Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 Report on "Philexfrance - '82"
 No. 1 of Russia
 Plate varieties of Nos. 1 & 2 of...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 Three items of Persian interes...
 Pre-stamp & stampless mail from...
 A complex watermark
 The first issue of Russia used...
 Romanovs in Finland
 The early Soviet express mail...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner

Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 11
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00011
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 11
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 1982
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00011 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Report on "Philexfrance - '82"
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    No. 1 of Russia
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Plate varieties of Nos. 1 & 2 of Russia
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Three items of Persian interest
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Pre-stamp & stampless mail from the Carpatho-Ukraine
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    A complex watermark
        Page 52
    The first issue of Russia used in the kingdom of Poland: New discoveries & checklist
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Romanovs in Finland
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The early Soviet express mail system
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Review of literature
        Page 74
    The journal fund
        Page 75
    The collectors' corner
        Page 76
Full Text

Printed in Canada

V, %-" -1 WT

P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,




Editorial; Basic Philatelic Knowledge
Correspondence with Canada
Report on "PHILEXFRANCE '82"
No. 1 of Russia
Plate Varieties of Nos. 1 & 2 of Russia
Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt
Three Items of Persian Interest
Pre-Stamp & Stampless Mail from the
A Complex Watermark
The First Issue of Russia used in the
Kingdom of Poland: New Discoveries & Checklist
Romanovs in Finland
The Early Soviet Express Mail System
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner


Publisher and Treasurer

John V. Woollam
Andrew Cronin
M. V. Liphschutz
Alex Safonoff
Alex Artuchov
Alex Artuchov
Dr.Raymond Casey
Andrew Cronin

Barry Hong
James Mazepa

Rev. L. L. Tann
Robert Taylor
Various authors

Alex Artuchov
P. J. Campbell
Andrew Cronin


The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to
make this an interesting issue.



1 ('i


The mail bag of the Society sometimes contains enquiries about
basic points in our philatelic area. While it is possible to cover
these problems in the pages of "The Post-Rider", the questioners
themselves can do much to get the answers.

Above all, every serious student of Russian philately should form
a basic philatelic library. A good way to accumulate knowledge is
to build a collection of the general stamp catalogues. For
instance, the Scott catalogue contains a certain body of data
about Russian issues; the Stanley Gibbons catalogue of Russia,
published in England, is semi-specialised and contains much
additional information; the Yvert & Tellier catalogue for Eastern
Europe, published in Amiens, France, has useful tables done by the
Cercle Philat6lique France-URSS; even more data can be dug out of
the German-language catalogues published by Lipsia, Michel and
Senf Companies in Germany and Zumstein in Switzerland. Dealers
often have some of these catalogues available in editions that are
not current and hence at reduced prices. That is an excellent way
of acquiring the knowledge that one needs. There are even cheap
multilingual philatelic glossaries around to help one to read
foreign-language catalogues.

The next step would be to buy the English translation of the S. V.
Prigara Handbook, recently published by the Rossica Society of
Russian Philately and reviewed in our No. 10 issue. We are all
descended from Prigara. While it can be said that some of his
information is now dated, he performed a great service in
tabulating a lot of facts and, above all, he taught us where to dig.

In short, one should be able to recognize right off the Polish
rings cancellations on Russian Imperials, the characteristic square
and octagonal postmarks of Warsaw, the diamond-shaped port markings
for Odessa and St. Petersburg, the bogus issues that appeared after
the Civil War, the differences between the printing processes used
in our area of philately; the more prominent plate and perforation
varieties and many other weird and wondrous things.

And so, dear children, let us absorb everything we read and, mixing
our metaphors, take the bull by the horns and get the show on the
road i




"Correspondene with Canada" is a regular feature
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xercoc copy of the item, along with sare expla-
natory text to the Editor.


by John V. Woollam.
The illustration below shows a 3-kop. Imperial card, with the
despatch postmark reading ROVNA POCHT.KONT.2.VOLYNSK.G.15 JUL.1884
(i.e.Old Style,or 27 July N.S.,as confirmed by the message). This
is now known as Rovne in the province of Rovne ,Ukrainian SSR. It
was part of Poland from 1919 to 1939 and it has been through a lot.

The card took two weeks in 1884 by land and sea to get to Montreal,
making especially good time when compared to airmail service these
days. The writer was obviously well educated in Russian and French,
the message in the latter language referring to philatelic
Early Russian mail to Canada must be scarce and it would be
interesting to hear of even earlier dates from other readers.


.*<- a X ;. .. "/.-
..... ............... ...................

tZ ( I

']. u emoi t iO clUnO tiil ;I.).i(Clb (lIpCrLp tfi (i O ilO.IIC.IIfICI 111iieIC) )viptuZO nloCamb .
2. HoimOe6r ynpIpowlite aI lco(ip.Niranie nucflhU ne orfldmuiema.
,- -, ..... /: ._... .....__.._ ... -_ -- .... ,_-


by Andrew Cronin.

Your editor was an apprentice judge at this magnificent exhibition
of 6500 frames, thus ensuring that Canada was represented on the
international philatelic scene.

Readers will be interested to know that several CSRP subscribers
were prominent in the International Jury, or were commissioners and/
or exhibitors at this event. M. Michel Liphschutz, R.D.P. and
President of the Academy of Philately of France was also the
President of the International Jury, Vice-President of the
Philatelic Section of the exhibition and used his considerable
engineering and organisational skills to see that things ran well.
Among other things, he also designed the remarkable "Securit6"
frames for the show, manufactured by the Compagnie Frangaise

Messrs Michel Liphschutz, Georg Lindberg, Jan Witkowski and the
writer formed the sub-group who judged the entries in the Eastern
European section. It is the considered opinion of your editor that
we were firm but fair in the judging and a careful consensus was
reached for every decision. The results are tabled hereunder:-


J. van der Linden


Dr. Raymond Casey

Manfred Dobin

Ing. Sven Kraul (+SP)

Jacques Marcovitch (+SP)

Igor Morozov
Boris Stenshinskii


Paul Barbatavi6ius

Jinf Brejha
Rudolfs Dedzis
Per-Anders Erixon (+SP)
Oleg Forafontov
N. Jakimovs
D. Kuznetsov(+Felicitations)

L. Melnikov

AUS RUSSLAND:Postal Relations to and
from Russia in 18th.& 19th. centuries.
Absolutely gorgeous postal history in
eight frames & a pioneer study.

Russian P.O.s in Far East, including
many spectacular items used abroad.
Postal History of St. Petersburg,with
earliest known postmark of the city.
Latvia: Letters & Forerunners, with the
superb items expected from this student.
Beautifully selected Zemstvos,incl.
unique used Kadnikov envelope.
His well-known Soviet Airmails 1922-1935.
Imperial Russia; interesting items from
pre-stamp and philatelic periods.

Lithuanian Airmails, including rare and
unrecorded essays and proofs.
RSFSR Specialised, with rare items.
Magnificent WWI mutes.
Russia 1822-1922, including rarities.
Superb Imperial Postal Stationery.
Communications theme.
Lovely Zemstvos, including only known
used copy of the Perm' stamp.
Glorious showing of Russian and Soviet
Air Post 1911-1940,with unique items.

J. G. Plancquaert

Boris Pritt (+SP)
Vsevolod Pritula
Roger Thomas
V. D. Vandervelde

Harry von Hofmann (+SP)

Franco-Lithuanian Occpn. of Memel/
Klaipida, incl. unusual frankings.
Excellent showing of WWI Censorship.
Aviation theme.
Fine selection of Zemstvos.
Russia:Forwarding Agents, by a
leading English expert in the field.
Superb Imperial Russian pre-stamp,
pmks., sea post and used abroads.


Alex. Artuchov
Paul Barbatavi6ius
Prof. Konst. Berngard(+SP)
A. Bogdanovskii
Estonian Phil. Society
Heinrich Imhof
B. Jatzkowski
Marat Kabanov (+SP)
G. Malakhov (+SP)
Hilary Norwood

Moshe Shmuely

Dr. Bela Simady

S. Vvedenskii

Imperial Dots Postmarks
Postal History of Memel/Klaip6da.
RSFSR-USSR Postal Rates 1911-1932.
Communist Party theme.
"Eesti Filatelist" (Literature).
Excellent WWI Mutes 1914-1917.
Memel Postal History 1864-1880.
RSFSR-USSR 1921-1932.
Peace theme.
Soviet Field Posts WWII; a
comprehensive study.
Russia & USSR, with many interesting
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History 1800-
1980, with wonderful pre-stamp material.
Lenin theme.


N. Mandrovskii

Forest theme.

It was a great pleasure to see in person again Dr. Raymond Casey,
Hilary Norwood and Boris Pritt of England; Mischa Feldman of
Austria, who is now as carefree as his fellow Viennese; Herren
Harry von Hofmann, Heinrich Imhof and Sven Kraul of the Federal
Republic of Germany; Jacques Marcovitch and Igor Maslowski of
France and Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski, the well-known expert from
Switzerland, as well as Mr. & Mrs Moshe Shmuely of Tel-Aviv and
other gracious people. The city of Hamburg seems to produce
superb philatelists and some of the treasures in the collections
of Herr Harry von Hofmann and Ing. Sven Kraul will be discussed at
the end of this report.

A few words now about the Soviet visit to the show. It was known
some months beforehand that a team of Soviet philatelists would be
coming to the exhibition. Messrs Norwood and Pritt made special
trips to Paris in the middle of the show to meet them, but waited
in vain. It was finally announced that the group would arrive at
10 a.m. on the last day of the exhibition, Monday, 21st. June and
that M. Igor Maslowski would officially welcome them on behalf of
the Cercle Philat4lique France-URSS. About six people eventually
appeared around 11 a.m. and only two seemed to be philatelists:
Comrades V. Pritula and B. Stenshinskii. The visitors obviously
could not cover this huge exhibition in the last seven hours of
the show. They spent their time around the Soviet exhibits and so
missed the many items of Russian interest to be seen elsewhere,e.g.

in the superlative exhibits of Mijnheer J. van der Linden of Belgium
and Mme. Nia Stratou of Greece, just to name a couple. It further
turned out that the Soviet tourists would be in Paris for two days
only, with a reception to be given by the Cercle Philatelique France-
URSS on the evening of the evening of the second day. By that time,
your editor had to be back in Toronto with several of the Canadian
exhibits, so he could not attend.

Now to some of the highlights featured at the exhibition:-

Mrs J. S. Kohn of Chicago, U.S.A. exhibited Concentration Camp Mail
and one of the items shown was the reply half of a Third Reich
Hitler head 6 Pf. violet postcard. It contained the handstamped
address in violet of a firm in Germany and the message on the face
of the card was in Ukrainian, replying to a relative who was
obviously a slave labourer. A Transnistrian definitive had been
affixed to the left of the 6 Pf. Hitler head design and the two
cancelled with a light strike of a Roumanian double-circle postmark,
apparently reading VRADIEVCA / JUD. GOLTA and date in the centre. It
is hoped to show an illustration of this item in a future issue of
"The Post-Rider".

Mme. Nia Stratou of Athens, Greece showed a fine registered cover
from the Russian post office at Mount Athos, with a double-circle
R.O.P. i T. postmark, dated 19 Sept. 1904 and cancelling a 2-
piastres on 20 kop. stamp. An additional cachet in Russian, reading
"Russkii na Afone Svyato-Andreevskii Skit" (Russian Hermitage of St.
Andrew on Athos) is also on the cover. On the back, there is a
rectangular violet marking in Russian with the inscription "S
pechatnymi proizvedeniyami na russkom yazyke Odesskoi Tamozhneyu
vozvrashchaetsya zagranitsu" (With printed matter in the Russian
language returned abroad by the Odessa Customs). A far more
civilised way of exercising control than that practised by the
Soviet Customs, who arbritrarily confiscate items without bothering
to offer any explanation.

L. Ya. Melnikov of the USSR featured a staggering array of WWI and
Civil War aviation markings, which are now recorded here for the
benefit of the Rev. L. L. Tann and other air-minded enthusiasts.
All the markings are in violet and double-circle types, unless
otherwise stated:-

(1) *3-i Vostochno-Sib. pol.* / 1 Rota / Vozdukhoplavatel'nyi bat.
(2) Sveaborgskoe krep. Vozdukhoplavat. Otdel / Dlya paketov.(s.c.).
(3) 24 Polevaya Vozdukhoplav. Rota (eagle in centre).Single circle.
(4) 7-oi Korpusnyi Aviatsionnyi Otryad / 6 Aviatsionnoi Roty.
(5) 23-go Korpusnago Aviatsionnago Otryada / Dlya paketov.
(6) 12-i Armeiskii Aviatsionnyo Otryad */ Deistvuyushchaya Armiya.
(7) Sed'maya Aviatsionnaya Rota *(eagle in centre). Single circle.
(8) V-aya Aviatsionnaya Rota / X korp. otryad. Single circle.
(9) Komanda 5-i Aviatsionnoi Roty (eagle in centre).
(10) Eskadry Vozdushnykh Korablei */Il'ya Muromets(unbelievable').
(11) Zapasnago Aviatsionago Bataliona / 4 Rota.
(12) Podvizh. Mastdrskaya Sklada 10 Aviatsion. Diviziona (winged
propeller in centre).
(13) Voennoi Shkoly Letchikov-Nablyudatelei / Dlya paketov.
(14) Aviatsionnyi Park (eagle in centre). Single circle.
(15) Komanda 5-go Aviatsionnago Park *.

(16) Iz Deistvuyushchei Armii / winged anchor in centre.
(17) 7 Otd. Leib batareya dlya str. po Vozdushn. Flotu /
eagle in centre.
* (18) Aviatsionnoe Sudno "Orlitsa" / Dlya paketov. Struck on a card
to Sereda, Kostroma province, 5.4.17.
(19) Morskaya Aviatsionnaya Stantsiya (a 3-line cachet with an eagle
above and struck on a cover).
(20) 7i Vozdukhoplavat. Otryad Rab.-Krest'yan. Kras. Voen. Voz. Flota
Dlya / paketov. An astounding early Soviet marking struck on a
letter from Tuapse 29.4.21 to Astrakhan 9.5.21.

Herr Harry von Hofmann of Hamburg had a wealth of outstanding items,
two of which are described hereunder.

POlp r41^ nK N
..CRTE COSTv I "-,l lial;. '.

(( ,t ... v
^ > / ^ -;
/ ^ "** "r

(a) As a result of the changes in postal rates in the Russian Empire
during 1876, the stocks of the envelopes with the imprinted 8-kop.
design were eventually surcharged with the new value of 7 kop. At
the same time, the rate for postcards sent within the Empire was
lowered from five to four kopeks, but no corresponding surcharge was
known applied to the remainders of the old cards.

The illustration above shows a five-kopek card, used at Tarutino,
Bessarabia on 28.1.1878 and addressed to St. Petersburg, where it
was received three days later. There is a violet handstamp above the
first line of the inscription at top, reading IbHA 4 K.C., i.e.
PRICE 4 SILVER KOPEKS. The colour of the handstamp is so pale that
it can easily be overlooked. That is probably the reason why it has
not been recorded until now. It would seem that the remainders of
the'5-kop. postcards were so small that it was not worthwhile to
apply a printed surcharge, as with the envelopes. The example here
is probably of local origin, but we will not know for certain until
further copies turn up.

(b) Referring to the illustration at right and also to Part 6 of
"The Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad" by Tchilinghirian and
Stephen, we see the following note:-
"The Russian Military Historical Commission states that a 'United
Field Post & Telegraph Division' was operations at Dal'nii at the end

r n.
i~ in~ I ^ inoropmOP iiE. .^^ i
[1.. t/36 1- ,$ ir L.1
I 2/ .. ~ .I/............_~.. ............... ... .

