Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Stamp-issuing polic...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Soviet airmail labels
 The Roumanian posts in Transni...
 Oval railway postmarks - 2
 Postal stationery cards for soldiers'...
 Expedition covers
 The auxiliary postage due stamp...
 Postage stamps of South Russia:...
 A tribute to collectors
 Opening old wounds
 Captain Rudnev, the cruiser "Varyag"...
 A double-censored cover via...
 The son of Uncle Arthur
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner
 Back Cover

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00029
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00029 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Stamp-issuing policies
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Soviet airmail labels
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The Roumanian posts in Transnistria
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Oval railway postmarks - 2
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Postal stationery cards for soldiers' mail in WWI
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Expedition covers
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The auxiliary postage due stamp of 1924
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Postage stamps of South Russia: Comments and illustrations
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    A tribute to collectors
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Opening old wounds
        Page 64
    Captain Rudnev, the cruiser "Varyag" and sundry varieties
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    A double-censored cover via Canada
        Page 68
    The son of Uncle Arthur
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Review of literature
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

Pinftd in Canada

P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,

December 1991.


Editorial: Stamp-Issuing Policies
Correspondence with Canada
Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
Soviet Airmail Labels
The Roumanian Posts in Transnistria

36 Oval Railway Postmarks 2

44 Postal Stationery Cards for Soldiers' Mail WWI
46 Expedition Covers
49 The Auxiliary Postage Due Stamp of 1924
54 Postage Stamps of South Russia: Comments and
62 A Tribute to Collectors
64 Opening Old Wounds
65 Captain Rudnev, the cruiser "Varyag" and
sundry varieties
68 A Double-Censored Cover via Canada
69 The Son of Uncle Arthur
72 Philatelic Shorts
77 Review of literature
79 Journal Fund
80 The Collectors' Corner

Matt Hedley
Alex Artuchov
Robert Taylor
Calin Marinescu
& Dumitru C. Biala
Michael Renfro &
Leonard Tann
Alexander Epstein
Andrew Cronin
Ladislav 6ervinka
George G. Werbizky

Alex Artuchov
Ya. Afangulskii
Andrew Cronin

Allan L. Steinhart
Ivo Steyn

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom.
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.
(01991. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All
rights reserved. All the contents in this issue are copyright and
permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
Readers are reminded that all coordinators of the Society are
fully engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have the
time to answer individual requests or queries. All opinions
are those of the respective authors, not of the CSRP.


I' Ic mPl^ ^ l l | : i

EESTI 0.05 "S .

,- ~ "


EDITO A L (Four of the new
Estonian stamps).

This subject has been referred to before in the editorial for "The Post-
Rider" No.24 and is being reviewed, as circumstances have changed greatly
in the interim. The problems in our areas of collecting will now be
looked at from two viewpoints.

The first is the stamp-issuing policy of the Soviet Union, which has been
criticised by both the UPU and the FIP (F6deration Internationale de
Philat6lie) for emitting too many stamps (up to 100 per year). These
criticisms are being heeded, as there is now a concerted effort to limit
production to 60-80 stamps per year. Certainly a step in the right
direction, but it may already be too late.

The other side of the coin is that all of the former union
republics have now declared independence. That implies that most of them
will start issuing stamps. Independent Lithuania has already put out a
fair number, Moldavia issued 3 values on 23 June 1991, Estonia had 11 new
stamps out on 1 October and the Ukraine is planning at least five sets.
If the remaining republics follow suit, we will quickly be back to the
situation of too many stamps being issued in our various areas of
collecting and we will then be forced to restrict our purchases.

Allied to such stamp emissions is the opportunity to rewrite history.
Such rectifications are justified where they call attention to the
monstrous wrongs committed in the past. Lithuania recently issued two
triangulars, one of them in memory of the dreadful mass deportations
carried out by Stalin in all three of the Baltic republics on the night
of 14 June 1941. The other triangular noted the Nazi attack, which began
on 22 June 1941. One can hardly argue against the justification for such

However, the concern now arises that, in the new circumstances, we may
also see former Fascistsland collaborators coming out of their hiding
places and seeking to have stamps commemorating their ghastly atrocities
in WWII as "heroic deeds". Are those many of us who have lost loved ones
in the fight against Nazism during WWII going to see the memory of our
murdered relatives sullied by such hideous revisionist activity?

We shall soon find out!


feature of this journal. Anyone having
interesting Russian mail to Canada is
invited to share it with our readers,
by forwarding a photograph or xerox
copy of the item, along with some
explanatory text to the Editor.


by Matt Hedley

The cover to Andreas Lilge at the Dominion Immigration Office, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, illustrated in "Correspondence with Canada" ("The Post-Rider",
No.19), is part of an interesting event in Western Canadian history.

The government of Russia had attracted members of the German Moravian
Church to colonise large areas of Southern Russia and the Ukraine. Tracts
of land were deeded to the Church for 12 years, with a promise of title
at the end of that time. However, after 12 years, it became obvious that
the Russian Government had no intention of giving up title to the church
lands. At that time, the Canadian Government was offering low-cost land
and transportation to new settlers willing to homestead in Western
Canada. Deciding to investigate this offer, Andreas Lilge arrived in
North America late in the summer of 1893 to negotiate with the Canadian
Government Land Department in Ottawa. As a result of these negotiations,
a block of land north-east of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, was set aside
for the Reverend Lilge and his people. Approximately 20 families left
Russia in May 1894, arriving in South Edmonton, Alberta, on 6 July 1894.
Leaving the women and children in South Edmonton, the men set out on foot
to locate their homesteads. Settling in an area known locally as Spring
Creek, they formed a settlement which they named "Briderheim", meaning
"Home of the Brothers" in honour of Andreas and his brothers Wilhelm and
Ludwig. This settlement became the first organised Moravian church in
Western Canada.

In many details of the transportation and settlement of the Moravian
settlers, the Rev. Lilge would have dealt directly with the Winnipeg,
Manitoba office of the Canadian Government Land Department. As the cover
illustrated in "The Post-Rider" No.19 was received in Winnipeg on 13th.
March 1894 and apparently not forwarded to Alberta, the Rev. Lilge was
probably in Winnipeg at that time, awaiting the arrival of his people.

I have a cover in the same handwriting, which left Horoshki, Volyn'
province in the Ukraine on 17 Aug. 1895 O.S. and addressed to the Rev.
Lilge at Bruderheim "by Fort Saskatchewan P.O., Alberta, Canada", which
arrived in Fort Saskatchewan on 17 Sept. 1895 N.S. According to postal
records, a post office was established at Bruderheim on 1 Sept. 1895,
with Andreas Lilge as the postmaster. However, as collectors of Western
Canadian postal history recognize, because of the vast distances and
primitive communications between Ottawa and Western Canada, the date of
establishment of a post office is not necessarily the date of the
beginning of postal operations at that particular office, which may have
been weeks or months later. As supplies for the new settlement would
have been obtained at Fort Saskatchewan, the Rev. Lilge might have
picked up the mail himself at Fort Saskatchewan.

Another cover exists in the same handwriting, postmarked at Horoshki,
14 Sept. 1895 O.S., backstamped at Fort Saskatchewan 18 Oct. 1895 N.S.
and with a receiving postmark of Bruderheim, dated 23 Oct. 1895.

Please note that the original spelling of the town name was BRUEDERHEIM.
The post office name was changed to BRUDERHEIM in 1952.

Having lived in the nearby town of Lamont, Alberta in the early 1930s, I
hope to do further research on this subject in the future. In the
meantime, any further details of "Andreas Lilge" covers sent from the
Russian Empire and held by other readers would be most welcome.

By Alex Artuchov

Continued from No. 28

on types 1 and 3 the colour plate covers the end of
the ribbon on the right.

1906 (Pebruary)
20.5 x 34 mm similar to previous issue but narrower stamp and
with abbreviation of 1st word in top inscription and 2nd word in
bottom inscription, large bird mounted on cannon, no hatching in
background, lithographed in black and colour on white paper 0.08
mm thick, white gum, sheet of 8 x 8, perforated 11.5.

5. 3 kop. black and red 1.00

While there is no information on the size of the transfer block or
the number and differences between the types some minor flaws are
known on this issue. These flaws are found on some but not all of
the stamps.

Type A Numeral 3 on the right has a hair thin black line across
the bottom curve.
Type B Black dot over curve on top of the coat of arms, period
after the word Ab3. and a second tiny dot above the
Type C Tiny black dot under 0 in top left corner, black spot
outside of the same corner.
Type D Black dot to the left of the numeral 3 just above the
lower curve, small black bump on the thick left outer
frameline next to the end of the upper ribbon with

1907 19??
20 x 34.5 mm similar to issue of 1906 but with a small bird
perched on the cannon, diagonally hatched background, lithographed
in black or black and colour on white paper, perforated 11.5

White paper 0.08 mm thick, brownish gum, sheet of 13 x 1,
perforated 11.5, these stamps were put into use after the stamps
of the 1912 commemorative issue were exhausted.

p 6. 3 kop. black, black gray 0.50

Stamps of the 1st edition with background overprinted in dark red,

lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum.

7. 3 kop. black and dark red RRRR
(2 known)

CONSTANT PLATE FLAW (on 1st edition)
- White dot above the top ribbon on the 4th stamp of the sheet.

1912 (June)
Issue commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Napoleonic War;
45 x 33.75 mm ; lithographed in black and several colours on
various papers; sheet of 6 x 12 in 12 panes of 2 x 3 with the 2nd,
4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th panes inverted; perforated 11.5 and
some of the stamps are also imperforate; 38,680 stamps printed.
F. P ) R 1812 21

8. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on white paper 1.00
- 1 sheet of imperforate

9. 3 kop. black, yellow and multicoloured on light tan 1.00
1 sheet of imperforate

10. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on rose paper 1.00
1 sheet of imperforate

11. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on light 1.00
yellow paper
1 sheet of imperforate

12. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on dark rose 1.00

13. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on dark blue 1.00

14. 3 kop. black, yellow and multi-coloured on bright 1.00
blue green paper

Red spot over smoke cloud, 44th stamp on sheet.
3 in NE corner with a strongly shifted middle, 60th stamp on the



Inverted Panes

Printed in single copies on small sheets on various papers,
imperforate, no gum, imprinted KOPPEKTYPA and dated 17 March,
1912 on the back.

- on white paper 0.05 mm thick
- on yellow green paper 0.04 mm thick
- on blue gray paper 0.1 mm thick
- on yellowish, horizontally laid paper 0.07 mm thick

Additional stamps of the same design intended in all likelihood
to create revenue from sales to collectors and dealers, original
1912 issue has entire frame in yellow but this issue has a colour
change in the frame with the corners in different colours, on the
same variety of papers as previously, perforated 11.5 and
imperforate, the stamp on rose paper is known pin-perforated 5 x 7.

15. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on white paper 3.00

16. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on light tan paper 3.00

17. 3 kop. black and multicoloured on rose paper 3.00

18. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on light yellow paper 3.00

19. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on dark rose paper 3.00

20. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on dark blue paper

21. 3 kop. black and multi-coloured on blue green paper 3.00

1912 (November)
Second Commemorative Issue
Commemorating the heroic deed of Miloradovitch of November 5 1812,
44.5 x 31 mm lithographed in black and colour on a variety of
papers, white gum, sheet of 7 x 7, perforated 11.5 and imperforate.

i 51JEAHA s1i2-E1i912 rr;

- All stamps are black, brown yellow and multi-coloured

22. 3 kop. on light green paper 0.50

23. 3 kop. on light gray paper 0.50

24. 3 kop. on white paper 0.50

25. 3 kop. on light rose granite paper 0.50

26. 3 kop. on light yellow granite paper 0.50

1912 (November)
These issues are identical to Nos. 22 26 but with values missing.
The stamps are considered as curiosities, created for speculative
purposes. The stamps were printed with numerals of value scratched
out in diagonally opposite corners. On the sheet of 7 x 7, stamps
with numerals missing in the top left and bottom right corners are
situated in the first three vertical columns and on the three top
stamps of the fourth column. The remainder of the sheet has stamps
with numerals missing in the top right and bottom left corners.
The stamps with numerals missing in the top left and bottom right
corners are designated as "1" and the stamps with the value omitted
in the opposite corners are designated as "2" on the illustration
of the sheet layout below:


1 1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2 2

Traces of the removed numerals are sometimes visible and all the
stamps are known imperforate.

- All stamps are black, brown yellow and multi-coloured

27. 3 kop. on light green paper 3.00

28. 3 kop. on light gray paper 3.00

29. 3 kop. on white paper 3.00

30. 3 kop. on light rose granite paper 3.00

31. 3 kop. on light yellow granite paper 3.00

Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 19 20 21 15 16 17 18

Sch 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Ch 19 20 21 26 22 23 24 25 -- 27 28 29 30

For whatever reason Nos. 27 31 are handled inconsistently by the
various catalogues. The 1934, Schmidt "collection" catalogue
provides prices through No. 27 but listings only to No. 26.
Stanley Gold, in his writeup of the Boughman collection describes
Nos. 27 31 as Nos. 22 26 imperforate. Chuchin is quite correct
in his description of these issues but he for whatever reason omits
Sch. No. 27 on the light green paper. He does however, provide
pricing for the imperforate issues as being 8 times the value of
the perforated stamp.
the perforated stamp.


Kremenchug is located some 73 miles southwest of the city of
Poltava in the southern portion of the province. In 1887, the
population was about 31,000 and grew to 58,648 by 1897 including
the suburb or Kryukov.

It is believed that Kremenchug was founded in 1571. It was a centre
for industry and a transportation hub and trading point for salt,
linseed oil, tallow and brandy. The industry included tobacco
processing plants, steam flour mills, forges and factories for the
making of agricultural machinery. By the mid-17th century,
Kremenchug was considered wealthy and important. From 1765 to 1789
it was often referred to as the capital of "New Russia".

Kremenchug issued stamps between 1875 and 1915.

Band of silver in the middle with thick bands of deep blue above
and below.

1875 1889
21 x 21.5 mm with dot in centre of shield, very light hatching
lines in corner ovals with numerals of value, lithographed on white
paper, imperforate, atleast 7 editions.

f. -7.1~3~

White wove paper 0.08 mm thick lightly ribbed horizontally, white
gum, only single copies known.

1. 3 kop. brownish gray R
(17 known)

SECOND EDITION (January 1878)
Change of colour, white wove paper 0.11 mm thick, only single
copies known.

2. 3 kop. brown orange 10.00

THIRD EDITION (August 1878)
Yellowish toned paper, space between stamps 1.75 3.75 mm

3. 3 kop. orange 4.00

Similar to 3rd edition, colour change, sheet unknown.

4. 3 kop. orange yellow 4.00

FIFTH EDITION (Beginning 1883)
Similar to 4th edition, colour change, print often smeared,
sheet unknown.

5. 3 kop. orange brown 4.00

White paper 0.07 mm thick, shiny white gum, space between stamps
4 mm sheet unknown.

6. 3 kop. brown, light brown 4.00

Yellowish white finely ribbed paper 0.09 mm thick, yellow brown
thickly applied gum, space between stamps 1.25 2.0 mm

7. 3 kop. brown, light brown 7.00

1877 1899
Similar to previous issues, corners retouched, hatching lines in
centre ovals stronger making the ovals appear darker and the
numerals of value less distinct, 8 editions.

Without dot on shield, white wove paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum,
sheet unknown, tete-beche known, imperforate.

8. 3 kop. olive brown 77.00

With dot on shield, sheet of 4 x 9, imperforate.

9. 3 kop. olive brown, light or dark


Colour spot under centre bar of shield; 1st, 4th, 6th and 7th
stamps on the sheet.

Without dot on shield, slightly brownish rose toned paper 0.09 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 7 x 4 + 6 x 4 in 2 panes with the right
pane inverted, space between panes 12.25 mm imperforate.

10. 3 kop. lilac brown, light or dark

With dot on shield, 4 stamps on the sheet.




With dot on shield, white paper 0.08 mm thick, grayish white gum,
sheet of 3 x 13 with 3 x 2 transfer block repeated 6.5 times
vertically, imperforate.

11. 3 kop. light reddish brown



(M I Q 0 N) M. M N0 M N0 nN

4! U rl Un r( Ut 4 UT 4 U 04 U N

Without dot on shield, smooth white paper 0.1 mm thick, white gum,
imperorate and perforated 11.5, only a few unused copies known.

12. 3 kop. olive green RR
(? known)

With dot on shield, similar to 5th edition, colour change,
perforated 11.5 only, only a few unused copies known.

13. 3 kop. brownish gray RR
(? known)

Similar to previous editions, without dot on shield, sheet of 2 x
12 with a transfer block of 2 x 3 repeated 4 times vertically,
perforated 11.5.

14. 3 kop. olive brown 3.00

- A white dot above the letter b of Y3~ on coloured circle.
lst,.7th, 13th and 19th stamps on the sheet.
- Dot on crossbar of shield and a thickening of the outer line over
the letter r of KPEMEHqvr! K
6th, 12th, 18th and 24th stamps on the sheet.


T N---------V %0-------------

p -4 : in ln l4 m in -4 C'l n --

Similar to previous edition but with dot on shield, sheet of 4 x ?,
perforated 11.5 and imperforate horizontally or vertically.

15. 3 kop. lilac brown, lilac brown rose 3.00

Without dot on shield.

1890 1914
21.5 x 21.5 mm similar to previous issues, inscriptions are
slightly larger and the numerals 3 have a rounded head, 8 rayed
star which fans out instead of pointed 6 rayed star as previously,
corner triangles in solid colour, lithographed on white paper,
perforated 11.5 and imperforate, 8 editions, these stamps were used
from 1890 to 1892 and again after a lapse of 16 years until the


closing of this Zemstvo Post.

Star on these

Star on previous

FIRST EDITION (January 1890)
White paper 0.12 mm thick, yellowish white gum, largest known block
5 x 2 with first vertical pair inverted and the last 3 vertical
pairs sideways with the top on the right, imperforate, the yellow
stamp was the first to be discovered, the red stamps appears more
often and may be from a different edition.

