Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: A special occasion
 Correspondence with Canada
 POW mail during WWI: Russia/Austro-Hungary/Russia...
 The Soviet airmail in 1924
 More about "The Holy War against...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Mail to the Empire: A pre-UPU letter...
 From the auctions
 Warning - Fraudulent varieties
 The Far Eastern Republic:...
 The return of Uncle Arthur
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00020
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00020 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: A special occasion
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    POW mail during WWI: Russia/Austro-Hungary/Russia 1914-1918
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The Soviet airmail in 1924
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    More about "The Holy War against Bolshevism"
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Mail to the Empire: A pre-UPU letter from France to the Grand Duchy of Finland
        Page 64
        Page 65
    From the auctions
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Warning - Fraudulent varieties
        Page 68
        Page 69
    The Far Eastern Republic: New information
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The return of Uncle Arthur
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Review of literature
        Page 81
        Page 82
    The journal fund
        Page 83
    The collectors' corner
        Page 84
Full Text



polnt!d hI Copu



P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,


May 1987.


2 Editorial: A Special Occasion
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 POW Mail during WWI: Russia/Austro-Hungary/
Russia 1914-1918
27 The Soviet Airmail in 1924
40 More about "The Holy War against
50 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
64 Mail to the Empire: a pre-UPU letter from
France to the Grand Duchy of Finland
66 From the Auctions
68 Warning Fraudulent Varieties
70 The Far Eastern Republic: New Information
75 The Return of Uncle Arthur
78 Philatelic Shorts
81 Review of Literature
83 The Journal Fund
84 The Collectors' Corner

Andrew Cronin
Dr. Richard Bartmann
Robert Taylor
Douglas De Roest
Alex. Artuchov
Andrew Cronin

Andrew Cronin
Ivo J. Steyn
Patrick J. Campbell

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom.
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.

4( \ 4"

I _




Our readers now have before them No.20 of THE POST-RIDER, which has
appeared twice yearly without fail for the past ten years. The CSRP
is the only Russian specialist society in the English-speaking world
to achieve that record. A lot of ground has been covered in that period
of time on 1500-odd pages, most of it encompassing original work. In
addition, we have published separately THE ARMS ISSUES 1902-1920 by the
Rev. L.L. Tann, and the first volume of a comprehensive work on the
Zemstvos is now in preparation by Alex. Artuchov. Just looking at what
the Society has offered in the Journal Fund over the years will show
the great variety of titles designed to help our readers and broaden
their horizons, always at very reasonable prices. We have members
around the world and the Society has a solid international reputation.

No doubt about it; we Canadians do it best.

All this has been achieved by a small group of three people, all of
them also busily engaged in earning their livings and with no thought
whatsoever of trying to wield power or assume fancy titles. The proof
of the pudding is that a recently formed Russian specialist society has
also adopted our streamlined approach. Even more flattering is the fact
that some of our studies have been reprinted in other journals in Italy,
Holland and the Federal Republic of Germany. The long article by Ya.
Afangulskii on THE HOLY WAR AGAINST BOLSHEVISM is to be reprinted in
the Bulletin of the Third Reich Study Group of the Germany Philatelic
Society, Inc. in the United States.

As I believe I said before: we Canadians do it best.

Last, but not least, we have supplied input for the Russian listings of
the Stanley Gibbons and Scott catalogues. That was a huge task, given
all the issues and pitfalls involved and trying to ensure that the
pricing was as fair as possible. The idea is to encourage philatelists
to collect material in our field and to inform them. The Society is a
labour of love for all three of us and we will strive to make it even
better in the years to come. x
1987.06.13-21 1987.06.13-21



"Correspcdence with Canada" is a regular feature Kai
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerox copy of the itan, along with same expla-
natory text to the Editor.


by Andrew Cronin.

The entire story of the fate of an insufficiently addressed piece of
mail may be traced on the face of the card shown above. The sender,
identified as Sophie on the back, had merely written "North America/
Canada" on the front. It was posted at Tsarskoe Selo, about 25 km. or
15 miles from St. Petersburg, on 27 Nov. 1897 O.S.(9 Dec. N.S.) and
was apparently carried by Suburban Train No. 3 to the capital, as
noted by the circular "3 POEZD" marking in carmine, with a diameter of
20 mm. and struck at bottom left. As the card was headed "North America",
it was naturally sent to New York City, where it was received on 22 Dec.,
according to the machine flag marking at top. It was then handled by New
York I.D. on 24 Dec. (bottom left) and finally by the Dead Letter Office
on 27 Dec. (triangular marking at top right), which may have also
applied the two-line cachet NO POST OFFICE/NAMED. in violet, before
sending the card back to St. Petersburg. The sender had fortunately

given her address on the back, so an MS. notation reading in Russian
"Obr. Ts. Selo" (Back to Tsarskoe Selo) was given in black ink on the
front & it was again handled by Suburban Train No.3 on the way back.
See the "3 POEZD" marking struck in black with a diameter of 16 mm. at
top left, together with the arrival postmark of Tsarskoe Selo, dated
15 Jan. 1898 O.S. (27 Jan. N.S.).

So, here we have a case of a card intended for Canada, but did not get
there and handled by Suburban Train No.3 on both the outgoing and
incoming journeys, with the relevant markings in two different colours
and sizes. Quite a conversation piece.



by Dr. Richard Bartmann.

Plan of the Study

1. Introduction.
2. The languages of the POW Mail.
3. Description of the formular cards.
3.1 Formular cards generally available.
3.2 The stated points of usage (camps) given on the formular cards,
according to the data at hand.
3.3 The points of usage ascertained from the sending addresses or
censorship markings respectively.
4. Various cards and types of letters.
4.1 Russian postal stationery.
4.2 Russian postcards.
4.3 Military Correspondence: Field Post cards, which were used as
formular cards for POW mail.
4.4 View cards.
4.5 Photographic cards.
4.6 Envelopes with notations.
5. POW Mail from Austria-Hungary to Russia.
6. Reply formular cards for the homeland.
7. Russian Censorship Markings.
7.1 Circular markings.
7.2 Oval markings.
7.3 Boxed markings.
7.4 Straight-line markings.
8. The Russian initials A.I. = "Permitted by the Censorship".
9. Austrian and Austro-Hungarian censorship markings.
9.1 Circular markings.
9.2 Triangular markings.
10. Hungarian circular censorship markings inscribed in German.

Supplements: Map of the POW camps in Russia.

1. Introduction.

Within the broad and varied spectrum of the specialised literature about
the POW mail of WWI, the material sent from and to Russia has also
aroused the interest of collectors at quite an early stage. See, for

example, the treatment in the GERMANIA BERICHTE of 1915-1916
("Contributions to the Russian Field Post"; this title is in fact not
* quite correct as the article also covers in detail the Russian
censorship markings on POW mail).

Regarding this present study, a few words first of all about the
distribution of the POW camps throughout the territory of the boundless
Russian Empire. Based on the items so far examined by me, which are all
in my possession and which, of course, are far from aspiring to com-
pleteness ,together with the utilisation of several dozen sources, we
can see they all show that the great majority of the camps was located
in the European part of Russia, from Lwow (L'viv, L'vov, Lemberg) up to
the Urals, but there were also quite a few in the Cuacasus, Central
Asia and Siberia and even as far as the Sea of Japan. The POW
transports which were sent from Kiev to Eastern Siberia had to traverse
a distance of some 8300 km. (5188 miles).

It should also be pointed out here that some sources (e.g. Elsa
Brdndstr8m in her book) mention that the Russian government had the
intention "to intern the Slav POWs above all in European Russia. By
contrast, the Germans, German-speaking Austrians and Hungarians were to
be sent to the most remote areas of Siberia, as not only the climatic,
but also the material conditions were especially hard. This
distribution was carried out in the main". She also reported on another
aspect to the effect that "the incoming letters remained uncensored in
St. Petersburg for months at a time and great piles of them were often
burnt. The Hungarian postal sending met with the greatest obstacles as,
for a while, the Censorship had only one person available with a
knowledge of Hungarian".

On the other hand, engineers, skilled workers and often teachers also
were especially allowed to look for unsupervised work after a long
period of detention in a camp. Those who were still strong enough and
who were not scared of any adventure were allowed to settle almost
quite freely in the most remote areas of Russia (according to the texts
of some communications of POWs to their relatives). Of course, their
position changed after the February and October revolutions of 1917 in

2. The Languages of the POW Mail.

The following printed text in Russian is to be found right from the
start on the fronts and backs of the first formular cards from Russia,
or just on the backs:-
IxcLMeHHmu coo6mieHia IonycKaMTCH TOAbKO Ha pyc-
cKOMb ,paHIy3acKOMb M H1>Me KOMBHa53KaXb
(Written communications are permitted only in the Russian, French and
German languages).

This instruction was also conveyed verbally by the POWs, according to
the mail seen. The directions were understandably adhered to and it so
happened that many Hungarians and POWs of Slav origin, who had to write
in German, generally made a variety of grammatical mistakes in that
* language, as French or even Russian was in the main beyond them.
Spiritual bonds and even intimacy were often demonstrated by such
signatures as "Apuka" (Daddy), Jozsi (Joey) etc. Actually, later on
around the end of 1916, the correspondence of the Hungarian POWs to
Hungary and of the Czech POWs to Bohemia and Moravia began appearing

in Hungarian and Czech respectively. They all went through the Russian
censorship without objection.

It should likewise be noted here that the Russian POWs who were in
Germany or Austria-Hungary had to write to their relatives in Russian
and the mail directed to them also had to ensue in Russian. The
occasional black-outs or deletions to be found on such formular cards
point to the fact that there were Russian-speaking employees in the
central censorship offices in Vienna, Berlin and Budapest, who could
look over the correspondence from the "other side" (see the view card
of the Russian POW in Seckau to Chita. He was a close relative of the
Russian composer Rimskii-Korsakov; card at bottom left, p. 20).

3. Description of the Formular Cards.
3.1 The formular cards generally available.
3.1.1. Inscription at top in red, reading "For Prisoners of War /
Postcard" in four lines in Russian and French. Measurements of the
inscription are 50;42;72;28 mm. Section for the address in the centre.
There is at left a separate vertical text about the method of using
the formular card. At bottom left, the price of the card: kop.". On
the back at top the text about the languages to be used (German, French
or Russian).

3.1.2. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 43;52;68;35 mm.
3.1.3. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 67;57;85;38 mm.
3.1.4. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 69;59;87;40 mm.
3.1.5. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 48;78;66;33 mm. and new price:
"1 kop.".
3.1.6. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 65;53;75;53 mm. Printing error
in the French text: "psisonniers" for "prisonniers".
3.1.7. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 42;41;65;34 mm. Abbreviation at
bottom right 1H.H.-T7 ((P/ost Office/ P/etrogra/d) with small
posthorns above.
3.1.8. As 3.1.1., but with measurements 52;41;66;33 mm. Abbreviation at
bottom right CaMap. n.-T.oKp.(Samara Postal & Telegraphic District).
3.1.9. As 3.1.6., but with measurements 52;49;80;46 mm. Abbreviation at
bottom right IHepM. n.-T.OKp.(Perm Postal & Telegraphic District).
3.1.10.As 3.1.1., but with measurements 52;41;66;33 mm. Abbreviation at
bottom right TypE. n.T.ocp.(Turkestan Postal & Telegraphic Dist.).
3.1.11.As 3.1.4., but with printing error in the French text: "ples
risonniers"instead of "les prisonniers".
3.1.12.As 3.1.7., but with measurements 58;48;80;33 mm.

3.2. The stated points of usage (camps) given on the formular cards
according to the data at hand.

3.2.1. Black inscription at top, reading "For Prisoners of War/Postcard"
in two lines in Russian and French and measuring 75;84 mm. At left a
vertical text in French, reading "Return (referring to the sender).
Prisoner of War. Company. Tobolsk. Russia".
3.2.2. Black inscription at top, reading "For POW Correspondence" in
two lines in Russian and French and measuring 76;75 mm. At left a
vertical text in German, French and Russian, reading "Adresse. Russie.
Prisonnier de guerre. Rota. Nr. Tobolsk.To6oabcKb. ".
3.2.3. Black inscription at top, reading "Postcard/POW Correspondence"
in Russian in two lines and measuring 59;95 mm. At left some vertical
instructions in Russian for the sender and thereunder an imprint in
Russian,reading "C(ity of) Novo-Nikolaevsk. Military Garrison. Prov.

Tomsk. Siberia".
3.2.4. Black inscription at top in Russian, German, Hungarian and French,
reading "Postcard for Prisoners of War" in four lines: 61, 50, 68 & 72
mm. In the centre in Russian: "Austro-Hungary-Germany-Turkey" and a
space thereunder in Russian and German for the address, at the end of
the third line of which there is the Hungarian word for "To". Under all
that the word "Destination" in Russian, German and Hungarian, followed
by "Information Bureau and Post Office for POWs" in the same languages.
At the left a vertical text in Russian, German and Hungarian, reading:
"Presenter, Surname, Rank" and thereunder in German: "Beresowka. Trans-
baikalien Ostsiberien Rotte Nr.. Baracke Nr.".At the right a vertical
note in Russian, reading:"Reprint forbidden (Law of 20 March 1911)".
3.2.5. Black inscription at top in Russian, reading "Open Letter", i.e.
Postcard, above or below which a notation saying "For Prisoners of War".
A vertical text at left in German and Russian, reading "Sender. Chita.
3.2.6. Black inscription at top in Russian, German, Hungarian and
French, reading "Postcard for Prisoners of War" in four lines: 82, 40,
48 & 68 mm. In the centre a space for the address in Russian, German &
Hungarian. At the left a separate vertical text in Russian, German and
Hungarian, reading "Sender, Surname, Rank, Troitskosavsk. Transbaikalia".
At the right a separate vertical text in Russian, German & Hungarian,
reading "Information Section for POWs, Troitskosavsk".
3.2.7. Black inscription at top, the first line in Russian and French,
followed by a second line in French all boxed and reading "For POWs"
and a second line in Russian, reading "Postcard", under all of which a
further Russian inscription:"Germany/Austro-Hungary/Turkey", measuring
47, 32(16), 47 & 61 mm. At the left a separate text for the sender in
SGerman and Russian, concluding with the words "Davriya Station".

3.3. The points of usage (camps), ascertained from the addresses of the
senders, or censorship markings respectively.

3.3.1. Black inscription at top in Russian and French, reading "Postcard
for Prisoners of War" in four lines: 65, 55, 88 & 28 mm. In the centre
a space for the address in Russian and French. At the left a separate
text about the method of using the formular card, at bottom left the
price kop." and at bottom right the imprint "MocK.IIoqT. 1915 r."
(Moscow P.O. 1915). Used at Almaznaya.
3.3.2. Black inscription at top in French, reading "POW Correspondence"
in one line 125 mm. long. A separate space at left for the sender. Used
at Kirillov.
3.3.3. Black inscription at top in Russian and French, reading "For POWs"
in two lines: 93 & 68 mm.A wavy line thereunder in the centre. Used at
3M.4. A formular card in dark violet, with a black inscription at top
in Russian and French, reading "Postcard for POWs" in two lines: 90 &
85 mm. In the centre a space for the address in Russian and at the left
a separate space for the sender. Used at Omsk.
3.3.5. Black inscription at top, reading "Postcard for POWS" in Russian
and French, both in two lines: 40 & 50, 31 & 31 mm. A double separating
line thereunder and below that in Russian "Austro-Hungary" and "Address".
At the left vertically in Russian: "Sender". Used at Omsk.
* 3.3.6. Black inscription at top, reading "Service for POWs. Postcard" in
French and Russian in two lines: 85 & 44 mm. At the left a separate
space in German for the sender. Used at Krasnoyarsk.
3.3.7. Black inscription at top, reading "Letter for POWs. Austro-
Hungary. Postcard" in French and Russian in three lines: 61, 58 & 73 mm.
A separating line in the centre. Used at Shkotovo.

NOTE: There is no certain basis that will permit the exact determination
of the years of usage of specific formular cards.

