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Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations

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Title:
Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Creator:
Ball, J. C.
Publisher:
Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
154024093 ( OCLC )

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO F J i
Monticello, Flerida

Monticello ARC Research Report 1978-1 February2,-o97.

RyVI SED

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE ?,ECOMMENDATIONS
J. . Ball and W. 01. Frcnch1'?


Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a relatively short development rfliod in Florida. the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to constant e ttack by a variety o pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not o ly in protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' wigor .,eason after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is rn." easy task. Attention mu-t be given to many details, some seemingly vuimpontant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:

TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then tne problem of proper timing becomes very important because of the intervas between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normally controlled until harvest by the in,.ecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white peach stale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the tree with the correci pesticide dosage. lany growers who have been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast er jipment capable of applying low volume sprays of 10x apple , oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are concentrated LA, or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where thie droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control.
The sprayer should travel at 1 - 2 miles per hour and should be nozzled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.


1Assistant Entomolbgist and Associate Plant Pitholo, ist
2This research report was prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullin, Extension lant Patholo, st; a.ld J. Brogdon, i.xten ion Entomologist.









RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific ratesW which have been found to he effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions. Changing f)rmuliotions or spray volume without changing the amount of material used car give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to: (1) [now required amount of formulation to apply per tree;
(2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rat( of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 lbs. per 100 gallon of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to bc delivering 1 gallon of water per tree -then 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP woule be required per 100 gallons of water or' 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formnulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15%.actua parathion. If a formulation is used with a different,
percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: 'he following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays., gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations ,f white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season an Ethion-oi J combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixi hg 1 pint of Ethiori,46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add
3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High voIl te sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can
build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule:

PHON4Y PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from
infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult yo u county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specia. ist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys
are ,conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become Unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Amrrate or- 2,4,5-T in the spring after 1 af-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water- held at 118g for 40 minlttes.










Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures below 50OF throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water it a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus. Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.

Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (lppm on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water.
Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor.' In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.


INSECTS

White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pcsts on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for ;prays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eqgs laid )eneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, ind are best seen with a 1Ox hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching.
During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second- spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches.
To fird infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch.










Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem Ir north Florida or- W
chards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur aind in some orchards
or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard paving particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before lite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should
also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time lititatilns (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essent al fo, good control.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especiall, toxic to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped .peraturs. Read the precautions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and li/estoc. Stare all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do no reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period Co avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoic drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.


TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are
used when bees are in the orchard at time of apple ication or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly
on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxi( and can be used around
bees with a minimum of injury.



Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COM,:'RCIAL PLANTINGS

,NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTR QLLED AND MA ERIAL
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED1 REMARKS

1. Dormant. Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, I
After all leaves application lime-sulfir
are off and before for Sari Jose scale; 2
buds begin to swell applications of 3% oil or
in late winter. *White peach Liquid lime- Ethion oil spray 14
scale sulfur or 3% i apart for white peac
*San Jose scale or Ethion-oil?. scale.










' ble I (continued)
NAME AND TIMF PESTS CONTROLLED
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED


ANO, MATERIAL


2. Blossom.


3. Petal-fall.
After all petals
are off and before
peach is showing.


Blossom blight.


Scab


Tarnished plant bug. Lesser peach tree borer.


Wettable sulfur or Benlate (see remarks) or Liquid lime-sulfur.


Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Parathion or Guthion or Imidan. Thiodan.


Mainly for brown rot problem areas. Apply several sulfur or Benlate sprays
during bloom to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains of fungi may develop and
become a serious problem,. Benlate resistance may
develop where BRnlate is used throughout the season. Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strains.

Spary tree thoroughly
including trunk and larger limbs.



Do not apply Thiodan more than 2 times during the fruiting season.


4. Shuck-fall or
first cover.
(3/4 shucks off)


5. Second cover
14 days later5


Brown rot, Scab

Tarnished plant bug, Southern
green stinkbug, Plum Curculio.


Brown rot,
Scab. Lesser peach borer. Tarni shed
plant bug, So. green
stinkbug, Plum Cjrculio


Wettable sulfur or Benlate or Captan.

