Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 Russian 19th century foreign...
 The CSRP exhibits internationa...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Catholic army huts in Siberia
 A document of the Polish first...
 The "MOCKBA - A" round-up
 An unrecorded postmark on Russia...
 ARA mail & courier service in Russia...
 Further notes on the Jewish autonomous...
 Volga German postal history
 A card from the Belgian army in...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner

Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 8
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00008
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 8
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 1981
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00008 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Russian 19th century foreign mail
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The CSRP exhibits internationally
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Catholic army huts in Siberia
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    A document of the Polish first corps
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The "MOCKBA - A" round-up
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    An unrecorded postmark on Russia No. 1
        Page 40
        Page 41
    ARA mail & courier service in Russia 1921-1923
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Further notes on the Jewish autonomous oblast'
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Volga German postal history
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    A card from the Belgian army in Russia
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Review of literature
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The journal fund
        Page 75
    The collectors' corner
        Page 75
        Page 76
Full Text

Printed in Canada



P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,


MAY, 1981.

L I B R AR Y i1983



Editorial: Knowing what one is doing
Correspondence with Canada
Russian 19th. Century Foreign Mail
The CSRP exhibits internationally
Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
Catholic Army Huts in Siberia
A Document of the Polish First Corps
The "MOCKBA A" Round-up
An Unrecorded Postmark on Russia No. 1
ARA Mail & Courier Service in Russia 1921-1923
Further Notes on the Jewish Autonomous Oblast'
Volga German Postal History
A Card from the Belgian Army in Russia
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
The Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner

A. Steinhart
J.V. Woollam

A. Artuchov
P.J. Campbell
Dr. M. Kamiedski

A. Artuchov
P.B. Spiwak
Dr. H.L. Weinert
A. Cronin
Rev.L.L. Tann

Publisher and Treasurer

Alex. Artuchov
P. J. Campbell
Andrew Cronin

The Society thanks its contributors for helping to make this an
interesting issue. Sincere gratitude is also extended to Maili
Nagel for her assistance in photography.






Some time ago, your Editor received by mail a list of offers of
Russian stamps from a dealer. Among the offerings described was
a copy of the 30 kop. 1858 issue, perf. 12 on wove paper, at a
very reasonable price and "a blue cancellation". His ears pricked up
and he sent in the money promptly. As almost always happens, the
money was returned by the dealer, who regretted that it had
already been sold.

A little while later, another letter came from the same dealer
and enclosing the stamp, which had been returned by the original
buyer as it had a short perforation. However, it bore exactly
what your Editor had originally suspected: a nice blue cancel of
the Russian P.O. at CONSTANTINOPLE, Turkey, dated 12 Apr. 1866.
In short, a "used abroad" and a very nice one at that; the short
perforation was completely immaterial so far as the value of the
stamp was concerned.

As an old-country friend once said ungrammatically: "You have to
use your noodles !" Unfortunately, some philatelists do not.
They collect in a fog and make no attempt to expand their
knowledge. They cannot see the wood for the trees, which is a
great pity as they miss out on a lot of the fun of collecting.

As has been stated before, the basic aim of the Society is to
widen the horizons of its readers and alert them to the endless
possibilities in our spheres of collecting. The more one knows,
the more one recognizes. The more one recognizes, the more
material is salvaged for the greater honour and glory of Russian
philately. The French are right: savoir, c'est pouvoir.

All of which points to the necessity of building up an extensive
philatelic library in one's specialty. Not only to build it up,
but to read and reread it, make notes, keep files and cross-
index them. In that way, the facts are always fresh in one's
mind. That is especially important for people with poor memories
And one must always be prepared to keep on learning. Your Editor
has been learning since 1948 and feels he still has a long way to
go, although he knows several languages and reads voraciously.

Press on, dear children, and victory will be yours I



"Correspcn ne with Canada" is a regular feature A HAAY I,
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xer= copy of the item, along with sate expla-(
natory text to the Editor.

by Allan Steinhart.

The title fits in well with the theme of mail to Canada, but this
time with an unusual twist, as we shall now see. The facet we are
considering this time is British mail to Canada, as affected by
the Crimean War of 1854-1855.

Up to the onset of the war, the British Cunard liners were sailing
weekly from Liverpool, England to the United States, alternatively
to New York and Boston. As some of the Cunard steamers began to be
used as troopships for the war, the Company withdrew its service
to New York City for the entire year of 1855. There remained only
the alternate weekly sailings to Boston, for which the British
packet single rate was 8d. sterling (8 pence British money) or
10d. currency (10 pence Canadian money).

To fill the void, the American Collins Line changed its schedule
to take up the alternate weekly sailing from Liverpool to New York
City and the U. S. packet rate was then applicable: i.e. 1/2
sterling (one shilling and two pence British money) or 1/4
currency (one shilling and four pence Canadian money). The ships
involved were the s.s. "Atlantic", "Baltic" and "Pacific". The
first Collins sailing took place on,18 Dec. 1854 from Liverpool
per the s.s. "Atlantic", to arrive in New York on the last day of
that year. The last sailing from New York City was 26.12.55 per s.s.
"Baltic", with the arrival date in Liverpool being unknown so far.

In effect, what we have here is a penalty rate for mail to or from
Canada sent via New York, brought on by the Crimean War. Let us
now consider a couple of examples.

S The letter in Fig. 1 was sent prepaid by Thomas Glover of London,
England on 24 Aug. 1855 and the stylised manuscript "1/2" is shown
in red-brown ink at top centre. At right centre there is the dated
"PAID" notation in vermilion, while the handstruck "2" in dark


Fig. 1.

red-brown represents the British internal rate of two pence.It
passed through Liverpool the next day (that makes present-day mail
service look pretty bad, doesn't it?), as shown by the hexagonal
marking of the Liverpool Packet Office, struck in green at bottom

Fig. 2.

The letter in Fig. 2 was sent collect by Chance, Son & Co. of
Birmingham on 10 Aug. 1855 per the s.s. "Pacific" and received the
stylised handstruck "1/-" marking (one shilling sterling, i.e.
British money) in grey-black at centre-right. It went through
Liverpool the next day, as seen by the hexagonal mark in red-
brown at bottom left. On arrival, it received the "1/4" mark
(one shilling and four pence currency, i.e. Canadian money),
struck in black at top right.

It is important to remember that we are only considering these
rate markings for the year of 1855. Examples of such mail are
rare and very desirable, especially in the opposite direction,
that is from Canada to the United Kingdom. Perhaps our British
readers will be able to come up with some pieces. Any readers
interested in the subject would do well to consult an excellent
article on this mail, written by Dr. F. G. Stulberg of Toronto
for the magazine "B.N.A. Topics" in 1979. Other useful sources of
information include "The Transatlantic Mail" by Frank Staff and
"Atlantic Mails" by J. C. Arnell.

In general, the study of pre-stamp and stampless mail to and from
Canada is a very rewarding and almost unexplored field. Every
piece is different and, to paraphrase Robson Lowe's description of
one of his auction lots, it is virgin material, pregnant with
possibilities !


by J.V. Woollam

Russian postal history studies have been massive and indeed have set
S pioneering examples to students of the postal history of other
countries. Nonetheless, one gap can be pointed to: the study of 19th.
Century Russian mail to foreign countries. A good reason exists for
this neglect; the lack of material. Pre-UPU (1st July 1875) stamped
Russian foreign mail went overwhelmingly to Western Europe and,
within that area, mostly to the main commercial nations of Britain,
France, Italy, Holland, Germany and Austria. For example, how often
do you see a classic petiod Russian cover to Spain or Portugal or
Norway or even Belgium ? Outside of Western Europe, Russian mailcan
be found frequently to Greece and to Constantinople. For the rest of
the world, it is very scarce to rare. In the case of stamped mail to
the U.S.A., I have acquired only six covers from the period up to
1880, and, of them, only two are pre-UPU, being dated 1872 and 1873.

My use of the phrase "pre-UPU" needs clarification. Russia joined
the UPU as of 1st. July 1875, but that convention still left many
countries as non-members, with consequential postal accounting
problems. Also, a cover from Russia to, say, Hawaii in 1881 would be
pos-UPU in so far as Russia was concerned, but would have to be
studied as an example of mail between member and non-member states,
as Hawaii did not join until Ist. Jan. 1882.

My use of the phrase "stamped covers" needs fuller analysis. I have
read that only from July 1864 were Russian stamps used for foreign
mail (what was the exact date ?), but what happened before then for
abroad that had been stamped ? It was presumably refused or returned.
* Do we know of examples which nonetheless slipped through ? Were the
stamps ignored and collect markings applied ? This date is also
important in explaining the scarcity of material in this field of

study. There were only eleven years during which Russian stamped pre-
UPU mail to foreign countries was in existence, and only another four
years to bring us up to 1879, by which time most countries had
joined the UPU (42 sovereign states and 80 colonial territories).

Russian foreign mail also has to be interpreted in the light of its
place of origin, the development of postal communications, especially
railways, and its date. For example, from the 1890s, Russian mail
from Eastern Siberia, usually Vladivostok to Japan, is frequently
seen. How often is such mail seen from the 1880s ? While mail from
European Russia to Japan in the 1880s is rare, I have seen an example
from Odessa to Tokyo in 1886, sent via Brindisi.

Continuing with the illustration of Siberia, I have a February 1869
cover from Chita to Switzerland, 22 kop. rate. Think of the
travelling conditions in February in Siberia from Chita to Moscow
with no railway system What was the population of Chita in 1869 ?
How many persons there could write and how many of them ever wrote
letters, let alone letters to foreign countries ? Indeed, it is
possible that many of the people in Siberia in the 1860s who wrote
letters to the West were political deportees, such as the Polish
aristocrats who were exiled to Siberia after the 1863 uprising.

Another aspect of this field of study is mail to very unusual
destinations. I have an 1899 cover from St. Petersburg to Muscat in
Arabia. This went via the Russian P.O. in Constantinople and Aden to
Muscat, where it must have been treated as undeliverable. Someone
somewhere has written on it"undecipherable". It then went via Bushire
to the Bombay Dead Letter Office in India for a month before
returning to Muscat.

If readers will write to me at 3 South Hill Grove, Oxton, Birkenhead,
Merseyside, England, with details of covers in the above-mentioned
categories, I will collate this information and provide notes in
this Journal. My cover is illustrated hereunder.



..- ..A -P -


EDITORIAL COMMENT: For those who are curious, the address on the
cover which is given in Russian, reads as follows: To Turkey, to
Arabia, to the town of Muscat, to the Police Authorities of the town
of Muscat. It was treated as underpaid and taxed at 8 gold centimes
then equivalent to 1 3/5 cents in dollar currency and almost one
penny sterling.


Through the kindness of the late Herr Herbert Giese, former
president of the Russia-USSR Study Circle in West Germany, four
CSRP members were invited to exhibit at the BILATERA ESSEN '81
Philatelic Exhibition in West Germany.

This bilateral show of the German Federal Republic and the USSR
took place in Essen from 19th. to 22nd. February 1981, with 700
frames of 12 standard pages each. The exhibition was jointly staged
by the Union of German Philatelists, the Ruhr Society of Stamp
Lovers and the Russia-USSR Study Circle affiliated with the Union
of German Philatelists. The Jury consisted of Herr Ernst August
Alberts of Essen, Herr Harry von Hofmann of Hamburg and Comrade
Marat D. Kabanov of Moscow. The President of the Jury was the noted
Baltic specialist, Herr Harry von Hofmann.

The displays were well up to international standards and the
competition was therefore very stiff. With regard to the exhibits
shown by members of the All-Union Society of Philatelists (VOF of
the USSR), the Russia-USSR Study Circle and its Canadian invitees,
diplomas with the rank of gold, vermeil, silver, silver-bronze or
bronze were awarded to the successful exhibitors and each of the
latter also received an identical souvenir medal; a very democratic
approach. The results were as follow (SP = Special Prize):-


Harry von Hofmann
Harry von Hofmann
Harry von Hofmann
Marat D. Kabanov

Harry von Hofmann

: Estonia, with forerunners.
: Latvian forerunners.
: Imperial Russia.
: Stamps of RSFSR & USSR (SP).

: Lithuanian forerunners.


A. Berngard
M. Blekhman
B. Dedzis
A. Dobin:

G. L. Gevirts
N. Jakimovs

B. A. Kaminskii
Norbert K8nig
D. V. Kuznetsov
Adolf Lindenmaier
A. Linnard
Hans-Jurgen Meyer
Dr. Alfred Orth
Janis Ozolips
V. V. Snegir&v
B. V. Stenshinski
Hans von Renner

Hans von Renner

V. E. Villeruzs

L. M. Avakov
V. Y. Berdichevskii
A. K. Birznieks
Heinrich Imhof
G. N. Malakhov
N. F. Mandrovskii
E. P. Sashenkov
Dr. Werner Schiek
V. B. Voishko
Hans von Renner
B. Yevgrafov

Alex. Artuchov
H. S. Brun
V. I. Butorin
Andrew Cronin
Y. S. Freidlin
O. Freidlina
V. N. Fuhrman
A. D. Gdalin
H. Gottschalk
Hans-Jurgen Lehnert




: Turkestan Postal District.
: Wartime Mutes of WWI (SP)
: Postal History of St.Petersburg
: Zemstvos.
: From Express Messengers to
Space Satellites.
: Imperials & Used Abroads (SP).
: Russia and RSFSR covers.
: From Zemstvos to Soviet Posts.
: Russian Empire
: Estonian Postal History (SP)
: Soviet Airmail History.
: Russian Posts in Mongolia.
: Leningrad Blockade Posts.
: Foreign Policy cf USSR (SP).
: Russia 1765-1879 (SP).
: Postal History of Baltic Provin
: Prephilatelic Mail & Markings
of Baltic Provinces
: The Post In Riga.

: Russia & USSR Ship Mail
: Soviet Latvia (SP)
: Wartime Mutes 1914-1917 (SP).
: V. I. Lenin theme.
: Forest theme (SP).
: Polar Posts.
: Russian Levant and Crete.
: Chess theme
: Imperials used in Baltic to 1918
: RSFSR & USSR 1918-1964.

: Imperial Dot Postmarks.
: Prussia (SP)
: USSR Railway Posts (SP).
: Eessarabian Postal History (SP).
: Smolnyi theme.
: Legends & Stories theme.
: Sport theme (SP).
: Maksim Gor'kii theme.
: Zemstvos.
: Russian & Soviet North Pole.