A45 ___ ^ *^\

| .. ..........f t U Tf
^ 1. T rrtpon *OnT (m.k ojl s.no Jd *Ttn*ul *ani oArpyt* T d c t oi u
t a. -1 ;4..
^! *wl rtpr potupe OM MBmrt ljff 2 JT

of 1903. This establishment, like others of the same
Status in Southern Manchuria, was the result of the
fusion of two earlier distinct military offices: the
27 No. 17 Field Post Office and a Field Telegraph
,49- OQ3_ Office. Prior to the merger, this latter will have
S used date-stamps in standard type "NN", inscribed
DAL'NII at the top. It is possible that the cancel
of this telegraph office continued to be used after
the creation of the 'United' office, but no examples
appear to be known. The date-stamp of No. 17 F.P.O. certainly
remained in use, as it has been recorded with 1904 dates".

The fact that the Field Telegraph office did exist and that it used
its own date-stamp in the standard type can now be proved by a
postcard, on which it has been applied as a transit marking, dated
27.VI.19-03 (see the clear reproduction of this d.s. above). The
card bears a 5-kop. Arms adhesive, cancelled No. 17ya POLEV. POCHT.
KON. 1 26.VI.19-03 1 PRIAMUR. OKR. and was sent from Dal'nii to the
Austrian Legation in Peking, being delivered by the German post
office in that city.

Ing. Sven Kraul, a fellow Hamburger, to coin a word, showed several
unusual items, as follow:-


..... .. .... ...

/... ..-..

(a) A most interesting 3-kop. Imperial postcard, posted on 22.4.1911
somewhere along the Riga-Tukkum Railway and addressed in German to
Reval. It was cancelled in black with the negative seal of the Head
of the Telegraph, Riga-Tukkum Railway. This oval marking has not been
recorded before and confirmation of further strikes from other
readers would be appreciated.

(b) The two 3-kop. Imperial cards illustrated at the top of the next
page demonstrate the application of two different mute markings to
cancel the impressed 3-kop. design. They are addressed to the A.
Wolfschmidt Yeast Distilling Company and the messages refer to yeast


deliveries. Both are addressed to Riga and the first one, shown at
left below, has the marking of TPO (RPO) No. 78, Crew No. 2 struck
at top left and dated 21 July 1901. It was received in Riga four
days later and the 3-kop. design cancelled with a black cross.

The second example,from the same correspondence, has a Riga arrival
postmark, dated 27 May 1902 and the design is cancelled with another
black cross of smaller size. Herr Kraul would like to know the
reason for the application of such mute markings.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Such crosses are known to have been used in the
Imperial period to cancel the Savings Bank stamps which were
affixed to a special card and the accumulated value transferred to
a Postal Savings Bank account when it reached the amount of 1 rouble.
* It would seem that, in the above two cases, postal employees used
such crosses in the Riga postal system to invalidate uncancelled
designs on the postcards and, presumably, other pieces of mail.

(c) The two cards shown below bear an identical two-line cachet in
violet, reading PROSMOTRENO / Voennyi Tsenzor (EXAMINED / Military
Censor; number of censor not given) and applied in 1912,before WWI.

The message on both cards is in Latvian and both are addressed to a
Mr. A. Tsauna (Cauna), via Murav'evo Station to the Pampelin
* Estate, Pussari Homestead (the abbreviation "yc." at the bottom
right of the second card apparently stands for"usad'ba" or
homestead: Editorial Comment). The card at left was posted at Shlok


.. 7.
... ,.. .. ......... .-._ ...,,. .l. ..
(^^ Ci4.Z*

(Slohk, Sloka) in the Liflyand Province on 10.8.12, with a violet
transit postmark of the same date at bottom centre reading Railway
Postal Station of the Riga-Orlovsk-Hasenpoth Railway, being
received one day later at Murav'evo in the province of Kovno. The
second card was mailed at Gazenpot (Hasenpoth in the Kurlyand
Province) on 14.12.12 and arrived in Murav'evo the same day. Why
was there military censorship in the pre-WWI period ?

ADDITIONAL EDITORIAL COMMENT: The question is open to discussion by
the readership. However, it should be pointed out that both cards
originated from the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire, where
the German minority had wielded much of the cultural, economic and
political power for centuries, going back to the times of the
Teutonic Knights. By the 1880s, the Imperial Govt. began to
introduce Russification measures, including the exclusive use of
Russian in the administration of the Baltic provinces and at the
University of Yur'ev (Dorpat, Tartu), so as to weaken the influence
of the German upper classes. The situation was complicated by the
fact that, despite the possible security risks, the German
minority was highly regarded by the Imperial authorities for its
industry, reliability and honesty and also because the last Tsarina
of Russia had been the Princess Alix of Hesse and thus a pure
German. Another possible and simpler explanation is that there may
have been military manoeuvres in the Baltic area from August to
Dec. 1912.

Dr. Raymond Casey of Orpington, England had, as usual, a brilliant
display of postal history rarities of Russian P.O.s in the Far East.
One cover in particular caused a great deal of discussion in our
judging group. It was a 10-kop. postal stationery envelope, which
had been revalued in ink across the bottom of the design with the
word "rub." roublee). The design was cancelled with a cross in ink
and there was a circular date stamp just to its left, 28 mm. in
diameter and reading ULYASUTAI (MONGOLIYA)a* 27.5.20, similar in
style to the KOBDO (V MONGOLII)'a'marking listed by Tchilinghirian
& Stephen as Sub-Type 1A, Fig. 456. Unfortunately, the ULYASUTAI
marking just did not have a balanced look about it. The address
was typewritten and read : Registered/ PETROGRAD/ State University/
To the Reader misspeltt Privat-donent) in Mongolian literature/ to
Boris Yakovlevich/ VLADIMIRTSOV/ from A. Burdukov from Ulyasutai.
Below all that, there was at the bottom of the cover a strike of
the internal Russian "3" cachet for registered mail, with No. 61
and wording Ulyasutai / Mongoliya. There was a pencilled number
228 or 218 on the back and two strikes of the Petrograd 6 Eksp.
marking, the first in black with date 1 .7.20 2 and the second in
red dated 3-7.20.

The jury sub-group was undecided about the validity of such a
cover with a previously unrecorded postmark from Ulyasutai. So far
as your editor was concerned, it almost looked too good to be true
and, given the chaotic conditions in 1920, he could not understand
why the envelope was still so well preserved, bore no transit
markings and did not appear to have been censored. The rate for
the period was also incorrect and should have been only 5 roubles
for the registration fee, as letters up to 15g. in weight were
still being carried free of charge. On the other hand, the
English authors H.G.B. Perry-Ayscough and R.B. Otter-Barry stated
in their book:"With the Russians in Mongolia"(London, 1913) that

there were then 500 Russians living in Ulyasutai in Western Mongolia
so it was feasible that at least one of them would have possessed a
typewriter in such a remote place. By the way, the entire address
was given in the new Soviet spelling, which would still have been a
novelty in 1920.Verification of the presence of both the addresser
and addressee in Ulyasutai and Petrograd respectively would not
necessarily prove anything, as it might indicate that any intending
forger may have done his homework very well.

The upshot of the whole business was that, after the exhibition, Dr.
Casey sent the cover to Paris for expertisation. The noted Used
Abroad collector M. Igor'Maslowski pronounced it to be genuine in
all respects, the well-known expert M. Roger Calves believed it to
be a forgery and M. Michel Liphschutz was undecided. The opinion of
M. Calves should be treated with great respect as he has many
investigative resources at his disposal and he recognized the
Shtempelgate forgeries for what they were when first shown them. If
the cover is indeed genuine, it would among other things be the most
spectacular item in a collection of Postmaster Provisionals, and
used abroad to boot Reviewing his notes and observations, your
editor still cannot dismiss the item out of hand. He simply does not
know if the cover is genuine or not and must therefore take the same
position as M. Liphschutz, i.e. undecided.

So far as your editor is concerned, one of the reasons for his
uncertainty has been the tremendous damage done to the collecting of
Far Eastern Used Abroads by the Shtempelgate forgeries, which
originated in Leningrad, as did the Ulyasutai cover described above.
It is known that Soviet philatelic circles wish that we in the West
* would now shut up about the Shtempelgate forgeries. Well, we in the
CSRP will NOT shut up, because the VOF has made absolutely no
attempt to track down the origin and distribution of these forgeries.
The VOF cooperates with the Ministry of Communications of the USSR
to publish the monthly magazine "Filateliya SSSR" where, in addition
to regular attacks about philatelic misdeeds in the West, there are
often loud trumpetings about the expulsion of persons from some
local branch of the VOF for "speculation"; i.e. he or she was
probably selling scarce items at a small profit and thus providing
a service in a country perpetually plagued with shortages of all
kinds. In short, the VOF keeps going after the small fish and
leaves the big ones alone. WHY ?

Illustrated at right is
the special 4-kop.
envelope and special
postmark issued by the
Ministry of Communicationsi ,.
of the USSR in honour of .


by M. V. Liphschutz.

(M. Liphschutz is a signatory of the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists of Great Britain and President of the Academy of
Philately of France. This article is reprinted in translation from
the Journal of the Academy by his kind permission).

In contrast to certain other countries, postal stationery appeared
in Russia 13 years before the first stamp. As a matter of fact,
postal stationery for local correspondence was issued in 1845 for
St. Petersburg and in 1846 for Moscow. Envelopes for mail within
the Empire appeared in 1848.

The first stamp appeared officially on 1st. January 1858. By the
way, all the dates given in this article are in the Julian calendar,
i.e. Old Style, which was 12 days behind the Gregorian Calendar or
New Style in the 19th. Century.

Several more or less well documented articles have been published
on the history of this stamp, but it has only been in the past few
years that the details have been finally cleared up.As a group of
philatelists in the USSR has had access to the archives of the
Postal Museum in Leningrad and to the State Archives of the USSR,
several problems,which had remained unresolved up to now, have now
been solved and we are able today to give an exact account of the
birth of the first stamp of Russia.

I should like to thank Professor K.A. Berngard, Comrades S.V.
Kristi and V.V. Lobachevskii and especially Com. B.A. Kaminskii for
the magnificent research work they have carried out in this regard.
I have been associated from afar with some of their investigations
and it has been very satisfying for me to have helped them as best
I could.


Mr. A.P. Charukovskii, an official of the Postal Department, was
sent abroad in 1851 to study the usage of postage stamps in various
European countries. However, the Postal Department was no longer
interested in this problem on his return, being apparently quite
satisfied with the postal stationery then still in use.

It was not until 1855 that he was asked for a detailed report of
his assignment. He then gave extensive details in his report about
the manufacture of postage stamps, the use of electros, the choice
of colours, the type of paper to be used, watermarks and even
perforating methods. However, he recommended that a circular shape
be adopted for the stamps to be issued, as he did not think that
the rectangular form generally adopted abroad was convenient.

Being very interested in this report, Mr. V. F. Adlerberg, the
Director of the Postal Department, obtained the agreement of the
Minister of Finances and made an official request on 12th. July
1856 to the Council of State for the preparation of postage stamps
intended for ordinary mail. In the meantime, the Office for the
Preparation of State Papers (EZGB) decided to set in motion the
preparation of the first essays of the stamps, at the urging of the


Postal Department. These essays are of three types, as follow:-

(a) The first type has a double circle, with the imperial eagle in
* the centre (Fig. 1) and the inscription 10 KOP: PER LOT (1 lot =
12.8 grammes or 0.45 ounce).

I -

FIc. 1

FIG. 2 FIG. 3

(b) The second type consists of a double circle with a Mercury
head and the same inscription (Fig. 2).

(c) Finally, the third type is a mere reproduction of the die used
for the postal stationery of the Empire then in use (Fig. 3).

All these essays are printed on different papers in either one or
two colours, others were stuck on envelopes to try out the
postmarks (see Fig. 4) and others were used for perforation trials.

0 .*

FIG. 4

I3 ';~; I~3L zt


Fig. 5

The official documents discovered by Com. B.A. Kaminskii account for
a total of 61 essays prepared for these purposes and it is
interesting to note that all of these essays have been recorded over
* the past few years. At the present time, 10 are to be found in the
USSR, 4 in the United States, 1 was in an auction in the U.S. in
1971 and its present whereabouts unknown, while all the others are
in my collection.

These circular essays were submitted to A.P. Charukovskii for his -1

approval, as he was considered the greatest authority on the
question at that time. The criticisms he made were so numerous that
the authorities were practically forced to start all over again.
Going back on his initial recommendation, Charukovskii now
suggested a rectangular shape for the stamps to be issued.

Because of the difficulty of reconciling the various interested
parties and the complexity of the problem, the Postal Department,
with the agreement of the Minister of Finances, asked for the
creation of a Special Commission to prepare the design for the new
stamp. This Commission set to work in the month of September 1856.

It was at this time, 21st. October 1856 to be exact,that F.P. Kepler,
the principal engraver at the State Printing Works,presented his
draft of the stamp to the Director of the Postal Department. In his
presentation, F.P. Kepler made a particular point of the fact that
the local engravers were hesitant about preparing drafts and that he
wanted the Government to avoid the necessity of applying to foreign
engravers. Please see Fig. 5 for this initial draft, which is now
kept at the Postal Museum in Leningrad.

This draft was the final one to be used, with slight modifications,
as the definitive model for the stamps and the Commission was then
able to terminate its work on 28th. November 1856.

A decision was taken to issue perforated stamps with the values of
10, 20 and 30 kop. for internal correspondence and franking letters
weighing 1, 2 or 3 lots respectively. The printing order was then
entrusted to the State Printing Works which, after producing a fair
number of various essays, presented the final copies of the three
values in their respective colours to the Postal Department on 15th.
October 1857.

These essays were approved on 20th. October by Tsar Alexander II and
printing could now commence. The official date of issue was fixed as
1st. January 1858 and a contract was concluded between the State
Printing Works and the Postal Department, envisaging the delivery,
before the date of issue, of 5,700,000 perforated copies of the 10-
kop., 200,000 of the 20-kop. and 100,000 of the 30-kop.

Unfortunately, the perforating machine, which had arrived at St.
Petersburg on 19 November 1857, was not in a working state and, as
the date of 1st. January 1858 was unchangeable, the State Printing
Works asked for authorisation to deliver a certain quantity of
stamps imperforate. The Postal Department was forced to accede to
the request and, because of that, 3 million imperforate copies of
the 10-kop. stamp were delivered to it in the period from 26th.
November to 19th. December 1857.

The future No. 1 of Russia had now been born.


Printed in sheets of 100, divided into four panes of 25 stamps (5 x 5)
by two plates, one for the frame (duty plate) and one for the oval
centre with the eagle embossed (key plate), this stamp is famous for
the perfection of its manufacture.


SThe hand-made paper came in a great variety of thicknesses. Quite
apart from the manual process which made the maintenance of a
constant thickness extremely difficult, the State Printing Works,
which was itself making the paper, was also in fact constantly
being attacked by the Postal Department. The latter demanded a
reduction in the thickness of the paper, in order to make the
stamps more supple and more adhesive. This led the State
Printing Works to keep modifying the paper throughout the period
of printing, so that the extent of the thicknesses went from 0.055
mm. to 0.130 mm. The measurements of the thickness of more than
400 copies are summarised by percentages in the following table:-

Thickness of the Paper.

0.065mm. 0.070 to 0.080 to 0.110 to 0.120mm.
or less: 0.075mm.: 0.105mm.: 0.115mm.: or more:
0.5%. 7.5%. 69%. 18.5%. 4.5%.

The watermark consisted of the figure "1", repeated 100 times in
the sheet. Two complete sheets of this watermarked paper are known
with an inscription in the margins, reading:-

nHOTOBbL / MAPKH / Bb 10 KOn: CEP: / 1857. (literally: postage /
stamps / in 10 kop. silver / 1857).

One copy is also known with inverted watermark.


It is extremely difficult to determine with certainty the quality
of the gum as copies of the stamp with gum are practically non-
existent in the most important collections. Stamps are sometimes
found with part gum in a yellowish shade or even in deep yellow.
Such copies, as well as some without gum, could have originated
from mail between St. Petersburg and Kronshtadt, as the stamps were
not cancelled on this route.

As some stamps on thick paper were difficult to affix, the
application of some mucilage by the sender cannot be excluded. A
portion of a sheet of watermarked and gummed paper, discovered in
the archives of the State Printing Works, bears a yellowish gum.