4. Various cards and types of letters.

4.1. Russian postal stationery (Nos. according to the Michel Europe
Postal Stationery Catalogue, 1968 Edition).
4.1.1. P.18: noqTOBan KapToTKa instead of OTKpUTOe nMCbMO.
4.1.2. P.21.
4.1.3. P 22.
4.1.4. P 23A, inscribed: pln oTBtTa.
4.1.5. P 23A, inscribed: c onjiaeHHbM-b OTBTOM'b.
4.2. Russian postcards.
4.2.1. OTKpHToe nMCbMO (Open Letter, i.e. Postcard), measuring 52 x 3
mm. Inscribed at top in pale brown in one line, with coat of arms at
upper left and note MtCTO Axn MapKM "(Space for the stamp) at top
4.2.2. OTKpMTOe nICbMO now measuring 52 x 4 mm. Pale brown inscription
at top in one line, plus coat of arms and stamp note.
4.2.3. OTKpHTOe nMCbMO measures 67 x 3 mm. Black inscription at top in
one line and with stamp note.
4.2.4. OTKpNTOe nMCbMO measures 73 x 4 mm. Black inscription at top in
one line and with stamp note.
4.2.5. HIqTOBaS KapToqKa (Postcard) measures 73 x 4 mm. Bright red
inscription at top in one line and with coat of arms in an ornamental
rectangular frame.
4.2.6. nHotiTBa KapTonxa measures 55 x 4 mm. Bright red inscription at
top in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. Imprint at bottom
left: .Hn-T' (Petrograd Postal District), with small posthorns above.
4.2.7. IToTTOBa KapTOqKa measures 52 x 4 mm. Black inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At right, vertically:
MocK. HOTT. 1914 (Moscow Postal District).
4.2.8. IIOqTOBsa KapToqKa measures 60 x 5 mm. Brown inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right the
imprint: EKSTepMHOCo.noTo0Kpyr' (Ekaterinoslav Postal and
Telegraphic District).
4.2.9. roqTOBaf OTIKPHTKa measures 57 x 6 mm. Brown inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right the
imprint: Oec.n.ToOKpo (Odessa Postal and Telegraphic District).
4.2.10. noTOBsas OTPTKTKa measures 57 x 6 mm. Brown inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right the
imprint: PocT.n.T.OKpo (Rostov Postal and Telegraphic District).
4.2.11. iIoqTOBas KapTOTKa measures 50 x 5 mm. Brown inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right the
imprint CaMap.n.-ToOKpo (Samara Postal and Telegraphic District).
4.2.12. HIoqTOBan OTKPMTKa measures 72 x 4 mm. Bright red inscription
at top in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right
the imprint: KaS.n.T.OKpo (Kazan' Postal and Telegraphic District).
4.2.13. HnqTOBas OTKpaTKa measures 62.5 x 3 mm. Bright brown
inscription at top in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At
bottom right the imprint: Kaa.n.T.OKp. (Kazan' Postal and
Telegraphic District).
4.2.14. HnoTOBsH OTKPBTKa measures 61 x 4 mm. Red inscription at top
in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At bottom right the
imprint: ApK.no-T.OKp. (Irkutsk Postal and Telegraphic District).
4.2.15. LoqTOBas OTKPbTIKa measures 55 x 4 mm. Bright brown
inscription at top in one line, with coat of arms and stamp note. At
bottom right the imprint: TypK.H.-T.OKp. (Turkestan Postal and
Telegraphic District).

NOTE; The coat of arms is at the upper left and the stamp note at upper
right on all cards.

S4.3. Military Correspondence (Field Post) Cards, which were used as
formular cards for POW mail.

Such cards do not turn up rarely. Properly speaking, it is astonishing
that they did not take longer to be forwarded to the homeland and they
very often went even faster than the POW formular cards, i.e. if they
were not suspected of serving spying activities.

A rarity presents itself in the form of a field post card, which was
sent by an Austro-Hungarian soldier on the Eastern Front to his friend
who was in Russian captivity in Siberia. The card was first censored at
the field post office, signed by the censor and then sent to Vienna. It
was read through there once again and sections blacked out by the
censor, either at the field post office or in Vienna, because of
references to the military unit. However, it got through, still without
objection, judging by the Russian censorship marking in Irkutsk.

4.4. View Cards.

They were sent from the most varied corners of Russia to the homeland,
especially if there was a fairly large city near the camp, where one
could buy cards. The sending of indoor and outdoor photographs from the
camps to the homeland was strictly forbidden, as it was feared that the
enemy could use them for his own purposes.

SA pretty section may be formed from the varied and technically
outstanding view cards from China and Japan, showing above all
landscapes and the exotic life of the geishas. These were understandably
sent home from the camps lying on the border with China and along the
Sea of Japan (Razdolnoe, Zhukovo, Vladivostok, etc). However, as one POW
wrote: "Please do not think that the cards are from this area. Razdolnoe
is a small village with a mixed population and many barracks; there are
no cards available here". Such view cards were generally not cheap.

4.5. Photo Cards.

It should be mentioned here that photo cards were also allowed to be
sent home, provided the prisoner was not depicted in uniform, but even
such latter examples are to be found occasionally. It will be noticed
that a jacket or a pair of trousers has been borrowed from one's
comrades; they do not fit well and are either too small or too big.

4.6. Envelopes.

According to the Geneva Convention, officers could also send letters
home once a month and, of course, only in German, French or Russian. In
examining the material, it can be stated that even simple privates of
Slavic origin were allowed to send letters home and indeed in a native
language such as Czech. The letters were also understandably censored
and there are lacking here exact details about the seamy side of camp

4.6.1. Formular envelopes were not always and not available everywhere
for the POWs. They were often fortunate enough at the job or plant
where they were working to be able to use the envelopes of Russian

firms or even of military units (!). For example, we have the case of a
letter from a POW in Chelna, enclosed in an envelope of the firm "M.
Markov & Sons" and with a handwritten notation "POW Mail", which
arrived without hindrance in Budapest. On the other hand, we also have
a Russian field post envelope, designated for the Tara Barracks near
Tobol'sk, containing a POW letter and likewise with a handwritten
notation "POW Mail". This was sent to Kolozsvar, then in Hungarian
Transsylvania (now Cluj-Napoca in Roumania).

5. POW Postcards from Austro-Hungary to Russia.

5.1. Formular card printed on beige stock. Black inscription at top in
German, Russian and French, at left in two lines measuring 8 & 12 mm.
and at right in three lines: 53, 17 & 28 mm. long, thereunder
"Postcard" in French and an address section at left and right in German
and Russian, reading:"Postfree. Published by the Austrian Red Cross
Society. Reprint forbidden", and thereunder in the centre "Price 3
hellers each". What makes this formular card especially interesting is
that the German and Russian alphabets are given on the back.
5.2. As 5.1, but with a new price: "4 Heller" and no alphabet on the
back of the card.
5.3. As 5.2, but with a new price: "5 Heller".
5.4. Printed on green stock. Black inscription at top in Hungarian and
Russian in two lines, measuring 63 & 36 mm. At centre left a space for
the sender in Hungarian and at right in Russian. Below that in a box,
an inscription in Hungarian, reading "Russia (The locality and the
nearest address to be entered here)". A separating line in the centre,
then at right in Russian "Russia"(Space for the Russian script) and,
next to it, "Postfree" in a circle. A space thereunder for POW data:
"Province, Name, Rank". At bottom left: "Name of POW, Prisonnier de
guerre, Rank, Regiment, Company, No.". Thereunder in Hungarian and
Russian:"Reprint forbidden. Publisher: Office for Aid and Information
for POWs, Budapest IX, Olloi ut. 1". Below that the price "4 Fill4r"
and at right "Patria Printing Co. Ltd., Budapest".
5.5. Printed on green stock. Top inscription in Hungarian, French and
Russian. At upper left the symbol of the Red Cross and, next to it in
several languages:"Postcard for POWs. Service des prisonniers de guerre
(in red). Postfree" in three lines: 48, 58 & 42 mm.A black circle at
upper right, thereunder mixed in Hungarian, Russian and French:"Name,
Military Rank, Regiment, Company", followed in a box by "Company No.,
Russia, Gub(erniya)". Under all that:"Space for the address in Russian",
with the note:"This space to be set aside for the Russian entry". A
separate vertical space at left for the sender's data and, at right, a
vertical inscription:"Publisher: Office for Aid and Information for
POWs". Faulty formulation in the Russian language.
5.6. As 5.5, but with the term "To where" in red in a black circle and
a further inscription vertically in French, reading "Edite par la Croix
Rouge Hongroise, Bureau de Secours et Renseignements pour prisonniers
de guerre".
5.7. Printed on beige stock. Black inscription at upper right in Czech,
Russian and French in four lines: 29, 48, 27 and 17 to 19 mm. At upper
left the word "Sender" and, in the centre, the symbol of the Red Cross.
At the right:"Correspondence for POWs, Austro-Hungary, Postfree" in
four lines. A thick black separating line thereunder, going straight
across and, below that at left in Czech:"Russia, Province, Town, Rank,
Company". A separating line in the middle and the same inscription at
right in Russian. At centre below in Czech "4 hellers each". At the
left, a vertically separated space with a text in Czech, reading:
"Publisher: Societies of the Red Cross for Czechia".

6. Reply Cards for the homeland.

* 6.1. Printed on green stock. Black inscription at top in Russian, French
& Hungarian, reading "For Prisoners of War, Postcard for Reply, Postfree"
in six lines: 33,35,25,38,28 & 44 mm. The symbol of the Red Cross in the
centre and next to it at right a black circle. A separate vertical space
at left for the sender's data:"POW, Name, No. of the POW, Camp,
Resident". A separating line below and the text:"Publisher: Office for
Aid and Information for POWs".
6.2. As 6.1, but without the red inscriptions "Zurick" or "Portofrei"
(Back or Postfree).
6.3. As 6.1, but without the red inscription "Zurfck" in the black circle.
6.4. As 6.2, but with a German text at top back, reading "Nicht zwischen
den Zeilen schreiben" (Do not write between the lines), with 15
numbered lines thereunder.
6.5. Printed on beige stock. Black inscription at top in German, Czech,
French & Russian, reading "Reply Postcard"in two lines 36 & 30 mm., just
as for 6.1, but with an additional red imprint in German and Russian:
"Sternthal bei Pettau, Steiermark" In the Russian text the word ABCTPIR
(= Austria) instead of Steiermark.

7. Russian Censorship Markings.

There have been quite frequent references in the specialised literature
that a relative freedom was permitted for the local authorities in
composing the censorship markings in Russia. Only in that way can the
multiplicity of Russian censorship markings be explained. Moreover, the
authorising circulars either arrived only after a delay at the local
authorities or not at all. Well over 100 different Russian censorship
markings have so far been found and, for example, in a city like Kazan',
at least seven or eight different markings were employed.

The shapes of the Russian censorship markings can be subdivided into
circular, oval, boxed and straight-line types (with or without
additional data about the camp, the censor and with or without the
initials .L. = Permitted by the Censorship). These latter initials
have often falsely been interpreted as meaning "Censorship Department";
more about that later.

7.1. Circular Markings.

7.1.1. Moscow. A double circle with various outer diameters: 16, 24, 25
& 28 mm., with a star above and below. Struck in blue and violet and
more rarely in black, with the text lpocMOTp. MOCKOBCK. BoeHx. ieH3ypOM
(Examined by the Moscow Censorship). Name of the censor or his initials,
more often just his number (the highest number seen so far is 986).
7.1.2. Enakievo. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 28 mm.:
BoeHHbI4 ueH3op' (Military Censor).
7.1.3. Spasskoe. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 30 mm.:
3aB6gyromiM BoeHHOHnAHHNMM CnaccKoro rapHMSOHa (Commander of POWs of the
SpassK Garrison).
7.1.4. Irbit. Quadruple circle in violet with outermost diameter of 33mm.:
3aBSayrmir BoeHHOnIHHKbIXbBi r. MpITt(Commander of POWs in the town of
* Irbit, plus coat of arms).
7.1.5. Barnaul. Three circles in violet with outermost diameter 32 mm.:
BoeHHbinM eH3opb Ej 21 r.BapHayj.nT,.. (Military Censor No. 21, town of
Barnaul, permitted by the censorship).
7.1.6. Ekaterinburg. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 32mm:
3aStay0tgiMi Boe-HHOrnJIHHUHM rop. EKaTepMH6ypra 11

(Commander of POWs of the town of Ekaterinburg, plus coat of arms).
7.1.7. Tobol'sk. Cogwheel circle in violet with outer diameter of 33 mm.:
BoeHHUbI HeHSOp' Eb 21 JI.J1 r. ToGoxbcKs (Military Censor No.21; L.L.;
town of Tobol'sk). V
7.1.8. Tobol'sk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 35 mm.:
BoeHHHa ~ eHaop'b N 21 Z.. r. ToSoAbcK'b(Military Censor No.21;
Permitted by the Censorship; town of Tobol'sk).
7.1.9. Omsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 25 mm.:
BoeHHmaM LUeH30ab .A.EcmMOBbr. OMCKb (Military Censor M.A. Efimov;
town of Omsk).
7.1.10. Omsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 27 mm.:
BOeHHhb ueH3sopI IW 16 2.L. r. OMcKb (Military Censor No. 16;
Permitted by the Censorship; town of Omsk).
7.1.11. Omsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 34 mm.:
BoeHHH gueHnsop 7 Z.J. /O.B./ r. OMCKxB (Military Censor 7; Permitted by
the Censorship; O.B.; town of Omsk).
7.1.12. Omsk. Triple circle in violet with outermost diameter 33 mm.:
BJoeHHU ugeHSOp' E 5 r. OMCKb A..I (Military Censor No. 5; town of
Omsk; Permitted by the Censorship).
7.1.13. Omsk. Triple circle in bright red with outermost diameter 35mm:
BoeHHHN HeH3opSb I A.K. r. OMCKb (Military Censor No. 1; A.K.;
town of Omsk).
7.1.14. Omsk. Triple circle in violet with outermost diameter of 35 mm:
BoeHHHIM ueHsop'b 9 r. OMCKb (Military Censor No. 9; town of Omsk).
7.1.15. Omsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 35 mm.:
BoeHHHR UeHsop' N I A.B.H. r. OMCK' (Military Censor No. 1; A. B. N.;
town of Omsk).
7.1.16. Semipalatinsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter 31mm:
BoeHHuMi neH3Op'b 17,.. N 22 CeMMnaxaTMHCKb (Military Censor; Permitted
by the Censorship; No. 22; Semipalatinsk).
7.1.17. Petropavlovsk. Triple circle in violet, outermost diameter 31mm:
BoeHHH~ UeHaopb N0 12 r. IeTponaBXOBCKb AKM.OIz. Z.g.
(Military Censor No. 12; town of Petropavlovsk; Akmolinsk province;
Permitted by the Censorship).
7.1.18. Achinsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 34 mm:
3aBsayrozHMi gbxaMX BoeHHonfifIHHHXTb AmiHCK. rapH(Commander of POW Affairs
of the Achinsk Garrison).
7.1.19. Krasnoyarsk. Single circle in violet with diameter of 33 mm.:
BoeHHasi eHesyppa pacHoHpCKb (Military Censorship; Krasnoyarsk).
7.1.20. Irkutsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter of 33 mm.:
BOeHHHm UeH3Op' npm MpKyTCX0o BoeHHO,' KOHTOpt 2(Military Censor
No. 2 at the Irkutsk Military Office). Nos. 2, 4. 6. 20 & 23 have been
7.1.21. Khabarovsk. Double circle in violet with outer diameter 32 mm.:
eqsaTrb OTpaa BOeHHonAbHHHIX' (Seal of the POW Detachment).

7.2. Oval Markings.

7.2.1. Petrograd. In dark blue or violet, measuring 42 x 22 mm.:
neTporpaAc Ka soeHHa i ueH3ypa M.B., JI.P.(Petrograd Military Censorship;
M.V. & L.G.).
7.2.2. Petrograd. In violet, measuring 44 x 25 mm. Initials A.A.B. =
7.2.3. Petrograd. In blue, measuring 42 x 22 mm.: leTporpaAcKas
soeHHaR ueHaypa JI.. (Petrograd Military Cenship; L.G.).
7.2.4. Petrograd. In red, measuring 42 x 25 mm.: HeTporpaAcKaH
BoeHHas eeH3ypa MoB. (Petrograd Military Censorship; M.V.).
7.2.5. Petrograd. In bright red, measuring 45 x 24 mm.:
HeTporpaAcxaH BoeHHaH ueHaypa (Petrograd Military Censorship).