(? known)

16. 3 kop. yellow brown

17. 3 kop. red brown


(point of triangle indicates top of stamp)

SECOND EDITION (April 5, 1908)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, shiny white gum, sheet of 8 x 6 with a
transfer block of 4 x 1 placed horizontally and repeated twice in
each horizontal row, 4 types, perforated 11.5 with perforations
being mostly coarse.


18. 3. kop. pale brown


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


TYPE 1- A break in TYPE 2- Extra line TYPE 3 Dot in the lower
left outer connected to left numeral oval.
frameline of letter C in Dot on right where
of shield. inscription circle joins outer
on left. frameline.


TYPE 4- A break in outer
frameline just above
right bottom corner.

White paper, streaky brownish gum, sheet of 4 x 16 with the same 4
types as for previous edition placed in a horizontal row,
perforated 11.5 both clean cut and rough, 4,000 stamps issued.

19. 3 kop. brown, dark brown


1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4.
1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4
112 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 !23E4



2 3 4 P E Z
Z234 V 1 Z

2 P3 4 2 3 4 3 4

2 13141 3 4 2 3
23142 3434

2 3 4 V E 2 2 3
2 3 4 2 3 4 3.4
2 3 4 2 3 42 3
_2_ 3_ 4_ 2_J_ 2_3




Soft white paper, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 8 x 6 + 8 x 6 with
one group of 8 x 6 placed inverted above the other, in each of the
2 groups the 28th 30th stamps are inverted, 3 types being types
2 3 and 4 of the second edition, type 2 has broken K in 3EMCK. ,
perforated 11.5 and also known imperforate vertically or

20. 3 kop. dark brown


White paper, yellowish white gum, sheet of 8 x 6, similar to
second edition but with a transfer block that is 5 mm narrower and
shorter, 4 new types placed vertically, perforated 11.5 and
imperforate, 4,000 stamps issued.

21. 3 kop. sepia


3 1 3 1 1 3 3 1
4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4


TYPE 1 Broken shading lines above shield.
TYPE 2 Nick in the thick frameline of the circle to the left of
the letter K Very thin line in the upper right corner
between the triangle and the circle.
TYPE 3 Small wedge shaped spot between the H and the q on the
inscription on the left. Very thin line between the upper
right corner triangle and the outer frameline.
TYPE 4 The outer circular frameline is damaged over the letter A
of MAPKA .

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4






by Robert Taylor.

Little has been written in recent years about a fascinating sidelight to
Soviet aerophilately, i.e. the colourful variety of airmail labels or
etiquettes that we typically see on Soviet airmail covers of the late
1920s and early 1930s. We owe much of our early knowledge to Frank
Muller, who published his first edition of "Catalogue des Etiquettes
Aeropostales" in Paris in 1933. Thanks to H.L. Aronson in "The Russian-
American Philatelist" of March 1943, a reprint of the Russian section
in the Muller catalogue was included with Aronson's comments. That
original listing included some 23 items, plus an air-express label. At
some time subsequent to that, the Muller catalogue was updated to
include a total of 37 items, together with some corrections of dates of
issue and a separate listing of 5 air-express labels. Other than a most
interesting and detailed article by Fred Speers in the BJRP No.38 of
March 1966, illustrating and describing the various plating varieties
of Muller Etiquette No.9 from his original catalogue, that is about the
extent of published information,to my knowledge. A sidelight to the
Speers article is that the label studied, originally Muller No.9 as
issued in 1928 and so referred by Speers, was amended in the update to
the Muller work as actually issued in 1932. That certainly seems correct
as per the covers in my collection. Finally, I have seen some reference
to an airmail label catalogue by a party named Phillips some years ago,
but I have no further information as to that work.

The early airmail labels of Petrograd-Leningrad, in use from 1922 to
1926, are of particular interest and carry substantial value. The BJRP
No.12 of October 1953 pictured for its Outstanding Cover of that issue
a 1923 airmail cover from Petrograd, using the first issue of Soviet
airmail labels with the variety of an inverted "n" in the word
"alrienue" At least three different labels can now be recorded from
Petrograd-Leningrad during those early years. All were on very thin
pelure paper in a cerise or dark red-violet colour and were printed on
the back of some other form, as partial words and lines can be seen on
the reverse side of the labels.

In an article I wrote some years ago for "The Post-Rider", I commented
on these early Petrograd-Leningrad labels to the effect that I thought
that Muller's listing No.2, a similar and almost identical etiquette
identified as being used in Kiev, was actually the same as the Petrograd
label and should not be listed as a separate issue. Fellow philatelist
Colonel Prado of Brazil wrote that he had, in fact, an airmail cover
posted from Kiev in December 1922 using such a label. Colonel Prado also
pointed out that the alignment of the first letters of the two lines of
wording on the label was different on his Kiev cover than that noted on
the similar label from Petrograd on another cover in his collection. I
believe after further study that my original contention was correct, i.e.
that the two labels are the same and do not deserve a separate listing.
Firstly, I have some ten covers originating in Kiev identified and
properly franked for airmail during the 1922-1923 period. None
of these covers carries an airmail label or cachet of any kind. As was
consistent throughout the early years of Soviet airmail, covers
* originating outside Moscow and Petrograd-Leningrad carried no postal
officially applied indications for airmail, other than handwritten. To
the best of my knowledge, that was true until the 1927 airmail season.
As to Colonel Prado's comment about the alignment of the wording on the
label, he is entirely correct in that there is a variance of about 1 mm.

in the position of the first letters, but on examining some 20 covers
originating in Petrograd during this same period, we find that identical

Finally, I do not find minor colour variations to be convincing. Clearly,
from the covers of Petrograd origin that I have examined, there is some
variation of colour, but I believe that to be a combination of aging and
chemical reaction to the glue used to affix the label. In fact,I believe
that the same applies to Muller's listing of the labels for Nos. 3 & 4.
These were for the second Petrograd-Leningrad issue, actually Leningrad,
as they were issued in 1924. Muller identifies them as differing only by
the colour of the paper from red to cerise. That issue was again on very
thin paper and subject to variations of colour from the glue and aging
and I believe that Muller's Nos. 3 & 4 should be listed as one and the
same label. I might also add in reference to Colonel Prado's Kiev cover
that I have a cover originating in Moscow which carries that same
etiquette. It simply means that there were incidental uses of all the
labels in cities other than where they were issued and I firmly believe
that that is the case with his cover. It might well have been the actual
cover from which Muller understandably created his original listing.

The chart that follows of Soviet air etiquettes from 1922 until WWII
compares Muller's updated listing of 37 labels with those I can identify
from my own collection. Of course, the fascination is that there are
many more to be found, particularly from towns other than Moscow and
Leningrad. Readers will undoubtedly find previously unrecorded items in
their collections and it is hoped that such information will be
forwarded either to me or our editor, so that we can update this listing
for future reference.

As a caution in reviewing the Muller catalogue listings and my own
comments, I would discourage too much effort in trying to differentiate
between the subtleties of differences in the colours of the papers.
There certainly were papers of different colour tones used by the Soviet
printers and, at times, the difference between cream, yellow, straw,
greenish-yellow etc. seems quite apparent. Equally, however, one can
find almost every shade in between, making exact identification
impossible. With that, let us proceed to the details. Note that this
review includes only the airmail labels and not the air-express
etiquettes, which we can perhaps examine at a later time.

S' 1922 Petrograd (earliest noted use 8 Sep.1922).
...-"' XBlack on cerise, imperf., pelure paper with
nv mother printing on reverse.

T(Taylor) 1, M(Muller) 1.

S.. 1922 Petrograd (earliest noted use 24 Jan.1923).
*i' si-.;.%'- Ditto, with the second "n" of "airienne"
'* "j vY tlR.-i't i inverted (aerienue).

SNOTE: Muller No.2, listed as black on rose and
used in Kiev, I believe to be only an incidental
T la, M la use and the same label as Muller No.l, as
explained in the text.

T2, M4

*'tr o fi e~~T -l


n0 nOTA i
Par avion

T4 tMG


B0AYflf Pa
Par action! i

T6. M9

T8, M7
T8, M7

T 8a, M 8

T 8b, M 20

1924 Leningrad (earliest noted use 7 May 1924).
Black on creise, imperf., pelure paper with
other printing on the reverse.

NOTE: Muller No.3, listed as the same as Muller
No.4 but on red paper, I believe are both one
and the same label, as explained in the text.

1924 Leningrad (earliest noted use 11 Jun.1924).
Black on cerise, imperf., pelure paper with
other printing on the reverse. Note that the
letters have been printed farther apart and
more sharply than on T 2.

1926 Moscow (Earliest noted use 30 Apr.1926).
Red on cream or yellow, perf. 11.

1927 Moscow (earliest noted use 18 Jul.1927).
Red on straw, rough perf. 11.

1927 Leningrad (earliest noted use 16 Aug.27).
Red on straw, perf. 11.

1927 Transcaucasia (Baku: 11 Sep. 1927
Batum:20 Sep. 1927).
Red on straw, imperf.

1927 Moscow (earliest noted use 22 Sep.1927)
Red on straw or yellow, rough perf. 11.

1927 Moscow (earliest noted use 27 Sep.1927).
As above, but in red on pale greenish-yellow,
rough perf. 11.

1931 Moscow (earliest noted use 1 Jun.1931).
As above, but in red on cream, rough perf.ll.

.003RYWUA i



T10, M17


-Par :avion,

Till Mu

112, M12

a~l~. r a o*'n-.':'..


T 13a, M 10

T 13b, Mi0a

T 13c, M21a

T 13d, M21

n04r noTA .j

T14, M19

1927 Crimea (Yalta: 23 Sep.1927;
Sevastopol': 13 Aug.1930).
Red on amber, rough perf. 11.

1927 Khar'kov (earliest noted use 12 Oct.1927).
Red on cream, rough perf. 11. This is the only
trilingual (Ukrainian/Russian/French) label noted
so far.

1928 Transcaucasia (Baku: 22 July 1928;
Tiflis: July 1929).
Orange-red on straw or yellow, imperf.

1928 Moscow (earliest noted use 10 Aug.1928).
Red on straw or yellow, perf. 11.

1928- Leningrad (earliest noted use 6 Sep.1928).
Red on cream, perf. 11. Same design as for T 6,
but the distance from "Par avion" to lower border
now 3mm. instead of 2mm.

1929 Leningrad (earliest noted use 21 Jun.1929)
As above, but red on pale greenish-yellow, rough
perf. 11.

1929 Leningrad (earliest noted use 26 Jul.1929).
As above, but red on pale greenish-yellow, imperf.

1929 Leningrad (earliest noted use 2 Oct.1929).
As above, but red on cream, imperf.

1931 Leningrad (earliest noted use 4 May 1931).
As above, but red on straw or cream, rough perf.

1928 Kuban (Salsk: 6 Oct.1928;
Krasnodar: 4 Jul.1931).
Red on straw or yellow, imperf.

'.Par; avion.
T15, M13

T16, M15

.1.'. -'i~o -

n! T

T17, M-14

00o3AYW HAR[i n
Pa'r vion


1929 Moscow (earliest noted use 14 May 1929).
Red on cream or yellow, rough perf. 11.

1929 Baku (earliest noted use 17 July 1929).
Red on straw, imperf.

1929 Irkutsk (earliest noted use 17 Jan, 1929).
Red-brown on cream or yellow, imperf.

1929 Tiflis (earliest noted use 31 Aug. 1929).
Orange-red on straw, imperf.

1s.. 1929 Arkhangel'sk (12 Sept. 1929)
BOSAYWHAR IRed on straw, imperf. (T19). *,'"Bo3AywLHa?'
:7, 0TA ,: ,lr sTa 1
SPr aviodri 1929 Vladivostok (7 Oct. 1929) fi 'aavionA .
... Oi'.Orange-red on cream, perf. 11. (T19A) ,i 1 ;
T19 T19A
unBm-- muiws 1930 Moscow (earliest noted use 19 Jun. 1930).
n 'BOAYniHA'ii ; Red on amber, perf. 11.
No 191TAi
Sfl'Par avlon.,;,


1930 Kislovodsk (earliest noted use 23 Jul. 1930).
Red on cream or yellowish, imperf.

1930 Irkutsk (earliest noted use 26 Aug. 1929).
Red on cream, rough perf. 11.

B0 3JYiIAfl 1931 Leningrad (earliest noted use 27 May 1931).
.' OTA .-. Red on white, imperf.

Par avonri

T23, M23

S OTA. 1931 Saratov (earliest noted use 19 Aug. 1931).
'' Pavion_ Red on straw, rough perf. 11.


noqi 1931 Khar'kov (earliest noted use 19 Sept. 1929).
SPAR AVIO B Dnepropetrovsk (earliest noted use 28 Oct.31).

T25, M22

B03AYWUHAR 1931 Khar'kov (earliest noted use 8 Nov. 1931).
| OT' ..|. I Red on cream, rough perf. 11.
,; Par avon
* .667. C TAAo.-26X74 .6 I


nOMTA H 1932 Moscow (earliest noted use 17 Jun. 1932).
Pa r avon -1 Black on buff or yellow, imperf.

T27, M16

0O0 n 1] 1932 (no examples noted).
Par aqo. Red on yellow, imperf.


I BO3AYiHAf H(; 1932 Moscow (earliest noted use 4 Jun. 1932).
Si;irlnOHTA;.D \ Black on grey, perf. 11.
P'ar avo'n to
A.MC-15-.28 .t CT ; I
T28, M26

.0 3 .I.YHA. K' 1932 Moscow (earliest noted use 9 Jun. 1933).
li: nnuira I Ditto, with "n" of "avion" inverted: aviou.

T28a, M26a

i: 1932 Moscow (earliest noted use 16 Aug. 1932).
O -BO3JSlIHAH iA Ditto, with wide space between "i" and "o" of "avi on".
V ,.. J? ,IOITA... ;
'V ,,
oII n

4 *. '. .* '

IB3AYWHA ~' 1932 Moscow (earliest noted use 23 Jun. 1933).
I,,nTA Ditto, with "T" instead of "CT" in lower right margin.
r a .,ion. '

T28c, M26c
M 26b 1932 Moscow.
Ditto, with M 26 and M 26a se-tenant.

flOqT 1932 Arkhangel'sk (earliest noted use 23 Jun. 1932).
,+Isi Red on buff, rough perf. 10.
CTATAo--26 37 i
T29, M36

M 31 1932 Arkhangel'sk (no examples noted).
Ditto, red on gray, perf. 10.

M 35 1933 Arkhangel'sk (no examples noted).
Ditto, red on straw, perf. 11.

n ,00LTA 1932 Kislovodsk (earliest noted use 30 Jun. 1932).
Par avion Red on white, rough perf. 11.


S ..1932 Leningrad (earliest noted use 5 Aug. 1932).
P o Red on white, imperf.

T31, M30

I,, 'I B03,/I, Y AH I U
O ',--nITA'L.f 1932 Vladivostok (earliest noted use 14 Sep. 1932).
PAMAO IPale red on straw, imperf.




1932 Tiflis (earliest noted use 30 Sep. 1932).
Red on off-white, imperf.

1932 (no examples noted).
Yellow on gray, part perf.

1932 Batum (no examples noted).
Red on blue, imperf.


S. KI'.Oicp.l. 1l6 4 T.-O10T.

*,o -


Par avion ,

ti ajPar avion ;
I Al 4i> o. ... ,. .* 5..

T36, M27

J^ nor04TA ,] ,
i t i"

T37, M32



T37a, M32a

1933 Kiev Dist. (Vinnitsa 31 Jan. 1933).
Red on straw, rough perf. 11..

1933 Bryansk Dist. (Lokot 31 May 1933).
Pale red on buff, rough perf. 11.

1933 Ukraine (Nikolaev 4 Jun. 1933).
(Zaporozhye 11 Jul. 1933).
(Khar'kov 13 Oct. 1933).
Orange-red on cream, rough perf.

1933 Moscow (earliest noted use 25 Aug. 1933).
Black on blue, imperf.

1933 Moscow (earliest noted use 24 Sep. 1933).
Ditto, with accent"missing on the last letter of
the top line.

1933 Moscow.
Ditto, with M 32 and M 32a se-tenant.

1934 Khar'kov (earliest noted use 22 Aug. 1934).
Black on gray, imperf.


Par avion
I{ui. Op. 01562. 8 T.-3001T.
T39, M24

CoIo3opry4et 0 t. 6

. .

1935 Kiev (earliest noted use 19 Jan. 1935).
Red on cream, perf. 11h.
(Editorial Comment: Imprint in bottom margin
in Ukrainian).

1936 Anapa (earliest noted use 19 Sep. 1936).
Red on white, rough perf. 11.

1937 Moscow (earliest noted use 27 Jan. 1937).
White on dark blue, rough perf.

1937 Moscow (earliest noted use 4 Sep. 1937).
White on deep blue, imperf., sharper printing.

T41, M37



1939 Moscow
White on dark

(earliest noted use 11 Jul. 1939).
blue, rough perf., label 5 mm.

(see also p. 73 herewith).


by Calin Marinescu.

(translated from the Roumanian magazine "Filatelia" for Nov.-Dec. 1990
by kind permission of the author).

The activities of the Roumanian postal service in Transnistria have up
* to now occupied very little space in philatelic literature. The first
articles, which appeared during 1942-1943 in "Revista Societatii
Filatelice Romane" ("The Magazine of the Roumanian Philatelic Societies")
only covered the postage stamps and their varieties, issued by Roumania
for Transnistria. In general, these aspects have also been presented in

M 33a

the magazine "Romanian Philatelic Studies" Nos.4/1982, 2/1983 & 1/1985.
An article, which treats the postal markings applied by the Roumanian
administration in Transnistria, has appeared in the journal "The Post-
Rider" No.10 for 1982 under the signature of C.M. Trevers.