On the other hand, a portion of the sheet of the 10-kop.
perforated, but corresponding in preparation to the imperforate 10-
kop. stamps, bears white gum. An imperforate pair now in the Postal
Museum at Leningrad also bears white gum, although in view of the
quality of the paper, it would seem that this pair originated from
two imperforate sheets which served as essays for the perforated
stamp No. 2.

Summing up, it would appear that the gum was yellowish at the
beginning of the printing and white at the end.


As the printing was very carefully done, varieties are rare.
However, some are worth recording. 15

The number 10 at top right shows
Some differences in the position of
the 1 in comparison with the zero.
m In most cases, the figure 1 is 1.2
'TyIM Typ 2 mm. high and placed higher than the
Szero (Fig. 6, type 1).

Sf The number 1 is found less often
i Imm. high and the tops of both 1 & 0
Tyrp F. 6 are in alignment (Fig. 6, type 2).
Type3 Fwe. 6
The figure 1 at top right placed lower than the top of the zero,
probably once only in the sheet and with position unknown, has
been found measuring only 0.9mm. in height (Fig. 6, type 3).

-- This type also has a retouch of the
,C' 1 background at top left of the stamp.
The lozenge-shaped points are more
I elongated and of a different form
ir f) than the normal type (Fig. 7). It
was noticed for the first time by the
late Dr. Georges Fulpius of
I* "Switzerland and this retouch has
since borne his name. It might well
be that this variety is not constant
and is only the result of touching
S up a cliche used in a portion of
the printing.

h-~~ .A very clear dot may be noticed after the
Number 10 in the inscription at the bottom
t of the stamp on several copies (Fig. 8).
S'f Exhibited for the first time in 1957 by the
Muscovite collector A. G. Feldmanis, this
variety has since been confirmed on other
Sl'- j copies. The variety is very rare and it has
S' not been possible so far to find its
S_. : .i4d$"'e-- i position on the sheet or even to be quite
S ^ '; sure that it exists throughout the printing.
Fig. 8

These occur in the zero of the number 10 at bottom left. Some
copies, about 3% of the stamps examined, have a more or less
prominent break in the bottom part of the zero (Fig. 9). The
position of this variety is unknown, as well as how many are to be
found in the sheet of 100 stamps.

Upon examining minutely the zero in question on close to 300
copies in my collection, so as to solve the problem of the break,
I was able to discover a new variety, which I will call the
Keyhole Flaw (Fig. 10). Found on two copies, one of which bears
the margins corresponding to the corner of the sheet at top and at
right, the variety would very probably be on one of four stamps,
namely on No. 5, 10, 55 or 60 in the sheet of 100.

* n.-775 -


The official date envisaged for placing the first stamp in use was
1st. January 1858. Circular No. 3 of the Postal Department
appeared on 10th. December 1857 and referred to the way the stamps
should be utilised. It confirmed that 1st. January 1858 was the
first day for franking internal mail and it also authorised the
sale of the stamps after they had been received by the various post
offices. The documents in the archives confirm the sale of 10,510
copies between 23rd. and 31st. December 1857.

There have always been reports in Russian philatelic circles of the
existence of copies used before 1st. January, without a firm proof
being offered. Moreover, it has been shown that in one of the Moscow
post offices, the year
* 1857 was not changed
in the canceller. There .'-- .
exist, in fact, some .. -
copies of used stamps -
showing the date of
1st. January 1857. As ,
I myself possess a
fragment bearing very .. .... ....
clearly the date of 1st
January 1857, I have
personally taken a
very firm position on
this subject, defending .
for more than 25 years
the idea of the'
inexistence of copies
used in 1857, since
those that would have
been found with an
incomplete 1857 date .
could well originate
from the Moscow error.
To those who have .. .
leaned towards the
existence of the use
of No. 1 in December ." ... .
1857, I had always ", *" '
replied: "Find me a F.-.
letter !" A few years
ago, I found such a letter, contradicting my stand (Fig. 11).

This is a case of a letter that left Tauroggen on 31st. December
1857 and arrived in St. Petersburg on 4th. January 1858. The red
oblong marking of departure may be seen under the little round
cachet of arrival in black at the top left of the illustration.
This is therefore the only document known up to now of the usage
of Russia No. 1 between 23rd. and 31st. December 1857.


B. A. Kaminskii: Filateliya SSSR, June 1970, July 1970, Nov. 1970,
February 1971, July 1972.
V. Lobachevskii, K. Alekseev: Filateliya SSSR, July 1972.

V. Lobachevskii: Filateliya SSSR, March
-, ., ^.
". ;1V c ;Tt ^,S !<0, *'(''*': ; *
r .2
'* i i i < ^?

9j~~,c wv-u ibi*


round off this masterly
study by Monsieur
Liphschutz, who holds the
largest collection of No.l
of Russia in the world, we
are showing at left an
illustration of a complete
watermarked sheet for the
first stamp of the Russian
Empire, with the unusual
inscription going around
all four margins. This
particular example was
originally in the great
collection of the late M.
Maurice Burrus of France.


by Alexander Safonoff

Very little up to now has been written about the plate varieties of
these two issues, which were only separated by ten days and are
really one and the same stamp, first being imperforate and then the
second perforated.

My collection of these stamps is extremely modest, but I have
noticed some varieties that may be constant. Looking at a pen-
cancelled copy of No. 1, as illustrated on the next page in enlarged
form, we see that the background is composed of alternate rows of
vertical lines and lozenges (diamonds) respectively. In the section
just above the end of the word "lot." at bottom right, we notice
that some of the vertical lines and lozenges have merged. There is
also damage to the crown and the bunch in the mantle at right is
darker and quite different to that on the left.

, i *' t:in. x*

2~-~.1; 'ci~i i~.'

sC ..I l p i SI ) ,I 1 9 {i
i til' ill '. yt Jt
)* 4ti/ t n t?'Ak *' t>**<<
iBA il^itn' ? ^'S.R^A *

Looking now at another copy of No. 1, this time with the No. 475
postmark in a rectangle of dots, it can be seen that the zero of
the "10" at bottom left is deformed at bottom. Also, the arabesque
at the right centre of the oval has the two normally outer white
dots merging to form one big white blob. That is prominent enough
for the assumption that it must be constant and to be found on a
specific stamp in the sheet. Advice from the readership about the
existence of further copies showing both these varieties would be

ETA "q'. I Vi

The final pair of illustrations above of a used copy of No. 2 are
more interesting. In the Journal of the Rossica Society No. 96/97,
Dr. Dale P. Cruikshank wrote an absorbing article about the "dot"
variety on Russia No. 1. This is the Feldmanis variety, with the
coloured dot between the 10 and KOP:, even with the bottom dot of
the colon after KOP. In the example above on a copy of No. 2, the
coloured dot is even with the upper dot of the colon after KOP.
Information would also be appreciated about the constancy of this
second variety.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The varieties described by Monsieur Liphschutz
and Mr. Safonoff raise some unusual questions and their investigation
will open up new fields of research. As Monsieur Liphschutz has had
a relatively large amount of material to work on, his statistics
about the relative frequency of the varieties he has discovered are
important. It would seem from his findings that all the flaws
recorded occur once in the sheet. In other words, it appears
certain that the plates were not built up to a total of 100 units
by first constructing a master pane of 25 cliches (5 x 5).

We can now start thinking about the method employed to make the
printing plates. First of all, there was a key, or centre plate to
* print the oval containing the imperial eagle. This plate would be
the same for all four stamps, i.e. the 10 kop. imperf., the 10 kop.,
20 kop. and 30 kop. perforated values, except for the colours. The
thought now arises about the possibility of there being only ONE
key plate, it being cleaned before another colour was used. The

possible way to prove that would be to assume that the same key
plate had been used for all stamps of all three values printed up
to the year 1875. Then look for flaws in the later printings and
work backwards to see when they first appeared and whether they
are common to all values. Depending on how much material one will
have access to, there is no doubt that some interesting discoveries
could be made. All that one needs is lots of time and money.!

The duty, or frame plates are another matter, as they have to be
different so as to designate each value. When we look at pictures
of multiples of Russia No. 1, we see that all the units in a
particular piece are in perfect alignment with each other, thus
bearing out M. Liphschutz's statement that this stamp is famous for
the quality of its execution. The printing process used was
typography and we would now have to consider the general level of
technology as it existed in the late 1850s. The French Govt.
Printing Works in Paris were preeminent at that time and Mr.
Charukovskii would certainly have visited them for ideas. We do
not know how much he learned in Paris, as M. Hulot, the French
printer, was a brilliant innovator and technician and was not eager
to reveal his working methods.

In any case, it would seem that a master die, without indication of
value, was first engraved by F. Kepler. Three secondary dies would
then have been made and each would have borne the specific face
value. A total of 100 moulds each would have been taken in gutta-
percha, lead or wax from the secondary dies and carefully clamped
together in a special chase. This chase could then have been
suspended in a plating bath and a copper electro shell grown. When
the required thickness was attained, the copper shell, containing
100 units in four panes of 25, would have been carefully cleaned
and backed with a metal alloy to form the printing plate for that
value. As the quantities quoted by M. Liphschutz for the printings
of the first 20 & 30 kop. are relatively small, due to the lower
demand, it would be feasible to say that there was only one plate
ever made for each of these two values, lasting up to the year
1875. The 10-kop. value is another matter, as it was the stamp
most in demand and the printing orders therefore much larger.
However, as only 10 days separated the issue of the imperforate
and perforated stamps in 1858, it seems reasonable to assume that all
the varieties recorded by Monsieur Liphschutz on Russia No. 1 should
also be found on the same positions on the sheets for the perforated
stamp. Whether the plate was still in a good enough condition for
the later printings of this value until the year 1875, or just how
long it lasted before being replaced can only be determined by
carefully examining the required material, particularly in

If ever there were fresh philatelic fields to be conquered, then
these are they *

The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this issue
of "The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not
necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without
permission, provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to
the Society.


by Alex Artuchov

GADIACH ( Poltava Prov. )

1884 (Jan. 1)

20 x 23.75 mm, lithographed in two colours, on white paper ( 0.1mm),
white gum, the word MAPKA is at the top interior frame, sheet
unknown, imperforate.

1. 3 kop. dark green and carmine rose, light or dark



Similar to first issue, with inverted interior frame so that the
word MAPKA is at the bottom, lithographed in two colours, white
paper ( 0.1 mm), yellowish-white gum, sheet of 2x10, imperforate,
two editions.

First Edition ( March, 1884 )

Space between stamps 4.5 6 mm

2. 3 kop. yellow-green and rose-red


Variety: dot in front of left upper 3. Occurs once on every sheet.

Second Edition ( 188? )

Space between stamps 7 8 mm

3. 3 kop. green and red


Variety: Large white spot next to left lower 3. Found on tne 3rd,
4th, 7th, 8th, 15th, and 16th stamps in the sheet.


28.75 x35.5 mm lithographed in two colours, yellowish-white
paper (0.1 mm), yellowish-gray gum, sheet of 3x8, imperforate,
two values in different designs with the 3 kop. value for regular
mail and the 6 kop. value for registered letters.

4. 3 kop. green and rose-red


5. 6 kop. dark blue and rose-red


Note: While Schmidt lists the date of this issue as December, 1886,
postmarks bearing early November,1886 dates on the 3 kop. value
are known.

1887 ( April 23 )

21.25 x25.5 mm, lithographed in one colour, white paper (0.07 mm),
white gum, sheet of 4x10 in two panes of 4 x 5 with lower pane
being inverted in relation to upper, imperforate.

6. 3 kop. yellow-green
7. 3 kop. dark carmine


1887 ( June 9

Two values in different designs with 3 and 6 kop.,values for
regular mail and registered letters respectfully.

3 kop. Value

21.75 x 27.75 mm white paper, grayish-white gum, sheet of 10 x 3,


8. 3 kop. rose and ultramarine, light or dark


6 kop. Value

22.75 x 28 mm lithographed on white paper ( 0.07 mm ), grayish-
white gum, sheet unknown, imperforate.

1 3101 C R
' --i,.., -- -- F

, --If ..t -TIT'

9. 6 kop. ultramarine and rose


1888 ( February 22)

22 x 27.5 mm lithographed on white paper (0.07 mm), white gum,
sheet of 10 x 3 with two panes of 5 x 3 arranged horizontally with
left pane inverted, imperforate. TOP

10 M3

I -

10. 3 kop. violet, light or dark


1888 ( December 5)

Three values in different designs.

23.5 x 31 mm lithographed on yellowish-white paper (0.11 mm),
yellow-gray gum, sheet of 2 x 9, imperforate.

11. 3 kop. black, gray-black


22 x 27.25 mm lithographed on bluish-gray paper, white gum,
sheet of 8 x 2, imperforate.

12. 3 kop. blue and red


23 x 28.75 mm lithographed on gray paper (0.09 mm), white gum,
sheet of 8 x 2, imperforate.

13. 3 kop. black and red


1889 ( July 17 )

Two values in different designs.

21 x 27.5 mm lithographed in two colours on smooth white or
rough yellowish paper ( 0.08 and 0.1 mm respectfully), grayish-
white gum, sheet of 5 x 2, imperforate.

14. 3 kop. blue and rose

21.75 x 28.25 nmm ,otherwise particulars as for I.

15. 3 kop. blue and red


1889 (October 30)

Three values in different designs.

20.5 x 26.5 mm lithographed in two colours on w.iite paper,
white gum, sheet of 6 x 2, imperforate.

16. 3 kop. brown- red and green


19 x 24.5 mm lithographed in two colours on white paper (0.12 mm),
white gum, sheet of 6 x 2 imperforate.

17. 3 kop. green and brown-red



19 x 22.5 mm ,lithographed in one colour on gray paper (0.08 mm),
white gum, sheet of 5 x 6, imperforate.

18. 3 kop. gold or bronze-gold 2.00
Variety: Broken P in the word TPH. Occurs once on every sheet.

1890 ( March )

Three values in different designs.

19 x 25 mm lithographed in two colours on white paper brownish
gum, sheet of 2 x 5 with transfer block of 2 side by side, imperforate.

19. 3 kop red and blue


23 x 26.5 mm otherwise particulars as for I.

20. 3 kop. blue and red


18.75 x 24.5 mm lithographed in one colour on white paper (0.08 mml
brown gum, sheet of 3 x 6 with transfer block of 3 in a horizontal
row, imperforate.

21. 3 kop. olive-brown

1891 (April 1 )

Three values in different designs.

20 x 26 mm lithographed in two colours on white paper (0.09 mm),
yellowish-white gum, sheet of 11 x 3 the four stamos at the
corners of the sheet have an additional red outline, imperforate.

22. 3 kop. lilac and yellow-red


20.75 x 27 mm lithographed in two colours on white paper
(0.09 mm), white gum, sheet of 4 x 9, the four sheet corner stamps
have two guide angles in theouter corners in yellow and lilac,

23. 3 kop. lilac and yellow


20.75 x 25.5 mm lithographed in one colour on white paper
( 0.08 mm), white gum, sheet of 4 x 12 with two panes of 4 x 6
arranged one above the other and the bottom pane inverted, imperforate.


24. 3 kop. violet


The form of cancellation was done with pen and ink with the date
written across the stamp. Shortly thereafter postmarks were
introduced and three types were in use:

For the main post office in Gadiach a double circle postmark with
PARMlCKA5 3EMCKAH IIOTA in the outer circle and rAqq5b with day,
month and year in the inner circle.

For the other post offices in the district the same postmark but
with the name of the post office instead of Gadiach inscribed in
the centre of the inner circle and withe the date written in, in
pen and ink.

A double circle postmark without reference to any location with
FAgqiqCKAH 3EMCKAH HOITA in the outer circle and with the day,
month and year in a straight line in the centre.

