Telegraphs in St. Petersburg.

(b) Cards with the Imperial coat of arms, but without an imprinted
stamp (see Mr. Werbizky's first type of card). These were prepared and
used by various postal districts in the Russian Empire. The boundaries
of the postal districts did not necessarily coincide with those of the
provincial borders. The names of the postal districts are sometimes
found imprinted at bottom right on the fronts of the cards. At least
one postal district issued cards reflecting the special ethnic
composition in that area, i.e. the Kishin&v postal district had special
cards for money orders received from Bulgaria (!). Bessarabia was part
of the Turkish Empire until 1812 and Bulgarians had emigrated to the
Budzhak Steppe in the southern part of the province (now part of the
Ukraine) late in the 18th. century; their descendants are still there.
Such a card is shown at the top of the next page, having been printed
in blue on cream-coloured stock and with the same inscription on the
back as for Mr. Werbizky's cards. This particular example has been used
out of course by the Kishinev post office on 16.10.1902 O.S. to send
the sum of 99r. 99k. to Solomon Yakhes in St. Petersburg, where the
card was first received on 19th. October!

(c) Cards without the Imperial coat of arms, prepared for their own
convenience by many private firms.

(d) Further cards without the Imperial coat of arms, issued during the
* Civil War by the successor states, such as the Ukraine and the Trans-
caucasian republics. For example, Azerbaijan had such cards utilising a
language practically identical with Ottoman Turkish and printed in the
Arabic alphabet; some examples are illustrated in "The Postage Stamps
of Azerbaijan" by the late E.S. Voikhanskii ("Svyaz'" Publishing House,
Moscow, 1976, pp.180-181).



An idea of the huge task confronting interested readers just in section

(d) above may be gained by consulting a truly excellent study of more
than 1000 such cards by Borys Fessak: "Transfer cards used during the
period of Ukrainian independence 1917-1920" in "The Ukrainian Philatelist"
Ai o the h ask rin i rd js in section

Vol.39, No.1(61) 1992, pp.17-34. He has identified 13 types of the coat
of arms, crowned and uncrowned, as well as cards without the coat of
arms, Ukrainian-language versions and many of the vertical separator
indicators designated for the cut-off coupons at left and the space-for-
stamps section at right. Anyone with a large accumulation of this
material is going to have a field day!

Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to

newly acquired tem? *

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers '
(d aov ay be'c gaine bycnutn rl xeln td fmr
than`a 100 suc cad yBrsFsa "rnse ad sddrn h
peio f kriia ndpednc 91-12"n "Th Urii a Phlaels

Vo1.39, ~ *o1(1 *92 *p1-4 *e *a dniid1 ye ftec


Georg D. Mehrtens, Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany.


The ROPiT Posts in Bulgaria

---a~yr~ uu-u-----\ -6~
9 -0
p '

*- 9


I I -. -- . . .. . .
'r" v r--r^trwut"rr'r'^^:' .(a) The first
i.. .. .. ...... ;.'-. : .. .. ;,..: -,:r item above is an
... -. .. .. unpaid letter
,;,"-. sent through the
,--. ROPiT post office
S' '. in Varna 10.9.81
-.h to a Bulgarian,
S'. Dimcho Boichev in
t .. Burgas, where it
." .,j was received by
"1-"""^ yc '"' "' wA-hs/ the ROPiT the
-';! .. ..-I next day. Note
.a the "T" marking
.4 on the back
Beside the oval
'... despatch mark of
S,' Varna.
S'. / (b) The second
..,s" r. P.. letter, also from
~ > C$-. Varna, is even
e.? more interesting.
x,'4 .tac W *9Cr Sent on 25.11.82,
.- -. e. s.- it is addressed:
Sf- '". j "To the metokh
S, :r (an unusual word
S" .-i ". of Greek origin,
- meaning a
dependency of a monastery) of the Panteleimon Monastery in Constantinople
(Galata) from the Russian Consul in Varna, with a request to forward it


to. the monk Dorofei at the hermitage of St. Andrew", i.e. on Mt. Athos.