M. Y. Levin
N. M. Moiseev
Y. K. Myakota
Heinz Otto
V. A. Pantyukhin
Helmut Schroll
Bernhard Schubert
A. R. Spektor
G. Topalov
I. G. Verdysh
N. V. Vislenev
A. M. Volochenko
Hans von Renner

G. G. Bobovskii
Erich Dressler
G. Fetisova
Friedrich LShrich
Y. Mostvilishker
Wolfgang Nietsch
B. Penkin
Paul Schirge
A. Vorob'ev

Patrick J. Campbell
M. Eger
Barry Hong:
Harry Kunimlnch
Erhard Mutz
Herbert Schmitz
Wilhelm Siekmann

Olympic Issues (SP).
Stamp Centenaries.(SP).
Soviet Postal Stationery.
Lenin and his ideas theme.
Soviet Postal Stationery (SP).
Russian stamps 1857-1900.
Russia & Soviet Union.
Medicine theme.
International Bicycle Races.them
Issues of USSR (SP).
Path to Socialism theme.
Geography theme
WWI Baltic Postal History.

RAEM (Call sign of Ernst Krenkel)
Russian Paintings theme.
Time, Distance & Man theme.
Arctic Regions of USSR.
Radio theme.
Encounter with Moscow theme.
1980 Olympic Games (SP).
Stamps of RSFSR & USSR.
Film Art in the USSR theme.

Postmarks of St. Petersburg.
Moscow-capital of the USSR theme.
Soviet Airmails.
Lenin theme.
Handshake of USA & USSR in Space.
Sailing Ships theme.
USSR in Outer Space.

The patron of the exhibition was the Minister for the German
Federal Posts, His Excellency Herr Kurt Gscheidle. Due to the
pressure of other duties, a director of the Ministry, Dr. Ernst
Herrmann, deputised for him at the opening ceremony on 19th. Feb.
Herr Ganther Wrobel, First Chairman of the Ruhr Society of Stamp
Lovers and Coordinator for the exhibition, welcomed the guests,
among whom were Dr. Heinz Jaeger (President of the Union of German
Philatelists), Ing. Friedrich Blecher (Chairman of the UGP
Executive), Herr Horst Katzor (Chief Burgomaster of Essen),
representatives of the local postal service and Ministerial
Councillor Bock of the German Federal Postal Museum. The Soviet
officials present were the ambassador Dr. I. F. Maksimychev, Marat
D. Kabanov of the All-Union Society of Philatelists and P. S.
Doroshenko of the Soviet Ministry of Communications. The CSRP sent
a telegram of greetings, which was read aloud at the ceremony.

The speakers were Dr. Heinz Jaeger, who thanked the City of Essen
and the Ruhr Society of Stamp Lovers for all the facilities that
had been made available; Herr Pitt Piacenza, the First Chairman of
the Russia-USSR Study Circle, who outlined the work of his
organisation; as well as P. S. Doroshenko, who referred to the
philatelic movement in the USSR. After some words of greeting by
the Soviet ambassador, the exhibition was formally opened by Dr.
Ernst Herrmann.



One of the features of this exhibition that really stood out was
the very high standard of collecting achieved by our West German,
Swiss and Austrian colleagues. It should be remembered that the
German influence on Russia goes back for centuries and is reflected,
among other things, in some aspects of Russian grammar. German
colonists had been going to Russia in numbers since the time of
Catherine the Great, while they were always prominent, nay dominant,
in the Baltic provinces because of the Hanseatic ports originally
established there.

The result of all this activity has been that a considerable volume
of mail flowed from the Germans in the Russian Empire back to the
mother country. This has proved to be a rich lode, which the West
German philatelists have mined extensively. The splendid work done
by Herr Heinrich Imhof on the many postal markings of St. Petersburg
is just one example of such capability.

We in the Canadian Society of Russian Philately are pleased to have
built up an excellent relationship with our West German
counterparts. Our especial thanks go posthumously to the late Herr
Herbert Giese, to his successor and First Chairman of the Study
Circle, Herr Pitt Piacenza and the Exhibition Chairman of theStudy
Circle, Ing. Heinz Otto, for their encouragement and unstinting
help in aiding us to display at this important event and returning
the exhibits together with the beautiful medals, diplomas and
souvenir envelopes. For details of some of these items, please see
the illustrations herewith.

So far as our own exhibits were concerned, that of Mr. Cronin was
written up first in German and then in Russian, Mr. Artuchov's in
English and Russian and those of P. J. Campbell and Barry Hong in
English. A return exhibition of the Russians and West Germans has
been scheduled for 1983 at Tiflis in Georgia.

As an example of one facet of the German presence in Russia, our
readers are invited to consult the article on Volga German postal
history, published elsewhere in this issue of our journal.


& We have just received a small supply of the definitive study "DIE &
& Types in St. Petersburg 1766-1914), by Heinrich Imhof of West &
% Germany. %
& &
% This is the last word on the subject and very easy to follow, even %
& for those who do not know German, as the author has laid out an &
% enormous mass of information in systematic tabular form. Saint %
& Petersburg was the largest city in the Russian Empire, but there are &
% hidden rarities in its multitudinous postal markings. Here is your %
& chance to find a real "sleeper" in your collection and also to get &
% much more benefit out of your postal history accumulations. %
& &
% The price of this valuable work is U.S. $6.00 or the equivalent in %
& banknotes of your country, post paid anywhere in the world. &


Bilaterale Briefmarken-Ausstellung
Union der Sozialistischen
Sowjetrepubliken -
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
19. bis 22.2.1981 E

atelisten e.V. Ale A t u.chov
.rb s e ch Ruhr" der o" 722,SIb' A
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S ..Tr.,,,.to O.w.,,'O
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by Alex Artuchov

BELEBEI (Ufa Province)

Aug. 15, 1890
21.3 x 29.3 mm lithographed, white paper, 0.07-.08 mm thick,
white gum, sheet of 9x11, imperforate.

1. 2 kop. red, light or dark 0.75

Circular date stamp, 26 mm, in reddish-brown, Bene6et at top,
3eMcKas InoTa at bottom, date in 3 lines, earliest known date
Jan. 24, 1891.


18 x 24.5 mm, lithographed, white paper, 0.08-.09 mm thick, brownish-
yellow gum, sheet of 10x10, perforated 11.5.

2. 2 kop. blue 0.50

As for previous issue, earliest known date Dec. 2, 1892.

July, 1895
18.25 x 24.75, lithographed in 2 colours, white paper, 0.09-.11 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 10x10, perforated 11.5.

3. 5 kop. indigo blue and rose 1.00

As for previous issues, earliest known date July 5,1895.

Similar to previous issues but different in detail; coat of arms
is smaller, fox with shorter neck, 5 kop. stamp has large corner
numerals, lithographed in one and two colours, white paper, 0.09
mm thick, perforated 11.5 and imperforate; the imperforate stamps
of this and later issues were apparently printed for collectors
and were not used postally.

First Issue February, 1897
18.25 x 24.00 mm white paper,sheet unknown but probably 10xl0,
this stamp exists imperforate vertically.

4. 2 kop. blue 0.50
5. 5 kop. indigo blue and rose 1.00

As for previous issues, in black violet-black or greenish-grey,
earliest date known for:#4 June 6, 1897; #5 May 2, 1897.

Printed in black on coloured paper or in colour on white paper,
0.06 mm thick, sheets of 2x5 with the 2 kop. stamps on the left
and the 5 kop. stamps in the right vertical row, imperforate and
without gum.

2+5 kop. black on green paper
2+5 kop. black on blue-green paper
2+5 kop. black on blue-grey paper
2+5 kop. black on grey paper
2+5 kop. black on yellow paper
2+5 kop. black on yellow-brown paper
2+5 kop. black on olive-green paper
2+5 kop. black on blue paper
2+5 kop. black on light rose paper
2+5 kop. black on dark rose paper
2+5 kop. black on greenish blue paper
2+5 kop. black on dark grey-green paper

2+5 kop. black on salmon coloured paper
2+5 kop. black on olive-brown paper
2+5 kop. black or grey on white paper
2+5 kop. red on rose paper
2+5 kop. light blue on white paper
2+5 kop. ochre-yellow on white paper
2+5 kop. olive-green on white paper

Second Issue Sept. 1902
18 x 24.75 mm white paper, sheet unknown,probably 10x10; this
stamp exists imperforate horizontally.

6. 2 kop. red 15.00
bright red 2.00
7. 5 kop. dull blue and pale rose 1.00

As for previous issues, earliest date known is April 10, 1903 for
#6 and Sept. 10, 1902 for #7. A new cancellation appeared in 1904
oval shaped, 50x32 mm in violet, Bene6eeBcKaq is at top, 3eMcKan
rnolTa is at the bottom, the date is in the middle? the earliest date
known is Feb. 20, 1904.

ll 1.aEKi90

Third Printing July, 1900
16.25 x 21.75 mm (2 kop), 16 x 22.3 mm (5kop), similar to previous
issue but changed in colourand size, lithographed in one or two
colours, white paper, 0.07-.08 mm thick, white gum,sheet unknown,
perforated 11.5 and imperforate: also known perforated horizontally
and through the middle of the stamp.

8. 2 kop. rose red 1.50
9. 5 kop. light blue and light rose 2.00

As for previous issues; earliest known date Dec. 18, 1900

Imperforate with gum.
2+5 kop. black on white paper (0.06 mm thick )
2+5 kop. black on blue-green paper

November 1904
Similar to issue of 1897, shield with beveled corners, lithographed
in two colours, on white paper, 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of
10x6 for 1 kop.; sheet of 10x4 for 2 kop.* 4 types of the 1 kop.
stamp; 2 groups of 4 types of the 2 kop. stamp; perforated 11.5 and

10. 1 kop. red 0.50
11. 2 kop. blue and red 0.75

The Sheet
A sheet discovered by T.Lavrov demonstrates that both values were
printed together on one sheet, the 1 kop. at the top and the 2 kop.
at the bottom. They were cut apart before delivery to the post

A freak sheet found by Mr. Lavrov was evidently printed by a spec-
ulator for collectors. In order to produce the sheetthe plate was
obviously tampered with after all official orders had been executed.
Four of the 1 kop. stamps identified on the accompanying illustration
as A,B,C and D had the corner numerals 1 erased and the 2 kop. stamps
identified as E,F,G and H had the numerals overprinted in blue
making a solid blue corner. These 2 kop. stamps were erroneosly
listed by Schmidt as proofs.

The sheet of this issue contains a number of notable features.There are
three guide lines in the shape of a cross at the top and the sides
of the 1 kop. pane and a fourth guide line at the bottom of the 2 kop.
pane. Small blue angle marks exist between stamps 44, 45, 54 and 55.

The transfer block of both values is 2x2 with 4 types. On the 1 kop.
stamp,the transfer is repeated regularly 15 (5x3) times. On the 2
kop. stamp,the transfer is repeated 10 (2x5) times. It is right side
up five times and inverted five times. As a result, two groups of
types emerge. One with the star at the top instead of at the bottom
of the stamp.

Stamp 51 designated by an asterisk has a damaged numeral 1 in the
NW corner.

1 2

3 4

44 45

54 55


1 2 1 C 1 2 I C 1 2

3 4 T 3 4 T 3 4

1 2 C P C V E 1 2

3 4 Z T z T I T 3 4

1 KOP.
Main Characteristics of the Four Types

T. 1- Break in NW corner circle. T. 2- 2 cross bars in A of SeMcKan.


T.3- NE corner circle poorly

T.4- Kink in SE corner circle


2 KOP.

The Groups of Types
A. Star, at the beginning and end of the inscription at the bottom.
B. Star, at the beginning and end of the inscription at the top.

Main Characteristics of the Four Types

T.1- Small projection from SW
corner circle

T.3- Small projection from
NW corner circle

T.2- Breaks in SE corner circle

T.4- Tiny white spot between
B and star.


1 kop. black on white chalk surfaced paper

Similar to previous issues, changed colours, the 5 kop. stamp is
smaller than in previous issues ( 14.5x20 mm), lithographed, white
paper, 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 10xl0 + 10x10 placed
horizontally with the 2 kop. stamp on the left and the 5 kop.
stamp on the right; perforated 11.5 and imperforate.

12. 2 kop. brown and rose red
13. 5 kop. dull blue and yellow rose
dark blue and rose



a) Without the small star after the word Bene6e2; 8th stamp on the
b) No period before 3aKa3Han; 9th, 84th and 100th stamps on the
c) No period after V k ; 38th stamp on the sheet.
d) With inverted background.

a) Circular date stamp in black and oval in blue as for previous
issues; earliest date known March 1, 1905.
b) New circular date stamp in same size as proceeding one, double
circle with inscriptions Bene6eeBcKaq Y1bsH. 3eMcK. nIoTa, date
in one line in centre; earliest date known Aug. 3, 1908.

Similar to previous issue; 2 kop. stamp smaller in size, changed
colours, lithographed, white paper, 0.07 mm thick, yellowish-white
gum, sheet of 10x10, perforated 11.5 and imperforate.

14. 2 kop. brown and light blue 0.50
15. 5 kop. emerald green and light blue 0.75

2 KOP.
Black and olive green
Olive green and black
Black and red
Red and blue

Printer's Waste
Brown colour only, second colour omitted
Blue colour only, brown colour omitted
Brown and blue centre inverted and shifted

5 KOP.
A. Printed in black on coloured paper (0.06 mm thick), white gum,

Black on green paper
Black on blue-green paper
Black on blue-grey paper
Black on grey paper
Black on yellow paper
Black on yellow-brown paper
Black on olive-green paper
Black on blue paper
Black on light rose paper
Black on dark rose paper
Black on greenish-blue paper
Black on dark grey-green paper
Black on salmon coloured paper
Black on grey-green paper
Black on olive-brown paper
Black on white paper


B. Printed in colour on white paper (0.06 mm thick), white gum,

Light blue
Red and blue

Printer's Waste

Green colour only, blue colour omitted
Blue colour only, green colour omitted
Green and blue, centre inverted and shifted

Circular date stamp of 1905 b type in black; earliest date known
March 15, 1908.


by P.J. Campbell

In "Yamshchik No. 7", Mr. J. Wannerton of South Africa writes
concerning the articles published in our journal about the Canadian
Army's Siberian Expedition during the Civil War in Russia, his
comments relating particularly to the patriotic covers utilised in
Siberia. Two interesting examples are illustrated herewith. The
main interest lies in the use of these envelopes long after the
Canadians had left Siberia, so we can assume that someone had left
behind some examples and that they were used to write to an ex-
member of the Force, affixing current stamps of Russia, of course.

l a On Active Service.