Penncap M4 or Guthiotv or Imidan.


Wettable sulfur or' Benlate or Captan Thiodan.

Penncap M4 or Guthion or
Imidan.


Penncap M should not be applied more frequently
than 14 days apart.


Do not apply Thiodan
within 30 days, of harvest, or Guthion
within 21 days of harvest, or Imidan within 14 days of harvest.


6. Tird cover.
14 days later or
4 weeks before harvest of each
A vriety.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio, So. green stinkbuq.


Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Same as 2nd cover spray.


For preharvest control of brown rot apply 1 or 2 sprays of Benlate beginning 3 weeks before harvest.


REMARKS









NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDED'


7. Fourth cover.
Two weeks before
harvest of each
variety.

8. Fifth cover.
Preharvest one
week before
harvest of each
variety.


9. Sixth cover.
Pre-harvest
one day before
harvest.


10. 1st borer spray.
After all fruit
is harvested.
White peach scale
sprays.


Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80%
Captan or Benlate.
Plun Curculio, Penncap M4 or Imidan. So. Green stinkbuq.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio, So. green stinkbug.


Brown rot.


Dusting sulfur 80% or Captan or Benlate Sevin.


Benlate


POST HARVEST SPRAYS
Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or Guthion
scale. or Diazinon.


Do not apply Penncap N;
or Imidan within 14 dys of harvdst.


Sevin can be applied up to one day of harvest on peaches and 3 days
of harvest on nectarines.

if weather is hot and
dry, it may not be ne,:cessary to use Benlati! in this spray. .


Thoroughly wet scaffold
limbs, trunk, and soi I at base of tree to control borers.
Apply 2 sprays 2 week; apart when crawlers a-e active.


11. 2nd borer spray.
30-45 days after 1st borer sprav.


12. 3rd borer spray.
30-45 days after 2nd borer spray.


Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer,
Peach tree borer. Lorsban


Peach tree borer.


Thiodan


Apply Lorsban only orce per season. Registered on peaches only.

Thoroughly wet trunk to crotch and soil at bise of tree,


*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of
Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 jal/100 gal. wii ter.
1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2 See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthio!),
ov Imidan should be ued.
4 Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual ac. ivity
to provide extended control.
5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a - day fungicide spray interval should
be followed.


REMARKS









RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE
CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM)


B nlate



P) t ran Captan






Diazinon

0
Ethion


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST. AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach

15.0 15.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated
Do not graze treated orchards. orchards. Max. 1 lb. per acre per appli- No time limit. cation. Max. 1 lb. per acre per
application.
20.0 20.0 1 day 1 dav


50.0


0.75


Max. 5 lbs. per acre per
application as spray; 3.6 lbs.
as dust.
50.0 No time limit.
Postharvest same as peaches.


0.75 10 days


Max. 1 lb. per I00 gal. per application as spray;
3.6 lbs. as dust. No timeolimit at 5 lbs. per acre.
1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./100 gal. spray or dip. Recharge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added. 20 days


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply


Ferbam


7.0


7.0


Guth-ion " .0 2.0

Imidan 5.0 10.0


Kelthane 10.0


10.0


more than twice during fruiting Do not apply later than immediately after bloom. Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per application.
21 days

14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per application. 14 days


season.
Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. Max. 11.5 lbs. per acre per aDlication.


21 days


14 days 14 days


L liquid l ime-sul fur
Lorsban




rarathion


none


none


Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance.


0.05


Penncap M 1 0 1.0


Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do rot allow spray to contact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard.


Do not apply more than 5 lbs. Parathion per acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
Do not use more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated orchards.


TABLE II.









RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM)


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


4.0 Do not apply more than 9lb!Vacre per season. Do not
tank mix with spray oils. Do not apply within 4 wks.
of spray oils. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover
crops growing in treated areas.


10.0 3 days 1 day
3-9. lbs/100/A spray or 10-60 lbs/A dust.


Sulfur none none No time limit.


No time limit.


Systox 0.75 0.75


Thiodan


2.0


2.0


*Rates are expressed as active ingredient.


