Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 A New York campaign
 Trenton and Princeton - Congre...
 Brandywine and Germantown
 Foreign relations and the French...
 New governments, state and...
 Valley Forge, Monmouth, and...
 The second attempt upon the...
 The war in the north, 1779...
 On the sea
 European complications
 The reclamation of the Carolin...
 The final blow
 The sinews of war
 The tories in war time
 Disabled and drifting
 Opening the west; The ordinance...
 Building the ship
 Articles of Confederation

Group Title: History of the United States and its people, : from their earliest records to the present time.
Title: A history of the United States and its people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076585/00006
 Material Information
Title: A history of the United States and its people from their earliest records to the present time
Physical Description: 7 v. : col. fronts., illus. (part col.) plates (part fold.) ports. (part col.) maps (part fold.) plans (part fold.) facsims. (part fold.) ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Avery, Elroy McKendree, 1844-1935
Abbatt, William, 1851-1935
Publisher: Burrows Bros. Co.
Place of Publication: Cleveland
Publication Date: 1904-10
Subject: History -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: "Bibliographical appendix" at end of each volume.
Statement of Responsibility: by Elroy McKendree Avery ...
General Note: On t.p. of v. l, "in twelve volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 2-4, "in fifteen volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 5-7, "in sixteen volumes." No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076585
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01466912
lccn - 04032329

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Table of Contents
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
    A New York campaign
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Trenton and Princeton - Congress
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Brandywine and Germantown
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124a
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 129a
        Page 130
        Page 130a
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 132a
        Page 133
    Foreign relations and the French Alliance
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 142a
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    New governments, state and confederate
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Valley Forge, Monmouth, and Newport
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 166a
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 182a
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 190a
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 199a
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    The second attempt upon the south
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 210a
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 212a
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    The war in the north, 1779 - 1780
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 234a
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 236a
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 247a
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 250a
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 252a
        Page 252b
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 254a
        Page 254b
        Page 255
    On the sea
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 264a
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    European complications
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
    The reclamation of the Carolinas
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    The final blow
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 306a
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 308a
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 312a
        Page 312b
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 314a
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 316a
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 321a
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    The sinews of war
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
    The tories in war time
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 360a
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 362a
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
    Disabled and drifting
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 390a
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
    Opening the west; The ordinance of 1787
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 400a
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 404a
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 406a
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 408a
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 412a
        Page 413
    Building the ship
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
    Articles of Confederation
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
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        Page 478
Full Text

A History of

the United




i** iu '.

;.-".-' -.
IilI .* '"








. . ..** .. `.
* .. ....


HE fifth volume of this work told the story of
events that culminated in the declaration of
American independence-or how our ancestors
got into the Revolutionary war. This volume is an
attempt to describe, as clearly as space limitations will
permit, the events that were crowded into the period
between that immortal declaration and the adoption of
our national constitution-or how our patriot sires got
out of their eight years' war.
In the preceding volumes, I followed official usage in
writing the name of the South Carolina metropolis,
Charles Town. By an act of incorporation passed on
the thirteenth of August, 1783, the name was changed
to Charleston, the form used in the present volume.
My obligation to Dr. Paul L. Haworth, as acknowl-
edged in the prefaces to my fourth and fifth volumes,
has been enlarged by his continued assistance. I am
also under great obligation to Mr. Albion M. Dyer of
the Western Reserve Historical Society for the sugges-
tion of a special study of the history of the Seven Ranges
and for able and energetic assistance in the prosecution
thereof, and to officials and employees of the general land
office at Washington City for many courtesies. To the
reviewers and many others who have aided me with criti-
cism and suggestion, and especially to my publishers
who, in the matter of illustration, seem determined to
push each volume into successful rivalry with its prede-
cessor, I desire to express my grateful appreciation.
Cleveland, July, I909


Introductory: Preface; List of Maps and Illustrations.
I. The New York Campaign .
II. Trenton and Princeton-Congress 37
III. Brandywine and Germantown 61
IV. Saratoga. 88
V. Foreign Relations and the French Alliance 134
VI. New Governments, State and Confederate 50o
VII. Valley Forge, Monmouth, and Newport 164
VIII. Border Warfare and the Conquest of the
Northwest 184
IX. The Second Attempt upon the South 209
X. The War in the North, 1779-80 233
XI. On the Sea 256
XII. European Complications-The Armed
Neutrality 274
XIII. The Reclamation of the Carolinas 282
XIV. The Final Blow 298
XV. The Sinews of War 326
XVI. The Tories in War Time 333
XVII. Peace 342
XVIII. Disabled and Drifting 374
XIX. Opening the West; the Ordinance of 1787 398
XX. Building the Ship 414
Appendix 439
Bibliographical Appendix 445
NOTE.- A general index will be found in the last volume of this work.


George Washington Frontispiece
A reproduction of the painting by Gilbert Stuart, called the Gibbs-Channing-
Avery portrait. This most interesting likeness of Washington is the rep-
resentative of Washington's first sitting to Stuart in September, 1795.
This sitting originated the first type of the Washington portrait by Stuart,
showing the right side of his face. All other portraits of this type are
very inferior to the Gibbs Washington in individuality of handling and in
In The Life and Works of Gilbert Stuart (New York, 1879) Mason says:
The finest [portrait of Washington] beyond all comparison is that form-
erly owned by Dr. William F. Channing of Providence, R. I. It was
painted for Colonel Gibbs and from him passed to his sister, Mrs. Chan-
ning." A venerable engraver of a generation ago, A. B. Durand, said of
it: That is a likeness. It is much superior in character to the Athe-
naum portrait and should be considered a standard."
It is at present deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
as a loan from the late Samuel P. Avery, who purchased it from Mr.
From an original letter dated February 23, 1794, in the New York Public
Coat of Arms:
Drawn by Mr. Henry Strippel.
Uniform of a Hessian Grenadier of Rall's Regiment 2
Painted, after careful study, by Mr. H. A. Ogden, who prepared the draw-
ings for Uniform of the Army of the United States, 1774 to 1889, pub-
lished by the Quartermaster-general.
Portrait of Sir Guy Carleton, Governor-general of
Canada .
From a contemporary engraving.
Map Illustrating the Action of Valcour Island on
Lake Champlain 6
Plan of the Battle of Valcour Island 7
From original in the Library of Congress (Faden Collection).

x Illustrations

View of the Battle of Valcour Island 8
From contemporary engraving in the New York Public Library (Lenox
Coat of Arms of Sir William Howe 9
Depicted in proper colors by Mr. Henry Strippel from Burke's Peerage and
Portrait of Sir W illiam Howe 9
From original mezzotint in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Portrait of Richard Earl Howe between o1 and I I
From a mezzotint in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection),
published, London, 1794i made from a painting by Copley.
General Map to Illustrate the New York Cam-
paign of 1776 .
Prepared from data compiled by Mr. Charles William Burrows.
Currency Issued by New York in 1776 12
Five-dollar bill, obverse and reverse. From collection of the New York
Public Library (Lenox Building).
Washington's Proclamation to the People of New
York 12
Dated August 17, 1776, warning non-combatants to depart. From original
broadside in collection of the New York Historical Society.
Continental Line Infantry, Showing State Distinc-
tions 13
From original drawing by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Flag of the First Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment 14
Reproduced from original in the State House, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,
by Mr. J. Horace McFarland, using the Lumiere process of color photog-
raphy. (This is perhaps the first instance of the commercial use of this
process in America.)
Private of Artillery, Continental Line .
From original drawing by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Coat of Arms of Israel Putnam 5
Drawn by Mr. Henry Strippel from copy in collection of the New York
Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of James Grant 16
From an original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
M ap of Battle of Long Island 16
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.,
assisted by the Hon. Asa Bird Gardiner, LL. D., L. H. D., M. H.
Lord Stirling (Portrait and Autograph) 17
Portrait from original painting owned by Dr. Robert Watts.
Portrait of Major-general John Sullivan
between 18 and 19
From a nezzotint in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Cartridge-box used in the American Revolution 20
From original in the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.


Broadside to Encourage Enlistment in the Conti-
nental Army between 20 and 2
From a copy in the Boston Public Library.
General Sullivan's Waistcoat. 22
From original in collection at the Old South Meeting House, Boston.
Map of the Battle of Harlem Heights 23
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Samuel Selden's Powder-horn 23
Inscribed, Lyme, March: the, A D: 1776 Major. Samuel. Seldens:
P: Horn: Made for the Defence of Liberty." Also decorated with carved
scenes. Now in collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
The Morris Mansion 24
From a photograph.
Portrait of Thomas Knowlton 25
From Trumbull's historic painting of the battle of Bunker Hill, in collec-
tion of Yale University.
Liberty Pole Tablet 26
From the original, New York City.
Jonathan Trumbull (Portrait and Autograph) 26
Portrait from miniature in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale University; auto-
graph from a letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Nathan Hale's Camp Basket 27
From collection of the Connecticut Historical Society.
Maps Showing Route of Nathan Hale into the
British Lines and Section of New York City
where he was Executed. 28
Compiled from information supplied by the late Reverend Doctor Edward
Everett Hale.
Page from Diary of a British Officer, Recording
Hale's Execution 29
From original in the New York Historical Society.
Two Autographs of Nathan Hale: Ornate, or
Schoolmaster's, and Ordinary 29
From original documents in collections of the late Reverend Doctor
Edward Everett Hale and Major Godfrey A. S. Wieners.
Hale Family Tombstone at South Coventry, Con-
necticut 30
Washington's Headquarters at W hite Plains 30
From a photograph.
Colonel John Glover (Portrait and Autograph) 31
Portrait from painting in possession of Mrs. Henry E. Waite; autograph
from a letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
"Glover's Rock" and Memorial Tablet 32
From photograph of the original at Pelham Bay Park supplied by Mr.
Harris Bradbury Burrows.

xii Illustrations

Map of the Battle of White Plains 33
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.,
and Mr. William Abbatt.
The Falkeneer (Falconeer) House at White Plains,
Headquarters of British Officers (no longer
standing) 33
Map of the Action of Fort Washington 34
Compiled from original sources.
Topographical Map of the North Part of New
York Island, Showing plan of Fort Washington
between 34 and 35
From The North American Atlas, printed for William Faden, 1777, in
collection of the New York Historical Society.
Autograph of Robert Magaw 35
From an original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
The Margaret Corbin Tablet 35
From a photograph.
Map of Washington's Retreat across New Jersey 38
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
The Landing of the British Forces in the Jerseys,
November 20, 1776 between 38 and 39
From original drawing, formerly owned by Francis Rawdon Hastings, in
the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Broadside of the Philadelphia Council of Safety,
asking Colonels and Commanding Officers of
the State to be in readiness to meet the Enemy 39
From collection of the New York Historical Society.
Handbill Recounting Outrages Committed by Brit-
ish and Hessian Troops 40
From original in collection of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Autograph of Thomas Paine 41
From a letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
First Page of Thomas Paine's Crisis 41
From collection of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Portrait of Philip Schuyler 42
From painting by Trumbull at Yale University.
Portrait of Thaddeus Kosciuszko 42
From an engraving by C. Josi about 1793, made from a painting by Josef
Grassi. In the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
American Coin, 1776 (scarce) 44
Reverse of the earliest coinage struck by authority of the United States
known as "Fugio"; cast in silver, also in tin and in brass. Values
varied. Obverse showed thirteen interlacing rings, each bearing name of
a state. A common variant of this piece shows the interesting spelling
Curency" instead of Currency." From collection of the National
Museum, Washington, D. C.

Illustrations xiii

Map of Washington's Advance on Trenton 46
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Autograph of Rall 47
From letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of the Battle of Trenton 47
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Lieutenant Fischer's Map of the Battle of Tren-
ton 48
From a photograph supplied by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army,
West Point, N. Y.
Cap Worn by a Hessian Soldier Killed at Tren-
ton 49
From collection of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
Portrait of General John Cadwalader .
From a miniature by Peale, by kind permission of the owner, Mr. George
McCall of Philadelphia.
Map of Washington's Advance and the Battles of
Trenton and Princeton 52
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Plan of Operations of General Washington against
the King's Troops in New Jersey, from Decem-
ber, 1776, to January, 1777 between 52 and 53
From copy published by William Faden, London, 1777, in collection
of the New York Historical Society.
Autograph of Hugh Mercer. 53
From letterin the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Hugh Mercer's Sword .. 53
From photograph supplied by Mr. Charles S. Bradford.
Uniforms of Officer and Private, Seventeenth Brit-
ish Foot 54
Supplied by Mr. Samuel M. Milne, Calverley House, Leeds, England.
Nassau Hall 54
From The Continental Congress at Princeton by Varnum Lansing Collins.
Rum Keg 55
Formerly belonged to James Dickerson and Thomas Peabody. Repro-
duction directly from original kindly loaned by Mr. John E. L. Hazen,
Shirley, Mass.
Daniel Hitchcock's Watch 56
In possession of the author.
"The Flight of the Congress "- a Cartoon
between 58 and 59
Published November 20, 1777 (London); reproduced from copy in the
Boston Public Library.
Autograph of Vergennes 59

xiv Illustrations

Commemorative Tablet on the Site of the Provost
Prison .62
From a photograph.
Map of the Prison Ship Stations in Wallabout Bay 62
From Stiles's History of Brooklyn.
British Prison Ship "Jersey" 63
From Stiles's History of Brooklyn.
Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument. 64
From a photograph supplied by General Horatio C. King.
Map Showing Location of British and American
Prisons of War during the Revolution 65
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M., Cambridge, Mass.
Autograph of Return J. Meigs 66
From letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of Tryon's Raid of 1777 66
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
The First Flag of the Union 67
Reconstruction showing it as flown at Washington's camp near Boston,
January, 1776.
Colonel Alexander Hamilton (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 70
Portrait from original in the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
Baron de Kalb (Portrait and Autograph) 71
Portrait from a painting in oil owned by the Maryland Historical Society,
Baltimore; autograph from an original letter in the New York Public
Library (Emmet Collection).
Banner of the Pulaski Legion 72
Reproduced in colors of the original in the collection of the Maryland His-
torical Society, Baltimore.
Count Casimir Pulaski (Portrait and Autograph) 73
Portrait from engraving in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris; autograph
from original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Marie Jean Paul Roche Yves Gilbert Motier, Mar-
quis de Lafayette (Portrait and Autograph) 74
From original at Versailles. Kindly supplied by Mr. Henry Vignaud,
Secretary to the American Embassy, Paris. Autograph from letter in the
New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Uniform of Private of Colonel Moylan's Fourth
Regiment of Light Dragoons (American) 75
From original drawing by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Autograph of Knyphausen 76
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of Campaigns about Philadelphia 76, 77
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Uniform of First Troop, Philadelphia Light Horse 77
From original drawing by Mr. H. A. Ogden.

Illustrations xv

Map of the Battle of the Brandywine 78
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Standard of the Philadelphia Light Horse Troop
of 1775 79
Now in possession of the First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry. The
reproduction, made through courtesy of Captain J. C. Groome, shows its
present appearance with great fidelity.
Portrait of Anthony Wayne 80
From collection of the New York Historical Society.
Attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Ger-
mantown 83
From historical painting by Edward Lamson Henry now owned by Mrs.
Samuel Chew. Reproduced by kind permission.
Map of the Battle of Germantown 84
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Private, Seventeenth Light Dragoons (British),
1763-86 85
From original drawing by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Map of Operations on the Delaware 86
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
General Theater of Burgoyne's Campaign of 1777 90
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Autograph of General William Phillips. 91
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Canteen of the Revolutionary Period 9
From collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society.
Caricature on Employment of Indians by the British 92
Published in London, 1780. From an original.
Map of the Investment of Fort Ticonderoga 93
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Soldiers' Belt Buckles (Brass, Silver, and Copper)
found at Ticonderoga 94
Reproduced directly from originals kindly loaned by Mr. Silas H. Paine.
Map of the Battle of Hubbardton 94
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Cartridge-box used during the Revolution 95
From collection of Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Two Flags of the Second New Hampshire Regi-
ment taken by the Ninth British Foot at Fort
Anne 95
Now in the possession of Colonel George W. Rogers, Wykeham, Bur-
gess Hill, Sussex, England, through whose kind assistance we obtained
colored photographs from which the above are engraved. These are the
only flags now in existence captured from American Regiments during the
war of the Revolution, according to Mr. Gherardi Davis in his Regi-
mental Colors in the War of the Revolution.