Postmarks withe

Krasna Luki
Lipovaya Dolina

the names of the following post offices are known:

KpacHa RyKH
lHnOBaH XonHHa


Lyutenka JIOTeHKa
Petrovka HeTpOBKa
Rashevka PameBKa
Rusanovka PycaHOBKa
Sary Capu
Sergeyevka CepreeBKa
Velikiye Budishcha BenHKHe By nmia
Veprik BenpHK
Podolki HOrjOKH


^ C3



by Alex Artuchov

Through the continued cooperation of our readers, we are once again
able to report some new information relating to the truncated type
of dot and numeral cancellations, numbered above 847. We are
particularly indebted to Igor' Bagirovich Maslowski of Paris,
France for providing a wealth of new information. With respect to
previously unknown usages (at least in our records), Mr. Maslowski
reports the following to demonstrate that these numerals were
indeed used by active post offices:-

856 936 1013 1081 1113 1140 1272 1335
857 940 1028 1082 1121 1144 1273 1342
880 944 1034 1098 1122 1173 1289 1385
904 951 1036 1100 1124 1185 1306 1393
912 987 1042 1105 1127 1199 1308 1410
929 1000 1063 1110 1136 1227 1314

Mr. Maslowski was also kind enough to advise us of covers,
identifying the location of the following numerals:-

1039 Turek, Piotrk6w Province.
1345 Ekaterininshtadt, Samara Province (later to become
the first capital of the Volga-German Republic under
the new name of Marksshtadt/Marxstadt and this number
is therefore an interesting forerunner).

Igor' Bagirovich also mentions a cover in his collection with No.
1071 struck on it. Although the accompanying two-line marking is
illegible, the label of the sender indicates WILNO. On this basis,
our previously reported identification of 1071 as TOMASZOW in
Piotrk6w Province is questioned. We, of course, cannot profess to
know the answer but can respond by saying that this is not the
only such case we have come across in trying to identify numerals
above 847 and that, furthermore, the truncated triangle type of
dot and numeral cancellations was indeed known in several instances
to have a number switched from one location to another.

From another cover that we have seen No. 899 has been ,
identified as STEKSOVO (CTEKCOBO), in Nizhnii Novgorod .*,*
Province. In the illustration shown here, readers will ,QQ
notice that the name of the location is actually spelt ,*,*,*0 *.*.,
as STEKSOVA (CTEKCOBA). We can only surmise that this 0,*", ,**e*&
is an example of the Russian habit of pronouncing
unaccented o's as a's and carried over into the
postmark. This pronunciation habit is called "aaHbe"
by Russian grammarians. If anyone of our readers is
able to locate an actual STEKSOVA, then we would be EI{B>
very obliged. We would also ask readers to note the 16
old spelling of January, as abbreviated to FEHB.,
instead of 5HB. The style of the datestamp actually
goes back to the pre-philatelic period and thus
continued in use for at least 14 years after 1858, which would not
have been surprising in such a small and out-of-the-way office.

The other new information we have to report is significant
enough to warrant a separate article, which follows immediately
and we are indebted to Dr. R. Casey for sharing this new
discovery with our readers.

We have compiled to date a list based on information contained in
our own collections and from data supplied from readers, indicating
that 197 truncated triangle types numbered above 847 were actually
in use. Of this total, 66 places have been matched with numerals,
some admittedly with doubt attached. The distribution of known
numerals would also seem to be such that numbers between 848 and
1300 were either completely allocated to active post offices, or
that unused numbers within that stretch were only minor gaps. From
1300 to about 1420, there is also some consistency of known usage,
albeit with proportionately less known usage than for the preceding
group. Beyong 1500, there are only two numbers known to us, the
higher being 1663. If we were to venture another guess, we would
postulate that, of the earlier numbers, the allocation to places
in the Kingdom of Poland was done by way of a major block from
approximately 990 and terminating at about 1210.

There is no doubt that considerably more information is available
in existing collections. We must accordingly again encourage our
readers to come forward with new data.




i 60% DISCOUNT 60%




a O=lIalA Il lG


a || | | | || | || | ||||| || ||| | || || | | i| |


by Dr. Raymond Casey.

..... .

-; 1
,-.: -, *3

Fig. 1 33


The three items described herewith may be conveniently dealt with
together, since they throw light on different aspects of a single
topic, namely postal communications between Persia and the Russian


Fig. 1 on the previous page illustrates a folded letter addressed
in Russian and French to Tiflis, with the message in Greek and
dateline Tauris (Tabriz) 31 August 1867. A 10-kop. Russian stamp of
the 1864-1865 issue (S.G. 15, Scott 8) has been affixed in the
lower right corner and tied to the letter by a dots "truncated
triangle" cancellation with centre numeral "870". On the reverse,
there is a boxed TAVRIS/19 AVG: 1867 marking, measuring 42.5 mm. by
16.5 mm., an MS accountancy mark "6/5" and an impression of a
straight-line handstamp, reading in two lines: IZ DZHUL'FY OTPRAV./
24 AVGUSTA 1867 GOD (Despatched from Dzhulfa, 24 August 1867). An
MS notation, also in Greek, indicates that the letter was received
in Tiflis on 8 September.

Allowing for the differences in the Old Style (Julian) and New
Style (Gregorian) calendars then in concurrent use, we may construct
the following timetable:-

Date of despatch from Tabriz :31 August 1867 NS = 19 August 1867 OS.
Date of despatch from Dzhul'fa: 5 Sept. 1867 NS = 24 August 1867 OS.
Date of receipt in Tiflis : 8 Sept. 1867 NS = 27 August 1867 OS.

The letter was datestamped by the Russian post office on the day of
writing; it took 5 days for transit through Dzhul'fa and another 3
days to reach its destination in Tiflis.

Conisdering the geographic proximity of Russia and the extent of its
economic and political penetration, the establishment of a Russian
postal organisation in Persia from the earliest times seems
probable. Yet, substantiating evidence is remarkably thin. Although
aware that early authors had reported the existence of Russian post
offices in Teheran and Tabriz in the 19th. century, Tchilinghirian
& Stephen ("Russia Used Abroad", p.205) were unable to find a single
item to support this idea. If such offices had existed, they were
assumed to have closed before the turn of the century and not to
have reopened until the period of the Persian Constitutional Crisis
of 1908/1909.

It was not until 1968 that the first definite clue regarding the
19th. century Russian Posts in Persia was given by discovery of a
cover from Tabriz to Versailles by Igor'Maslowski (Liphschutz &
Maslowski, BJRP No. 43, p.23). This cover bears an 8 kop. 1875
issue, cancelled by a DZHUL'FA circular date-stamp of 4.VII.1877; on
the reverse is an incomplete boxed TAVRIS postmark of the type
recorded above. It was uncertain whether the latter was applied by
the Russian post office or by a forwarding agent.

The present item is important, because it not only confirms the
existence of a Russian Postal service in Persia in the 19th.
century, but also shows that such an organisation predated the
inauguration of the Persians' own postal administration in 1870.
Furthermore, it links with Tabriz the hitherto unlocated dots
postmark of "870".

Concerning the date of issue of the "triangles of dots"
cancellers, Tchilinghirian and Stephen (op. cit., p.99) state that
the Imperial postal administration had delivered eleven such
cancellers to the ROPiT for distribution to its agencies in the
Aegean, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports in December 1862. They
quote Bochmann as the source of the information that another batch,
bearing numbers up to "827", followed early in 1863. This fits in
with the issue of No. 870 in the mid-1860s.

The date of issue of this canceller does not, of course, enable us
to determine the date of opening of the Tabriz office. Instead of
the normal circular date stamp issued by the Imperial postal
administration to the ROPiT offices, the Tabriz office employed a
tablet form of date stamp of pre-adhesive style. This suggests the
possibility that the Tabriz office was operating in the 1850s, or

Other mysteries still surround the functioning of the Tabriz
office. Why was the Maslowski cover of 1877 taken to Dzhul'fa for
cancelling ? Does the dots canceller No. 870 on the 1867 letter
indeed belong to Tabriz or was this, too, applied at Dzhul'fa ? At
first sight, there seems grounds for this idea; the ink of the
boxed Tabriz date stamp on the latter letter has a brownish tinge
and leaves a spreading stain on the paper, whereas the dots
postmark is in normal black ink, as is the linear Dzhul'fa handstamp.
Against this idea must be set the fact that frontier posts, into
which category Dzhul'fa certainly falls, were issued with dots
cancellers in oval shape and not in the form of truncated triangles.
Number 870 is therefore regarded as belonging properly to Tabriz.
Bearing in mind the delay in reaching Dzhul'fa (5 days), it is
likely that the postal service from Tabriz was less than daily. One
can speculate that letters were datestamped on arrival at the post
office, though the stamps were not cancelled until the mail was
ready for despatch. That is to say that date stamp and canceller
may have been applied at different times and/or at different desks.

My collection contains two examples of the No. 870 cancellation on
loose copies of the 10-kop. (S.G. 15, 15b; Scott 8) and Eric Peel
has another. It cannot therefore be described as a rare mark and it
seems that a fair volume of mail must have emanated from the
Russian office in Tabriz in the late 1860s. The rarity of covers is
probably due in part to the practice of stamp collectors and
dealers of soaking off the stamps.


Figure 2 overleaf illustrates the reverse of a viewcard of Taganrog,
used to send Easter greetings to a nun in the Community of St.George
in St. Petersburg. The 3-kop. stamp, issue of 1909-12 (S.G.94;Sc.75),
is cancelled with a clear circular date stamp GUMBET-KABUZ PERSID.
VLAD. (Gumbad-i-Kabuz, Persian Possessions),a,l.4.14. So far as I am
aware, that is the earliest date recorded for this Russian office,
cancellations of which have been known hitherto only by incomplete
strikes on loose stamps.

The very clear detail shown in the cancellation on this card permits
the drawing given in Fig. 2. This differs from that given in "Russia
Used Abroad" (p.211, fig. 309) by the wider spacing of the bars

Fig. 2

enclosing the date:the lower bar ending at a point below, not above,
the letter 'G' and in line, not above, the full stop after the
terminal letter 'D'. The serial letter 'a' has a long tail and an
exceptionally long snout. Lastly, the fleurons are not asterisks,
but exploded quatrefoils, as depicted in the enlarged drawing in
Fig. 2. These details have been confirmed by the examination of part
strikes on loose stamps in my collection, including one in blue on a
2-roubles Romanov. The use of postage stamps of such high value
suggests that this office handled money transfers and parcels, as
well as ordinary mail.

The authors of "Russia Used Abroad" tells us that Gumbad-i-Kabuz
("The Dome of Kabuz") is situated in a remote area, about 250 miles
north-east of Teheren and 50 miles south of the Russian border,
being described in 1939 as a small oasis. It was suggested that the
Russian post office was opened in this desolate spot to serve the
needs of pilgrims to the shrine of the 10th. century King Kabuz.
Though the fact is perhaps of little significance, it should be
noted that the sender of the card here described was evidently a
Christian and unlikely to have felt the call to a pagan shrine.


Figure 3 on the next page depicts a 3-kop. Russian stationery card,
1909 issue (H & G 21), addressed in Russian to an officer with the
Cossack Brigade of the Russian Mission in Teheran, posted on board
ship in the Caspian Sea, the imprinted stamp being cancelled by red
crayon. The card was put ashore at the Persian port of Enzeli,
where it received a bilingual ENZELI (DEPART) marking in black,
dated 9.IV.14. There is a faint '15' in violet crayon and an

Fig. 3

encircled "T" struck in violet. The Russian message (undated) reads:
"This is a very pleasant journey. The sea is calm....Sh-ov will
come aboard at Ardebil". The tax marking ("T") was applied probably
at Teheran, because the 3-kop. rate was for internal mail only, the
correct postage for a card to Persia at that time being 4 kop.

Up to 1912, the ships plying between Baku and the Persian Caspian
ports do not appear to have used postal markings of their own,
though substantial quantities of mail were carried, Correspondence
dropped into the ships' letter boxes was unloaded at the next port
of call, the stamps being left untouched on some ships and simply
defaced by pencil or pen strokes on some others. Even after the
introduction of the normal oval cancellers for use on mail
conveyed by the "Caucasus and Mercury" Steam Shipping Company, the
principal Caspian line, the practice of defacing the Russian stamps
with indelible pencil did not disappear altogether, though stamps
from Caspian mail defaced in this way seem less numerous than those
with Persian cancellations ("Russian Used Abroad", pp. 215, 224).

Despite the volume handled by Persia-bound Russian ships in this
period, confirmed by the quantities of loose stamps with pencil
cancellations emanating from the Caspian region and beyond, covers
or cards illustrating this primitive mode of cancellation are
remarkably rare. The present item probably owes its survival to the
fact that it is a stationery card without a removable adhesive

It should occasion no surprise that the Persian arrival mark on
this card bears the word DEPART, instead of the expected ARRIVEE,
as both departure and arrival marks seem to have been applied
indiscriminately to incoming mail by the Persian Post Office.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: To help round off the above fine survey by Dr.
Casey, which breaks new ground, we can add some further data on the
Russian Posts in Persia.

Please refer to Fig. 4 for additional strikes of the GUMBED-KABUZ 'a'
postmark on the Romanov issue. The 3-kop. value, with date 13.8.15,
was originally in the Kurt Adler Collection, while the two copies of
the 15-kop., with dates 13.7.15 and 1.8.15 and serial letter off the
stamps (it is presumably the 'a' canceller), were featured in a
recent George Alevizos auction.

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

We can also push back the date of operation of the Russian Mission,
referred to in Dr. Casey's last item to Teheran, to at least the year
1909. Please see Fig. 5 for a cover found by your editor in the late
1950s, with the flap bearing a printed indication in Russian, reading:
* Russian IMPERIAL / Mission / in Persia. The cover bears on the front
a 7-kop. Arms type, cancelled Baku 1.6.09 and it is addressed to Valk
in the Liflyand province, where it was received on 7th. June (both
dates Old Style).

It would seem therefore that mail originating from this Mission was
sent in a special bag direct from Teheran to Baku, possibly together
with the money to pay the postage. The necessary stamps would then
have been affixed and cancelled at the Baku post office and the mail
then forwarded to the various destinations.


This corner will be a
regular feature in
tribute to the many S
thousands of Ukrainian
immigrants who, by their
hard work, have enriched 1
their country of adoption, '
namely Canada. As most of
them came from the western
provinces of the Ukraine, we .
will be featuring items from
Bukovina, Carpatho-Ukraine & Galicia.


by Andrew Cronin

A series of articles, beginning with the present study, will
henceforth be published in this section and will cover the postal
history and stamps of the Carpatho-Ukraine, the most beautiful
province of the Ukraine and deservedly popular as an area for
internal tourism in the USSR. Under Hungarian rule for almost one
* thousand years until 1919, the local inhabitants preserved their
Ukrainian traditions and language by a simple expediency:
illiteracy. By refusing over the centuries to attend the schools set
up by the Hungarian administration, they never became Magyarised

as did the Austrian, Jewish and Roumanian settlers coming into
the area.

Due to the long association with the Hungarians, some Magyar words
were naturally incorporated into the local Ukrainian dialects; e.g.
yarash = footpath or sidewalk, nad' = big, etc. Mind you, the
traffic was not all one way and an interesting Ph.D. thesis could
be written about the Slav and/or specifically Ukrainian influences
on the Hungarian language. Some examples: kulcs = key, from the
Slav klyuch; asztal (pronounced ostol) = table, from the Slav stol
and szekrEny = box, from the Ukrainian skryn'ka.

The pre-stamp period extended to 1st. June 1850, when the first
postage stamps of the Austrian Empire appeared. The languages used
in correspondence during that epoch included Latin, German,
Hungarian and a relatively pure form of Literary Russian, but with
distinctive traces of the writers' Ukrainian origin. Much of the
mail then sent was ecclesiastical and therefore official; it thus
enjoyed the free franking privilege and fell into the same
category as the "Kirchspielbriefe" (parish letters) sent by the
German-speaking clergy in the Baltic provinces of the Russian
Empire. Because of this right of free mail, the letters remained
stampless when the adhesive period began and this article records
some examples for a few years after 1850, as there was a carry-over
of the pre-adhesive postal markings.