I ',-";- V, '

iBrt t -7: .,A : : .. I g

^ ,.. .,... ,_ i ^ ,. i..... i ./ "" '" *'***' *"*' v ;. !l

(a) A "C.A.H." (Catholic Army Hut) cover showing the Union Jack and
maple leaf, "K. of C. / Canada"(Knights of Columbus) and the words
"CANADIAN SIBERIAN EXPEDITION / On Active Service". The envelope is
registered and bears the label of Valdivostok No. 731. The franking
consists of a block of four of the 1 r. imperforate, cancelled by a
small two-ring (24 & 15mm.) marking with bridge, two stars and code
letter "m" (the English "t") dated 7 May 1920. It was backstamped
in transit at Montreal (2 June) and received in Fredericton, New
Brunswick on 4 June.
I ~ --. ~.-.-.--. -~ -

On Active Service.
nim fj ~ .

W?. ^w^uW /^/
-% /..^^^o^^'

.5 t nLe fr I/ ,,zqz ,

-/ / ^s -fl4 y'&>(

cIc \\
jr 2U}


I V -:t. I
... r, ,,.I', ,
*" '- ^ ': : ""' Y:;
,,*y \ "*Xf' -M- -'..
' ...*' ,"' ., ', .-,, ,.' ; ., .... ,_i >.. L.^j
*r II

3lltU4d* K^9 ^\/M



Llmnr-------- -- ------ -- --- --- ------ -- --- ----- -- -)IIlLYLIIIIC


~LC~"3 ~~''YL'Y


(b) The second example uses a similar envelope, unregistered and
,' ^ ,,A *" .. .. .... J.*.

r d with tw i rrate 1 r. sta wih are c lld y

letter "b", dated 12 May 1920.
from Siberia and dated 29 Jan. 1919. f course, the last contingent
1919, so our two covers, dating from May 1920, are in no sense

',< ,, ,. I* I'

The writer was the same in both case and it was a lady acquaintance
by the name of Shpakovskaya, as can be seen from the back of the
& '-- I' ** *

(b) The second example uses a similar envelope, unregistered and
franked with two imperforate 1 r. stamps, which are cancelled by a
large two-ring (30 and 18mm.) type with bridge, two stars and code
letter "b" dated 12 May 1920.

Both are addressed to a Captain van Wart, who was almost certainly
in Siberia as I have heard that at least one cover was sent by him
from Siberia and dated 29 Jan. 1919. Of course, the last contingent
of the Canadian Force is known to have left Vladivostok on 3 June
1919, so our two covers, dating from May 1920, are in no sense
military covers and certainly not "On Active Service".

The writer was the same in both case and it was a lady acquaintance
by the name of Shpakovskaya, as can be seen from the back of the
first cover. All the stamps are stuck on the backs of the envelopes,
sealing the flaps. There is no sign of a censor's label, although I
should mention that I am working from photostats.

The rates are interesting and were those prevailing at the time in
Vladivostok, which was then under Allied and White control. In a
word, the rate in May 1920 for a surface letter going abroad was
two roubles, with another two roubles applicable for the
registration fee. By way of contrast, the rates in Soviet Russia
between 10 Mar. 1920 and 15 Aug. 1921 for letters local or
foreign were free for the first 15 grammes, then five roubles for
the next 15 grammes and an obligatory charge of five roubles for
the registration fee.

Further comments would be welcomed.


by Dr. Mieczystaw Kamienski
The bilingual Polish-French document reproduced hereunder was
acquired by Dr. Kamien'ski while visiting "LONDON 1980". English
translations of the original Polish text have been inserted to help
our readers to understand the importance of this new find.




4 9I

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Ja,niiej podpisany Eugenjusz SZPRBGLEWSKI,pu1kownik artylerji Wojak
Polskich,Inspekt9r Departamentu III Ministerstwa Spraw Wojskowych,dawniej
Szef Sztaba I-Korpus. Polskiegu na Wschodzie,podwiadczam niniejszem zardw-

nqCau.-tantycznod6 powysej naklejonych 14 /czternastu/ marek pocztowych I Kor-
pusa,ktdre mialyl kurs pooztowy przez czas jego istnienia,jak i pieeqqoi
2 /dwo/;pocztowych i 2 /dwu/ biurowych poczty polowej I Korpusu,jak wresz-,

ci ew.aanorqozno6d padpiam

jej naczelnika.- Wr alistopaa roku 192

I. Szprqglew sk
i' Pulkownik

hWasnorcczny pxdpipA'..3agenjusza Szrqglewokiego, Inspektora Dep.III
i.S.Wojsk. stw i erdzUn .-
Warszawa, -0/ oft

Traduction du polunais.
Je,soussign6'Eugene SZPR;GIEWSKI ,Colonel d'artillerie Polunaise,
Inspecteur au III D6partement du Ministere de la Guerre,ci-devant Chef
d'Etat-Major du I-er Urps d'Armee Polonais a l'3t,certifis par la pr6sen-
te l'autbtnticite des 14 /qaatorze/ timbres-postes da Servica postal du I-er
Corps,collis ci-dossus,ayant eu course durant toute son existence,ainsi que
des 2 /deux/ estempilles postales et des 2 /deux/ estampilles de bureau du
Service postal du I-er Corps et de la Aignature de son chef.-Varsovie,-/
novembre 1922. /-/ Szprqglewski colonel.-L'authenticit6 de la signature du
col.Eugene Szprqglewski,Inspecteur au III Dep.du Min.de la Guerre,est cer-
tifiee.-Varsovie,.~ novembre I922././Lfonkiewicz cpt.Chef du Secr6tariat du

Dep.III Artill.et Armemn./~S c -/- Pour traducion conform:


I, the undersigned Eugenjusz Szpreglewski, Colonel of Artillery
in the Polish Army, Inspector of the 3rd Department in the
Ministry of War, former Chief of Staff of the First Polish Corps
in the East, hereby certify the authenticity of the 14 (fourteen)
postage stamps of the First Corps affixed above and which had
postal circulation throughout its existence, as well as of the 2
(two) postal markings and of the 2 (two) official cachets of the
Field Post of the First Corps and the authenticity of the
signature of its Director.
Warsaw, 21 November 1922. (Signature)
Seal of the Ministry of War.
The authenticity of the signature of Colonel Eugenjusz Szpreglewski
Inspector of the 3rd. Department of the Ministry of War is
certified. (Signature): Monkiewicz, Captain,
Chief of the Secretariat of the 3rd. Dept. of Artillery and
Warsaw, 21 November 1922.

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: ri Zadwiadczonie.

Ja,nitej podpisany Eugenjusz SZPRBGLEWSIKI,pakkownik artylerji Wojsk Pol-
skich,Inspektor Departamentu III Ministerstwa Spraw Wojskowych,dawniej Szef

SSztapba I Korpusu Polskiego na Wschodzie aaawiadczam niniejszem,ze do opla-
*- ty podatku stemplowego na terenie I Korpusu u.ywane byly mark nastgpujiqoe6:

.rosyjska stemplow "rza kop.5,8.rosyjska stemplowa za kop.IO 3.rosyjska stem-
Splowa za kop.15 wszystki.e z czerwonym nadrukiem orta polskiego.Pozatem:
Smarki specjalne na bialym papierze z napisem 'Administracja Terenu Okupa-

*.oyjnego Polakiego Korpusu.Rub. Rub.0plata stemplowa ,na kt6rych wybijana
.byla pieozqtkq cena: E. 0,05 2. 0,10 3. 0,15 4. 0,20 5. 0,50 6. 0,75
7. I 8. 3 9. 5 I0. 6 II. I 12. 18 13. 24 orzelek polaki na ryn-

grafie i okrqgla bez napis6w pieozqt1a kasua3ca.Powydszych IG /szesnadcie/
markk stanowilo komplet marek do opaaty podatku stemplowego na terenie I
Oppata.a dowa pobierana byaa za pomoca marek s~dowych rosyjskich,kaso-
wanyohi seta lem z orlem polskim,np.marki rublowe,3- b e t.d -
Warszaw istopada roku 1922.- Szpregle
,. pSkprQgei ,/

czno6d podpisu plk.kugenjusza Szprqglewskiego,Inspektora Deep.
-I.'I q1X lak.,poiwi.,dczam.-Warszawa/ listopada r.1922.

.Tradluction du polonais.
Oertificat.-Je,sou3sign6,3Zagin SZPRBGL3WSKI,Colonel d'artillerie Polo-
naise,Inspecteur ai III Departement du Ministere de la Guerre,ci-devant
Chef d'Stat-Major lu I-er Corps d'Arm~e Polonais 1l'Est,certifie par le
present que pour ~l perception des droits du timbre sur le terrain du
I-er Corps 6taient en usage les timbres suivants:I.timbre russe de 5 aop.,
2.timbre russe de 10 cop.,3.timbre russe de 15 cop.- tous surcharges de


j~, 1'aigle polonais,marqua6 1'encre rouge.En sus:des timbres sp6ciaux asr

paperir blana aveo -inscription "Administraoja ,Terenu Okupacyjnego Pol-

akiego Korpusu.Rubr Rub.0plata stemplowa" /Administration du terrain

d'Occupation du. Go:.ps Polonais.Roub. Roub.Perception du droit da tim-

bre/,aur lesqaels 'n marquait a l'estampille le prix: I. 0,05, 2. 0,OI

0,15, 4. .0,20.. 5. 0,50, 6. 0,75, 7. I, 8. 3, 9. 5,,'IO. 6, If It.

12. 18, 13 24, a:.nsi qu'un aigle polonais sur hausse-col en oblitrant
1 le timbre d'une os;ampille ronde sans inscriptions.Ces 16 /seize/sp6ci-

me fil tai.ent 'emploay.s pour la perception du droit du timbre sur le ter-

rain du I-er Corps d'Armee.Les droits de justice etaient perpus a moyen

de timbres judiciers russes,oblitereu d'une estampille a 1'aigle polonais,

p.ex.les'timbres'd'un rouble,de 3 roubles etc.-Varsovie,2I novembre 1922.

/-/Szprqglewaki colonel.-L'authenticit6 de la signature du col.Eugene

SzprQglewakiInspecteur au III D6p.du Min.de la Guerre,est certifiee.Var-
; 7 *
sovie,2Ilnovembre 1922./-/ Monkiewioz cpt.Chef du Secr6tariat du D6p.t@tl

SArtill.et Armem. /L.s./Pour traduction conform 2*

I,the undersigned Eugenjusz Szpreglewski,Colonel of the Artillery in
the Polish Army,Inspector in the 3rd.Department of the Ministry of
War,former Chief of Staff of the First Polish Corps in the East,hereby
certify that for the payment of fiscal fees in the area controlled by
the First Corps,the following stamps were in use:(a)Russian fiscal
stamp of 5 k.;(b)Russian fiscal stamp of 10 k.;(c)Russian fiscal stamp
of 15 k.;all with the red overprint of the Polish eagle.Moreover,
special stamps on white paper with the inscription "Administracja
Terenu Okupacyinego Polskiego Korpusu.Rub.-Rub.Optata Stemplowa", upon
which the following values were struck: 0,05;0,10;0,15;0,20;0,50;0,75;
1;3;5;6;12;18;and 24, as well as a Polish eaglet on a neck-piece, the
stamps themselves being cancelled with a circular marking without
inscription. These special 16(sixteen) stamps,constituted the complete
set of stamps for the payment of fiscal fees in the area controlled by
the First Corps.The court fees were collected by means of Russian
court fee stamps, overprinted with the Polish eagle,e.g. on the 1-roub.
stamps. 3 rouble stamps, etc.
Warsaw, 21 November 1922. (Signature): Szpreglewski, Colonel.
(Also certified by Capt. Monkiewicz, as in the previous declaration).




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EDITORIAL COMMENT: In examining the document, the following points
are of interest:-

(a) The handwritten Polish notation at the beginning reads: "For
the Military Prosecutor of the 1st. Polish Corps Sub-Lieutenant

(b) The two circular cachets immediately below are struck in red-
lilac, with the crowned "Piast" eagle of Poland in the centre. The
impression at left is inscribed: "Poczta Polowa przy Sztabie I
Polskiego Korpusu" (Field Post at the Staff of the First Polish
Corps). The one at right reads: "PRZESYL. PIENIEZNA /1/ POCZTA POL.
KOR." (Money Sending -1- Post of the Polish Corps), being intended
as a seal for money sending and insured mail. Between them there
is a three-line cachet,.reading "Field Post of the 1st. Polish
Corps", in black.

(c) Sixteen stamps of the First Polish Corps are then affixed to
the page, including two copies of the 50 k./2 k. value imperf. The
set is not complete, as the following stamps are missing:-

(1) Original Russian surcharge 10 k. / 7 k. blue (the rarest
stamp overprinted by the Poles, as only 700 were issued).
(2) The Polish surcharge "k. 10 k." on the 3-kop. imperf(common)
(3) The Polish surcharge "k. 35 k." on the 3-kop. perf.(scarce).
(4) The Polish surcharge "R. 1 R." on the 3-kop. perf.(scarce).

(d) Two identical strikes in black of a postmarker of the First
Polish Corps, dated 3.5.18 and 21.5.18. This particular type was
applied at Bobruisk, the main town in the area under the control of
the First Polish Corps in what is now Belorussia. Our readers are
referred'to the fine study published by the Polonus Philatelic
Society of Chicago in 1977 and translating the impressive work done
by Tadeusz Grytewski on "The Stamps and Postal Service of the First
Polish Corps in Russia" for further details on the allocation of
the known postmarks. We will content ourselves with just showing
two further types in Figs. 1 & 2 at the end of the illustrations.
Fig. 1 is struck in violet, with the numeral "1" after the
abbreviation "KORP." in the postmark; the letters in general are
much smaller than in the common marking shown on the certificate.
It is believed to have been applied at Mohyl6w (Mogilev). The type
shown in Fig. 2 is similar to the common marking for Bobruisk, but
the letters are smaller and it has been found struck in reddish
violet with a date of 15.5.18. It is a forgery. The registration
marking in Fig. 3 is struck in violet.