Autograph of General Arthur Saint Clair 96
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Soldier's Pocket-knife found near Fort Ticonderoga 96
Reduced reproduction directly from original kindly loaned by Mr. Silas H.
One of the Axes used by Burgoyne's Troops, found
at Schuylerville, New York 97
Reduced reproduction directly from original kindly loaned by Mr. Silas H.
Uniform of a Brunswick Dragoon (dismounted) of
Lieutenant-colonel Baum's Regiment 98
Drawn by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
General Simon Fraser's Letter to Baron Riedesel
between 98 and 99
From original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait of General John Stark 99
From oil painting now in office of the mayor of Manchester, N. H.
Map of the Mohawk-Oneida Route and Settle-
ments 00, 101
From Mante's History of the Late War, London, 1772.
Map of the Battle of Bennington 00
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Portrait of Joseph Brant 10
From mezzotint in the British Museum.
Autograph of John Butler 102
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Diagram Representing the Order of March of Saint
Leger's Troops .. 102
Reduced facsimile of original found in the writing-desk of Saint Leger, left
behind when he fled from his camp before Fort Schuyler. Contained in
the Gansevoort Papers in possession of Mrs. Catherine Gansevoort
Muster-roll of Colonel Peter Gansevoort's Staff and
Other Officers between 102 and 103
From the Gansevoort Papers in possession of Mrs. Catherine Gansevoort
Portrait of Colonel Peter Gansevoort 103
From original by Stuart in possession of Mrs. Catherine Gansevoort
Abraham Swartwout's Letter to Colonel Gansevoort
requesting an Order for Cloth to Replace his
Blue Coat used for "Colours" 104
From original in possession of Mrs. Catherine Gansevoort Lansing. Con-
tained in the Gansevoort Papers.



Diagram of Fort Stanwix (Fort Schuyler) 105
Facsimile of contemporary drawing in possession of Mrs. Catherine Ganse-
voort Lansing. Contained in the Gansevoort Papers.
Autograph of Nicholas Herkimer. 1o6
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Herkimer Monument at Oriskany o6
From a photograph.
Map of the Siege of Fort Schuyler .. 107
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Monument to Marinus Willett at Albany 107
From a photograph.
Old Church at German Flats, Built in 1767 near
Fort Herkimer o8
From a photograph.
Gansevoort's Statue at Rome, New York o8
From a photograph.
Soldier's Pewter Spoon found near Fort Edward 109
Direct reproduction from original, kindly loaned by Mr. Silas H. Paine.
Portrait of General Horatio Gates. .
From collection of Mr. Charles Henry Hart.
Map of the Battle of Freeman's Farm 113
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Portrait of Simon Fraser 114
From painting by Scouter, engraved by James Watson, from the New
York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Plan of Attack on Forts Clinton and Montgomery,
October, 1777 .. between 116 and 117
Published by William Faden, London, 1784 ; reproduced from copy in
colors in collection of the New York Historical Society.
Map of the Attack on Forts Montgomery and
Clinton 117
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Proclamation by the New York Council of Safety 118
Dated July 30, 1777. From the Emmet Collection in the New York
Public Library.
Silver Bullet and Clinton's Message 119
Found on spy captured by the Americans From an engraving of the
original kindly supplied by Mr. B. M. Brink.
Enlistment Paper signed by Enoch Poor when he
Joined the Army as a Private 120
From original document in collection of the Essex Institute.
Portraits of Major Acland and Lady Harriet Acland 121
From engravings of the paintings by Reynolds, now in possession of Sir
Charles Thomas Dyke Acland.
Map of the Battle of Bemis Heights 122
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.

xviii Illustrations

Portrait ofAlexander Lindsay, Sixth Earl of Balcarres 123
Reproduced from original painting owned by the Earl of Crawford and
Balcarres, kindly supplied in colors by Lord Balcarres.
"Plan of the Position which the Army under Lt-
Gen'- Burgoine took at Saratoga"
between 124 and 125
From copy in collection of the New York Historical Society.
General Simon Fraser's Funeral 125
From engraving showing view of the west bank of the Hudson River.
From Travels through the Interior Parts of America, by an Officer
Map of Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga 126
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Articles of "Convention" between Lieutenant-gen-
eral Burgoyne and Major-general Gates .
between 126 and 127
Signed at Saratoga, October 16, 1777. From original document in
possession of the New York Historical Society.
Coat of Arms of Burgoyne 127
From Burke's Peerage and Baronetage. Drawn in colors by Mr. Henry
British Cartoon on the Surrender of Burgoyne 128
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
General Gates's Letter to Hancock Announcing
Burgoyne's Surrender between 128 and 129
Dated October 18, 1777. From original in the Library of Congress,
Division of Manuscripts.
Surrender of Burgoyne 129
Facsimile (reduced) reproduction of Trumbull's famous painting in the
rotunda of the Capitol at Washington.
Bronze Medal Awarded by Congress to Horatio
Gates 131
From copy in collection of the New York Historical Society.
Boot worn by Dragoon of Riedesel's Forces 132
Taken prisoner at Saratoga, he traveled to Easton, Pennsylvania, on foot
with other prisoners and wore this boot and its mate as far as Middlehope
(North Newburgh). There he exchanged them for lighter ones. At
Washington's Headquarters Museum, Newburgh, N. Y.
Saratoga Battle Monument 132
From a photograph.
Pistol from the Saratoga Battlefield between 132 and 133
Kindly loaned by present owner, Mr. Samuel Ludlow Frey, Palatine
Bridge, New York.
Dinner-plate .. between 132 and 133
One of blue canton set used at the entertainment of Burgoyne after his sur-
render at the old Sylvester home at Kinderhook, New York. Kindly
loaned by present owner, Mr. Samuel Ludlow Frey, Palatine Bridge, New



Portrait of Louis XVI. 134
From painting by Duplessis at Versailles.
Portrait of Silas Deane. 135
From engraving in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait and Autograph of Arthur Lee 137
Portrait from original in collection of the Virginia Historical Society; auto-
graph from original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Autograph of Doctor Benjamin Rush 137
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Coat of Arms of Richard Henry Lee 138
From The Lee Family of Virginia, in the New York Public Library (Emmet
French Map of the United States between 142 and 143
Published, Paris, France, 1778. Said to be the first map published in
France in which this country is called "Etats Unis" (United States).
From copy in the Library of Congress, Map Division.
Autographs of the Royal Peace Commissioners 144
From original documents in the Library of Congress.
Pass Given to Adam Ferguson by the Royal Peace
Commissioners .. 14
From original document in the Library of Congress.
Last Page of Letter to Congress by Carlisle, Clin-
ton, Eden, and Johnstone, Dated July I, 1778 146
From original in the Library of Congress, Division of Manuscripts.
Lafayette's Challenge to Lord Carlisle
between 146 and 147
Sent because of an alleged insult to France contained in a public letter
written by this nobleman. From a facsimile of the original in the Library
of Congress, Division of Manuscripts.
Congress's Manifesto in Response to the Overtures
of the Peace Commissioners, Dated October
30, 1778 148
From original in the Library of Congress.
Caricature of the Peace Commission of 1778 149
From copy in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Rhode Island Ballot for Colony Officers 15
From a copy in the Rhode Island Historical Society.
South Carolina State Seal adopted in 1776 (obverse
and reverse) .
Photographed from plaster cast of seal, kindly supplied by Mr. A. S. SalleyJr.,
Secretary of The Historical Commission of South Carolina.
Red Hill, the Homestead of Patrick Henry 151
From a photograph kindly supplied by Mrs. Elizabeth Henry Lyons, a

xx Illustrations

Proclamation by Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of
Connecticut, relative to the Western Claims of
that Colony 16
From original copy in the Connecticut State Library.
Title-page of Pelatiah Webster's Pamphlet on the
Constitution. 162
From copy in the New York Public Library.
Plan of Encampment at Valley Forge 164
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Washington's Proclamation, issued at Valley Forge,
December 20, 1777 .165
From collection of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Autograph of William Barton 166
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Book of "General Orders" Kept at the Camp at
Valley Forge between 166 and 167
This particular page is dated January I, 1778, and besides showing details
for guards, etc., is especially interesting because it orders the distribution of
a gill of spirits to each non-commissioned officer and soldier in the com-
mand. From original order-book on file in the Adjutant-general's office,
War Department, Washington, D. C.
House in which Prescott was Captured .167
From Field's History of Rhode Island.
American Uniforms, as depicted in Historisch-Gene-
alogischer Calender oder Jahrbuch, Leipzic, 1784 167
Facsimile copy by Mr. H. A. Ogden. The plates in the "Calender" are
from designs of Dan'l N. Chodowiecki, who died in 180o, aged 75,
Director of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Berlin.
Camp Bed used by George Washington at Valley
Forge (folded and open) 168
Photographed from the original in the collection of the New York His-
torical Society.
Portrait of Martha Washington 69
From Stuart's painting in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass.
Autograph of Thomas Conway 169
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Autograph of General Cadwalader 170
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait of Baron Steuben, by Ralph Earle 170
From original painting owned by Mrs. F. B. Austin of New York.
Reproduced in colors of original by courteous permission.
Uniforms of Riflemen and Pennsylvania Infantry,
as depicted in Historisch-Genealogischer Calender
oder Jahrbuch, Leipzic, 1784. 171
Facsimile copy by Mr. H. A. Ogden.



Bayonet of Revolutionary Time 172
From Burgoyne's camp in the town of Kingsbury, Washington Co.,
N. Y. From collection of Mr. Silas H. Paine.
British Defenses at Philadelphia 173
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
"A Picturesque View of the State of Great Britain
for 1778" 174
A caricature. From copy in the Boston Public Library.
Portrait of Major Andre 175
From a drawing by Sir Joshua Reynolds in possession of Thomas Addis
Emmet, M. D., New York City.
Portrait of Peggy Shippen when a Girl 175
From a painting owned by Mr. Parker C. Chandler of New York City.
Lafayette at Barren Hill 176
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of Battle of Monmouth 178
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Table on which Moll Pitcher told Fortunes during
the American Revolution 179
Now in the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
Moll Pitcher Tablet 179
From Monmouth battle monument.
Portrait of Count d'Estaing by Le Brun 80
From original painting in the Museum at Versailles.
Autograph of Gerard 180
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
View of Newport in 1730 I8o
From a print in the private collection of Doctor Thomas Addis Emmet.
"A Plan of the Harbour of New York"
between 180 and 181
Comprises the whole of New York and Staten Island, part of Long Island
and the Jersey shore, and shows the defenses of New York both by land
and sea. Published by J. Bew, London, 1781 ; reproduced from copy in
the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of Robert Pigot 181
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of Siege of Newport 182
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Letter of Recommendation of Lafayette from the
Congress of the United States to the King of
France.. between 182 and 183
From original document at the New York Historical Society.
Autograph of Griffith Rutherford 184
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of Wyoming and Cherry Valleys 185
Compiled by Mr. Vincent A. Benda.

xxii Illustrations

View of Forty Fort 186
From official souvenir of Wilkesbarre Centennial supplied by the Reverend
Horace E. Hayden.
Wyoming Massacre Monument 86
From a photograph.
Map of Indian Operations in the East .. 187
Compiled by LieutenantJoseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Revised by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Brant's Letter, April 10, 1780, translated by the
Reverend Samuel Kirkland 88
From original document loaned by Mr. Samuel Ludlow Frey.
Portrait of General John Sullivan 89
From Tenney's painting in the State House, Concord, N. H.
Public Instructions given to Lieutenant-colonel
George Rogers Clark by Patrick Henry, Jan-
uary 2, 1778 between 190 and 191
From original document in the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society,
Madison, Wisconsin.
First Page of Private Instructions given to Lieu-
tenant-colonel George Rogers Clark by Pat-
rick Henry .between 190 and 191
From original document in collection of the Virginia Historical Society.
Map of Indian Operations in the West. 192
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Revised by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Autograph of the Missionary, Pierre Gibault. 193
Map of George Rogers Clark's Expeditions 196
Compiled by Mr. Vincent A. Benda.
Articles of Capitulation of Fort Vincennes
between 198 and 199
From facsimile in possession of Colonel Clarence Monroe Burton, of
Detroit, Michigan.
Letter from George Rogers Clark to Lieutenant-
governor Henry Hamilton, Demanding Un-
conditional Surrender of Vincennes 199
From original in Draper MSS. collection, in the Wisconsin Historical
George Rogers Clark (Portrait and Autograph) 202
Portrait from the Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va. Autograph from
the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Relics of George Rogers Clark- Rifle, Tomahawk,
Watch, Pocket Compass, Knife, Powder-horn,
Pistol, and Sword 203
In possession of Colonel R. T. Durrett, Louisville, Kentucky.

Illustrations xxiii

Portrait of Francois Vigo 204
Photographed from original oil painting in Vincennes University, founded in
I806. Kindly supplied by Mr. Edward S. Clark.
Autograph of'William Crawford .. 206
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Siege of Fort Henry, September I 1, 1782, the Last
Battle of the Revolution 207
From historical painting by Joseph A. Faris, in possession of the city of
Wheeling. While imaginative, it is from a careful study of conditions
attending the incident, and is of historical value.
Autograph of Augustine Prevost 209
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
General Map of the Southern Campaign to the
close of 1780, Invasion of the Carolinas 210
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Letter to Major-general Benjamin Lincoln from
General John Ashe Regarding Movements of
the Troops in Georgia between 210 and 211
Dated February 21, 1779. From original in the New York Public
Library (Emmet Collection).
Campbell's Letter to Lincoln Relative to Exchange
of Prisoners, dated January 9, 1779 211
Photographed from original in collection of the New York Public Library.
Detail Map of the Southern Campaign to the close
of 1780, Invasion of the Carolinas 212
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Proclamation by Prevost, Parker, and Campbell to
the People of Georgia, March 4, 1779
between 212 and 213
Broadside from copy in the Library of Congress.
Portrait of Benjamin Lincoln. .. 213
Photographed from portrait by Sargent, in possession of the Massachu-
setts Historical Society.
Pulaski's Letter to the Auditor of the Army, March
27, 1779 214
From collection of the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Map of the Siege of Savannah 215
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Lord Rawdon, Francis Rawdon Hastings (Por-
trait and Autograph) 216
From mezzotint of the original painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the
possession of the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection) ; autograph
from the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of the Siege of Charleston 217
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.



Coat of Arms of Arthur M iddleton 218
Drawn in proper heraldic colors by Mr. Henry Strippel, from copy in
Vermont's America Heraldica.
Portrait of Arthur M iddleton and Family 218
Reproduced in colors from original painting by Benjamin West, by cour-
teous permission of present owner, Mr. Henry Middleton Fisher.
Banastre Tarleton (Portrait and Autograph) 219
Portrait from a mezzotint by Reynolds in the New York Public Library
Emmet Collection) autograph from the New York Public Library
Emmet Collection).
Proclamation, One of Many, Issued by Clinton and
Arbuthnot .. 220
From printed copy in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Francis M arion (Portrait and Autograph) 222
Portrait from a painting by H. N. Hyneman of New York. This
portrait was not painted from life but the artist used all the available mate-
rial in shape of descriptions, engravings drawn from memory and the like,
and is the most satisfactory reproduction of General Marion to be procured.
A Caricature of Charles Lee 224
Photographed from illustration in Girdlestone's Facts tending to prove that
General Lee *was the author of funius' Letters, London, 1813. From
the New York Public Library.
Map of the Battle of Camden 226
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of the Battle of King's M mountain 230
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Portion of the Last Page of Letter from Baron
Steuben to Governor Jonathan Trumbull 234
Dated September 19, 1779. This document is in the collection of the
Connecticut Historical Society.
British Cartoon, "The Political Raree-show"
between 234 and 235
Published in the Westminster Magazine, June, 1779. Shows the Saratoga
surrender among the twelve incidents caricatured. From copy in collec-
tion of the New York Historical Society.
M ap of Tryon's Raid into Connecticut in 1779 235
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of the Capture of Stony Point 236
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Medal Awarded to Anthony Wayne for the Capture
of Stony Point 236
From a copy.
George Washington's Autograph Letter to Doctor
Cochran between 236 and 237
Dated at West Point, August 16, 1779. Interesting letter regarding
dinner invitation with apologies to the guests as to the nature of the
fare they may expect, stating that his cook "has had the surprising
luck to discover that apples will make pyes." Further states that they



must "submit to partake of it on plates-once tin but now iron-not
become so by the labor of scouring." From collection of the New York
Historical Society.
Map of the Penobscot Expedition 237
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Camp Kettle of General Anthony Wayne, Inherited
from Susan Hubberd, Grandmother of his
W ife 238
From collection of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
View of Paulus Hook 238
Facsimile of a water color painted by a British officer during the Revolu-
tion. From a print in the private collection of Doctor Thomas Addis
Autograph of the Reverend James Caldwell 239
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Flag of the Second Rhode Island Regiment 239
From original at State House, Providence, R. I. Information regarding
this and other flags was very courteously supplied by Mr. Gherardi Davis,
author of Regimental Colors in the War of the Revolution, in which book a
beautiful colored reproduction of this flag appears as frontispiece.
M ap of the Battle of Springfield, New Jersey 240
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Webb's Third Connecticut Regiment Flag used
during the Revolutionary W ar 240
Now owned by the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution, by
whose courteous permission it is reproduced in colors in facsimile of its
present appearance.
Portrait of the M arquis de Chastellux .241
From a photograph of original painting supplied by M. Em. Terquem,
Advance of British Army from Staten Island. .241
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Portrait of Polly Lawton 242
Reproduced in colors from miniature by Peale in 1790, by courteous per-
mission of the present owner, Mr. George P. Lawton.
Portrait of Benedict Arnold 242
From a private plate owned by Doctor Thomas Addis Emmet.
"A View of West Point on Hudsons River,"
1780 .244, 245
By Major L'Enfant, Engineer. From facsimile in Boynton's History of
West Point.
House of Beverly Robinson 246
From a photograph made about 1885. House is no longer standing.
Broadside by Benedict Arnold between 246 and 247
Addressed to the inhabitants of America, containing vindication of his con-
duct. This is the only known copy of this publication appearing as a
broadside, though the address was published in certain papers.
Villefranche's Plan of W est Point 247
From facsimile in Boynton's History of West Point.