Herman Z. Hirsch, Illinois, U.S.A.
Another 1932 2nd. Polar Year flight cover

B08AYWHAR 2. Polariahr 1932/33 M A
2 me ann6e polaire 1932/3
2n polar year 1932/33

t :~i71 .. 83.. 1862i o.,
A^. r<
i% .

Qi8C ^ Norbert ;Prischer
,fien IX/_i
Altlhanplatz -6

Re the article by Ivo Steyn on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No.29,
pp.69-74, above is my cover from the same non-event. I purchased it from
Norbert Fischer, a dealer in Vienna who, I believe, was in business from
the 1930s until 1980. Note the Berlin transit of 31.8.32 on the back.

John V. Woollam, East Devon, England.
Another Expedition Item
Re the article
by A. Cronin on ... 19- i3.
mail from
expeditions in "' ";
"The Post-Rider"
No.29, I enclose A-- #:. "
photocopies of a .#':, ..:
card written by ,- ... .. .
Ellsworth i.r.a aA _tX W.L aL
Huntington, an /
American writer 4 A 4 '
and explorer on Aew '-- /"@.
7-8 Sep.1903 N.S. : ,, '4 """".;-
and postmarked
at Osh, Fergana
province on 26th.: 4 4." L- .. 4- ." --, r- .
Aug.1903 O.S. It : -
is possible that ..-. ._ ... -
this journey was .,,.
the basis of his: .
book published
in 1907: "The
Pulse of Asia" (India to Siberia across Turkestan). The message is most
interesting and I like the way it ends.

S. .. .- .. COMMENT: The
front of the
card is also
SOT-PITO-E IIr 01 .1 0 ::' interesting,
...'..as it shows
.what happened

.. .I underpaid by
1 kop., then
equal to US
= d. sterling
.. .3: "' *-- = 2 gold
Double the
v -i deficiency was
7 2 kop.= 5 gold
&. 971T centimes, but
S it was taxed
at only 3 gold
Sort noo 9nen t It 0l centimes. It
all worked out
in the end, as the U.S. postal authorities collected 1 cent as postage
due = 5 gold centimes.

Robert Taylor, California, USA.
Kiev District Office cancels; Ukrainian and foreign postal rates.

Re the Philatelic Shorts in "The Post-Rider" No.29. It would be fun to
* record the full set of the special Kiev numbered District Office cancels.
I have No.12 for the Hay Market, but not the others. No.11 has been seen
inscribed KIEV-11-GOSBANK/KYV-11-DERZHBANK (Feb.1928) and No.13 with
Peter Bylen's two items are very nice indeed. Andrew Cronin's cover from
Kiev to Moscow in May 1919 when the Reds were there was actually franked
at the Ukrainian rates (25k. for a letter plus 25k. for registration). I
have seen a number of items from this period, unregistered with 25k. and
registered with 50k., which were Ukrainian rates. It is very seldom that
Soviet postal clerks charged the double rate for overweight letters. One
sees extra postage on very large envelopes and package pieces, but
almost never on the standard-size envelopes. Thus, I suspect that Peter
Bylen's solution to the rate on his second item is not correct, but I do
not have the answer! It appears that there are two postal cachets on his
example that might shed some light if we could read them. One is
partially on the stamp with a handwritten signature and the other across
the cover front. Anyway, a nice item!
Please note that Rev. L.L. Tann's card is correctly franked at 27r.
(1922). He looked at p.26 of the Cercle Philatelique catalogue, which is
for internal mail. This card to Montenegro is correct as per p.28 (1st.
July to 25 Oct; it actually should be 15 Oct.) at 270,000r.(old) or
EDITORIAL COMMENT: It would appear from Robert's comments above that
they will inspire a whole new train of research. Your editor discussed
the problem of Ukrainian postal rates after the Reds entered Kiev on 5/6
February 1919 with Michael Carson at the recent World Columbian Stamp
Expo '92 in Chicago. The latter felt that the Soviet rates would have
prevailed, for two main reasons: (a) he had seen a postage-free item
from that area in the Red period and (b) he pointed out that, according
to Karlinskii's study of the Soviet postal rates in the postage-free
period, if an item were sent registered, the writer also had to pay

no n04 A

I.IL..py .....