The Michel catalogue states that the First Polish Corps under the
command of Lt. General Jozef Dowb6r-Musnicki was subordinate to
the German High Command and was in control of the Bobruisk area
south-east of Minsk. The overprinted stamps were on sale to the
public at Bobruisk, Bykhov, Mogilev, Osipovichi, Rogachev and
Zhlobin. The commonest marking was applied at Bobruisk and the
allocation of the other known types has been partly solved. The
details are given in the work by Tadeusz Gryiewski mentioned above.
The postmark dates known to us range from 24.3.18 to 2.7.18, the
last contingent being demobilised by the German Tenth Army on 8th.
July. The mails were free of charge for the Polish servicemen in
the Corps.

The main interest for us in the certificate centres on the Russian
court fee stamps overprinted in lilac-red with a framed Polish
eagle, as well as the series of imperforate revenue stamps that
were produced locally. All these are also referred to in the
Gryzewski study and they are undoubtedly rare. The revenue set is
most unusual, as it appears to be made up of three components.
The basic design was handstruck in violet from a single rubber
stamp, which was prepared locally by someone not completely
familiar with the Polish language; the stroke through the "1" of
"Oplata" is horizontal, instead of slanting. The kopek numerals
were then added by hand in lilac-red and the rouble ones in violet.
Finally, the control mark showing the crowned Piast eagle "na
ryngrafie" (in a neckpiece, i.e. an ornament that goes back to
mediaeval times, as determined by Dr. Kamienski), was added by
hand in lilac-red. This control mark includes the words "KORPUS /
POLSKI" at the feet of the eagle. These revenue stamps are shown
in actual size on p. 29; the marking of concentric circles with
which they are cancelled in violet is reminiscent of the wartime
mute cancellation for Warsaw, while it was still under Russian

The document concludes with duplicated examples of two of the
Russian postal cards overprinted in typography by the First
Polish Corps. At the bottom left of p. 30, we are also showing a
Russian 10-kop. envelope which was surcharged "35 kop." by the
Poles. This particular example was cancelled on 3 May 1918 at
Bobruisk and was featured in the Robson Lowe Postal History Sale
of 5 Dec. 1980. It purports to have gone through the mails to
Warsaw. However, from information supplied by Dr. Kamieiski, the
20 fen. marking of the post office in Warsaw applied at the top
left of the envelope was only in use in that city for a bare two
days (1st. & 2nd. July 1918). It was withdrawn at the insistence
of the Germans, as it bore the initials "K.P." = Kr6lewstwo
Polskie or Polish Kingdom. While both the postmark and the 20-fen.
marking are genuine, the way the letter is addressed does not
correspond to traditional Polish style and it seems hard to
believe that the envelope actually went through the post (Fig. 4).

The German Tenth Army not only took over from the Poles in
Belorussia, but they also introduced their own postal service
with auxiliary stamps, lasting from August to Dec. 1918. This
latter post was covered by your editor in an article published
in "The London Philatelist" back in 1958 and entitled "The Local
Post of the German Tenth Army (Aug.-Dec. 1918)".



The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this
issue of "The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors
and not necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without
permission, provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent
to the Society.

Public Auctions for the Specialist

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Stamps, Proofs & Essays of Russia, Russian
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I I~L Ir



Since we raised the question of the bona fides of this unusual
cancellation in "The Post-Rider" No. 5, pp. 67-69, two of our
readers, Col. Asdrubal Prado of Campinas, Brazil and Robert
Taylor of California, have come forward with further examples. We
are illustrating them herewith in chronological order with
appropriate notes and including the examples previously recorded
so as to complete the picture.

The internal free franking privilege was abolished on 15 August
1921 and on that date the Soviets also authorised the usage of
control stamps for postage. On 10 Aug. 1921, the first purely
Soviet definitive went on sale in Kharkov, Moscow and Petrograd.
The above cover from the Robert Taylor collection has the complete
set with the "MOCKBA A" cancel dated 19 Aug. 1921. It is
addressed to Vasilii Nikolaevich Lippovets, Trekh Sviditel'skii
Lane, House 5, Flat 2 in Moscow.

F ~, l~ .~~ ~ A similar cover
I but different
.I handwriting, to
Strakhov at 51
Sk _i Kolomenskaya St
Flat 11 in
' ....... i/ -A It Moscow.

/The surcharged
S set appeared in

.I with the date
S.... addressed to
",. Pavel Aleksand-
S' rovich Mozzhukhin
S V.t. at 23 First
Meshchanskaya St
in Moscow.
I collection).

J @ t

"a, elw^ ',

*ee ^ ^ "U

F T ;-- -'"~ Ot J I -- N-

colours, dated
23 Mar.1922 "
and addressed
to Nikolai
Stremov at 86
Nikol' skaya
St. in Moscow.
collection). -

The Industry % .I---
Revival set P WI
appeared in *. .

date 28 Mar.
1922 and
address: Karl
F8rster at -
15 Sadovaya
St., Flat 11
in Moscow.
(Robert no),
Taylor .
collection) ,,.-,

-_______ ,; ,, --,_' .. "r vrl ~~ ,------,-- 1^, "

1 '. ." : v .4 .1 .-'_ o
,*- ..... .. 4'. *. *: -

,.. .,. : ,,,*" '-, : L '/..*
., ,:. -

I '., ,. ," :. .: -! ",
,-.I .-
.'." ; ." ,
'* ...' A- ,... ,-,^fi :% ./ ,

,.T ; ,,, : "
,. ...
r ** '
.. .

'*^ ;'^ 1 **' .' ... o t,: ;*
*'" '"* > '; .j ." .' ;''
.- ... :' '' '.'* .- I
.. ,*: .. .*:. ,Z^ ^ '. ..
^ < ^**^ '- '.^' "* / \ .*

": *,' '"
.t/- '" ; ,-^ *' ....'': .
.^ :r.. -" *'. '' *' !_- '

In Apr.1922,
the Arms types
were sold at 1
million times
face for the
kop.values and
10,000 times
face for the r
values. The
rate abroad in
June '22 was
200,000r. In
this case with
date 18.6.1922
the rate was
are no transit
or arrival

This letter
with date
6/12/1922 had
10.5 million r
proper rate
was 2million.
Backstamped at
Kaunas 11 Dec.
1922, without
.any of the
transit marks
we would

11. X!1.22
~ S,*'.








1 ,


9oi ~L

. / l



-.. ~ t--r---

This cover
with the
first air
stamp has date
14.12.1922 and
"received" at
Kaunas 19 Dec.
No airmail
indications or
transit marks.
Same writing
as before.

;* ..^x.^.,' '*L L:^ ^;^^ --'^' s^" '-
/^h~q ^^ ^*.^^ '*;,t/^ ^^
.&" -............

A" -' oW-
.--. "-'- -u- "-' r ^^^ ''' *J'r -- : "' ".

-. ,.,:.k .. .... ............................ ... ... ..

," .*.. ." ... ( / // .-^. .-,.. /./'i. .. .
... ----- ,- c~- ,., ., .% ; ,.--. r J ",.. ;.

_ *t 4/:.-. ", '. .;- .-'.. ..- ,, ;

..:. ..',' ': -, .4 ," .. ,':- / ,v .*.r- .,-.r-" .'..V.. / .-j,---" .b-.'"i'^ "-
"- ,,>1 % i' ... '' .. .J .,.-^- ,' -. .. .' "_ ,., ^ -I -" .. ." / .' t,, "" f E
-; **". -'.. i; -' *^ ^wt 'tr. -^ '1 ^*-< <^? ,*~'* .*- / ... -.- ^

I. d
46 4

[-7423343 i |





Dr. Frederici



k G. Bean 1500 East 79th St. Bloomington, MN 55420 (612) 854-6548 or 854-1661

RUSSIA 1857-1980

or Buying-Selling

My new 16-page price list of Russian
stamps, mint and used, is available on
request. Over 3,500 items are priced.

If you have Russian material to sell,
write or call with a brief description.

1918-1974 Soviet catalogue: US $15.00
postpaid United States and Canada.


This final item is peculiar. The cover bears the three commoner
values of the "Philately for the Workers" overprints (total
franking value = 7 roubles 1923 currency), with the proper date
of 1 May 1923 but not corresponding to .the normal Moscow
postmarks seen on this issue. The triangular label is a C.O.D.
sticker for the Moscow G.P.O., presumably added to denote
registration. In that case, the rate should have been 13 roubles.
The original address in Berlin has been crossed out and another
added at bottom left. There are no transit or the original Berlin
arrival markings. It would have been an easy matter for anyone in
Berlin to drop it into a local letter box for forwarding to
Berlin SW 11, where it was backstamped on arrival on 7 May 1923.

In conclusion, we can say that this "MOCKBA A" canceller had
moveable dates over a span of three years. The absence of any of
the normal transit or arrival markings (except on the examples to
Kaunas) makes it suspect, to say the least.

Further comments from our readers would be appreciated.


by Alex Artuchov

The first postage stamp of Russia was distributed widely for sale
throughout the Empire, but because of its scarcity and the fact
that quite a few copies were pen-cancelled when utilised, the
number of known postmarks denoting a specific town is not great.

The illustrated letter sheet shows a nice copy of No. 1 with the
single-line cachet of TIRASPOL', which has remained unrecorded up
to now. This is obviously an example of the pre-stamp marking
being carried over into the adhesive period. At the time,
Tiraspol' was a town in the Odessa province. The letter is
addressed to an "Odessa merchant of the First Guild, Nikolai
Il'ich Novikov, in the city of Odessa". No date is in the letter.

The town of Tiraspol' has had an interesting history, going back
many centuries. The name is Greek and means "City on the Tiras"
(Dniester River or Nistrul); it was originally a Greek "apoikia"
or settlement in ancient times. It developed into a Moldavian
village during the Middle Ages and the Russians established a
fortress in 1792.

As a result of the October Revolution and the loss of Bessarabia
to the Roumanians, Tiraspol' found itself within an autonomous
Moldavian republic which was created within the Ukraine in 1921.
Due to its strongly Moldavian-speaking character, it was made
the capital of the Moldavian ASSR from 1929 to 1940. On 30 June
1940, the province of Bessarabia was returned to Russia and
then reorganized along ethnic lines. The Moldavian ASSR and most
of Bessarabia were then united to form a new Moldavian SSR, i.e.
with full Union Republic status and with the city of Kishin&v as
the new capital. The whole area was re-occupied by Roumania
during the period from 1941 to 1944 and it has been Soviet
territory ever since. The postal history of Tiraspol' is
therefore complicated and the above letter would also become a
valuable and interesting addition to any study of the postal
history of Soviet Moldavia.

I _

These are sent at three month intervals and
discounted from low retail by 20%.
*Russia $2.20/Ruble low retail or net $1.76
which is lower than wholesale of $2.00/Ruble.
*Poland- 7per Zloty or a net of 5.6 per Zloty.
ePoland at a net of 2.8 per Zloty
We also supply mint Vatican and United Nations
at 10% discount from low retail.


NOV. APRIL : 444 Orange Grove Rd., Apt. 702,
Tucson, Arizona, 85704
MAY OCT. : 393 Sterling Drive,
Dimondale, Michigan, 48821

|111|||||||||| ||1111111111111111111I1111111 111111111111111111111111111111111111111B5 l IIIIININNIIgIIIIINII gIIIIIIIN

DEALERS.... o Ju^S f%

FULL Pg $35.00

HALF Pa $20.00

QUARTER Pa_ $12.50

A.R.A. Mail and Courier Service in Russia 1921-1923.

by Paul B. Spiwak.

It is the purpose of this article to give both the philatelist
and the historian a vivid picture of the adverse conditions under
which couriers had to operate in famine-stricken Russia from 1921
to 1923.

For a better understanding, the reader should have some background
on the origins and purpose of the A.R.A. operations in Russia. It
all started in the summer of 1921, when letters were received in
America from relatives and friends along the Volga River. These
letters all described the terrible plight of the people in the
Volga district and pleaded for immediate aid to relieve the
apparent famine. Letters read: "If you do not help us, we will all
starve this winter. Please help I Please help "

After careful investigation of the conditions in Russia, 1r.
Herbert Hoover, the Secretary of Commerce, made an agreement with
the Soviet Government for relief operations from the United States
of America. This was the beginning of the American Relief Adm-
inistration programmes and their numerous operations to bring the
Russian people back to their former prosperity. Its ultimate
accomplishment was the rescue of approximately 75% of the
population from starvation and disease.

After the programme was established, there naturally developed a
real need for communications between all the A.R.A. regional
headquarters and distribution centres. Unfortunately, the normal
communications of the Soviet Government were totally inadequate
and sometimes even non-existent. Therefore, the A.R.A. saw the
necessity of establishing their own mail and courier service
within the famine-stricken area of Russia. The functions of the
courier service were:-

1. To carry official and personal correspondence to and from
feeding districts.
2. Transference of large sums of money to maintain operations
and pay employees.
3. Delivery of valuable and important supplies.

Ultimately, the courier service functioned as a combined mail and
express service.

Life for a courier proved to be extremely dangerous at this time
in history. During the winter, there was usually one courier in
the hospital (unfortunately ill-equipped) with typhus for every
two on the road. They travelled in vermin-infested trains.
Although the Soviet Government agreed to furnish couriers with
compartments on trains, they were seldom available. Frequently,
dead passengers (refugees attempting to leave the famine area)
had to be removed en route and buried. The unsuspecting couriers
had their tickets and travel orders stolen by pickpockets many


Upon arrival at A.R.A. offices, the clothes of the couriers were
brushed off to remove vermin from themselves and their mail
pouches before they were allowed to enter the building. Trains
were delayed by blizzards, sometimes for as long as a week. One
A.R.A. report stated that "there were times when such delays
forced the couriers to sell their underwear, and this in the dead
of Russian winter, in order to buy enough food to keep themselves
alive". More incredible than the hardships themselves was that not
one courier requested a transfer to less dangerous work and did
not even complain about the dangers of their very necessary duty.

Russia by 1921 was in total chaos. World War I, revolution and the
years of civil war had devastated the country's economy. In
addition to famine, other necessary services were barely
functioning. Railway and telegraph services, when operating, were
in extremely bad condition. Trains never arrived or departed on
time. The trains and railway stations were filled far above
capacity with refugees, hoping to escape the existing intolerable
conditions. These refugees created many difficulties for the
couriers. As previously mentioned, they frequently rifled the
pockets of the couriers when given the opportunity. However, in
spite of all these tremendous handicaps, the couriers always
managed to retain their valuable mail pouches. There was
practically no loss of supplies (from thousands for which they
were responsible).