7.2.6. Tsaritsyn. In dark blue, measuring 56 x 46 mm.:
BcKpUTO BOeHHOi eeH3ypOi r.HapMHHuHb eHaopb n.C.OK'b
S(Opened by the military censorship; town of Tsaritsyn; Censor P.S. Fok).
7.2.7. Pavlovo-Posavsk. In violet, measuring 40 x 20 mm.:
HaBxoBo-HocaBCKiiM nyHHKT BoeHHO-nrIHaHHuHX(Pavlovo-Posavsk point for
7.2.8. Samarkand. In violet, measuring 50 x 27 mm.:
TypKecraTHcKa MBCTHas BoeHHO--eHsypHas KOMICCiH (Turkestan Local
Military Censorship Commission).
7.2.9. Samarkand. In dark blue, measuring 45 x 25 or 48 x 25 mm.:
TypKecraicKap MtcTHan BOeHHO--eH3ypHas KOMMCCis (Turkestan Local
Military Censorship Commission).
7.2.10. Tashkent. In violet, measuring 48 x 27 mm.:
TypKecTaiicKaq MtCTHaH BOeHHO-neH3ypHa8 KOMzCCi. (Turkestan Local
Military Censorship Commission).
7.2.11. Kuopio. In bright red, measuring 60 x 27 mm.:
BoeKHas geH3ypa 14 1. 1917 r.IyonMo (Military Censorship 14 P.
1917 Kuopio).
7.2.12. Vyatka. In violet, measuring 43 x 38 mm.:
BcKpHTO BoeHH.ueH3ypoR BoeH.neHaop~ MaBaZMTZHOBU (Opened by
the military censorship; Military Censor Mavalitinov).

7.3. Boxed Markings.

7.3.1. Petrograd. In violet, measuring 55 x 22 mm.:
UpOCMOTpbHO BoeHHOi ueH3ypoM r. neTporpana BeeHHTi esHasop-b b 1375
(Examined by the military censorship; city of Petrograd; Military
Censor No. 1375).
7.3.2. Petrograd. In violet, measuring 32 x 18 mm.: A.LI. HeTporpagt
(Permitted by the censorship; Petrograd).
7.3.3. Petrograd. In violet, measuring 54 x 23 mm.:
BcKPbTO BOeHHOl LeH3ypof r.neTporpa)b BoeHHHi HeH3op'b 1481
(Opened by the military censorship; city of Petrograd; Military Censor
No. 1481).
7.3.4. Odessa. In violet, measuring 60 x 35 mm.: BCipuTO BoeHHOM
TeH3ypoM Onecca BoeHHKa eHsiopb T 297 (Opened by the
military censorship; Odessa; Military Censor No. 297).
7.3.5. Kantemirovka. In violet, measuring 40 x 28 mm.: .I o 319
(Permitted by the censorship; 319).
7.3.6. Tsaritsyn. In violet, measuring 55 x 25 mm.: IIpocMOTptHO
BOeHHOf geH3ypon r. LapMHIuHa 70 (Examined by the military
censorship of the town of Tsaritsyn; No. 70).
7.3.7. Astrakhan. In bright red, measuring 54 x 18 mm.:
BcKpKTO BOeHHOn eeH3ypoM AcTpaxaHb BoeHHH neH3aop fM 201
(Opened by the military censorship; Astrakhan; Military Censor No. 201).
7.3.8. Penza. In violet, measuring 52 x 15 mm.: Bo eTporpagc ifi
BoeHHuM geHs3opb N 1409 n.B.B. .B.O.BoeHHii OKpyrt
(Military Censor No. 1409; Petrograd Military District).
7.3.9. Ural'sk. In violet, measuring 60 x 22 mm.:
IpocMOTpbHO BoeHHOr geH3ypOM YpaibCK' BoeeHH 4eHsopb N? 41
(Examined by the military censorship; Ural'sk; Military Censor No. 41).
7.3.10. Shuya. In violet, measuring 52 x 15 mm.:
BCKpaTO. B. HeHsopb N2 1301 (Opened; Military Censor No. 1301).
7.3.11. Syzran'. In green, measuring 60 x 22 mm.:HpocMOTpbHO
BOeHHOM neH3ypoM CbapaHb BOeHHUM eeHaop'b m (Opened by the
military censorship; Syzran'; Military Censor No. ).
7.3.12. Samara. In violet, measuring 62 x 12 mm.:HpocMOTphHO
BOeHHOM 4eHaypOi CaMapa BoeHHUMI UeH3op' p 117 0.M.A., Q.H.J.

(Examined by the military censorship; Samara; Military Censor No. 117;
O.I.A. or O.N.L.).
7.3.13. Samara. In violet, measuring 52 x 20 mm.: UpocCMOTpbHO
BOeHHOIi ueHaypoM CaMapa NI 144 AoO.B., A..O. (Examined by the
military censorship; Samara; No. 144; A.O.V. or A.F.O.).
7.3.14. Kotelnikov. In violet, measuring 52 x 17 mm.
BCKpHTO. B. UeHaops 1214 HI.BoOOpened; Military Censor 1214;
Petrograd Military District).
7.3.15. Orenburg. In green, measuring 55 x 28 mm.:
Opendyprb npocMoTptHO BoeHHOMH-eHaypol BoeHHR ieHs3op r.II.BaM6~ms
(Orenburg; Examined by the military censorship; Military Censor
G.P. Babich).
7.3.16. Kazan'. In violet, measuring 54 x 19 mm.:
fpOCMOTptHO BOeH.KOHTpOAepOMb Ka3aHb KOHTpOJep'b 2?.4
(Examined by the military controller; Kazan'; Controller No. 4, 12,
43, 106).
7.3.17. Kazan'. In violet, measuring 54 x 19 mm.:
IpocMTop'HO BoeHHOM ueH3ypo KaaaHbn BoeHHHr eHnsopsb 5
(Examined by the military censorship; Kazan'; Military Censor No. 5).
7.3.18. Kazan'. In dark blue, measuring 54 x 19 mm.:
BCKPHTO BoeHHOH UeH3ypoM r. Ka3aHb BoeHHBIE eHaop' N 249
(Opened by the military censorship; city of Kazan'; Military Censor
No. 249).
7.3.19. Kazan'. In violet, measuring 58 x 18 mm.:
flpOBnpeIo BoeHHO: M eH3ypot r.KaaaHb BoeHHO LeH30opb 229
(Checked by the military censorship; city of Kazan'; Military Censor
*No. 229. Nos. 5, 13, 43 & 267 also known).
7.3.20. Kazan'. In violet, measuring 52 x 18 mm.:
BcKpUTO BoeHHiu U eHSop'b N 691 n.B.O. (Opened. Military
Censor No. 691; Petrograd Military District).
7.3.21. Ufa. In violet, measuring 38 x 29 mm.:
FpOCMOTpHHO.BoeHHH IeHs3opb r. Yqa T 50 B.B.M.(Examined; Military
Censor; town of Ufa; No. 50; V.V.M.). Nos. 5, 13, 43, 229 & 267 also
7.3.22. Irkutsk. In violet, measuring 35 x 15 mm.:
MpKyTC~Ka BoeHHLI. geHaop' npB W 2 (Irkutsk; Military Censor; pry;
No. 2). Nos. 6,7,9,10,11,12,15,17,18,21,23,24,25,26,29,30,33,38,47 &
88 also seen.
7.3.23. Khabarovsk. In blue, measuring 52 x 22 mm. in wavy lines:
rIoqTOBoe OTtAeHie BoeHHOHAnHHhux XawapoBcKaro rapHMSOHS
(Postal station of the POWs of the Khabarovsk garrison).
7.3.24. Shkotovo. In violet, measuring 40 x 20 mm:
liKOTOBCKM o.I UeHsops (Shkotovo Censor; Permitted by the Censorship).
7.3.25. Shkotovo. In violet, measuring 52 x 22 mm.:
Ilp3CMOTpbHO BOeHHOD GUeHa3Ypo3.B0eHHHM neHsopb EN 773 (Examined by the
Military Censorship; Military Censor No. 773).
7.3.26. Vladivostok. In violet, measuring 33 x 22 mm.:
*.1I. BAaAMBOCTOK'b N 3 (Permitted by the Censorship; Vladivostok No.3).
7.3.27. Vladivostok. In bright red, measuring 60 x 24 mm.:
BcKpHTo BoeHHOR reHsypol Bxa.xB0oCTOK BoeHHH UeH30opSb 1 4
(Opened by the Military Censorship; Vladivostok; Military Censor No. 4).
7.3.28. Vladivostok. In violet, measuring 37 x 20 mm.:
fIpoBspeHO Ha BJaAMBOCTOKCKOMs BoeHHO-UeHSypHOM nyHKTt>(Checked at the
Vladivostok military censorship point).
7.3.29. Ekaterino. In violet, measuring 52 x 16 mm.: BCKpuITO.
B. UeHaopb 1416 B,0. (Opened; Military Censor 1416; Military
7.3.30. Simbirsk. In violet, measuring 52 x 14 mm.:
npocMoTptHO BoeHHOr UeH3ypo CMM6xpcKb BoeHHs~ UeHsops HasaHgeBs

(Examined by the military censorship; Simbirsk; Military Censor

S7.4. Line Markings.

7.4.1. Samara. In violet in three lines, measuring 42, 16 & 45 mm.:
flpoCMOTptHO BoeHHO4M UeH3ypo~ CaMapa BoeHHMa neH3op'b ? 63 M.A.A.
(Examined by the military censorship; Samara; Military Censor No. 63;
7.4.2. Samara. In violet in three lines, measuring 53, 32 & 45 mm.:
PaapbmeHo BoeHHo M eH3ypo BoeHHbn .eHasop POTMWCTrp CoIoBbeBM'b
(Permitted by the military censorship; Military Censor; Cavalry
Captain Solov'evich).
7.4.3. Samara. In violet in four lines, measuring 22, 42, 16 & 48 mm.:
IppOCMOTpbHO BOeHHbIM KOHTpojepOM' CaMapa BoeHHHM ueH3opb 59
(Examined by the Military Controller; Samara; Military Censor No. 59).
7.4.4. Samara. In violet in four lines, measuring 50, 30, 50 & 40 mm.:
IpocCMOTptHO BoeKHOi ueHaypoM CaMapa BOeHHHM neH30opb N 144 D..JI.
(Examined by the military censorship; Samara; Military Censor No. 144;
7.4.5. Samara. In violet in four lines, measuring 25, 46, 12 & 18 mm.:
(Examined by the Military Controller; Samara; Military Censor No. 59).
7.4.6. Samara. In violet in five lines, measuring 22,35,20,30 & 17 mm.:
npocCOTpbHO BoeHHOR UeH3ypof CaMapa BoeHHmEi eH3opb ~ 117
(Examined by the military censorship; Samara; Military Censor No. 117).
7.4.7. Orenburg. In red in three lines, measuring 20, 76 & 76 mm.:
OpeH6yprb HpocMOTpbHO BOeHHO1i nUeHaypOM. BoeHHUN geH3op'b rF.. Ba56mq
(Orenburg; Examined by the military censorship; Military Censor G. P.
7.4.8. Ufa. In bright red in three lines, measuring 80, 20 & 50 mm.:
npocMOTpbHO BOeHHOIM eHsypom Bs r. Ybt. BoeHHi IueHs3opb M4..TrHaTbeBb
(Examined by the military censorship in the town of Ufa; Military
Censor I.G. Ignat'ev).
7.4.9. Ufa. In violet in four lines, measuring 25, 36, 8 & 48 mm.:
UIPOCMOTpbHO BoeHHO~ 14eH3ypo B'! r. Yb.BOeHHHMi ueH30op' N, 50
(Examined by the Military Censorship in the town of Ufa; Military
censor No. 50).
7.4.10. Ufa. In violet in four lines, measuring 25, 37, 7 & 47 mm.:
IpOCMOTptHO BoeHHO r eHaypoM Bb r. YQt.BoeHHHM ueH3sop POTMMcTpb
(Examined by the military censorship in the town of Ufa; Military
censor Cavalry Captain Ignat'ev). MrHaTheBs
7.4.11. Ufa. In violet in four lines, measuring 25, 36, 18 & 90 mm.:
npOCMOTpbHO BoeHHOM HeH3ypOM Bs r. YB. BoeHHM~ UeH30pb POTvMCTp'
(Examined by the Military Censorship in the town of Ufa; Military
censor Cavalry Captain Ignat'ev). MrHaTesab
7.4.12. Ufa. In violet & bright red in 4 lines,measuring 25,35,10 & 48mm:
UpocMTOpbHO BoeHHoi LeHsyppo Yya BoeHHMI ueH30p'b N 38
(Examined by the Military Censorship; Ufa; Military censor No. 38).
7.4.13. Ekaterinburg. In violet in 4 lines, measuring 38 mm. each:
IIpocMOTptHo BoeHHon IleHaypo1 Bs r.EKaTepMH6yprt
(Examined by the Military Censorship in the city of Ekaterinburg).
7.4.14. Zlatoust. In violet in four lines, measuring 26,36,25 & 40 mm.:
* IpocMOTpsHO BoeHiioM eHsypoM r. 3AaToyCTb BoeHHaM neHaopSb 195
(Examined by the Military Censorship; town of Zlatoust; Military
Censor No. 195).
7.4.15. Vyatka. In bright red in three lines, measuring 47,58 & 50 mm.:
DpocCMOTpbFHO BoeHHO L4eH3ypo0 npM BATCKOs r1y6epHCKOM KoxAeriz
nnRibH6teHeBb 15

(Examined by the Military Censorship at the Vyatka Provincial
Collegium of POW Refugees).
7.4.16. Vyatka. In violet in four lines, measuring 23,30,28 & 32 mm.:
(Examined by the military censorship; Military censor I.Masalitinov).
7.4.17. Kurgan. In violet in three lines, measuring 15, 29 & 15 mm.:
4-.1.BoeHH.geH. r.r. KypraHbCMa.nbra (Permitted by the Censorship;
Military Censorship; town of Kurgan; Smil'ga).
7.4.18. Pokrovsk.In violet in three lines, measuring 66, 25 & 42 mm.:
ipOCMOTpbHO BOeHHOr teHsypOM r. oTKpoBCKe BoeHHN U1E3aop'b T199 K.C.M.
(Examined by the Military censorship; town of Pokrovsk; Military
censor No. 199; K.S.M.).
7.4.19. Warsaw. In violet in two lines, measuring 48 & 60 mm.:
UpocMOTptHO BoeHHol ieHaypoL (Examined by the Military censorship).
7.4.20. Ekaterinburq. In violet in four lines; each measuring 40 mm.:
]pOCMOTpbHO BOeHHOI 1eH3ypoti r. EKaTepMH5ypr" BOeHHbIM ieH30opb r 100 J.H.
(Examined by the military censorship; town of Ekaterinburg; Military
censor No. 100; L.P.).
7.4.21. Tara. In violet in two lines, measuring 24 & 10 mm.:
BoeHH1u uenasop' Kome (Military censor; Koshe).

8. The initials "I.I." = Permitted by the Censorship.

8.1. Circular Markings.
8.1.1. Tara. Double circle in violet, with outer diameter of 23 mm.
8.1.2. Achinsk. In bright red, with a diameter of 30 mm.
8.'1.3. Chelyabinsk. Double circle in violet, with outer 0 of 30 mm.

8.2. Oval Markings.
8.2.1. Almaznaya. In violet, measuring 23 x 10 mm.
8.2.2. Ekaterino. In violet, measuring 21 x 16 mm.

8.3. Boxed Markings.
8.3.1. Petrograd. In bright red, measuring 23 x 20 mm.
8.3.2. Krasnoyarsk. In violet, measuring 34 x 25 mm.
8.3.3. Vladivostok. In bright red, measuring 35 x 25 mm.

8.4. Line Markings.
8.4.1. Petrograd (presumably). In violet, measuring 20 x 15 mm.
8.4.2. Khar'kov. In bright red, measuring 32 x 16 mm.

8.5. Handwritten Notations.
8.5.1. Achinsk. In violet.

9. Austrian or Austro-Hungarian Censorship Markings.
9.1. Circular Markings.
9.1.1. Double circle in bright red, with outer circle thicker and with
outer diameter of 27 mm. Inscribed "Gesellschaften vom Roten Kreuze in
6sterreich und Ungarn. Zens.". A red cross before the word
9.1.2. Double circle in bright red, with the outer one thicker and
diameters of 31/32 mm. Inscribed "Gesellschaften vom Roten Kreuze in
6sterreich und Ungarn. Zens.". A red cross before the word
9.1.3. Double circle in bright red, with outer one thicker and outer
diameter of 37 mm. Inscribed "K. u. K. Gemeinsames Zentralnachweisburo
Wien Zensurabteilung". A red cross before and after the word "Wien".