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than three applications per season.
Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice dLring fruiting season.


TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Dilute (IX)


Gallons of water per tree: Gallons of water per acre:


Chemical Benlate 50% WP Botran 75% WP


200


2X 5X lox


.4 1.2

40 O


Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0


Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
'Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Guthion 25% WP 1.25 2.5 6.25 1?.5
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 I$.0
Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 '.0 10.0 2--MO
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Plictran 50% WP* .25 - .38 --- .
Sevin 50% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Thiodan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 5.-0

Chemical Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 Ibsgal E.C. 16 32 80 _60
Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Gu1thion 2 lbs/gal E.C. 20 40 100 200
Kelthane 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. . . .
leaf curl 6 gal. - .
blossom blight 1 gal. - .
Lorsban 4 lbs/gal E.* 96 . .
Parathion 4 lbs/gal 10 20 50 100
Penncap M 2 lbslgal 32 - -64 160 3)
Systox 2 l bs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 1
Thiodan.Miscible 2 Ibs/gal* 48 .j
OUse as dilute only.


C11EMICAL


PI ictran


Sevin


IU.U


No time limit.











i NOTE
This schedule is a guide to aid the grower, however, all pertinent information relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility
of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of a pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal.



Common Conversions

I pint = 16 oz. = 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces
.1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces
.8 lb. = 12.8 ounces







Full Text

PAGE 1

I . AGRI CUL TUR C\L RESEARCH CENT::R MONTI CELLO Montissllo, Florida .., , . ,. . .,_ .., _ _ . Y. ~-. .,Hu M 2 ~u i3 w\R v -I FEJ c rn a / l F /'' s r r ..... l r r-' ' Monticello ARC Research Report 1978-1 I• ,ii,'-..,,1');[ .: " i,'"\ ' " j r ' ' " Fe 11 rua ry-2 .. , -, 19 71j : __ :..:.:._ __ ~__: 1 .1 " R 2: V I S E D COMMERCIAL PEACH IN SE CT AND DIS~ASE ;lECOM~ENDJHIONS 1 ? J.C. Bal l and W. J. Fr en ch , ~ Commercial peach production in north Florida w1uld not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Alth r Jugh the pear:h has a relatively short developm e nt p 0 ri0d in F l orid~ , the frui t as well as the tree is subjected to cons t ant r 1 ttack by a. var H ~ ty o pests. A good dis ease and insect control p r ogram ts impontant, n ot o ~ ly in protecting the maturing fruit but in mai n taini n g the trees' vi gor ~ eason after season. Today's peach grower is fortunc\te to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved sp r ay 0. quipm c nt available to him Neverthele~ss, spraying for pest control ism easy task. Attention mu ~ t be given to many details, some seemingly urdmporr t ant. Many times th e difference between a successful and unsuccess fu1 s p ray program depends on three factors: ' TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungicide a11d insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then tt i e problem of proper timing beco1 1es very important b 2 cause of the i nterva , s between sprays and the nature of the pests• i i ttack i ng the tree at this t i me. The white peach scale is normally i:ontrolled w 1t il harvest by the in ;ecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals , they ;hould be t imed to c,Jincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white peach s:ale. COVERAGE: Economic pest control is depe1dent on unifonn coverage of the tree with the s or r ~ci pes ti cid e dosage. 1any growers who have been applying dilute s pr ays a re us in g o . ir-blast ee:di'Jllent c apable of applying 1 ow volume sprays of lOx ( app _,, oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are concentrated t.'.;{ or , 11ore, there is iittle possibility of move ment of spray solution from the point where th e droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even niore critical for successful pest control. The sp1ayer should travel at 1 2 mi lcs per : 1our and should be noz zled to deliver the gallons as detennined from Tabl III. 1 Assistant Entomol~gist Jn d Associate Plant P ~ tholo ( ist 2 Th is re sea f ch report wa~ ; prepa , ed in co 11 abora ti on with R. S. Mul 11 n, Extension ~lant Patholo~ ; ;st; a ,i d ~ L Brogdon, . ::xten : ion Entomologist.