xxvi Illustrations

Portrait of Major Andre 248
From the original painting by Copley, in the Corcoran Gallery of Art,
Washington. Reproduced by special permission of the owner, Mr. C. F.
Major Andre's Pocket-book. 249
In collection of the Connecticut Historical Society.
Arnold's Pass to Major Andre 249
From original document in the New York State Library, Albany, N. Y.
Medal Awarded by Congress to Williams, Paulding,
and Van W art for the Capture of Andre 250
Reproduced from original in the New York Historical Society.
Paper found in Major Andre's Possession when he
was Captured between 250 and 251
Dated September 13, 1780. Contains an estimate of the forces garrisoning
West Point. From original copy in the New York State Library.
Map to Illustrate Arnold's Treason and Andre's
Capture 25
Compiled by Mr. William Abbatt.
Commission of Benjamin Tallmadge between 252 and 253
Signed by John Hancock, December 14, 1776. From original in col-
lection of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New
York at Fraunces Tavern.
Flag of Tallmadge's Dragoons between 252 and 253
From original in possession of Mrs. J. H. Knox, Troy, New York, by
courteous permission.
Portraits of the Tallmadge Family between 252 and 253
Painted by Ralph Earle, 1790. Reproduced by courteous permission of
the present owner, Mrs. Mary F. Seymour.
Portrait of Major Andre 253
From an engraving in Political Magazine, March, 1781.
Andre's Own Sketch of Himself 254
Original in the collection of Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Mrs. Benedict Arnold (Peggy Shippen) and Child 254
Reduced facsimile of portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, in collection of the
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Arnold's Proclamation after his Treason
between 254 and 255
To the officers and soldiers of the continental army, urging them to be
no longer the tools and dupes of congress. The information regarding this
broadside was obtained in a note from Mr. Worthington C. Ford, Chief
of Division of Manuscripts, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.,
dated May z, 1908, reading as follows: "'Can you not find room for the
reproduction of Benedict Arnold's proclamation after his treason ? The
only copy I have ever seen turned up in some miscellaneous Jefferson
papers, and while one of the lower corners is a little torn, yet the contents
are of such a nature as to make them of particular personal value."

Illustrations xxvii

Washington's Circular Letter to Nathanael Greene
between 254 and 255
Detailing the critical condition of the army and urging the abandonment
of short time enlistments. From the original in the office of the Rhode
Island Secretary of State.
Autograph of Commodore W hipple 259
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Birthplace of John Paul Jones 260
From a photograph.
Facsimile of Jones's Commission as Captain .261
The "Stars and Stripes" of the "Bon Homme
Richard" 261
Reproduced from a photograph colored in close facsimile of the present
appearance of the flag. The flag is now deposited in the National Museum
at Washington. This is not the flag flown during the action with the
Serapis," as that flag was sent down with the Bon Homme Richard "
when she sank, in honor of her gallant dead.
Broadside Soliciting Enlistment Under John Paul
Jones 262
From original at the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
Map of the Movements of the "Ranger" 263
Compiled by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C.
John Paul Jones (Portrait and Autograph) 264
Portrait by Peale at Independence Hall, Philadelphia. Autograph from
the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Autograph of Peter Landais. 264
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait of Sir Richard Pearson 265
From mezzotint in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Cruises of John Paul Jones in British Waters
between 264 and 265
Compiled by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C., by careful investigation
of original sources and material, including parts of the log of the Bon
Homme Richard."
Position of the Fleets before the Engagement of
September 23, 1779 266
Compiled by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C.
The Engagement, September 23, 1779 267
Compiled by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C.
Course of the "Bon Homme Richard," September
10 to September 23, 1779 268, 269
Compiled by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C.




"The memorable Engagement of Captn. Pearson
of the Serapis, with Paul Jones of the Bon
Homme Richard & his Squadron, Sep. 23,
I779" 269
Reproduced from copper-plate engraving by John Boydell, published in 1780.
A Page from the Log of the "Bon Homme
Richard" 270
Supplied by Mrs. Annie H. Eastman, assistant to the Librarian of the
Naval War Records Library, Washington, D. C.
Brass Candlestick Saved from the Sinking Wreck
of the "Bon Homme Richard" after her
Engagement with the "Serapis" 271
In collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Sword Presented to John Paul Jones by Louis XVI. 272
From data and illustration supplied by Mr. Charles Henry Hart. Sword
now in possession of Colonel Richard Dale.
Medal Awarded to Jones by Congress 272
From a restrike of the original in possession of Mr. Charles William Burrows.
Portrait of Vergennes 274
From painting in the Galerie de Versailles, near Paris.
Portrait of Admiral Rodney. 276
From the National Portrait Gallery, London. Original by Sir Joshua
Portrait of Catherine II. of Russia 278
From miniature in Williamson's History of Portrait Miniatures in the New
York Public Library. Copy was made from the Czar of Russia's Collection.
Map to Illustrate Attitude of European Nations
Toward the American Revolution 279
Prepared by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
General Nathanael Greene (Portrait and Autograph) 282
Portrait from original painting by Peale by courteous permission of the
owner, Mrs. Katherine Porter Greene. Autograph from original letter in
the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
General Map to Illustrate the Southern Campaign
of 1781 283
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Detail Map to Accompany General Map Illustrat-
ing Southern Campaign of 1781 284
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Autograph of Andrew Pickens .285
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait of Daniel Morgan 286
From portrait by Peale in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
Map of the Battle of Cowpens .286
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.



Flag of the Third Maryland Regiment 287
The only national ensigi known to be in existence that was used as a regi-
mental color in the war of the Revolution. Preserved in the flag-room of
the capitol at Annapolis.
Bronze Medal Awarded by Congress to Daniel
Morgan for his Victory at Cowpens 288
From a restrike.
Arms of Nathanael Greene 289
Drawn in correct heraldic colors by Mr. Henry Strippel.
Map of the Battle of Guilford Court House 290
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Grenadier of the Twenty-third Foot (British) 291
Drawn by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Lantern used in Cornwallis's Army 292
Now in possession of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
Broadside, Cornwallis Retreating between 292 and 293
This is an extract from a letter by Major-general Nathanael Greene, dated
Camp at Buffalo Creek, March 23, 1781 ; reproduced from a copy in
the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of the Battle of Hobkirks Hill 293
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of the Siege of Ninety Six 294
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of the Battle of Eutaw Springs 295
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Flag of Colonel William Washington's Cavalry
Troop, commonly Called the Eutaw Standard. 296
In possession of the Washington Light Infantry Corps of Charleston, South
Carolina. We are indebted to Captain W. S. Lanneau, of the Wash-
ington Light Infantry, for assistance in securing a colored photograph of it.
Map of Arnold's Position at Richmond, January 5,
1781 298
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of Operations in Virginia in 1781 299
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of Operations on the Chesapeake Bay, March,
1781 .. 300
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Uniform of Lafayette's Light Infantry 301
Drawn by Mr. H. A. Ogden.
Overshoes worn by Lafayette 301
In collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society.
Map of Phillips's Position at Petersburg 302
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Coat of Arms of Cornwallis 303
From Burke's Peerage and Baronetage. Drawn in colors by Mr. Henry



Count de Rochambeau (Portrait and Autograph) 305
Portrait from original painting by La Riviere in the museum at Versailles.
Map of Washington's and Rochambeau's March
to Yorktown 306
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Manuscript Map (in French) of the Position of
the American and French Armies at Phillips-
burg, 1781 between 306 and 307
In colors from original in the New York Historical Society.
Count de Grasse (Portrait and Autograph) 308
Portrait from original painting by Maugaitte in the museum at Versailles
autograph from the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Diploma from Yale College Conferring Degree of
LL. D. on Washington, September 12, 1781
between 308 and 309
From original in the Library of Congress.
Cap Worn by Captain Titcomb of Washington's
Life Guard 309
From collection of the Essex Institute.
Map of Operations on the Chesapeake Bay, in Sep-
tember, 1781 310
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Map of Arnold's Attack on New London 311
Autograph of William Ledyard 31.
From a letter dated April 4, 1781.
Manuscript Plan of Fort Griswold between 312 and 313
Drawn about 1718, probably by an American engineer; from original
drawing in the Faden collection of maps in the Library of Congress.
Manuscript Map of New London and Groton, with
Attacks on Forts Trumbull and Griswold
between 312 and 313
Reproduced from original colored drawing in the Faden collection of maps
in the Library of Congress.
Map of the Siege of Yorktown 314
Compiled by Lieutenant Joseph A. Baer, U. S. Army, West Point, N. Y.
Plan of the Siege of Yorktown between 314 and 315
Published March I, 1787 (London). From copy in colors in collection
of the New York Historical Society.
Flag of the Gatinois Regiment (French) 315
Flag of the Saintonge Regiment (French) 315
Autograph of Thomas Nelson 316
From original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Nelson House at Yorktown 316
From a photograph.



Flag of the Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment (French). 3 16
Some Uniforms of French Officers and Privates
who served in the American Revolution under
Rochambeau between 316 and 317
Reproduced from original drawings made by Mr. G. Noyon, Paris.
Moore House at Yorktown 318
From a photograph.
Portrait of Charles, Earl Cornwallis, Lieutenant-
general in the British Army 319
Reproduced in reduced facsimile of original, painted by Copley, in Guild-
hall, London.
Epaulets Worn by Washington at Yorktown. 319
In collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Medal Issued by Congress to Commemorate the Sur-
render of the British at Saratoga and Yorktown 320
From a restrike.
Ansbach-Bayreuth Color between 320 and 321
This Ansbach-Bayreuth flag is one of three surrendered at Yorktown and
preserved to this day. It now hangs in the chapel of the United States
Military Academy at West Point.
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown 321
Close facsimile of original picture painted by John Trumbull in 1787 ; now
in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Colonel Peter Gansevoort's Third New York
Regiment Flag, made in 1778 or 1779 and
Carried at the Siege of Yorktown 322
Reproduced from a carefully colored photograph by courteous permission of
Mrs. Abraham Gansevoort Lansing of Albany, N. Y.
Autograph of Tench Tilghman 322
From original letter in the New York Public Library ( Emmet Collection).
Yorktown Monument 323
From a photograph.
Autograph of John Laurens. 324
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Greene's Monument at Savannah .. 325
From a photograph.
Georgia Currency of 1776 326
From specimen in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection .
New Hampshire Currency of 1775 326
From specimen in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Thirty-dollar Bill of 1775 327
From specimen in collection of the New York Historical Society.
Genuine and Counterfeit Continental Bill 327
From Harper's Magazine.
Continental Currency of 1778 (obverse and reverse) 328
From specimen in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).

xxxii Illustrations

Portrait of Thomas Jones of New York, a Promi-
nent Loyalist 334
Button of Butler's Rangers 339
From collection of Mr. W. L. Calver.
Button of the King's American Regiment 339
From collection of Mr. W. L. Calver.
Belt Plate of Butler's Rangers, Found at Fort George,
Canada, Opposite Fort Niagara, New York 339
From collection of Mr. W. L. Calver.
Autograph of Henry Laurens 342
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
The American Peace Commission of 1782 343
Facsimile of West's unfinished painting owned by Lord Belper of Kingston
Hall, Kegworth, Derby, England, reproduced by his special permission.
Autograph of Rockingham 344
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Autograph of Shelburne 345
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of the Boundary Negotiations of 1782, Inter-
preted According to a Contemporary Map 350
Simplified from a reduction of Mitchell's map of 1755. Compiled by
David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Map of Boundaries proposed in the Negotiations
of 1782, between the United States and Eng-
land, according to a modern map 351
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Broadside Announcing the Signing of the Prelimi-
nary Treaty 358
From a copy in the senate chamber of the old Senate House, Kingston,
New York, kindly supplied by Mr. Julius Schoonmaker.
Proclamation Announcing Signing of Definitive
Treaty of Peace .. between 360 and 361
From original in collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Signatures to the Treaty of 1783 361
From the original document in the Department of State, Washington.
North America after the Peace of 1783 362
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Proclamation by Elias Boudinot between 362 and 363
Declaring cessation of hostilities, April II, 1783. Broadside published in
Rhode Island, April 22, 1783 ; reproduced from copy in collection of the
Rhode Island Historical Society.
Washington's Headquarters at Newburg .363
From a recent photograph.
Portrait of General Henry Knox 363
Reproduced in colors from Stuart's painting deposited by the City of Boston
in the Museum of Fine Arts.


Order of the Society of the Cincinnati 364
Worn by His Excellency President-general George Washington at the first
meeting of the General Society, Philadelphia, May, 1784. Direct repro-
duction from the original through kindness of the Hon. Asa Bird Gardiner,
LL.D., L. H. D., M. H., President of the Rhode Island State Society
of the Cincinnati and Secretary-general.
Title-page of Aedanus Burke's Pamphlet on the
Order of the Cincinnati 364
From a copy of the original edition in the Library of Harvard University.
An Early Survey for a Canal at Fort Stanwix 365
From original in the Gansevoort Papers in possession of Mrs. Catherine
Gansevoort Lansing.
Proclamation by Elias Boudinot Disbanding the
Continental Army 366
From original in the Library of Congress.
A Negro Soldier's Discharge after the War 368
From facsimile in Nell's The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution.
Autograph of Christopher Greene 369
Washington Resigning his Commission. 370
Close facsimile of original picture painted by John Trumbull in 1787 ; now
in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Flag of the Bucks of America," a Colored Regi-
ment that served in the Revolution 371
From original in collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Whitehall Ferry Tablet 371
From a photograph.
Last Page of Washington's Military Accounts of
the American Revolution 372
From original in the Library of Congress.
Title-page of the First Printed Edition of the New-
burg Letters 376
From copy in the Library of Congress.
Autograph of Gouverneur Morris 379
From original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Title-page of the Rutgers vs. Waddington Case 381
Photographed from a copy of this rare pamphlet in the New York Public
Autograph of James Wilkinson 385
From original letter in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Map of State Claims and Cessions, 1780-1802 388
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Continental Budget for 1786 390
From Reports of the Board of Treasury in the New York Public Library.
Some Coins used during the Revolution
between 390 and 391
From collection of the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.




Ordinance for the Establishment of a M int 392
From original document in collection of the New York Historical Society.
Promissory Note signed by Daniel Shays 394
In collection of the New England Historical and Genealogical Society, Boston.
Governor Bowdoin's Proclamation, January 12,1787 395
From original in the New York Public Library.
Jefferson's Plan for the Organization of the North-
west Territory between 400 and 401
Shows peculiar names suggested for these places-Chersonesus, Assenisipia,
Metropotamia, Polypotamia, Pelisipia, and others. From the original in
possession of Colonel Clarence Monroe Burton, of Detroit, Michigan.
M ap of Proposed States in the W est, 1777-86 402
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Autograph of Thomas Hutchins 03
From original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory
of the United States Northwest of the River
Ohio between 404 and 405
From a printed copy in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Plat of the Seven Ranges of Townships
between 406 and 407
Surveyed by Captain Thomas Hutchins, Geographer of the United States,
in accordance with ordinance and resolutions of congress passed May 20,
1785, and subsequently. From early copper-plate impression of the survey,
unpublished in recent times, discovered in 1909 by Albion Morris Dyer,
A. M., Curator of the Western Reserve Historical Society, in the archives
of the United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. This original
is in the Museum of the Western Reserve Historical Society, by loan from
the United States Geological Survey.
Ohio Company's Land Contract between 408 and 409
From original in collection of Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio.
Portrait of Arthur Saint Clair 410
From portrait by Peale, in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
Map Showing Development of the West to 1787
between 410 and 411
Compiled by David Maydole Matteson, A. M.
Autograph of Simon Kenton 412
From original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Portrait of Noah W ebster 415
From portrait by Sharpless in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
Portrait of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 418
From portrait by Sharpless in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
The State House, Philadelphia, 1776 .419
From print in the collection of Mr. C. S. Keyser.
Constitution of the United States between 436 and 437
Shows the last article and signatures. From the original in the archives in
the Department of State, Washington, D. C.