the ordinary letter postage (25k.), even for the first rate step. In
that particular case, the Soviet and Ukrainian rates were identical.
One such example is shown at the top of the previous page, being a
registered letter sent with a block of 10/7-kop. Romanovs with tridents
and two 10-shahiv UNR definitive on the back (thus totalling 50k) from
the Khar'kiv-3 post office 23.5.19 to Moscow 26.5.19. The rate paid was
correct. By the way, the letter was to a collector as there is a note
inside, reading: "Value of letter No.18: block of 4 x 10/7k.= 20r.;
envelope = 25k.; stamps (i.e. 20 shahiv) = 10k., to total 20r. 35k.".In
other words, the recipient P.P. Shchapov was being charged 50 times
face for each of the Romanov tridents (are you salivating, Leonard?).
The second item on p.74 requires some historical data to try to
understand it. Kiev was under Red rule from 5 Feb. to 31 Aug.1919, when
Denikin's army entered the city. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 16th.
Dec.1919. The money order for 2985 roubles shown here was handled on
3.12.19 at Belilovka in Kiev province, presumably while it was still
under White rule. The money-order was made out to the Revenue Office in
Berdichev, 140km.(87 miles) SW of Kiev but it got there only on 22.2.20,
i.e.when it was back under Red rule It seems likely that the postal
links had been disrupted by the advancing Red Army. The transmission
fee was paid with 124 copies of the 50-shahiv UNR definitive = 31r.,i.e.
representing a charge of approximately 1%. Can anyone confirm such a
fee for the White areas? The Soviets normally charged 2% of the amount.

Morris Gutenstein, California, U.S.A.
A possible colour changeling for the 1966 Lenin Miniature Sheet ?

a I am writing to find out
if any readers have seen
q ; M the colour error (?) of
Scott No.3188 (SG MS3278).
SIt is cancelled to order
with full gum and
everything is normal,
Except for a green colour
as the background,
Instead of lake-red.
I do not know the types
of inks used or whether

ti l ,A^ changed by exposure to
S ....;, : acids or bases. There is
S: ; no deterioration of paper
:c_ that can be attributed to
corrosive substances.
cancellation to order is that of the Moscow post office, dated 29.3.66
and with the initials "d-k", i.e. for collecting purposes, under the
date bridge.

SPECIAL NOTE: We still have much more to publish from interested
readers in this "Philatelic Shorts" section and our sincere thanks go
out to the good people who sent in supplementary information. Due to
lack of space, these further items are being held for insertion in "The
8 Post-Rider" No.31. The data referring to Franco-Russian friendship, i.e.
the visits to Kronshtadt in 1891, Toulouse in 1893, the death of Tsar
Alexander III and the presence of Nikolai II and Aleksandra in France
in 1896 are especially noteworthy and will be the subject of a
comprehensive presentation.
7 *




GENERAL MAPS OF CENTRAL EUROPE, originally prepared by the Military-
Geographic Institute of Vienna, Austria during World War I to a scale of
1:200,000 (i.e. 1 cm. = 2 km.or 1% miles). Obtainable from FREYTAG-
BERNDT u. ARTARIA, Kohlmarkt 9, A-1010 WIEN, Austria. The most recent
price quoted was 30 Austrian schillings per map, plus postage & packing.

These maps are so detailed that they have been used to fix national
boundaries in treaties. They are of tremendous value to the postal
historian, particularly in our fields of collecting, covering as they
do much of Poland, Belorussia and the Ukraine (including one poignant
map for the Chernobyl area), all of the Carpatho-Ukraine, Bessarabia,
Roumania, Hungary etc.etc. The available maps and their titles are
shown on the next page. Interested readers are advised to write first
to the company, preferably in German, to confirm the price and current
availability of the maps they require. It will be money well spent!

page magazine in A4 format, published by The British Society of Russian
Philately. All enquiries to the Treasurer, A.T. Blunt, Riber House,
13 Auden Close, Osbaston, Monmouth, Gwent NP5 3 NW, U.K.