The Russian freight trains at that time were very unreliable. The
A.R.A. couriers were called upon to carry many supplies normally
transported by the trains. Such supplies were in addition to the
usual mail and correspondence. The items included were :-

1. Commissary supplies for American personnel.
2. Typewriters.
3. Office equipment.
4. Medicines, vaccines and serums.

It was with great difficulty that couriers guarded these much
needed supplies in the freight cars designated for A.R.A. use.
However, cars became detached because of hot boxes and had to be
traced by A.R.A. headquarters in Moscow.

Another example of hardship endured by the couriers was the story
of one courier who had travelled close to 25 miles on a hand-car
and then walked 18 miles with his mail pouches on his back through
country known to be infested by bandits.

The headquarters for the A.R.A. service was situated in Moscow. It
employed seven Russians and one American supervisor. The total
number of Russian employees on the A.R.A. payroll was 185,000. The
number of couriers employed at any given time was from 10 to 28.
The couriers, who travelled a total of some 976,490 miles in all,
made a total of 949 trips. They sent and received mail from as
many as 23 different regional points. During the two years of
operation, the couriers carried trillions of Russian roubles and
never once reported a loss.

An A.R.A. service ran from Moscow to Riga in Latvia with one
American and three Russian employees and from Riga to London with

non-Russian employees only. As many as 20 boxes of first and
second class mail were often delivered from Moscow to Riga. The
couriers were also employed between Moscow and the 23 distant
outposts such as Ufa, Orenburg, Odessa and Novorossiisk. They
were relieved at certain designated midpoints such as Samara,
Minsk and Kharkov. The relief couriers would then carry the mail
pouches and supplies for the second leg of the journey. Regular
weekly service was maintained between all stations and during the
height of port operations, there was bi-weekly service between
Novorossiisk, Feodosiya and Odessa.

The courier service was oftentimes more rapid than the Russian
telegraph service, even in the winter with all its handicaps.
Although the A.R.A. mail and courier system paralleled the Russian
post, it worked with much more precision. Every letter passing
through the mail room was entered on a courier receipt. There was
never an unrecorded article, although there was a total of 13,299
courier receipts. The mail room was also responsible for
distributing all materials necessary for carrying out the clerical
duties of its organisation, such as some 421 typewriters, office
supplies etc.

The hardships borne by the couriers eventually lessened as time
passed and improvements were made on the railways. The movement
of refugees practically stopped after these few years of relief

It is my hope that I have given the reader a clear picture of the
perilous duties which the courageous couriers performed. It was at
great risk that this extremely important service maintained itself
during that turbulent period in Russian history. It was only
through the remarkable efforts of the A.R.A. that possibly
thousands of lives were saved at that time of extreme human
hardship. Some statistics are now appended hereunder.


Within Russia In & out of Russia

in out total in out total
Sacks carried by couriers 575 1169 1749 847 931 1778
Packages 326 447 773 433 3 436
Envelopes 18 1017 1033 13 398 411
Official letters 20505 15860 36365 5380 6727 12107
Food remittance letters 3145 12522 15667 232 2113 2345
Personal letters (approx). 40000 15000 55000 30000 35000 65000
Courier receipts 1476 8595 10071 726 2502 3228
120,660 85,295
Grand total 205,955

In addition to the above, there were huge quantities of express
baggage, such as medical supplies, etc.

Distance from Moscow A.R.A. head-
quarters to district headquarters
and time required for the couriers
to make a round trip.
Distance Round trip
Destination from Moscow in days



677 miles


Distances covered by couriers operating
between Moscow headquarters and district
headquarters up to 15 February 1923.


of trips

Aleksandrovsk 2
Balashov 6
Kazan 76
Khar'kov 67
Kiev 89
Kozlov 13
Minsk 66
Nikolaev .1
Nizhnii-Novgorod 19
Novorossiisk 1
Odessa 1
Petrograd 79
Rostov-on-Don 72
Rybinsk 26
Samara 77
Saratov 74
Sebezh (for Riga)113
Simbirsk 72
Simferopol' 19
Tsaritsyn 31
Ufa 2
Vitebsk 42

948 trips



976,490 mi


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0 Teir

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The background and statistical information
based on official sources and presented by Mr. Spiwak is
especially significant as it has answered some questions. In
particular, we now know why some of the cards printed for and on
behalf of the A.R.A. bore no postal markings or franking of any
kind, although they had clearly been sent from'Russia to the U.S..
A typical example from Gomel to New York City is shown just below.

tr \. ,* *' -

,. 14 U

4.' 4


( 4/



.*_ orvxnnt t .~ m A... fl... I ..,...-.. 000, 1-' -....-i..

We have received the r n eican Tew;a. consigned
u .9
'in,. RUSSIA.

'". .'.I ~.-f~~ ~5!1-C; -"~

... .... ..,.. `. ...... ._ .......... ..... .... .. ....... .

------- ----
~I-t t

Dite Receivec...:...l
/1 .

4~> tf4'


'i1'. '2


. ............ .......................... ......; ............

,1' :

As an example of the forwarding process of mail via Riga in Latvia
on to London, England, we are hereby refreshing the memories of
our readers by reproducing once again a cover originally described
and illustrated in No. 5 of "The Post-Rider", pp. 67-68. This was
a letter sent by Dr. George B. Cormick of the Russian Unit of the
A.R.A. to an address in Texas. The courier service of the A.R.A.
made sure that the letter reached London, where a current 1d.
British stamp was added and the item was then posted to receive a
postmark dated 4th. Sept. 1922, 2:45 pm. Our readers are cordially
invited to send in details of other A.R.A. items in their
te or:e B. Corni6k i.D. "r- ";-
i ,A Russian Unit ...----.

1-92 n sa- which

I 7'

I ;.i ss Srdnor 3raaneh


c :.e fosrard c/ i


by Howard L. Weinert.

In reference to the interesting article by Andrew Cronin ("Some
Notes on Birobidzhan" in "The Post-Rider", No. 7, pp.28-34), I can
add the following information. According to the publication "The
Soviet Union", Vol. 7,"The Russian Federation The Far East",
Moscow, 1971 (in Russian), the town of Birobidzhan was founded in
1928 on the site of a remote station named Tikhon'kaya, which then
had 100 families. In the work "Guide Book to the Soviet Union"
edited by A. Rado, International Publisher's Co., New York, 1928,
Tikhon'kaya is listed as a station on the Amur Railway, 117 km.
east of Obluch'e. It does not appear in the 1916 railway timetable
or the 1916 postal guide. Obluch'e is listed in the 1916 postal
guide as a "poselok" (village) with a post-telegraph sub-office.

Covers from the Jewish Autonomous Oblast' (Province) are quite
hard to come by. I have a rare cover from one of the smaller
localities in the oblast' (see illustration). It is a 30-kop.
stationery envelope with a bilingual cancellation of Kul'dur in
the same style as Cronin's Fig. 9. The date is 5 Oct. 1940. The
cover was sent to Leningrad, where it was backstamped on 17 Oct.
The manuscript return address is also Kul'dur, E.A.O. Kul'dur

appears on the map in Cronin's article (Fig. 2), 30 km. north of
Birakan. The book edited by Rado says that Kul'dur was a health
resort with hot springs that could be reached from Birakan by
horse. The 1968 railway guide shows Kul'dur as the first station
north of Izvestkovaya, on the branch line to Chegdomyn. It is thus
just off the map in Fig. 1 in Cronin's article. This branch line
is shown in a 1955 atlas but not listed in the 1947 timetable, so
it was apparently built between 1947 and 1955.

WW -.

gaton, l C, I......... Com a
EDITORIA\ I .M pp t I -
bi~Cll O NT pPi of i a. e inbiean co ris. fom Ku ut i mo s

Emrtionou Projecrito) Ep tion, eovC
Apparetlywomritin tofhicsw if in Leningrad We would appreciate
bilingual.. .postmar for1 ..irobi.zhan (Fg. 7 8) must be a g
1e .1 U C, II 1 i

(g)n pj it.6a i o b 1 a In c r it o h w p o C a ;p ab MI Mi c he

seen in Cron. ,in's Fig. 1. These two additions now bring the total up
to 48 offic s kown at th at ... time
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Prof. Weinert's cover from Kul'dur is most
interesting, as the sender's address is given as:"Kui'dur, E.A.O.,
Emigration Project Expedition, Klenov, I.N.". Comrade Klenov was
apparently writing to his wife in Leningrad. We would appreciate
having details from readers of any other covers they may have.

Re the original article by Mr. Cronin referred to above, further
checking has shown that the last Hebrew letter in the first
bilingual postmark for Birobidzhan (Figs. 7 & 8) must be a gimel
(g), not a beth (b). This correction was pointed out by Mr. Michael
Madesker of Toronto. That being the case, the abbreviation "YID. A.
G." probably stands for "Yiddishes Autonomes Gebiet" (Jewish
Autonomous Territory).

Also, two more post offices in Birobidzhan have been found in the
1968 U.P.U. work. They are OL'GOKHTA and UNGUN, which can also be
seen in Cronin's Fig. 1. These two additions now bring the total up
to 48 offices known at that time.



by Andrew Cronin. .

So far as is known to the present writer, nothing has previously
been published on this subject. It is hoped that these notes will
spark interest in the field and help to bring further information
to light.

The specific land area we are concerned with is the lower Volga
region near the city of Saratov. During the reign of Empress
Catherine II (Catherine the Great, who ruled from 28 June 1762 to
6 Nov. 1796), herself a German and the daughter of a Prussian
field marshal (nde Sophia of Anhalt-Zerbst), settlers came into
this region in 1764 to 1774 from Central and Southern Germany,
Holland and Switzerland. They were followed in the period from
1853 to 1874 by Mennonites from the Danzig district. These waves
of immigration naturally had an influence on the new place-names
in the lower Volga area. One of the towns founded on the Volga was
called Katharinenstadt in honour of the Empress (Baronsk or
Ekaterinograd na Volge in Russian; changed in the Soviet period to

The new immigrants proved to be excellent farmers and craftsmen;
sober, honest, systematic, reliable and hard-working. These
qualities, combined with some special privileges granted to the
German colonists by the Russian Imperial Government,led at times
to friction with their easy-going Russian neighbours.

With the advent of the October Revolution, one of the earliest
Soviet Workers' Communes was established on 19 Oct. 1918 among the
Volga Germans, raising their region to the level of an autonomous
oblast' (province) and fixing the capital at Marxstadt. It was one
of the areas affected by the famine of 1921-1922 and during that
period about 74,000 Germans emigrated abroad, mainly to the United
States and Canada. At the end of 1922, the capital was transferred
to Pokrovsk on the Volga (also known as Pokrovskaya Sloboda and
renamed'Engels in 1931). On 6 Jan. 1924, the province was raised
to the status of the Volga German ASSR (ASSR Nemtsev Povolzh'a)
within the framework of the RSFSR. German was, of course, one of
the official languages within the Republic. In 1928, its
population was 592,900, of whom 66.4% were Germans, 20.3% Russians,
12% Ukrainians and 1.3% others.

By the fall and early winter of 1929, economic conditions in the
area were such that many Germans travelled to Moscow, hoping to
migrate to Germany and Canada. At that time, unemployment was
serious and increasing in the Weimar Republic; the German Embassy
in Moscow would not grant transit visas unless the applicants
could also get a Canadian immigrant visa. About 1000 lucky people
managed to do so and most of them must have settled in the
Kitchener-Waterloo area of Ontario. More than 6000 Germans were
forced back to their native parts by the Moscow militia (civilian

The republic suffered badly during the tragic 1930s in the USSR
as the result of collectivisation, famine and deportation of the
many successful German farmers, who were regarded as kulaks. The

pressure probably eased from 1939 to 1941, during the period of
rapprochement between the USSR and the German Third Reich. However,
* the outbreak of the German-Soviet War on 22 June 1941 led to the
Volga German ASSR being dissolved on 28 August, its territory
divided among the adjoining Russian provinces and its inhabitants
dispersed to various Siberian localities. They were partially
rehabilitated as an ethnic group on 29 Aug. 1964, but have never
been allowed to return to their original area. Some of them have
since been permitted to migrate to the German Federal Republic.
The German place-names in the Volga German ASSR have, of course,
disappeared, with certain rare exceptions such as Urbakh (Urbach).

As can be seen from the foregoing notes, the logical places to
look for Volga German postal history are Germany itself and
North America. Our West German colleagues should be able to turn
up items from the following periods:-

(a) Pre-WWI material. Among other things, there was a flourishing
German-language newspaper, "Die Saratowe Deutsche Zeitung",
published at Saratov from 1906 and serving the German areas. The
German capital of Pokrovsk-Engels could have been regarded as a
suburb of Saratov, on the opposite bank of the Volga.

(b) Mail sent from the province in 1921-1923 to the "Hilfswerk der
Wolgadeutschen e.V., Berlin NW6, Luisenstr. 31a". It speaks
volumes for ethnic solidarity that an organisation in the young
Weimar Republic, then itself beset with serious inflationary
problems, still tried to help its beleaguered brethren in Russia.

(c) Further mail to Germany up to 1933. It would have slackened
off appreciably with the formation of the Third Reich, but must
have picked up again in the period from August 1939 to June 1941.

The main waves of emigration to North America were in 1921-1923
to the U. S. and Canada and at the end of 1929 to Canada, as noted
above. We philatelists in Canada have yet to find mail resulting
from these emigrations. So far as the United States are concerned,
there was a "Hilfskomitee" set up by the German-speaking community
at Baker, Kansas during the genocidal man-made famine of 1932-1933.
The author of this article has some Soviet mail from Germans in the
Ukraine, addressed to this Aid Committee. Other appeals for help
must have been sent to Kansas by the Volga Germans also.

There are three maps reproduced herewith as a guide to collecting
and classifying the postal history. Each map has some place-names
not present on the others. It should be noted that the territory of
the republic consisted of 12 cantons (Balzer, Fedorovka, Frank,
Kamenka, Krasnyi Kut, Marienthal, Marxstadt, Pallasovka, Pokrovsk-
Engels, Seelmann, Staraya Poltavka and Zolotoe) spread over both
sides of the Volga River. In Imperial times, the right bank of the
Volga (looking down from the north) belonged to the province of
Saratov and the left bank to the province of Samara. This
distinction also appears on the Imperial postmarks assigned to
offices in the area. Such markings in the old spelling were
naturally carried over into the early Soviet period. So far as the
present writer can determine, a total of almost 90 offices or
agencies must have carried out postal operations at one time or
another. They were as follow:-

Balzer (see also
(Golyi Karamysh)
Buidakov Buerak
Ekaterinograd na V.
Engels (Pokrovskaya
Sloboda, Pokrovsk)
Frank (Medveditsko-
Krestovyi Buerak,
Grimm (Lesnoi
Gukk (Hueck?)