9.2. Triangular Markings.
9.2.1. Measuring 40 x 30 x 30mm. (a) in violet, (b) in blue and (c) in
Bright red, with tallish letters and three stars. Inscribed
"Gemeinsames Zentr. Nachw. Buro, Zensurabteilung Wien". A dot in the
centre between "Zentr. Nachw.".
9.2.2. Measuring 37 x 30 x 30mm., in violet. Thicker letters and with
three groups of four dots. Inscribed "Gemeinsames Zentr. Nachw. Btro,
Zentralabteilung Wien".
9.2.3. Measuring 43 x 35 x 35mm., in violet. Thicker letters and with
three groups of four dots. Inscribed "Gemeinsames Zentr. Machw. Buro,
Zensurabteilung Wien".
9.2.4. Measuring 45 x 36 x 36mm. (a) in violet and (b) in bright red.
Thicker letters and with three groups of four dots. Inscribed
"Gemeinsames Zentr. Nachw. Buro, Zensurabteilung Wien".
9.2.5. Measuring 48 x 36 x 36mm., in violet. Thicker letters and with
three groups of four dots. Inscribed "Gemeinsames Zentr. Nachw. Btro,
Zensurabteilung Wien".
9.2.6. Measuring 40 x 37 x 37mm., in red. Thicker letters and with
three red stars. Inscribed "K. u. K. Gemeins. Zentr. Nachw. Buro,
Zensurabteilung Wien".

10. Hungarian Censorship Markings inscribed in German.

10.1. Circular Markings.
10.1.1. In black, with a diameter of 30 mm. Tallish letters. Inscribed
before the word BUDAPESTER.

Please see p. 18 for a map of the known POW camps on the territory of
the Russian Empire and pp. 19-24 for examples of formular cards and
postcards referred to in the foregoing text.

Editorial comment with additional information follows on p. 25.






Ya. Pehr P.O. Box 3012, Ocean View Branch, Miami Beach,
Florida, 33140, U S A

| | | | | | | | 111111 Bill gi 111111111|




1 9 1 4- 1 9 1 8
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9. Borymap 27. ApaHCK 45. ConxMaucK 63. MpKyTCK
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View card from Austria to Chita.

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View card sent from Siberia to
Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca in
Roumania). Message written in
Hungarian from Spasskoe 11.11.16.


000 HOeR Ao lt II risonniers do guerren

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_07 :

24 Fundaikumachi t Nagsad,

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Our readers will have an enormous amount of fun
expanding on this study, as the field is huge. His last entry 10.1.1.
for Budapest is most unusual in having a censorship marking inscribed
* in German; a very sensitive point for the proud Hungarians. An
example of such an application is shown immediately below on an
envelope to the POW Agency of the Danish Red Cross and originally
posted on 15 August 1917 at the Ungvar-2 (Uzhorod-2) post office in
the Carpatho-Ukraine, then under Hungarian rule.

S- '

Another area worthy of investigation is that of what the Germans aptly
cal "Nachl&ufer" (successor material). With the onset of the February
and October 1917 revolutions and the ensuing Civil War, many of the
POWs, especially in Siberia, were either released or escaped from
captivity. They joined the Czechoslovak Legion, the Red or White forces
or made their way down into China and Mongolia. Two interesting
instances come to mind of escapees to Mongolia.

Lothar Schinauer was an Austrian artist, who got down to Ulan Bator
and designed the first issue of Mongolian stamps in 1924. He later
settled down in Moscow, where his fellow-countryman, the late Kurt
Adler, met him. It was at the height of the Great Purge late in 1937
and they had both arranged to return together to Austria by train.
Kurt got to the station, Lothar's luggage also got there, but he never
made it. His Russian wife and daughter went crazy trying to find out
what had happened to him and the matter was further pursued by the
Austrian Embassy after WWII, without any success.

The second example is demonstrated by the GELETA J6zsef correspondence.
He was a Hungarian engineer, who was hired by the new Mongolian
government and wrote regularly to his wife in Patak, N6grad county, in
Hungary. Two typical covers are shown overleaf, both registered. The
first, with 50 mungs postage, was sent from Ulan Bator on 26 Nov. 1928
and has a printed Hungarian inscription on the flap, reading: GELETA
J6ZSEF / Mongolian State Engineer / URGA. The second, with 75 mungs
postage, left Ulan Bator on 8 Dec. 1928 and has a printed German
inscription on the flap: JOSEPH GELETA / Engineer at the Mongolian
Ministry of National Economy / URGA. His adventures are given in the
book "The New Mongolia, as related by J6zsef Geleta", by Laszl6
Forbath; trans. from the Hungarian by L. Wolfe (Heinemann,London,1936).
Please see illustrations on next page.



vC J


by Robert Taylor

The winter of 1923-1924 must have been a cold and snowy one, as opposed
to that of 1922-1923. As previously mentioned in "The Post-Rider" No.18,
p.31, the latest airmail covers seen in 1923 were in October and the
ealiest seen for 1924 are in May. Indeed, the 1923 airmail issue (Scott
C2-C5) was not ready for use until November 1923, by which time the
stamps valued in 1923 roubles were no longer valid and the airline had
closed operations for the winter. Thus, in May 1924, when the Moscow-
K8nigsberg-Berlin route was to be reopened, the postal authorities had
established a new airmail rate of 20k. and reissued on 5th. May the
1923 airmail issue, surcharged in gold kopeks (Scott C6-C9). The
earliest 1924 usage that I have is from 8th. May (see Fig. 1 below) and
whether.or not the first actual flight of the season took place on 5th.
May remains a question.

.. Fig.l. Foreign
H card rate of
S 12k., + 20k.
1 airmail fee.
5.4 Red German
cachet "Mit
.r_ 9 .Luftpost
bef8rdert. /
K .............. ....nigsberg
(Pr.)". A
note on back
.. ~ ,QTIdated 7 May
--- -from Soviet
..... .. .collector,
saying that
.......... .... .... .. ... the airmail
Sb route had
n. r-Th / that week.

On covers originating in Moscow we see in May and early June the use of
a new Russian cachet, a boxed SAMOLETOM (Speers No.6), meaning "BY
AIRPLANE"(Fig.2 overleaf). By early June another cachet is noted: a
small boxed "Mit Luftpost" (Speers No.7; see Figs. 13 to 15 herewith)
is seen together with the boxed SAMOLETOM on 9th. June (Fig.6) and
thereafter on most Moscow-originating airmail covers in 1924. An
interesting variety of the SAMOLETOM cachet, with the lettering notably
wider and thicker, is seen on a 10th. June cover from the Commissioner
for Philately and Paper Money (Fig.7). That is the only example noted
of this cachet.

Covers originating in Leningrad carry an etiquette similar in words and
colour to the 1922-1923 etiquette. Most appear to be the black on
cerise variety (Muller No.4; see Fig.4), but I have usages on 11 June &
2 July of an etiquette which is very similar, but with a slightly
Different alignment of the two-line wording and wider spacing of the
ettering (Fig.8). This is clearly a different and previously
unrecorded label. Muller No.3 is identical to No.4, but supposed to be
on red paper, rather than cerise. The glue used to attach these labels
often caused discolouration and I strongly suspect that to be the
origin of Muller No.3.

Fig.2. Reg.
airmail cover
from Moscow
14.5.24 to
Paris 18.5.24.
Rates were
20k. each for
foreign letter,
registration &
airmail, so
this cover was
overfranked by
5k. Earliest
noted usage of
in violet Also,
German red boxed
"Mit Luftpost
K6nigsberg (Pr.)
1". Kazakoff

-- --~ -.. --.4:.
? .~~~- *'~~~C.-`

3A ~ -~ -~f -

S-r;-- 1

Covers originating in cities other than Moscow and Leningrad again have
no distinctive markings from the city of origin, other than handwritten
indications of airmail. However, unlike 1922-1923 covers, airmail
passing through Moscow did receive the Moscow origin air cachet, at
least the "Mit Luftpost" marking, from June onwards (Fig.5). That is
seen on covers originating in a number of other cities, including
Leningrad (Figs. 9 & 10). Many covers also carry German air transit
cachets applied in K8nigsberg.

A previously unrecorded mystery cachet is a violet boxed VOZDUSHNAYA
POCHTA on a cover from Leningrad on 20th. Oct., addressed to a timber
merchant in Hull England(Fig.16). This cover also bears the Leningrad
air etiquette Muller No.4 and a Konigsberg air cachet. The VOZDUSHNAYA
POCHTA cachet is possibly of private origin, similar to those seen
within a few years from various State trading agencies. Since this
cover does not bear the "Mit Luftpost" cachet customarily applied in
Moscow, it is also just possible that this cachet was one used normally
for internal airmail originating in Moscow. I have seen no examples of
such internal use in 1924, so these are suppositions at best.

The Moscow-applied three-line airmail receiving cachet POLUCHENO / S
VOZDUSHNOI/POCHTOI (received by airmail) is noted as Speers No.5,
introduced in June 1923. My first use is on 20 Aug. 1924 (Fig.ll). I
also note this receiving cachet on a cover dated 28th. Aug. from Berlin
to Moscow. However, on the back of this apparently undelivered cover is
another receiving cachet with the same words and similar format, but in
a distinctly different style of lettering (Fig.12). That is the only
example recorded of this receiving cachet variety.

On 30 Oct. 1924, a group of covers was prepared with similar frankings
(Scott C8,C9) for envelopes, preprinted in large letters "Premier vol
postal Moscou-Teheran". They received the usual Moscow boxed "Mit
Luftpost" cachet, as well as a special three-line cachet prepared for
the flight (Speers No.8; see Fig.17). Speers also identifies 17 June as
the opening of the Khar'kov Odessa air route, via Poltava and
Elisavetgrad. I have seen no 1924 covers from that route.

~ '9,.
AC A' Ie -

Fig. 2a. A private correspondence cover from Sudzha, Kursk province
20 May 1924, passing through Moscow on 23 May and K8nigsberg 25 May, on
its way to somewhere in England. The rate paid was 60k., i.e. 20k. each
for the foreign letter, registration and airmail fees. A German
registration label, red on white and perf. 11, reading "R/Vom Ausland/
8ber/K8nigsberg Pr. 1" has been affixed. Note also the red boxed German
cachet:"Mit Luftpost bef8rdert./K8nigsberg (Pr.)l.".
Fig.3.(see next page). Reg. airmail cover from Moscow 21 May 1924 to
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 25 May with Ir. postage; presumably overweight
sending with philatelic material. Note the 3k. on 3r. philatelic tax
stamp on back with the first two Cs in C.C.C.P. in smaller type, also
the black on cerise imperf. etiquette, inscribed "Envoye par la/poste
erienne (Muller No.l). This is the Leningrad label used in 1922 & 1923
and was never in normal use from Moscow. The German boxed cachet in red
"Mit Luftpost bef8rdert./K8nigsberg (Pr.) i." was also applied on the


Ba; /~i -C -L~~

3 a K 9a :H 0 e

repMaum Eegmr



k7 H e o r.ii.4"

v i t' .
o o -t~r;:;i:^'-

~1o~fulkOi`.-*S -

T eI o- LA N D

ElIN .W. 50


S Fig.3a. The earliest noted airmail cover prepared by the Commissioner
for Philately & Paper Money, using the recently issued airmail
surcharges Scott C6-C9, in this case to German dealer M. Glick. Total
rate paid = 60k., with the remaining 10k. stamp on the back.
Note the SAMOLETOM (violet) and K8nigsberg (red) cachets applied.

SHOOI/- ; Eig.4. Cover from
S!-.: A g the Kagan corres-
'y[?W.; pondence from Len-
ingrad 24.5.24 via
SMoscow 26 May and
S'. Berlin 30 May to
S- r London-Chingford
S2 June. Earliest
Sd noted use of
Muller No.4 label
4. ",| and with unusual
routing via Berlin
S Luftpost (on back),
rather than via
K8nigsberg. This
airmail label
Sprinted for use
O in the 1924 season:

". "- I Envoyt par la
uouT eriEnn 31

_ ____ _____


Another cover from the Kagan correspondence, Leningrad 2.6.1924 to
London 7 June, with the imperf. etiquette black on cerise (Muller No.4)
and application of English violet boxed "EXPRESS FEE PAID 6D".

repMaHui-Bepjium v:


X4Dr. BJ. reinier

fOr C ia a2if i te'


Yorckstr. 84.

Fig.5. A Dr. Brender Centralhilfskomite cover from Novorossiisk Port
6.6.24, via Moscow 9 June to Berlin 11 June and with rate 20k. each
for foreign letter and airmail. Note violet boxed "Mit Luftpost"
cachet (Speers No.7).

__.m Ju
....... I ... ........ .........



-,. -. ., ..o -:



Fig.6. Reg. air
cover Moscow
9.6.24 via
Berlin 13 June
to London 16th.
June. Unusual
usage of two
official air
cachets on same
cover; perhaps
last day usage
(Speers No.6) &
first day use
of "Mit
(Speers No.7).

S Eingeschrieben
S a K a 3. H e.

Pe.CFaHt1i Le;njTH D,:. I i JI iK.

Mit Luftpost

D E U.T S C H LA 1D i

Ansbacher strasse No.17

Fig.7. Chuchin cover to M. Glick, with two official airmail cachets applied
10.6.24, including previously unrecorded SAMOLETOM type and the "Mit
Luftpost" cachet which apparently came into use the previous day.

Fig.8. From
11.6.24 with
black on
cerise label
"Envoye par
la / poste
similar to
Muller No.4
but with
From the


*- N 1qri- ABI1ONO*-.


*~ ~ wxAb V>n i ( vo /*^ v ^Y^

-CA.a* '* l- -'-

\ *-^~....---'-----.-.--t it-. i
\ *^\'^Jk. rit c\, s"

/~P~j)4 _______


Fig.8a. Attractive philatelic exchange cover from well known Khar'kov
collector E.E. Stefanovskii 13.6.24. He survived the purges and WWII
to keep trading with Lester Glass in Philadelphia & Los Angeles as late
as 50 years after the cover here was posted in 1924 '


- -

--- -- --


X -00

k Q\


914 /

Fig.9. Reg. air cover from Leningrad 2.7.24 to Frankfurt/Main 6 July with
s lack on cerise label, similar to Muller No.4, but with wider spacing of
letters. Also violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet applied in Moscow.

'tc 1

Fig.10. Reg. air cover from Leningrad 2.8.24, via Moscow 3 Aug. to London
6 Aug. Note red boxed "Mit Luftpost/bef8rdert/Bahnpostamt 4".

'21 8,2'ek 1
.^ 'ii F ^
I r n 4

\ 1 9.24.K.(
\ A"'
(A h


Fig.ll. Berlin 20.8.24 cover, sent by air only from K8nigsberg to Moscow
21 Aug., then Shanghai 10 Sept. & Hong Kong 14 Sept., with black Russian
cachet POLUCHENO/S VOZDUSHNOI/POCHTOI (Speers No.5, which he says was
introduced in June 1923). Note the overland journey via Siberia.

pT '^r'' "'"^"*'

o ~T ~.

Fig.12. Reg. air Berlin 28.8.24 to Moscow 29,30,31 Aug.,2 & 3 Sept.,withW
POLUCHENO/S VOZDUSHNOI/POCHTOI on front (Speers No.5) and unrecorded
variant on back in thicker lettering. Also violet boxed "Retour/Inconnu",
five different Moscow cancels, MS note "To Enquiry Office" and return on
10th.September. Quite a story.

->..-.. **-, **-* >

-- *'' ^ ;

\ ,

... -. 7,

Lr-- ,
^ .-^

S. ... l i
-.4 ib.t..^ .' |
-^ ^i^*^^^^ ^ *--, n 1

^ ';.,....;..,....*. *J
ii~~ ~ .

-,. '


* Fig.13. Overweight reg. air cover Moscow 22.8.24 to New York 8 Sept.
with Ir. 20k. postage and enclosing philatelic material to dealer W. C.
Steiger. Note the violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" (Speers No.7) and red
boxed "Mit Luftpost/bef8rdert./Bahnpostamt 4." cachets.

Fig.14. Reg. air postcard Moscow 15.9.24 to Sombor, Yugoslavia with 52k.
rate: 12k. foreign card & 20k. each for air & regn. Note usage of 10k.
Ukrainian trident card as a blank and cachets "Mit Luftpost" & "Mit
Luftpost/bef8rdert./Bahnpostamt 4.".


[.j:.~" ~ I ;': *'0-i

Fig.15. Reg. air cover with 60k. postage from Rostov/Don 10.10.24 to
Berlin-Charlottenburg 14 Oct., containing philatelic material and with
violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" (Speers No.7) & German red boxed "Mit
Luftpost/bef8rdert./Bahnpostamt 4.".


r ,- '-- *-e^ ',.^




Fig.16. Reg. air cover with 70k. postage on back (overfranked by 10k.)
from Leningrad 20.10.24 to Hull, England, with the black on cerise air
label (Muller No.4) and a previously unrecorded VOZDUSHNAYA POCHTA boxed
cachet in violet, perhaps of Moscow origin and intended for internal
mail. It has only been noted on this late season cover from Leningrad
and may be of private origin.