Bearing in mind that Horthyite Hungary, the beneficiary of the unjust
Vienna Dictate of 30 Aug. 1940, was taking part together with Roumania
in the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis, Hitler had wished to offer Roumania, in
compensation for the loss of the ancient Roumanian lands in North-West
Transsylvania, the strip between the Dniester and Dnieper rivers, which
had been conquered as a result of battles with the Soviet Union in the
months of August to September 1941. However, Marshal Ion Antonescu only
accepted the administration of the territory between the Dniester and
Bug rivers, where many Roumanians lived.

The territory between the Dniester and Bug rivers bearing the name of
Transnistria, formed part of the Ukrainian SSR and also included the
Moldavian autonomous region, where Roumanians were in the majority
(Editorial Comment: Not so. As pointed out in the article "Matters
Moldavian" in "The Post-Rider" No.25 for Dec. 1989, the Ukrainians were
in the majority even in the Moldavian ASSR). This autonomous region of
much reduced size, had both before and after WWII formed part of the
Moldavian SSR. The area of Transnistria was 39,733 sq. km. or roughly
15,500 sq, miles, comprising of 13 counties, 64 districts, 1292
communities, 2468 villages and 2 municipalities: Odessa and Tiraspol'.
In 1942, the population consisted of 2,326,226 persons, in contrast to
the pre-war statistics, which mentioned 3,492,552 inhabitants. During
the occupation period, payments were effected in German
Reichskreditkassenscheine (RKKS) and Roumanian lei.

The Roumanian postal service in Transnistria was inaugurated on 3 Sept.
1941. In the beginning, the population was only allowed to send ordinary
postcards, written only in Roumanian, as well as original documents and
copies of the same in registered envelopes, but without private
correspondence. The despatch of ordinary letters or of other articles of
correspondence was not allowed. The items of mail accepted for despatch
were subjected to censorship, for which bureaux were set up in the
bigger offices: Odessa, Tiraspol' etc. and probably at the post offices
in all the county capitals.

Official agencies were allowed to send all classes of official mail and
such mail conforming to that category was only accepted for destinations
within Roumania. The service of private registered letters in Roumania
addressed to servicemen at the front and from them to Roumania was
reinstated on 15 May 1942 and it is probable that that also applied on
the same date for the despatch of private letters for and within

In the summer of 1942, approval was given for the post offices in
Transnistria to accept mail for all countries with whom Roumania was
not in a state of war. All such mail went through the BUCURESTI-GARA DE
NORD (Bucharest-Northern Railway Station) post office for censorship. It
should be mentioned that only foreign mail was censored at this office,
as the General Administration of the PTT (Posts, Telegraphs & Telephones) W
also wanted to show that, in this particular case, Transnistria had not
been incorporated into Roumania and that all mail sent between Roumania
and Transnistria should be considered as "foreign".

Moreover, with regard to the despatch of summonses and procedural
documents, it was stipulated in March 1943 that "the Administration of
the PTT of Transnistria has informed us that some post offices in the
* country (i.e. Roumania) have accepted procedural documents for post
offices in Transnistria. Since procedural documents forwarded by post
offices in the above-named area have no legal force, being directed to
a territory separate from Roumania, we therefore ask you to take
measures so that summonses and procedural documents are no longer
accepted for Transnistria".

For the purposes of censorship, mail addressed abroad was accepted for
transmission only if written in one of the following languages:
Roumanian, French, German, Italian, Russian and Ukrainian.

The first Roumanian post offices established in Transnistria in September
1941 were in Tiraspol' and Balta. Then followed those in Dubasari,
R&bniga, Ananiev, Berezovca, Birzula and Razdelnaia. The post office at
Odessa-1 was set up on 22 Oct. 1941 and that of Smerinca on 15 Feb. 1942.
The offices and postal agencies established in Transnistria up to 1 Aug.
1942 are presented in the table below. The PTT agencies in Transnistria
functioned according to the system of offices authorised in Roumania.
No.2 Sorting Centre Office in Tiraspol' was abolished on 5 Oct. 1942.
The Odessa-V Government Office was opened on 13 Nov. 1942. Postal
agencies were established in March 1943 at Cazacovca and Potochi in the
Moghilau county to serve a series of villages there.

Roumanian Russian
place-name equivalent Postal status Count
Abomelicovo Abamelikovo postal agency R&bni
Alexanderfeld Aleksanderfel'd being established Oceac
Ananiev Anan'ev post office Ananic
Antono-Codineevo Antonovka? to be established Odesa
Babcinti-1 Babchintsy postal agency Jugasi
Balta Balta post office Balta
Berezovca Berezovka post office Berez
Bersad Bershad' postal agency Balta
Bilaevca Belyaevka postal agency Ovidic
Birzula Kotovsk post office RAbnij
Blachi ? postal agency Moghi
Blagoevo Blagoevo postal agency Odesa
Braslav Bratslav postal agency Tulcil
Capusteani Kapustyany to be established Tulcil
Ceclenic Chechel'nik postal agency Balta
Cerneviti Chernevtsy postal agency Jugas
Cernovo Chernovo postal agency Anani
Chirnasovca Kirnasovka postal agency Tulcil
Cioara Voronkovo postal agency Dubas;
Clebani Kleban' to be established Tulci
Codima Kodyma postal agency Rabni
Comenca Kamenka postal agency Rabni
Copaigorod Kopaigorod postal agency Moghi
Crasnoie Krasnoe postal agency Golta
* Crijopol Kryzhopol' postal agency Jugas
Crivoi-Oziero Krivoe Ozero postal agency Golta
Cruti Krutye postal agency Rabni
Dalnic-2 Dal'nik postal agency Ovidi
Dijurin Dzhurin postal agency Moghi









Odesa I
Odesa II
Odesa III
Odesa Telefoane
Odesa IV
Sfanta Troita

Mostovoe skii
Odessa 1
Odessa 2
Odessa 3
Odessa 4

Postal status
postal agency
to be established
post office
post office
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
to be established
post office
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
to open on 1 August
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
to open on 1 August
postal agency
post office
in process of opening
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
post office
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
post office
post office
post office
post office
in process of opening
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
to open on 1 August
postal agency
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
post office

Rabni a
Rabni a



" I

1077 N-* -ODAKO4 't :n" npK.a U. 2S

c -'-;Scale: 1:1,175,000.
\ I- Mlwene^ Iqi

Valea Hotilor


Postal status
postal agency
postal agency
to be established
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
post office
postal agency
postal agency
in process of opening
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency
postal agency


(Editorial Comment:
a) The Roumanian place-names are, for the most part, based on the
Russian equivalents, which have been added for comparison. The
Roumanian language generally avoids double consonants, hence the
distinctive ODESA spelling.

b) The one unrecognisable county name is Jugastru. That word refers to
the red maple tree in Roumanian and judging by the offices and
agencies located there, it appears to have been a renaming of Yampol'
county. The Russian term for the red maple is "krasnyi kldn", but
there is no such place-name to be found in that area.

c) Alexanderfeld, Gross-Liebenthal, Landau, Neuburg and Zelz appear to
have been colonies originally established by German settlers in the
Russian Empire. Needless to say, they have all been renamed since WWII.

d) Cioara means a crow in Roumanian (in Russian: BOPOHA), so the
Russian equivalent in Dubasari county is taken to be Voronkovo.
Elementary, my dear Watson! Not to be confused with Voroncau/Voronkovo
in Rgbnita county.

e) Valea Hotilor is another Roumanian renaming and means "The Valley
of the Thieves" (!). The nearest Russian equivalent in Ananiev county
is Dolinskoe.

f) Please refer to the Soviet Automap on p. 29 for the location of
many of these post offices and agencies).
The total number of Roumanian post offices and agencies must certainly
have been greater and the dates of their establishment and abolition
would be completed by further investigation. A series of Roumanian
field post offices also functioned during this period.

The stiff battles of August-September 1941 led to damage to the
railways and road network in Transnistria. Until they were put back in


operation, it was decided that the transmission of mail should be
carried out by a fleet of four aircraft which would serve the
localities in which the Roumanian post offices functioned. The point of
departure for the aircraft was the town of Tiraspol', where the flights
* also started on 3 Sept. 1941. By the month of December 1941, some
trains had already been put back into use and airmail was no longer
accepted as the postal services by air were suspended, probably because
of unfavourable weather.

To serve the airmail links of Roumania with Transnistria, the General
Direction of the PTT organised airmail routes with aircraft of the
LARES Company, which flew on the Bucharest-Galatz-Chisinau (Kishin&v)
route, with an extension up to Tiraspol'. Thus, as of'5 May 1942, the
Bucharest-Galatz-Chiginau-Tiraspol' airmail route and return was
established, flying three times a week on Tuesdays, Thursdays and
Departure: 7:30am BUCHAREST Arrival : 5:30pm
Arrival : 8:25am Galatz Departure: 4:35pm
Departure: 8:35am Galatz Arrival : 4:25pm
Arrival 9:30am Chiginau Departure: 3:30pm
Departure: 9:40am Chisinau Arrival : 3:20pm
Arrival : 10:00am TIRASPOL' Departure: 3:00pm

There was a change of itinerary in 1943 and the LARES aircraft
inaugurated the Bucharest-Galatz-Odessa and return airmail route,
flying on the same three days of the week, as of 4 May 1943:-

Departure- 7:15am BUCHAREST Arrival : 5:25pm
Arrival : 8:00am Galatz Departure: 4:40pm
Departure: 8:15am Galatz Arrival : 4:25pm
Arrival : 9:15am ODESSA Departure: 3:25pm

The reestablishment of ;: :. -,
the trains on the railways. :
led to the inauguration of s me
Roumanian travelling post ,
offices in Transnistria. o-i a
During the 1942-42 period, Hotin ist ru
there existed in Trans- amp crivoe-Oz"ero
nistria a main railway t
line serving Odessa, soroa sirui
Razdelnaia, Birzula and .( nit
Smerinca, from where there
were many branch lines .ubsari erezo
going east and west (see TRANSNISTRIA-dec.191 igoro dnoi i
the map herewith at right) ooicii sl gentiiPTT '
Among these branch lines, mai importonte CHIINAU iasp
the most important for i-.-c6i ferate f '" WS
Roumania were those from
Razdelnaia to Tiraspol', : cetoteo 7TLdoEANEAGRApot -
towards Chiginau and ... .At.
towards Cetatea Alba
(Akkerman, now Bilhorod-Dnestrovs'kyj in the Ukraine). On 1 May, the
routes of travelling post offices Nos. 41 & 42 Bucharest-Jassy-Chipinau
and return were extended up to Odessa (via Tiraspol' and Razdelnaia) by
the addition of mail vans to express trains Nos. 701 & 702.

An internal network of travelling post offices was also established
that ran only within Transnistria and which exchanged mail bags with
Roumania..The numbering of these vans consisted of four figures, in

contrast to two or three numerals, as was the case in Roumania. Since
in Roumania the first figure represented the railway postal zone in
which the activity of a travelling post office was carried out, it is
also probable that, in the numbering utilised in Transnistria, the
first number (4), or even the first two numbers (40) represented the
railway postal zone, with the last two figures specifying the
travelling post office. There were thus 12 travelling offices
designated and numbered 4001-4012, with a possibility of the numbering
going even higher. It has not been possible to determine exactly the
routes of these travelling post offices, but the names have been found
of some of the stations they passed through, as follow:-
Nos. 4001 & 4002: ? Nos. 4007 & 4008: Odessa
Nos. 4003 & 4004: Razdelnaia, Odessa Nos. 4009 & 4010: Rabnifa
Nos. 4005 & 4006: Birzula, Razdelnaia Nos. 4011 & 4012: Odessa, Zastavna

As was the case in Roumania, mail deposited at the railway travelling
post offices, after the stamps were cancelled with the markings of the
relevant office, was transmitted for censoring to the censorship centre
closest to the route and subsequently directed finally to the addressee.

The distinctive postal rates for mail addressed within the territory of
Transnistria, as well as sent from Transnistria to Roumania, came into
force on 3 Sept. 1941. The postal rates were made uniform on 6 Oct.1941,
with the exception of the surtax for airmail, which did not apply to
mail sent within Transnistria, since at that date there were no airmail
routes within Transnistria, as has been shown in Section 4 above (Postal
Transmission). The evolution of the postal rates (in lei) is set out in
Tables 2 & 3 for internal mail and to Roumania. It should be noted that
some local publications of the period gave the postal rates in RKKS
(1 Reichskreditkassenschein = 60 lei).

TABLE No.2. TRANSNISTRIA: internal postal rates 3 Sep.1941 to Mar.1944.

3 Sep.41

Ordinary postcards 12
Registered postcards 24
Registered letters up to 20g. 36
Each additional 20g. 6
Ordinary letters up to 20g.
Each additional 20g.
Registration fee
Express (special delivery) fee
Acknowledgement of receipt fee
Surtax for airmail 24
Claim fee for registered articles -
Claim fee for unregistered articles -

TABLE No.3. Postal rates from Transnit
Ordinary postcards 24
Registered postcards 42
Registered letters up to 20g. 48
Each additional 20g. 6
Ordinary letters up to 20g.
Each additional 20g.
Registration fee
Express (special delivery) fee
Acknowledgement of receipt fee
Surtax for airmail 48
Claim fee for registered articles -
Claim fee for unregistered articles -

6 Oct.41

stria to Rouinania

May 42


5 Oct.42


3 SeD.41/Mar.44.

stria. to Roumania

The postal rates were paid by the application of postage stamps. At the
beginning of September 1941, ordinary postage stamps with franking
value in Roumania, as well as 50,000 military postcards of 1 leu value
Were sent to Transnistria to ensure the proper transmission of mail.
They had to satisfy postal requirements until the emission of postage
stamps and stationery especially for Transnistria.

The first set of Transnistrian stamps, honouring "Duca Voda, Lord of
Moldavia, Hetman of the Ukraine" (Michel 703-705; Zumstein 810-812;
Yvert 654-656; S.G. 1509-1511; Scott 517-519) was issued on 6 Oct.1941,
being composed of three values: 6, 12 & 24 lei on paper watermarked
Crown CC II, each value also being put out in sheetlets of four stamps.
(Editorial Comment: The very last statement is not correct, as these
miniature sheets, intended for sale in 1943 at 300 lei each to aid the
Red Cross, were never issued. They came onto the philatelic market
ungummed in 1946. Please see the illustration directly below).

5 L VMII O~tt iii. 1OD6 I lf~ttN12 i A IT 12 CA0MMLAR

6 I OOVlill Vh 12 u 0,MI 12 U AMIA

1943 LEI 3 1943 LEI3C
The postal instructions have clearly shown from the outset that the
postage stamps issued for Transnistria were only valid on mail which
circulated within the region, as well as directed from Transnistria to
Roumania. The sending presented in Roumania for Transnistria were
franked only with postage stamps in use within Roumania.

The second set of postage stamps for Transnistria was issued in October
1942 and inscribed "Transnistria/Un an de la cucerire" ("Transnistria/
First Anniversary of the Conquest": see Michel 752-754; Zumstein 859-
861; Yvert 696-698; S.G. 1559-1561; Scott B192-B194), being composed of
three values: 6 + 44, 12 + 38 & 24 + 26 lei, with a printing of 50,000
sets. In accordance with the instructions, these postage stamps were
sold only in complete sets at post office in Transnistria and at the
Transnistrian Exhibition until the evening of 30 November 1942, when
they were withdrawn from circulation. The stamps of this set were valid
only on mail sent within Transnistria and from Transnistria to Roumania
or the other Axis countries, being sold in Roumania only to
philatelists. The 1984 edition of the CMPR (Catalogue of Roumanian
Postage Stamps), Vol. 1, presents this set under the name of "Miron
Costin" as being issued in December 1942, but that is not possible, as
the date of 30 November 1942 for its withdrawal is specified in a PTT
Circular of Orders No. 1/180226/1942.

The third and last issue of postage stamps for Transnistria in the
"Duca Voda" design came out in July 1943 and consisted of four values:
3, 6, 12 & 24 lei. With the exception of the first value, the others
are a reissue of the 1941 set, but on paper with "MM" watermark. This
last set also had franking power only in Transnistria.

It should be noted that a postcard in brown with an imprinted stamp of
6 lei also had franking power only within Transnistria and from
Transnistria to Roumania, having the same design as the 6-lei stamp
in the "Duca Voda" set. There probably exist other items of postal
stationery, such as envelopes, money order and telegram forms etc. with
such imprinted stamps, but they have not been noted so far.

The "Frafia de Arme" (Brotherhood of Arms) set overprinted "Odesa/
16 oct. 1941" cannot be included in the Transnistrian stamps, as it did
not have franking power in Transnistria, or from Transnistria to
Roumania, but only for mail presented at the post offices in Roumania.
Varieties of the second Transnistrian set have been recorded in
"Revista Societati Filatelice Romane" Nos. 7-8 & 9-10 of 1943.

Several types of markings were applied on mail presented at the post
offices in Transnistria, namely for cancelling postage stamps,
indicating the type of service, as well as denoting censorship.
Throughout the entire period that the Roumanian postal service
functioned in Transnistria, the markings that were applied had
inscriptions in letters of the Latin alphabet, regardless of their type.

49 OE -42 E4349 A 3t.2

Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
(a) The relatively large number of offices and postal agencies (there
were already more than 100 by July 1942) has determined the probable
existence of 400-500 date-stamps for cancelling mail and newspaper
sending. As the scope of this study does not permit a more extensive
treatment of these markings, only three of them are presented here
(Figs. 3-5). A future study of the marcophily would fill out this area.

(b) Cachets are known for registered mail (Fig. 6) and the possibility
exists that there are other types. For mail sent by express (special
delivery) or airmail, the same labels were used with the indications of
such services as in Roumania.