This well-produced issue contains The Opening of the Russian Post in
China, by Dr.R. Casey (magnificent 24-page study!); Russian Military
Censor at Man'chzhuriya, by P.E. Robinson; Misrouted Mail & Translators'
Marks, by Dr. Casey; Mail from German POWs in Soviet Captivity 1945-56,
by Dr.P.A. Michalove (excellent!); Story behind the Il'ya Muromets
Aircraft, by V. Sheppard; BALTICA '90, by G. Henderson; Postmarks on
Soldiers' Mail in Russia 1914-18 & FPOs of Russian Army in WWI, both by
A. Epstein (very comprehensive); Addenda & Errata by Dr. R. Casey, E.G.
Peel & Ivo Steyn, to end with Reviews.
In short, first-class contributions by top-notch philatelists.

JOURNAL No.118 of The Rossica Society of Russian Philately for April 1992.
An 80-page magazine, available from the editor, Gary A. Combs at 8241
Chalet Court, Millersville, Maryland 21108, U.S.A.

This issue has Society Notes, by Dr.G.A. Ackerman, G. Shaw & G.A. Combs;
an Editorial & Vremmenoe Markings, both by G.A. Combs; Zemstvo Stamp
Forgeries & Blagoveshchensk 30-r. Sheet Layout, both by G.G. Werbizky;
Russian Deltiology, by Dr. W. Nickle; Beyond Bryansk, Soviet Censor Marks
1942-1943 (excellent!) & Khronika, by or trans. by D. Skipton; RSFSR
Unlisted Varieties, by T. Chastang; Solovki Camp Mail, by G. Boiko,
trans. by G.G. Werbizky; Early WWII FPO Markings (very useful), by Dr. P.


ir Generalkarte von Mitteleur
1: 200 000

Ssind 265 Blatter in Mehrfarbendruck
hienen. Wegnetz schwarz, Gewasser I
,rrain braun schraffiert, Wald griin. (Bal
:biet gr8litenteils mit Schichtenlinien
:hummerung.) Jedes Generalkartenblatt t
:n Inhalt eines vollstandigen Gradfeldes

Auslaridsgebiet nicht evident gehalten

ie Bezeichnung der Blatter geschieht d
ngabe der geographischen Lange und B
und des Blattnamens, z. B. 34 48* Wit

Auf den Generalkarten
37 40 Valona, 38 41 Elbasan,
S3742* Skutari, 3842* Prizren
38 40 Korfu,
fallt das albanische Gebict leer aus und
wird durch die Karte von Albanien von
Dr. H. Louis ersetzt

sza Osterreichische Staatsgren:
-.-.- Sonstige Staatengrenzen (r
... Sonstige Staatengrenzen (a
............ Vorliufige Grenze

Gebietskarten 1: 200 000

1 Burgenland
Generalkarte von Albanien 1:2C

. L. v. erro31 320 330 340 350 360

t1 dIn b Chr anel Thr
1.B. 530 0
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380J 0 UK EFrro

Michalove; Fake KITAI Overprints, by Dr.R.F. Minkus; Crimea in Philately,
by Ivo Steyn; Happy New Year Theme, by Dr.G.A. Ackerman; 1952 Finnish
Olympic Village Card, by S.D. Podolsky; Scott 1992 Catalogue & "Twelves",
both by G. Shaw; Postage Due Postcard, Illustrated Military Letter Sheet
& Advertising Letter Sheet, all by M. Kessler, to end with Literature
Reviews, New Members, Adlets, Society Publications for Sale and
Advertisements. There is a lot of ground covered here.

ITORTA No.11 for January 1992. The journal of The Australia and New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately, containing 52 pages in A4 format.
All enquiries to the Secretary-Treasurer, Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi
East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. Annual membership in
the Society, including receipt of its journals and newsletters is now
US $21.00 (surface) or US $28.00 (airmail) for overseas members.