Fig.16a. An airmail postcard (12k. foreign card + 20k. air fees) from
Leningrad 30.10.24 with the black on cerise air label (Muller No.4) and
German red boxed "Mit Luftpost/bef8rdert./Bahnpostamt 4." cachet, but
WITHOUT any air cachet applied in Moscow.



0oi nTIowr le fi

Premier vol post a

Moscou Tehera "

Herrn Jarol j me k,

STe h e r a n (Perse)

Fig.17. First flight cover from Moscow 30.10.24 to Teheran (belated date
14.12.24 !) with 35k. postage: possibly a special rate for this flight.
Violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" (Speers No.7) and red boxed bilingual "Par
avion/Vozdushnoi pochtoi/Moscou-Teheran" cachets. All covers noted for
this flight have identical franking and markings.

BCEM IPH blA-a-LOc.Ba.,

C'L ~ (L -,9 /4f zi
~ WC Li~
I ~



by Douglas De Roest.

The original article on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No.18,pp.36-66
by Ya. Afangulskii has been brought to my attention and I am setting out
hereunder additional information taken from items in my collection of
"The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich / Nazi Europe 1933-1945". The same
sequence will be followed, i.e. material from Greater Germany, followed
alphabetically by that from its allies in The Holy War.

6roe ant~Polrdiewmitirdle flusftellung % A '
Retdispropoganbaleitung her ISiDfP. a I


Va- L.T119- 12.37

/ /

.. . . .. . . .. . . .

'365 J

SDutrdilan Soomietrublani


(a) The Great Anti-Bolshevik Exhibition / Bolshevism Unmasked, held in
Berlin at the Reichstag from 6.11 to 19.12.37. Please see the previous
page for illustrations of the front and back
of a special postcard for the event issued ,.
by the Propaganda Department of the NSDAP .
(Nazi Party). The back of the card. r
contrasted contemporary living conditions,
at left in Germany and with the caption '
GERMANY'S FUTURE and three healthy young \
women, while at the right the slogan *',
read CHILDREN WITHOUT YOUTH and showed o
homeless waifs, with the words "Soviet *^
Russia" at the bottom. There are two t' '
strikes of the special marking on the
front of the card, with different days
and the code letters "a" and "b".

(b) This same exhibition had its run extended to 9.1.38, necessitating
a new set of markings, which are much scarcer. The one with code "a"
is shown directly above, applied on the second last day of the show.

(c) Subsequent to the launching of the surprise attack against the
Soviet Union, German field post formular cards were issued with an
excerpt from the Note handed by the German ambassador in Moscow, Count
Werner von der Schulenberg to the People's Commissar of External Affairs
V.M. Molotov early in the morning of 22 June 1941. This excerpt was
printed on the back of the formular cards as shown hereunder:-

S ,,Doas t tuf) e olff fit ) i opt e, to : t if Oe efan:t: rSulturowet on On t56afden 0faIrtn bea
Bol)dittmlmus au tWtten unb ben Deg ffil cinen ,atrcn ro3lalen lufftis In urnopo ftel ~u madien."
(2ne ot Vlore .Ian ot 8omwlarteirrtng.)

"The German people is conscious of the fact that it is being called upon
to save civilisation from the deadly dangers of Bolshevism and to clear
the way for a real social advance in Europe".
(From the Note to the Soviet government).

(d) I can now show both
code letters "a" & "b"
for the special cancel i
applied in Berlin for X
two days only, 25 & 26 25.111941/
November 1941 on /-
stamps with surtax. 19 1/" /
This marking was i
inscribed EUROPE'S \ < b


To round off this section on Greater Germany, please see overleaf an
illustration of the largest block so far seen of one of the propaganda
stamps produced under the direction of the Security Police at the
Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1944 and modelled after
the d. English Jubilee stamp of 1935. The block consists of 24 stamps,

4f 11 C 6.44

I "'hli

\~AR I
I ~944

each separated by a wide gutter and line-perforated 11. This block
obviously does not represent the complete sheet size and further
information on that point would be appreciated.


(i) The Flemish Legion

Two usages of the first set of labels issued on 23 December 1941 are
shown on the next page. The postcard appears to be entirely philatelic,
with the letter frank stamp of field post No. 01852, while the label is
cancelled FELDPOST 411, 19.9.42. I have a similar card, with the same
handwriting and address, but with a different field post cachet No.
21190 and un-numbered FELDPOST postmark, dated 21.?.42. It is doubtful
that either of these two items ever went through the field post service
to the addressee and there is always the suspicion that some of these
cachets and cancellers had fallen into unauthorised hands when the
Third Reich collapsed.

However, the letter shown here and addressed to Magdeburg appears to
have gone through the field post service, as it also bears a control
marking encircling the initials "A.c.". It shows the cachet of field
post No. 48700 and an un-numbered FELDPOST marking, dated 12.12.42.

To round off the material from this legion, we see at the top of p. 44
a cover confirming the date 9 August 1943 as the first day of issue of
the sheetlets commemorating various emperors and empresses of the Holy
Roman & Hapsburg Empires, in this particular case Maximilian I of
Austria (1459-1519). The cover is addressed to Laeken and confirms


Die deutsche Wehrmacht

IA imle

% oUIM Kd?3cr f.J

'9de 1bus
Of (t? WenfeIen


- ~ ( --" 'I--

SN 000026


J, e,1"
^2 /ke^^-'-

l 0 s.11r.42
\ .._./

SS-Staniar tenfUiihrer
.i-n'sr Lh.ahoff
Sicherbsi ts 1 ien t
Sr o n i n n Holl n

--~--- ~-~- ----~ ------ --

_ ~,

that these labels had no postal validity, as the Belgian internal rate
of If. in postage stamps had to be added to the envelope in Brussels.

O(ii) The Wallonia Legion.

The complete set of the four labels, originally issued on 10 April 1942,
is shown on cover on p.44, with the same FELDPOST 411 postmark noted on
the philatelic postcard shown previously from the Flemish Legion. The
date in this case is now 6.11.42 and the application of this marking
seems suspicious as the two legions were separate entities, rigidly split
on linguistic lines. It seems hardly likely that the same FELDPOST
canceller would have serviced mail from both parties, but further data
are required to clear up this point.



(i) Re the Flemish Legion, imperf. proofs have now shown up at auction of
the Emperors set of labels, issued on 9 August 1943, as shown above at
left, as well as a special postcard, illustrated at right and inscribed
in Flemish. It shows an armed Flemish defender facing an approaching Red
Army soldier with the traditional peaked cap. The inscription reads:

........................... ee e e ee............. e....ee e ..e e....
The sole set of labels for the
Wallonia Legion has now been .
seen with the insignia
missing in both the panels
provided for them in each of
the designs. A complete .... ...............................................
sheetlet of four of the F +
50f value of this variety is :
shown herewith. \ ''

....... I. ...... ............. ....... ..... ..........


3. The French Volunteers.

I have the Legion of French Volunteers sheet F + 100f on an airmail cover
headed SS-FELDPOST, addressed to the German Security Service in
s' Gravenhage, Holland and with a cancellation reading FELDPOST/b/28.9.42,
but there is no indication that it ever originated from the Eastern

Another item that appears philatelic is the cover shown just below with
the FRONT DE L'EST/OSTFRONT overprint on the F + 10f label, which is
cancelled FELDPOST .3.12.42 and also has the cachet of field post No.07525
which is not among the list of numbers given on pp.54-55 of "The Post-
Rider", No.18.

The third example to report is of the application of one of the Legion
Tricolore commemorative stamps officially used by Vichy France on a
German postcard, cancelled with a FELDPOST marking and bearing the
address label of Fa. Karl Hennig/Hamburg (a well-known stamp dealer).
An obvious philatelic usage.

4. The Italian Expeditionary Force in Russia.

The illustration at top left on the next page is to be found on the back
of an Italian postcard, with the flag of La Disperata and German and
Italian comrades-in-arms in the foreground, trampling on a red Soviet

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Another example with a similar theme is in the form
of an Italian field post card with a design on the back in carmine,
entitled EUROPE AGAINST ANTI-EUROPE and showing two soldiers holding

aiMONT DE it
L SUYS +10

SS Untersturmfuhrer


rue de ru.rir
\^ ." '*, i n ,/
*P A I 3.

-eine .irnce.


L'avvenire e nostro, 6 nelle nostre mani sicure,
poiche sard it prodotto del nostro coraggio e
della nosta inesauribile volontA di vita e di
vittoriaq 5,jI MUsS~o LIN

Grado, Cognome e nf ,ete:


RepA2,. U I .
vT..nU TnT


>!,- P

`yl --

back the Soviet gorilla. Note the hammer and sickle below the paw at
bottom right. This card is shown at top right on p.47 and with the
message side below it, printed in blue and with the following written
text:"WE WILL WIN. F.P.O. 53, 8.12.42. To all the comrades in Arcale
I am sending from the Russian front my best greetings and wishes for
Happy Holidays and a Happy New Year. Victory is secure in our hands.
Martino Paiola, 121st. Artillery Regiment, XXVIIIth. Group". Addressed
to the Fascist Organisation in Arcale, province of Verona, Italy and
written on the Russian front at the time when the German forces and their
allies were facing certain disaster in the Stalingrad encirclement I

5. The Latvian Legion.

Judging from the material in my collection, there appear to have been
two separate sets prepared, but never issued. Apparently done by the
photogravure process, but the printing is not clear or distinct.
Surface-coloured paper, in a paler shade of the design colour and with
white backs.

First Set:

(a) without inscriptions:

blue green It.yellow-green orange

(b) with inscription LATVIESU LEGIONS:
.. % ~ . r -" "" .... . ..V it "

S. i i vin i-

blue orange-red orange rose-red
+ 0,25 +25 + 75 + 0,75

r .. r .. .. -

light blue It.yellow-green
+ 129 100 o

Second Issue:
(Paper is very slick and shiny; surface-coloured with white backs).

25 rose-red o.75 It. blue 1 rose-red 150 blue 150 rose-red

6. The Norwegian

A first day
cover is shown
here of the. \
20+30 Ore stamp ;
fighters at the
front and >0 "
issued on 2 Aug. .0 )
1943. It is E
interesting to So
speculate if the
cachet "First
Day Cover" was
applied then '
during the
occupation, or
at a later

7. The Slovak
Army. 1E

armed forces chrea k Ar Jye
was issued Iagesprlin,
with surtax
on 28 July
1943. It is
shown here
on a reg. Brat i laV
cover from
Pre ov-2, Dcooruene. oedukoa a1.6.0',
18 Sep.1943 .------....
* to the
capital of
Bratislava. Preov 2
_1 256
honou of I


by Alex Artuchov


Samara Province

Buzuluk is located in the east central portion
of Samara Province. In 1900 its population was
about 6,000.

Wheat, sunflower and cattle were raised in this

Buzuluk issued stamps between 1876 and 1917.

Lithographed in colour on gray white paper, 0.07 -0.08 mm
thick, 16 x 23 mm, imperforate, 3 types known.

Lu 0 fl

(12 known)

1. 3 kop. dark blue

The Three Types :

Type 1- The letter Y in the inscription on the left side is
small and short.
Type 2- The distance between the 3 and the inscription band at
the top is greater than on the other two types, the

bottom frameline is missing except for two short lines
in the corners.
Type 3- There is a break in the bottom frameline near the letter
n, the last letter in the word BY3YJIYKCKArO is fuller
and rounder, the letter Y has longer bottom stroke.

1876 (?)
Lithographed in colour on grayish white paper, 0.03 mm thick,
16 x 21 mm, imperforate, 3 types distinguishable by diagonal
background lines, some of the stamps have M A P and K in the
four corners in very small lettering.

1 0

2. 3 kop. olive green and red

(15-17 known)

1877 (?)
Similar to previous issue, lithographed in two colours on
white paper, a more carefully executed design, M A P and K
are added in the corners in very small lettering, 16 x 18 mm,
imperforate, according to Schmidt only single copies are known.

Stiff white paper, 0.09 mm thick, without gum.

3. 3 kop. red and lilac blue

(2 known)

White paper, 0.05 0.06 mm thick, brittle yellow white gum.

4. 3 kop. green and red

(19 known)

1877 (?)
Lithographed in two colours on white paper, 0.04 mm thick and
0.1 0.14 mm thick with gum, brownish yellow gum, 13-13 x
19.75-204 mm, imperforate, known in single copies only, 5 types.

f.^~' i

5. 3 kop. dark green and red
(or dull green and brown red)

(7 known)

The Five Types :
Type 1- One square in the top right corner and 3 dots in the
bottom right corner.
Type 2- Two squares in the top right corner.
Type 3- Cross in the top right corner.
Type 4- One square in the top right corner and 1i squares and 2
dots in the bottom right corner.
Type 5- The background ends with a point and a dot in the top
right corner and with 1 squares and one dot in the
bottom right corner.

1878 (?)
Similar to previous issue, inscription in smaller letters and
crossed lines of background closer together, the centre of the
stamp is overprinted in red, the letters T and P in the right
bottom corner are very close together, lithographed in two
colours on white paper, 0.08-0.17 mm thick depending on the
thickness of the gum, white of gray brown gum, 13 x 19 mm,
imperforate, known in single copies only, used copies unknown.

6. 3 kop. dark or light green and red

(14 known)

Lithographed in two colours on white quadrille paper, white
gum, imperforate, sheet of 84 (14 x 6) with a transfer block
of 30 (5 x 6) repeated 2 4/5 times, small numeral 3's are
printed throughout the sheet at random as shown below.

3 3

;3 3

7. 3 kop. yellow green and red


Similar to previous issue, inscriptions larger and the numeral 3
* is shorter, lithographed in black on white paper, 13.75 x 20Q mm,
imperforate, 3 editions.

First Edition (1881)
Stiff paper, yellowish gum with particles of dirt, sheet of 74
laid out as shown below, transfer block of 8 (2 x 4) with 8 types.

The Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6

7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 78

C, (.n ---4

8. 3 kop. black 8.00

The Eight Types :
Type 1- Small black line above the top frameline between the
letters Y and K, black dot between the two inner frame-
lines at right over the letter K.
Type 2- One or two spots between the letters H and K of the word
KOnrb HK.
Type 3- Black line across frameline under the letter I at bottom.
Type 4- Black lines and dot next to letter T at left.
Type 5- Black dots on top frameline over letters Y and C, part
of frameline and black band missing or damaged at left
over the word MAPKA.
Type 6- The white triangle at the top left is filled with a
curved black line, the white dash across the third Y
of the word at the top.
Type 7- White spot over the point of the triangle in the top
right corner, a dent in the thick frameline at the
bottom under the letter K.
Type 8- Black dot on the top frameline over the first letter Y.

Second Edition (1882)
White wove paper, smooth white gum, sheet of 50 as shown below,
transfer block of 6 (2 x 3), 6 types that are not as easily
apparent as those on the first edition.

The Sheet

9. 3 kop.



Third Edition (1883)
Slightly thicker paper, dirty yellowish white gum, the print
is blacker and smudged, sheet of 90 (10 x 9) with the same
2 x 3 transfer block as on the second edition which is repeated
5 times horizontally and 3 times vertically.

10. 3 kop. black


1885 -1892
20% x 28 mm lithographed on various white papers, imperforate,
at least 11 editions.

First Edition (1885)
Bluish white paper 0.11 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 50 in a
8 x 6 + 2 layout as shown below, the types of the top 3 stamps
in the last vertical column are not known, transfer block of
2 x 6, the blank spaces at the bottom of the sheet show traces
of stamps removed from the transfer block, the stamps in the
transfer block do not show sufficient differences to distinguish
types, the position of the position of the types can be determined
by the differences in the lines between the stamps, the types in
the first vertical column are unknown.


The Sheet

7 3 4 1 2 1 2 7

7 5 6 3 4 3 4 7

S7 18 5 6 5 6 ?

7 9 10 7 8 7 8 7

7 11 12 9 10 9 10 9

7 9 10 11 12 11 12 11

9 10

11. 3 kop. lilac rose


Second Edition (1885)
Bluish white paper 0.11 mm thick, white gum, the same transfer
block as for No. 11 rearranged into a new sheet of 50 as shown
below, parts of the sheet are inverted.

The Sheet

3 4 1 2 -ZT TT ZT TT

5 6 3 4 OT 6 OT 6

7 8 5 6 9 L 8 L

9 10 7 8 9 S 9 S
11 12 9 10 V C V E

2 9 10 9 C

4 11 12 Z T

12. 3 kop. lilac rose


Third Edition (1886)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, grayish white gum, print not clean
and permeates at times, sheet unknown.

13. 3 kop. rose lilac, light and dark


Fourth Edition (1886)
Thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, grayish white gum, sheet or
inverted stamps unknown, very scarce unused.