(c) In order to show that the censorship of mail had taken place, each
censor was supplied with a marking inscribed in the Roumanian language
by letters of the Latin alphabet, comprising the word CENZURAT
(censored), followed by the name of the locality and the number
assigned to a particular censor. There probably exist at least 13 types
of markings with the names of different localities (county centres) and
for each locality there were several markings, which differed in the W
censor numbers.

The activities of the Roumanian posts in Transnistria continued until


the beginning of 1944, when the Soviet troops of the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd.
Ukrainian Fronts, resuming the offensive, broke through the Roumano-
German defenses on 4-5 March and reached the Dniester river at several
points during 18-25 March, forcing the complete evacuation of Odessa on
* 10 April 1944.

The stamps and postal stationery described under section 6 herewith as
issued by the Roumanian postal service for Transnistria have been
included under Roumania in the Roumanian catalogue, as has also been
the case in all the international catalogues. I think that this is a
great mistake, which should be corrected as soon as possible since, as
I have previously shown, these three sets of postage stamps did not
have franking power in Roumania, but only in Transnistria. The next
edition of the Catalogue of Roumanian Postage Stamps should mention
under Chapter III: "Roumanian Posts Abroad", after the paragraphs for
"The Roumanian Posts in Constantinople" and "The Roumanian Posts in
Hungary", a new paragraph entitled "The Roumanian Posts in Transnistria
1941-1944", covering these three sets of postage stamps. The publishers
of the large international catalogues should also be informed so that
this correction can be made.

1. "Roumania in the years of the Second World War", Military Publishing
house, Bucharest, 1989.
2. I. Milat: "Transnistria. First anniversary of the fall of Odessa,
16 Oct. 1941-16 Oct. 1942", Bucharest, 1942.
3. "The PTT Bulletin", Bucharest, 1941-1944.


by Dumitru C. Biala.

(translated from the Roumanian magazine "Filatelia" for June 1991, p.7).

As an addendum to the article published by Mr. Calin Marinescu in
"Filatelia" Nos.ll-12 for 1990, I can add the following information.

The Roumanian postal service issued and put into circulation for
Transnistria three items of postal stationery in 1943, which only had
franking power in that territory.
The first was a postcard of 6-lei value in dark brown, which is
mentioned in the aforesaid article. The imprinted design gave a
representation of Duca Voda, Lord of Moldavia and Hetman of the Ukraine,
within a boxed frame measuring 20 x 23.5mm. The overall dimensions of
the card vary from 146 x 106mm. to 152 x 106mm.

The second postcard had an imprinted 12-lei stamp in gray-blue and in a
smaller size: 17.5 x 21.5mm., in the same design as the first card. The
overall size of this second card is 152 x 104mm.

The third item was a money order form, with the face much changed from
the type issued for the Kingdom of Roumania and inscribed: MANDAT
POSTAL / PENTRU SUMA DE LEI / RKKS...BANI / PF. The imprinted stamp is
of the same design and measures 19.5 x 23.5mm. The overall dimensions
of the card are 148 x 105mm.
All these items of postal stationery are printed on straw-yellow card.
Their descriptions are based on the items in my collection. The two
postcards are also listed in the international catalogues of postal
stationery, namely Michel Nos. 114 & 115 and Higgins & Gage Nos 107
& 111.


by Michael Renfro & Leonard Tann.

Following on from the article in "The Post-Rider" No.28, we present
another bunch of ovals, all of which we think not only show some of the
rarer ovals, but also contribute to our knowledge of the Russian railway
system and its workings. We will stay with Leonard's original four
1. Oval postmarks of travelling post offices TPOs/RPOs.
2. Oval postmarks of station postal desks.
3. Covers registered at station postal desks and the registration labels.
4. Covers registered on the postal vans of trains TPOs/RPOs.
The description of items in this article will be accompanied by initials
in brackets, indicating that the item is in the collection of Michael
Renfro (MR) or Leonard Tann (LT).


-- ---,f------
Fig. 2. ..--

F~IFig. 1. Fig. 3.

In part 1 ("The Post-Rider" No.28, p.60, fig.7), we showed the pval of
the branch-line railway Nadezhdinskii Zavod-Goroblagodatskoe, route
281/282, in which the Z of Zavod was on the wrong side. We show here
(Fig.l,MR) a beautiful oval of NADEZHD.ZAVOD-282-GOROBLAGODAT. serial "a"
23.2.16. The same route, but a different canceller; it would be
interesting to see other examples of this route and its twin:281, to
determine if these types are reduplicated. Fig.2 (LT) shows an
interesting SEVASTOPOL'-60-KHAR'KOV/OTD., which suggests that it was
possibly an additional mail van used when the mail was very heavy. One
also finds the postmarks reading S-STOPOL' as an abbreviation. Moving
down to Peter Ashford country: Transcaucasia, we see some fine ovals of
route 96 Batum-Baku (Fig.3, LT).

,. ,
.. .......... ...

I I.V / '

-7 1. 15
Fig. 4.

Fi .4 (LT) shows two examples of the scarce unnumbered route SACHKHERI-
SHOROPAN', with a black block instead of the route number. Peter Ashford
does not record this on the War Charity issues but he points out that
detemin if hes typs ae rduplcatd. Fg.2(LT)shos L

that there was a number of Belgian mechanics and engineers working at
the Chiatura mines, so it is not surprising that the card, of which one
of the items in Fig.4 is a part, is addressed to Belgium.
Crossing the Caspian Sea into Transcaspia, we
see another of the uncommon KUSHKA-228-MERV -28
markings from the Afghan border (Fig.5,LT), -0
joining the main line at Merv. It was said in 'i
part 1 that this was a narrow-gauge railway. 20 Z.2 0
In fact, while built as a narrow gauge, it 1-,
was converted to standard Russian gauge by
the time the oval postmarks were introduced.
We still need to see the southbound route Fig. 5.
No.227. As there was a Russian garrison at Kushka, it makes sense to
assume that the bulk of the mail went northwards.


Fig. 6.

... ... .....
Fig. 7.
Moving further east to the eastern branch of the Transcaspian Railway,
there was the line from Tashkent via Chernyaevo to Andizhan. Fig. 6 (LT)
shows a 1908 postmark of the ANDIZHAN-208-CHERNYAEVO route. The 207
route going east is scarcer, again because the bulk of the mail was
going up to Central Russia.

Now we come to a superb item, the unnumbered KHAR'KOV-MEREFA/POST.WAG
(GON) in Fig. 7 on the previous page. This cover (MR) shows a mixed
franking: a 10-k. stationery envelope with an Arms stamp and a Romanov,
plus three strikes of the postmark. It is accompanied by a map showing
the proximity of Khar'kov and Merefa, so it was a local mail delivery
railway. -"
....... 7 ....... .
04 4.Va^e-fJ ... ,......

Fig. 8.

Fig. 10. Fig. 9.
A couple of other TPOs/RPOs that ought to be included here: a nice
DOLGINTSEVO 133 VOLNOVAKHA (Fig.8, LT)with no bars or stars enclosing
the route number. Also interesting is the date: Christmas Day 25.12.09.
According to the official lists, the termini of route 133 were
Dolgintsevo-Volnovakha only between 1906 & 1908, after which the
termini became Dolgintsevo-Aleksandrovsk. We would like to see the twin
ovals of route 133/134 with both sets of termini. We mentioned that the
routes of numbers 300 and above are very scarce; Fig. 9 (LT) shows a
complete postcard with three fine strikes of the oval TROITSK-305-
CHELYABINSK marking. At the base there is the number "2" between stars,
obviously hammer/canceller No.2. We would like to see hammer No.l and
the twin route No.306. Finally, in TPOs/RPOs, we see another unnumbered
route Fig. 10 (LT), the TULA-LIKHVIN oval.

Although it
really belongs
to the next
(registered at
station postal
desks), we an .
include Fig. 11 .
here. It is a
cover (MR) "
registered at _T
the postal desk i.
of Khar'kov P
Vokzal, with an
oval postmark X.: ..
reading in ... .

standard form KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL serial "f". The date is 27.7.17. We
refer readers here to part 1 of the article in "The Post-Rider" No.28,
p.63, where another registered cover from Khar'kov Vokzal was shown.
* However, that one had a registration handstamp clearly stating that it
was a PTK; a post office administered by the Imperial Postal Service,
not the Railway Department. The registration handstamp here reads
KHAR'KOV/No. 0488/VOKZAL. In addition, I came across a pair of 2-kop.
Arms stamps with an oval KHAR'KOV/VOKZAL of early 1917, serial "s".
Therefore, we pose the question: did Khar'kov Station have a railway
post office or only a state post office? With three different oval
handstamps, admittedly with curious serial letters way down the
alphabet, could a railway post office have been opened early in 1917?
The 1916 Post Office list suggests that Khar'kov had a "stantsiya"
office. Could these be postmarks from it? We need more material to
substantiate the point. Perhaps cancellers had been ordered for Khar'kov
Vokzal and the manufacturer, knowing that they were for a vokzal, made
oval ones.

?i e .d /" /*

Fig. 12./
was ther an In f dd

yN~ Z^7 4c f* b Fig. 12a.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12 (LT) is indeed a scarce one! In part 1, the question was posed:
was there an Arkhangel'sk Vokzal? The answer is no. In fact, did the
railway from Vologda run right up to Archangel ? It seems that the
answer to that too is no. Two maps consulted show the railway running
as far as the south bank of the mouth of the Dvina river. Archangel is
is on the north bank. Baedeker (p.334) says that the steamer takes
about one hour to reach Archangel from the railway station. So, there
was no Archangel Station office; indeed, it would seem, no actual
Archangel Station! The 1905 Marks Atlas (p.17) shows the end of the
line as "Arkhangel'skaya Pristan'" (Archangel Pier). The stop before is
marked as ISAKOGORKA. I am informed by a friend "over there" that
Isakogorka railway station post office was effectively the post office
acting for the end of the line. On map IV of the series supplied by
Philip Robinson and showing both the Petrograd-Kem' and Vologda-
* Archangel lines, Isakogorka is the penultimate stop northwards and the
terminal, which is situated on the south bank of the Dvina is shown as
Rokasikha. On neither map is the line shown as crossing the Dvina into
the city, though it may do so today. Fig.12 shows a postcard from
Vologda which was addressed to Isakogorka Stantsiya and bears a fine

oval of the ISAKOGORKA/VOKZAL dated 23.6.17. Fig.12a has been taken from
a photocopy of a postcard in a Moscow collection and shows the same
postmark as a despatch marking some 18 months earlier on 3.1.16 (see the
previous page). This marking seems to be really scarce. Who else can
show us examples and perhaps extend the dates? Note the distorted date-
bars in both cases, suggesting some use. There are no sub-letters, so
presumably only one canceller was being utilised.


o.. .i e e .o s a....n a t r a i n......1 .... .. .f o........ .a... .
.t a w ith a..?.... ............. .... 1a '

When is a railway post office not a railway post office? When the piece
of mail never goes anywhere near a train! Fig.13 is from a complete
postcard with a l-kop. 1902/06 issue, paying the rate for an in-town
postcard. The oval postmarks are of the DVINSK/NORTH-WEST STN. The
receipt postmark is of Dvinsk town,on the same day: 23.3.09.
One of the scarcest
T O REVELL railway station postmarks
has to be REVEL'-GAVAN/
Tallinn had its main
central station, but near
the harbour there was a
C a no. ~station with a postal desk
&fl ffor the benefit of
RevaL embarking & disembarking
passengers, using an oval
Fig .postmarker. Figs.14 & 14a
(LT) show this postmark.
lPrt i. It has been forged, but
stcarIl. these are genuine examples.
.eers Gavan is derived from the
German "Hafen" and English
Shavenn, meaning harbour.
eI.i& O.,e.K. d The Revel'-Moizekyul line
S was a narrow gauge railway
." (see the layout here).
A couple of other station ovals
C deserve mention here: (Fig.15, LT)
.,MOLODECHNO/VOKZAL dated 22.8.11 on a
Spostcard and a later strike of 1917
3 .on a card with Arms stamps reading
i; S KARZHISKO/VOKZ. a village in
40r- Fi 16.e o:
'~t fo" *h ** ^ i Ji ^ s KA Z I KO V K il g in

40 -g. ID.

Figr. 16.

the south of Radom province in Russian Poland on a railway junction.
See Fig.16 (LT).
... -', Finally in this
section, Fig.17
r .... (LT) ,trespassing
.._. ," "I~-z~Y: c l.i: ,"again into
r... ;..l' /. -.. -, Ashford
S...... territory! KARS/
...... "<'" ;VOKZAL on a
Fg." stampless
".: I ir 17. military cover
J'. ..~'._-.:-.-'.- --- to Mer'yama in
S :-' .' the Estlandia
S I province and so
-" i..-)f F % ,".. backstamped.
S .,, .' This appears to
?.':. L ", be a second
.. "- r ; Kars/Vokzal
Scanceller to the
S" .' Jone Peter
illustrates. This postmarker has been somewhat distorted by use. The
town was in the forefront of fighting with the Turks. Perhaps a Baltic
soldier writing home; the date is 14.12.16.

Here we have som
glorious covers!
8AKASHO I Fis. 18 & 19
So..- (both MR) show
"N- 115 superb covers.
i r jpEBEflbI ---
H n.o0. saITnc. A. X.
J'-.F O lMS

There are masses of
Riga/Vokzal covers,
but certainly not
so many with
registration labels
like this one.

And though the REVEL'/ZHELEZNODOR.P.O. is a circular type Revel' seems
to have switched to the oval type quite late, about 1910 it is a
beautiful registration label and, we think, just squeezes in here
I.-~ -----------

1Mr. P. K1 ebe g,

5 Theaterstrasse 52

CHE N ITZ, e r m a n y.
Via Si1eriat l4 xoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxoxozoxoxo

Fig. 20.

Fig.20 (MR) is spectacular. The Romanov high values, particularly the
rouble ones, are very scarce on cover, in contrast to money orders etc.
and here we see a l-r. value on a registered cover with VLADIVOSTOK-a/
VOKZ. marking and a Latin-type registration label to Germany.

Fig.21 (MR)
shows a BPATbR COHHETI/ .

cover that
out some
5000 miles
away from
showing a
from the




The t E


W Ir~

Moscou Gar .1

S TE RN T 0 0 L MFP. 00

8 785 6-

S P R I N a F I Ohio
---------------------------------------- ------------

oFig. 21.




Fig.22 (LT)
-- .shows a
asto -1 stationery
3* envelope
S'. i 'r (additional
S """ ""Romanov
...$ stamps
..v {'':. / S7 sealing the
back flap),
9_icF _with the
Iregn. label
fl of
P Sevastopol'
7gC? _________ '_ Station,
S'Fig. 22. oval pmks
Well, dear friends, it is time once again to stop. We have nothing to
offer in section 4, i.e. covers registered on postal vans of TPOs/RPOs.
Yes, we hear cries of "shame!", but they are very scarce and we refer
readers to the two examples mentioned in part 1 and also illustrated
in BJRP No.70 on pp.38-39. Given that these routes had registration
handstamps etc. and items have survived, surely more must be in
collections out there. We can only beg you please show them to us.

Though not in the field of oval railway postmarks, Leonard Tann would
like to append two queries to the above article:-

1. The photocopy has been strengthened and
shows a curious circular type, reading as
far as can be made out DVINSK/2/POCHT.ZH.
D. OTDELENIE/25.IV.19 06, which is taken
to be the marking of the Railway Station
Post Office at Dvinsk, now Daugavpils in
Latvia ?

2. Imperf. vertical pair of the l-r. Arms
with two strikes of the circular ST. \i
is on the railway that links Ekaterinburg ,\ 25 2.
(the old name has now been formally 19
restored) and Chelyabinsk. I would suggest ^ i
that the missing part of the railway name .
is PERMSK. but am open to correction. The
problem is the date 22.1.17 clearly readable on the top stamp, with
the day unclear on the lower stamp. But the imperforate stamps were
not issued until late in March 1917, because (a) some of the
perforating machines had been damaged during the March Revolution
riots and (b) there was a partial strike in the perforating
department. May I simply assume that this is a date-stamp error?



by Alexander Epstein.

The beginning of WWI led to a substantial increase in postal activity,
due to the correspondence between soldiers on active service and their
relatives. In accordance with the rules adopted, ordinary cards and
letters from soldiers, as well as those directed to military personnel
on active service (the latter only up to 1 Feb. 1917)were free of
postage. A great variety of postal stationery: postcards, letter-cards
and envelopes was manufactured especially for this kind of mail, the
majority being of private origin, but some were issued by the Postal
Administration also. The main characteristic feature of the latter was
the inclusion of the coat of arms of Imperial Russia: the two-headed
eagle printed in the upper left corner of postal stationery. Those
items manufactured privately could not bear these insignia. It seems
that there were only a few official issues of postal stationery and
some are described hereunder.

A postcard to be
sent from the army
is shown in Fig.l.
There is an oval
indication printed
in the upper right
corner, with a
cross in the
centre and an
between the two
ovals readings
The Warehouse of
Her Majesty the
Empress Aleksandra
Fedorovna. This
card, printed in
red, is probably
of semi-postal
origin (under
royal patronage),
but has an official

Fig.2 shows an
official postal
stationery card
for postage-free
mail from
civilians to the
army and printed
in black. The
inscription above
the coat of arms
reads: TO THE ARMY
There is another
word at top right,
meaning "postage
free". The.note
under the words

* -78%)7 V^
^c~y~J ** ..--^^l ^y-


'... .. -

Fig. 1.

status, nevertheless.
-- i

I-Ha 3ro0 CinolpouIm nIll::':'Jilc nlO.ZbNo ac)pcc.




I. B-b apecaxb TenerpaMMs a nolTOBlx-b~OTnpaBnevifl Bi A'cTBayro-
wUyio apmiio HannecnliTS yKasblaTb TonbKO 'IHH, MS, OTHeCTDO
ia HaMiunio arpecaTa, a TaKwe HaHMeHoiaHie macTH Hni yipemAe-
His B' XOTOpOMb agpecaTl cny),.Tb.

