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Effect of summer pruning on bloom date, yield and fruit quality of 'Flordaking' peach

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Title:
Effect of summer pruning on bloom date, yield and fruit quality of 'Flordaking' peach
Creator:
Andersen, Peter C.
Publisher:
North Florida Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
154205922 ( OCLC )

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Summary. A study was initiated to determine the effect of summer pruning on date of bloom, yield and quality of the frostsusceptible peach variety 'Flordaking'. 'Flordaking' trees were pruned on 27 June, 21 July, 10 August on 29 August 1989 on leaf unpruned (control). Pruning consisted of removing large watersprouts (typically 3-7) in the tree interior and topping trees to a height of 6 feet. All trees were pruned during February, 1990. Eight trees were subjected to each of the pruning treatments. Variables measured during 1990 include: 1) tree height on 1 February; 2) percentage bloom on 1 February; 3) percentage of terminals with new growth (i.e. new growth after summer pruning); 4) percentage of buds with bloom on terminal growth; 5) yield per tree; 6) harvest index (i.e. percentage of total yield at first harvest) and; 7) average fruit weight. Variables were analyzed in a randomized block design.

Tree height (measured 1 Feb) was reduced by all dates of summer pruning. As expected, the later the pruning date the smaller the tree size-(Table 1). Bloom was most delayed with the 27 June pruning date. Summer pruning in July or August did not


45 LNorth Florida Research and Education Center IFAS University of Florida Rt. 4 Box 4092, Monticello, Florida 32344-9302 NFREC
Monticello Research Report 90-4


Effect of Summer Pruning on Bloom Date, Yiel --V~uit Qua lty of 'Flordaking' Peach i



P. C. Andersen, AREC-Monticello








result in a later bloom. This was due to the fact that there was insufficient time for flower initiation on terminals produced after pruning in July or August. Flower bud development is typically delayed in nodes located at near the apical portion of shoots compared to a more basal nodes location or compared to shoots located in the tree interior. The percentage of blooms on. terminals was reduced by all dates of summer pruning due to both bloom delay and an insufficient amount of time to allow for flower bud initiation before the arrival of the dormant season. No flower buds were initiated on terminals produced after the 29 August pruning date.

Yield varied from 27 to 38 kg (60 to 84 lbs) per tree. The lowest yield was recorded for the 27 June and 21 July pruning date and the highest on the 10 August date. More data are required for confirmation of trends in yields. Harvest index (the percentage of fruit harvested at first picking) was not significantly affected by summer pruning date, although the latter dates were associated with a higher harvest index. Fruit wt. varied relatively little as a function pruning date (60 to 65g). The small fruit size was a function of inadequate thinning due to the risk of a spring frost almost until harvest.

In conclusion, more data are required to confirm these trends although it appears that summer pruning may not only reduce the amount of pruning time during the dormant season but also may delay bloom. Early summer pruning resulted in the gre atest bloom delay; the 3 later pruning dates resulted in terminal growth with few mature flower buds.










*Table 1. Effect of summer pruning on tree height, percentage bloom, percentage of terminals with new growth, percentage of bloom on terminals, yield;* harvest index and fruit weight.



Pruning date Tree Height Percentage Bloom Percentage Percentage Yield Harvesty Fruit
on 1 Feb on 1 Feb Terminals with Bloom on Index wt
(m), New Growth Terminals (kg) ()(g)
on 1 Feb. on 1 Feb.


Control .3.7az 6lab 100a 57a 32ab .72a 65a

*27 June * 2.7b 32c 100a 18b 27b 73a 60b

21 July 2.5b 51b 70b 1ib 27b 89a 66a.

10 Aug 2.3c 71a 70b 12b 38a 92a 65a
29 Aug 2.2c 69a 13c -33ab. 93a 62ab

lsd 0.05 0.2 12 22 16 8 50 5


z Mean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level. Y Harvest Index = Percentage of total yield at first harvest. (4/20/90)




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•' t [e-9fi 3~ J3'BL 9o-f North Florida Research and Education Center IFAS University of Florida Rt. 4 Box 4092, Monticello, Florida 32344-9302 NFREC of 'Flordaking' Peach P. c. Andersen, AREC-Monticello Summary. A study was initiated to determine the effect of summer pruning on date of bloom, yield and quality of the frost susceptible peach variety 'Flordaking'. 'Flordaking' trees were pruned on 27 June, 21 July, 10 August on 29 August 1989 on leaf unpruned (control). Pruning consisted of removing large watersprouts (typically 3-7) in the tree interior and topping trees to a height of 6 feet. All trees were pruned during February, 1990. Eight trees were subjected to each of the pruning treatments. Variables measured during 1990 include: 1) tree height on 1 February; 2) percentage bloom on 1 February; 3) percentage of terminals with new growth (i.e. new growth after summer pruning); 4) percentage of buds with bloom on terminal growth; 5) yield per tree; 6) harvest index (i.e. percentage of total yield at first harvest) and; 7) average fruit weight . . Variables were analyzed in a randomized block design. Tree height (measured 1 Feb) was reduced by all dates of summer pruning. As expected, the later the pruning date the smaller the tree size:(Table 1). Bloom was most delayed with the > 27 June pruning date. Summer pruning in July or August did not

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result in a later bloom. This was due to the fact that there was insufficient time for flower initiation on terminals produced after pruning in July or August. Flower bud development is typically delayed in nodes located at near the apical portion of shoots compared to a more basal nodes location or compared to shoots located in the tree interior. The percentage of blooms on. terminals was reduced by all dates of summer pruning due to both bloom delay and an insufficient amount of time to allow for ' flower bud initiation before the arrival of the dormant season. No flower buds were initiated on terminals produced after the 29 August pruning date. Yield varied from 27 to 38 kg (60 to 84 lbs) per tree. The lowest yield was recorded for the 27 June and 21 July pruning date and the highest on the io August date. More data are required for confirmation of trends in yields. Harvest index (the percentage of fruit harvested at first picking) was not significantly affected by summer pruning date, although the latter dates were associated with a higher harvest index. Fruit wt. varied relatively little as a function pruning date {60 to 65g). The small fruit size was a function of inadequate thinning due to the risk of a spring frost almost until harvest. In conclusion, more data are required to confirm these trends although it appears that summer pruning may not only reduce the amount of pruning time during the dormant season but also may delay bloom. Early summer pruning resulted in the greatest bloom delay; the 3 later pruning dates resulted in terminal growth with few mature flower buds .

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Table 1. Effect of summer pruning on tree height, percentage bloom, percentage of terminals with new growth, percentage of bloom on terminals, yield; harvest index and fruit weight. Pruning date Tree Height Percentag~ Bloom Percentage Percentage Yield HarvestY Fruit on 1 Feb on 1 Feb Terminals with Bloom on Index wt (m) New Growth Terminals (kg) (%) (g) on 1 Feb . on 1 Feb Control 3. 7a 2 61ab lOOa 57a 32ab 72a 65a 27 June 2.7b 32c lOOa 18b 27b 73a 60b 21 July 2.5b 51b 70b llb 27b 89a 66a 10 Aug 2.3c 71a 70b 12b 38a 92a 65a 29 Aug 2.2c 69a 13c 33ab. 93a 62ab lsd 0.05 0.2 12 22 16 8 50 5 2 Mean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level. Y Harvest Index== P~rc~ntage of total yield at first harvest. (4/20/90)