A History of the United States
and its People




FTER the shedding of British blood at Concord Hunting for
and Bunker Hill, George III. was more than Help
ever determined to crush the rebellious colonies
by force. National and military pride had been aroused
and many in England who, in 1774, had bitterly
denounced the ministry felt, in 1775, that the Americans
must be chastised. Nevertheless, the war was not yet
popular; recruiting proceeded slowly and the people
would not endure a conscription; troops must be secured
in some other way. George III. was elector of Hanover
and the custom of the times pointed to the employment
of foreign troops.
Germany was now split up into nearly three hundred German
practically independent states, ranging from great king- Mercenaries
doms like Austria and Prussia down to little principali-
ties too small to be shown upon a map. It had long
been the custom of the impecunious princelets who ruled
over these petty states to hire out their subjects, and
German troops were sometimes arrayed on opposite sides
in the same battle. Into this promising market a British
agent, Colonel William Faucitt, was sent to buy up food
for powder and ball at so many pounds per head. His
instructions from the earl of Suffolk were "to get as November,
many as you can. Expense is not so much the 1775
object in the present emergency as in ordinary cases."
Faucitt met his first success in Brunswick, then gov- In Brunswick
erned by an ambitious and extravagant duke and by his

2 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 more thrifty son, Prince Charles William Ferdinand, who
had married a sister of George III. Brunswick con-
tained but one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants
and its princes were badly in debt. A treaty was soon
January 9 drawn up whereby the duke was to equip and officer for
the king of England a corps of three thousand nine hun-
dred and sixty-four infantry and three hundred and thirty-
six unmounted dragoons. The king was to pay the
troops and to care for their sick and wounded as if they
were his own, and the duke was to receive, as levy money,
71. 4s. 4yd. thirty crowns banco for every common soldier actually
delivered. For the corps, the king was to pay an annual
1,517/ 7. 17T. rental as long as it was
i2d. in service and twice that
amount for two years
after its return to Bruns-
The Hessian From Brunswick, Fau-
Bargain citt hastened to Hesse-
Cassel. This state had
double the population of
Brunswick and was ruled
over by a landgrave,
Frederick II., who in-
dulged himself in such
vi1' expensive luxuries as the
cast-off mistress of a
S.'-: French duke, French ad-
S/venturers, and a French
,. theater with a corps de
5"' ballet. When Faucitt
asked for ten or twelve
thousand men, he was
agreeably surprised by
the offer of a larger num-
ber. Without loss of
time, a treaty was con-
Uniform of a Hessian Grenadier of eluded. The subsidy
Rail's Regiment
(Drawn by Harry A. Ogden) agreed upon was at the

The New York Campaign 3

rate of more than a hundred thousand pounds per year, I 7 7 6
including one year after the return of the troops. In ro8,28is. 5S.
addition to this, the landgrave received more than forty
thousand pounds in payment for hospital expenses in the
Seven Years' War, which claim had been rejected by the
British government fourteen years before.
William, the independent count of Haynau, was the The Haynau
son of the landgrave of Hesse-Cassel by his unfortunate Bargain
first wife, a sister of George II. When the merry and
immoral count had to provide for a natural child, he was
accustomed to add a kreutzer (about one cent) to the
price of every bag of salt brought by his subjects from
the salt-mines. As his acknowledged children of the
bar sinister numbered seventy-four, "the poorer of his
subjects must have learned to be sparing of their salt."
The English king had stationed two Hanoverian battal-
ions in Haynau to insure the independence of the
country. In August, 1775, the grateful William had
written to his cousin George offering a regiment of infan-
try, "all sons of the country which your majesty's pro-
tection alone assures to me and all ready to sacrifice, with
me, their blood for your service." The earl of Suffolk
commended "the nobleness of sentiment and affection-
ate attachment" thus displayed, and Faucitt paid the
count a better price for the six hundred and sixty-eight
men than he did for any others except those he hired
from the count's father.
Faucitt then went outside his royal master's family and odds and
leased more men from the prince of Waldeck, the mar- Ends
grave of Ansbach-Bayreuth, and the prince of Anhalt-
Zerbst, making with them contracts similar to those
previously concluded. Altogether, these principalities
furnished about twenty thousand men in 1776 and about
nine thousand more before the war was over. In addi-
tion, many volunteer recruits and adventurers, attracted
by large bounties, high pay, and the prospect of plunder,
were obtained and used in filling up British regiments.
A large proportion of these German "allies," or "Hes-
sians" as they were collectively called, had seen service

4 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 and were well fitted for the work they were to do. They
were well officered and, though most of them came
against their will and some of them were actually kid-
napped, they earned their pay and keeping and were
almost equally hated and dreaded by the Americans.
More than a third of them never returned to Germany.
Criticism The treaties excited much criticism both on the con-
tinent and in England. Mirabeau, then a fugitive in
Holland, characterized the sale of the soldiers as "the
greatest of crimes" and as "an offense against the free-
dom of nations," and the poet Schiller left an eloquent
June xs protest against the traffic. Frederick the Great wrote of
selling subjects "as one sells cattle to the shambles." In
the English parliament, the treaties were attacked with
vehemence. Lord Irnham compared the mercenary
princes to Sancho Panza who, if he was a ruler, would
prefer that all his subjects should be blackamoors that he
might easily turn them into money. On the other hand,
it was pointed out that the Swiss had long been in the
habit of fighting as mercenaries, that Xenophon's ten
thousand Greeks were the same, and that, since the land-
grave of Hesse and the duke of Brunswick were so
nearly connected with the English throne that their
descendants might one day be called to sit upon it, they
were justified in lending assistance against the rebels.
The opposition produced no important results.
Effect Time brought retribution upon most of the princely
families that were thus guilty of selling their subjects, and
the English policy defeated its own end. The hiring of
the Hessians made reconciliation hopeless and the decla-
ration of independence inevitable. Nothing did more to
nerve the Americans to bitter resistance and to alienate
them forever from the mother country. Englishmen
themselves recognized this. "Were I an American,"
cried Lord Chatham, "as I am an Englishman, while a
foreign troop was landed in my country, I would never
lay down my arms- never-never-never!"
Strategy The first division of the German troops sailed from
England for Quebec in April, 1776; others soon sailed

The New York Campaign 5

for New York. With their aid, the Americans were to i 7 7 6
be driven from Canada; then an army under Carleton
and Burgoyne was to
move up the Riche-
lieu and by way of
Lake Champlain and
the Hudson until it
came in touch with
another army that was
to operate against
NewYork City. New
England, hitherto the
chief center of revolt,
was thus to be cut off
from the other colo-
As related in the On Lake
preceding volume, the -- ..- Champlain
Americans had been
driven from Canada.
The British now fol- "'
lowed up their success I
with an attempt to
acquire the mastery L.
of Lake Champlain.
Three vessels were
taken in piece s, Portrait of Guy Carleton
dragged around the (From a contemporary engraving)
rapids of the Richelieu, and rebuilt at Saint Johns. Others
were built there and about two hundred flatboats were
brought from Montreal. To man this fleet, about seven
hundred sailors and some of the best officers were picked
from the transports and war-ships in the Saint Lawrence.
Meanwhile, largely through the energy of Arnold who
had been intrusted with the preparations and the com-
mand, the Americans managed to assemble at the head
of Lake Champlain (Skenesboro) a fleet of three schoon-
ers, one sloop, five row-galleys, and eight gondolas, col-
lecting those already on the lake and building others.

6 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 Arnold's second in command was a Connecticut brigadier,
and his crews were chiefly landsmen taken from the army.
The First On the morning of the
Fight between eleventh of October, the
an American a e
and a British British fleet, consisting of
Fleet three broadside vessels,
w'l twenty gunboats, and half a
dozen other craft, attacked
the American vessels between
Valcour Island and the west-
C A .- e ern shore. A desperate en-
gagement followed; Arnold
Displayed his usual intrepid-
.....o ,J ity, but by night, the Ameri-
.,. cans had lost a gondola and
the schooner "Royal Sav-
age" and were blockaded by
the enemy who waited for
.... .:' d. morning in order to give the
finishing blow. Before day-
light, however, the remaining
,, 0 American boats stole through
S -the British line and made
S, their way southward. The
d- British pursued and, on the
thirteenth, came up with
Them off Split Rock Point.
*- "-' The "Washington" was
S'compelled to surrender; after
Sa running fight of five hours,
So the "Congress" and four
,. ,,. gondolas were chased into a
I"". .................. creek on the east side of the
S........, lake where Arnold burned
Map illustrating the Action on them and then, "despite the
Lake Champlain savages," escaped with their
crews through the woods. Five of the American vessels
made their way to Ticonderoga, then held by Gates and
his army.

~q o



' 0


*I ,* *= -- -

- h -
__ _






rC- i-
~~. 3_

8 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 The little American navy on Lake Champlain was
The Laurel destroyed, "but never," says Mahan, "had any force, big
Wreath or small, lived to better purpose or died more gloriously."
On the fourteenth of October, Carleton was at Crown
Point which the Americans had evacuated after the de-
struction of their fleet. The season was now so late that


Contemporary engraved View of the Battle of Valcour Island
he did not make any attempt upon Ticonderoga, a grave
mistake that astonished friend and foe. Lake Cham-
plain began to freeze unusually early, there were no
available roads northward through the forest, no prepa-
rations had been made to winter at Crown Point, and
there was danger that the British forces would be cut off
from their base if they attempted to stay where they
were. Consequently, after receiving tidings from Howe
October 29 at New York, Carleton evacuated Crown Point and
returned to Canada, leaving the conquest of the strategic
line of Lake Champlain and the Hudson River for
another campaign. "That the Americans were strong
enough to impose the capitulation of Saratoga," says
Mahan, "was due to the invaluable year of delay, secured
to them in 1776 by their little navy on Lake Cham-
plain, created by their indomitable energy, and handled
with the indomitable courage of the traitor, Benedict
Arnold. That the war spread from America to Europe,

The New York Campaign


from the English channel to the Baltic, from the Bay of I 7 7 6
Biscay to the Mediterranean, from the West Indies to
the Mississippi, and ultimately involved the waters of
the remote peninsula of Hindostan, is traceable through
Saratoga, to the rude flotilla, which in 1776 anticipated
the enemy in the possession of Lake Champlain."

On the twenty-fifth of June, Sir William Howe, in the At
fast sailing frigate "Greyhound," arrived off Sandy Hook New York
from Boston via Halifax, and
was warmly welcomed by
Governor Tryon. A fleet of
one hundred and twenty-
seven square-rigged vessels
besides smaller crafts bore his
nine thousand troops into the
lower bay; on the fifth of
July, Howe's army landed
on Staten Island. On the coat of Arms of Sir William Howe

twelfth, Richard, Lord
SHowe, rear-admiral
and brother of the
general, arrived with
a strong squadron and
nearly one hundred
and fifty transports
bearing eighty-six
hundred Hessian and
British troops.
Lord Ho we The Howe
brought olive-branch Brothers
as well as sword. Be-
fore he left England,
the ministry had, with
the king's reluctant
consent, given him
and his brother a joint
commission to restore
peace. It seemed that

Sir William Howe

1o The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 if reconciliation was possible the two brothers were fittest
to accomplish it. They were grandsons of George II.;
they were younger brothers of the lamented officer who
had fallen near Ticonderoga in the French war; they were
Whigs and the general had spoken in parliament in behalf
of the colonists; they were sincerely anxious to effect a
reconciliation, of which Lord Howe was so confident
that he told Admiral Arbuthnot at Halifax that peace
would be made within ten days of his arrival.
A Dead Howe found his task more difficult than he had antici-
Letter pated. On the fourteenth of July, a letter containing the
king's promise of a full and free pardon to all those who
would desist from rebellion was sent up the bay addressed
to "George Washington, Esq." Joseph Reed, a Phila-
delphia lawyer who had been Washington's military sec-
retary and, in June, had taken Gates's place as adjutant-
general, noticed the superscription and refused to receive
the missive, saying that there was no such person in the
army. Six days later, a document, this time addressed
to "George Washington, Esq.,etc.,etc.," was brought up
by Howe's adjutant-general, but Washington refused to
receive it. The two discussed the question of exchanging
prisoners, but on the subject of peace Washington
refused to negotiate, saying that he had no authority in
the case and that the Americans would not negotiate on
any other basis than independence, a thing that the
Howes were not authorized to consider.
The British On the first of August, the British forces at New
Force York were increased by the arrival of General Clinton
with the troops that he brought back from his unfortu-
nate attempt to take Fort Moultrie. Other reinforce-
ments followed until Howe's army numbered about
thirty-two thousand trained soldiers, of whom more than
twenty-four thousand were fit for service. Aiding
Howe's army was Howe's fleet. General Lee had
already declared "that whoever commands the sea must
command the town."
The New After the evacuation of Boston, Washington had
York Defenses hastened to New York where he arrived on the thirteenth

(From a mezzotint in the New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. Made from a
painting by Copley; published, London, 1794)


(,F 1776

American Troops -
Amerrivin %%. iks or Deicas
Dril'siTiocn iso
Hc..ian A.xiliarie-
Encampmerti of HrIr,,b Forces IAAt
Sirieric movem ent lie sfb.6i a
in broken bI.: I Arei.eia I 3id
red BrIv.Vbt Inacs. itr direclion (il
Defire ifdii lied t- ario, Lead,.
Ybe dde. rc All .th ei

(Prepared from data compiled by Mr. Charles William Burrows)

12 The New York Campaign

R p lI I L L lNil tll N ,

... .. .

ii]P ,L* llI =p, illr 112 I, ,h=l r..

s"' 1 V 0 1,

lS ^ T SI Y : I I I: '1I J

i '. ..L 1 1 A R ,.

> N E 'J 1' K

Currency Issued by New York in 1776
(Five-dollar bill, obverse and reverse)
S7 7 6 George, the Grand Bat-
tery, and the water bat-
teries at every landing
on the lower end of Man-
hattan Island, there was
a chain of redoubts just
north of the city, about
on the line of the Grand
street of today. At the
northern end of the
island, the hills overlook-
ing Kingsbridge were
fortified; and works
were erected on Long
Island. To defend these
widely separated fortifi-
Washington's cations, Washington
Army had, on the twenty-

of April. Lee's plans for
the defense of the city
were enlarged. Governor's
Island was garrisoned;
Paulus Hook on the
Jersey shore and Red
Hook on Long Island
were fortified; and hulks
Were sunk in the channel
between Governor's Island
S and the lower end of
the city. Fort Lee was
p .; built at the Palisades and
': Fort Washington on the
eastern side of the river at
what is now One Hundred
and Eighty-third street, and
,the intervening channel was
Obstructed. Besides Fort
up I,.. ri. L L. I 1 y
'O G V'.' !I'.. r ?i I. r-. ""'

P'. : i v !;;;.: r ,

a n'1 r. .a I
t r-.,ll, .. ..I I I c dl;.[., ,1 F 'r.,,l
an r .r .,c I h 1, t .

S ashington's Proclamation to the People

of New York
ll .. 1 l I '.Ir h.';S P" ,1. llr

Washington's Proclamation to the People
of New York

The New York Campaign 13

seventh of August, about twenty-eight thousand five I 7 7 6
hundred men, of whom eight or nine thousand were not
available for duty.
Twenty-five out of
seventy-one regi-
ments or parts of
regiments were
their men were en-
listed under the .
regulations of con-
gress and their offi-
cers were commis-
sioned by that body
and not by the
states; they were k
the "regulars" of
the Revolution.
The other troops
were militia, gener-
ally ill clad and
poorly armed, good
raw material but
undisciplined. The
artillery was mostly Continental Line Infantry, showing State Distinctions
old and of varying (From original drawing by Harry A. Ogden)
calibre and pattern. Earlier in the month, Heath, Spen- August 9
cer, Sullivan, and Greene had been made major-generals.
On the morning of the twenty-second of August, Howe's
General Howe transferred fifteen thousand British and Army on
Hessian troops and forty field-pieces from Staten Island Long Island
to Long Island. To oppose this force, the Americans had
on the island not more than eight thousand men most of
whom were raw militia, an inadequate supply of artillery,
no cavalry, and no naval support. Cornwallis drove back
the Pennsylvania riflemen who had been patrolling the
coast since May and advanced as far as Flatbush. On
the twenty-fourth, Washington wrote to Governor Trum-
bull of Connecticut asking if it would be "practicable for

14 The New York Campaign

1 7 7 6 your government to throw a body of one thousand or
more men across the sound, to harass the enemy in their
rear or upon
their flanks,
ing the stocks
of cattle, &c."
On the
General De
Heister, a
crippled vet-
eran of many
landed at
Bay with two
more Hessian
Flag of the First Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment b r i g a d e s.
(Reproduced, by the Lumiere process of color photography, from Howe's more
the original in the State House at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) than twenty
thousand men occupied a line extending from the Nar-
rows to Flatlands.
The The Americans upon the island were in a dangerous
meenscne position; if the British fleet should force its way into the
East River their retreat would be cut off. Yet, if New
York was to remain in American hands, ~as. ceory
that Brooklyn Heights should be held, for aey dominated
the city. General Nathanael Greene with about seven
thousand men had spent the summer in fortifyinv the
position. Back of Brooklyn village he had bil~t' a line
of intrenchments and redoubts from Gowanus Cy'e on
the south to Wallabout Bay on the north, a distant~ of a
little less than a mile. Each flank of these inner works
was well protected by creeks and morasses. To or
three miles beyond were the Brooklyn Heighrts, a difficult,
heavily wooded ridge, practically passable by trio'ps with
artillery only at the Narrows road near the bay, at Flatbush
Pass, about three miles to the eastward, and at Jamaica

The New York Campaign I 5

Pass, two or' I1 77 6
three miles
still beyond.
ly, Greene,
who was a
capable officer L
and familiar
with the situ-
ation, was
prostrated by
the prevailing
fever; on the
twentieth of
August he was
succeeded by
Sullivan. On'
the twenty- .
fourth, Wash-
ington placed .