The material examined in this article is drawn from the collections
of Dr. Walter J. Rauch of the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr. Bela
Simady of Hungary, Mr. Lauson H. Stone of the U.S.A. and also of
the present author. In short, true international cooperation, for
which many grateful thanks. We will first consider the earliest
examples of mail before the introduction of postal markings and all
from the magnificent collection formed by Dr. Walter J. Rauch :-

The first example is a military exemption written in Latin and
dating from the period of the Great Turkish Wars. It was sent by the
Austrian Emperor Leopold I (1640-1705) in Vienna on 9 June 1692 to
* the Hungarian nobles of the Bereg Comitat (County) and waiving their
contribution to the reconstruction of the reconquered city of
Grosswardein (=Nagyvarad, now Oradea Mare in Roumania). The Carpatho-
Ukraine under Hungarian rule was composedlof the counties of Bereg
(an obvious Slav name, meaning "shore"), about half of the Maramaros
county, Ugocsa and practically all of the Ung county.
I ~ -. -

/ims ,/;ersfjhl~Ms, ac c'//'zaaz i 6 ^e,?/.
.* ,e,( .
WZ5 1 0G/~mmi
Zr v z-~m~tn

'1-1-- .~. ,- i 'L-L- 1" ^'^ *^' .. '; i i.L

C= JZ4,w. e"x rcm-y-az Zyn'.^T^-
_.xa e ,fma e& nj, A-1e ;/mo, C^ t O; ^^

.'/ nma~ h'077

VTTJ^T~m ~nn .
"""" %'(?^yto

4? A~

An 'ex officio' (official)letter, dated 30 Sept. 1739,from the
Palatine of Hungary Janos Gr6f Palffy (1663-1751), sent from Pozsony
(=Pressburg, now Bratislava in Czechoslovakia) via Cassovia
(=Kaschau or Kassa, now Kosice in Czechoslovakia) to the Prelates
and Nobility of the Bereg Comitat in the Carpatho-Ukraine. In Latin.

The third item, shown at right, is
a patent of nobility, written in
French and sent from Ungvar,
capital of the Ung county,in 1788.
It is addressed in French to the
Viscount Imre Horvath Stanschitz,
Councilor of His Imperial and
Royal Apostolic Majesty, in the
town of Leutschau (now Levo6a in
Czechoslovakia). The figure "4" at
* bottom centre probably refers to
the rate paid, i.e. 4 krajczar or

4 t
* -
*v ... r
'*./ **

ge- /, i re'f 64 e

A church letter, -. I. T i
written in Latin G "* ) (, Gta .m j
and sent in 1814 dL .. y 3 [ (
to the Abbot of n (a
Ungvar, capital (I C/. .C'./ n
of the Ung M a~u O.e nmA -,atJa
county. His name 0. Qm .
was Mihaly
Bradacz. eJQJJ'- // '"/.
6. / 4

--, -_).. ,. ...

Another church .
letter, also in -
Latin and sent .
'ex V4cse' (now o.L
Veca in Slovakia)
in 1814 to the <-"^
same abbot Mihaly .s-- a.7

We will now pass on to the postal markings used in the pre-stamp
and stampless periods. The classification is based on the study
of Hungarian pre-stamp markings, compiled by Bela Terffi and
kindly supplied by Dr. Bela Simady of Hungary. The listing is
alphabetical and the Slav equivalents are added as a guide,
being given in Czech,'Ruthenian'(language permitted by Hungary
from 1939 to 1944), Russian and Ukrainian, in that order wherever
possible. Some statistical information has been taken from the
work:"Reisehandbuch durch das Konigreich Ungarn", by Adolf
Schmidl, Vol. 2, Vienna, 1835, Verlag von Carl Gerold, and added
as a guide to the relative scarcity of the markings.
ALSO-VERECZKE, in the Bereg county (Nizni Verecky; HHKHI BEPEjbKI)

Straight-line type,
used from 1843 to
1847 and shown here
on a letter from the
Deacon of Als6verecke
to the Archdeacon
Ivan Churhovych in
Ungvar. Endorsed "in
strict officiosis"
(strictly by virtue
of his office). Dr.
Bela Simady Colln.
42 Struck in black.


67 d/ ~ .

/ 7 ::, -
< /~z '~iac i^ ccc' /-7 /7 /

Cre V~b~,


Double-circle type
with fleuron at bottom;
day & month indicated.
No examples seen by
Terffi,but apparently
introduced in 1847. The
letter here from the
Dr. Simady colln. and
sent to the same Ivan
is the Hungarian equiv.
of 'ex officio' (by
virtue of his office).
Struck in black.

Another example of the
double-circle type, but
now from the stampless
period (Lauson H.Stone
Colln.).Sent on 9 Jan.
1854 to Munkacs, where
it arrived the same day.
The wax seal reads:K.K.
Szweites Ruth. Bezirks-
Commissariat in Beregh.
Written in Hungarian,
the abbreviation 'Hvbol'
stands for 'Hivatalbol'
(hivatal = office, b61
= from). The notation
'3 kr.' may refer to
the rate that normally
would have been charged
for civilian mail.

2,'V ?at'M 3 ~ ~ v*~-

.- / 1- .


BEREGSZASZ, capital of the Bereg county (Berehovo; BEPEFOBO; BEPEFOBE)
"Szasz" is the Hungarian word for "Saxon"; the town was originally
founded by settlers from Saxony. It had 3009 inhabitants in 1835.
(a) The first marking is in German, reading
'from BEREGSZAZ' (incorrect spelling of the
place-name).Applied during 1838-1839 and FS/.A
none of us has examples of this type.
Struck in black.

(b) Somewhat similar, but with larger
letters and properly spelt for that
* period as BEREGHSZASZ. Struck in black or
red from 1839 to 1843. Also rare and none
of us has examples.


LyV &nc~ ~is/~'-2."
C-- 411.,:]~-/i

6 -L~

g- /- fa

/ &


m ?

cp7 )


Town-name only in
this third type
and again misspelt
in black and used
from 1840 to 1847.
Dr. Bela Simady
Collection. Sent
to Bishop Vasyl
Popovych (typical
Ukrainian name!)
at Ungvar.



The double-circle
type was introduced
in 1847, but we
have seen it only
in the stampless
period, sent on 5th
May 1853 to MunkAcs
(Lauson H. Stone
Collection) .Note
the 'ex offo'
abbreviation at
bottom left.

E~I~ a~Y4Zd ,, A 41ff..itr-/z
(erc --


I .

2Lc c~'~ *';d~/~3

Af~~: $2 ?d 1%


HUSZT,in Maramaros
county. Population
of 2712 in 1835.

type used in
black from 1839
to 1846.Note the
weight "2 L." =
25.6 .or 0.9 oz.
Sent 24.7.1839 to
Pest. A.Cronin Colln.

*e -*/c"i
fni t:


r ----4= __

IUL~-(~d~?l~*C*CII)L~IL _.~~~.~ ~1~19-~-~PL~LPI

-- -


.- -, "Sj

".~ 4


~c~~ : '4,

.:; -
i -5
l~t~d~ki9~iL1 -;,

Another example in
the Dr.Simady Colln
again addressed to
SBishop Vasyl
Popovych at Ungvar,
with note "In
strict offosis" at
bottom left and wt.
notation "lL" at
bottom centre. Sent
by the Deacon at
Dolha (Dovhe).


The double-circle
type was struck in
black or green as
from 1847. The
example here is
another item to
Bishop Popovych.
Dr. Bela Simady

Jts_, eeP-s J49 r ":t;

Sa, i # M

- -( A jA ,

, )

MUNKACS, in Bereg county. Population in 1835: 3223. The place-
name then spelt MUNKATS (Mukacevo; MYKATEBO; MYKAqEBE).


This type used in
black and red 1818 ..-* .
to 1827. None of., .
us has strikes and
it is rare. --

(b ) MU X KA..T S 7 ..*/. .,

Used in black and .
red 1823 to 1848.
Also rare and item
* here is official
letter sent March
1843 from Royal
Military Fortress ,
to Vienna. Dr. W.. .
Rauch Collection. 45

4 Tl, T
L/ O( o

.. /3 P 7./
a44 0&% 'zto7
3^^ 9




------------------------ .-.J


The third type was
struck in black or
red 1832 to 1839.
The item herewith
is another letter
'in strict
offosis' to Arch-
Deacon Ivan
Churhovych in
A. Cronin

This fourth type
was applied only
in black 1834 to
1847. The example
here was sent by
the Deacon at
Munkdcs to
Bishop Vasyl
Popovych in
Ungvar and again
bears the note
'In strict
offosis' at
bottom left.
Dr.Be la Simdy

The double-circle
mark was applied
from 1849 in
black, but seen
by us so far only
as transit pmk.
See Beregszasz
and Ungvar.

The final item
shown here at
right was sent on
4 May 1849 from
Hungarian Rebel
Govt. at Debrecen
to Munkacs Fort,
asking for sulphur
to make gunpowder!
Dr. Walter J.Rauch

JV.J ^

!~r :. e. ,i, -

9-. / i- '. 'C6 4' I

- -" A -;
- *~. t~.t-^ ( cx- #

aJ'df aA,'' ^ .-' ^. -- d ^

/" :
-- --Q-*-* b. /(-4 A < AA/ -e .. .
'^-~s (7 <^ ^^*^-"- ^ c- ^^^t^ -"

y^~ i~ ~ C/^ ^ -\-.:lpvAT^

^..__/^^x^^^ ^/ ^^--^*^^

.^w.c~ 0~lerp~h 3: / 0 P

CP^jcce LJt^^e^ o^^ C^ t^^c^^f.ht


tk, -*



NAGYSZOLLOS, capital of Ugocsa county (Sevljus;
Population of 2052 CEBiJIOIb; CEBJIIOI0; HA)b-CEBREBUIb;


Applied in black .
from 1826 to 1848. f ;- -M -
The letter here was /'
sent by the Deacon
nearby at Magyar- I c
komjat and again &~ c2<
addressed to ,7. '
Bishop Vasyl. o. a-- >
Popovych in Ungvar.
Endorsed "In
strict offosis". /
Dr. Bela Simady

(b) \

The double-circle .
type was applied c/ 2< / "
from 1848 in black.

sent from Magyar- /. .
komj t through the "
Nagysz6ll6s P.O. to 0L zp< +
Bishop Vasyl
Popovych in Ungvar.
Dr. B6la Simady

POLENA, in Bereg county (Polana u Svalavy; rIOJIHA).


A rare single-line
type, unlisted by //PO
T6rffi. Struck on j.
a letter sent by/
the Deacon nearby
at Szolyva, again.
to Popovych in
Ungvar. Note the
wt. designation
2 3/4 L. at ,%i
bottom centre.
Dr. Bela Simady ,
Collection. / ,^' ^ 7 (^-r


The double-circle ,,
type was struck in Q) j o ,,o
black, probably from : ,
1847. The item here / .
again to Bishop 4/
It originated in u' u 0 lCa ,'
Szolyva and has wt.
indication 1 L. at /
bottom centre. Dr. t /
B4la SimAdy Colln.
SZEREDNYE, in the Ung county. The place-name is of obvious Slav
origin and means "middle" (Seredne; CEPERHOE; CEPEAHE).
(a) SZE9 YE)

This ornamental type
was struck in black
from 1830 to 1843. ',, '-1
It is rare and none I :
of us has an example
(b) n

The double-circle
type was applied in .
black from 1846. The
stampless item here
was sent on 31 Dec.
1855 to Munkacs.
Lauson H. Stone ." .7 .'
Collection. .- *',- ...- .

TECSO, in Maramaros county. The place-name was spelt TETSO in the
pre-stamp period. There are Roumanians in the district, who call
the town TEIUS. It had a population of 1351 in 1835 (Tacovo; THYOBO;
THMEBb; T5qOBE). ,

(a) a ~(/o
Applied in black
from 1839 to 1848.
The example here
was sent to Bishop
Popovych in Ungvar.
Dr. B6la Simady


Sla}* ^^ ,U^ A a ^

he~ So^ M6 tet /:/w>>0s, C6.
JVVM~v ii tufK iisj


TISZAUJLAK, in Ugocsa county. It had 1434 inhabitants in 1835
(Vylok; BbJOIOK; BblMOK; BHJOK).


The first type,
struck in black in
1838 and not yet
found by us. Rare. -.ii


Second type, also
in black, 1839 to
1847. Not yet seen
by any of us.Rare.

(c) f ^

Third type, applied
in black from 1848.
This item from
Fancsika ( DAHqHKOBO)
nearby and sent to
Bishop Popovych in
Ungvar. Dr. Bela
SimAdy Collection.

UNGVAR, capital of Ung county,
with 6224 inhabitants in 1835
(Uzhorod; YKrOPO5b; Y)KrOPO)).


The first type,
struck in black or
red 1815 to 1847.
The item here has
rate mark "4" (kr.?)
and sent to Nagy-
mihaly (Michalovce
in Slovakia) '
A. Cronin Colln.

(b ) I .

Second, framed, '
type, applied in
black, green or red
1820 to 1842. Item
here in black, sent
24.2.1820 via Tokay
& Nyiregyhaza to
A. Cronin Colln.

~3~ II
'K4 :r

1' a

8L~;p t

__ _

(c) UNGVAR. lpi
type applied in
red 1843 to
1845.It is rare
The item here
sent in 1843 to
Eperjes (Presov
in Slovakia).
Dr. Walter J.
Rauch Colln.



type struck in
black or green
from 1847. The
item here is an
official letter
in Russian from
Ungvar to Dorog
Cathedral. Note
wt."l 3/4(L)"at
bottom and also
Russian equiv.
of 'ex officio'
'iz chinovstva'.
Dr.Bela Simady


Another example
of double-circle
type, also in
Russian and sent
from Ungvar 25.3.51,
via Munkacs 25.3.51
& Nyiregyhaza 27/3
to the Cathedral at
Nagykall6. Note the
wt. "L 3/4" at bottom
and Russian
official designation.
These last two letters
were both written in
Russian by clerks who
showed their Ukrainian
origin, especially
when using the dative
case. The Russian text
of this last letter is
shown on the next page
to illustrate the point.
Lauson H. Stone

S/2 ". 7 "

c-/- .Z .. ^. .. & 2- -AO c .... ..

e- 0 /C

.. st e# .'. 7-2-ae, ~ ^ 'a' J. i,: .

A l- -i --V / il 7

Letter in Russian, appCa rently dated 10th. March 1851 OLD STYLE, as
S the despatch postmark is dated 25th. March NEW.STYLE. The writer
referred to originating city as UNGOGRAD, which was a Slav
version for the Hungarian name of UNGVAR. The letter was signed by
Bishop Vasilii (Vasyl Popovych ?) and is interesting for its
linquistic style.
Bisho*^*^ ^^g^^g-- (Vc^^^, Pooyc )an s7.'esigfo
*igisi ^ ./ -
^iy0^^^^^^^^ <^% ^y<^^ .


by Barry Hong

The largest and most complex watermark used philatelically by the
USSR is probably unknown to most collectors because it is found
on postal stationery envelopes. The watermark on the first issue
of Soviet envelopes in 1927 is described in the Higgins & Gage
Catalogue of Postal Stationery, 1969 Edition, as "C.C.C.P. and in
native languages with stars". Since I had not seen this watermark
illustrated, I went to work with a light table and a number of
envelopes. I could only use the flap and part of the front of the
envelope, because I was not ready to sacrifice one by opening it
up. The resulting
S- watermark shown at
(C-l 0 left is both
CLn C*-D attractive and
MCM complex. The scale
Only begins to
.C O give an indication
of the size of the
LJ W watermark.

The first step is
to list the
4L languages in the
watermark. The
L Coc word "postage" is
iD. \S C written in each of
r< LL4 1 the six languages
rN LWUOO -7- listed in the
in o 7'7table below. The
--L- ^:basic unit is a
\Tj fan shape, with
*0- the word inside
d* p the top and
Diamonds at each
end. Below this in
H 2 3 2 the fan is a five-
INCHES pointed star, with
four arcs on each
side of it. The fans overlap horizontally at the diamond and rows
are added vertically with a half-fan shift horizontally.









The pattern of languages is next. If we start at the initials
'C.C.C.P.' and move along a row to the right, we find the
following order:

C.C.C.P.; Russian; Ukrainian; Azerbaijani; Georgian; Armenian;
Esperanto; Russian; Ukrainian; Azerbaijani;Georgian & Armenian.