Fig. 2.




. .. ...... ........................................................................................

. ... ........ .................. ........................ ..................................................

. ............. ....................................................~.............................

.... ........-......... ... ... ....-..............-............................ ..............................

....... ..............................................................1......~........ ........ ..........---- ---


POSTCARD can be translated as:
I. It is permitted to specify in the addresses of telegrams and postal
endings directed to the army on active service only the rank, name,
patronymic and surname of the addressee and also the designation of
the unit or establishment in which the addressee is serving.

Another note on the back of the card (message side) reads:
II. Specifying the location of military units or military
establishments is prohibited on letters and telegrams; letters and
telegrams with an indication of the military unit and the location of
a military establishment will not be delivered at all.

The free postage for ordinary "home-to-army" mail was abolished and
special rates introduced as of 1 February 1917: 2 kop. for cards and
5 kop. for letters. It seems that the
S- ... Postal
,- .- prepared for use
OLTOBAI .KAPTOYKA i- a special stamped
S postcard for
B'- fAiCTByroWyIO Apmiho 4' messages to the

of that card is
i.---* shown in Fiq. 3
i 0,, The design of the
_-.. postcard is
S............ .... .............. .. ..... .. similar to that
.....', pof the 3-kop.
............... ........... Imperial postcard
of 1909-1910, but
printed in green
.............w i th a n........................................................................................................t h a n
inscription: "to
S. ...................... .."....................... ............................. ............................................. i n s c r i p t i o n : t o
Fig. 3. the Army on
Active Service".
SMoreover, the
design of the imprinted stamp is that of the same adhesive of the 1908-
1917 Arms issue (Scott 77) and not a special design, as for H & G 25-26
for example. There is a violet rubber stamp and an inscription added by
hand on this specimen card, saying that it had been approved by the
General Administration of Posts & Telegraphs in accordance with an
official letter No.7515/232 dated 24 Jan.1917, being signed by the
Receiver of Orders K. Bodrov.

However, this postcard was apparently never put into use. The reason
for that is unknown, but very likely connected with the presence of the
Imperial coat of arms, which had become inappropriate after the
February Revolution. This postcard was listed on p.66 of S. Prigara's
handbook "The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey & China and the Post
in the Kingdom of Poland", New York, 1941 under No.28 1/2, but
described rather inexactly; the author had probably inserted it by

Readers are invited to send in additional information about the cards
described above, as well as other postally issued stationery for
soldiers' mail still unknown to me. As to the stationery manufactured
privately, that could a subject for special research.


by Andrew Cronin.

With the territory of the Russian Empire and its successor states and
neighbours encompassing such a huge area of the surface of the earth, it
is understandable that many geographic and scientific expeditions have
taken place there in the past. Two interesting examples of such
expeditions are now presented to CSRP subscribers from the collection of
the writer.

P~tr Kuz'mich Kozlov was born in Dukhovshchina (of Zemstvo fame!) on
3/15 Oct. 1863 into the family of a wholesale merchant. By 1881, he had
met the well-known traveller and geographer of Polish origin Major-
General Nikolai Mikhailovich Przheval'skii (Przewalski: 1839-1888),
discoverer of the wild horse that bears his name and with links back to
prehistoric times (see the two 60-kop. values in the set of four stamps
honouring the centenary of the Russian Geographic Society, issued on
27 Jan.1947). He basically became the protege of Przheval'skii and took
part in the latter's fourth expedition to Central Asia in 1883-1885.
That led to further important assignments and, three years after N. M.
Przheval'skii died in 1888, Pbtr Kuz'mich was awarded the Przheval'skii
Silver Medal of the Russian Geographic Society. More expeditions
followed, particularly to Mongolia and Tibet. He was made an Honoured
Member of the Russian Geographic Society in 1910 and of the Hungarian
G.S. in 1911. In that latter year, he also received the large gold
medal of the Italian Geographic Society, the medal of the Royal
Geographic Society of Great Britain, followed two years later by the
P.A. Chikhachev Prize of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris.

H 9'0 o. o 00 10 120
iso i
SC M C n ucc K
..J i44 u/" 0 < \ "4 <-o_ .. S.." .0," -'",y, ^o/i/i ,

SH- a O a "' A' T 1 9 0 I.
rP A 0., ., '. \
'P). as yaoo

90 Y"To.- K 100

His last Mongolo-Tibetan expedition took place during 1923-1926
(please see the map above of his travels, taken from the Great Soviet
?1. A if r f -V/y"A LUt' A b r^ M;.

er 195 0 195 390..
SCaKOCT RTnbHtie HaPupyTb n.K Kon |

j 1 H1 Y, P o F, pacIonoKX3KT3A-HommynNCKm
'E~m~x I- Ty KypraHos s 1923-1926 rr.
^l,'8 A^-^ 6. l M \ ^ r.Cy~ara BCHHb rpaHnMU.
90 ..1 gyt-Tiii- 8" ___ 00 _____ ii-

His last Mongolo-Tibetan expedition took place during 1923-1926 ^
(please see the map above of his travels, taken from the Great Soviet

Encyclopaedia, 2nd. edition, vol.21, p.546, Moscow 1953).


e4 .4'

Petr Kuz'mich died at Petrodvorets near Leningrad
* on 26 Sept.1935 and he has been featured on one
of the 40 kop. stamps issued on 15 Aug.1951 to
honour famous Russian scientists. This set of 16
stamps was one of the issues of 1946-1952 which
were reprinted during 1955-1957 from newly-made
plates. In the case of the Kozlov stamp, it thus .
exists in two distinct sizes: 22.5 x 33mm. and
21.5 x 32mm., as shown herewith. The first printing, properly used on a
card or cover on the first day of issue would be a desirable item.

As a child before WWII, your editor was fascinated by a richly
illustrated article in the February 1937 issue of "The National
Geographic Magazine", pp.179-197, entitled "Observing an Eclipse in
Asiatic Russia" by Dr. Irvine C. Gardner, leader of The National
Geographic Society-National Bureau of Standards Eclipse Expedition.

This solar eclipse, the timing of which had been calculated beforehand,
began in a narrow strip starting south of Italy, then across Greece and
the Soviet Union, to end over Japan. It was observed at Ak-Bulak in the
Orenburg province of the RSFSR, location 510 1' N & 550 39' E, i.e.
96 km. (60 miles) south-east of Orenburg on the railway line serviced
by TPO/RPO No.69 at the llth. station below the provincial capital.
Ak-Bulak means "White Spring" in Kazakh and it had a population of 9000
at the time of observation 9:16am local time (11:16pm the day before,
Washington time) on 19 June 1936. Ak-Bulak was selected as it was 17 km.
S (10% miles) from the centre-line of the eclipse, the totality of which
lasted 117 seconds. It tookapproximately one hour for the moon to
travel across and cover completely the disk of the sun. The centre-line
of the eclipse crossed The Trans-Siberian Railway five times. It should
be noted that an eclipse may be observed adequately anywhere along its


A Mongolian
cover sent by
him during that
trip from Ulan
Bator on 4 Oct.
1924 bears 20 c.
postage. It is
addressed in
his own precise
handwriting to
Komarov, an
academician and
Secretary of
the Russian
Society in
Note the name
of the sender
in the bottom
right corner.


i i-'.-'
'r ~
i,~ ::-.
c :~



centre line, but there is one particular point on that line where it may
be examined at its best. That was why Ak-Bulak was selected.

The main task carried out by Dr. Gardner was to photograph the eclipse
for the first time ever in colour, with a camera especially designed in
conformance with specifications laid down by the National Bureau of
Standards and using Dufaycolor film. The main scientific work carried
out by U.S. personnel was by a combined Harvard-Massachusetts Institute
of Technology Expedition at the site. The eclipse was observed by seven
Russians from Pulkovo Observatory, two Czechs from Praha Observatory (a
lady scientist Dr. B. Novakova and an unnamed student, both stationed
at Sara) and 22 Americans. Twelve of the latter were identified by Dr.
Gardner in his article, as follow:-

Professor Robert d'E. Atkinson of Rutgers University.
Professor Joseph C. Boyce of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Professor Wallace R. Brode of Ohio State University.
Dr. & Mrs Irvine C. Gardner of The National Geographic Society.
Henry Hemmendinger of The Harvard Astronomic Observatory.
Paul King of The Cruft Laboratory of Harvard.
Professor & Mrs Donald H. Menzel of The Harvard Astronomic Observatory.
(Professor Menzel was the head of the combined Harvard-M.I.T.Expedition).
J. A. Pierce of The Cruft Laboratory of Harvard.
A. Selvidge of The Cruft Laboratory of Harvard.
E. P. York of The Cruft Laboratory of Harvard.

Coincidentally, the noted Soviet writer Maksim Gor'kii had died on 18th.
June, the day before the eclipse and, after the event, there was a
special dinner given in Orenburg on 22 June 1936 in honour of the
astronomers visiting the USSR, with speeches in English, Czech and

iAs aCLI ~c pse EXPe D1T0N
U,3. ...R.



AL 'd" R". M D;

Your editor has been looking for years for Soviet covers from this
eclipse and had the great good luck to find one finally at the bourse
of CHICAGOPEX '91, as shown above. There are several interesting
features about this envelope, as follow. First of all, it was sent by
Carl H. Spriegel of Georgetown University, who could not have been more
helpful in giving his full address and function in the top left corner.

He is an addition to the Americans listed by Dr. Gardner and the cover,
prepaid at the correct foreign surface rate of 50 kop., was mailed on
8 June (11 days before the eclipse) from Kustanai. That town was the
terminus of the branch railway running from Troitsk and served by TPO/
RPO 347-348 and lay 550 km.(370 miles) east of Orenburg, but was
probably also on or near the centre line of the eclipse. Does anyone
know at this stage whether Mr. Spriegel was still in Kustanai when the
eclipse took place or had he joined the other Americans at Ak-Bulak? He
appears to have been a philatelist, as the Soviet stamps have been
carefully affixed in the top right corner and away from the edges of
the envelope, taking care to apply the best possible mixture of postage
available at the post office in Kustanai. Note also that the KUSTANAI
"g" canceller is of a typical Imperial Russian style and was still in
use 19 years after the 1917 revolutions.

The rarest pieces of mail would be from the two Czechs in Sara,
followed by items from the 7 Russians and 22 Americans at Ak-Bulak. It
would be important to know the identity of the ten unnamed Americans
and whether any expedition cachets existed. Everybody knows what
inveterate correspondents Americans are when in remote places and one
can imagine them writing home somewhat along the following lines:-
"Dear Mum,
Well, here I am in Soviet Central Asia and, wow, this solar
eclipse is really something!"

The U.S.A. is obviously the best place to look for further eclipse
covers and your editor would appreciate reports of finds from the CSRP
readership, so that a complete picture of this intriguing event can be
pieced together.

by Ladislav Cervinka.

(translated from the Czech original as given in "Informace Sekce SSSR
pfi TK S6SF" No.16/1986 and a further booklet by the author, entitled
"Doplatni Znamky SSSR", published in Prague, 1989 by The Union of
Czech Philatelists, with many thanks to both sources).

In April 1924, a 1-kop. postage due stamp was issued as an auxiliary
emission (CFA No.D 9). The imperforate 100-r. stamp of the 1921 "Symbols
of Labour" issue (CFA Nos.8, 8a) was utilised, being turned into a new
value by being surcharged with a handstamp reading "DOPLATA / 1 kop.".
Being a stamp with an overprint, it can then be assumed to have
philatelic varieties.

The overprint comes in three types, which can be distinguished
above all by the shape of the figure of value and the first
letter "A" of "DOPLATA".
Type I: The figure "1" has a distinctly slanting serif and is
weakly applied, while the first letter "A" in the word
"DOPLATA" has both sides of equal length. This is the
commonest type.
Type II: The figure "1" has a distinct horizontal serif and is
visibly applied more clearly, while the first "A" of "DOPLATA"
has the left side shorter than at right.
Type III: The figure "i" is 0.5mm. taller and the overall
height is 5mm. Both the "As" in the word "DOPLATA" are more
pointed, the first "A" being practically with a pointed tip.


Types I & II can be
recognized quite i-..
accurately, but that I, '.
is not the case for :i : ;i

an isolated '' either';
impression, which is '.*, .. ."
impossible to ]
eliminate either 71: :"
just as a chance d. : I '
occurrence or by any :
other evaluation. We -
must await further Type I. Type II. Type III.
discoveries for its proper determination.

A violet ink was used for overprinting, namely of a bright hue. In
accordance with the abundance of the ink, we can distinguish bright and
distinct overprints or, by contrast, barely legible impressions. It
depended basically on how the handstamp was moistened with the ink.
No other ink occurs for this overprint than the one noted above.

Since there existed colour shades from yellow to orange for the basic
100-r. stamp that was utilised, the same shades also appeared on the
1-kop. postage due stamp. In practice, it is possible to distinguish
three basic shades of colour: yellow, orange-yellow and orange. It is
obvious that there exist shades which cross over from one colour to
another, creating a whole range of colours from bright yellow up to dark

There were in essence two types of paper:-
(a) Ordinary paper (CFA No.8).
(b) Thin paper, somewhat approximating cigarette paper (CFA No.8A).

Considerable differences occur in the quality of the paper, but not
enough to cause varieties in the stamps of this issue. The stamps on
hand were printed in sheets of 200 units, separated into two parts by a
blank gutter, which occurs vertically in the middle of the sheet.
(Editorial Comment: The "Symbols of Labour" Soviet stamps of 1921 were
actually printed in panes of 25 [5 x 5] apparently arranged in four
vertical panes and first placed on the left-hand side of the paper.
These same four panes were then repeated on the right side, so as to
produce sheets bearing 200 stamps each. The post offices were then
supplied with smaller sheets of 50 stamps, containing left & right panes
side by side. The two separate printing operations can be proved, as the
primary flaws on the left-hand panes are also found in the same
positions on the right-hand panes).

(a) Inverted overprint (occurs on both types of paper). :
(b) Tete-beche pairs of the overprint (their existence is
reported in the 1985 edition of the Michel catalogue).
Going by the block of four stamps shown at the top of the next page, as
well as some pairs and even a considerable number of individual stamps
which have been compared, the very precise application of the overprint
is evident.


:i;- ----L..... : '":!.... "

: Types:

*-^" --- 7. ...L." J
........... .""'..'.......".......... ..."'......." ...... .' .

I. 1 L... .," .. .i .. .3 .. .. .

..T. ,.4!.I ---Ii -I-:I -j: l .

stamps in a horizontal position. It occurs shifted only slightly to
either side and vertical deviations are even less evident. Such
regularity as occurs on the stamps precludes any assumption of the
application of the overprint with a one-unit handstamp, whereby there
S would have been irregular placement of the overprint on the stamps.
In the block of four noted above at top left, we see overprints of
types I & II side by side and it is unlikely during overprinting that
anybody would have deliberately alternated the handstamp types and
given him or herself extra work in arranging them accurately. In
addition, the space between each application of the overprint is
always 7.5mm., which would have been difficult to achieve in practice
by individual application. We can thus now deduce that the individual
overprint types were arranged in a specific setting and then impressed
on the stamps. Finally, we have a further example, namely in the pair
at top right where there are overprints of type I, which confirms the

It is understandable that the process utilised for overprinted, namely
by hand, gave rise to various imperfections of impression. However, we

is irregular. The most frequent printing defects are missing parts of
the letter "P" in the word "DOPLATA". That position on the handstamp
was obviously set deeper than for the other letters.

According to several catalogues (Michel, Zumstein), forgeries exist of
this postage due stamp. However, all such notes in the catalogues are
limited to the laconic statement of their existence, without giving
* the particulars of the forged overprint more fully. Only in the 1972
Soviet handbook "Manual for expertising Soviet postage stamps" by Ya.
M. Vovin. is there a short paragraph about this forgery, where it is
noted as a forged overprint on the basic stamp. The forgery of the
overprint is characterized as quite crude and of local (i.e. Soviet)
overprint is characterized as quite crude and of local (i.e. Soviet)

-- origin. It generally occurs placed
------- inverted on stamps with ordinary
S''';' :'' paper, as well as on pelure paper.
0nn ATAi '' :'' '' The colour of the forged overprint
1---',OnjJT1.\" is somewhat brighter than that of
2- the genuine impression. In
3 "" : '" :"! comparison with the genuine
... overprint, the letters and numeral
|".-- :' of the forged overprint are
Sr i inaccurate. The main differences
-________ |between the forged and genuine
Genuine ovpt. Forged ovpt. overprints are as follow:-

(1) In the forgery, the left side of the letter "D" of "DOPLATA" is
curved outwards, while in the genuine overprint it is bent
slightly inwards.
(2) The letters "O", "P" & "T" are narrower than in the original.
(3) The figure "i" is visibly thicker, the serif placed lower and it is
longer. The genuine overprint has thinner numerals, with serifs
either of a short horizontal length or slightly aslant.
(4) The stop after "kop." is closer to the letter "p" than in the
genuine overprint. Of course, the character of the overprint is
such that the stop appears blurred and that difference makes it
difficult to take this variance into consideration.

It is apparent from the above that, in dealing with a forgery of local
origin, it is hardly likely that we will encounter it. Moreover, it is
necessary to bear in mind also that it occurs above all in inverted
overprints. Hence, it is important to be especially wary in such cases.

This postage due stamp was issued in April 1924 and was valid until
April 1925, when it was taken out of circulation. According to the 1984
edition of Postage Stamps of the USSR, it was in use only at the post
offices in Moscow and Petrograd. That means that cancelled postage due
stamps can only have postmarks of these post offices. Where there occur
other postmarks, they have either been applied by favour or they are

Bearing in mind.that the validity of this issue ended
S' in 1925 as already stated, the stamp has turned up
7, with clear datestamps of the Moscow post office,
;namely of the 16th. office with the distinctive serial
letter "r" and date 8.5.26, i.e. already more than a
year after this issue had been withdrawn from
circulation. That can be seen from the illustration
Sherewith at left.
NJh One sees the year 1925 on some further copies, but
S." ^ with the latest month still before April, when its
validity ended. From the foregoing, it can be assumed
that this postage due stamp was utilised until it lost its validity.