PAGE 2

-2RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are reconmended at speci fie rates . . which have been founi1 to IH~ effective and non-phytotoxi c under Florida conditions. Changing hrmul; tions or spray volume without changing the , amount of material used car give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to: (1) l now required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The reconmended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1! 2 lbs. per 100 gallon of water when spraying diluk {2 ga'llons per tree}. If the sprayer 1hen traveling 2 MPH is found to bf delivering 1 gallon uf water per tree then 3 lbs~ of Th1odan 50% WP wouh be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is .in the fonnulatfon. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listeGI in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a fonnulation is used with a ead from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees 1 in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county . agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit speciajist. : The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, th1~ greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surv~ys are ~onducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofitable. Control recorrmendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed iately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Arrrnate or 2,4,5-T in tne sprin~ after 1-=?af-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of p~ony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made , phonj-free by soaking plants in water-held at 11so for 40 minites.

PAGE 3

-----------------------------3_B._~cteria l __ j_Q_q_!: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc. Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera tures below SOOF throughout the marketing period. Betran 75W added to the hydrocool ing water it a rate of 1 1 b/100 ga 11 ons water wi 11 control rhi zopus. Benlate is effectiv~ against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest use lz lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Betran. Do not use Benlate in place of Betran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gal"lons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydro cooler every 1 or 2 days. Wax Treatment: Bot ran (2-3 ppm on fruit) pl us Ben late (lppm on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment ,following chlorinated (25-SO ppm) tlydro cooler water. Rus_t: _ Peach rust, like bacterial spbt, causes greater damaging injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor,' J.n centra 1 Florida orcha rds, es pec ia 1 ly those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control I ; NSECTS vJhite Peach Scala: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests-on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and en tire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They Sf!Crete a ~-1axy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; there fore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler 11 "stage is piesent. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from ec:gs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the j)rotection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching. . During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees sprays should be timed to the craw ler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second : spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches. To ffod infestations, 1 ook for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch

PAGE 4

-4Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem ;r north Florida or chards-; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur :ind in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. BE~ -: .ause of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, SPfrningly overnight, and the grower should const,ntly monitor his orchard p ay ing particular atten tion t'o trouble spots. Spraying should be done b r •fore i;,ite populations be come t'oo high, as these are difficult to control; howevr : r, the grower should a 1 so avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Ke lthane, Pl i ct. r an, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time lbitat ;(lns (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essent al f,1 , good control. PRECAUTIONS Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especiall : 1 toxir: to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped 1 .1perat rs. Read the precau tions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pe5ticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and li1estoc~. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose oi left-over spray materials and all empty containers sa fely end promptly. Do no r euse empty pesticide containe1s. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment . TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin c1re highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expecteo if thE-se materials are used when bees are in the orchard at time of app~ ication or for 24 hours thereafter. Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to uees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on the bees in the field. Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxi, .Jnd can be used around bees with a minimum of injury. Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR CQ'1M: : RCIAL PLANTI.l'GS flAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY PESTS CONTROLLED AND MA ERIAL RECC1'1MENDED1 REMARKS 1. Dor,mant ... After all leaves are off and before buds begin to swell in late winter. LNf curl. Ferbam *White peach Liquid limescale sulfur or 3 % Qi ------------~San Jose ?cale or E_tbion-oil _ ~~ If sea 1 e is a pr , ,b 1 em . 1 application lime-sulfir for San Jose scale; 2 applications of 1% oi I or Ethionoil spray 14. apart for white peac __ sea 1 e . __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _______ _ __ _