Thus, we have a twelve-word cycle, with Russian, Ukrainian,
Azerbaijani, Georgian and Armenian repeated every sixth word and
C.C.C.P. & Esperanto repeated every welfth word. To build the
rows in succession, move upwards and diagonally to the right to
the next row. Now shift the cycle seven fans to the right.
Repeat this procedure to build the watermark. A row is repeated
identically eight rows above it. Hence, the minimum
reproduceable block is eight rows of twelve fans, for an overall
size of approximately 89 x 14 cm. (35 x 5.5 inches).

by James Mazepa.

The postal history of the Kingdom of Poland is intimately
connected with that of Imperial Russia, but it forms a distinct
study for Polish and Russian students of the development of the
Post in this area. One of the more interesting aspects of this
study is that the use of the first issue of Russia (Scott 1-4) in
the Kingdom of Poland. They are, in fact, the first "Polish"
stamps, if one considers solely the territory of the "Congress
Kingdom" (Austrian and Prussian stamps were introduced on
ethnographic Polish territories in 1850). There has been to date
no systematic gathering of data on the usage of the first issue
of Russia in the Kingdom of Poland. The recent book by Miroslaw
Bojanowicz and the monograph by W. Rachmanow offer preliminary
information, but neither suggests any kind of in-depth study of
this area. I propose to document here the recorded usages of this
issue in the Kingdom of Poland, as gathered from the major
philatelic works which study this period and from auction
catalogues that describe or illustrate such examples, as well as
those in my own and other collections. I would first like to address
the issue of the earliest known date and to report two previously
unrecorded usages.


... ...' .^-

,. ; .' ,, I" .

~ I~_ _I

Russian stamps were to be officially placed on sale on 1st. January
1858, which was 12th. Jan. by the Polish (Western) calendar. Late
December use has been recorded in Russia, however. To date, I can
find no information as to the earliest use in Poland. I have in my
collection a letter, with the adhesive tied by pen crosses and
showing the red date-stamp of Warsaw in Cyrillic and figures 11/1
(11 Jan. 1858). Internal evidence indicates that the letter was
written on 21st. Jan. (Polish), or 9th. Jan. (Russian). It was thus
posted two days after it was written. This use is earlier by
several days of any other examples I have seen(see bottom of p.53).


A7 I- ./'L

^^ 7^1

r__._r;l^..Ijfv--^ -.--^ ^ ^\- -i.;j~U.---~---.-~; ~ -

K i
P' f
\i -r- -*
/ **
'. ^ Tl
V t ,

Numeral cancellers were
to be used beginning
15/27 March 1858, but a
few earlier usages have
been noted. I have
found two numerals that
have not been previously
recorded in any of the
literature I have seen.
The first is that of
Biala on a loose stamp.
The second is that of
No. 195 on a folded
letter to Warsaw, shown
here. The letter also
has the red cds of Warta
with a manuscript date
of 14 May. The Warsaw
backstamp indicates that
it was received the next
day at 9 o'clock in the
morning. The letter is
interesting because the
numeral has been struck
so hard so as to imprint
and tie the stamp with
ridges from the circles
of the canceller to the
letter. This also
resulted in the numeral
being rather smudgy.

1. Covers with pen crosses and town postmarks alongside

Plecka Dqbrowa

Ruda Guzowska

Warsaw-17 mm. date-stamp in Polish.
Warsaw-19 mm. date-stamp in Cyrillic.


___ ~111

t ---~----c---- '


2. Town postmarks loose and on cover

* Nieszawa
Ruda Guzowska



-red cds (cover).
-bilingual (cover).
-red straight line (cover).
-red bilingual (cover).
-black cds.
-red cds.
-red cds on pair.
-red bilingual with pen crosses.
-black bilingual (cover).
-red bilingual.
-red bilingual.
-red cds.
-17 mm. cds in Polish with pen crosses (loose
and cover).
-19 mm. cds in Cyrillic with pen crosses (loose
and cover).
-red cds with pen crosses (cover).
-blue cds with manuscript date (cover).

3. Numeral cancellers loose and on cover

1 Warsaw + pen crosses
loose and on cover.
1 Warsaw loose and on cover.
1 Warsaw reused on cover.
6 Kaluszyn
6 Kaluszyn + str.line town mark (cover)
27 Szaki
28 Suwalki
31 Lodzieje
50 Ostr6w (in red).
55 Biala
58 Koden
61 Miedzyrzec + pen crosses
68 Garwolin
70 Sokol6w
70 Sokol6w (pair).
70 Sokol6w (strip of three on cover).


Sterdyn I.~A-.-J -
Lublin I
Hrubiesz6w (cover).
Chomeciska (cover).
Granica (cover).
Warta (cover).
Zdunska Wola

RUSSIA No. 2 (10-kop. perf.).

1 Warsaw + pen crosses(loose & cover).
1 Warsaw loose and on cover.
1 Warsaw Cyrillic in red + pen crosses.
1 Warsaw + red No. 52 (Nur) reused.
70 Sokol6w
73 Lublin
108 Sandomierz
111 Lag6w
130 Wodzislaw

RUSSIA No. 3 (20-kop. perf.):

1 Warsaw with pen crosses
1 Warsaw
70 Sokolow loose and on cover.



Opoczno (in red).
Granica (cover)
Osieciny in blue
over No. 176 Dabrowa.

Koszyce red + pen crosses
Koszyce in red.

RUSSIA No. 4 (30-kop. perf.):

119 Koszyce in red with pen crosses; 119 Koszyce in red.
162 Radomsk
BW Bydgoszcz-Warszawa Railway Terminal (late use; after 1865).

This checklist does not presume to be in any way complete. That is
especially true of Russia No. 2 (10-kop. perf.), which usually does
not merit a separate listing in the auction catalogues. Additions
to this list would be greatly appreciated and correspondence with
the author would be welcomed at P.O. Box 1217, Oak Park, Illinois,
U S.A., 60304.


by Rev. Leonard Tann.

Were the Romanov Jubilee stamps of 1913 placed on sale in Finnish
post offices ? That is a question which has vexed many collectors of
Russian/Finnish stamps of the period and, at the moment, only
opinions are available. I do not imagine that I shall solve the
riddle, but at least set out clearly for the benefit of "Yamshchik"
readers the pros and cons of both sides of the argument.

I wish, at the very outset, to express my appreciation to Herr Bo
Isacsson of Tidaholm, Sweden, for a very stimulating series of
correspondence and, though our opinions are still sharply divided,
we have both gained by the exchange. My thanks also to Dr. Norman
Franklin of West Germany for details in correspondence and also to
Mr. Jeffrey Stone of Aberdeen. Mr. Ron Knighton of Derbyshire has
helped by expressing his opinion and providing some information
tabulated on.

Bo Isacsson is convinced heart and soul that the Romanov stamps were
not placed on sale at Finnish post offices. He. relies upon the solid
evidence of Finnish Postmaster General Jamalainen expressed clearly
in writing, these documents now being in the Finnish postal
archives. Formidable evidence indeed I quote here the translation
of the documents by Bo Isacsson, with no variation of the English,
in spite of the fact that it is somewhat stilted. I do not wish to
change any meaning intended:-

Postal Document No. 17,048. This letter has a large cross over it
and therefore there is doubt as to whether it was sent. It contains
a description of Romanov stamps and postal stationery.

Postal Document No. 17,049, dated 17th. January 1913. This is an
order for Romanov stamps and stationery: "100,000 copies of each
type of stamp, postcard and stamped envelopes".

Postal Document No. 17,324, dated 14th. February 1913: "...At the
same time I will respectfully inform that here placed main supply
not yet received those postage stamps which were ordered in the
letter No. 17,048 dated 17th. January last of new type in Russian
values. (Signed) P.J." (P. Jamalainen).

The Russian Ministry of Posts apparently sent out requests for the

return of unsold bulk stocks of the Romanov Jubilee stamps some
time in October. It was originally intended to allow the stamps
to be on sale until the principal Jubilee celebrations in June
and to allow supplies in post offices to be used up and then to
withdraw stocks held by central postal depots. It was later
decided to extend the use of the stamps until all supplies were
exhausted. The outbreak of war in 1914 saw reissues of what now
became a patriotic series. But at the time, early October 1913,
this lay in the future.

Postmaster-General Jamalainen replied, as follows.
Postal Document No. 18,963, dated 22nd. October 1913.
"To the Director of the Main Board of Posts and Telegraphs.
Because of the Ministry's telegram letter No. 3354 (presumably
requesting return of unsold stocks of Jubilee stamps in Helsinki
central postal depot LT) dated 8th. October, I have the honour
to inform that, when no such portrait stamps have been sent here,
it is impossible for me to fulfil the directives given in said
letter. Yet to in same way fulfil the public wish to be able to
buy these portrait stamps also at Finnish post offices as long as
the stamps are in use, I humbly ask you if possible here to send
off the aforementioned stamps:-
from 1 rouble to highest value, 10,000 copies of each sort.
of the lower values, 100,000 copies of eac sort, except for
10 kopeks and 2 kopeks, 200,000 of each sort.
(signed) P. Jamalainen".

There is no doubt then, as shown by three letters, that Romanov
stamps were ordered. None were apparently supplied and the
request to return unsold stocks could not be met because there
were none. Further, the reply to that order was to ask for some
Julbille stamps to be used in the last period of validity,
though that period was extended subsequently.

It is important to make quite clear beyond doubt that all
supplies to Finland from the Imperial State Printing Office were
made direct to the Helsinki Central Post Office, in which
Postmaster-General Jamalainen had his office, and from there
alone supplies were sent to Finnish post offices. Mr. Jamalainen
thus had control of the supplies. It is extremely unlikely that
stocks would have been there and he had not known It is clear
that he had asked for the Jubilee stamps and they were not
supplied, at any rate, prior to October 1913.

Herr Isacsson does not follow through with any further quotes.
It is possible that a supply was made in October-November 1913,
in response to Mr. Jamalainen's final request. What Bo does add,
which is of great interest, is how the notices of validity were
made public: circulars were sent to postal officers, with
specimens of the stamps affixed, thus establishing that these
stamps were valid and were to be sold. No such circulars were
around concerning the Romanov stamps. Thus, he concludes, they
were not sold over the counter. He points out that stamps of
values or types not hitherto notified might be refused by postal
officers, if they had not had prior official notification.

Bo adds that, in 1925 and again in 1938, there were sales to the
philatelic market of the huge remainders of Russian stamps left

after independence and the demonitisation of Russian stamps in March
1918. In the lists published of these sales, there were NO ROMANOVS,
remainders were so massive that all types sold in Finland should
have been present. Since not one Jubilee stamp was there, he
concludes that it adds powerfully to the view which is his
conclusion: Romanov Jubilee stamps were never on sale at Finnish
post offices.

Bo closes his views with mention of contemporary German philatelic
magazines. Originally, validity of the Jubilee stamps was to end on
31st. December 1913. This was lifted, so that validity continued.
Kopek values only of the Jubilee series were to remain on sale
until stocks were exhausted, "probably during July 1914". One
assumes that Bo concludes that, since the stamps had not been
issued to Finland by October 1913, it was not worth issuing
remainders for a short period.

When challenged as to how he explained Romanov stamps used in
Finland, he stated that these were carried over the frontier by
Russians holidaying or visiting or on business. All Russian stamps
were valid if carried over the frontier and such use does not imply
sale at a Finnish post office. Having put one side of the story, and
it is certainly powerful in view of Postmaster-General Jamalainen's
letters, it is only fair to present the other side.

I start off thus: the widespread use of the Romanov Jubilee series
in Finland, not merely in the few centres of dense population,
suggests that the stamps must have been on sale. Most people who are
philatelically minded carry around a few postage stamps to save
themselves the bother of queueing at post offices, or having to find
change for slot machines. One can assume that Russian visitors to
Finland, and it was a popular holiday resort for many of them, did
carry a few stamps with them. But can that account for the
widespread and frequent use ? One would expect copies used at
Helsingfors/Helsinki, Fredrikshamn and Viborg/Viipuri (because the
latter was just over the frontier from Russia), or even at Ule&borg/
Oulu. But when you find copies used at more out-of-the-way places,as
well as in small villages, it is stretching too far the idea that
they were carried thither by holiday-makers or travellers !

The list tabulated by past experts, and added to by myself and
others who sent me information, was published in my handbook on the
Romanov issue: "The Imperial Romanovs", p. 82, yet even that list is
incomplete. Jeff. Stone wrote to me (3rd. Nov. 1981), giving details
of a 3-kop. Romanov on cover with a trilingual postmark of Naantali
17-VI-14. He also gives details of a 14-kop. Romanov dated 1914, but
used in Finland, whereas Bo suggested that 14-kop. stamps were not
supplied at all.

Since Bo has sought to establish beyond doubt that Romanovs were not
supplied to Finland, I wrote to two or three collectors and asked
them to list for me their Romanovs used in Finland, both before and
after October 1913, as there was a chance the Jubilee stamps were
supplied following the October request of Mr. Jamalainen. I list
here the details which, I think, illustrate clearly the point I
make: the extensive and widespread use indicates that they were not
all carried over the frontier.

Romanov value

Date & pmk.



Collection Jeffrey Stone, Aberdeen, U.K.

Kuokkala 8-VIII-13.


1 kop.

1 kop.
3 kop.

4 kop.
(after Oct. 1913)
7 kop.

3 kop.
3 kop.

Hfors-SPB Rlwy
Helsinki 29-IX-13
Hfors-SPB Rlwy
Helsinki -1

Hfors-SPB Rlwy
Naantali 17-VI-14

loose stamp

loose stamp
loose stamp

4 loose stamp

loose stamp


Collection Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

20k. envelope
+ 10-kop.

Terijoki l-VIII-13
& Terijoki Regn.

Collection P.J. Campbell, Pierrefonds, Canada.

1 kop. Hfors-SPB Postiljon loose stamps
(two part strikes)
4 kop. Uleaborg-Oulu loose stamp
4 kop. Uleaborg-Oulu loose stamp
(after Oct. 1913) ..-VI-14.
7 kop. Helsingfors-Helsinki on piece
(after Oct. 1913) 27-VI-16
Note that we thus have proof of Romanovs used in UleAborg before
October 1913.

Collection R.P. Knighton, Derbyshire, U.K.

3 kop. + 1 kop.
7 kop.
10 kop.

After October 19]
3 kop.
7 kop.+ pair
7-kop. Arms.
7 kop.
3 kop.
7 kop.+3k.Arms.
3 kop.
4 kop. + 2 kop.
4 kop.+10k.Arms.
7 kop.
* 10/7 kop. x 3
3 kop.+20 pennia
20/14 kop.

Helsinki 20-V-13
Helsinki 4-IV-13
Uusikirkko asema
Vuoksi 5-VII-14
Mikkeli 22-VI-14

Oulu 27-IV-14
Tammisaari 6-VII-14
Helsinki 16-V-15
Lapeenranta 21-VII-16
Kellomaki 9-II-16
Tolo 29-V-16
Hutola 16-VI-16
Helsinki 15-1-17
Helsinki 3-XII-16
Oulu asema (station).

3-k. card


loose stamp


U. K.

U. K.
New York

3 kop.





Collection Rev. L.L. Tann, Cheshire, U.K.

3 kop.+4-kop.Rom. Helsinki 21-IV-14 3-kop.envelope within Finland
1,2,3 & 4-kop. Helsinki 29-IV-13 on piece
2,3(pair),4 + Viipuri 24-VI-13 cover front Berlin
3 + 1 kop.adhesiveKellomgki20-VI-13 3-kop. card Germany
2 kop. pair Helsinki ......13 loose stamps

From a purely mercenary point of view, while the loose stamps used
in Finland are desirable, the covers are delightful, the star items
Mr. Knighton's strip of the 10k./7k. 1916 surcharge, the 20k./14k.
used at Oulu/Ule&borg station and Jeff. Stone's 3-kop. with KPXP
railway postmark, illustrated in "The Post-Rider", No. 9 on p.68.
Mr. Cronin's 20-kop. postal stationery envelope with added 10-kop.
Romanov is a double star item.