(1) All the Soviet catalogues of postage stamps of the USSR issued so far.
(2) Ya.M. Vovin: "Manual for expertising Soviet postage stamps",
Moscow, 1972.
(3) The Michel catalogues published in the Federal Republic of Germany.
(4) The Zumstein catalogues published in Switzerland.
(5) The LIPSIA catalogues published in the former German Dem. Republic.



i1 I1


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rn k.

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fqr nfl PITA


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,op q -ir r onrirr! r

Mr. dervinka was on the right track when he surmised that there must
have been a regular setting for this overprint, rather than the
haphazard application of individual handstamps. Your editor has a pane
of 25 of this provisional postage due stamp on pelure paper (see the
illustration above) and, upon examination, it is obvious that a
horizontal 5-unit handstamp was manufactured for overprinting, doing
one row at a time. That procedure follows the precedent set by the
Kiev II Trident and Khar'kov RUB overprints, which were also 5-unit
handstamps. It is also obvious from this pane that the handstamp was
made of rubber, so distortions were possible, depending on the amount
of pressure applied. Mr. Cervinka's type III appears to have been a
result of such distortion, as your editor can only distinguish two
basic Cervinka types in the 5-unit handstamp, arranged horizontally
as follow:-

Type II

Type I

Type I

Type I

Type I

If CSRP readers can come up with a more detailed classification, please
write in and give the particulars.

We now come to the existence of tete-beche pairs of the overprint, as
noted in the Michel catalogue. The term "tete-beche" refers to a stamp
or printing unit upside down in relation to its neighbour(s). We must
consider three such options in the case of the "DOPLATA/l kop."
overprint: (a) horizontal pairs, with the overprints upside down in
relation to each other (b) vertical pairs with the overprints placed
foot to foot, i.e. a normal overprint on the upper stamp and an
inverted overprint on the lower stamp and (c) vertical pairs with the
overprints placed head to head, i.e. inverted on the upper stamp and
normal on the lower stamp.

If we assume that the errors were not deliberate, we may eliminate
case (a) as all five stamps in a horizontal row would have been
overprinted with one impression and they would all have been in the
same position. Case (b) would have come about if the handstamp had been
applied inverted on any of rows two to five and case (c) if the
handstamp were inverted for the first row. In cases (b) and (c), the
minimum numbers of existing errors would have been five vertical pairs.
It would be interesting to know if any of our readers have such errors.


by George G. Werbizky.

I was fortunate to have corresponded a great deal with the late Michael
Rayhack who, in my opinion, had an outstanding, if not the best,
collection of South Russia. The gems from his collection were shown in
his article "Unlisted Varieties of South Russia" in "The Post-Rider"
No.17, pp.58-67. This present article is my attempt to enlarge on the
work of Michael Rayhack and, in a very small way, to pay tribute to
him. Those wishing to study further issues of South Russia should
consult the following references:-

(1) "Cumulative Subject Index" of most Russian philatelic publications,
3rd. edition, 1989, pp.92-93; published by The British Society of
Russian Philately.
(2) "The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923", Vol.3, The Armies, Parts
6-12, by Dr. R.J. Ceresa, 1988; published by the author.

The material in this article is arranged chronologically and follows
the Scott catalogue. All the stamps shown have been expertise by at
least the following experts: W. Pohl of Germany, Romeko of Paris, A.M.
Rosselevitch of Belgium & U.S.A., Z.S. Mikulski of Switzerland and Dr.
R.J. Ceresa of the U.K. Both Scott and Stanley Gibbons list 52 basic
stamps; Scott has 53 varieties and Gibbons generally agrees. With that
number of stamps, one would think that collecting all of the stamps of
South Russia would not be too difficult, especially if one limits
oneself to unused copies only. But that is not the case. If one
includes used and unused copies of every stamp and variety, then the
task becomes very difficult and, after more than 30 years of collecting,
I am still at it. It should be noted that some of the stamps exist only
unused, at least according to the catalogues. In general, used stamps
of South Russia, as well as other Civil War issues, are scarcer than
unused copies, even when cancelled by favour. My experience suggests
that all the stamps can essentially be found used if one also includes
those cancelled by favour.


E-i IJii 3 L3 I 0 >

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

It is safe to state that the original surcharge was meant to be placed
at the bottom of the stamp in the middle, so as to cover the original
denomination. It is found there most of the time. Fiq.l shows the "25"
in the usual position, as well as shifted upward and to the right,
both on Scott No.l. Dr. Ceresa distinguishes four types of this
surcharge and describes them completely in his book (reference No.l).
The inverted surcharge in Fig. 2 shows the "25" to be in the upper
left-hand corner. Michael Rayhack had in his collection the same stamp
with the inverted surcharge in the middle of the upper portion of the
stamp, i.e. an exactly placed inverted variety.

The "25" surcharge on the 2-kop. stamp Scott No.2 shows the same
overprint wandering about as on the previous stamp, including the
inverted variety (see Fig. 3). ____

Fig. 4. Fig. 5.
Scott Nos. 3 & 4 are shown in Fig. 4 with normal and inverted surcharges.
The "50" surcharge on the 7-kop. value seems to have escaped the fate
of having an inverted variety.
The imperforate 1-kop. stamps of the same issue are also found with
shifted and inverted surcharges, as shown in Fig. 5.

---Fig. 6.- Fig. 7.
Scott No.7, the "25" surcharge on the 2-kop. imperforate is known with
a double impression of the basic stamp as well as inverted; both are
shown in Fig. 6. Neither Scott nor Gibbons lists the double impression
with surcharge under South Russia, although the basic stamp is
catalogued under Russia by Gibbons as No.108a. The invert is listed by
the Michel catalogue only. I believe that it is shown here "in print"
for the first time.

The last stamp of this issue, the "25" surcharge on the 3-kop. imperf.
Scott No.8 does exist inverted, although that is not generally known,
nor do the catalogues list this variety. It is shown here in Fig. 7 on
the previous page, probably for the first time in a philatelic
magazine. Note that the inverted surcharge is in the middle of the stamp.

These overprints as designed were meant to obliterate the original value,
or use portions of the design if applicable, when properly positioned
on the stamps. However, the position of the surcharge is not constant
and thus minor varieties have come into existence. On Scott No.20, the
25/1 kop., the straight line was meant to obliterate the word ODNA (=
ONE, the "25" to be over the figure "1", with the KOP. in the design to
be retained. The overprinting technicians were successful for the most
part, but not always.
"4-"-- *. 1 ". '.- **.-


I io
Fig. 8. Fig. 9.
Fig. 8 shows low and high positions of the surcharge, as well as the
invert and another error: surcharged both front and back, with the
overprint also on the gummed side, as shown on the fourth stamp above.
So far, this is the only copy known and it is listed by Stanley Gibbons
under No.8b: "surcharge both sides" (the gummed side only is featured
here). Turning now to the next value 50/2 kop., it is worth while to
show an example in Fig.9 of the inverted surcharge Scott No.21a. The
perforated 70-kop. stamp Scott No.22 seems to be free of errors (that
is not the case for its imperforate variety; more later). Dr. Ceresa
reports minor varieties but no major errors such as inverts.

Fig. 11a.
Fig. 10.
--------- Fig. 10.----- ---- -*:F^-^-.

The one-rouble surcharge exists in two types, with thin and thick
numerals. Both surcharges were meant to be positioned over the "3" of
the basic stamp, but frequently without much success. See Fig.10 above
for the changing positions of the surcharge on Scott No.23. The
catalogues list inverted,double & double inverted ovpts.& Dr. Ceresa (ref.
No.2) illustrates some of them. The thick numeral "1" has shifted (see
Fig.lla), inverted and double surcharge varieties (Fig.llb on the next
page). The variety "pair, one without surcharge" probably occurred as a
result of a large shift of the surcharge. A minor variety is to be
found on the stamp at upper left in the inverted block shown in Fig.llb:
a broken numeral "1". This is position No.90 on the sheet and it also
exists in the non-inverted form. This broken numeral "1" deteriorated


further until finally the numeral "" "
looks like a large square period. All ...., ....a.. o
other stamps of this series exist
with inverted surcharges. The 10r./ -
15k. Scott No.26 is found doubly
* surcharged and with double surcharge
one inverted.

Dr. Ceresa states that the 3-rouble
surcharge "was only applied to 100
sheets of the 4-kop. perforated stamp
mostly in the carmine-red shade, a
few on bright pink" (ref.2, p.103).
Only one sheet presumably received an
inverted surcharge and the copy I Fig. llb.
have is in the pink shade. It isig. -
shown in Fig. 12. Scott says that the basic stamp is in rose, but I
think that it is in error and that Dr. Ceresa is right. Note the
position of .the inverted surcharge skewed to the right.

Fig. 12. Fig. 13.
In Fig. 13 we see the inverted surcharges listed by Scott as Nos.26b,
O 27b & 30a. The imperforate stamps of this set have a number of
varieties, such as inverted and doubly surcharged. The 50/2 kop. has a
minor variety of a wider "0" and the 1 r. has a variety of a comma
after the "p," instead of a stop.

i ii
-Fig 14 -- ..... ...:- .------
Fig. 14.
Thus, in Fig.14 we see a pair of Scott No.36, where the left-hand stamp
has the wider "0" variety, followed by a double surcharge and for the
Ir. value, the comma after p, and a double surcharge. Of the remainder
of this issue, one should mention Scott No.48a, the 10r./5-kop Savings
stamp. The second surcharge is misplaced downward with respect to the
basic surcharge and is less distinct than the latter.

The 70-kop./l kop. surcharge .... ....
imperforate has two varieties
as shown in Fig.15, i.e. I 0
inverted surcharge and doubly'i
surcharged, one inverted,
listed as Scott 46a & 46b. .-
The same surcharge was placed I 'o
on the 1-kop. Savings stamp
as a trial proof(Fig. 16) It is Fig 15.---
always inverted. The basic Fig. 15. Fig. 16.

stamp has a watermark of diamonds arranged horizontally. However, the
stamp with the 10-rouble surcharge is found with the watermark both
vertical and horizontal, not just vertical as the Scott catalogue says.


S5 K~n

- 35: on,
*'S f-'- -

;.35 Hon.

35 Hon.


C -

Fig. 17.


The Scott catalogue lists one variety under
No.51a:"comma instead of period in
surcharge", position 31. This variety is
not really a comma as on Scott No.38 (which
Scott does not list), but is an
imperfection or a piece of debris in the
period. It is not an error, but a
malfunction in the printing process, as the
tail of the comma hardly exists. The same
is true for the variety "absence of period"
in position 13. The period is there but it
is barely visible. A portion of the period
must have broken off, to create this
variety. Please see the illustration in
Fig.17 at left.

Fig.18 shows a strip of five with the surcharge shifted up to the top
of the stamps.

'HG efeplyprc 1H B1KAy :

." ,', .;., F: '*, .'.-.-.,."-.....\" '/,' .., .., ,' ': '
e -o A. V "I: ;'
I... V.- -'
.... '3' 5 :. : '

F";3 5 'A' H
C l e1o:6yrc : INote that the j lI

S. hand stamp is- '

,ariety. n ..- 3, '
"' -' '" '"""' ""FFF" ''F" : [ ''" C*':
r '-.: .- -'; .k,. .: *^ 1>1 -,

.. middle Fig. left- j ** -. ,^ ^ '-,
.. *: "' ':' ,. "* '"' h a n d s .. .. ... .. t-

S....... ..

Fgg1. 20 H
the "coma r'y' Z T.

-.. :';. -/ :i,, .a7 .
,.. .' ... ., ,: .. .. > .:. <.. .." ..' '4s '
";~,~;b : -i """ '' .":: "'" e":: "', ",v,". ,: ,:

As with most of the material of South Russia, postally used stamps on
cover are not plentiful. Fig.19 (front) and Fig.20 (back of a cover)
shown at the bottom of the previous page feature the largest known
block of this stamp on mail.

Fig. 22.

Fig.21 shows varieties of Scott Nos.53 & 54, the 5-rouble surcharge on
the 5 & 20-kop. Arms issue, including shifted, inverted and double
varieties. The 35-kop. Denikin stamp with the 5-rouble surcharge is
shown in Fig.22 as a normal copy and a doubly surcharged variety. It
is also believed that only one sheet existed with inverted surcharge.


Fig. 23. Fig. 24.

Fig.23 shows varieties of the 100 roubles/I kop. surcharge, namely
inverted on the imperf. stamp, doubled on the perforated stamp, as well
as an incomplete variety: 10 roubles.


The kopek values, which were printed in one colour with a single pass
of the press, have no varieties and printer's waste is unknown. The
70-kop. stamp does exist as a t2te-beche variety (Fig.24). Moreover,
the kopek stamps are rich in shades, from light to dark of the same

A curious item is the cover shown in Fig.25 overleaf, franked with a
pair of 70-kop. Denikin stamps. As the letter was handled by H.M.
Naval Postal Service, no charge was to be raised and it was received
in London on 24 Jan. 1920. Of interest to historians is the question
Sas to the nature and purpose of a Russian Officers' Camp in England.
Does anyone have any information about that matter?


Fig. 26.

The rouble stamps, which have the centres and values below in a
different colour than the rest of the design, have all sorts of
misprints: missing, displaced and double centres. I am sure that what
is shown here in Fig.26 is only a small sample of what is out there. I
do not have any varieties of the 3-r. value in my collection, but I
would be very surprised if they do not exist. It was the opinion of the
late A.M. Rosselevitch, a well-known authority on South Russia and
other Civil War issues, that these Denikin varieties were simply
printer's waste. Such varieties are unknown used on cover, but there is
one exception: a 5-r. Denikin on a piece of a money-order form, with
the centre and numeral of value missing (see "The Post-Rider" No.2,p.63
Philatelic Short by M. Rayhack). Before we leave this issue, a couple
more comments need to be made. Two kinds of paper and gum were used in
the manufacture of these stamps, both materials coming in white and
brownish grades. There was no consistency in the use of paper and gum
and one finds all possible combinations.

Finally, an unusual cover made out of 95 copies of the Ukrainian 20-sh.
definitive and with 17r. 95k. added in Denikin postage to pay the


*; Q'M





* Fig. 27.

registered postage from Evpatoriya 4.10.19 in the Crimea to Vernigorodok
in Kiev province. There is an illegible Nov.receiving mark on the back
and there appear to be two handwritten initials to the left of the
registration label. The bottom half of the 20-shahiv sheet (45 stamps)
formed the back of the makeshift envelope, but no attempt was made to
cancel the Ukrainian stamps, indicating that they were regarded as
invalid. See Fig.27 directly above for the opened-out cover.
If more varieties come to light as a result of this article, then those
of us who collect South Russia will be able to say "Mission
accomplished" I


V V-1

!rH wa.

--- ------------------------------------- ;---------------------------

By Alex Artuchov

I have had the priviledge of knowing Alexander Vladimirovitch for
the past ten or so years. He approached us at that time indicating
that his age was making it difficult for him to attend to the
ongoing maintenance of his subscription and that he accordingly
wished to resign. I discussed the matter with your Editor and
Secretary and we responded with an honourary lifetime subscription.

Since that time, I have maintained an ongoing contact with
Alexander Vladimirovitch and have had the occasion to visit him
several times. This charming gentleman of the old school and
extremely knowledgeable collector has expanded my philatelic
horizons and enriched my appreciation of the world of Imperial

For those unfamiliar with this unassumming gentleman, Alexander
Vladimirovitch was one of the original members of not only our
Society but, in fact one of the founding members of Rossica. His
Rossica membership was No. 4! He was an active member of that
Society for decades and served as its Vice-President for a good
number of years. Following the untimely death of Dr. Bondarenko-
Salisbury, Alexander Vladimirovitch consented to serve as President

Alexander Vladimirovitch was born in Russia on October 22, 1901. In
1920, while serving in the merchant marine he departed from
Feodosia, at the tip of the Crimean peninsula, on a routine voyage
to Constantinople. Upon arrival, they received the news that the
Crimea had just been occupied by Red forces. Alexander
Vladimirovitch has never seen Russia since. He initially spent
time with thousands of other White resistors in Turkish refuge
camps. In 1923, he arrived and settled in New York. He was employed
by Brinks for many years and retired in 1967.

As a collector and witness of the Russian Empire, Alexander
Vladimirovitch is richly endowed with a deep personal knowledge
of a place and time that younger collectors such as myself have
only tried to imagine and attempted to perceive. To this day, he
vividly recalls being whisked from the outside by his concerned
mother while curiosly watching an angry street scene relating to
the revolts and unrest of 1905.

In a recent article, the Rev. L.L. Tann discussed the first day of
issue of the Romanov Tri-Centenary issues. When recently discussing
the same topic with Alexander Vladimirovitch, I was amazed to learn
that he was already an avid collector at that time. He relates how
difficult it was to obtain the stamps because of the rush on the
post office and the fact that not all of the values were available
for sale to the public on January 2, 1913!

Alexander Vladimirovitch's philatelic friends included the likes of
Archangelsky, Chebotkevitch and Mangeley. To this day, he remains
particularly distressed about the tragic death of his friend Sergei
Vasilievitch Prigara and cherishes his copy of "The Russian Post in
the Empire, etc" which was one of the first copies sold and
personally dedicated to him by Prigara.

Alexander Vladimirovitch in
his school uniform, 1919.

At the foot of the Cathederal of
Sts. Vladimir and Olga, near
Lakewood, New Jersey, 1987.

In a recent conversation, I asked Alexander Vladimirovitch about
his views on recent events in the USSR. "I'm very suspicious", he
replied, "I'm a White resistor, you know". The Canadian Society of
Russian Philately wishes Alexander Vladimirovitch health,
prosperity and MNOGOYE LETA !


by Ya. Afangulskii

The concern expressed in the editorial for this issue of "The Post-
Rider" about attempts to rewrite history is justified and examples
emanating from Roumania are now given.