This number contains an Editorial; Correspondence Russia to Australia &
New Zealand;Exhibition Success, Revolutionary Comments, Migratory Birds,
20-k.Blue Postcard, Censored Troitsk to Novonikolaevsk 1918, Numismatics
again,5-k. Kerenskii Postcard, Crimean Postage-Revenue-Money Stamp, New
Antarctic Datestamps, ROSSIKA'91, AD ASTRA'91, New Issues & Literature,
all by Dr.A.R. Marshall; Azerbaijan, Imperial Russia Airmail? & Postcard
Overprint, all by A. Epstein and very useful; Russo-Japanese War, by J.
Campbell; Additional Uses of Stamp Perforations, by G.G. Werbizky; WWI
Roumanian Mail censored in Russia & Looking at Wrappers, both by N.R.
Banfield; Russian Stamps depict its history, Red Cross Postcards & 1904
Postage Due Cover, all by T. Archer; Looking at Postal Wrappers, by L.L.
Tann; Russian War Pilots, by J. Koch; Romanov Cover & Parachuting, both
by P-A.Erixon. A very wide range of information here!

INTRODUCTION TO RUSSIAN PHILATELY. A 36-page booklet in approx. A5 format
prepared by the Midwest Chapter of Rossica on the occasion of the Pan-
Slav Show at CHICAGOPEX'91 (1-3 Nov.). Enquiries to Dr. P.A. Michalove,
307 South McKinley, Champaign, Illinois 61821, U.S.A.

If ever a work has lived up to its title, this one has! It is a truly
magnificent effort, including the Cyrillic Alphabet; Having Fun
Collecting Russia, by G. Seiflow; Collecting Soviet Stamps 1930-1960, by
T. Chastang; Collecting Inflation Era, by M.J. Carson; Allied
Intervention in Russia 1918-22, by A.F. Kugel; Soviet Aero- & Polar
Philately, by Dr. Ackerman; Vignettes of Russia, by Y. Ackerman;
Collecting Bielarus, by B. Pauke; Soviet Occupation of Baltic States
1940-41, by Dr.P.A. Michalove; Western Ukraine, by P. Bylen; to end with
Fields of Russian Philately, by the late K. Adler. Well done, fellers!

ISSUES, by Borys Fessak. An 84-page soft-cover book in standard size
(22:29cm.;8:11"), issued by The Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic
Society, P.O. Box 3711, Silver Spring, Maryland 20918 U.S.A. at US$16.00
postpaid anywhere in the world. If ordered together with "The Trident
Issues of Ukraine" by C.W. Roberts & Dr. R.Seichter, there is a special
total price of US$35.00 for both works.

The above title adequately covers the scope of the book and the
thoroughly described issues were affixed to pieces of regular mail as
propaganda labels by various Ukrainian organizations in exile abroad.
Practically all of them bear the word TIOILTTA = POSTAGE and their
subjects will probably turn out to be the forerunners of those awaited on
future postal emissions of the Ukrainian Republic. This work will also
be of great use to Cinderella collectors.

GEORGIA: POSTAL CANCELLATIONS 1918-1923, by P.T. Ashford. A 158-page soft-
bound book in A4 (legal) format, issued by the author at 9 Pentre Close,
Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR England at US$20.00 (banknotes only!) postpaid.

S This latest work from Mr. Transcaucasia is of the same high standard we
have come to expect from this conscientious author. After a useful
historical outline, he gives an introduction to the postmarks and details
of the Georgian alphabet, a check-list of the post offices, then a solid
102 pages on the handstamps and cancellations, followed by those for
postal wagons, steamships, FPOs, forged cancels and covers, postal rates,
bibliography, acknowledgements and an alphabetic list of post offices.
What more could one ask? See also p.80 for a list of other publications
available direct from this outstanding specialist.

compiled by W.A. Page for The Czechoslovak Philatelic Society of Great
Britain. A 55-page soft-bound booklet in A4 format, already sold out from
the Society, but our CSRP has secured the last remaining copies, as
listed in the Journal Fund just below on this page.

This work is of great value in describing the varied and often "improved"
material which has come onto the market from this area, as well as the
self-serving activities of Capt. Antonin Novotny, the director of the
Field Post. The original three stamps printed by Makushin & Posochin in
Irkutsk were intended for postal needs, as they were inscribed VOJENSKA
POSTA (Military Post). However, the Legion was quickly granted free
franking privileges and this booklet helps to separate the sheep from
the goats. Highly recommended.

