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Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations

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Title:
Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Creator:
French, W. J.
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Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Language:
English

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
153946166 ( OCLC )

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Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not only in'protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:

TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit harvest. After the-fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white peach scale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying low volume sprays of lOx (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at lk - 231 miles per hour and should be nozzle to delivery the gallons as determined from Table III.
1. RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions.




1 Professor of Plant Pathology

2 This research report was prepared in collaboration with Gary Simone, Extension Plant Pathologist and H. Cromroy, Extension Engomologist.


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER - MONTICELLO


Monticello


Monticello, Florida I

ARC Research Report BB1980-1 Japuary-9, 1982,
Uiv L
R E V I S E D

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECO NATIONS
1 2 U niv. of An id
W. J. French ' i






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Changing formulations or spray volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to:
(1) know required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is Vi lbs. per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree, then 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 2 gallons pertree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season, an-Ethion-oil combi7natio spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels; therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule:

PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard,. the greater the chance of disease being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all'wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5-T in the spring after leaf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes.

BACTERIAL SPOT: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a disease which has not been a serious Problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.






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POST HARVEST DECAYS: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and Rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures below 5QOF throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control Rhizopus. Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest, use 3 lb. Benlate in the hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add
1 lb. Botran and 11 lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to the hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.

WAX TREATMENT: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (1 ppm on fruit)
incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water.

RUST: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by midsummer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.

INSECTS

CATFACING INSECTS: The early sprays for catfacing insects (stinkbug,
tarnished plant bug) are extremely important. Rapid growth of leaves and fruit at this time has the effect of reducing the amount of pesticide contacted by the insects between spray intervals. Therefore, the petal fall and shuck-fall sprays must be timed very accurately, so that untreated surfaces do not remain exposed to attack.

WHITE PEACH SCALE: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler"~ stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching.
During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control.
At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees, sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches
To find infestations,, look for white cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch.
If white peach scale is not controlled in the summer and fall, high populations may overwinter necessitating a dormant spray. The need for a dormant spray is a last resort and should not be considered a routine part of the scale control program. For one thing, the scale overwinter as protected adult females and the amount of mortality achieved from dormant sprays can be relatively low. In addition, by the time dormant or delayed dormant sprays are applied, much of the damage (dead wood) caused by the scale will have already occurred.







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Greater detail on the life cycle and scouting for white peach scale can be
found in ENT-38,, "White Peach Scale in Florida" by J. C. Ball and J. E. Brogdon,* Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser., IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.W

Peach Tree Borer (PTB) and Lesser Peach Tree Borer (LPTB): These borers
feed in the bark of the tree. They are frequently associated with pruning cuts and lesions made by farm equipment; however, such wounds are not necessary for successful penetration of the borers. The PTB attacks the trunk from about 6" above the soil to 3" below the soil. The LPTB is found on the upper trunk and scaffold limbs. LPTB moths first emerge around March and continue at fairly constant levels through October. The major PTB flight occurs in late summer and fall., with peak emergence in late September - early October. To be effective, borer sprays should thoroughly wet the trunk and larger branches. Early season control of LPTB is probably achieved by the preharvest cover sprays; however, if the grower has a persistent heavy infestation even after proper application of post-harvest borer sprays, a pre-harvest Thiodan spray should be applied (observe proper days-to-harvest interval). The most effective timing of borer sprays in Florida has not been worked out and that presented in this guide represents a maximum schedule.
In Georgia, research has indicated that Lorsban applied in the first week of August will control PTB and also white peach scale. In addition, a rate of 1 1/2 qts/lOO gal instead of 3 qts provides control in young orchards or at lower borer populations. These findings have not been confirmed under Florida conditions.

Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem in north Florida orchards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard, paying particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table 11). Use of high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essential for good control.

PRECAUTIONS

Many pesticides including Parathion, Penncap M, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans or for other reasons "Restricted Use" materials to be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precautions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.

TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to
honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees
with a minimum of injury.








Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS

NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS

1. Dormant. Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, 1
After all leaves application lime-sulfur
are off and before for San Jose scale; 2
buds begin to swell applications of 3% oil or
in late winter. *White peach Liquid lime- Ethion-oil spray 14 days
scale sulfur or 3% oil apart for white peach
*San Jose scale or Ethion-oil2 scale.