14. 3 kop. rose lilac, light or dark 3.00

Fifth Edition (1886)
Clean and carefully printed, white paper 0.09 mm thick, streaky
yellowish gum, sheet or inverted stamps unknown.

15. 3 kop. wine red, light or dark 5.00
unused R

Sixth Edition (1887)
Yellowish white paper 0.09 mm thick, yellowish gum, new plate,
distance between stamps larger, some stamps known in inverted

16. 3 kop. dull rose 3.00

Seventh Edition (1887)
Stiff white paper 0.09 mm thick, hard brownish yellow gum,
print is not clean and is smudged so that 3 in the centre oval
is hardly recognizable, sheet or stamps in an inverted position
are unknown.

17. 3 kop. yellow rose 4.00

Eigth Edition (1888)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish gum, print is smudged and
unclear at times, sheet unknown, stamps in an inverted position

18. 3 kop. light rose 3.00

Ninth Edition (1888)
Shiny white paper, thick brownish yellow gum, unclean print,
new plate and sheet of 50 stamps as shown below, transfer block
of 2 x 6, stamps in an inverted position on the last two columns
in the sheet.

19. 3 kop. dirty carmine, light and dark 3.00

The Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2 ZT TT

3 4 3 4 3 4 OT 6

5 6 5 6 5 6 8 L

7 8 7 8 7 8 9 S

9 10 9 10 9 10 V

11 12 11 12 11 12 Z T

7 8

Tenth Edition (1889)
Grayish white paper 0.09 mm thick, yellow gum, oily permeating
print, new plate with inverted stamps, sheet unknown.

20. 2 kop. dull lilac rose


Eleventh Edition (1890)
Yellowish white paper, thick yellow gum, new plate without any
inverted stamps, sheet of 50 as illustrated below, transfer block
of 2 x 5, imperforate or pin perforated 11.75 with a sewing

21. 3 kop. yellowish rose



22. 3 kop. lilac rose, light or dark

The Sheet

1 2

3 4

5 6

7 8

9 10

7 1

9 3













1892 (May)
19 x 27 mm similar to previous issue, a small shield has
been added at the top containing the heraldic animal, the 3 in
the central oval is rounded rather than straight on the top,
the word KOI under the 3 in the centre oval has been removed,
the small 3 at the bottom of the centre oval has been replaced
by the Roman numeral III, sheet unknown but large blocksseem to
indicate a sheet of 55 (8 x 7 with the stamp in the lower right
corner missing), transfer block of 4 x 2 without any distinct
differences between the types, lithographed on white writing
paper with the embossed imprint of the paper maker in the upper
left corner: OABPHKA CEPPbEBA, brown-yellow gum, imperforate.

23. 3 kop. carmine rose, light and dark


The Sheet

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 5 .6 7 8

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8

5 6 7 8 5 6 7

1893 1897
Similar to previous issue, ends of the oval are more rounded,
19 x 26 mm large 3 with round head band with inscription
narrower and shield shorter, lithographed on white paper,
imperforate, 2 editions.

First Edition (Feb. 1893)
On ordinary writing paper 0.15 mm thick, thin white or thick
brown-yellow and gray-brown gum, largest known multiple which
is perhaps the sheet is illustrated below, transfer block of
3 x 2, imperforate, 15,000 printed.

24. 3 kop. carmine rose, light or dark

The Sheet (?)

1 2 3



Second Edition (1897)
New plate without any stamps placed sideways, worn transfer,
heraldic animal is practically without any shading lines and
the ground under the animal's feet is white, the shadow on the
large 3 is strengthened, some of the stamps are retouched,
shiny white paper 0.1 mm thick, thick and brittle brown-yellow
gum, sheet unknown.

25. 3 kop. light rose


1897 1905
Similar to previous issue, 19.75 x 26 mm smaller oval and band
with inscription is wider, animal on shield has left front foot
streached forward, 2 small circles instead of 1 left of the word
TPH at the bottom, lithographed on white paper, 5 editions.

First Edition (1897)
White and at times rose tinted paper 0.09 0.12 mm thick,
yellow gum, sheet unknown, imperforate.

26. 3 kop. rose


Second Edition (1901)
With 1st retouch as illustrated below, white paper 0.12 mm thick,
sheet of 9 x 11 + 1 with some positions unknown as illustrated
below, transfer block of 3 x 2, imperforate and perforated 11.

27. 3 kop. dull lilac rose, light and dark


The First Retouch

The Sheet

1 23 1 2 3 1 2 3

4564 5 6 4 5 6

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

4564 5 6 4 56

1 2 3 7 1 2 3 ? ?

4 5 6 7 4 5 6 4 5

1 2 3 ? 1 2 3 7 7

4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 ?

12 3 1 2 3 7 ? 7

4 5 6 4 5 6 7 7 7

4 5 6 1 2 34 5 6

EL l

Third Edition (1902)
2nd retouch: right and left frame lines extended above and below
the top and bottom frame lines, a short horizontal line added
to left frame line at bottom, most of the stamps have vertical
scratches, white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 100
(15 x 7 with 5 stamps omitted in the top row) as shown below,
perforated 11 and imperforate.

28. 3 kop. dull rose 0.50
unused 5.00

The Sheet

Second Retouch
(Third Edition)

i' .t -

\ 1 -1'


Third Retouch
(Fourth Edition)

,p-- -.

Fourth Edition (1904)
Third retouch: a long line across the stamp beginning as thick
on the right hind leg of the animal and proceeding down diagonally
through the large 3 in the centre and ending very thin at the H
of TPH, on 17 of the stamps there is a bell on the animal's
neck, there are some coarse retouches on 10 of the stamps, white
wove paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 100 (9 x 11 +1),
perforated 11 and 5 horizontally imperforate pairs on the sheet.

29. 3 kop. carmine rose


The Sheet

B BB B B -Pairs imp. between
B -Bell on animal's neck
RR R -Retouched


Fifth Edition (1905)
Similar to the 4th edition, without retouches and without
the bell on neck variety, long diagonal line across the stamp
is present, sheet of 100 (10 x 10), perforated 11 with imperf-
orate sheet margins.

30. 3 kop. milky rose


1907 1908
19 x 25% mm, lithographed on white paper, white gum,
perforated or pin perforated, 2 editions.


First Edition (Aug. 1907)
Yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, space between stamps
3 5 mm sheet of 10 x 10, perforated 11.

31. 3 kop. gray blue, light or dark


Second Edition (Oct. 1908)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, space between stamps 7 8 mm
print unclear and smudged, sheet of 100 with 63rd stamp inverted,
perforated 11 and sewing machine perforated 6 7 beginning in
Aug. of 1909, these stamps were stored imperforate and ungummed
and were pin perforated because the perforating machine was out
of order, 50,000 printed.

32. 3 kop. blue, light or dark, perf. 11l

33. 3 kop. blue, light or dark, perf. 6 -



20.75 x 26.5 mm lithographed on white paper 0.12 mm thick,
white gum, sheet of 99 (9 x 11) with 3 types arranged as shown
below, perforated 11, 100,000 printed.


34. 3 kop. black brown, lilac brown

The Sheet

1 2 3 2 1 1 3 12

2 3 1 3 2 1 1 21
3 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 3
3 2 2 3 1 2 112

1 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 2
2 2 2 1 3 1 32
1 3 2 11 1 3 2 2

1 3 1 3 1 3 3 2 13
1 2 3 1 3 3 2 3 3
2 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 1
2 3 2 3 3 1 1 2 1

The Three Types
Type 1 White spot on upper
left point and botton right
side of shield.
Type 2 White spot in right
bottom corner.
Type 3 Two white lines on
top circle of left band with

Type 3.

Type 2.

Type 1.

Similar to issue of 1910, inscriptions slightly larger, animal
with white head and appears as if jumping, crown with larger
cross and without points at the side, 5 spirals to the left and
4 spirals to the right of the shield, 20 3/4 x 26 1/3 mm ,
lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
sheet of 14 x 7, transfer block of 4 x 2, perforated 11.

35. 3 kop. lilac brown

The Sheet

12 34 12 3 41 23 4 1 2
5678 56 78567 857
12 34 1 2 3 41 23 4 34
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 17 8

11234 5678123234



Similar to previous issue, smaller inscriptions, smaller crown
and cross, 5 spirals on both sides of the shield, 21 x 26 mm
lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum,
sheet of 14 x 11, transfer block of 6 x 1, perforated 11.

36. 3 kop. sepia brown

The Sheet (of 14 x 9 only ?)

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2
1 2 3 4 56 1 2 34 5 6 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1234 56 12
1 23 4 5 6 12 3 4 56 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6
1 2 34 5 6 12 3 4 5 6 1 2
12 3 4 5612 3 4 5 6 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 61234 5 6 4 5


1917 (end of)
Stamps of the issue of 1915 surcharged with large black-violet
6 or 10 to reflect an increase in the postal rate.

37. 6 on 3 kop. sepia brown

38. 10 on 3 kop. sepia brown

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top Background Silver with light brown fox and green grass.
Bottom Background Ochre with gray elk and yellow green grass.

Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference




18 &18a




Russian philatelists in the Western
World have many examples of Imperial
mail directed abroad and have, in
fact, ensured the survival and epi
loving preservation of practically
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is
a horse of another colour, as
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire and
many magnificent philatelic items
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.
by Andrew Cronin

f L B "t n.l. o s. F. rnce to .. e borg/Oulu, F. T. rate p i was

-i i .cachet ire at b left. h h uia

b o d rc t Aachen -h n d ay .... in blue .- e d.ub,-crcl '
A,.. .'

\, on. t b:iR I / IN" N.. 1 (ife.
41 //' pz

O ty o N T 4 in o St eter-

The illustration above is of a fully prepaid letter, sent on 10 Nov. 1865
from Les Batignolles, France to Uleaborg/Oulu, Finland. The rate paid was
if. 10c. and the cover was handstamped with a boxed PD (Paye jusqu'a la
Destination) cachet in red at bottom left. It passed through the Prussian
border office at Aachen the next day, receiving in blue the double-circle
marking AUS FRANKREICH PER AACHEN *FRANCO* at top right and the one-line
abbreviation "W fr.3" adjoining the PD cachet. There is a transit mark
of St. Petersburg on the back reading: RECEIVED/EVENING 2 NOV. 1865 (i.e.
Old Style, or 14 Nov. New Style). Thus 4 days in transit to St.Petersburg.

The noted Aachen collector James Van der Linden had in his AUS RUSSLAND
collection a letter from France with the same fully prepaid rate (if.10c.)
and passing through Aachen on 22 Dec. 1864, with the same "W fr.3" script
style marking added in blue. This letter was addressed to Moscow. Does
anyone have any data about these "W" markings applied in Aachen ?

Vol.1: Akhtyrka- Byezhetek

The Canadian Society of Russian Philately
is pleased to announce the pending publication
RUSSIA by Alex Artuchov, in Auaust of 1987.
This is the first of four volumes dealing
dealing comprehensively with zemstvo stamps.

Orders are invited at US $20.-, postpaid,
by writing to the Society address.

Dealer terms are available.

-I I -




Some interesting material from recent international auctions is described
hereunder from the benefit of our readers.

(a) The Austrian
FLUGPOST overprints
were issued firstlyi k. i' rVAT rtS Po
on greyish paper on as = |
20.3.18 for the ilnPer Mlirbenen -
Vienna-Krakow- er Tm Kriege cfallnmcn
Lemberg air service. (D
The card shown here "
is of great interest ,
to airmail,Austrian
and Ukrainian
collectors, as it
shows that the line \
was extended to '
Kiev, which was then __
under Austrian
occupation.. Moreover,
this was the first flight in the OPPOSITE direction, from Kiev 21 March/
3 April 1918, via Proskuriv, Lemberg/L'viv & Krak6w to Vienna. The German
auction states that this was the only flown card and franked with the 4-
Krone value. See the cachet at top left, reading: K. u k. Fliegerkurier-
linie/WIEN-KIEW/Flugstation Kiew (Imperial & Royal Flying Courier Line /
VIENNA-KIEV/Kiev Air Station). Note that the Ukrainians in Kiev were
still adhering to the Old Style calendar, while in the area controlled by
the Soviet government, the day after 31.1.18 O.S. became 14.2.18 N.S.

The following lot in
the same Mercurphila k. Fieq'cr Kourierlini
auction showed a
later variant of the i. Fg.. iugilon ALUW
cachet, now reading: A.1. ., Feldpostkarte. ..
K.u.k. Flieger 'k ..
Kourierline / Flug- ",.
station KIEW. This .
was sent on 26.4.18
N.S. through the Austrian FPO No.240 in Kiev, via Lemberg, Krak6w and
Vienna to Piesting in Lower Austria. This is also a rare item.

(b) The Nikolaevsk-on-Amur cover shown at top left on the next page also
popped up recently in a German auction and, while it bears the impressive
expertising markings of Kalenik Lissiuk of New York and Dr. Paul
Jemtschoujin of Dresden & New York (both long dead), it is a forgery in
the opinion of your editor, for the following reasons:-

(i) Catalogue published under the editorship of F.G. Chuchin in Moscow,
1927 and covering the Civil War in Russia 1917-1924, states clearly on
p.73, in the section dealing with the Nikolaevsk-on-Amur surcharges, that
the post office canceller was lost due to the turmoil and the mail had to
be sent to Vladivostok, where it was cancelled. Clearly, any Nikolaevsk
postmark on this issue must be bogus.
(ii) The PVP authorities in Nikolaevsk were anti-Soviet and would have
still used the old spelling. Why then is the word Vladivostok in the
address written without the terminal hard sign ? Why is the Nikolaevsk

must surely be that it was made AFTER 1921 and supplied with a turned-back
4,. /> "'

-. i i r"

postmark on the stamp and below it in the new Soviet spelling ? The answer
must surely be that it was made AFTER 1921 and supplied with a turned-back
date. While the Vladivostok "g" marking at top centre is a recognisable
type and in the old spelling, as is the oval Northern Districts Steamer
postmark at top left, your editor has seen suspicious applications of the
last marking as a backstamp on other dubious covers of the Far East.
(iii) All the numerals in the dates seem to have come from the same stable
and do not have the regular appearance of normal Russian cancellers.

ke Nikolaevsk surcharges are a very contentious issue and there are
suspicions that the original overprinting cliches later fell into the
hands of S.A. Pappadopulo or the apothecary Borgest in Vladivostok, to
make illegal reprints. There also exists a dubious double-circle marking,
undated and applied to this issue, reading RUSSKAYA POCHTA/NIKOLAEVSK-NA-
AMURE in the old spelling (see illustration at top right). A faultless
cover from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur has yet to be recorded.
(c) The corner block shown here at right is of
four Tuvan 2-kop. fiscal stamps, handstamped in -
black KT/O 2 E/KeP. The Gibbons catalogue says
in a footnote after the 1933 surcharges that ."' """ "*
the KTOE overprints are charity labels,
although postal use is known. That is not '
strictly correct; all the examples seen on 1 .
covers have been on mail addressed to M. F. ; :
Shulyak of Harbin, Manchuria and already bore
sufficient postage stamps to pay the rates. .ji
This block of four recently appeared in anl
American auction, estimated at $1000.00 and it a-. i--
realised $2090.00. One may, of course, collect ..
what one likes, but it is pretty safe to say
that the KTOE overprints are not postage
tamps in any shape, manner or form.

I* ____ 67
i, 'L Li

IA111 1-M/l- 111k- 4


by Andrew Cronin.

Because of the vagaries of Soviet perforating machines and quality
control, missing perforations are a relatively common feature on stamps
of the USSR. Two main types of perforating errors occur, as follow:-

(a) "Fantail" margins, caused when either the line- or comb-perforating
machine does not apply the final line of perforation in sheet margins.

(b) Pairs of stamps imperforate between, where a line-perforating
machine has missed a row or rows within sheets of stamps.

In case (a), resulting in a row of stamps with the sheet margin side left
imperforate, it is a simple matter for any unscrupulous person to cut off
the perforations on the other three sides, thus creating a completely
"imperforate" variety. Eight such examples are shown immediately below,
going back to the 4-kop. Shaumyan stamp in the 1933 set honouring the
Twenty-six Commissars of Baku.

1--ir ..9 I I Ilta .I

In case (b), made from pairs imperforate between, the perforations can
be trimmed so as to simulate imperforate pairs. The genesis and result
of such manipulations are given herewith for the 10-kop. value on
unwatermarked paper of the Civil Aviation set issued in February 1934:-

aBHOROUTa ci' ouTa&.9



Note that the original imperforate-between
pairs were caused by the absence of the "')
* second last vertical perforating line at
right on the sheet. This same variety is
also to be found on mint pairs of the i lii i
same stamp, as illustrated here at right,
so the possibility of fraudulent mint aB"otua aNotiouTaC9
pairs imperforate cannot be excluded. .
This is a particularly stupid act of
philatelic vandalism, as the original I*wC
imperforate-between pairs of this stamp
are much sought after, especially mint
and bring excellent prices at auction. _l____ __r_.__

Another example of a trimmed imperforate- lIC C]I
between pair is given here of the Ir.
Petlyakov Heavy Bomber stamp, issued on A
18 August 1945 as part of the set for .
Aviation Day.