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-5flble (continued ) NAME AND TIML NO. OF SPRAY PlSTS CONTR~LLED Arti, MATERIAL __ R_ECOMM~NDE].. ___ . _______ R_M ___ A ___ RK_S_ 2. 3. 4. Blossom ... Petal-fall ... After all petals are off anq before peach is showing. Shuck-fa 11 or first cover ... (3/4 shucks off} Blossom blight. Scab Tarnished plant bug. Lesser peach tree borer. Brown rot, Scab WP.ttabl e sulfur or Benlate (see remarks) or Liquid lime-sulfur. Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Parathion or Guthion or Imidan. Thiodan. Wettable sulfur or Benlate or Captan. Mainly for brown rot prob1 em areas. Apply severa 1 sulfur or Ben late sprays during blocrn to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains of fungi may develop and become a seri,ous 1 problem. Benlate resistance may develop wbere ll.~ola te is used throughout the season. Alternate , fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strains. Spary tree thoroughly including trunk and lar1er 1 imbs. Do not apply Thiodan more than 2 times during the fruiting season. Penncap M4 or Guthioti Penncap M should not be or Imidan. applied roore frequently than 14 days apart. Tarnished plant bug, Southern green stinkbug, Plum Curculio. ----------____ _;_;c,;.~-"---"---------5. s~cond cover 1'l days la ter 5 Brown rot, Sca b. Wettable sulfur or ' Benlate or Captan Thiodan. Penncap M 4 or Guthion or Irnidan. Do not apply T•hiodan wi-thi n 30 days, of harvest, or Guthion within 21 days of har vest, or Im1dan within 14 days of harvest. Lesser peach borer. Tarnis11ed plant bug, So. green stinkbug, Plum Curculio ------------'-='-~;__,;;..;;;_;_;,_:._ ____________________ . __ 6. T1ird cover ... 11 days later or 4 weeks before h , lrves t of each __ V : \ ri ety. Brown rot. Plum Curcul io, So. green stinkbug. Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate . Same as 2nd cover spray. For preharvest control of brown rot apply 1 or 2 sprays of Benlate be ginning 3 weeks before harvest.

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NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDED 1 REMARKS -• 7. Fourth cover... Bro~m rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Two weeks before Captan or Benlate. harvest of each Plurn Curculio, Penncap M 4 or Imidan. ____ v=ar __ i.;...;e;..;t"'"Y-'-------'S:;.,;;o:....;_. Green stinkbug. 8. Fifth cover... Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Preharvest one or Captan or Benlate week before Plum Curculio, Sevin. Do not apply Penncap M or Imidan within 14 d,ys of harvest. Sevin can be applied up to one day of harvest on peaches and 3 days harvest of each So. green of harvest on nectarfres. variety. stinkbug. 9. Sixth cover ... 10. Pre-harvest one day . before harvest. 1st borer spray ... After all fruit Brown rot. Benlate POST HARVEST SPRAYS Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, If weather is hot and dry, it may not he cessary to use BE~nl at,~ in this spray. Thoroughly wet scaffoid limbs, trunk, and soil is harvested. White peach scale sprays ... Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or Guthion at base of tree to control borers. scale. or Diazinon. Apply 2 sprays 2 weeh apart when crawlers a,.e active. 11. 2nd borer spray ... 30-45 days after 1st borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Apply Lorsban only or.ce per season. Registered Peach tree borer. Lorsban 12. 3rd borer spray... Peach tree Thiodan 30-45 days after borer. 2nd borer spray. on peaches only. Thoroughly wet trunk to crotch and soil at b~se of tree, *White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of Pa,.athion and Guthion. Liquid lime""'.sulfur for scale control rate: 12 1al/IOO gal. w,: ter. 1 Sle Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recon,mended. 2 See ! . 1 spray Notes" pag;:f 2. 3 During ' cool . wea'ther Parathion will not give effoctive control and Penncap M, Guthiot1, or Imidan should be u~ed. . 4 Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual ac ~ivity to provide extended control. 5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a i day fungicide spray interval shoulcl be followed.