But back to our study.! We have listed here the items held by five
collectors; surely only a fragment of the material held in many
collections. Nine of the items are covers, cards or loose stamps
used before or during October 1913, but before supplies could have
been sent from St. Petersburg. I grant, of course, that the Viipuri
and Terijoki items could easily have been carried the frontier, but
the Helsinki usages were much less likely.

Sven Fagerholm of Dalsvik, Finland did a detailed study in 1969 of
Russian stamps, covers and postal stationery used in Finland. Out of
62,916 stamps and 1123 pieces of stationery examined, 3958 stamps or
6.29% and 102 stationery items or 9.08% were Romanov issues. Since
Jeff. Stone has managed to acquire three or four items, franked with
Romanovs, from a source behind the Iron Curtain, that Fagerholm
could not have known of, the statistics could only have applied to
the material before him. Granted, though, that it was an enormous
quantity and no one individual is ever likely to be able to repeat
such a study.

Phillip Marsden of the Scandinavia Philatelic Society, to whom I am
also deeply indebted, published an award-winning article in "The
Scandinavian Contact" magazine of September 1978. It consisted of
estimates of the numbers of Romanov stamps and associated issues
sold in Finland. Just to mention his final estimated sales, I select
four critical values of the series, namely 2 k., 3 k., 7 k. & 10 k.,
as these were the values most used.

2 kop.: estimated sales of 1,269,000. 7 kop......1,632,000 copies.
3 kop.: 1,045,000. 10 kop...... 231,000 copies.

He adds that, even if these figures are reduced by 90%, the numbers
sold would still have been collosal. And I would add that the
numbers would still be too collosal to believe that they were
carried over the frontier by holiday makers But estimates and
logic are not enough to counter our friend Bo Isacsson's solid
proof of the letters from Postmaster-General Jamalainen. What can
we offer, besides obvious evidence of widespread use on a large
scale ?

I offer this, and it was a chance comment, an aside really, in one
of Bo's letters and confirmed to me by the Information Department
of the Finnish Embassy. We have always assumed the hostility of the

Finns in general to the Romanov rulers, because both Tsars
Alexander III and Nicholas II rode roughshod over the Finnish
Constitution and infringed blatantly on the freedoms and
liberties enjoyed by the Finns. It has been assumed generally, and
I am as guilty as others in this respect, that the population in
the main avoided using the Romanov stamps. Hence, their relative
scarcity with Finnish postmarks.

That may not be the entire truth. The Romanovs were not all that
popular in Russia at the time either, yet the stamps were widely
used and, for that matter, widely acclaimed. Philately is not
chained to politics. Stamp dealers and collectors rushed to buy
the Romanov Jubilee stamps and Postmaster-General Jamalainen's
comment in his October letter gives us a clue that there may
have been some philatelic demand for them in Finland, for he says:
"yet to in some way fulfil the public wish to be able to buy these
portrait stamps also at Finnish post offices..".

In Finland in 1913, as in many countries then as now, stamps were
sold not only at post offices, but also at newsagent shops and
tobacconists. It is so in many countries in Europe and I found it
so in Italy and Spain. When buying postcards, stamps can be bought
as well. Postmaster-General Jamalainen may have been right that
the post offices did not have Romanov stamps for sale, but is it
possible that quantities of Romanovs had been brought over the
border by stamp dealers or philatelically motivated people to be
sold via newsagents and tobacconists ? If Postmaster-General
Jamalainen said that his central postal depot had no Romanov
stamps and that none were sold at post offices, we must assume he
knew it to be so. But, faced with widespread and extensive use, we
cannot believe either that these were copies carried over the
frontier by holiday makers or businessmen who "happened to have
the odd stamp or two on then" But that does not exclude dealers
or philatelists bringing in quantities and I suggest that this is
what took place. So few items of postal stationery are known used
in Finland that we must agree these were carried over the frontier
or, knowing that they were valid, perhaps in correspondence to be
used for a reply.

I am putting the suggestion forward in one or more Finnish
philatelic journals that the Romanov Jubilee stamps were available
from newsagents and tobacconists, in the hope that older citizens
there may have some knowledge or recollection to bear upon the
point. While Bo must admit to their widespread use, I am forced to
affirm that they cannot have been on sale prior to October 1913 at
post offices. But, let us spare a moment to consider what happened
after October 1913. Were Jubilee stamps supplied officially then ?
Bo leaves the point open by writing: The Romanovs were reissued in
mid-1914. Perhaps they were sold in Finland from that date ? This
is unknown...". Indeed, it is possible that the plaintive letter
of Postmaster-General Jamalainen in October 1913 brought some
supplies. The entire series is known with Finnish cancellations,
even the 5 r. value. Copies of the latter are undoubtedly rare and
should command premiums on a par with other Russian Used Abroads.

The list of items tabulated above from the collections of only
five philatelists indicates more items used after October 1913
than before. Now, that may be purely the caprices of what was

available to be bought and collected. But it just may reflect
greater availability after Mr. Jamalainen's letter of October 1913.
I would very tentatively suggest that supplies were made, both
because usage seems (I stress seems) to be more thereafter, and for
the following reason. In 1912, the Romanov Jubilee series moved
from colour trials to specimen stamps. These were in the adopted
designs and accepted colours in imperforate blocks, with OBPA3EIL
perforated across the blocks. The collection of proofs and essays
included a set, really a short set, with surcharges in Finnish
currency. These were similar to the surcharges adopted and issued
for the Jubilee stamps used in the Ottoman Empire, i.e. the Russian
Posts in Turkey. For Finland, they consisted of a central figure of
value and, on either side, the word PEN. for pennia in Cyrillic and
Latin and similarly MAR. for markkaa.

Though not adopted for Finland, it indicates at the very outset the
intention to include Finnish post offices in the issue of the
Jubilee series. Since the stamps were issued throughout
metropolitan Russia, from Poland to Siberia, together with all post
offices abroad, including those in China, Manchuria and Mongolia,
also to the post offices dotted all over Turkey, to ships plying
various maritime routes: the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, Vladivostok
to Shanghai and Japan; it would seem terribly odd not to have
included Finland and the proof of the Finnish surcharges seems to
suggest that Finland was to be included.

Mr. Jamalainen's letters of January and February 1913 imply that a
burocratic muddle in St. Petersburg (nothing terribly unusual) had
left Finland without Romanov stamps By October 1913, the telegram
from St. Petersburg requesting the return of unused stocks likewise
indicates they thought that Finland had the stamps. Mr.Jamalainen's
apologetic reply and request for some to "fulfil the public wish to
buy these portrait stamps.." suggests to me that there was a flurry
in St. Petersburg and some supplies were sent off double quick :
Hence, more use after October 1913.

Finally, if one considers the position of the Russian Monarchy at
the time, we see it stabilising after the terrific shock of the
1905 Revolution. Indeed, the Jubilee, its celebrations and stamps
were all part of the establishment's desire to reestablish the
Monarchy firmly, to present to the loyal peasantry and people its
glory and centrality to Russian life and that was most firmly
cherished by the Tsar himself. Dynasty-conscious Nicholas II,
believing devoutly in his divine right and God-given autocracy, was
involved in the preparation of the stamps and in the pageants and
celebrations of the Jubilee. To omit Finland from it all would have
been contrary to his nature. The officials knew his wishes and, as
Grand Duke of Finland, that must have included his Finnish subjects.
Mr. Jamalainen's letter of October 1913 must have horrified them
And the officials must have hastened to correct the matter.

Perhaps we might pause just to wonder if Romanov stamps had been
exceptionally supplied to the Office of the Regent of Finland and
to Russians working in the Regency. The Russian Administration in
Finland were surely proud of the Tercentenary Jubilee and the Tsar-
Grand Duke they represented. Would they not have wished to use the
celebration stamps ? Could supplies have been made to the Regency,

bypassing the office of Postmaster-General Jamalainen ? Could not
officials in the Regency have brought some quantities in from
S Russia for use by Russian compatriots ?

Thus, to conclude. From January to October 1913, the widespread
use and availability of Romanov stamps in Finland were possibly
from philatelic sources, and/or stamps sold in newsagencies and
tobacconists. From late October 1913, they were available from
central post offices, due to a hasty and late supply from St.
Petersburg. Some copies were carried over the frontier, as were
postal stationery items, but these were relatively few and
haphazard in nature. Undoubtedly, Romanov stamps and covers used
in Finland are of great interest, of value and contributing to a
most absorbing, if still vexed, subject.
Once again, my sincere thanks to Bo, Jeff, Phillip, Norman, Ron,
Patrick and Andrew.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The Rev. L.L. Tann's reasoning is sound and he
may well be on the right track. Just as his article was going to
press, your editor was able to acquire a copy of the booklet by
Sven Fagerholm:'Das fehlende Glied' (The Missing Link), written in
German and published in Helsinki in 1969. This is a fine statistic
study of the Russian issues from 1889 to 1918 used in Finland. He
claims, without producing documentary evidence, that the Romanov
stamps were on sale at the larger Finnish offices and lists 107
different place-names, including those of small villages, found by
him on the cancellations. The break-down in the stamp values is
interesting and given hereunder. The booklet has since been sent
on to the Rev. L.L. Tann for his examination, as the extensive
tables should help him to arrive at further conclusions and set
rarity factors.
Later usages 1916
Romanov stamps supplied in 1913 1915 to 1918 Surcharges

1 k. 1885 25 k. 32 1 kop. 14
2 k. 482 35 k. 12 2 kop. 11
3 k. 269 50 k. 17 3 kop. 10
4 k. 134 70 k. 29
7 k. 275 1 r. 22
10 k. 114 2 r. 2 (:) 10 kop. 49 10/7k. 184
14 k. 54 3 r. 2 (:)
15 k. 106 5 r. 3 (!) 15 kop. 80
20 k. 35 20 kop. 28 20/14k.109





by Robert Taylor

The following groupoing of covers, courtesy of a swap with long-
time close friend and fellow Russian philatelist Sam Robbins of
Los Angeles, makes a very interesting study of a brief period,
late Oct. 1923 to Jan. 1924, of the early Soviet Express Mail
(Speshnaya Pochta) system. All ten covers, many of large size,
are from branches of the All-Russian Cooperative Bank to the
central office in Moscow. These covers all use the Speshnaya
Pochta labels or handstamps as identified by Godfrey M. White in
"The Postage Stamps of the Soviet Republics 1917-1925", Handbook
No. 7, published in London in 1925 and detailed on p. 22 of that
little catalogue. I have seen little other detailed reference to
their use.

The earliest reference toRapid Delivery or Express rates is in
the rate tables published some time ago in "The Soviet Collector",
which shows this class of mail as being effective on 9 Sept. 1922
(White says Oct. 1922). The first stated surcharge for such mail
is identified as 200 r. 1922 currency, with the next rate change
not until 10 Oct. 1923, fixed at 90 gold kopeks. It seems most
unlikely that, if an Express Mail system were indeed in operation
from late.1922, there would not have been a series of rate
increases to keep up with inflation, as there was with all other
classes of mail. It would be most interesting to hear the details
of any express mail covers in readers' hands prior to Oct. 1923,
whether or not they used the Speshnaya Pochta labels and
handstamps with or without other franking and whether the
surcharge for the express service can be identified. It is unclear
both from the Soviet Collector rate tables as well as Karlinskii's
article on the Soviet postal rates whether the 90 gold kopek rate
on top of normally required franking, or a full rate in itself.
Karlinskii's information is conflicting. He says at one point that
such mail was paid for on the basis of registered correspondence
with a surcharge for Special Delivery and he later refer to the 90-
kop. fee as a minimum based on weight. It would appear from the
covers which I have that the 90 gold kopek rate was a full rate
and used for sending of up to at least 65 grammes, which is the
heaviest example I can identify among my covers.

Another fascinating feature of these covers is that only one is
franked with stamps (90 gold kopeks) and all the others indicate
the fee paid in 1923 roubles. Thus, if we accept the 90-kop. rate
as accurate, we can follow the progression of inflation during this
very difficult period by converting the 1923 roubles, as shown on
the covers, back into 90 gold kopeks. With one exception where the
postmaster seems to have erred in his calculations, the progression
of continuing rapid inflation is evident and consistent in this
group of covers. The following are the details of my ten covers:-

1. Oct. 2? 1923, Simferopol' to Moscow. Received Oct. 27 with
express label, perf. 11, red on white and boxed inscription:
"S.S.S.R./SPESHNAYA/POCHTA/N.K.P.T.", a blue boxed Simferopol'
Tavrich. gub. label (similar to a registration label, but without
the R, as per money-order labels, etc.). On the reverse, a
handwritten notation "576 r." which, based on a 90-kop. rate, gives
a conversion rate of 640 on about Oct. 23.

y/c'I6A C I .t 2. Nov.2,1923. Orel
Sto Moscow. Received
So/ n Nov.3, with
S imperf. express
/ .:::' label, red on white,
\., / with boxed"R.S.F.S.R./
SP.T.", handwritten
Weight 35 gr. and
Orel No. 770. On the
s .. reverse, handwritten
S\:- .i' notation "639 r."
*\/I a :' kop. rate, gives a
;'. conversion factor of
7 710 on Nov. 2nd.

3. Nov. 10, 1923. Khar'kov to Moscow. Received on Nov. 12, with
express handstamp in red and boxed "Khar'kov/SPESHNAYA POCHTA/No.
760/TELEG.". On the reverse, a handwritten notation "724 r." which,
based on a 90-kop. rate, gives a conversion rate of 805 on Nov.10th.

4. Nov. 13, 1923. Tashkent Station to Moscow. Received on Nov. 19,
with express handstamp in blue and a boxed "R.S.F.S.R./SPESHNAYA/
POCHTA/N.K.P.T.". Also a Tashkent internal registration handstamp
No. 108. On the reverse, a wax seal of the Tashkent Office of the
All-Russian Cooperative Bank and a handwritten notation "760r.50k."
which, based on a 90-kop. rate, gives a conversion rate of 845 on
Nov. 13th.


* .\ I 7




5. Nov. 17, 1923.
Kozlov, Tambov Gub. to A
Moscow. Received on
Nov. 18, with express
label, perf.1, red
on white with boxed
POCHTA/N.K.P.T." and
Kozlov internal regn.
label No. 360, plus a
single-line handstamp
in violet: "SPESHNAYA
POCHTA". On reverse,
a strip of 9 on 10 k.
(Scott 256),including /.
a gutter pair.

6. Nov. 18,1923.
Simferopol' to Moscow.
Recd. Nov.22; express
label,perf.ll, red on
white,boxed "S.S.S.R./
light blue boxed
label No.400,as per money-
orders etc. On the reverse
a handwritten "1274 r." &
unclear possible wt. note
of 135 gr. If rate is 90k.
we get a conversion rate
of 1415.5, which is way
out of line. Either the
postmaster made an error
or a higher rate was
charged,possibly for the
greater wt., but fee of
1274 r. is not logical.

7. Nov. 19, 1923.
Voronezh to Moscow.Recd.
Nov.21; express label,
perf.ll; red on white
with boxed "R.S.F.S.R./
Single-line violet hand-
about 45mm. in length, as
against Kozlov handstamp
of about 38mm.;handwritten
notations on front appear
to be Voronezh & wt. and
definitely a fee of 882 r.
which, based on 90-kop.
rate,gives conversion
rate of 980 on Nov. 19th.
On reverse,wax seal of
Voronezh Office of All-
Russian Cooperative Bank.

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cwn'ononbp CSawO Id it U T

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ir~m~ua C~a U 0 1( B AHii

r.3 i MUiB .4\

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~cepocc Ockoa Ji0L" 43z~~oDwc
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Bceoc ficoz h6d. *1

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8. Dec. 2, 1923. Tahskent Station to Moscow. Received on Dec. 7th.
The express and registration handstamps similar to those on cover
No. 4. On the reverse there is the wax seal of the Tashkent Branch
of the All-Russian Cooperative Bank and a handwritten notation
"1278 r." which, based on a 90-kop. rate, gives a conversion
value of 1420 on Dec. 2nd.