RSFSR: 1. a 2. STANDARTNI EMISE 1921-1922 (RSFSR:the lst.& 2nd. definitive
issues of 1921-1922), by Ladislav Cervinka. A 68-page soft-bound book in
A5 format, No.33 in the series published by the Federation of Czech and
Slovak Philatelists:Section for Traditional Philately.

Our readers have already had a foretaste of the calibre of this author
with his article "The Auxiliary Postage Due Stamp of 1924" in "The Post-
Rider" No.29, pp.49-54. Written in Czech, but easy to follow because of
many illustrations, this work gives an exhaustive treatment of the 1921-
1922 definitive, including numbers printed, forgeries, usages, local
surcharges and perforations. Readers are invited to indicate their
interest, so that a sufficient number of copies may be ordered. The
price will be modest for such a fine study.
Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, TORONTO,
Ont., Canada. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.
compiled by W.A. Page.Already out of print! Price postpaid US $17.00.

RUSSIA ZEMSTVOS, by F.G. Chuchin; the English edition, reissued by John
Barefoot in 1988 with clear illustrations in the right places on 92 pages
A4 size with Cerlox binding.Fine reference! Price postpaid US $18.00.

Traditional Philately) with an excellent and well-illustrated study of
the USSR Small Heads of 1920s.Easy to read. Price postpaid US $ 6.00.

Ya. Lerner Factory of Handstamps & Seals), being a supplement to the 1907
Post & Telegraph Journal, showing samples of many postal markings, incl.
for non-stamp issuing Zemstvos.Fascinating! Price postpaid US $ 3.00.


Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some .
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your t
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

WANTED: The 1920 Kharkiv (Kharkov) & 1922 Kylv (Kiev) postmaster
provisional issues: select singles, multiples,usage on cover or cards.
Willing to purchase or trade for same. Write or phone (312) 685-4348.
PETER BYLEN, P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154, U.S.A.

WANTED: Ukraine, Western & Carpatho-Ukraine stamps & postal history,
incl. related material: occupations, Cinderellas & esp. overprints.
Also specialised Russian WWI postal history with (a) Austrian, German &
Russian FPO markings from Bukovina, Galicia, Poland & Ukraine, (b)
Russian censor markings and (c) Russian military & FPO markings.
Dr.RON ZELONKA, 1274 Monks Passage, Oakville, Ont., Canada L6M 1R4.
WANTED: Soviet Georgian covers 1924-c.1945. Please send covers or
xeroxes with asking price to:
Dr.P.A. MICHALOVE, 307 S. McKinley, Champaign, Illinois 61821, U.S.A.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
MIKE RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.
All prices include surface postage and packing. Collectors remitting
in U.S. dollars are asked, please, to send cash by dollar bills so
as to reduce bank conversion charges.

GEORGIA: POSTAL CANCELLATIONS 1918-1923.A4 size 158pp.ll.00(US$20.00)

Postage Stamps. A4 size 120pp.9 7.00(US$15.00)
(Hardback edition, bound in blue buckram, 17.00(US$35.00)
gold-blocked spine and cover)

Part I Postal History (56 pages) 9 4.00(US$ 8.00)
Part II Tiflis: Tiflis Town Post (78pp.)Not available at present.
Part III Tiflis Guberniya (72 pages) f 4.00(US% 8.00)
Part IV Kutais Gub.;Batum Obl.;Sukhum Okr.(87pp.)g 4.00(US$ 8.00)
Part V Transcaucasian Railway (62pp.) Not available at present.
Part VI Erivan Gub.; Kars Obl. (89 pages) A 4.00(US$ 8.00)
Part VII Elisavetpol' Gub.; Zakatalyi Okr.(60pp.) 9 4.00(US$ 8.00)
Part VIII Baku, Baku Gub. (94 pages) f 4.00(US$ 8.00)
From: P.T.Ashford, 9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR, ENGLAND.






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