PAGE 7

-.7TABLE I I. RESIDU E TOLERANCES AND LIMITA fIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBt.ICATION. RESmUE C-'-'HE'--M-'--ICC..-A..C..L ___ . _TOLERANCES (PPM) INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* B~nlate Bo tran Captan biazinon Eth ion Ferbam Guth ion . . .. ~ -------I m i dan K elthane Ci quid l ime-sulfur I orsban -P arathion Penncap M Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 :~ .o 5 . 0 10.0 none 1 . . 0 1.0 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 2.0 10.0 10.0 none 0.05 No time limit. Do not graze treated orchards. Max. 1 lb. per acre per appl cation. ' 1 day Max. 5 lbs. per acre per application as spray; 3. 6 lbs. as dust. No time limit. Postharvest same as peaches. 10 days Do not graze treated orchards. No time limit. Max. 1 lb. per acre per application. 1 day Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per ~pplication as spray; 3.6 lbs. as dust. No ti~ , 11mH at 5 lbs. per acre. 1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./100 gal. spray or dip. Recharge when vol . down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added. 20 days Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than tw , i ce during fruiting season. Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21 immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max. Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per 11.5 lbs. per acre per application. application. 21 days 21 days 14 days 6 lbs . max. per acre per application. 14 days 14 days 14 days Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do r ot allow spray to contact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard. 1. 0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs~ Parathion per acre per --:-=-----ear. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. 1.0 Do not use more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from trEated orchards. ---------------------------

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-8. . .... .CIJEMICAL RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM) 1NTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRJl'_,;_;T-'-I=ON.;.c;.S-'-. * _______ _ PI ictran . 4.0 4.0 Do not apply more than 9 lb'S"acre per season. Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do not a~ply within 4 wks. of spray oils. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas. Sevin Sulfur 10.0 none 10.0 none 3 da~s 1 day 3-9.7 lbs/100/A spray or 10-60 lbs/A dust. No time limit. No time limit. Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply withfo 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than three applications per season. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not applymore than tw i ce dLting fruiting se a son. Thiodan 2.0 2.0 *Rates are expressed as active ingredient. TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS Dilute (IX) _ 2X 5X l0X Gallons of water per tree: 2 1 .4 ,.2 Gallons of water per acre: Chemical Pounds of wettab~wder per 100 gallons. Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0 200 100 40 ro .:;.Bo;:...;t:..:..r=an~7~5%:,;,-..;;.:W..;...P __________ _ ---=l-'.;..,oo=-_ _ __ 2. o 5. o 10. o -='Ca=p;.,;.t=an-'-="50-=-=%~WP=----------___,2,......=-oo'---_ 4. o 10. o 20. o ' Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 -Gu.c...t ....,.. h--i o_n__,,..2s=%-,--WP-'------------,. 1 , .2-5=--2. 5 6. 25 1~ .-c--5 __ _ .:::.Im~i;..;::d~an~5..;::;..0%~Wc.:....,P,...,.,,.... ________ ---=1-'-. -=--5 __ 3. 0 7. 5 15. 0 Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 2b.-=-o __ _ Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 Plictran 50% WP* .25 .3H Sevin 50% WP 2.0 ---f:o 10.0 20.0 Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0 ..;;..T"'""hi-o--"-da-'n'--50-%-W-P '-'---'---------1-.-5 -__ _ cc;.3 .;...:;.o----'-1'-.-'-5--15 _ -=o--...;;..C_hem__,,i __ ca_l_.,...~-........,.--,,,__.-----0....,;u __ n_c..;;;..es;;__;;_o..;._f ....;e ;_c. m=u-"-'1 s;;...;i f i ab 1 e concentrate/ 100 gal Diazinon AG500 E.C. 16 32 80 t60 .:c..E--.thc.;;;i'-'-on;..;..;;;....,4......,,..,1 b--s .;;,.;;...a....,,;,_.. ~E-" ...... c"""'. "-'-.;;;._...c _____ ...;:lc.-=.6 __ _ -80 160 Gllthion 2 lbs/gal E.C. 20 --~ . 100 200 Ki!_ l ___ th.,...a_n~e.,_4_1_ b ___ s~/~ga __ l_E_. c_•-=--~-----1_6 __ 32 80 160 Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. leaf curl 6 gal. blossom blight 1 gal. ---------..

PAGE 9

.. \ .l , i \ -9f NOTE This schedule is a guide to aid the grower, however, all pertinent infonna tion relating to the pesticides cannot be includr!d. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of!_ pesticide inconsistent with the l a bel h illegal. Conman Conversions 1 pint= 16 oz.= 473 milliliters 1 qt. = 32 oz.= 2 pints 1 gal.= 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints 1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters 1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces .8 lb. = 12.8 ounces t


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