(Ilovatyi Erik)
Krasnyi Kut
Krasnyi Yar Nemetskii
Krasnyi Yar (Staro-
Poltavskii ?)
Kresty (Medveditsko-
Krestovyi Buerak,
Lesnoi Karamysh
Marxstadt (Baronsk,
Buerak(Frank, Kresty)

Nizhnyaya Bannovka
Nizhnyaya Dobrinka
Novaya Gryaznukha
Pokrovsk (Engels)
Staraya Poltavka
Uzmor'e (Uzmorskaya)
Waizenfeld (Vezenfeld)

(a) BALZER. This place-name should not be confused with the village
of Balzers in Liechtenstein, which also has a post office.

(b) KRASNYI YAR. It means "red cliff" and is a common place-name in
Russia. There were at least three in the Volga-German ASSR. Krasnyi
Yar Nemetskii (German Red Cliff), with a P.O. dating from Imperial
times, appears to be the one in the north near Marxstadt (Baronsk,
Katharinenstadt, Ekaterinograd). Another Krasnyi Yar office may
have functioned further south in the Staraya Poltavka canton.

Turning now to the maps, our German-speaking readers will note in
the 1902 Baedeker section the cluster of villages'with Swiss names
shown just below Baronsk and served.by the post office at
Barataevka (Unterwalden).

Maps of the Lower Volga region, taken from the Baedeker Guide for
the year of 1902.

Map of the Volga German ASSR, taken from "The Small Soviet
Encyclopaedia", Moscow, 1930, Vol. 5, p. 699.

20 0 20 4o.. I.
rpauu a CCP o npo'we HacenewHnyHT Kr
--....rpaHHLnh ACCP ----Menewse AOPwHH O MA I w 3flYThl C n m c a m
.... onacrea Ba.e.rpyTroswe oporn CAPATOB Caw'ue 3M0.00
0 CTonrua ACCP -- npouwe 6 3HrElbC oT50000o E63CO
SUe.HTp o6nacTH L. npacranH a .BIanhep 10000 15.000
SLUjIHT p KaHTOHOe(paAOHOB) 46 AcmpaxaHb 47 0edopo.ra AO 10.000
Map of the Volga German ASSR, taken from "The Great Soviet
Encyclopaedia", Moscow, 1939, Vol. 41, columns 599-600.

Union Postale Universelle Russie.
IToe nHCbMO. Carte Postale.

. ... . .. .. .. . ... ... C. .
0oTOTiMIRi WePOPb, NaldrollbRIh N Ko., Mocxisa.

A postcard sent from the URBACH Rly. Stn. P.O. on 24th.Mlarch 1903.





The only example so far found by the author is the postcard shown
at the bottom of p. 54. It was sent by Eugen Geyer from the railway
station post office at Urbach on 24 March / 6 April 1903 with
Easter greetings to Alfons Agather in L6di (Litzmannstadt). The
author has further examples of the Agather correspondence, showing
that he had extensive links with quite a few German-speaking
communities within the Russian Empire.



*'1 -;
/.*A -^;~

Please refer to the previous page for illustrations of postmarks
from this town. Four types have been seen and are shown in natural
size, as follow:-

(1) The pre-war marking, reading GOLYI KARAMYSH SAR. b. 26. 2. 25.
(2) A new post-war type, struck in violet GOLYI KARAMYSH RESP. NEM.
(3) A new bilingual cancellation, with GOLYI KARAMYSH R.N.P. (?) at
top in Russian, code letter "a" and BALZER in German at bottom.
The date is not legible.
(4) A further bilingual type, with BAL'TSER ASSR. NEM.POV. at top
in Russian, code letter "v" and BALZER in German at bottom.
The arcs above and below the date bridge are segmented and the
cancellation is struck in violet with the date 14.10.30. The
sender is given as Peter Schnell, House No. 57 in the village
of Norka, Balzer canton. Sent by registered mail to Portland,
where it was received on 14 Nov. 1930.


The above is an exceptional cover, originally in the Kurt Adler
collection and with the present whereabouts unknown. It was sent by
Helene Miller of the village of Solothurn (visible on the Baedeker
map) and posted by registered mail with the marking (pre-war style)
BARATAEVKA SAMAR. a 12.9.22. The R.-label No. 462 has the name

"Baratajevka" crossed out and the word "Unterwalden" added by hand.
The cover is important as it bears the handstamped address of the
"Volga German Aid Committee Inc., Berlin N.W.6, Luisenstr. 31a".
In a word, the pre-addressed envelope must have already been sent
by the Aid Committee to Helene Miller.

The franking is also of interest. In September 1922, the rate for a
letter going abroad was 450,000 old roubles, with a like amount for
the registration fee. The Arms stamps on the cover were then sold
at 1 million times face for the kopek values and 10,000 times face
for the rouble values. On that basis, the total franking was
90,000 old roubles, which was one tenth of what it should have
been The author is open to correction, of course, but it has been
his experience that covers sent during the inflationary period
rarely have the correct amount of postage at any particular time
and that confusion was widespread.



The above example is a card, also sent during the confused
inflationary period. The message is in perfect German, written in
the old Gothic script. It was posted with the markings
with the amount of "800" in the centre of the oval corrected to
"900". The rate at that time for an internal card would have been
3,000 roubles and the author is open to suggestions as to how the
postage due of 900 roubles was arrived at.

The card is addressed to F. J. Staff, Pipe Factory at Khartsyzsk
in the Don Province.


.... Ha Ban .rt,...: :

: o-'p r. .P -ta B .. .'. .- 't

[.'l oy. ; ..

The above is a receipt card for the sum of $30.00 sent to Christian
Lehmann in the village of Orlovskoe, just above Ekaterinograd. Note
the continued usage of the pre-war registration label reading
"Ekaterinograd / na Volge" and the pre-war type postmark


,D0: 3f lV AMfl o o '. '"[4T"A., -F.. .
o rI T f noiToDA K o '
,lIT P h ll ....-. .. n : .
C P i~o A K-

i C f ', ... c. q. 5 ..... o

I 4f '

1 PAAH H 1
-. ^. ^ :'"'- ,.,,,, I,- '"*_ ,,S/..,=_ 'L--, ,, -c- -.f.e,,)., .= -.... .

i H 1 3y l A hfMtfl lj C S)O b a p O' n:IBKT
The above is a receipt card for the sum of $30.00 sent to Christian
Lehmann in the village of Orlovskoe, just above Ekaterinograd. Note
the continued usage of the pre-war registration label reading
"Ekaterinograd / na Volge" and the pre-war type postmark


C ( O O ."' P O-S .
L fT i-. ,Pt K

\-OO' /'--,.,; ...
11 liii 311 -4 :-: '

., /-.
1.3, I,,
/r c
.Z Prusi ~-.j _~5~~r ~~0~

This card with 15 kop. postage bears a bilingual marking reading at
top in Russian ENGEL'S ASSR NP, code letter "e", date 7.10.35 in
the centre and ENGELS in German at the bottom. It is addressed to
Saratov, which is just on the opposite bank of the Volga River.
Note the segmented arcs above and below the date bridge.
The postmark of POKROVSK ASSR N.P. definitely exists, as the author
definitely saw it once in the Kurt Adler collection on a cover
addressed to Austria with commercial franking, including a copy of
the wide "5" airmail variety with 10-kop. surcharge (Lot No. 760 in
the Kurt Adler Sale.of 14 Aug. 1974 in New York City). If the
present owner happens to read these lines, it would be appreciated
if he sent a photocopy of the cover. Engels is now Pokrovsk again


A strike has been found by the author of the marking
for this office on the 10-kop. "worker" definitive of
1927, reading FEDOROVKA ASSR NP at top in Russian,
code letter "b" with date 17.3.30 across the centre
and FEDOROWKA in German at bottom.


The distinctive bilingual type for this office reads
KAMENKA P.O. at top in Russian and transliterated o
into German at bottom as KAMENKA P.O.R.N.P.The dates
so far seen are 15.3.26 and 20.5.27.

KRASNYI KUT (Red Close;Red Cul-de-sac)

Two types so far seen:
(a) Inscribed KRASNYI KUT OB. N. P. ......
with code letter "b", dated 1.2.27
and entirely in Russian. (: ;
(b) A bilingual type with KRASNYI KUT ,' -
R.N.P. at top in Russian, code letter '-: / /
"e" at left, date 1.2.27 across the
centre and transliterated into N
German at bottom as KRASN. KUT R.N.P.


Two types so far seen: -
(i 32222 -
(a) The continued usage of the pre-war postmarker .-- ,,
reading KRASN-YAR-NEMETSK SAM. at top, code *-
letter "a" and date 23.2.24 across the centre. *

(b) A new Soviet type, entirely in Russian and reading KRASNYI YAR
NEM OB. N. P., code letter "a" and date 2.9.24 across the centre.
Please see the illustration of the relevant card overleaf and also
note the registration label (internal type) with name and number
written in with an indelible pencil.

,, :' ...... "........ .... .- .. ., "r.:'.


; II 714's

Two types so far seen:
I K S., oe l r "a" a a

previously, but reading GRIMM at top and bottom
*, 'KO* '

I *.
'" ', iL.'., ..14J c .ir'"..v,,, i
apr. o p
t H 'PA


Two types so far seen: carA 7
(a) Continued usage of the pre-war marking, reading d-ut as.
LESNOI KARAMYSH SAR., code letter ter "a" and date
15.7.22 across the centre on an inflation cover.m o labe' No 36, p
(b) Same bilingual style as for Kamenka noted d as t
previously, but reading GRIMM at top and bottom _-
in Russian and Germn and German respectively

.:,' --l". .. -., .... ,:. '-' ., .. ,a. ^ ^- -- -- : U -. ^-
YBeaoMAe- .'QAye-HH,
-" P_ -oo .' *- -- 2- -

-o *^ \ 1 -
-- I t
I -
I ,.# -

e ^ AB. Kpecr. 5yep. Ita rotl crop0w ,m:uercqT >O. 3, .a o Tr a :T,7.. -
CapaT. K"o-"HTp.. "laji. -, -- ;"
-. '^. :- ,' "o; -. ,- .' --J ,

A registered receipt card with a money order label No. 376, printed
in blue and black on white paper (pre-war issue) doing duty as the
registration label. The Soviet postmark is completely in Russian
and reads MED.KR.BUERAK OBL.N.POV.,code letter "a" & date 22.12.24.


.^ 'i- : .,i ": ."- i, -- .

.. _

Ir U 4 1
& '. *. \- J

This is the last and also the most interesting example, as it shows
a provisional rectangular marking, struck in violet and reading
entirely in Russian "Vezenfel'd Markssht./ Oblasti Nemtsev
Povolzh'ya" and date added by ink : 31.1.1922. In other words, the
town is in the Marxstadt canton, the sender giving his name and
address as Andreas Gross of Waizenfeld.

It is obvious from the foregoing notes that a lot of work still
remains to be done in this interesting field. Any additions and/
or corrections would be greatly appreciated.


by the Rev. L. L. Tann.

I have acquired an illustrated postcard with a view in colour of
the Ozerki Pavilion at Peterhof (Petrodvorets) and bearing
notations and markings of the Belgian Army in Russia during WWI.
The Russian marking at top right is struck in violet and does not
seem to be recorded before. The inscription between the two circles
wording in the centre reads BELGIAN ARMY IN RUSSIA (outer 0=32.5mm).

The card was written in French on 20 Dec. 1915 (New Style) with a
sentence reading "Bonnes amities de votre ami sincere" (Best
regards from your sincere friend). The signature is illegible, but
the writer gives the address as "Corps des AbM belges en Russie"
(Corps of the Belgian Armoured Machine-Gun Cars In Russia). On the
address side of the card at right, the writer has written the
notation "Armee belge en Russie" (Belgian Army in Russia). The
card is directed to a young lady in Heathcote, Surrey, England.

KI JI No. 6

The postal markings include two strikes of Petrograd, 1st.
Despatch Office, code letter "yu" and dated 18 Dec. 1915 (Old
Style). It was then censored by War Censor No. 184 in Petrograd
and passed again through the Petrograd 1st. Despatch Office,
code letter "f" on 1st. Jan. 1916 (Old Style).

Any clues as to the identity of the sender would be welcomed.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: To help round off the picture, we illustrate
below a letter card showing another marking of the Belgian Army
in Russia.

62 o !* ,.
I I "-. ..- -

i Q
S* I

i 1
6 2 *> I i

.3 3/
t I f ^ -.-

A 3 V"'."' i t '-r -


The Russian-language marking, shown in actual size in the
illustration, reads BELGIAN ARMY IN RUSSIA between the circles
* and "Armoured Automobile Division" in three lines in the centre.
It is struck in pale violet and Sr. Salvador Bofarull of Madrid,
Spain, has a similar strike.

The letter card here was examined by Censor No. 99 in Moscow and
it passed through Petrograd to a Mr. J. Cousin, D. 240, 1st.
Grenadiers, 96th. Battery, Belgian Army in the Field. Sent by
someone in the Belgian Division of Armoured Cars, Army of the
South-West Front in Russia, the written contents turn out to be
very interesting, as they were penned on 24 October 1917, almost
on the eve of the October Revolution. The text is as follows:-

"Cher Monsieur,
Votre lettre du 17 juillet m'apparait le reflet de
la deception malheureusement rencontree sur l'autre front a la
suite de la d4route d'ici. Cependant, vous espEriez que cela
changerait. Helas Nous qui voyons les choses de pros, il nous
est difficile de conserver le mime espoir. Le delire
r6volutionnaire ne s'4puise que par l'exces de la violence et de
son disordre. Et dans cette voie, on ne sait guere prevoir le
moment ou cet exces sera atteint.

Au milieu de toute cette tourmente, nous sommes
installs le plus paisiblement du monde, puisque nous sommes dans
la region du front. A l'heure actuelle, des kilometres s'6tendent
entire les lignes. Pas un coup de fusil, pas un coup de canon.
Aucun endroit de l'arriere ne connait cette constance dans le
calme. Bref, A part quelques heures intense lors de l'offensive
de juillet et les quelques journees de la retraite, ou nous fimes
les derniers A nous retire avec les Anglais, nous avons passe les
mois d'4te h la fagon de vill4giaturistes, mais des villegiaturistes
a qui il manque bien de choses souvent moins penibles 1 Je vous
envoie mon meilleur souvenir. Je ne regois plus de nouvelles de
Bruxelles. (signature illisible)."