2. Blossom. Blossom blight. Wettable sulfur Apply several sulfur or
or Benlate (see Benlate sprays during remarks) or bloom to reduce blossom
Liquid lime- blight damage. Benlate
sulfur. resistant strains of
fungi may develop and become a serious problem. Benlate resistance may develop
where Benlate is used
throughout the season.
Alternate fungicides to
reduce the buildup of
resistant strains.

3. Petal-fall. Scab Wettable sulfur
After all petals or Captan or
are off and before Benlate.
peach is showing. Tarnished plant Parathion3 or Spray tree thoroughly,
bug. Guthion or including trunk and larger
Imidan. limbs.
Lesser peach Thiodan.
tree borer Do not apply Thiodan more
than 2 times during the
fruiting season.

4. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur
first cover. Scab or Benlate or
(3/4 shucks off) Captan.
Tarnished plant Penncap M or Penncap M should not be bug, So. green Guthion or applied more frequently
stinkbug, Plum Imidan or3 than 14 days apart.
Curculio. Parathion

5. Second cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur Do not apply Thiodan with14 days later Scab. or Benlate or in 30 days of harvest, or
Captan Guthion within 21 days of
Lesser peach Thiodan. harvest, or Imidan within
borer. 14 days of harvest or
Tarnished Penncap M or Parathion within 14 days
plant bug, Guthion or of harvest.
So. green Imidan or
stinkbug, Parathion3.
Plum Curculio







Table I. (continued)


NAME AND TIME


PESTS CONTROLLED


AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS

6. Third cover Brown rot. Wettable sulfur For preharvest control
14 days later or or Captan or of brown rot apply 1
4 weeks before Benlate. or 2 sprays of Benlate
harvest of each Plum Curculio, Same as 2nd beginning 3 weeks
variety. So. green cover spray. before harvest.
stinkbug.

7. Fourth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur Do not apply Penncap
Two weeks before 80% or Captan or M, Parathion or Imidan
harvest of each Plum Curculio, Benlate. Penncap within 14 days of
variety. So. green stink- M4, Imidan or harvest.
bug. Parathion.i

8. Fifth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur Sevin can be applied
Preharvest one 80% or Captan up to one day of harweek before Plum Curcullo, or Benlate. vest on peaches and 3
harvest of each So. green Sevin. days of harvest on
variety. stinkbug. nectarines.

9. Sixth cover. Brown rot. Benlate If weather is hot
Preharvest one and dry, it may not
day before har- be necessary to use
vest. Benlate in this spray.

10. POST HARVEST SPRAYS
1st borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan Thoroughly wet scafAfter all fruit tree borer, fold limbs, trunk, & W
is harvested. Peach tree borer. soil at base of tree to
White peach scale White peach Parathion or control borers.
sprays. scale. Guthion or Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks
Diazinon apart when crawlers
are active.

11. 2nd borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan Apply Lorsban only
30-45 days after tree borer, once per season.
1st borer spray. Peach tree Lorsban or Registered on peaches
borer. Thiodan only.

12. 3rd borer spray. Peach tree Thiodan Thoroughly wet trunk to
30-45 days after borer crotch and soil at base
2nd borer spray. of tree.


*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled


by the cover sprays of


Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/100 water.
1See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.


gal.


2See "Spray Notes" page 2. 3During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthion or Imidan should be used. 4Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity to provide extended control. 5For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval should be followed.


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' BLE II.


RESICUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS'PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND


CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*

Nectar ne Peach Nectarine Peach

Benlate 15.0 15.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated orchards.
No time limit.
Max. 1 lb. per acre per
application.
Botran 20.0 20.0 1 day 1 day
Max. 5 lbs. per acre per Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per
application as spray; 3.6 lbs. application as spray; 3.6 as dust. lbs. as dust.
Captan 50.0 50.0 No time limit No time limit at 5 lbs. per
Postharvest same as peaches. acre.
1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./ 100 gal. spray or dip. Recharge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added.
Diazinon 0.75 0.75 10 days 20 days

thion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
W than twice during fruiting season.
Ferbam 7.0 7.0 Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21
immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max. 11.5
Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per lbs. per acre per applicaapplication. tion.
Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days

Imidan 5.0 10.0 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre 14 days - 6 lbs. max. per
per application, acre per application
Kelthane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days

Liquid none none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy.
lime-sulfur
Lorsban 0.05 Do not apply more than once
per season. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not allow spray to contact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in
treated orchard.
Parathion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year.
Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Penncap M 1.0 1.0 Do not use more than 5 lbs.


active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated orchards.