Private of Artillery, Continental Line
(From original drawing by Harry A. Ogden)
Putnam in command; on the
twenty-fifth, he sent him written
instructions; on the twenty-sixth,
he crossed over to the island and
made a personal inspection of the
intrenchments and the outposts.
Putnam was devoted, honest, and
courageous, but he knew almost
nothing of the arrangements for
defense and little of scientific war-
fare. He can hardly be said to have
exercised general command on the
Coat of Arms of Israel Putnam day of the battle that was at hand.

16 The New York Campaign

i 7 7 6 With forces outnumbering the Americans three to one
Howe's Plans and thoroughly informed by Tories of the position of
the enemy, Howe planned
to make the attack in three
columns. General Grant,
whom we met at Fort Du- Autograph of James Grant
quesne and again in the Cherokee country, was to advance
with two brigades, a regiment of Highlanders, and two
companies of New York Tories along the Narrows road
against the American right. General De Heister with
yagers and three German brigades was to move along the
Flatbush road and attack the Americans in that neighbor-
e To- hood. Howe himself,
.: '- m with Clinton, Cornwallis,
\jPercy, and the rest of the
/L army, \\as to make a long

Map of Battle of Long Island

The New York Campaign 17

detour, seize the Jamaica road, and attack the American I 7 7 6
outer line in the rear. Against an adequate army ably
led, such tactics would have been extremely hazardous.
On the twenty-sixth, De Heister's Hessians occupied Somebody
Flatbush and threatened the pass in front, which Sullivan Blundered
held with an intrenched force. At nine o'clock in the
evening, Clinton's flanking column, guided by three Flat-
bush Tories, moved from Flatlands toward the Jamaica
Pass near which, about three in the morning of the
twenty-seventh, they captured five mounted officers who
were supposed to be doing patrol duty. Finding no
other obstruction at the pass, the British marched into
the American rear by the Jamaica road, "a route we never
dreamed of," as one of the American officers innocently
wrote. By
this maneu-
ve r, t h e
forces were
and sur-
prised and
the battle
was really
decided be-
fore the
fighting had
M e a n Stirling's
while, Gen- Skirmish
eral Grant,
on the Brit-
ish left, had
moved for-
ward as
planned and
secured the (From original painting owned by Dr. Robert Watts)

18 The New York Campaign

i 7 7 6 pass in front of him by daybreak. Putnam sent Lord
Stirling with fifteen hundred troops to oppose him, and
slight skirmishes followed for several hours in what is
now Greenwood Cemetery. Considering that they were
outnumbered four to one, Stirling's men seemed to be
doing well; Grant probably did not desire to drive them
from their position until the flanking column had gained
their rear.
Sullivan and In the British center, De Heister and his Hessians
De Heister had lain on their arms directly in front of Sullivan, at
the Flatbush pass. When Clinton descended from the
wooded hills and attacked the Americans on the plain at
Bedford, his guns were heard and understood by De
Heister. The Hessians pushed promptly forward and
Sullivan was caught in the net. Ten thousand British
and four thousand Hessians were too many for fewer
than three thousand Americans and Sullivan ordered a
retreat. On the way, they were met by Clinton's light
infantry and dragoons who drove them back upon the
Hessian bayonets. Fighting hand to hand with the foe,
Sullivan's men were driven backward and forward be-
tween De Heister's full ranks on the one side and Clin-
ton's on the other. Many cut their way through the
hedge of bayonets and sabres, after which there was a
lively chase over the hills and through the woods just
outside the Brooklyn lines. Had the pursuing grena-
diers then stormed Fort Putnam, an easy victory would
doubtless have been won. Many were killed, wounded,
or captured and Sullivan was taken prisoner. Wash-
ington had come over from New York and saw the
calamity that he could not avert.
Stirling and On the American right, Stirling soon found his force
Grant shut in between Grant and Cornwallis while Gowanus
Creek and a marsh and a fast-rising tide were behind
him. To gain time, he took a small force of Mary-
landers and charged against the enemy while the greater
number of his men worked their way across the muddy
stream, or sank in its turbid waters or in the deep mud
of its banks. For twenty minutes there was a sharp

(From a mezzotint in the New York Public Library, Emmet Collection)

The New York Campaign 19

conflict between Cornwallis's force and the American for- I 7 7 6
lorn hope, but in the end the survivors of the gallant
band were dispersed or captured.
By two o'clock, the fighting was at an end. The Howe's
demoralized Americans who escaped from the net found ill-timed
shelter behind the intrenched line, in what is now the
heart of Brooklyn. Howe had still six hours of daylight,
but instead of pressing forward to assault the works, he
waited until the following day, broke ground for a regu-
lar siege, and began a cannonade. The English historian,
Lord Mahon, says that by his ill-timed caution the Eng-
lish general flung away the opportunity of destroying the
flower of the American army. But Howe at Bunker
Hill had seen Americans defend intrenchments and the
"ill-timed caution" may have been born of the prudence
that he gained from that day's experience. This is the
common explanation of his failure to assault, but he may
have hoped that the northeast wind that had prevented
the war-ships from coming up the bay would change so
that they could enter the East River. He certainly had
counted upon such aid from the fleet. In fact, while the
morning fight was in progress, five ships of the line,
under command of Sir Peter Parker, made an unsuccess-
ful effort to beat up the bay, and one ship of smaller size
did work up far enough to injure the breastworks and to
dismount some of the guns of the inadequate battery at
Red Hook. Had Sir Peter Parker been successful, the
American force in Brooklyn would have been in a trap
and would have been forced to surrender without much
further loss of life.
Additional troops were brought across the river and, The Better
by the morning of the twenty-eighth, Washington had Part of Valor
nine or ten thousand men on Long Island. The morn-
ing was lowering and presently a drenching rain set in.
It was a case of four to one, but the expected assault was
not made. Charles Francis Adams says that "when it
came to dilatoriness, Sir William Howe seems always to
have proved himself equal to any occasion." Facing the
danger that that "providential" northeast wind would

20 The New York Campaign

i 7 7 6 die out and that the British fleet would enter the East
River, Washington recognized his mistake and prepared
to extricate himself from
its consequences. In the
early evening of the
twenty-ninth, he submit-
ted a plan of retreat to a
council of war that unani-
mously accepted it. On
the morning of the same
day, he had through Mif-
flin, the quartermaster-
general, ordered General
Cartridge-box used in the American Heath at Kingsbridge to
Revolution send "every flat bottomed
boat and other craft at your post, fit for transporting
troops, down to New York as soon as possible." It
is probable that orders had been previously issued to
provide transportation for the retreat if one became
necessary. At all events, every available boat was im-
pressed, and the flotilla was wisely manned with Hutch-
inson's men from Salem and Colonel Glover's "amphibi-
ous regiment" from Marblehead.
Escape In the early evening of the twenty-ninth, the still per-
sisting northeast wind made it almost impossible to use
the sailing craft, but, about eleven o'clock, the gale died
down and changed into a gentle southwest breeze that
proved of great assistance. Just before dawn, "Provi-
dence further interposed in favor of the retreating army
by sending a thick fog," under cover of which, soon
after sunrise of the thirtieth, the last regiment crossed in
safety. All the stores and artillery were saved except a
few heavy pieces. The last boat that crossed bore the
commander-in-chief. The British were not vigilant;
there were no inquisitive scouts along the lines, or prowl-
ing patrol boats in the East River. Howe and his
officers knew nothing of what was going on until the
Americans were safe across the river, then a thousand feet
wider than it is today; of course, they were deeply morti-

Saco cement b. thQje ta t: lMl Talift
a fthe Contib ` -Arny-rThe CONGRESS ia
ieir Refolre -oft 7pember. th, 18 th), 7, Qo6ber
and NQve r-Iilth; i776, engage, 6

A T 'Twenty Doll e given as a county to each Non-Comni
tioned OfficdA# il older who hall Inlift to ferve for the Tern S
of Three Years. VW *
That.ach Non-CoAm ied Officer and private Soldier hall annually /
receive a SAlt of Cloaths, c confift for the Lprefent Year, of Two Linnen
Hun ing Shirts, Two Pair o Overalls, a Leathern or Woolen Waiftcoat within
Sleeves, One Pair of Breechd, a Hat or Leather Cap, Two Shirts, Two Pair
of Hofe, and Two Pair of Shoes, amounting in the whole to the Value of
wH'enty Dollars, or that So to be paid to each Soldier who (haH' procure
thole articles for himself, anr produces a Certificate thereof from the Captaia"
of the Company to which heielongs, to the Pay-Mafter of the Regiment,
That each Non-Commiflioqed Officer and private Soldier who fall Inlift
and engage'to continue in the Service t6 the ClofI of the War, or until dif-
charged by CONGRESS, (hall receive in Addition to the above Encourage- .
meant, ONE HUNDRED ACRES OF LAND, and if any are Slain by the Ene-
my, the Reprefentativcs of fuch Soldiers hall be entitled to the aforefaid nun-
dred Acres of Land.
And for their further Encouragement, the State of Maffachufetts-Bay, has;
by a Refolve of November a~laft, engaged,
That each Non Commiorita Officer and private Soldier who hall Iflif
into the Cootinontal Army, / her during the War, or for the Term of Thr "
Years dil PAP ofi.e Quiptaof Men affigned this Srate, the Sum of ag J
Pounds oiihis paf.ng Mufter, the laid Twenty Pounds to be Ipid in
er's Notes nt Ten Pounds each, payable'cowthe Poffffor in Fopra
LaterUot o be p j anually, te ate of Six per Cent,

rg Read

(From a copy in the Boston Public Library)

The New York Campaign 2

fied by the escape of the prey that they thought secure. I 7 7 6
Lossing has compared the favoring fog to the shield of
the Almighty, and more matter-of-fact military critics
have quoted Frederick of Prussia's reference to such
favoring circumstances as instances of luck in warfare.
Howe's victory had cost the British in killed, wounded, After the
and missing about four hundred. The loss of the Ameri- Battle
cans was much heavier, though not as much so as has
often been stated. According to authoritative accounts,
their total loss was not above one thousand. Of these,
fifty-six were killed, one hundred and sixty-six were
wounded, and the rest were taken prisoners. There was
no such slaughter as has sometimes been pictured nor
was there any "massacre" by the Hessians. On the
thirty-first, Howe marched his army from the battle-field
of the twenty-seventh to the vicinity of Newtown, nearer
to Hell Gate and Long Island Sound, and then took a
two weeks' rest from active warfare.
Although New York was practically lost with the loss Washington's
of Long Island, Washington continued to occupy Man- Opinion of
hattan. He began moving his stores to Kingsbridge
and beyond and asked congress if he should burn the
city. On the second of September, he wrote to congress:
"Till of late I had no doubt in my own mind of defend-
ing this place; nor should I have yet, if the men would do
their duty; but this I despair of." Most of these men
were poorly armed militia who had been away from home
but a few weeks. Washington was "obliged to confess
my want of confidence in the generality of the troops"
and urged congress to enlist men for the war. Men
who have been free and subject to no control cannot be
reduced to order in an instant." A few weeks later, he
wrote again: "To place any dependence upon militia is September 24
assuredly resting upon a broken staff."
Hoping that his victory would enable him to make Howe again
peace, Lord Howe sent the captured Sullivan to Phila- Proers the
delphia to urge congress to send, as private persons,
some of its members to confer with him. The sugges-
tion brought by Sullivan, a "decoy duck" John Adams

22 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 unjustly called him, caused a warm debate, but Adams,
Rutledge, and Franklin were sent to Staten Island as a
committee to
confer with
H o w e
H owe re-
ceived them
September ii courteously
although he
had no power
a to confer with
them except
as Americans
of influence.
With charac-
teristic diplo-
macy, Frank-
lin was willing
that Howe
should con-
sider them as
he thought
General Sullivan's Vest best, they re-
serving the right to consider themselves as what they
really were, and Adams was willing to be considered
"anything but a British subject." Nothing came of the
conference and, as a last effort, Howe issued a procla-
September 19 mation announcing that the British government was
ready to reconsider the acts and instructions that had
brought on the war and asking all fair-minded people if
it would not be wiser to return to their allegiance and
accept the blessings of peace than "to offer up their lives
as a sacrifice to the unjust and precarious cause in which
they were engaged." The proclamation produced little
or no effect and Howe took up the task of capturing
New York.
With British troops on Brooklyn Heights and British
ships in the East River and the Hudson, the abandon-

The New York Campaign 23

ment of New York was a I.. 7 7 6
necessity and, on the twelfth
of September, an American r, The British
council of war decided to Take
New York
give up the city. The evac- New
uation, however, was effected
with difficulty, for, on the
fifteenth, Howe sent a force i ..
under Clinton across the .
East River to Kips Bay at
the foot of the present
Thirty-fourth street. Awed \
by a "thundering rattle"
from the ships of war, the
American troops in that
vicinity retreated in a September 15
panic. At the first sound "
of the guns, Washing-
ton rode from his head-\
quarters in the Morris
mansion near what is One
Hundred and Sixtieth
street east of Tenth ave-
nue (later the residence 'P.., ew York
of Madame Jumel) to the
front and made an unsuc-
cessful effort to rally the Map of the Battle of Harlem Heights
fugitives. This retreat left about four thousand of the
American militia further down the island in danger of
being cut
off, but Gen-
eral Putnam,
to whose di-
vision they
m arc h e d
them dp the
west side of
Samuel Selden's Powder-horn the island

The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 and managed to extricate the brigade without substantial
loss in men; most of the heavy artillery and part of the
.stores and
T.h provisions had
to be left be-
hind. The
story goes
r that General
Howe and
Tryon and
others were
The Morris Mansion entertained at
luncheon at Murray Hill, then a country farmstead
but "now the center of much brownstone magnificence."
The day was so "insupportably hot," the cake and
Madeira were so palatable, and the charming hostess and
her daughter so delightful that the officers tarried two
hours or more-until Putnam and his men were out of
danger. For the sake of his mother and his sister, we
may well forgive Lindley Murray for his English gram-
mar. Late in the afternoon, a detachment from the fleet
took possession of the city, and all of Manhattan below
Harlem was in the possession of the British.
The Battle of The American lines now extended across Manhattan
Harlem Island from Harlem to the Hudson, while the British
encampment also extended across the island with their
right at Horns Hook and their left "at the North River
near to Bloomingdale;" there were British men-of-war
on either flank of Howe's line. Washington had about
nine thousand men including "Knowlton's Rangers," a
body of about one hundred and twenty volunteers who
were expected to be constantly at the front watching the
movements of the enemy. The commander of the ran-
gers was the Thomas Knowlton whom we met at Bunker
Hill. Early in the morning of the sixteenth, Washing-
ton sent Knowlton and his men to make a reconnaissance
-a movement that brought on, in the vicinity of the
site of Grant's tomb and Columbia University, a spirited

The New York Campaign 25

action known as the battle of Harlem Heights, an open- I 7 7 6
field affair, "up and down hill, and over fields and
fences, and
through lanes "..
and or-
chards." In
the end, the
British were h
driven back
with a loss
greater than
that of the
was among
the killed.
The conflict
did much to
restore the
confidence of
the Ameri-
cans; Wash-
ington said
that it
cheered his
men "prodi-
After the Thomas Knowlton A Tory
British occu- (From Trumbull's historic painting of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Refuge
pation of the in collection of Yale University)
city, New York became the chief sanctuary of the hunted
Tories. The Whigs in the city and on Long Island
were disarmed, forced to take the oath of allegiance, and
received, measure for measure, the persecution they had
visited upon their loyalist neighbors. "Their cattle were
stolen, their orchards cut down for firewood," and their
churches were sometimes burned or used for stables or
disfigured by having their steeples sawn off by mischief-

...: : : : ::. : **.