English translation: "Dear Sir,
Your letter of 17 July brings into
view for me the reflection of the disappointment unfortunately
found on the other front after the rout here. However, you were
hoping that that would change. Alas : For us who are on the spot, it
is difficult for us to maintain the same hope. The revolutionary
fever will only be worn out by the excess of violence and by its
disarray. And on the way, one can hardly predict when this excess
will be reached.
In the middle of this storm around
us, we are located in the quietest spot in the world, since we are
in the front-line area. At the present time, kilometres extend
between the (opposing) front lines. No gunfire or cannon shots.
There is no place in the rear which has such steady calm. In short,
apart from some anxious moments at the time of the July offensive
and the few days of the retreat, when we were the last to pull back
with the English, we have spent the summer months like holiday
makers, but like those who lack many things which are often less
painful 1 I send you my best remembrance. I no longer get news
about Brussels. (illegible signature)."
The letter was received on 3 Jan 1918 and replied to on 5th. Jan.


Is there a question or point that you'd like to
put across to the readership..... is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that
you'd like to describe... .is there an item in oo
your collection that could use some clarifying o*o
information or might there be some gems of o*o00
wisdom that you could impart on some newly n
acquired item???
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers!!

P. T. Ashford, Ashton, Chester, England.

I feel moved to comment on the front, illustrated and described in
the section CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA of "The Post-Rider" No. 7,
pp.3-4. By and large, the article is particularly concerned with it
being addressed to Saskatchewan and to a Doukhobor emigre, which I
agree makes it very interesting. However, I can state that I have
not recorded another item from Bogdanovka; in Part 3 of "Imperial
Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia", I had to draw a complete
blank with Bogdanovka cancellations. For the record, Bogdanovka was
a village some 10 miles (16 km.) S.E. of Akhalkalaki and on the
road to Aleksandropol'. There were four sectarian villages close to
one another on the same road: Bogdanovka, Gorelovka, Efremovka and

I was interested to see that the Bogdanovka cancellation was of the
single-circle (crossed date) type, but with the description POCHT.
OTD. at base denoting a sub-office. November 1911 is a very late
date for a datestamp of this type and, bearing in mind that the
impression is pretty clear, indicates in my opinion that the office
did not handle much mail, confirming the remarks about literacy. It
seems that the old style datestamp had not been replaced by a double
circle type, which would have been expected. So, the front has
aspects of rarity at the Bogdanovka end too. Congratulations

Dr. Peter Micalove, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

In his new book "The Arms Issues of 1902-1920", the Rev. Tann
discusses the RVAP cancellations of the Russian East-Asian
Steamship Co. In the twenty years since Tchilinghirian and Stephen,
the meaning of the "P" in the abbreviation RVAP has still not
conclusively been determined. The most likely possibilities are
"Porty" (ports) and "Parakhodstvo" (steamship company). The covers
of the steamship suggest that "Parakhodstvo" is the answer, but
still leave some doubt since they may be speaking of the
"steamship Mongolia".

.. .. . . -

a,, 5Ua.MaQ .. o noauzQiu. "

p "'"" fpanneiito Pycciaro BocTol*Ho-AaiaTcKaro
Money-Order Department.
,, ,,. '' '''

I may have a more conclusive piece of evidence in my collection.
This card,(illustrated above), is a notification of receipt
addressed to the Russian East Asian Steamship Co. in Saint
Petersburg. The name is printed in full, showing that there was
a company by that name in Russian. The reverse side of the card
verifies the receipt of fifty roubles in Krynki, a town in

Professor H. L. Weinert, Ruxton, Maryland, USA.

In "The Post-Rider" No. 7, the Rev. L. L. Tann discusses a cancel
from Novonezhino station of the Chinese Eastern Railway ("A little
mystery solved", pp. 25-26). He suggests that Novonezhino is a new
name for the station NOVYI listed in Tchilinghirian and Stephen.
This is in fact not correct. Novyi, and Nagornyi for that matter,
did not receive new names in 1913. They are still listed as such
in the 1915 railway timetable and the 1916 postal guide. While
these two stations are in Manchuria, Novonezhino is not. It is
north-east of Vladivostok, on the railway line leading to the
Suchan mines (see the map herewith taken from the 1968 railway
guide). Why, then, does the cancel say Chinese Eastern Railway ?
The 1915 railway timetable says that Novonezhino is on the
Ugol'naya-Kangauz branch of the C.E.R. and the 1916 postal guide
says that it is on the Ussuri section of the C.E.R. in the
Primorskaya oblast'. These clues seem to indicate that at least
part of the Ussuri Railway belonged to the C.E.R. In fact, J. N.
Westwood in his "A History of Russian Railways" (Geo. Allen and
Unwin, London, 1964) states on p. 103 that circa 1903 the
government handed over the Ussuri Railway to the C.E.R. Thus,
the appearance of the term "KIT. VOST. ZH. D." on a cancel does
not necessarily mean that it deserves used abroad status.
Another example of this type is illustrated on p... i 39) of
BJRP No. 29. This cancel is mistakenly attributed to the C.E.R.
Maritime Company. Actually, it should read "Ussur.O.K.V.Zh.D."


(Ussuri Section of the C.E.R.). As with Novonezhino, this is not a
"used abroad".

The Tchilinghirian and Stephen work should be used with caution.
There are a fair number of errors and unwarranted assumptions
waiting for the unwary reader.

Dr. A. H. Wortman, Enfield, Middlesex, England.

The NOVONEZHINO postmark happens to be an old friend of mine, over
which I exchanged many letters with our late beloved Simon
Tchilinghirian. My item is also a 15-kop. Romanov and the
cancellation ST. NOVONEZHINO is struck twice on the same axis,.just
to make it more difficult. It is in blue with serial letter "b" and
the date is 4.4.13. I, too, tried to fit it to some station in
Manchuria, until the missing link came along. I forget the source
now, but the "KIT. VOST. ZH. D." at the foot, which put us all off
the scent for so long, includes the Ussuri Railway and Novonezhino
is a station on the branch line of that railway going from
Vladivostok nowadays to NAKHODKA and TIKHOOKEANSKAYA.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: We are indebted to Professor Weinert and Dr.
Wortman for pointing out and explaining this pitfall. Another
mystery that drove us all up the wall when helping Messrs Stephen
and Tchilinghirian in their Used Abroad series was the location of
a "used abroad rarity", originally in the Agathon Faberg6 collection
and supposed to be the marking for TSAU-TSAU in China. None of us
could find the place and it turned out to be RUTSAU in Livland
province As the Italians say: "sbagliando, s'impara" (you learn by
making mistakes).

Leonid Lazarev, Downsview, Ontario.

(a) Page 67 shows the front and back of a German declared value
letter for the amount of 300 marks or 375 gold francs, sent from
Frankfurt/Main to a fellow townsman who was temporarily in Warsaw,
then the capital of Russian Poland. The fate of the sending can be
traced mainly from the markings and notations on the back of the
envelope and the sequence was as follows:-
Despatch from Frankfurt/Main No.9,code letter "S",28.8.01,8-9pm.
Arrival at Warsaw 6th. Despatch Office, 17.8.01 (Old Style).
Forwarded by Warsaw 4th. Despatch Office, 20.8.01 (Old Style).
Arrival at SPB,21.8.01 to send to European Hotel per declaration.
Held at SPB until 30.8.01 (O.S.).
Passed through Kibarty, 31.8.01 (O.S.).
Checked at Danzig 14.9.01,7-8am (N.S.),Poste Restante.
Forwarded to Stettin 14.9.01,llam-12 noon (N.S.).
Returned to Frankfurt/Main No.9,code letter "S",17.9.01,11am-12noon
Finally picked up by addressee at Frankfurt/Main the next day
between 9 and 10pm.
The trouble taken in those days by both Imperial postal systems was
most commendable.

(b) The question raised by Mr. John Lloyd in "The Post-Rider" No.7,
p:..66 about the unissued Voroshilovgrad Factory stamp prompts me to
say that it is rare in the West but,in the early 1970s, you could
get copies in the USSR at 10 roubles apiece. I do not know what the
current price might be there, but I did not get the impression that
it was all that rare as a stamp, as I had a block of four myself.

John Moyes, Harlow, Essex, England.

I7 17
%WA1'1 t;l *Wr F.--

aw. T. A ;.
V j A.,

I recently obtained the above cover from Russia to Canada. It is
interesting to note that it was sent from the Saratov Stock Exchange
P.O. (per the registration label), although it seems that,by 1909,
the cancels did not include the word BIRZHA. Another registered

cover from this exchange is mentioned in BJRP No. 55 under
"Registered Mail Addendum 3". The date of it is 1902 (Prof.
S H. L. Weinert Collection), but it has the word BIRZHA (stock
exchange) in the cancel. My item is postmarked SARATOV 2 G.,
20.4.09, has Montreal transit 19.5.09 and Halifax N.S. Registered
double circle in violet, dated 20.5.09.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Our Canadian readers will note instantly that
what Mr. Moyes also has here is a Henry Hechler cover. For those
not in the know, we can say that Henry Hechler lived from 1853 to
1923, spending most of his life in Halifax, N.S. He was a
military man and rose to the rank of captain in the Canadian
armed forces. He saw service in the rebellion led by Louis Riel
in Saskatchewan in 1886. He was also a stamp dealer with a world-
wide correspondence and he used his military rank to produce
completely unauthorised "Service" overprints on Canadian postal
stationery in the period from 1885 to 1890. He started selling
these varieties from the year 1895. Covers and cards addressed to
him as a stamp dealer are sought after by Canadian philatelists.
Dr. F. G. Stulberg of Toronto has an especially fine thematic
collection devoted to the life and "work" of Captain Henry Hechler.

John Lloyd, Colchester, Essex, England.

S- rat.Ua. -: IJ2,

.. a '^ .... .. ....

..... l C 1..

*. deai e i. .. ..'....
i~cl ~l:Yc-i~ -----------

I.. ... .... ..... A .



de i&y di4 r ............ .....

The above illustration shows one of a series of cards of 20-kop.
value, issued in 1939 and including various advertising slogans
towards the bottom of the item, just above the lines for
designating the name and address of the sender. In this particular
case, the slogan says in capital letters that MONEY CAN BE SENT BY
* POST, TELEGRAPH AND BY PHOTOGRAPH. I have others in the same style,
asking people to write their return address on each postal sending,
to use the special address cards when making enquiries about the
addresses of persons being sought, putting the correct address on

mail to ensure delivery, etc. These cards are hard to find used and
the above example is noteworthy as it was sent from Moscow 16.6.43
and censored there before being sent on to Kazan', where it was
received on 21 June. The censor marking may be seen just below the
CARTE POSTALE notation at top centre of the card.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Lloyd is correct in saying that these cards
are hard to find used. Writing in the Dec. 1980 issue of "Philately
of the USSR", p. 13, A. Osyatinskii states that postal history and
archival stocks are very poor in the Soviet Union, because of the
two world wars, the civil war, internal migration to new districts,
the razing of old living quarters and the dumping of private
family archives. He makes the point that, at the present time, it
is difficult to find the commemorative stamps on the 1950s used on
mail, let alone worry about previous decades. Added to these factors
were the tragic history of the USSR beginning in the 1930s and the
cramped living quarters that most of the population was subjected to.

James Mazepa, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Please see the illustration herewith iLi nFTA :-. fJTA P,
of a block of four imperforate stamps ."...
of the 2000 r. value in the Famine Ie'rc, re.,'r: ;
Relief set issued locally at Rostov- -. -"-'
on-Don in April 1922. What puzzles me
is that the size is much smaller than --
for the stamps one normally sees of '' .
this value and this block is TA- r ":
typographed, instead of lithographed. rsr1C- I
Is this particular variety a proof ? W< -


All four values keep popping up from time to time, typographed and
in this reduced format. The source of these "varieties" was the
1933 edition of the Soviet Catalogue, which included as an end-
paper typographed simulations of the set in natural colours, so as
to show collectors that all the four values were printed together
in the same sheet. When one finds a copy of the 1933 Catalogue
nowadays, the end-paper is generally missing since people have
been cutting up the sheet of these reduced simulations and
offering pairs, strips and blocks in various combinations as

In a word, simulations are dangerous, open to fraud and certain to
cause confusion, at the very least. There seem to be no laws in the
USSR governing the reproduction in natural colours of postage
stamps and your editor has even seen a cover of the 1960s where a
coloured reproduction of a stamp commemorating Soviet exploits in
Outer Space was affixed and went through the mails without ever
being noticed.

To sum up, the name of the game is to be eternally on the alert and
always to compare, if one is not sure.




A softbound book of 302 pages, published on 23 Jan. 1981 by Stanley
Gibbons Publications Ltd., 391 Strand, London WC2R OLX, England at
810.50. The Canadian distributors are Unitrade Associates Ltd.,
127 Cartwright Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Telephone (416) 787-5658.

It would be well to quote from the press release prepared for this
important work:"Russia has issued more than 5000 postage stamps -
more stamps than any other country in the world. These are fully
recorded in the new Part 10, together with the British, Finnish and
German occupation issues, the stamps used at Russian post offices
abroad (in China and the Turkish Empire, etc.) and the issues of the
Ukraine, the Transcaucasian Federation, the Baltic states (Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania), Tuva and Mongolia. All these areas have an
interlinked political history which makes a convenient grouping of
countries for the casual or specialist collector and there have been
numerous improvements and corrections to listings throughout the
text. The Russian issues of 1913-17 immediately prior to the
Revolution Romanovs, war charities, provisionals and currency
issues have been expertly revised, as have the stamps of Latvia
and Lithuania and the pre-1945 issues of Mongolia".

Several CSRP subscribers have had a hand in revising the catalogue:
Rev. L. L. Tann and Messrs P. T. Ashford and H. Norwood. The result
has been the most intelligent and comprehensive catalogue in our
collecting area now available on the market. The Imperial section is
especially well-written and the embossed Tiflis 6-kop. stamp might
be considered for inclusion in a subsequent edition.