The official organ of the Roumanian Philatelic Federation is the monthly
magazine "Filatelia". It has, of late, been publishing some subjective
articles about the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
on 28 June 1940. The authors of these articles have conveniently
forgotten to mention that the Kingdom of Roumania initiated the problem
by annexing Bessarabia from a distracted Russia in January 1918 and
detaching ALL of Bukovina from a prostrate Austria by the Treaty of
Saint Germain in September 1919, even though Northern Bukovina was
solidly Ukrainian in population. The Kingdom would have taken even more
territory at that time from its neighbours, but was restrained by its
victorious fellow allies.

One only has to read the works of Roumanian writers to see that the
ruling circles in the past have always been very authoritarian. Putting
it another way, the population under Roumanian rule has far too often
been very badly governed in the past and not just by the Communists.
Let us look at one incident, reported in the world press at the time
and which took place in the Ukrainian village of Yedyntsi in Northern
Bessarabia in 1919, when the following public notice was posted a bare
year after the Roumanian annexation:-

"The population of Yedyntsi must greet Roumanian officers in the
following manner:
1. Every pedestrian must stop, turn to face his superior and, with a
pleasant smile, remove his hat and bow low to the ground.
2. To teach the population strict adherence to the above order, my cap
will be borne through the streets at certain hours of the day and
greeting it in accordance with article 1 of the present order is
compulsory for everyone.
Captain Dumitru, Garrison Commander of Yedyntsi.
Elefterescu, Chief of Police".

When people in North America complain nowadays of discrimination, they
do not know what they are talking about!

All these events have had an impact on the philately of the area and we
will now consider just one case: the story of Yakiv Yakovych Antypov,
alias Pavlo Tkachenko. He was a Ukrainian,born 1901 at Novo-Savyts'ka in
the Tyraspil' district of Left-Bank Moldavia. By 1919 he was involved
in a armed revolt against Roumanian rule at Bendery (Tighina) in
Bessarabia, for which he was sentenced to death in absentia. He was
tracked down in 1921 and expelled from Roumania the following year. He
was subsequently accused of being one of the instigators of the revolt
at Tatar-Bunar on 15-16 September 1924 in Southern Bessarabia. One of
the authors in "Filatelia" states that this uprising was fomented by
the Comintern to dismember Roumania but, as the army arrested more than
800 persons there, one can only only conclude that the revolt must have
had considerable popular support. Anyway, Tkachenko returned illegally
from abroad and was arrested in Bucharest on 15 August 1926. The
article in "Filatelia" says that he was shot dead on 10 September 1926
while trying to escape. However, the world press at the time was able
to determine that he had been sent by train under guard to ChiSinau

(Kishinv.), taken off by gendarmes at Visterniceni, the last ....
station before the destination and shot in the back. After
the event, his name was included in the list of political
prisoners next up for trial. As the Viennese newspaper "Der
Abend" acidly remarked at the time: "He was murdered and
then tried". The writer of this present article would
like to emphasize that he has no sympathies for the
activities of Pavlo Tkachenko (he was a leading member of
the banned Roumanian Communist Party) but wants to make the
point that, regardless of his political convictions, this
young man was executed/murdered at the age of twenty-five -----
without due process of the law. The same excuse of being shot dead
while trying to escape was used again by the Roumanian authorities on
30 November 1938 when the notorious leader of the Iron Guard, Corneliu
Codreanu, was murdered near Ploesti.

The 25th. anniversary of the death of Pavlo Tkachenko was
commemorated by Roumania on 15 December 1951 with a 10-lei stamp in
black-olive, as illustrated above. A special cancellation and a
maximum card inscribed "PAVEL TCACENCO/EROU AL TINERETULUI/1926-1951"
(Pavlo Tkachenko/Hero of the Youth) were also utilised. This stamp is
rare postally used as the face value only covered the fee for picking
up articles of mail at the Poste Restante (General Delivery) counters
at post offices. There were 1,847,500 copies printed, being in use
only until 28 January 1952, when 1,547,000 were surcharged "10 bani",
due to the currency reform that took place then. Thus, only a maximum
of 300,000 copies of the original commemorative can exist.

In a further article in "Filatelia" reporting an interview with
Constantin Ciobanu, the first vice-president of the Association of
* Philatelists of the Republic of Moldova (Moldavia), he makes some
strongly nationalistic comments and complains about Soviet chauvinism.
One would never know from his observations that a good third of the
population in his republic is non-Moldavian and that he himself had
the right and privilege of being educated in his native language.

The harsh geographic facts of life are that Moldavia and Roumania are
Latin islands in a Slav sea. This writer would respectfully suggest
to the publishers of "Filatelia" that, while they now have the complete
freedom to print what they want, it is ABSOLUTELY VITAL that they
remain on good terms with their Russian and Ukrainian neighbours,
philatelically and otherwise. The last thing that anyone of us would
want to see in Eastern Europe is a repetition of the dreadful tragedy
now taking place in Yugoslavia.


by Andrew Cronin.

Vsevolod Fedorovich Rudnev (19/31 Aug.1855 to 7/20 July 1913) was
born in the Venev district of Tula province and eventually rose to
the rank of rear-admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy. He was
promoted to Captain of the First Rank in 1901 and made commander of
the finest Russian cruiser "Varyag" in 1902, one year after it was
commissioned. On 24 Jan./6 Feb.1904 Japan broke off diplomatic
relations with Russia and the Japanese fleet sailed into the Yellow
Sea on a war footing. Three days later, Captain Rudnev, whose ship
together with the Russian gunboat "Koreets" were anchored in the
neutral Korean port of Inchhon (Chemulpo) with American, English,

French and Italian vessels, received an ultimatum from the newly arrived
Japanese Rear-Admiral Uryo that the Russian ships should leave the
harbour by 12 noon that day, as a state of war now existed between the
two countries. The Russians were badly outnumbered, as Uryo had an
armoured cruiser, 5 light cruisers and 8 minelayers at his disposal.
Vsevolod Fedorovich decided to leave for Port Arthur and an unequal
battle between the two navies broke out at 11:50am, in which 1 Russian
officer and 30 sailors were killed. A further 85 sailors and 6 officers
were wounded, including Captain Rudnev. One Japanese minelayer was sunk
and two cruisers damaged but, as the odds against him were too great,
Vsevolod Fedorovich ordered the "Koreets" to be blown up, also opening
the Kingston valves on the "Varyag" so that it sank. He was the last man
to leave the ship in a sloop and all the survivors were picked up by the
neutral ships in Inchhon harbour. The crews eventually returned to
Russia through neutral ports and were given a hero's welcome on arrival.

In recognition of his courage, Captain Rudnev was awarded the Order of
St. George 4th. Grade and given the title of aide de camp to the Tsar.
The "Varyag" was refloated and refitted by the Japanese for their navy
and given the new name of "Soya". The Imperial Russian Government bought
it back from the Japanese in 1916 and, on.the way home, it stopped in
England for repairs. After the October Revolution broke out, the vessel
was seized by the Royal Navy. It finally sank in the Irish Sea in 1918.

The Soviet Government regarded highly the bravery of the crew of the
"Varyag" and by decrees of 8 Feb. & 24 Aug.1954, the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded the medal "3A OTBAPY" (For Daring) to
the surviving sailors. This medal is shown on a 60-kop. typographed and
and a 1-rouble engraved stamps, issued between June & September 1946. It
was first instituted on 17 Oct.1938. A bust of Vsevolod F&dorovich was
then placed on a monument to him in the village of Savino, Zaokskii
district of Tula province. The story of the legendary cruiser "Varyag"
is also commemorated in a popular Russian song of the same name.

Varyag is a very old Russian word, whose precise origin has not yet been
determined, but it has been applied to mean the Varangians, who were
Scandinavian soldiers serving the Russian princes in the 9th. to llth.
centuries A.D. It also means a peddler, who buys goods for resale, once
again referring to the activities of Scandinavian merchants in old Rus'.

A multicoloured 40-kop. stamp honouring Captain Rudnev and the "Varyag"
was issued on 25 March 1958 (almost 45 years after his death) and
printed by the offset process with a total of 1,500,000 copies. Your
editor first drew attention to its varieties some 20 years and this
information has reappeared in a short article by F. Teplov in "Philately
of the USSR", 2/1991, pp.47-49. Printed in sheets of 50 stamps (10 across
by 5 down), the original variety occurred on position No.9 (the second-
last stamp in the top right row), with the bottom left leg of the
Cyrillic letter "H" broken thus: H, so that it now spelt RUDCHEV in
Russian. Your editor has it in a position pair with normal and also the
same way on a registered cover sent from Klaipeda, Lithuania, 3.10.58 to
England. Please see the illustration on the next page.

This variety is not too hard to find, as the technicians only noticed it
after a substantial part of the printing had been completed. A
corrective retouch was then applied by hand to that position on the
printing plate, the evident and not completely successful repair being
much scarcer than the original variety. It is shown on the next page and
is well worth looking for.
Those are not the only varieties to be found on this stamp. Your editor


(Broken Cyrillic "H", thus: H).!


(The Cyrillic letter now as "i") DOUBLE IMPRESSION OF

also has this stamp mint with a distinct doubling of the green colour,
one impression lighter than the other and affecting the frame,
inscriptions and indication of value. It was probably caused by the
vibration of the press during printing and at least one sheet of 50
stamps would have been affected. Please see just above at right.
It would be useful to know if other varieties exist on this
interesting stamp. 67


by Allan L. Steinhart

First, a short dose of
history. With the onset / I
of the February 1917 ..
revolution, the tc
Czechoslovak iPOWs in
Russiawere freed to form.
a corps of about -.
40,000 men, mostly .
stationed in the .
Ukraine. By Feb. 1918, .
the German army was ".
advancing thereto,' .
forcing the Russians to .
sign the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk on 3 Mar. -.
1918. The Czechoslovaks I
moved up into Central .
Russia, where they were i ,
regarded as a problem \~ .,
by the Bolsheviks. It .-
was then suggested that
they leave their arms .7
behind and return to
the European theatre of
war by going across "'":
Siberia to Vladivostok. .
Armed hostilities broke ''t.
out between the
Bolsheviks and Czecho- i
slovaks on 26 May 1918 n ,
and the legionnaires .
fought their way along
the Trans-Siberian :
Railway to Vladivostok,
which they seized on Z 1
29 June. They then sent 7 ... .'
detachments westwards ,
to reinforce their ,
comrades strung out .
between the Volga river .
and Vladivostok. By 4th
August 1918, the United
States had reluctantly
taken the decision to
participate in a. .
Siberian expedition
together with Japan, partly to help the legionnaires. The U.S. sent 9000
men and Japan 12,000. By the end of the year, the Japanese had 70,000
men in the Russian Far East and there were contingents of Britons,
Canadians and other allies.

A lot of information can be deduced from a double-censored cover of the
Civil War period shown here. It was addressed in Russian and French in
typical Teutonic handwriting (from a possible former Austrian or German
POW?) to the International Bureau of Peace in Berne, Switzerland, "via
Vladivostok to America". We thus know that the way was open at that time

for Siberian mail going abroad via Vladivostok and the letter was sent
franked with a pair of 20-kop. Arms from Zairkutnyi Gorodok in the
Irkutsk province on 29.9.18 (the "a" postmark for this office is listed
by P.E. Robinson in his "SIBERIA" postal history, 2nd. edition under
No.411.2 with a "C" indication of rarity). The Soviet rate for a letter
going abroad had dropped from 35k. to 25k. on 15 Sept.1918, but we can
see that that was still unknown or even ignored in the Irkutsk province,
where the postal rates of the White authorities were presumably

We now come to the problem of the censor tapes. Looking at the front of
the cover, the one affixed at right is a distinctive type inscribed
"Opened /by/ Censor 5" and I cannot identify it. Logically, it is
either English or American and presumably applied at Vladivostok. Can
anyone of our readers pinpoint the origin and location of this tape?
The one affixed at left is easy; it is a Canadian type and C.444 was
at Vancouver, British Columbia. That allows us to deduce that the
letter went by way of Vladivostok, then by ship across the Pacific to
Vancouver, overland across Canada to an eastern seaport and finally by
sea and land to the destination.

The cover is a very early example of the Allied Intervention in the
Russian Civil War in Siberia.

(Some footnotes to the 1932 "2nd Polar Year" issue)

by Ivo Steyn.

* Well, after articles called "The Curious Case of Uncle Arthur" ("The
Post-Rider" No.17) and "The Return of Uncle Arthur" ("The Post-Rider"
No.20), any article on the same subject should have a title in the same
style, even if the venerable Uncle Arthur does not make an appearance
in this contribution. To recapitulate the excellent investigative work
of Pat Campbell in the articles mentioned above:

The stamps of 50 kopeks (Air-express rate for a postcard) and 1 rouble
(Air-express rate for a letter) issued for the 2nd. International Polar
Year often occur on special cards/covers allegedly flown from Franz
Josef Land (see "The Post-Rider" No.16) to Arkhangel'sk. Such items
were prepared for or by at least two German subscription services and
usually bear the following postmarks:-
ARKHANGEL'SK 28.8.32 I or VIENNA 1.9.32
Pat Campbell was able to show that this special flight never took place.
That has an interesting consequence: the "Franz Josef Land" postmark
must have been applied in Arkhangel'sk to mail from Franz Josef Land.

Two curious exceptions to this pattern are the cards sent by Uncle
Arthur, in all probability an employee either of DERULUFT or DORNIER,
who found himself in Franz Josef Land on 21/22 August and wrote two
postcards to relatives in Berlin. These cards have as postmarks:
and are also franked with the 2nd. International Polar Year issue. All
Sthe above items bear in addition a cachet in red advertising this
mythical flight.

I can add the following footnotes:-
1. To start with the trivial, items bearing this issue tend to come in

pairs. That is only logical; people availing themselves of one of the
German subscription services would have ordered both the card bearing
the 50-kopek stamp and the cover bearing the 1-rouble value. It is
therefore not unusual to see these pairs of entire still together in a
(different) collection after 60 years.
2. I know of two covers bearing both values of the set, thus overpaying
t-he air-express rate for letters by 50 kopeks. One is in the collection
of G. Adolph Ackerman, the other is illustrated herewith (see Fig. 1).

Fig. .

F ig. 1 .,: .^.... .. ... .... .. ... ^ -. "--.
.MocKBa, rMaB r HomrMTr

nowromati x xKt IKF 813


nO4 .TA- ,,.." .,
Fi 2.32
Par avion

Fi IIEP8hD.B03S ilhul/1aPffd PE)C 2.i2
Fig. 2.
t '*.i_^r J ipt^%Ji Mt3iltoMi3-

Fig. 2. ..


Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 4.

I would guess that such covers could not have been obtained by German
subscribers and thus occur only with Soviet addresses, as Mr.
Ackerman's cover is also addressed to Moscow, but any inference based
on a sample of two is sort of wobbly, to put it mildly.
3. I have three other covers to Moscow addresses, illustrated on the
two preceding pages (Figs.2-4). Together with the cover in Fig.l they
provide the following useful information:-
The covers arrived in Moscow on 30.8.32 at 1 pm. (Fig.5).
The Moscow arrival marking reads: "received by airmail".
Figs.3 & 4 also have a postmark reading MOSKVA 92/SOKOLNICHESKII.
All the envelopes are of the same kind.
In two cases, the addresses were written before the stamps were
added, so there were no ex post facto concotions!
4. On one cover (Fig.4), the postal clerk was kind enough to add a
second strike of the "Franz Josef Land" postmark. That proves the Uncle
Arthur cards were not the only items to get that treatment. However,
since the postmark looks very crisp in Fig.4, we might speculate
whether this practice might not have been abandoned after a few of the
(Soviet) subscription cards and resurrected later for the Uncle Arthur
5. The inks used for the FJL postmark and for the two Arkhangel'sk
markings (serial letters "v" & "z") are all different. The FJL postmark
is in black ink, the Arkhangel'sk "v" mark in grey and the Arkhangel'sk
"z" marking is in an intermediate grey-black shade. I could not detect
any colour differences in the triangular cachets.
6. It appears that the Arkhangel'sk-Moscow leg of the trip took only
two days and was by aircraft. That makes it even stranger that the
Uncle Arthur cards took one month to reach their destinations. Since
the cards were written in FJL and since Pat Campbell states that it
must have taken at least 5 days to reach Arkhangel'sk from FJL, the
26.8.32 date in the FJL postmark (applied at Arkhangel'sk; see above)
is almost surely fraudulent. In fact, we might wonder if this
particular postmark did not have a fixed date. The actual date of
arrival in Arkhangel'sk must have been around 28 August or even later
and the card may have missed the plane to Moscow. I do not know if
there was a regular plane service between Arkhangel'sk and Moscow by
that time, but it seems likely. The only remaining explanation for the
long travelling time of the Uncle Arthur cards is therefore that they
did not travel by air after reaching Arkhangel'sk. Since neither card
carries a "Par Avion" label as the other cards do, it is possible that
they were accidentally sent on by surface mail to Berlin.

Hmmm. All this Arctic skullduggery makes me wonder about some of the
other Polar entire from this period. I wonder if those "Malyguin Ice-
breaker" postmarks also resided in Arkhangel'sk at one time or another.
If the SFA was capable of a piece of "maskirovka" as with the 2nd.
International Polar Year, who knows how many other pranks they played
on unsuspecting philatelists, both in and outside the USSR!

Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there o
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some .*
newly acquired item ?
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !

Robert Taylor, California, U.S.A.
Addenda to "Soviet Airmail Labels" pp.17-25.
The following items have come to light since the article was written:-

N 1935 Georgia (Tiflis: earliest noted use 28 Oct.1935).
t 9J 4 Batum : earliest noted use 8 Mar.1937).
't(1 Red on bluish-gray, imperf.