S* .
S. S e

The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 loving Tories. As most of the Episcopalians in the
colony were Tories, their churches were spared except in
Cases of necessity, but
the Presbyterians,
nearly all of whom
were Whigs, were less
fortunate. This divi-
sion along religious
lines, noticeable chiefly
in New England and
New York, added to
Lbrey Pole rTat. the rancor of the strug-
gle. Not all of the excesses are chargeable to the British
or to the loyalists.
Brother He who examines Washing-
Jonathan ton's correspondence of this
period must notice the fre-
quency with which he wrote
to Governor Trumbull of

measure, it was based up-
on the personality of th e e
executive. Whes sn y l ash-J
ington wrote to Trumbull of
August, 1776 the weakness of his army,
the governor assembled his
committee of safety, called
for nine more regiments,
and to those who were not
yet enrolled said: "Join
yourselves to one of your
companies now ordered to
New York, or form your-
selves into distinct companies and choose captains forth-
with. March on; this shall be your warrant. May the
God of the armies of Israel be your leader." Jonathan

.. ..

** .' S
=. .
.. ,.
*. .r. -. ..

The New York Campaign 27

Trumbull was governor of Connecticut from 1769 to I 7 7 6
1783, the only colonial governor who espoused the peo-
ple's cause and one of Washington's main pillars of sup-
port. It is said that, in moments of perplexity, the
general often exclaimed, "Let us hear what Brother
Jonathan says," and that "Brother Jonathan" thus be-
came the accepted designation of the personified United
States. The famous little office on Lebanon Hill is
carefully preserved by the Sons of the American Revolu-
Five days after the battle of Harlem Heights, a fire The Martyr
broke out in the city and consumed five hundred houses Spy
that would have made --
snug winter quarters for
the British troops, but the
day is chiefly remembered
because of the arrest of
Nathan Hale, a Connecti-
cut schoolmaster who had
hastened to the Ameri-
can lines at Boston and
was now a captain in the
newly organized Knowl-
ton's Rangers." Before
the British crossed the
East River, Washington
had been very anxious to
find out Howe's inten-
tions and Hale tendered
his services to that end.
"I am fully sensible of the Nathan Hale's Camp Basket
consequences of discovery and capture," he said to a
brother officer, and added: "I am not influenced by the
expectation of promotion or pecuniary reward. I wish
to be useful, and every kind of service necessary to the
public good becomes honorable by being necessary."
With Washington's approval and instructions, Hale set
out in the second week of September, went to Stamford
on the Connecticut shore, disguised himself as a school-

28 The New York Campaign

-. .

i 'i ') .,,r i

master, crossed to Long Island
and made his way to New York.
On the twenty-first, he was
arrested and taken to Howe's
headquarters at the Beekman
Mansion where he frankly
avowed his errand and was
condemned to death as a spy.
On the following day at the
artillery camp, this young offi-
cer of twenty-one years met his
fate with fortitude and the im-
mortal declaration: "I only
regret that I have but one life
to lose for my country."
While the American nation
endures, the memory of Nathan

Maps showing Route of Nathan Hale into the British Lines and Section of New York
City where he was Executed

The New York Campaign 29

Hale will be cher-
ished in the land
for which he gladly
gave his life; his
"disgraceful" death
is now counted as
his greatest glory.
Soon after the 7,
affair at Harlem ,
Heights, General
Greene was sent -I)
with a brigade to ./
hold Fort Lee on
the west bank of
the Hudson. For C'/
about three weeks, /
the two main armies
"continued at
gaze." The prob-
lem of destroying
Washington's com-
mand and thereby
ending the war was
now more difficult p
than it had been at

7X )

177 .

,J ,)'Y, 77Z.- ,
/ &Q '/ / 1
$-2'., --.. '


Hale's Execution
Hale's Execution


Two Autographs of Nathan Hale:
Ornate, or Schoolmaster's, and
Ordinary Autograph





a~r eY~ ~~
~cr~a~M ~x~c~.

The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 Brooklyn. The triple line of fortifications extending
across the upper end of the island from the Hudson
to the Harlem was made so strong
that Howe did not care to venture
an assault; he therefore attempted
a flank movement. Leaving Percy
with two brigades to defend New
York, and with the intention of
occupying the Westchester roads
and cutting off Washington's retreat,
Howe transported his main army
October 1 up the East River through Hell
Gate to Throg's Neck, a tongue of
land that was separated from the
mainland by a narrow creek and a
marsh that was overflowed at high
tide. But the Americans had de-
stroyed the bridge between the
Hale Family Tombstone at neck and the mainland and had
Coventry, Connecticut erected intrenchments that held the
British on the peninsula for six days. Meanwhile, Wash-
ington abandoned his positions on Manhattan Island
with the exception of Fort Washington and its out-
works, fell back
with his army, and ,
fortified near
White Plains.
Sullivan and Stir-
ling, having been
exchanged, now
rejoined the army
and Lee returned ~
from South Caro-
The Battle of A bout n e Washington's Headquarters at White Plains
Pell'sPoint o'clock in the
morning of the eighteenth, Howe crossed over to Pell's
Point, near which some Massachusetts troops had
encamped the night before. In the absence of General

The New York Campaign 3 x

James Clinton, the command was held by Colonel John I 7 7 6
Glover. The brigade consisted of four skeleton regi-
ments with a total of
seven hundred and fifty
men; one of the four was
Glover's own famous
regiment of fishermen.
As Howe advanced with
four thousand, Glover
sent a company of forty
to hold them in check
until the main body of
his brigade could be
"disposed of to advan-
tage." The "amphibi-
ous" regiment and the
three cannons were left
in reserve at the Hutch-
inson River, a sinuous,
tide-water stream named __
in memory of Anne
Hutchinson, the Mas- e n
sachusetts exile of 1637, (From painting in possession of
who, in this lonely spot, Mrs. Henry E. Waite)
perished by Indianmassacre in 1643; the other three regi-
ments, fewer than six hundred effective men, took position
behind the substantial stone walls that fenced the roadway.
In some respects, the fight that followed was Bunker Hill
over again, but the bulldog tenacity of the British and
the Hessians was much in evidence and the American Six
Hundred fell back beyond the Hutchinson River, their
retreat being covered by Glover's regiment and the artillery.
Howe made no attempt to cross the stream and went
into camp to await reinforcements. The contrast between
the numbers engaged was striking, but the difference in
losses sustained is almost beyond belief. Glover reported
six privates killed and about a dozen wounded. The
losses of the enemy were mostly among the Hessians and
the total has been estimated -at from eight hundred to a

32 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 thousand. The Americans were well sheltered, no flank-
ing movement was attempted, and much of the firing was
at short range. Colonel Baldwin of the Massachusetts
twenty-sixth said: "Our troops were as calm and steady
as though expecting a shot at a flock of pigeons." Con-
cerning the estimate above recorded, Dawson says: "It
is difficult to believe that four hundred Americans,
familiar with the use of firearms, sheltered by ample
defences from which they could fire deliberately and with
their guns rested on the tops, could have fired volley
after volley into a large body of men, massed in a com-
pact column in a narrow roadway, without having inflicted
as extended damage as this." On the morning of the
Snineteenth, Glover and
his men retreated to-
wards Yonkers. The
Sall-day encounter had
an excellent moral effect
on the Americans and
the delay that it caused
Howe was valuable to
Washington who, in
October zi 2 general orders, congrat-
ulated Col. Glover and
the officers and men
"Glover's Rock" and Memorial Tablet who were with him in
the skirmish on Friday last." The battle-field is within
the limits of Pelham Bay Park, a suburb of Mount
The Battle of On the twenty-first, Howe advanced his right and
White Plains center two miles beyond New Rochelle. Being rein-
October -z forced by a strong force of Hessians under General Knyp-
hausen and foiled in his attempt to get in Washington's
rear, he decided to attempt an attack in front. On the
twenty-eighth of October, the British stormed the Ameri-
can outpost at Chatterton Hill then held by continentals
and militia under Brigadier-general Alexander Macdou-
gall, and Captain Alexander Hamilton with an artillery
company and two guns. The brisk conflict that ensued

The New York Campaign 33

is commonly known as the battle of White Plains. The I 7 7 6
British finally succeeded in carrying the hill, but with a
loss considerably i : ,."
greater than that of1 -
the Americans.
Howe thought it P"-.. A
wise to wait for rein- "
forcements before ~'
risking a decisive bat- '
tie. Lord Percy .- .., \"'
arrived with a strong
detachment on the
thirtieth and the next ...o. ,
day was set for the ..-
attack. But, on the
thirty-first, a rain-

Howe's proposed / ,___
action and that --.
night Washington
withdrew his army to ," I -
so strong a position Map of the Battle of White Plains
on the heights of North Castle (now Newcastle) that the
British general did not venture to attack him.
Howe then changed On the
his plan and marched Hudson
to Dobbs Ferry on
the Hudson whence
he could either attack
Fort Washington or
cross into New Jersey
and threaten Philadel-
phia. To meet this
R movement, Putnam
was sent with five thou-
The Falkeneer (Falconeer) House at White Plains, Sand men into New
Headquarters of British officers (no longer standing) Jersey, and Heath to
Jersey, and Heath to
Peekskill with three thousand to guard the entrance to
the Highlands; Lee was left with seven thousand at

34 The New York Campaign

I 7 7 6 North Castle to cooperate with Washington as Howe's
intentions became apparent.
Congressional As early as the ninth of October, two British frigates
Meddling and .had passed the obstruc-
Muddling a j -'.
Ruling tions in the Hudson
S. River between Fort Wash-
'\ ington and Fort Lee.
ie .'.' Other vessels made the
*. passage on the seventh of
SNovember, showing that
/the forts were of little use
Sand might well be aban-
doned. On the eighth,
.' Washington wrote to Gen-
S---- eral Greene who was in
i l. '' command of both forts
that he did not think it
S^ /""'" "prudent to hazard the
Men and Stores at Mount
Washington; but, as you
*I ( are on the spot, leave it to
you to give such orders,
r 1 as to evacuating Mount
SI Washington, as you may
.i. judge best." While Wash-
t. ington was up the river,
\i instructions came from
congress to the effect that
'- the place must not be
,7o abandoned except under
I dire necessity. Greene did
Sn. ~,kn not feel at liberty to dis-
regard the orders of con-
gress. He therefore rein-
Map of the Action at Fort Washington forced the garrison and
awaited Washington's return-"the worst thing possi-
ble." Washington arrived at Fort Lee on the four-
teenth; on the fifteenth, Howe appeared before Fort
Washington with an overwhelming force and demanded

I I .,..,. ,

I' .1 ...I






(From The North American Atlas in collection of the New York Historical Society)

.i .,
.. ....,
,,. un
.~ u ~~~
'~' I ;~
ru.r* -'~ -
II -

The New York Campaign 35

a surrender, with the alternative "to be put to the i 7 7 6
Colonel Robert Magaw, who was in immediate com- Howe Takes
mand at Fort Washington, returned a defiant answer, but Fort
his three thousand men were too many for the shelter of Washington
the hastily built and feeble fort and too few successfully
to defend it and all its outworks. The assault of the six-
teenth was skilfully planned and admirably executed.
After a sharp struggle, the Americans, outnumbered five
to one, were driven from their outer defenses into the
fort. Colonel Magaw asked for a five hours' parley;
half an hour was given,
and surrender came soon
after. The victory cost
the British about four ,,
hundred and fifty in
killed and wounded.
Only about one hundred Autograph of Robert Magaw
and fifty Americans fell, but more than twenty-six hun-
dred yielded themselves prisoners, together with many
small arms, a large supply of stores and ammunition, and
more than forty cannons. Howe had not the heart to
carry out his threat
of the day before;
some of the Hes-
sians, enraged by
the resistance,
began bayoneting
the prisoners but
were forced to
The capture of Per 4Aper,
Fort Washington ad asra
was perhaps the
most disastrous
Margaret Corbin Tablet blow suffered by
the Americans in the course of the war. Its fall brought
the New York campaign to an end. Long Island and
New York City had been lost, and the lower Hudson and

36 The New York Campaign

1 7 7 6 the waters of the sound were controlled by the British fleet.
More than two hundred cannons and more than four thou-
sand men had been captured, nearly six hundred men had
been killed or wounded, and many had died of disease.
Yet these months of disaster had their compensations.
Considering its strength, the British army had accom-
plished less than might have been expected. Equally
important was the fact that the American officers and men
were learning to be soldiers. The campaign offered a series
of first experiences to the American commander. Rather
a slow man, naturally," and with "none of that insight
which causes certain commanders in presence of an enemy
-they know not why-instinctively to do the right
thing at the right moment," Washington had made mis-
takes both in strategy and tactics, but through those mis-
takes he learned. In the school of experience, he
developed into a commander-in-chief so safe and so suc-
cessful that he can stand out and be painted as he was
without any of the glamour that has dazzled some his-
torians, or any hiding of"that kindly element of human
nature and human weakness of which over-zealous pan-
egyrists have done much to deprive him."


FOLLOWING up the British success at Fort
Washington, Cornwallis with five or six thousand
men made a landing on the New Jersey shore
nearly opposite Yonkers and marched down the western
bank against the now useless Fort Lee. The Americans Novemberzo,
precipitately crossed the Hackensack, leaving behind a 1776
large quantity of commissary stores, camp equipage and
baggage, and more than thirty cannons; "the Ammu-
nition had been happily got away," Washington reported.
Fearing that he would be hemmed in between the The Retreat
Hackensack and the Passaic rivers, Washington crossed a"rss
the latter and marched to Newark where he stayed five November 2
days. As he moved out of one end of Newark on the
twenty-eighth, Cornwallis came in at the other. The
next day, at Brunswick, the enlistments of the Maryland
and New Jersey militia expired and, despite appeals,
nearly all of them set out for home. As the British
crossed the Raritan, Washington, with fewer than three
thousand men, again fell back. Leaving Stirling with December
two brigades at Princeton to watch the enemy, he con-
tinued his march to Trenton and soon had his scanty December
stores and baggage across the Delaware. Luckily for
him, Howe's orders to Cornwallis did not permit pursuit
beyond Brunswick.
During his retreat, the condition of his army had given New Jersey
Washington great anxiety. The men were disheartened, Paralysis
desertions were numerous, and, in disregard of repeated

38 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

I 7 7 6 orders, Lee had failed to bring up his division. Wash-
ington made appeal to the authorities of New Jersey, but
December 2 the members of the legislature dispersed to their homes
and no help of impor- : ..
tance came. He then -.t
sent Nlifflin to Phila- -
delphia and urgently .-
Ie ....t renewed his suggestion .,

Ire NA

E ,

S.bp'maent arm. and
have "nothing to do

Ir- -ith militia unless in
#cases of extraordinary
Sexigency." Congress
appealed to the militia
'------ --,-,-----., -. ... r ru,.. .,. ,. ,

'C~ ,: LU.n cszsofesraodiar

of Philadelphia and the
all parts of the country for
SAt Trenton, a German

battalion and about a thousand militia who had responded

M.p OL Wahirngtn' Rerrc j a r.. Nea J'r;r
nearest counties and sent to
reinforcements and supplies

^ ^ ..,. *.'1- .