All the trimmed examples shown in this warning were originally
interesting varieties in their own right and they have been turned into
worthless items by such tampering. The creator of the notorious Odessa
and Melitopol' overprints was responsible for the trimming and sale of
at least some of these spurious concoctions.

What it all boils down to is that no Soviet stamp should be regarded as
also existing in an imperforate state unless at least an integral block
of four has been so found and recorded. That condition would apply to
line-perforated stamps; for those only done by a comb perforator, pairs
completely imperforate would be acceptable varieties.


The British Journal of Russian Philately was awarded a silver-bronze
medal at this international philatelic exhibition, staged from 28th.
August to 7 September 1986. The BSRP intends to enter the Golden
Jubilee Issue No. 63 in the international exhibitions to be held in
1988. We wish them the best of luck.


Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!

The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
he Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.


by Ivo J. Steyn

Since "The Post-Rider" No.19 was published, quite a bit of new
information has come to light. Many collectors have written to me with
details of their holdings and, as a result, a clearer picture of certain
matters is now possible.

Let me start with a geographical note. At the time of the 1917
revolutions, the area that would later become the FER was divided into
three oblasts: Transbaikal, Amur and Primorsk or Maritime. During the
final decades of the 19th. century, the latter two were united as the
"Governor-Generalship of the Priamur", a name which resurfaced in the PVP
or Provisional Government of the Priamur in 1921. In H.K. Norton's book,
a map is included which shows five oblasts: Pribaikal.and Transbaikal
(instead of one Transbaikal oblast), Amur, Priamur and Primorsk (the
latter two occupying the territory of the Imperial Primorsk oblast). This
reorganisation was carried out under the FER government in Chita. The
reason is obvious: the territory occupied by the White/Japanese forces
was now one distinct unit (the Primorsk oblast'). This reorganisation,
however, was not reflected in the postmarks of the times. See map p. 74.

Postage rates during the Kolchak period are under study at the moment and
a fairly detailed picture may be possible. The conjecture that the higher
values of the Kolchak surcharges (and the 50k. surcharges) never reached
Eastern Siberia still stands.

The greatest surprises involved the DVR monogram overprints. I must thank
Prof. Howard Weinert of Baltimore, Mr. Helmut Weikard of Hamburg and Prof
Wolfgang Schirmer of East Berlin for supplying me with new information.
The first surprise concerns the date of issue. No less than two covers
have turned up which have put the lie to my assumption that these
overprints were issued no earlier than 12 December 1920. One example is
shown here: a
cover from..
Pervaya Rechka ?
to Milwaukee,
USA. It is
franked with a
single 7/15 kop.
perf. and the "
cancel is dated -
23 November 1920.
I am still /
trying to 7-Ul k 7
reconcile this
with the fact / '.
that Vladivostok /,

acknowledge FER 7
authority at __
that time. A / ""'
clue is given in 7L/ d
C.F. Smith's
book: during the
unification negotiations, the delegates from Valdivostok at one point
signed an agreement, which was repudiated by the city's Zemstvo Board
government. However, the Chita government immediately started sending

out orders to the bemused Vladivostok government organs. The DVR
overprints may have been the result of one such order, which was obeyed
in spite of the fact that official agreement was not reached until 12th.
December. Another explanation of the illustrated cover is that it has a
cancel backdated by favour; not entirely implausible, since I have my
doubts about certain other covers with this postmark.

The second and, for me, the greatest surprise involves the area of use
of the DVR overprints. I now show here the front and back of a cover
from KHABAROVSK to Berlin. It is franked with a single 10k./3r. 50k.
imperf. DVR overprint, for the correct rate of ten gold kopeks for a
normal letter. The cancel is dated 3 February 1921 While usage of the
DVR overprints was theoretically possible outside Vladivostok, this is
the first example I have seen from a town that was so far removed from
the source of these overprints. A further surprise concerns the route
travelled by this cover: it bears the oval "three triangles" mark of
MOSCOW, dated 24 March 1921 and a Krag machine cancel of Moscow dated
one day later, making this the first item I have ever seen which has
travelled overland to Europe. If one refers back to "The Post-Rider",
No.19, a cover from the same period is shown on p.18. That cover, from
Vladivostok to Latvia, went by sea. The difference in routing may be
ascribed to extensive damage to the railway between Vladivostok and
Khabarovsk, or possibly to strained relations between semi-independent
Vladivostok and Khabarovsk, which latter was loyal to the Chita
government. An amazing cover.

Aa:-d i s o- '. r D T '"
": ...:. p 3-:p-i" ,- -. 1 -* r.
_i Phi .,.i. ,_ it:

., : a. -J a .. .. -: *;
.' . .. : ,.' ..* *:*' ,- .f.:- ,

;. B.,. u t r, s-- trI S a.
A" "* *". J- 'i' ]I :"'7- -.' '" '. -- ,

New information concerning the latest time of use has also come to light.
It appears that the DVR overprints were again valid for postage after
the reunification of the FER on 25 October 1922. Only stamps with the
PZK overprint could be used during the Diterikhs period, so some
..- .. .
'I . ..

remainders may have been put into storage to be exhumed after his fall.
It goes without saying that usage of the DVR overprints of 25 October
1922 must be exceedingly rare, as stocks could not have been large
(remember that the Chita issue was soon introduced into the Vladivostok
post offices) and FER stamps lost their validity soon after anyway.

No news concerning the Vladivostok Arms stamps has come to light. Covers
franked with these stamps are not as rare as they might seem. In fact,
I estimate that about 75% of all FER covers are franked with this issue
That does not detract from the loveliness of the illustrated cover,
reported by Mr. Cronin. The pair of 10 gold kopek stamps over the flap
went uncancelled by VALDIVOSTOK-b, 13.3.22 and this was corrected in
Shanghai with a marvellous handstamp: B.P.O. TO C.P.O./SHANGHAI/20 MAR
22/AM 10 30 (British Post Office to Chinese Post Office). Stunning.

', o..

,. :. ', A

registered on 31 May 1922 from Vladivostok to Leipzig. The franking of
", '. ^ i"" ':- "" ; --^N' -" "

Merkulov Anniversary stamps:2k.,5k. & 10k. Undoubtedly a unique item.

dealer and speculator Pappadopulo used these corner copies with which

France is the proud owner of the most spectacular example of such usage
that I have ever seen: a registered cover, where the 40 gold kopek
franking was made up of six different PZK overprints.

pockets, stamped with the cachet of the French Consulate in Vladivostok.
Other FER stamps are to be found in a similar condition and I am
showing overleaf a complete document containing three PZK overprints.
The pocket into which the stamps are sealed is secured with a piece of
string bearing the wax seal of the consulate. It is interesting to
speculate if such documents were made for Mr. Shcherbinin with same
official purpose in mind, or simply because he asked for them. Anyway,
the legal status of such affidavits must be questionable.
'Y' ..' ,
that .I~. hv e sr eve4

SAlso from Prof. Schirmer comes news of a cover with a ultimate
franking which includes the Merkulov Anniversary issue This was sent
registered on 31 May 1922 from Vladivostok to Leipzig. The franking of
75 gold kopeks (one of the highest FER frankings I have heard about) was

Merkulov Anniversary stamps:2k.,5k. & 10k. Undoubtedly a unique item.

Something that I forgot to mention concerning the PZK overprints: to
avoid curling of the stamps during overprinting, the corners of the
sheets were cut back to the frameline of the stamps. Such a practice
should not be considered as damage to the stamps The notorious stamp
dealer and speculator Pappadopulo used the ase corner copies with which

France is the proud owner of the most spectacular example of such usage
that I have ever seen: a registered cover, where the 40 gold kopek
franking was made up of six different PZK overprints.

pockets, stamped with the cachet of the French Consulate in Vladivostok.
Other FER stamps are to be found in a similar condition and I am
showing overleaf a complete document containing three PZK overprints.
The pocket into which the stamps are sealed is secured with a piece of
string bearing the wax seal of the consulate. It is interesting to
speculate if such documents were made for Mr. Shcherbinin with some
official purpose in mind, or simply because he asked for them. Anyway,
the legal status of such affidavits must be questionable.

t I p, -

pour l'auzthenti.cit des tir:i.res-poste
u ''duRI AMO'JPnu I 1demxI KRAI'' oi-oontr e. tl
e Present est ddl1vr & Eir.D. 3.CHF-i.RIIIT,
Secretaire dC oe Consulat.

Fait d Vlalivostok, le 15 Octobre 1922
Le Cons i1 de Franoe


I had already mentioned
my distrust of the
Vladivostok "g" cancel. j we
The illustrated item turns
my distrust into loathing. .
This is a philatelic cover, -"/''
the 1 & 4k. PZK overprints ,
and forged copies of the
rarer 5 & 10k. stamps. The | ( \ ..
cancel is Vladivostok "g"

(easily recognisable from
the slight flateitening at
the 11 & 1 o'clockath
positions) As I have also ver,
seen this cancel onpies of'
Pappadopulo covers bearing I- X
a set of the 1917-1922 r
overprints (and nothing t -
else; no transit marks), I" -
can only conclude that
this canceller ended up in
the wrong hands at some point.
I urge all readers to be wary of covers bearing this cancellation

It goes without saying that I would still like to hear from readers about
their holdings of FER items. Any more covers from Khabarovsk ? Early DVR
usages ? Late DVR usages ? Interesting cancellations ? My address once
again is: Ivo Steyn, Loosdrechtseweg 4, NL 1215 JW HILVERSUM, The
Netherlands. Telephone 035-49030 (evenings).

I hope to finish a more complete overview of Civil War Siberia (history
and philately) later this year. I would particularly like to hear from
people whit covers from "White Siberia" 1918-1920 and from the Amur and
ransbaikal oblastuss 1920-1922, but all FER items are of interest. There
are still so many questions that need answering.....
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Re fraudulent application of the Vladivostok "g"
canceller, please refer back to the dubious Nikolaevsk-on-Amur cover
shown at the top left of p. 67, 73

Mui3j0. 0o Towso

I 6 110 ~l 120 M m I i E. forn mlGrn.lc 126 128 10 132 134 136



by P.J. Campbell,


_-/- -
JI 1J ,. SY.. -a ((aA h"^i'vl"' A. /aZ "

saTn/rd (Gs au d,
v / / 7 ^ ^ ^ -- < ^ ^ ^/ "

O In "The Post-Rider" No.16, Andrew Cronin described a picture postcard
from the Moshe Shmuely collection, sent from Kaiser Franz Josef-Land to
Berlin in 1932. The card was addressed to Mr. Gerd Perlis in Berlin and
signed "Your Uncle Arthur". The stamp was Russia Scott C34, with cancels
of 26 August mailing in Franz Josef-Land and a Berlin arrival of 25th.
September. The question was whether that card had actually travelled by
air, which would have been the first flight from Franz Josef-Land, Scott
C34 was the first of a set of two stamps which some catalogues claim as
having been issued to publicise the Second International Polar Year and
to mark the first flight south.

In "The Post-Rider" No.17, the present writer investigated the Shmuely
card in some depth, as well as five other pieces of correspondence that
could have been on the same flight. For various reasons, it was
suggested that the flight might have gone awry for some undetermined
cause and the mail was sent by surface post for the trip south, perhaps
going on to Berlin by airmail for the balance of the trip. The strange
presence of a German national in such a remote place at that time and
certain wording on the card made it seem possible that "Uncle Arthur"
was an employee either of the DERULUFT Airline or of the German aircraft
manufacturer Dornier G.m.b.H.

After the publication of the above articles, a completely new find has
been made by George Hall of The American Society of Polar Philatelists and
featured in "Ice Cap News" for Nov.-Dec. 1986, p.255: another card from
Uncle Arthur The card in this case bears a copy of C35, the one-rouble
value, making it overfranked, for the 50-kopek rate was correct for a
postcard, the one rouble being the proper postal rate for a sealed
letter. There is again the double-circle special cancel dated, as usual,
26 VIII 32, with the figure "6" characteristically set a little low.

There are actually two strikes of this marking, probably done by a right-
handed man, the first being a full strike on both cards and the second,
lower down, a partial impression with the lower left portion missing in
an identical fashion: the star, part of the first letter, then blank
until a partial "A" and the letters HUA and so on. The Berlin receiving
mark is also identical (as far as one can see, working from photocopies)
with the same date (25.9.32) and time (23-24) and the same postmarker
(L-2-*), but struck a little further to the left. The above is possible,
of course, when both cards went by the same route at the same time.
Apart from this cancel, which I believe to be the Berlin "C" airport
marking, there is the usual (for these items) triangular "First Polar
Flight" cachet, described in Andrew Cronin's article in "The Post-Rider"
No.16 and a boxed MIT LUFTPOST, faintly discernable, which may not have
been present on the Shmuely card. This boxed cancel looks to me as if
it had been struck by someone else, probably left-handed. The second
card does not appear to have the big BERLIN C2/LUFTPOSTAMT cachet that
was on the Shmuely card, but blue and red inks do not photocopy well
and I may be in error there.

Now to the message on the card. It starts with "Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Land"
and the date 21.8.32, which is one day earlier than the Shmuely card and
goes on:-
"Aus dem Land des ewigen Eises; das einen unbeschreiblichen Eindruck
macht. Viele Grisse" (From the land of everlasting ice; it makes an
indescribeable impression. Many greetings).
There follows a signature that could be Arthur Funlein or Funbein, but
it would require access to the original card to be sure. Most of the
card is written in the Gothic script that was common in the German-
speaking countries up to the mid-1940s, but is now out of style; see

On the address side of the card, it starts with the words "Air Mail"
and "Germany", both in Russian script and continues with:-
"Fr&ulein Lottie (?) Sonnabend, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Stderlinstr. 12".

The last three lines are partly in what I have been calling the Gothic
(non-Cyrillic) script, but now comes an interesting point, for the
street, as far as I can decipher it, is named after Stderlin, the man
who invented the form of script in which the card is written, some
centuries ago. This has no philatelic significance, of course, but is a
nice little bonus to our research. We now hand over to some of our
German readers to check the address at Stderlinstrasse 12; the one at
Grtnewaldstrasse 29a in Berlin-Steglitz on the Shmuely card has been
investigated, but we drew a blank.

The last thing is to look at the card itself. Uncle Arthur said on the
Shmuely item that there were no cards available in Franz Josef-Land
and I have not seen the other side of the card held by George Hall, but
the lettering at the lower left and right indicates that it is Card
No.1578 in an extensive series that includes "Soviet Peoples", in this
case entitled "ARCHANGEL. A guest from the tundra (Samoyed)". We can
presume that Uncle Arthur picked it up on his way through Archangel to
Franz Josef-Land.

In conclusion, what has this new find given us ? Certainly a first view
of Uncle Arthur's full name, another contact in Berlin and a further
example to add to our slender stock of what appear to be authentic

items that were to have been carried on the first flight south from
Franz Josef-Land.

As the Bukhta Tikhaya base on Hooker Island is about 950 nautical miles
from Archangel, or five days steaming at 10 knots, I feel sure that the
flight was aborted, that the mail went by sea to Archangel; thence by
rail to Moscow and then on to Berlin by airmail. The use of the one-
rouble stamp points clearly to a "philatelic" use and all the nice
cachets clearly indicate that it was all done with official sanction,
including the "cover-up" when it all went wrong; something not unknown
to this day.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Pat Campbell has raised several pertinent points,
including a couple that will be of interest to Judaica collectors, as
will be seen below. First of all, we know that both the 50-kop. and one-
rouble Air Express stamps for the Second International Polar Year (Scott
C34-35) were available at the Bukhta Tikhaya base on Hooker Island in
Franz Josef-Land for the projected flight south. It may be conjectured
that the purchasers there were rationed to one set of two stamps per
person; not an uncommon practice in the USSR, especially at that time.
We also know from the Shmuely item that Uncle Arthur's writing stock
consisted of cards. It seems reasonable to assume that, if he had had an
envelope at hand, he would have affixed the one-rouble stamp to it .and
also taken the opportunity of enclosing a letter at no extra charge.

We must now face the problem of deciphering Uncle Arthur's surname. He
may turn out to have been Jewish, as the person to whom he wrote on the
Shmuely card (Gerd Perlis) had a known Jewish surname.