;*. i nQOTOllh, %
S.. -: 1938 Leningrad (earliest noted use 24 July 1938).
'.PARAVION 'Black on tan, imperf.
Michael Renfro, California, U.S.A.
Soviet Postal History 1945-1991
This is a letter to get the CSRP behind a project to deal with Soviet
postal history after WWII. Most areas of the Russian sphere in Imperial
times have been covered. A few areas in the post-revolutionary period
have been handled (the Baltics for example), but of the post-WWII era -
nothing. There are about 46 years to deal with (1945-1991).

My idea is for the relevant study groups (CSRP, BSRP, Rossica, ANZSRP,
Russland-UdSSR Study Group and the various republican societies, esp.
in the Baltic area) to consolidate the information in their possession
* and publish the results, whether via handbooks or as articles in their
magazines. My best guess is that the focal point for any given area
should probably be in the West, just because things are so unsettled in
the Soviet Union. Some areas possibly fall naturally to people with
expertise in a particular field (e.g.: P.T. Ashford for Transcaucasia;
P.E. Robinson Siberia; A. Cronin Moldavia) but the focus does not
have to be that, just the time to deal with the input. I had hoped that,
with the apparent reforms in the USSR, all this material would
eventually come to light. We may now have a window to find out things
and I think we should take advantage of the situation.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The CSRP takes pride in the fact that it has published
in "The Post-Rider" probably a greater proportion of articles on post-
WWII Soviet postal history than any of the other Russian specialist
societies and that trend will continue as more information is processed
for publication in the future. However, the magnitude and scope of the
task is enormous. The Soviet Union has at present about 80,000 post
offices and agencies, at least 15,000 of which are situated in a
republic the size of the Ukraine (population about 52 millions). It may
now come about that the various republican philatelic federations will
start delving into their local postal history and we in the West will
probably find that the most rewarding field for study would be the
immediate liberation period of 1944-1945. Examples of such mail
addressed abroad are available and it behooves us to keep an eye out
for such historic and scarce material.

SIvo Steyn, Amsterdam, Holland.
Postal & Telegraphic Branch: Halyts'kyj Bazar
In 1970, the late Dr. Leonid Kvetan-Chenakalo illustrated a pair of
wonderful registered covers in The Rossica Journal No.79. Those covers

introduced us to
the postmarks of
Ukrainian) and
MARKET), also I
bilingual. The.'' -
regn. label of
the first cover
also showed its
unusual origin: '
BAZAR P.-T. '.._"' "'1-

the 2nd. cover n V
FILY wfhl anRHNvn 6asap
had a more I ..-r.,nii. 6,3
humdrum regn. ..--.
label of this
4th. town post 1/. .( :mC k/
office. I can
show a further
.member of this
odd group of /a A I
offices, this
time a reg.
cover from KYTV HALYTS'KYJ BAZAR. I cannot find the word "Halyts'kyj" in
my dictionary. As stated by the then editor of The Rossica Journal,
these markets flourished under the enlightened New Economic Policy, but
probably vanished at the end of the 1920s, when Stalin's command economy
was introduced. This cover, dated 2.?8?27, was sent to the President of
the Borisov Region in Belorussia and forwarded to the Regional Court in
Minsk. The Borisov postmark is also bilingual and reads BORISOV BELOR.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The name means Galician Bazaar or Market and it has
been referred to by two Kievan philatelists Lev Stepkovs'kyj and Viktor
Mohylnyj, writing in the magazine "Ukrayins'kyj Filatelistychnyj Visnyk"
during 1989-1991. Mr. Stepkovs'kyj reveals that it was established in
May 1898 as the Kievan City Postal Otdelenie No.2. It subsequently
functioned as Otdelenie No.5 at the corner of Malo-Volodymyrs'kyj and
Dmytrivs'ka St. No.94/6 working as Halyts'kyj Rynok during the Civil
War. The street names and its title were probably changed with the
introduction of the command economy and it is interesting to speculate
whether it received a Ukrainian postal index number in 1932 (the first
postal code system in the world).

PETER BYLEN, Westchester, U.S.A.
Two Interesting Soviet Ukrainian Items.
(a) The first example, at the top of the next page, is a money transfer
card with the stamps revalued by manuscript at Cherkassy, Kiev province,
on 30 Apr.1920. The revaluation was at 100 times face (1 kop.= Ir.;
10 shahy = 5r. & 20 shahy = 10r.). No listings in the literature record
a 1-kop. for Cherkassy revalued without a trident and, to my knowledge,
this is a first report.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: This beautiful item bears two unrecorded Postmaster
Provisionals for Cherkassy: Ir./lk. & 10r./20 shahy. The two revaluations
listed hitherto were 5r./10 shahy & 20r./40 shahy. The total amount paid

( A '
ma o, ...

f. GrOPnTh. CYMMY-,PYfl8& -npoflHcbio. I XOntfxxk uWJ)PMl).
N.AP HU fl -~ia #APOC, -noAY'1aTOJUC
.... ......

A/ .~44 i .

H /4.b o o HeRY


as c
to K
It i
is a
to h
by tJ


'7 1. 0__

.M2 2 7 3 *t t
*, m: -m HAP

H. A ~ Ir I.D M
P "

W F-* 0MA I

commission on
money transfer
shown here
36 roubles,
2% of the
nt being
smitted from
kassy 30.4.20
azan' 1.7.20(!)
s important
ialists to
the Soviet
od, where
issues were
rded as
phy" stamps
still valid
postage. It
Iso pertinent
ave a
ledge of the
et postal
s as covered
these stamps,
lued or
rwise. An
ple of the
er is shown
in a reg.
letter from
the Cronin
to a stamp
club in
Moscow, the
rate seems
=50k. for a
letter over
15gr. weight
plus the regn.
fee. Sent
from Kiev
31.5.19 and
|received in
Moscow on
on 5.6.19
while Kiev
was still in
Details of
other trophy
usages would
,be welcome.



(b) The next item
requires a bit of .- : .. .
explanation. The I..'-.: ''
cover bears a -. '
single 7500r.1922 ;I -
Kylv provisional ", :.:", .:.L,/^ .
on a local letter .;-.:.',
mailed 15 March. :
The local rate : ; .
was 5000r., the '* ; ..
domestic rate ..:.: z: .... -;,
being 7500r. But ., ,
Karlinskii says :
that "according .-.
to several
sources in the
press, another ;; '
series of rates 0 ......- '
was in effect in '..-; .'
March 1922". ." ',"
Those sources ; ;,, ,...
quoted a rate of ..... ..
6000r. for a ,.~, ... ,.
local letter. .;"..'
Under that rate, Z,-,
a double-weight ~, \ :-. ;-*- :'.
letter would i '"
have been" '- --.'- .
12,000r. With .:', -'.'
7500r. paid by ,,/ -
the single stamp, r'- ..w : "
the letter was :"
deficient 4500r. ii- ',
At double the T ." /
deficiency, the ?.X:..
total postage due V',",". ,
would have been -;si. ;
9000r., as shown k.'.; 4
in the oval ~
postage due mark .,..., -,:. ,: .
on the front. "--. "
Official or not, .-,-. ,. .:.,<."
the postmaster. ....
believed "sources 6
in the press"

Rev. L.L. Tann, Edgbaston, England.
A 1922 Romanov.
The postcard illustrated at the top of the next page might easily be
passed over as a scrappy item of no interest. It was mailed from VORONEZH
14.8.22 and addressed to Nikolai Beloborodov in Andrijevica, Montenegro.
It passed through Moscow on 16 August, as witnessed by the machine
postmarks on the back. The card is an imprinted 4-k. Romanov with added
postage: 27k. made up from Arms stamps, all perforated except for the 2k.
at bottom left. We must assume that the imprinted 4k. design was not
counted and that the card was considered merely as a blank. The blot on
the features of Peter the Great might have been done by some


........ ... ..-... ,.. ... ..the ancientn

OT*. re PISq TAE regime".
'. A "PONSE According to the
catalogue, Vol.2
R^ .".p.26, the
S-... .. various postal
7.. period 15 Apr.to
1 Oct.1922 were
as follow:-
SPostcard 20,000r.

.. Inland 50,000r.
__e. t letter
._____." -. ". ..." Reg.fee 100,000r.
Perhaps our
respected editor, or members specialising in postal rates will be able to
rationalise the face value of 27k. for a postcard going abroad at that
period. It was our editor who, some time ago, challenged us to find late
uses of the Romanov issue. While this item might not count officially as
an example, it is a Romanov card used in August 1922.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Your editor is stumped by the rate paid. Does anyone
out there have an explanation?
* *



format issued in the spring of 1991 by The British Society of Russian
Philately. All enquiries to the Hon.Secretary, N.J.D. Ames, Freefold
Priory, Freefolk, Whitchurch, Hants RG28 7NL, England.

This issue contains an Editorial; "The Marks for SPB Local Railways", by
I.L.G. Baillie (very useful, except for "presumed" data from Oleg Faberge
collection);"Lodz-Koliushki Railway" & "Postal Wagon Registration", by
J.G. Moyes (both excellent);"Batum under Occupation", by G.G. Werbizky;
"Stamp & Postcard Revaluations in Soviet Republics", by A. Epstein;
"Russian Aviation & Philately", by V. Sheppard;"Lithuanian Chronicle" &

"Rehabilitation of Stalin's Victims", both by Ivo Steyn, to end with
Literature Reviews. A wide range of subjects covered here!

volume of 400 pages in A5 format, issued on 27.9.91 by Stanley Gibbons
Publications Ltd., Parkside, Ringwood, Hants BH24 3SH, England at i16.50
plus 95.00 postage (a total of approximately US$37.00).

This work is already the leading catalogue in our areas of collecting and
the 4th. edition has added the issues of the Czechoslovak Legion in
Siberia and the Polish Posts in Belorussia (1918) & USSR (1942) to the
listings. Batum has been thoroughly rewritten by our subscriber, P.T.
Ashford, an acknowledged expert in the field. There are many price rises
throughout and Latvia & Lithuania have been revised extensively. The
CSRP is listed among the addresses of the specialist societies.
This reviewer feels that a start should now be made to include the
Postmaster Provisionals of 1918-1922 and the Zemstvo issues. The task is
formidable but, once completed, we will then have a philatelic
encyclopaedia of our spheres of interest.

THE ROSSICA JOURNAL No.117 for October 1991. A 64-page journal of The
Rossica Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to Gary A. Combs,
8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, Maryland 21108, U.S.A.

This issue contains Life of the Society; Editorial; 1843 Post Convention
Austria-Russia, trans. by D. Skipton; Swiss Woman's Cypher, by D. Skipton;
Soviet Duck Labels, by D. Skipton & L. Finik; 1872 Postal Treaty Italy-
Russia, by Dr.H. Weinert; Received from Automated Mail Box, by M. Kosoi,
trans. by G. Combs; The Caboose-Almost, by G. Combs; Red Cross Charity
Cards (excellent!), by J.G. Moyes; Russian Deltiology, by Dr.W.R. Nickle;
Questions of a Cover, by M. Ercolini; Siberian Spa Resorts, by P. E.
Robinson; Fake CHINA Overprints, by N. Epstein; Siberia-New Varieties &
Mail for Ostarbeiters in WWII, both by G.G. Werbizky (in the 2nd.article,
Velykodnyj is the Ukrainian adjective for Easter); Call to Arms, by L.
Finik; USSR 8th.Standard Issue, by L. Aronin, trans. by R.A. Dallair;
Persian Consular Office in Baku, by Dr. G. Torrey, to end with the Rossica
Library, listing of new members, adlets and advertisements. Something
for everybody here!

TIIORTA No.10 for June/July 1991. A 60-page magazine in A4 format of The
Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately, edited by Dr.A.R.
Marshall. All enquiries to the Secretary/Treasurer Terry Archer, 313
Mahurangi East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. Annual
subscription (membership/journal/newsletter) now NZ$35.00 or US$20.00.

This issue contains an Editorial; Correspondence Russia-Australia & NZ;
Readers' Pages; Joint Australia-USSR Antarctic Issue-reprint from Stamp
News; Expertising Marks, by G.G. Werbizky; Imperial Russian Airmail 1915,
by S. Bofarull; Local Admn. Handstamps on Postal Forms, by A. Epstein;
Soviet Space Station Salyut 7, by D. Gallagher; Mechanised Mail Sorting,
by D. Smitham; Suggested Logo, by M. Filipovi6; M/S "Mikhail Lermontov",
by I. Cameron; Bilingual Russian-Persian Censor Marks 1916-1917, by N.R.
Banfield; From Russia with Love, by J. Campbell; Azerbaijan, Postcard
Overprint, Famine Relief Postcards, Russian Deltiology, Numismatics &
Oval TPO Markings, all by Dr.A.R. Marshall; Imperial Patriotic Postcards,
by T. Archer; Romanov Jubilee & Looking at Wrappers, both by L.L. Tann;
Soviet Postal Stationery, by A. Ilyushin, to end with Literature received.
An excellent journal!

AND CARDS), by Martin Holmsten. A 95-page softbound booklet 17 x 25 cm.

in size and published by Oy Rurik Ltd., PL 432, SF-65101 VASA, Finland.
Obtainable from the above address for US$35.00 or Can.$43.00 in
banknotes only, as bank charges are high for cheques, drafts etc.

The title of the book is self-explanatory and about half the contents
is devoted to the usage of Russian stamps in Finland. The pricing is in
Finnish marks and this work, with its many illustrations, will help
collectors to evaluate their postal items in every possible combination,
including perforation varieties. The book is multilingual and the
English text is understandable. A good guide for the specialist.

KRIEGSGEFANGEN 6sterreicher und Ungarn als Gefangene der Entente 1914
bis 1921, Band 1 (PRISONERS OF WAR Austrians and Hungarians as
Prisoners of the Entente 1914-1921, Vol.1), by Horst Taitl. A 320-page
hardbound book in A4 (legal) format, published by the author at
Kiesquellenweg 1, A-6850 DORNBIRN, Austria. Price postpaid DM 80,-;
6S 575,- or US$50.00 in banknotes only.

Mr. Taitl is a leading expert in POW Posts during WWI, particularly in
our spheres of collecting and, for those who read German, he presents
an astounding amount of information, backed up by hundreds of clear
illustrations, tables and statistical data. The work is an invaluable
help just in classifying the types of cards issued for POWs, let alone
censor markings etc. in our field. This magnum opus is highly
recommended and the author is now also accepting advance orders for
Vol. 2, the first three chapters of which will cover POW data and
material from West Siberia, Transbaikalia and East Siberia.

UKRAINIAN MILITARY MEDALS, by Jaroslaw Semotiuk. A-51 page softbound book
on surfaced paper, produced in colour with an embossed cover in A5 format.
* .Obtainable from the author at 55 Van Dusen Boulevard, Toronto, Ont.,
Canada M8Z 3E8 for US$15.00 postpaid.

This beautiful book is the first comprehensive work on the subject, with
a copy even in the prized possession of the Ukrainian president, Leonid
Kravchuk. It is of great historic interest as it covers a great deal of
ground, thus making it of permanent reference value. Available in either
English or Ukrainian editions. See further details on p. 80.
Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, TORONTO,
Ont., Canada. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

KARPATALJA POSTATORTENETE (Stamps & Postal History of Carpatho-Ukraine),
by Dr. Bela Simady. Just out & few only! Price postpaid US $16.00.

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA, Vol.12, 1986 with entry about philately
& 2 pages in colour of Armenian stamps plus foreign related items. In
Armenian & great conversation piece! Price postpaid US $16.00.

RUSSIA ZEMSTVOS, by F.G. Chuchin; the English edition, reissued by John
Barefoot in 1988 with clear illustrations in the right places on 92 pages
A4 size with Cerlox binding.Fine reference! Price postpaid US $18.00.
Ya. Lerner Factory of Handstamps & Seals), being a supplement to the 1907
* Post & Telegraph Journal, showing samples of many postal markings, incl.
for non-stamp issuing Zemstvos.Fascinating! Price postpaid US $ 3.00.

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by 4 noted
researchers. A great subject for study. Price postpaid US $ 5.50.




FOR a monograph on the writer Rodney Collin Smith (1909-1956), an
associate of P.D. Ouspensky, I would appreciate hearing from anyone who
has reminiscences, letters or other documents that shed light on his
life and work.
CYNTHIA L. PATRICK, 381 Stanford Ave., Palo Alto, California 94306, USA.

RUSSIA: Disposal of duplicates. I have for sale postage stamps from the
beginning to about the year 1950 and around 500 good covers and cards,
basis Michel or Scott.
HORST TAITL, Kiesquellenweg 1, A-6850 DORNBIRN, Austria.

WANTED BY SPECIALIST: Kharkiv PYB issues of 1920 varieties, strips of
five, part-sheets, panes, covers, cards, money transfer forms, parcel
cards, also singles with surcharge on the 10-kop. value reading down &
15-kop. value with Katerynoslav trident.
Provisionals and locals of 1920-1922: Akhtyrka, Cherkassy, Kylv,
Ladyzhyn, Liantskorun, Sviatoshino, Teplovka and Tulchyn single stamps,
varieties, multiples, covers, cards, money transfer forms, parcel cards.
PETER BYLEN, P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154, USA.

MUTE CANCELLATIONS OF RUSSIA WWI. Information and listings required.
I can spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.
POC I Mr. Jaroslaw Semotiuk has
released a beautifully
YKPAjIHCbKI produced de-luxe catalogue
BIMCbKOBI BIA3HAKM of 51 pages, entitled
and with an embossed cover.
OPMEHM. XPECTO MEIAfl~ The book shows military
TA HAWABK decorations, orders, crosses
and badges, reproduced in
colour and actual size.
Published in English and
Ukrainian language editions.
Orders at US$15.00 each to:
John Semotiuk,
55 Van Dusen Boulevard,
80 TORONTO, Ont. M8Z 3E8 Canada.




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