In the Soviet section, the corrected 100r. cliche for the well-
known 70r. error of 1923 (discovered and written up in the early
1950s for the BJRP No. 9 by your editor) has been included for the
first time, as have numerous interesting varieties. The present
reviewer suggests that the following items and corrections be
considered for insertion in future editions:-

* (a) A listing and pricing of the Postmaster Provisionals of 1920-
1922 and the Tambov-Tulinovka provisional of 1931.
(b) A footnote or listing of the Postal Museum imperfs. of the pre-
war Soviet commems. and the 1925 Lomonosov set on thick gummed

unwatermarked paper.
(c) Plate flaw affecting the figure "15" on the Educational Exhib.
stamp of 1930; this is a rare variety that was removed when
noticed from the sheets before sale to the public.
(d) The engraved 15-kop. Airship Construction design of 1932 exists
in a variety of sizes NOT tied to the various perforations, but
on account of paper shrinkage; it was printed by the
traditional "wet" recess method.
(e) In the Leningrad Exhibition ovpts. of 1933, varieties exist of
a full stop instead of the comma after "Leningrad" and also
with the final stop missing.
(f) In the 1935 Metro set, at least one sheet of the 20-kop. value
in green was sold to the public in imperforate state.
(g) For the overprint "Moscow to San Francisco via the North Pole",
the small "f" variety occurs on 5 stamps in the sheet of 25.
(h) The imperf. variety of the Ir. value in the Air Force Exhib.
set of 1937 would have to be collected in a strip of three;
pairs could have been cut out of the miniature sheet of four.
(i) The Ir. Aviation Day ovpt. of 1939 exists with double ovpt.,
which was sold at a Leningrad post office.
(j) The 1941 Odessa surcharges should be deleted. They were
"issued" in New York and we know who had them printed.
(k) There is a distinctive and constant "bottle" flaw on the 25-k.
value of the World Youth Festival set of 1957.
(1) The unissued Mendeleev Congress ovpt. on the 40-k. Mendeleev
stamp of 1957 could be referred to in a footnote.
(m) The Rudnev stamp of 1958 occurs with a constant flaw "RUDCHEV"
and a later corrective retouch, the latter being rare.
(n) The unissued Voroshilovgrad Factory stamp of 1958 could be
referred to in a footnote.
(o) A general note could be included stating that fantail margins
and imperfs-between occur for many line-perforated Soviet
(p) The Philatelic Exchange Control stamps should be worth listing.
(q) Consideration should be given to listing the German WWI & WWII
occupation stamps and overprints (Russisch-Polen, Ob. Ost,
German 10th. Army Post in Belorussia, as well as issues in
Russia, the Ukraine and the Baltic republics during WWII).
(r) A listing included of the Polish First Corps overprints in
Belorussia March-July 1918.
(s) A listing of all stamps of the Carpatho-Ukraine, to round off
the Ukrainian picture.
(t) The Field Post surcharges on the Ukrainian Shagiv issue should
be deleted. They were "issued" by Ukrainian refugees in Tarn6w
in 1920, when that city was completely under Polish sovereignty.

A well-printed magazine, issued by the British Society of Russian
Philately and edited by I. L. G. Baillie, The Grange, Thornbury.Rd.,
Bristol, England, BS12 2JB.

This issue of 52 pages is packed with such articles as The 310th.
Anniversary of the Smolensk Postal Service, by Yu. Anisimov;
Estonian Mail Routes (Russian Period), by A. Saardson; St. Peters-
burg Postmark of 1757, by Harry von Hofmann; Address Tickets -
Moscow & St. Petersburg, by Dr. T. Rutkowska; Aus Russland-Addendum
3, by A. Spaeckaart & I.L.G.Baillie; Finland: 20 Pen. Forgery, by
B. Pritt; Used Abroad: Katta Kurgan (status), by J. Moyes; Used

Abroad: Jaffa & Dalny, by Harry von Hofmann; Finland: Railway Pmks,
by R.P.Knighton; Tsarskoe Selo: Railway Pmks, by J. Lloyd; Philatelic
Societies in Russia, by A. Vigilev; 'Sdano' Cancellations, by W.
Frauenlob & E.G.Peel; Ship & River Boat Cancellations, by J.G.Moyes
& Harry von Hofmann; Registered Mail-Addendum 4, by W.Frauenlob, J.
Lloyd, B.Pritt & N.C.Warr; Machine Cancellations-Addendum, by J.Lloyd
N.C.Warr & I.L.G.Baillie; Imperial Issues-Varieties, by W.Frauenlob;
Moscow Censorship-WWI, byN.C. Warr;Ust'Sysol'sk District 1918 Soviet
Zemstvo, by I. Fedorashko; Ust'-Sysol'sk--Additional Notes, by R. L.
Joseph; Denikin Issue-Essays?, by M. Rayhack; The 'Polar Bears" a
Footnote, by I.L.G.Baillie; Russian Refugee Post, by J.G.Moyes;
Georgia 1921/22: The Missing Years, by P.T.Ashford; Soviet Varieties,
by W. Frauenlob; Azerbaijan 1921 Charity Stamps, by Dr.R.J.Ceresa;
1924 Postage Due Surcharges, by L.B.Flanagan; 1956 Anniv. of 1st.
Balloon Flight, by Yu. Saknyn; Non-Postal Miniature Sheets-Addendum,
by L.B.Flanagan, A.S.Waugh & H.Norwood; Art Postal Stationery Cards
1978/79, by H.Norwood; Registered Postcard, by B.Pritt; "London 1980"
by A.S.Waugh and finally, Reviews.

In a word, something for everyone in this fine British publication.

for 1979. A journal of 128 pages, issued by the Society and
available from Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. USA
11226, from whom further details may be obtained.

This issue is very well produced and contains notes on the Life of
the Society; Minutes of the 1979 Annual Meeting; A Warning to
Collectors, by N. Epstein (about cutting a perf. 10-k. stamp to
simulate a No. 1); An Early Rossica Application, br K.L.Wilson,
American Aircraft on Soviet Stamps, by P.J.Campbell; The Dot
Variety of Russia No. 1, by D.P.Cruikshank; Imperial Postage
Stamps of Russia 1889-1906, by V.V.Lobachevskii; Money Order Cards,
by R. Sklarevski; A Cliche Mark & a Retouch, by G.V.Shalimoff;
Airmail Stamps of the Soviet Emabssy in Berlin, by S.M.Blekhman;
Counterfeit of 10 k. Imperforate of the Arms Issue, by Rimma
Sklarevski; Agathon Faberge, by Dr. I. Vajda; 1877-1879 Russian
Military Field Post Update, summarised by R. Trbovich; Member to
Member Adlets; Rossica Library; Proposed Plan to send Anglo-
Indian Mail via Russian Railways, trans. by D. M. Skipton; Notes
from Collectors and, finally, the Rossica Bookshelf.

This is an interesting range of articles for the collectors in our

FILATELIYA STRANY PINGVINOV (The Philately of the Land of the
Penguins), by E. P. Sashenkov. A paperback of 96 pages, issued by
the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1980 in an edition of 25,000
copies. Price 65 kop.

Done in the usual journalistic style of this writer, the work is
divided into two main parts: notes on the subject of Antarctica as
a collecting field and, secondly, details of all the Soviet
expeditions to that continent. There are interesting illustrations,
including some in colour.One early noteworthy cover was sent by a
scientist of the lst.Expedition on 15.3.56 with only 10 kop. postage
to the USSR. It has an MS. notation "dop. 1 r." (postage due 1 r.),
which was correct, being double the deficiency of 50 kop. old

currency. There is a final chapter on East German participation in
these expeditions, as well as a small bibliography. It would have
been preferable if the author had classified all the Soviet post-
marks, but the book is still of great interest to Antarctic

ANTARKTICHESKIE PIS'MA (Antarctic Letters), by E.V.Milovidov. A
small paperback of 80 pages in the "Library of the Young Philatelist"
series, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1980 in an edition
of 40,000 copies. Price 25 kop.

Since it is aimed at the young fry, this work is not as detailed as
the Sashenkov book just above. However, the author does give good
notes on the cancellations, the names of the postmasters for each of
the 24 expeditions covered, etc. In fact, the two books actually
complement each other and they should both be bought by Antarctic

KATALOG POCHTOVYKH MAROK SSSR 1975-1978 (Catalogue of Postage Stamps
of the USSR 1975-1978),compiled by M.I.Spivak. A paperback of 136
pages, issued by the Soyuzpechat' Publishers, Moscow, 1980 in an
edition of 70,000 copies. Price 55 kop.

This is a combined update to the Soviet catalogue for the years
indicated and concluding with thematic and name indices. Useful for
those who collect the new issues of the USSR.

Envelopes of the USSR). A handbook-catalogue for the years 1974 to
1976, compiled by V.A. & N.V.Orlov and issued by the Svyaz'
Publishers, Moscow, 1980 in an edition of 25,000 copies.Price lr.20k.

This is a paperback of 216 pages, listing 2405 different envelopes
plus a further 48 items with special stamp designs and useful indices
for thematic collectors. If nothing else, the book shows that the
field of Soviet postal stationery is huge.

TSEL'NYE VESHCHI V FILATELII (Postal Stationery in Philately). An 80-
page paperback in the "Library of the Young Philatelist" series,
issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1980 in an edition of 40,000
copies. Price 30 kop.

An introduction to the field of postal stationery of various
countries and serving, in a way, as a guide to the book just above.

PHILATELY the Journal of the British Philatelic Federation Ltd.
Published bimonthly from 1 Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HE. The
postal subscription is S3.00 for six issues.

The February 1981 issue of this newsy magazine contains an excellent
article on pp. 58-61,63,65 of the Waterways of Imperial Russia.
Showing many interesting steamer markings, this study is a very fine
introduction to the subject and should gain some converts. Publicity
about the British Society of Russian Philately is also included.
Splendid work, Lyonchik

The Journal Fund

SAll sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable
to A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
We now have new but small supplies of the following popular titles
and early ordering is recommended:-

USSR: Directions and Stations). Issued in Moscow in 1966 and many
years out of print. It contains 94 maps with all the stations on
the railways. Ideal for the postal history and TPO (RPO)
enthusiast. Very limited quantity. Price postpaid US $10.00.

1924-27, by Kalenik Lissiuk, New York, 1928. This is our most
popular seller and the booklet, now many years out of print, has
interesting information on the Postmaster Provisionals, together
with the relevant illustrations. Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L. L. Tann. When we start
getting repeat orders at the new price from the original subscribers,
then we know that we are on a winner. All you needed to know about
these humble stamps, but were too humiliated to ask. Richly
illustrated and containing 257 pages. Price postpaid US $20.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR,unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great humourists.Price ppaid US $ 2.50.

types in St.Petersburg 1766-1914), by Heinrich Imhof. Very easy to
follow, as the author has tabulated everything. Ideal for the
postal historian. A few copies left. Price postpaid US $ 6.00.



Are you still missing that illusive item front your
collection or philatelic library.... do you have some -_. /
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ? .
We can publicize your want list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25 * maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads from
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
The Society disclaims all responsibility from any misunderstandings
that may result between tchangng- ies. -
unless otherwise specified, all numbers listed are Scott.

The Journal Fund

SAll sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable
to A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
We now have new but small supplies of the following popular titles
and early ordering is recommended:-

USSR: Directions and Stations). Issued in Moscow in 1966 and many
years out of print. It contains 94 maps with all the stations on
the railways. Ideal for the postal history and TPO (RPO)
enthusiast. Very limited quantity. Price postpaid US $10.00.

1924-27, by Kalenik Lissiuk, New York, 1928. This is our most
popular seller and the booklet, now many years out of print, has
interesting information on the Postmaster Provisionals, together
with the relevant illustrations. Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L. L. Tann. When we start
getting repeat orders at the new price from the original subscribers,
then we know that we are on a winner. All you needed to know about
these humble stamps, but were too humiliated to ask. Richly
illustrated and containing 257 pages. Price postpaid US $20.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR,unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great humourists.Price ppaid US $ 2.50.

types in St.Petersburg 1766-1914), by Heinrich Imhof. Very easy to
follow, as the author has tabulated everything. Ideal for the
postal historian. A few copies left. Price postpaid US $ 6.00.



Are you still missing that illusive item front your
collection or philatelic library.... do you have some -_. /
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ? .
We can publicize your want list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25 * maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads from
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
The Society disclaims all responsibility from any misunderstandings
that may result between tchangng- ies. -
unless otherwise specified, all numbers listed are Scott.

WANTED: Covers and used cards of early Soviet period up to 1925,
addressed to Australia and New Zealand.
Dr. A. R. Marshall, P.O. Box 7, Otorohanga, New Zealand.

A few original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" are still
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $2.00 each; Nos 8 to 11: US $2.50 each.
MRS.C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., USA 11542.

I have many dot and numeral cancellations on both covers and stamps
available in exchange for the same. Exchange for Zemstvos or South
Russia material will also be considered.
Alex. Artuchov, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

I have duplicates of rare Soviet definitive of the 20s and 30s,
including Scott No. 287 used and many others. Material issued in
the last 20 years is available in superb condition. I will trade
for Soviet commemoratives of the 30s or sell at reasonable prices.
Anatole Kaushanski,P.O.Box 232, Willowdale, Ont., Canada M2N 5S8.

WANTED: Imperial dotted numeral cancellations on cover; buy or
trade. Please write, describing covers) and asking price or
desired trade.
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, USA 95051.

WANTED: Russian and Russian-related vignettes, revenues, fiscal,
Cinderellas, etc. Pre-revolutionary (Imperial Russian) picture
postcards mint and used: views of cities, art & artists, military,
naval etc. Foreign picture postcards related to Russian subjects
and events.
LITERATURE: I am looking for "The Russian Philatelist", edited by
A. Rosselevitch: No.2-1962 and No.6-1965, both in English ONLY!
Also Rossica No. 60 in English. I would be happy to purchase any
of the above items.Correspondence in English,French,Russian,German.
Claude Lysloff, 568 Marlborough Road, Brooklyn, N.Y.,USA 11226.

ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fait exchange assured.
G. G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., USA 13850.

WANTED: Bogus, phantom & private issues, locals, vignettes,
forgeries, Armies, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Russia 1917-1925 etc.
Will trade or exchange Estonian cards/covers against the same of
Latvia, Lithuania, Imperial Russia, Field Post WWI and WWII.
August Leppa, P.O.Box 95, SF-04401, JRrvenpR&, Suomi / Finland.

For exchange or sale: an unused, richly illustrated and
expensively produced Soviet stamp album, covering the issues of
1928-1950. Original cost 135 roubles. Offers invited.
P.J.Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd., Pierrefonds, P.Q.,Can.,H9J 1H7.



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