*Now to the Gothic script, known in German-speaking countries as "die
deutsche Schrift". The printed version is called Fraktur. Our German-
reading subscribers are referred to a most interesting article in
"Philatelie", the monthly organ of the Union of German Philatelists,
issue No.167 for May 1986, p.17. It is entitled "The Actual End of the
'German script'" and reproduces an NSDAP (Nazi Party) circular, written
at Obersalzberg on 3 January 1941 and sent by Martin Bormann to all
government leaders, provincial heads and alliance chiefs (Reichsleiter,
Gauleiter & Verb&ndefthrer). He stated that, by order of the Fthrer,
the Gothic script was no longer to be used, as it was not a German
script but a handwriting system developed by the Swabian Jews. It was
to be replaced by the "Normal script", i.e. the same system for writing
the letters of the Latin alphabet as used by other countries.

The Gothic script is no longer taught in the schools of the German-
speaking countries. It is still widely used, however, especially for
artwork, because of its distinctive and picturesque character.
Collectors in our field will find a knowledge of it to be very useful,
as much of the mail sent abroad from the Russian Empire has been
written in that script by the important and highly literate German
minority living there at the time.

By the way, all the philatelic cards and covers serviced at Archangel
have only one strike of the Franz Josef-Land postmark, i.e. on the stamp.
Both of Uncle Arthur's items have two strikes: one on the stamp and the
other elsewhere on the cards. Also, sincere thanks are due to the editor
of ICE CAP NEWS, Bernard V. Coyne, for permission to reproduce George
Hall's remarkable postcard.


4m II I I ... .... .

Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there o 00 %
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some o o o
newly acquired item ? 0 o% s

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers '

Rev. L.L. Tann, Edgbaston, England.

Nik olai II-------------------- t a'e x ns. i d e would_ me t.
cd ,is adot i 4i. e

Hospital,-To-Junior-Sugeon-Boris-Mitrofanovch Shulyak" (Editoria
t. .,

The illustrations above are of the front and first paragraph of the
message in a letter card sent from Petrograd on that eventful day 3.3.17,
when Grand Duke Michael refused the throne after the abdication of Tsar
Nikolai II. I immediately suspected that the text inside would mention
the historic goings-on and that has proved to be the case. The letter
card is addressed:"The Army on Active Service, 426th. Field Mobile

hComment: Shulyak is not ea common the surname and, as st ated elsewhere in
this issue, an M.F. Shulyak was active after WWI as a collector and
first paragraph inside the letter card reads as follows:-
"Our dear Borya (diminutive for Boris), City of Petrograd, 3 March 1917.f
oOnly today after a long break in connections with the

outside world (outside Petrograd) have we received your letters of 22 &
23 February. We are glad that, during all this time, you have stayed
there and were not somewhere on the road. What whnehavg on through
during this time (best) not to describe; the fall of the old regime
has required quite a few sacrifices and the establishment of the new

way is still being blocked. I fear that the establishment of order and
peaceful working life will not be brought about as quickly as one would
wish. Up till now, one does not go about on the streets without
0 (hearing) shots and now people are breaking out of their (customary)
roles and do not pay any attention to the matter".

The recipient has noted at top left in pencil where he was stationed
(Krivichi Station, in the Myadel district of Minsk province, now in
Belorussia) and the date of receipt: 10 March 1917. Quite an interesting
and prophetic item; does anyone else have similar material of this time?

Marcel Lamoureux,Providence, U.S.A.

h 4 f f ..

i .*; .iI ",. *,

d 'C Bj~4 r-.'..\ 'K

t]'.i~f N' ~~' -- -N N A .

I have come across two Russian postcards which have unusual ties with
the Imperial Postal Service. The one at left has a magnified
reproduction of the current 1-kop. stamp and printed in the same colour
(orange). The head of a young lady of the period has been substituted
for the Imperial coat of arms, normally printed within the oval centre.
The card at right shows a simulation of a money-order of the period,
together with printed imitations of 5kop. & Ir. stamps "cancelled" with
a TAMBOV marking dated 1.VII.07. The money order is made out "to the sum
of one thousand greetings" and there is a view below on the right side
of Dvoryanskaya Street in Tambov. We also see at left a half-length
portrait of a typical Russian postman in Imperial times. Both cards were
used in 1910 and the second example was issued by the "K.P." Company.
Does anyone know if further cards exist in either series ?

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

YI b /^


0e, t .,
i' ~r \, r 'A7 A

The registered cover No.718 shown above bears the bilingual Georgian/
Russian postmark of Sukhumi 11.10.27 and is addressed in Russian, French
and Greek to the Ministry of Agriculture, Exchange Department in Athens,
where it was received on 27 October. It was sent by the Greek Mutual Aid
Committee in Sukhumi and a circular cachet in Russian and Greek was
applied on the back in violet, with the Russian inscription around the
at bottom. The four-line Greek text in the centre reads: EAAHNIKH /
ErITPnOH/AxAAOeo6EL /AnXAZIA. There are two transposed letters in the
second Greek word, which should be spelt EDITPOfH (COMMITTEE).

The Greek race has lived continuously along the shores of the Black Sea
for at least the past 2500 years, as many of the place-names will show.
The Greek term for the Black Sea is Pontos Euxenos = Hospitable Sea and
these inhabitants have thus been referred to as Pontine Greeks. Their
subsequent fate in Soviet times makes very depressing reading. Many
suffered grievously during the man-made famine of 1932-1933 and still
others perished in the Great Purge of 1936-1938, when their schools and
^ 27 0M 27?^

The organisations were closed. The final blow came in 1948 when the orgiFather
Russianof the Peoples decided that this harmless, hard-workressed ing and absolutely
and Greek to the Ministry of Agriculture, Exchange Department in Athens,

defenceles it was ethnic group was deemed r.to be a security the Greek Mutual Aid
suddenly deported to Northern Kazakhstan. This last incident h Greeas been
applireferred to by the noted contemporary Abkhaze Russian inscript Fazil Iskand er
at bottom. The four-line Greek text in the centre reads: EAAHNIKH /

in the story "Charalampos and Despina" in th e o lletion "Novye glavy:in the
second Greek word, which should be spelt EnITPOnH (COMMITTEE).

Sanhe Greek race has lived continuously along the shores of the Black Seaording
to Chegem", pp.94-132, Vintage Books, New York, 1984). Some of the place-names will show.
The Greek term for the Black Sea is Pontos Euxenos = Hospitable Sea and

unfortuthese inhabitants have thus been refeallowed to migrate toPontine Greece after the death of
Stalin, buequent after in Soviet times makes very depressine G arade no more.
suffered grievously during the man-made famine of 1932-1933 and still
others perished in the Great Purge of 1936-1938, when their schools and
organizations were closed. The final blow came in 1948 when the Father
of the Peoples decided that this harmless, hard-working and absolutely
defenceless ethnic group was deemed to be a security risk and it was
suddenly deported to Northern Kazakhstan. This last incident has been
referred to by the noted contemporary Abkhazian writer Fazil Iskander
in the story "Charalampos and Despina" in the collection "Novye glavy:
Sandro iz Chegema" (see the English translation "The Gospel according
to Chegem", pp.94-132, Vintage Books, New York, 1984). Some of these
unfortunates have been allowed to migrate to Greece after the death of
Stalin, but after millenia of existence the Pontine Greeks are no more.

W11 2i^^.



1986. A 136-page magazine in large format, issued by the British Society
of Russian Philately and obtainable from the Treasurer, A.T. Blunt,
27 Newlands, Langton Green, Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN3 ODB, England.

This special issue commemorating the Society's half century of existence
contains data for the Handbook of the Imperial Russian Post Office;
Russian Disinfection Procedures up to 1832, by D. Skipton; Ship Mail from
N.W. Russia, by Dr. R.Casey; Pre-adhesive Datestamps of Tiflis, by P.T.
Ashford; Zemstvo Mail, by M.Minskii & Zemstvo Post of Tula District, by
D.Kuznetsov, both trans. by Dr.T.Rutkowska; Forthcoming Literature; Un-
numbered TPOs of Imperial Russia, by Dr. E.Kossoy; The Wrong Station, by
* Rev. L.L.Tann; Russian Army on the Roumanian Front 1916-17, by A. Lepp&;
Batum & Kobulety Postmaster Provisionals, by R.L.Joseph; Vladivostok Arms
Issue of 1921, by Ivo Steyn; More Soviet 'Damaged' Markings, by R.P.
Knighton; 'Damaged' Cover to Latvia, by Dr.P.Michalove; Soviet Posts in
Bukovina & Bessarabia, by M.Shmuely; Russia 1941 to Switzerland 1942, by
N.Ames & A.Pritt; Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Censor Markings, by late J.Lloyd;
Forbin Revenue Catalogue Additions, by J.G.Moyes; Philatelic Tax Stamps,
by late H.Norwood; Notes from Collectors; Reviews of New Literature;
Obituaries and an Editorial. Undoubtedly one of their best journals to
date and a fitting tribute to the Society's 50th. anniversary.

PHILATELY: Issue No.1 for December 1986. A 50-page journal in large
format and edited by Dr. A.R.Marshall. Obtainable at an annual total
subscription of $NZ30-00 from the Secretary-Treasurer Terence Archer,
313 Mahurangi East Road, Snell's Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand.

Our friends down under have got off to a flying start with an Editorial;
Correspondence Australasia-Russia; Sword and Chain Issue, by Rev.L.L.Tann;
Russian Postal Manuscript Usage; Soviet Arctic Rescues; Arctic and
Antacrtic on USSR Stamps; The Tale of Igor's Campaign; Mailing to the
Soviet Union, from the USPS booklet & N.Z. Postal Guide; Druzhnaya
Antarctic Station, from the Auckland P.S. News; Russian Postman 20 Years
Ago, from "The Philatelist" of 1875; Recent Soviet Issues & Tarapex-86
Report. Except where otherwise stated, the material has been contributed
y Dr.A.R.Marshall. He is very knowledgeable in the Polar areas and more
articles in that field are promised for future issues. There is a lot of
philatelic talent in the Antipodes and we await their further journals
with great interest.

THE CINDERELLA PHILATELIST: Issue for July 1986. The journal of The
Cinderella Stamp Club of England. Full details available from Dr.
Conrad Graham, 23 Rotherwick Road, London NW11 7DG, England.

This issue has on pp.64-66 an article by CSRP subscriber Dr. George
Murdoch, entitled "Zemstvo Plagiarisms; Examples from Gryazovets and
Sapozhok", which is appropriately illustrated to prove his point and
covers the subject thoroughly. Ideal for Zemstvo collectors.

Dr.P.R.Magocsi.A hardbound book of 164 pages on coated paper, published
by The Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 43 Queen's Park
Crescent East, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 2C3 in 1986: Second Edition.
Available postfree from the Society for $C23.00.

We are indebted to our subscriber Dr. Denys Voaden for the news about
this unusual work. The author is a professor of history and political
science at the University of Toronto and an American-born descendant of
Carpatho-Ukrainian origin. Do NOT regard him as a Ukrainian, however. He
calls his people Carpatho-Rusyns (Carpatho-Ruthenians), including the
Ukrainians of Eastern Slovakia, Lemkyvshchyna (the Polish wojew6dstwa of
Krosno, Nowy Sacz & Rzesz6w) and the Maramure county of Roumania. He
insists that they all speak a language separate and distinct from
Ukrainian and he has written two other books on that linguistic subject.
While much of the book is taken up with the history of Carpatho-Rusyn
immigrants in North America, the chief value of this study is in a
comprehensive 45-page gazeteer of place-names, cross-indexed in their
Hungarian, Polish, Roumanian & Ukrainian versions and compiled with the
help of George Shanta. It is incomplete, as he omits the three most
important districts in the area: Berehovo, Mukacevo & Uzhorod, probably
because of the strong Hungarian presence there. Still a useful book.

Mail of German Soldiers in Soviet Custody and the Mail of Their Relatives
during WWII), by Werner Boddenberg. A paperback of 116 pages in A5
format, published by the author from Ravensberger Strasse 3, D-1000
BERLIN 31 (West Berlin) at DM 26,60 postpaid at the surface rate, or by
air for an extra DM 3,-.

For those who read German, this is a fascinating book, based on
extensive research in the official archives and detailing the
remorselessly effective propaganda war waged by the USSR during WWII in
POW mail sending to the Third Reich. As previously stated in "The Post-
Rider" No.19,p.69, mail from German POWs in the USSR during the war is as
good as non-existent, as it was impounded by the German censorship, which
feared its propaganda effect. Herr Boddenberg shows a rare example, sent
on 28.3.43 and which reached a relative in Zurich, Switzerland. The
Soviets also countered by dropping POW cards from aircraft in special
envelopes with the Soviet coat of arms and a printed message asking
German soldiers to forward them to the addressees. These were followed by
special leaflets, also dropped by plane, especially after Stalingrad and
listing German POWS by number, name, field post number and home address.
The reactions of distraught relatives and official German discomfiture
are documented and the book drives home the lesson of the unforeseen
consequences when an arrogantly affluent nation attacks another country, W
very poor but totally determined to defend itself, regardless of the
cost. Truly, those who sow the wind shall reap the whirlwind.
Ya. Afangulskii.

RUSSISCHE POSTCENSUUR 1914-1918 (Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918),
by Antoine Speeckaert. A book in A4 format of 134 pages, including three
* maps, published by the Royal Philatelic Society of the Land of Waas,
Belgium in an edition of 100 copies.

There must be something highly specialised about the philatelic
atmosphere in Flanders, as this is the finest work so far written on the
subject. Although in Flemish, it is very easy to follow, especially if
one also knows German. There are illustrations and cross-indices galore,
together with a rarity scale from 1 to 5 and the total amount of data
given is staggering. Ordering information is set out in The Journal Fund
below and early ordering is advised because of the small edition.

The Journal Fund
All sales benefit the Society and orders should be made payable to the
CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous
titles have unfortunately been sold out.
RUSSISCHE POSTCENSUUR 1914-1918 (Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918),
by Antoine Speeckaert. The last word on this fascinating subject and
packed with facts. VERY LIMITED SUPPLY! Price postpaid US$ 17.00.

P.E. Robinson. A 156-page spiral bound book in large format, copiously
illustrated and a magnificent work of reference. Already sold out from
the publisher AND WE HAVE THE LAST FEW COPIES.Price postpaid US$13.00.

von Hofmann. Locations, status & current equivalents of all Russian POs
& agencies in Baltic area, with 2-page preface in German,French,English,
Estonian,Latvian,Lithuanian,Polish & Russian. 286 pages,incl. indices in
Latin & Russian alphabets. A MAGNIFICENT WORK! New supply just in, at an
increased price due to the fall of the dollar, but still a bargain.
Price postpaid US$ 16.00.

1986 in Bochum. A 62-page booklet in German and Russian. Contains a fine
10-page article by H. Meyer on the first Soviet airmail stamp, plus
"Collecting Russia" by Prof. Richard Zimmerl and an insert of the J. S.
Bach Soviet souvenir sheet. Interesting Price postpaid US$ 3.00.

FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3:(Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4:
(Armenia, 1923 Pictorials) & No. 11:(Azerbaijan). All illustrations are
double-size and the differences clearly tabulated. Invaluable for the
collectors of Transcaucasia. Set of three booklets: Postpaid US$ 6.50.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR, unless you
read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library series by
one of the world's great humourists. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian grammar, many
phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual for "us monolingual
slobs" as one of our readers put it. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.


Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or /
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16 >';
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.
FOR a biography of Elsa Triolet (1896-1970), the Russian-born heroine
of the French Resistance and writer, I would appreciate hearing from
anyone who knew her or knows the whereabouts of papers or letters.
HELENA LEWIS, Harvard University Centre for European Studies,
5 Bryant Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 02138.
TSARIST, Denikin & Odessa 1917 paper money available for exchange or
sale. Please write in French or English to: A. MECKEL, Residence Le Clos
d'Alengon, Batiment C4, F-91140, VILLEBONNE-sur-YVETTE, France.

INFORMATION sought concerning periods of usage of laid paper variants of
Russia Scott 19c-28a & 39a and Off. in Turkey 12a-22a. Please send dates,
PO of origin etc. Will also buy or trade other classical material.
Mainly interested in covers, cancels and used blocks.
DAVID JAY, 7206 Sixth Ave. NW, Seattle, Washington. U.S.A. 98117.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-of-exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil
War or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 W.12th.St., Huntington Station, N.Y., U.S.A. 11746.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover: buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

WANTED: Russia 1915-1925 errors, off centre, off colour, inverted
surcharges etc., in singles or blocks. Condition important.
OLEG PANTUHOFF, Jr.,86 Durand Rd., Maplewood, New Jersey, U.S.A. 07040.


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