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RESIDUE
CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM)


Plictran


4.0 4.0


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST. AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


Do not apply more than 4.5 lbs. active per acre per season or more than 4 times. Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do not apply during the same season that a summer spray oil is used. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas.


Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day
Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit.

Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
than three applications per season.
Thiodan 2.0 2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
than twice during fruiting season.

*Rates are expressed as active ingredient.

TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS.

Dilute (IX) 2X 5X lOX

Gallons of water per tree: 2 1 .4 .2

Gallons of water per acre: 200 100 40 20

Chemical Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
Botran 75% WP 1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0
Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0


Guthion 25% WP Imidan 50% WP


1.25
1.5


2.5 3.0


6.25 12.5 7.5 15.0


Kelthane 18.5% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Parathion 15% 1TP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Plictran 50% WP* .25-.38 --- --- ---


Sevin 50% WP Sulfur, wettable 80%


2.0 6.0


4.0
12.0


10.01 20.0 30.0 60.0


Thiodan 50% SP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0


Chemical Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Guthion 2 lbs/gal. E.C. 20 40 100 200
Kelthane 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 -- -- -leaf curl 6 -- -- -blossom blight 1 -- -- -Lorsban 4 lbs/gal. E.C.* 96 -- -- -Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 10 20 50 100
Penncap M 2 lbs/gal. 32 64 160 320
Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* 48 - - -


*Use as dilute only.


w





NOTE


This schedule is a guide to aid the grower; however, all pertinent information relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of a pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal.









Common Conversions

1 pint = 16 oz. 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces .8 lb. = 12.8 ounces





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Full Text

PAGE 1

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO Monticello, Florida Monticello ARC Research Report BB198O-l R E V I S E D COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECO W. J. French l,Z FEB J _ -~ NDATIONS !. F . A S. U niv. o-f F l oricl3 , '--__ _ ___ . ....,__...._.._ _ __._ __ .... Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to con stant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors: TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungi cide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit har vest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normally con trolled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white peach scale. COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying low volume sprays of lOx (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control. The sprayer should travel at 1 2 miles per hour and should be nozzled to delivery the gallons as determined from Table III. RAT.ES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions. 1 Professor of Plant Pathology 2 This research report was prepared in collaboration with Gary Simone, Extension Plant Pathologist and H. Cromroy, Extension Engomologist.

PAGE 2

2 Changing formulations or spray volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore . important to: (1) know required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is llbs. per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (2 gal lons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree, then 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50%WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Para thion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly. SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season, an Ethion-oil combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels; therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained. DISEASES This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule: PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from in fected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist. The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the chance of disease being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofitable. Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5-T in the spring after leaf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes. BACTERIAt SPOT: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a dis ease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

PAGE 3

3 POST HARVEST DECAYS: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and Rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures be low 50F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control Rhizopus. Benlate is ef fective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest, use lb. Benlate in the hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to the hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days. WAX TREATMENT: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (1 pptn on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water. RUST: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid sunnner. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control. INSECTS CATFACING INSECTS: The early sprays for catfacing insects {stinkbug, tarnished plant bug) are extremely important. Rapid growth of leaves and fruit at this time has the effect of reducing the amount of pesticide contacted by the insects between spray intervals. Therefore, the petal fall and shuck-fall sprays must be timed very accurately, so that untreated surfaces do not remain exposed to attack. WHITE PEACH SCALE: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler" stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult wnich occurs around 7-9 days after hatching. During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees, sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches To find infestations, look for . white cottony turts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch. If white peach scale is not controlled in the summer and fall, high popu lations may overwinter necessitating a dormant spray. The need for a dormant spray is a last resort and should not be considered a routine part of the scale control program. For one thing, the scale overwinter as protected adult females and the amount of mortality achieved from dormant sprays can be rela tively low. In addition, by the time dormant or delayed dormant sprays are applied, much of the damage (dead wood) caused by the scale will have already occurred.