(Close facsimile of original drawing formerly owned by Francis Rawdon Hastings, better known as Lord Rawdon, who served as officer on Cornwallis's
staff at that time. After the death of his grandson, the late Marquis of Hastings, this and other historical sketches passed into the hands of
Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet, whose collection of rare drawings, engravings, maps, and autographs, illustrative of American history--the
most complete collection of its kind in the world- is in the New York Public Library)

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 39

to Mifflin's appeals joined the army. On the sixth of i 7 7 6
December, General Greene returned with twelve hundred
men to Princeton where Stirling still was and, that night
or early the next morning, Washington set out with a
small force to join him.
Meanwhile, the Howe brothers issued a proclamation Howe Offers
offering, for sixty days, pardon to all who would renounce Amnesty
the cause of independence. The offer was accepted by
about twenty-seven hundred persons, including Samuel
Tucker of New Jersey, president of the committee of
safety, and Joseph Galloway of Pennsylvania, late of the
continental congress. Washington wrote to his brother
saying that "the conduct I E T Y,
of the Jerseys has beenNCIL o AFET
most Infamous. Instead '."""""' ". "~6.
of turning out to defend sIR,
their country, & affording HT IE*RE iscetl ii(lBgencof te.lHoweny b.ing
aid to our army, they are 'nts W BA to Prinr.n, ,s pt.
S. I ubqdt thboll t lie out itepctsforthuisty.- lin8l"lr.
making their submissions 1~,.af sf.,,d, ro.,, ii,
as fast as they can." But ~yL>eglfA d--fce,bibeiaed;v)ly'ehln
the influence of the proc- f*pw'r*. .- wi ... V .youo *t
1i ?MliAitin udJ your cramand. withtU pogible =peditiopn tths
lamation was soon neu- c,,, ,,.m,, C,,,.,, ,po i 1
tralized by the behavior --,. ..>. r-, .. .. u.cyn-r~
of the British and Hes- *'4' *"'" aJ-"'
and ll r hddld lu l dh~ll dman luod t d. al.o, d w
sian troops who plundered a,. ,W ,d -eun&,.
houses, subjected women .l-g ., .*: '..,
to indignities, and trans- ,V U. ',
ferred from Europe to ,v H -
New Jersey the worst ,*, ^N ,
horrors of invasion by a .*. .
foreign army. ,o ,J
Encouraged by the easy SdL Howe's
advance in New Jersey, 'i'' Avance to
Howe joined Cornwallis Broadside by the Philadelphia Council of Safety,
asking Colonels and Commanding Officers
at Brunswick and pushed of the State to be in Readiness
on to Princeton, forcing to meet the Enemy
Greene and Stirling to retreat before Washington had
arrived. By Sunday, the eighth, the American army was
on the west side of the Delaware; before they were all

40 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

I 7 7 6 across, the British marched into Trenton. Some of
Howe's army criticised his easy pace and to one of them
it seemed as if he "had calculated with the greatest
accuracy the exact time necessary for his enemy to make
his escape." As Washington had secured all the boats
for seventy miles up and down the river, he was safe
from immediate danger.
Philadelphia The approach of the British excited Philadelphia. On
in Panic the second of December, stores and schools were closed
and recruiting parties paraded in the streets with martial
music. In a few days, the sick from the army came in
large numbers and almost in nakedness. Hospitals and
private houses were thus filled and committees went from
door to door begging clothing. Handbills describing the
insults that New Jersey women were suffering from a
.. -, soldiery
~ Brait mnd f.., T .ops osh roused the
If ai'naetfrt dad wl i keneiirofD wfplaiunam i -
rIhM ae aS erb.ail.. 1i. nnUml.. nf l indIg n a-
.. R i.m, a~i.. tion of the
r d people.
The old
a charter was
dead, the
new con-
rer, sat c F,. Situation
,o.ri..il ,t.o had not
h' amout ., i, v, frrm di. gone into
sY& on t t m *,rawf near ldlph Hari u. t a nt
a a, tbh em lounIbi tde- mt o.,. Lt.:. effect, an-
E rBe a *w m h Iren p a r ea ver r Wre. L
ar n l c i tnd d IIp- .. L re urr; ,t e up. r,.. a. archy was
1d. t heLdbarb' Pe d I e ar..CrjJ oma,. ,.., i overhang-
ig is e rdw dl)r? yd C e *14... Crdul 01d Y.-rp F& K
qlt l .a"d.d .o pIarm d brrri., .iai 1,,,, ,'-y. ing, and
f flersbrl. a, l,..dt ,,., pwA". V,,.drr.d
Smt..t ,nd ...r.e. ru .....r rd .o... .n W4 G en e r al
aovand dt',ud the wa, i. r.l'..... I,-..af, 0l-th ~S .
As dd, rd.Pa8 Ai elU. d,- r,, .u ar. d mmte ,u rra P u t n a m
a Cv.so~ hr ra" n h bi'jrem 3ur.irr, .ud r.unm o re, alf'
ad a.C.YC, ...... .... r,. ~ .r ddeCCrve .l was placed
Srt,#, as cUanp stio dabbz the tame krne M abea l control
dU M pertyj and oAr breluwd Wikes and Dau m co trol
Handbill Recounting Outrages Committed by of the city.
British and Hessian Troops 0 n the
thirteenth, congress adjourned to meet in Baltimore, of

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 41

which more a few pages further on. Before leaving, they I 7 7 6
conferred on Washington "full power to order and direct
all things relative to the department, and to the operations
of war." The flight of congress "struck a damp on ye
spirits of many." The suburban roads were crowded with
vehicles of every kind and the river with all sorts of
water craft as the terror-stricken inhabitants sought safety
in flight.
SAmong The Criss
those who
Made the
Autograph of Thomas Paine march from
Fort Lee to the Delaware was Thomas Paine. At night

and by winter camp-fires he
wrote ifhe Crisis which was
printed in the Pennsylvania
Journal of the nineteenth of
December. "These," it
said, "are the times that
try men's souls: The sum-
mer soldier and the sun-
shine patriot will, in this
crisis, shrink from the serv-
ice of his country; but he
that stands it now, deserves
the love and thanks of man
and woman. The
harder the conflict, the
more glorious the triumph.
Heaven knows
how to set a proper price
upon its goods; and it
would be strange indeed,
if so celestial an article as
Freedom should not be

The American CRISI s.
By beAothor oi CoMIloN SELhe.
HLI S ir5 rr.T,- t, ..- rl m L.' l .i The
I-..7 L:, .- _J me imiu.510 pau.5 1i-,. .r. 5.1
.I i.. ."L rrk Inl I I I .. I, I CI b.,
I.r I)h [ i .,, I, *t Ii dIirt lr, In ." .c ,J U^i l I In-_J
ls T..P Tir nl. Lr hl. n". f .l, f ..11r

-,0 ..& .. L U. ,, '~nS i l Ih. n Is br. .
1ltd _..10 ..rC r.iil.i -r a i .
"n "" rn we pcr l no s.ol, .-Tit J>;- -* o r
t.i5l'.i5 r-ro i .r u. r0.1 -., s.nis rowS ,siI..o vrosir.

SBl l s 1 i 1- l i. E.' 1 *lI ,l l u I'.d w bo

lh ++./[. ri h1 "l. I wad,* r i n
iu bsid i "i. r I d. I .r I I. ta.b

h.irl kw t.. 'l.l 1.. nrbth pl i.' l h5 *pi0oir
flh e k, l r il l w. : IIddv .d d]J -1 Itl j .-rr, n ii

Wit s s',,taullr Si Fl 1. ..... s. 5
i- t n I i p -- u. i, i chiLsA
If Deft_0 sri ru'--Mtit li*iSilL 11 a ,, 'Scsi b 0 -
n W i I n m a k enr fl r .-.p r bi 0 m l S :n t or La
ould or. rhir ..r ."' i.-. ,, 'ti Ltl aif. ..on i ,

h I..,,, L .. S .... ......... ii 5 0. 0 ,,.S_.t
u bl*.Tr a ..bi. k u is, B. d,,.1 i in .1l
b-cr ttm b. beot..d-r., 1a I.. onUS p1'l .. soihic
oago dln~.osif q.-fl.Oh. h, i.cij..1tsirruiJsri.- 3
I ls.', ,. l.ss' ca 'S s .r. -* a oy inui'db,5 b iu
ThFrsst .- e i. Thoma Paine Airi
.h e1 011 Ip. "i. .;s. .ka ai 'ael du

First Page of Thomas Paine's Crisis

highly rated." The address was read at the head of
each regiment and did much to inspire the soldiers for
the work before them.
As recorded in the preceding volume, Gates had

42 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

I 7 7 6 relieved Sullivan as commander of "the northern army
The Northern in Canada" with headquarters at Ticonderoga. By reason
Army of its retreat, that army was
now within the limits of the
northern department, the
commander of which was
General Schuyler. The
two generals were soon in
,., active rivalry and con-
WW gress declared that "they
had no design to invest
General Gates with a
superior command to
General Schuyler, while
the troops should be on
this side of Canada." After
the naval engagement on
Lake Champlain and Carleton's
return to Canada, all active
Philip Schuyler military operations in that
region were suspended. ..

In October, Thaddeus
Kosciuszko, a love-lorn
Polish patriot, was com-
October 1i missioned as colonel of
engineers and sent to
the northern army. In
November, Gates had
seven thousand three
hundred and forty-five
effective" rank and file
present for duty and
on command; Lee had
seven thousand eight
hundred and twenty-
four effectivee" at
North Castle; and
Heath had four thou-
sand and sixteen at

rp v
;ii II


I '
Thaddeus Kosciuszko

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 43

Peekskill; while the muster of Washington's army at I 7 7 6
Newark showed only five thousand four hundred and
ten men for duty.
While Washington was retreating through New Jersey, Lee's
he had repeatedly sent word to General Lee at North Disobedience
Castle to join him with the men under his command.
But Lee was conscious of his popularity and ambitious
to obtain the supreme command. The resignation of
General Ward had left him the senior major-general of
the continental army; if disaster should overtake Wash-
ington, it was almost certain that Lee's ambition would
be gratified. East of the Hudson he had a practically
independent army in an impregnable position; why
should he leave it and go to the aid of his rival? He
did not cross the Hudson until Washington was at December 2
Trenton; even then his advance was slow, for he hoped
by an independent movement to cut the British line of
communication and thus "to reconquer the Jerseys."
To General Gates, who was bringing reinforcements from
the northern army, he wrote that entiree nous, a certain
great man is most damnably deficient."
White's tavern near Baskingridge, New Jersey, at Lee's capture
which Lee wrote this letter, was three miles from his
troops. On the thirteenth of December, a party of
thirty British dragoons swooped down upon the tavern,
seized its most distinguished guest, and hurried him
off beyond danger of recapture. The British thought
that they had "deprived their opponents of nearly all
the military science they possessed." Sullivan promptly
marched with the troops thus relieved of Lee and
reported to Washington on the twentieth of December.
With Sullivan came Gates and reinforcements from the
northern army.
The general notion of the conduct of a war includes From a
little more of the functions of an army than killing time Caplain's
in camp; marching and fighting; it largely ignores such Diary
prosaic matters as provisions, forage, camp equipage, etc.
But every veteran soldier knows that, "like a snake, an
army goes upon its belly." In the latter part of 1776,

44 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

i 7 7 6 the commissariat of the Revolutionary army must have
been at low mark, but we get a glimpse behind the cur-
tain through a few entries in the unprinted diary of the
Reverend David Avery, chaplain of Colonel John Pat-
terson's regiment which had come with Gates from Ticon-
[December] 16. Monday. .. Came to Bethlehem & put up on ye west side
of the Lahi, a river which forms ye west branch of ye Delaware. Genls. Gates and
Sterling with Govr. Livingston, are in town ys evening. The genl. hospital for Genl.
Washington's army is moved to this place. Genl. Sullivan wh about 3000 men crost ye
Delaware last night & ys morning at Eastown.
20. Friday. Am informed by the Inhabitants yt Genl. Sullivan's men have
stole most all the bees in this neighborhood besides many fowls.
z2. Saturday. .. We now have 5oo head of fat cattle in the rear, this side
Bethlehem, which have followed Sullivan's division, several of which came from Connec-
The British After having missed Washington at Trenton, Howe
Army in stationed his troops in scattered cantonments for the pur-
Quarters pose of holding the territory, protecting the loyalists,
and keeping recruits from the American army. It was
his intention, in case the Delaware became bridged with
ice, to cross over and take Philadelphia; otherwise he
would keep his army in winter quarters until spring.
Howe returned to New York and Cornwallis "packed his
portmanteaus and sent them aboard ship, intending to
sail for England as soon as the fumes of the Christmas
punch should be duly slept off." This left the British
command in New Jersey in the hands of General Grant
at Brunswick. Colonel Rall was at Trenton with six
field-pieces and fourteen or fifteen hundred men, mostly
Hessians. Colonel von Donop,
another Hessian officer, was sta-
tioned at Bordentown.
Darkness Even with Sullivan's and Gates's
before Dawn divisions in the American camp,
Washington saw that at the beginning
of the new year he would have only
fifteen hundred men in addition to
the militia, and upon the latter he
American Coin, 1776 knew that he could not rely. "They
come," he said, "you cannot tell how, go, you cannot tell

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 45

when, and act, you cannot tell where, consume your I 7 7 6
provisions, exhaust your stores, and leave you at last at
a critical moment." To congress he wrote "that ten December 2o
days more will put an end to the existence of this army"
and, in justification of some rather peremptory advice
concerning the creating of a new army, said: "A charac-
ter to lose, an estate to forfeit, the inestimable blessing of
liberty at stake, and a life devoted, must be my excuse." December 18
In a letter to his brother, he unbosomed himself in these
words: "If every nerve is not strained to recruit the
new army with all possible expedition, I think that the
game is pretty near up."
As early as the fourteenth of December, Washington A Hazardous
had seen that in the scattered disposition of the British Plan
forces lay an opportunity. Resolved to stake all on the
hazard, he decided to cross the Delaware and attempt to
overwhelm both Rail and Donop. The right wing,
under Gates, was to attack the cantonments at Mount
Holly, Black Horse, and Bordentown; Ewing's division
was to cross below Trenton and prevent Rall from
escaping or from receiving any assistance from Donop;
while Washington, with twenty-four hundred men, was
to cross about nine miles above the town and advance
upon it from the north. "Necessity, dire necessity,"
said Washington.
But Gates pretended to be ill and posted off to Balti- Christmas
more to intrigue with congress. General John Cadwal- Cheer
ader, who succeeded him, found the river so full of
floating ice that he abandoned the attempt. Ewing like-
wise failed to effect a crossing, and both felt sure that
Washington had been foiled in the same way. But
Washington's was the earnestness of desperation. He
had gathered boats at McConkey's Ferry, now known as
Taylorville, nine miles above Trenton. As his soldiers
marched thither, their route "was easily traced, as there
was a little snow on the ground, which was tinged here
and there with blood from the feet of the men who wore
broken shoes." Glover's "old reliables," as handy
with the oar as with the musket, again manned the boats.

Trenton and Princeton-Congress

1 7 7 6 The little force of twenty-four hundred men represented
all the states from New Hampshire to Virginia-men
hardened by months of fighting and marching in Canada,
at Bunker Hill, around New York, and through the
Hardship Jerseys. It was well that they were no mere "summer
and Heroism M-' Soldiers,"
-7.',.-~ .. -'' for the
\ L _;* -: swift run-
-' ning river
.., was filled
.',. \ \/' with great
-cakes of
v. floating
,' ice, while
\ ,snow and
'.' I .. :, s I e e t
.. '. .- pinched
and be-
,." j"' numbed
the men
T". with cold
S" and bade
'- fair to
..... .. n, spoil the
Map of Washington's Advance on Trenton a mm u ni-
tion. For nine weary hours the men toiled and struggled
with the ice. Washington had intended to leave the
ferry by midnight, but it was after three o'clock in the
morning of the twenty-sixth before the last man reached
the Jersey shore, and it was about four o'clock by the
time the army was ready to march. "This," says
Washington, "made me despair of surprising the town,
as I well knew we could not reach it before the day was
fairly broke; but as I was certain there was no making a
retreat without being discovered and harassed on repass-
ing the river, I determined to push on at all events."
Confidence, The garrison at Trenton consisted of the regiments of
ine and Rall, Knyphausen, and Ansbach, fifty chasseurs, and
twenty light dragoons, making a total effective force of

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 47

a little more than fifteen hundred men. Fortunately, I 7 7 6
they were -so little vigilant that the delay of the Ameri-
cans was not disastrous. Contrary to Donop's advice,
Rall had neglected to erect fortifications. "Let them
come!" he had exclaimed in German. "We
want no trenches! We'll at them with the
bayonet!" He and his men spent the night
in drunken revelry; so busy was he with
cards and wine that he put into his pocket
unread a note that contained a warning of
the impending attack. Autograph of Rall
The road over which the Americans advanced was The Morning
slippery; at times a storm of sleet beat down upon them; March
but the wretchedly clad men pressed on to Birmingham.
From Birmingham, Sullivan's division moved by the
river road, while Greene's, accompanied by Washington,
crossed over to the old Scotch road and entered the

I \ \ ,*" .
% ^ ^k ;- t
\~ ~~ ^ W-

V- 11 1I
Map of the Battle of Trenton
Pennington road one mile from Trenton. It is said
that when the town was described in the early morning

48 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

S7 7 6 light, Washington waved his sword and exclaimed,
"There, my brave fellows, are the enemies of your coun-
try. Remember what you are to fight for." The men
grasped their firelocks tighter and pressed on to meet the
enemy. The supreme moment of the American revolu-
tion was at hand.
Surprise and At eight o'clock, Greene's division drove in the picket
Defeat of the on the Pennington road. Three minutes later, firing on
Hessians the river road was heard and Washington knew that
Sullivan's men were at work. In spite of the lateness of
the hour, the Hessians were completely surprised.