( 4rAW-< 9. Dec.4, 1923. Baku,Azerbaijan
to Moscow. Received on Dec. 9.
? / /yd7 Express label imperf., black on
ceitno /Ce pink,boxed "Z.S.F.S.R./SPESHNAYA
|4 POCHTA/BAKU gor.etc.No.87", as
1 &- indicated by White for the
:, Transcaucasian SFSR.On reverse,
-- i handwritten 25 gr. and fee
/ CI ,o ,q .identified as 90 k. Interesting
/ '/: .'J.'", I to note that at that time,
----- although Azerbaijan levied the
u', A/. USSR rates,it was still using
if. ^ -4- 1, the stamps of the ZSFSR.

10. Jan. 16, 1924. Novo-Nikolaevsk Rlwy P.O. to Moscow. Received on
Jan. 20th.-Large express handstamp in black, boxed "R.S.F.S.R./
SPESHNAYA POCHTA/N.K.P. i T". Handstamped internal registration
cachet of N-Nikolaevsk Station. Large, boxed handstamp for details
of weight, fee etc., showing weight "Ves'..", fee "Sbor.." and
two other lines, filled in as 65 gr. and 90 k. and what appears to
be the postmaster's signature.

This group of covers clearly shows that, for the time-period
involved, the Speshnaya Pochta labels and handstamps actually
represented a franking value of 90 kop. Karlinskii indicates that
the next rate change for express mail was in Sept. 1924. Does
anyone have evidence that covers after that date, carrying a 70-
kop. franking, also passed through the mails without stamps
and with only the Speshnaya Pochta label or handstamp ? I have a
couple of examples of internal use at the 70-kop. rate, but they
carry stamps to the amount of 70 kop., as well as the Speshnaya
Pochta labels and handstamps. One of these covers uses the
Ukrainian label as identified by White.

This is just a start on what would appear to be a fascinating
subject for further study. I hope that other readers will check
their holdings of Express Mail usage in this early Soviet period
and see what further information can be accumulated.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: To help stimulate further comment on the usages
and varieties of these interesting labels, three additional imperf.
examples are shown hereunder, printed in red on white or creamy

;X -- C C -"
L '"- ,' I


Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some
newly acquired item ?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers

Helmut Weikard, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

The back shown herewith of
an airmail cover sent by a
Mr. Frantisek Sustr, c/o
SRF, Valencia on 9 July 1938
was apparently from a Czech
volunteer on the Republican
side in the Spanish Civil
War. It is plastered with
various charity labels,
three of them with Soviet
themes (Moscow-Volga Canal
& Sculpture Pair at 1937
Paris Exhibition). Does
anybody know anything about
these latter labels?? The
front of the cover has a
range of Spanish Republican
stamps for the franking.

rP i 14n. ..... ....c


;~"": / --MORK

*X 4

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Your editor has ten of these items, all of 10-
centimos value, as illustrated on the next page and line-perforated
11. They were apparently in Barcelona in 1937 by the photogravure
process, using a very fine screen as the reproduced designs are
sharply defined. The designs are as follow:-

(a) in blue (vertical format)
Maksim Gor'kii.
Sculpture Pair at the Paris Exhibition.

(b) in brown
Sailor of the USSR (vertical format).
The Four Winterers at the (North) Pole. From left to right:
E.T. Krenkel (Hero of the S.U.); I.D. Papanin (Twice Hero of
the S.U.); E.K. F8dorov and P.P. Shirshov (horizontal format).

(c) in carmine
The City Soviet of Sverdlovsk (horizontal format).
The Moscow-Volga Canal and Soviet Leaders (horizontal format).
Soviet mother and child (vertical format).

alaIIlS. lS. 193.7 l 1937 aal. 1937 a IaIIllSS.1937 ;l II.SS. 193

-is, I ..r',

... .. w ........ --- ... ... -

'I "OMENAT E.A.A '" 3 '.II ,. LAU,

,..d) in. v e i

and-H'ill Castilian. All

Sovi eti Uno.' In ad ition, all im theslaels bearp toifalargei

_.__ _-r. a '",__._[I"

Holidays in the USSR (horizontal format).
President M.I. Kalinin broadcasting (horizontal format).
Soldiers of the Red Army (vertical format).
The labels are all inscribed in Catalan, the language spoken in
Andorra and Catalonia and midway in development between French
and Castilian (the official language of Spain and all Latin
America, except Brazil). The inscription at top reads :"HOMAGE TO
THE USSR 1937" and at bottom left :"AUS" = Association of the
Soviet Union. In addition, all these labels bear part of a large
cachet in carmine, handstamped on the backs and reading:-
Corts Catalanes 654,pral Telefon 12984
No. 654 Catalonian Parliament, main floor-Telephone 12984

(the main floor in Spain is the North American second floor ). 69

The same ten designs were all redone in brown and overprinted "DE
EUZKADI" in red, as shown on the second copy of the North Pole
Explorers label illustrated on the previous page. EUZKADI is the
Basque word for their native parts and the overprinted set was
obviously meant for circulation in the Basque provinces of Spain.
There is no cachet applied to the backs of the stamps.

The AUS (La Asociaci6n de la Uni6n Sovietica) also had a series
inscribed in Castilian for the rest of Spain. This time, they
were smaller in size, line-perforated 11 and apparently done by
photogravure with a fine screen in Madrid. Also of 10 centimos
each in value, your editor has found only three designs so far,
as follow:-
(a) in blue: Club of the Municipal Workers.
(b) in dark red: Soviet children
(c) in violet: Happy young people.
There is no cachet applied to the backs of the labels. Other
colours and designs must surely exist and further information
would be welcomed. Readers can already see that some of the
designs illustrated on the previous page are most interesting,
especially the one devoted to the intrepid North Pole explorers.

SMSgt. Stephen F. Strother, APO, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A.

Does anyone have any information on the revenue stamps of Tannu
Tuva ? I would like to see an article, please.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The revenue stamps of Tannu Tuva are so rare
that collectors of its postal issues will be pleased to know that
there is no possibility the rare "Posta" surcharges of 1933, now
priced so highly in the catalogues, will ever be forged. Nobody
in the Western World has ever seen a complete set of the revenues
and the only known set, according to our sources, is in mint
condition and perforated OBPA3EL~ (Specimen) in a Moscow
collection. We have not, as yet, been able to obtain a listing of
all the values and associated colours.

The revenues are not the only rare items of Tannu Tuva.
Collectors of its paper money face even greater problems. Of one
series of banknotes, only two or three copies of each value are
in private (Soviet) hands. There was another issue of banknotes
of which NO copies are in private hands; its existence was unknown
until one single set was found in the archives. It had definitely
been in circulation, but all the copies in private Tuvan hands
were destroyed after being exchanged for Soviet rouble banknotes
when Tannu Tuva joined the USSR as an autonomous province of the
RSFSR on 11 October 1944.

Bohdan Pauk, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

I was most interested in the long
S011\ article on the postal history of
-, Northern Bukovina in No. 10 of
/ "The Post-Rider" and I am showing
i) 6~ 21 5A I at left two Roumanian markings of
S\ Cernauyi (Chernivtsi) which,
v / 1 / although not new discoveries, will
-. -.SA help further to determine the
periods of usage.

Moshe Shmuely, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Mail from the First Soviet Administration in Northern Bukovina
1940-1941 is undoubtedly scarce and I am illustrating here three
examples so as to expand our knowledge of the markings and rates.

.This Palestine card was sent
Silill t es from Tel-Aviv 20 Nov.1940 and
0 was received in Chernovitsy
Ss /n' on 7 Jan.1942. The addressee
SI @could not be found, so it was
,*SM ) t returned by the Moscow Dead

M tI r cachet in French: RETOUR /
MOSCOU-rebuts). We see that
Sthe postmark really reads
as originally thought. It has
the serial letter 'a'.

/ This Soviet postcard has the
Correct rate of 2r. 10k. for
Kya.. r t;i p i^ t/ reg. airmail transmission, the
Sold Roumanian & new Soviet 'R'
-"- cachets and serial letter 'g'
je,'e ~ 9..../ ~;. V/. in the CHERNOVITSY POCHTOVAYA
./. i. / ir~,,. KONTORA marking, dated 26 May
"r 1941. It was received in
-Santiago de Chile on 25th.Aug.
I- ........ 1941.
df I t'.xpdeurdi ,, -
C f^-^-tl1^ i af^^^,o--

--~ t7"r./
-'- ...j
,..~. i !Cs9...

....... ...............-.

~~ XPAH~VCO EbK BA~csEpF~rA%'EJ~b1JO~t. ACE
.*K AL. 0' 0 E xH CCE
= .-o -'

In between the above two
usages, we now have a reg.
airmail cover with correct
2r. 30k. rate and the
postmark now bilingual
Russian/Ukrainian, reading
OBL., dated 30 Apr. 1941
and without serial letter.
It is addressed to Tel-
Aviv and censored on

Alex Artuchov, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Through the kindness of Mr. Thomas Waters, we are now able to
present another copy of the 1 ruble Denikin issue, first illustrated
by this writer in No. 5 of this journal. The flaw relates to the
base of the bottom 1 of value and to the smudge effect to the word
PYB. to the left, as illustrated in Fig. 1. In Fig. 2, the normal
and subject 1 are illustrated while Fig. 3 depicts the two known
copies of the flaw, Mr. Waters' copy being on the right.

We consider the two copies to be plate flaws that were the result
of a torn transfer. Mr. Waters' copy shows the flaw as being more
prominent indicating that immediate attention was not given to the
torn transfer and that the flaw became progressively worse. During
the troubled times of the Civil War the correction of a plate flaw
may have indeed been a small priority.

Now that a copy other than the author's has surfaced we can assume
that the flaw is recurring and that it regularly occurs on the
sheet. Anyone with multiples of this stamp is encouraged to examine
their material to see if and if so at what position this flaw occurs.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

John Lloyd FRPSL, Colchester, Essex, England.

Illustrated below are two labels, one in blue with the price of 10
kop. indicated on the back and the same design in red, priced at 20
kop., both of which were on sale at Moscow post offices in aid of
an International Forum of Solidarity (sic) of Youth and Students,
which ran from 16th. to 23rd. Sept. 1964. They obviously had no
franking power, as the one applied to the top left corner of the
cover has been left uncancelled and there was enough postage on it.
A special 6-kop. airmail
.. EHA MAPKH envelope and matching
S10Kon. postmark were also issued
| # for the event. Any further
SHA MAPKH information about the
0EHA MAPo2 H labels would be welcome .
S!20 Kon.

i *"&* ,' <


-. M. A. .-0.
..-/ -


~r~$' .


-.,- \ ..:, ....... .. *. ---r TU.P r tP OPY.M .....
.- )r'~.... ... ..C ? /, ^ -/l A P it o C T H


E \ AOpec omnpaeume.i J o r.( ..

T 7 ............. -77
^iry /,


& 2,THE NORTH-WEST & NORTHERN ARMIES, by Dr.R.J. Ceresa, March
1981. A 52-page book with plates, published by the author from
'Pepys Cottage',13 High St., Cottenham, Cambs. CB4 4SA, England.
In philately, as in life, good is difficult to recognize until the
bad is all identified. This is the key with which Dr. Ceresa
unlocks the forgery-ridden topic of the North-West & Northern
Armies. Through an extensive series of plates that identify a host
of forged overprints, the author enables the collector to be his
own expert and that is the key to collecting Civil War material.
Dr. Ceresa's book is also strong on historical data and postal
history. This is simply the best work ever produced on the subject
by a student very knowledgeable in the field and no collector of
the area should dream of being without it. A. Artuchov.

& 8:THE 10,25,50 & 100-ROUBLE HH SURCHARGES, by the same author.

This is another very difficult field, absolutely full of booby
traps, to the extent that Mr. Souren Serebrakian has always said
the only Armenia stamps he could be sure about were those he
bought in his youth while they were on sale at the Yerevan P.O.
Dr. Ceresa, in his ongoing series about the field, has pretty well
dispelled this nightmare and interested philatelists are strongly
urged to get in tough with him for details on all the parts he has.

1918-1920, by Lubomyr M. Hugel & Wesley Capar. A booklet of 22
large pages, available at US $3.00 postpaid from Mr. Capar at
7156 Floyd Avenue, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A. 22150.

This combined effort is intended as an aid to general collectors
in identifying the overprints and is not overly complicated, since
much of the confusing and difficult material in the field has been
omitted. A brief history, a map of the Ukraine and a special page
of illustrations help to round out the usefulness of this
publication.. The types covered are Kiev I to III, Kharkiv I to
III, Katerynoslav I & II, Poltava I & II, Podilya I,and Odesa I to
VI. Once these details have been grasped, the collector will then
be confident enough to tackle the more difficult material. A
corresponding set of album pages is planned for a later date.

Stempel,Marke,Uberdrucke,Ganzsachen & Teil 2: Postorte,
Katalogisierung und Bewertung (Remarks on the Postal History of
the Carpatho-Ukraine, Part 1: Postmarks, Stamps, Overprints and
Postal Stationery & Part 2: Post offices, catalogue listing and
valuations, etc), by Dr. Walter J. Rauch. The two booklets are
available from Verlag fur den Bund Deutscher Philatelisten e.V.,
Postfach 430, D-4770 SOEST, Federal Republic of Germany postfree
for US $6.00, or equivalent in other currencies.

The first booklet contains 64 pages and 12 photo plates and the
second booklet 36 pages. Dr. Rauch is one of the leading
collectors in the world of the stamps and postal history of this
fascinating and most beautiful province of the Ukraine, as can
also be judged by his contribution to the Ukrainian Corner in this
issue of "The Post-Rider". For those who can read German, with or
without the help of a dictionary, these two booklets are really
invaluable for a comprehensive understanding of the subject and
as an indication of the research that still remains to be done.
Your editor has been collecting the material for just on 30 years
and still found Dr. Rauch's fine study a great help.

Te Journal FundA

All sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable
to A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
Further supplies are available exclusively of the following titles.
* All others have been sold out and are unfortunately irreplaceable.

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L.L. Tann. When we start
getting repeat orders at the new price from the original subscribers,
then we know we are on a winner. All you needed to know about these
humble stamps, but were too humiliated to ask. Richly illustrated
and containing 257 pages. Price postpaid US $20.00.

IDENTIFY YOUR STAMPS, by Ervin J. Felix. A 256-page hardback, with
a lot of highly useful information in many philatelic fields. Of
especial interest to people in our sphere, as the author includes
fine illustrations of Imperial Russian stamps used in the Far East
and guaranteed pre-Shtempelgate Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great writers.Price postpaid US $ 2.50.

State University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian
grammar, many phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual
for"us monolingual slobs", as one of our readers bluntly it. Great
value for the money. Price postpaid US $ 2.50.


THE COLU IT, 7107 R\

Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond. 7
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a centennial concert in November 1982 and a monograph on the
Russian Opera tenor Dmitrii A. Smirnov (1882-1944), who made his
European debut in Diaghilev's 1907 Paris season and his American
debut at the Metropolitan Opera in 1910-1912, his widow would
appreciate hearing from anyone with programmes, personal
reminiscences, documents or other memorabilia.
IRINA McKEEHAN, c/o American Concert Management Extension
Division, P.O. Box 748, Ansonia Station at Lincoln Centre,
New York City, N.Y., U.S.A. 10023.

A FEW original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $2.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US $2.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., USA, 11524.

WANTED: Bogus, phantom & private issues, locals, vignettes,
forgeries, Armies, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Russia 1917-25 etc.
Will trade or exchange Estonian cards/covers against the same of
Latvia, Lithuania, Imperial Russia, Field Post of WWI and WWII.
AUGUST LEPPA, P.O. Box 95, SF-o4401, JArvenpdg, Suomi/Finland.

ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.
G. G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A., 13850.

I HAVE many dot and numeral cancellations on both covers and stamps
available in exchange for the same. Exchange for Zemstvos or South
Russia material would also be considered.
ALEX ARTUCHOV, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

WANTED: Imperial dot cancellations on cover; buy or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for
desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A., 95051.



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