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-4Greater detail on the life cycle and scouting for white peach scale can be found in ENT-38, "White Peach Scale in Florida" by J. C. Ball and J. E. Brogdon, Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser., IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Peach Tree Borer (PTB) and Lesser Peach Tree Borer (LPTB): These borers feed in the bark of the tree. They are frequently associated with pruning cuts and lesions made by farm equipment; however, such wounds are not necessary for successful penetration of the borers. The PTB attacks the trunk from about 6" above the soil to 3" below the soil. The LPTB is found on the upper trunk and scaffold limbs. LPTB moths first emerge around March and continue at fairly con stant levels through October. The major PTB flight occurs in late summer and fall, with peak emergence in late September early October. To be effective, borer sprays should thoroughly wet the trunk and larger branches. Early season control of LPTB is probably achieved by the preharvest cover sprays; however, if the grower has a persistent heavy infestation even after proper application of post-harvest borer sprays, a pre-harvest Thiodan spray should be applied (observe proper days-to-harvest interval). The most effective timing of borer sprays in Florida has not been worked out and that presented in this guide represents a maximum schedule. In Georgia, research has indicated that Lorsban applied in the first week of August will control PTB and also white peach scale. In addition, a rate of 1 1/2 qts/100 gal instead of 3 qts provides control in young orchards or at lower borer populations. These findings have not been confirmed under Florida conditions. Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem in north Florida orchards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard, paying particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table II). Use of high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essential for good control. PRECAUTIONS Many pesticides including Parathion, Penncap M, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans or for other reasons "Restricted Use" materials to be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau tions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment. TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter. Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on the bees in the field. Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees with a minimum of injury.

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------------------------Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY 1. Dormant After all leaves are off and before buds begin to swell in late winter. 2. Blossom 3. Petal-fall After all petals are off and before peach is showing. 4. Shuck-fall or first cover (3/4 shucks off) 5. Second cover 14 days later PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDED! Leaf curl. Ferbam *White peach Liquid lime~ scale sulfur or 3% oil *San Jose scale or Ethion-oil 2 Blossom blight. Wettable sulfur or Benlate (see remarks) or Liquid lime sulfur. Scab Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Tarnished plant Parathion 3 or bug. Guthion or Imidan. Lesser peach tree borer Brown rot, Scab Tarnished plant bug, So. green stinkbug, Plum Curculio. Brown rot, Scab. Lesser peach borer. Tarnished plant bug, So. green stinkbug, Plum Curculio Thiodan. Wettable sulfur or Benlate or Captan. Penncap M 4 or Guthion or Imidan or 3 Parathion. Wettable sulfur or Benlate or Captan Thiodan. Penncap M 4 or Guthion or Imidan or Parathion 3 REMARKS If scale is a problem, 1 application lime-sulfur for San Jose scale; 2 applications of 3% oil or Ethion-oil spray 14 days apart for white peach scale. Apply several sulfur or Benlate sprays during bloom to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains of fungi may develop and become a serious problem. Benlate resistance may develop where Benlate is used throughout the season. Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strains. Spray tree thoroughly, including trunk and larger limbs. Do not apply Thiodan more than 2 times during the fruiting season. Penncap M should not be applied more frequently than 14 days apart. Do not apply Thiodan with in 30 days of harvest, or Guthion within 21 days of harvest, or Imidan within 14 days of harvest or Parathion within ,_ 14 days of harvest.

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Table I. (continued) NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY 6. Third cover 14 days later or 4 weeks before harvest of each variety. 7. Fourth cover Two weeks before harvest of each variety. 8. Fifth cover Preharvest one week before harvest of each variety. 9. Sixth cover Preharvest one day before har vest. 10. 11. 12. 1st borer spray After all fruit is harvested. White peach scale sprays 2nd borer spray 30-45 days after 1st borer spray. 3rd borer spray 30-45 days after 2nd borer spray. -6PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDED Brown rot. Plum Curculio, So. green stinkbu Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Same as 2nd cover spray. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% or Captan or Plum Curculio, Benlate. Penncap So. green stinkM4, Imidan 1 or bug. Parathion. Brown rot. Plum Curculio, So. green stinkbug. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% or Captan or Benlate. Sevin. Benlate POST HARVEST SPRAYS Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or scale. Guthion or Diazinon Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree Lorsban or borer. Thiodan Peach tree Thiodan borer REMARKS For preharvest control of brown rot apply 1 or 2 sprays of Benlate beginning 3 weeks before harvest. Do not apply Penncap M, Parathion or Imidan within 14 days of harvest. Sevin can be applied up to one day of har vest on peaches and 3 days of harvest on nectarines. If weather is hot and dry, it may not be necessary to use Benlate in this spray. Thoroughly wet scaffold limbs, trunk, & soil at base of tree to control borers. Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks apart when crawlers are active. Apply Lorsban only once per season. Registered on peaches only. Thoroughly wet trunk to crotch and soil at base of tree. *White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control . rate: 12 gal/100 gal. water. 1 see Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended. 2 see "Spray Notes" page 2. 3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthion or Imidan should be used. 4 Penncap Mis a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity to provide extended control. 5For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval should be followed.