^YP S''' '~: ;~"~
,:,r d-~S ~ J
1L 911.
e. i,'

Lieutenant Fischer's Map of the Battle of Trenton
A. Advance of provincial troops from John's Ferry. B. Advance on picket a and Captain von Altenbockum's
company b. C. Attack on Trenton. D. March of provincial troops in battalion formation. E. March of Hessian
regiments after leaving Trenton F. Attack of Von Losberg's and Rail's regiments on Trenton. G. Provincial
troops guarding the bridge. H. Retreat of Knyphausen's regiment at the time of the attack on Von Losaberg's and
Real's regiments. J. Surrender of Von Lossbergs and Ral's regiments. K. Attack on 7 by provincial troops.
L. Attack on H after surrender of Von Lossberg's and Rail's regiments. M. Provincial artillery. N. Rail's cannon.
R. Knyphausen's cannon. S. Von Lossberg's cannon. T. Commands which retreated to Burlington.
Under Washington's directions, Colonel Knox placed a
battery at the junction of Queen and King (now Warren

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 49

and Greene) streets, and its fire created havoc as the I 7 7 6
Hessians tried to form their lines. The pickets that had
been driven in had given the alarm, but the commanding
colonel was asleep. It is said that the brigade adjutant
called at six o'clock and again at seven, but found that
Rail was sleeping soundly. When the firing was heard,
the adjutant sent an officer who was on duty with thirty
or forty men to support the picket post and then loudly
summoned Rall; before the latter stepped into King
street, the American shot and shell were being fired down
the roadway. His own regiment was the regiment "of
the day" and half of the command was instantly under
arms. Two cannons that had been stationed in front of
the guardhouse were ordered to go ahead and the horses
were harnessed when Rall cried in German: "My God!
the picket is coming in!
Push your cannon
ahead!" The drivers
shouted and the horses
plunged forward, but
they did not go far. At
the bridge over a little
stream now called Petty's
Run, they were met by
the destructive fire of the
American artillery at the
head of the street. By
the time that Rall's brass
3-pounders had been
fired six times, eight of
the Hessian detachment
had been killed or
wounded; with the
force available, the guns Cap worn by a Hessian Soldier Killed at Trenton
could not be taken off the street. By this time, Stirling's
brigade was at the head of King street and a charge was
ordered. Captain William Washington and Lieutenant
James Monroe of Weedon's regiment led a quick dash;
the captain and his lieutenant were wounded, but the

50 Trenton and Princeton- Congress

I 7 7 6 guns were taken. The story of the fight need not be told
in further detail. Rail and his half-formed regiments were
quickly driven back. Colonel Stark, who had led Sulli-
van's column, moved directly to the Assanpink bridge
and thus cut off further retreat in that direction. While
urging his men forward, Rall was mortally wounded and
the Hessians soon laid down their arms. Of the merce-
naries, twenty-two were killed and more than eighty
wounded. The subsequent capture of stragglers raised
the number of prisoners to about a thousand. The
American loss was two officers and two privates wounded.
Among the trophies were six field-pieces, a thousand
stands of arms, four flags, and a dozen drums.
The Evening Washington did not deem it wise to risk a long delay
March on New Jersey soil, but, before leaving Trenton, he
visited the dying Rall and, in his hour of splendid
triumph, offered "those consolations which a soldier and
a Christian can bestow." The victorious troops recrossed
the Delaware and by midnight were again in their camps.
The countermarch was attended with many hardships
and great suffering, but with the lately disheartened com-
mand were prisoners of war-a new experience for the
American army. The victory inspired the people and
infused new life into the army. "Good news from the
Jerseys!" was the joyous greeting with which patriots
saluted each other. On New Year's day, Robert Morris
sent to Washington fifty thousand dollars in specie with
which to pay wages and bounties to the men. Regiments
whose terms were about to expire were induced to remain;
the Revolution was saved.
cornwallis The alarm and chagrin of the British almost equaled
Hastensto the rejoicing of the Americans. Cornwallis gave up his
projected trip to England and hastened to Princeton
where he found Donop throwing up intrenchments.
Instead of the war being practically over, the British
found it difficult to retain possession of New Jersey. In
May, 1779, Lord Germain, speaking in his own defense
in the house of commons, said: 'AAll our hopes were
blasted by that unhappy affair at Trenton."

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 5 i

Not content with his victory at Trenton, Washington I 7 7 6
resolved to try to drive the enemy from New Jersey. I 7 7 7
Transferring his army across the river for the third time Washington
in a week, he reoccupied Trenton, Reoccupies
issued another appeal to the New December
Jersey militia, and took up a posi- 29-31
tion on a ridge south of Assanpink
Creek where he was joined by Gen-
eral Cadwalader and General Mifflin
who had crossed further down the
river. His total force amounted to
about five thousand men many of
whom were almost without disci-
pline. Miniature portrait of General
Meanwhile, Cornwallis had Johne adwalader (by Peale) Cornwallis
gathered at Princeton a force of McCall of Philadelphia Advances to
nearly eight thousand men. On the morning of the
second of January, he marched with most of his army
toward Trenton, but left three regiments at Princeton
with orders to follow, and a brigade at Maidenhead,
now Lawrenceville. On their way, the British met a
detachment of Americans under Brigadier-general Fer-
moy, a French officer who had been sent out by Wash-
ington to harass the enemy and to dispute their advance
in every way possible. Fermoy returned to Trenton in
a questionable manner, but his men behaved with spirit
and much delayed the British advance. Some earthworks
had been thrown up and a battery planted at a ravine
north of the town and here an additional check was inter-
posed by Greene, but the enemy came on driving the
Americans into Trenton an.d across the bridge. By this
time it was growing dark and Cornwallis drew back his weary
men, expecting to bag "the old fox" in the morning.
As soon as it was dark, Washington called a council in a Tight
to consider the critical situation. The Delaware was place
filled with floating ice and its passage in the presence of the
enemy was out of the question. In another day, Corn-
wallis would be reinforced by the troops left at Princeton
and Maidenhead, and his already superior army would

52 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

I 7 7 7 be so strong that Washington could hardly hope to hold
Shis position. If he should try and fail, his army would be
destroyed and the American revolution would be at an end.
The council approved a plan to march around the British
left flank, to strike a blow at the
small garrison at Princeton, and, "--_.--
if possible, to capture the British ,,,
stores at Brunswick.
Out ofthe Cornwallis had marched from
Tight Place Irinceton by the road that led .
through Nlaidenhead. But there .

Map of \V i.,gtrn's Advance and the Battles of Trenton and Princeton

was the Quaker road, less used and longer by several miles.
The Americans began intrenchments within hearing dis-
tance of the enemy and kept the fires burning brightly.
About one o'clock, the patriot army, excepting about

^ *i -t.
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Trenton and Princeton-Congress 53

four hundred men who remained until morning to feed the I 7 7 7
fires and to continue the intrenching, silently withdrew and
took up their quiet march over the rough, newly-frozen
Quaker road. About sunrise, they were at the Quaker
meeting-house a mile and a half from Princeton.
Washington sent Brigadier-general Mercer with Mercer's
about three hundred and fifty men toward the left to Gallatry and
destroy the Stony Brook bridge and thus to delay Corn-
wallis's expected pursuit and to prevent the escape by
that route of the troops in Princeton; with his main force,
he moved directly on the village. Two of the three regi-
ments that Cornwallis had left in Princeton had already
marched toward Trenton and one of them, the seven-
teenth, and part of the other, the fifty-fifth, had crossed
the bridge. Lieutenant-colonel Mawhood, the acting
er, saw
1 troops
Autograph of Hugh Mercer an d, not
imagining that the main American army was near,
recrossed the bridge. Mercer's men had no bayonets
and were unable to stand the charge "for which the Brit-
ish regular has been famous since the days of Marlbor-
ough in Europe and Wolfe in America." In trying to
rally his men, Mercer was surrounded and, refusing quar- ugh Mercer's
ter, was repeatedly bayoneted; he died nine days later. Sword
Washington heard the firing and hastened to Mercer's The Battle of
support. "You may judge of the surprise of the Brit- Princeton
ish," says Knox, "when they saw such a large column
marching up. They could not possibly suppose it was
our army, for that, they took for granted, was cooped up
near Trenton." Regardless of personal danger, Wash- January 3
ington rode in among Mercer's routed men and suc-
ceeded, in a measure, in rallying them. Hitchcock,
Hand, and Cadwalader forced the fighting, and Mawhood
retreated, leaving his artillery behind him. After having
fought bravely, the regulars took to their heels, threw

54 Trenton and Princeton--Congress

1 7 7/7 away their guns, and,
"scattered down the
road, up the creek,
and over the fields
pursued by the
Most of the remnant
of the seventeenth
regiment fled toward
Maidenhead or
across the fields
toward Pennington.
The fifty-fifth re-
joined the fortieth in
the town, but, after a
short stand near the
S college buildings,
they were soon in
full retreat across the
Millstone toward
Brunswick. Nearly
two hundred who
Uniforms of Officer and Private, Seventeenth Foot
(British) were lodged in Nas-
(Drawn by P. W. Reynolds, Chelsea, England) sau Hall were made
prisoners; the walls of the building still show marks of

;i :i'.t 7
T~ ;:J!12jj

Nassau Hall

Trenton and Princeton-Congress

the battle. The American loss was about forty killed I 7 7 7
and wounded; the British loss was one hundred killed
and nearly three hundred wounded and
prisoners. After following the fleeing regi-
ments to Kingston, Washington turned
to the north and, at Somerset Court
House, went into camp for the night.
He was obliged to give up his plan
of capturing the British stores at
Brunswick, for his men,
"having been without rest,
rum, or provisions for two
days and nights were un-
equal to the task of march-
ing seventeen miles further."
On the following day, the
now victorious army marched
to a well-chosen mountain
camp near Morristown and
there went into winter quar-
ters. It was a long six
months since the declaration
of American independence.
Colonel Daniel Hitchcock, Rum Keg
a native of Massachusetts (Belonged to James Dickerson and Thomas Peabody,
and a graduate of Yale, had of Shirley, Mass.)
commanded the eleventh Direct reproduction, by courtesy of John E. L. Hazen
Rhode Island regiment at the siege of Boston, had served
under Greene in the fortifying of Long Island, and was Hitchcock's
with Washington at Harlem Heights. In the stormy Death
day that was crowned with the surprise and defeat of the
Hessians at Trenton, he took a violent cold. A few
days later, at Princeton, he commanded Nixon's "New
England brigade" and, although suffering with the ill-
ness that soon resulted in his death, acted with such gal-
lantry that Washington thanked him in the presence of
the army and Greene gave him his watch as a testimonial
of gratitude and friendship. That watch lies on my
desk as I write this paragraph. Hitchcock died of

56 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

1 7 7 7 dysentery in camp at Mor-
ristown on the thirteenth of
January and was buried on
the fourteenth with all the
honors of war.
The When Leslie, who was in
Outgeneraled command at Maidenhead,
C onlls heard the firing in his rear,
he at once marched to Prince-
ton and came in sight of the
Americans just as they had
destroyed the bridge over
Stony Brook. An hour after
the Americans left Prince-
ton, Cornwallis entered the
town "in a most infernal
sweat, running, puffing, and
blowing, and swearing at
being so outwitted." Until
he heard the guns at Prince-
S / ton, he had thought that
S. ;Washington was in front of
him at Trenton. Realizing
that his stores were in
danger, he made no further
S[ attempt to follow Washing-
Ston and, without ceremony,
fell back to Brunswick.
All's Well Daniel Hitchcock's Watch Thus closed one of the
that Ends (In possession of the author) most remarkable campaigns
in the history of warfare. After a season of unrelieved
disaster, the American commander of a discouraged and
dissolving army had, in ten days, saved Philadelphia,
redeemed all of New Jersey except the posts of Bruns-
wick and Amboy, put a victorious and haughty enemy
on the defensive, and dissipated the British dream of
speedy conquest. Frederick the Great pronounced the
work of that brief period "the most brilliant of any
recorded in the annals of military achievements." In

Trenton and Princeton-Congress 57

1874, just after the Franco-Prussian war, Von Moltke I 7 7 6
expressed a similar opinion: "One of the world's very I 7 7 7
greatest strategists; no finer movement was
ever executed; the affair at Princeton was the
climax." The tide had turned. Americans were filled
with new enthusiasm and recruits once more began to
appear. Measured as the crow flies, it is less than thirty
miles from Morristown back to Brooklyn Ferry, but
measured by the intervening suffering and sorrow or by
the transition from gloom to gladness, a mighty ocean
lay between.

On the eleventh of June, 1776, in conformity with The
Richard Henry Lee's resolution, congress had voted Autorit of
that a committee be appointed "to prepare and digest
the form of a Confederation to be entered into between
these Colonies." On the eleventh of July, this com-
mittee reported a draft that was printed and then debated
until congress grew weary of considering it. After
amendment, it was adopted by the delegates in Novem-
ber, 1777, after which it was submitted to the states for
ratification. Maryland was the last of the states to give
its approval; her delegates signed the engrossed copy on
the first of March, 178I,-the legal date of the articles
of confederation. Until that date, congress continued a
revolutionary body, but it exercised the political power
of the country and was recognized by all the colonies as
dejure and defacto the national government.
In the meantime, congress somewhat reluctantly took The
up the task of raising a new continental army. On the New Levies
sixteenth of September, 1776, it authorized the organiza-
tion of eighty-eight battalions of seven hundred and fifty
men each. The men were to be enlisted for three years
or the war. A bounty of twenty dollars was to be paid
each recruit and those who served to the end of the war
were to be entitled to one hundred acres of land. The
several states were assigned quotas according to ability,
Massachusetts and Virginia being called upon for fifteen
battalions each, Pennsylvania twelve, Connecticut and

58 Trenton and Princeton-Congress

1 7 7 6 Maryland eight each, New York and New Jersey four
I 7 7 7 each, Delaware and Georgia one each, etc. "Then con-
gress thought it had created an army."
congress On Wednesday, the eleventh of December, congress by
Seeks Safety resolution denounced as false a rumor of contemplated
at Baltimore
flight from Philadelphia and, in view of the distressing con-
dition of the American cause, adopted another resolution
calling for a day of fasting and humiliation. But such parli-
amentary action could not stop the advance of the British
December 13 troops across New Jersey, and, two days later, congress
adjourned to meet again at Baltimore as already described.
A week later, the delegates assembled in the Maryland
metropolis and resumed their sessions in a room in Fite's
three-story brick tavern, later known as Congress Hall.
Washington At the end of another week, and before the surprise of
isMade the Hessians at Trenton was known at Baltimore, con-
" Dictator r
gress, in "perfect reliance on the wisdom, vigour, and
December 27 uprightness of general Washington," vested him "with
full, ample, and complete powers to raise and collect
together, in the most speedy and effectual manner, from
any or all of these United States, sixteen battalions of
infantry in addition to those voted by Congress; to
appoint officers for the said battalions of infantry;" and,
in addition, three thousand light horse, three regiments
of artillery, and a corps of engineers, and to establish
their pay; "to appoint all officers under the rank of
brigadier-general; to take, wherever he may
be, whatever he may want for the use of the army, if the
inhabitants will not sell it, allowing a reasonable price for
the same; to arrest and confine persons who refuse to
take the Continental Currency or are otherwise disaffected
to the American cause;" and that "the foregoing powers
be vested in general Washington, for and during the
term of six months from the date hereof, unless sooner
determined by Congress." On Thursday, the twenty-
seventh of February, Washington's successes at Trenton
and Princeton having made Philadelphia safe, congress
adjourned "to io o'clock on Wednesday next to meet at
the State House in Philadelphia."

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Trenton and Princeton-Congress 59

In the spring of 1776, Silas Deane of Connecticut was I 7 7 6
sent to France as the secret political and financial agent seeking
of congress. After Vergennes, the wily minister of Foreign Aid
foreign affairs, heard of -
the declaration of inde-
pendence, he accorded
Deane an interview-
the beginning of fruit-
ful diplomatic relations
between France and the Autograph of Vergennes
United States. Before the end of the year, Deane had
secured for the American armies thirty thousand stand of
arms, thirty thousand suits of clothes, more than two hun-
dred and fifty cannons, and other military stores. In Sep-
tember, congress chose Benjamin Franklin and the
somewhat querulous Arthur Lee to act with Deane as
commissioners for the negotiation of treaties with foreign
powers. The story of foreign aid to the rebellious colo-
nists of the traditional enemy of France will be told
more fully in a later chapter.
In conformity with the suggestions of the New York Continental
provincial congress, congress had voted to issue two mil- Finance
lion dollars in continental bills of credit. A month later,
another million was authorized and the liability for the uly 27,1775
three millions was distributed among the colonies; the
bills were to be redeemed in four annual installments
beginning at the end of four years. In November, an
additional three millions were authorized, to be redeemed
in four annual installments beginning at the end of eight
years. In February, 1776,, came an order for four
millions more, of which one million was to be in bills of
less than a dollar each-the prototype of the "fractional
currency" of the civil war. In April, a standing com-
mittee and an auditor-general were appointed-the pro-
toplasm of our present treasury department. In May,
came an issue of five millions, and in August, an issue of
five millions more. With twenty million dollars of con-
tinental money on the market, the value of the bills had
been remarkably well maintained. But the individual

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