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CHEMICAL Benlate Botran Captan Diazinon .thion Ferbam Guthion Imidan Kelthane Liquid lime-sulfur Lorsban Parathion Penncap M -7RESICUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION. RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM) INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* Nectarine , Peach Nectarine Peach 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 50.0 so.a o.75 o. 75 1.0 1.0 7.0 7.0 2.0 , 2.0 s.o 10.0 10.0 10.0 none none o.os 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 No time limit. 1 day Max. 5 lbs. per acre per application as spray; 3.6 lbs. as dust. No time limit Postharvest same as peaches. 10 days Do not graze . treated or chards. No time limit. Max. 1 lb. per acre per a lication. 1 day Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per application as spray; 3.6 lbs . as dust. No time limit at 5 l~s. per acre. 1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./ 100 gal. spray or dip. Re charge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added. 20 days Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season. Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21 immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max. 11.5 Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per lbs. per acre per applicaapplication. tion. 21 days 21 days 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per application. 14 days 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per app.licatian 14 days Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy. Do not apply more than once per season. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not allow spray to con tact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard. Do not apply more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not use more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply1ater than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated orchards.

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RESIDUE CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM) Plictran 4.0 4.0 Sevin 10.0 10.0 Sulfur none none Systox 0.75 Q.75 Thiodan 2.0 2.0 -8-INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* Do not apply more than 4.5 lbs. active per acre per season or more than 4 times . Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do. not apply during the same season that a summer spray oil is used. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in . treated areas. 3 days 1 day No time limit. No time limit. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than three applications per season. Donat apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season. *Rates are expressed as active ingredient. TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS. Dilute (IX) 2X 5X lOX Gallons of water per tree: 2 1 .4 .2 Gallons of water per acre: 200 100 40 20 Chemical Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons. Benlate 50%WP Botran 75% WP Ferbam 75% WP Guthion25%WP Imidan 50% WP Kelthane 18.5% WP Parathion 15% WP Plictran 50% WP* . Sevin 50% WP Sulfur, wettable 80% Thiodan 50% SP Chem,idal Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E~C. Guthion 2 lbs/gal. E.C. Kelthane 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects leaf curl blossom blight Lorsban 4 lbs/gal. E.C.* Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E.C~ Penncap M 2 lbs/gal. Systox 2 lbs/gal E.c. Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* *Use as dilute only. 0.50 1.00 2.00 2.0 1.25 1.5 2.0 . 2.0 .25-.38 2.0 6.0 1.5 Ounces 16 16 20 16 12 6 1 96 10 32 16 48 1.0 2.5 5.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 4.0 10~0 20~0 4.0 10.0 20.0 2.5 6~25 . 12.5 3.0 7.5 15.0 4.0 , . 10.0 20.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 4.0 10~0 ; 20.0 12.0 30.0 60.0 3.0 7.5 15.0 of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal. 32 , 80 160 32 80 160 40 100 200 32 80 160 20 50 100 64 160 320 32 80 160

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-9NOTE This schedule is a guide to aid the grower; however, all pertinent information relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for infonnation on restriction ' s and correct use. Use of i!. pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal. Common Conversions 1 pint= 16 oz.= 473 milliliters 1 qt.= 32 oz.= 2 pints 1 gal.= 128 oz.= 4 qts. = 8 pints 1 oz.= approximately 30 milliliters 1 lb.= 16 ounces .1 lbo = 1.~ ounces .4 lb.= 6.4 ounces .8 lb.= 12.8 ounces

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