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Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations

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Title:
Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Creator:
Ball, J. C.
Publisher:
Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Language:
English

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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153992846 ( OCLC )

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER -MONTICELLO Monticello, Florida

Monticello ARC Research Report 1977-1 December 8, 1976:
11,
R EV I S D

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE kC&1MENW~I 'ON'S
3. C. Ball and .9.ren ch1 ,2
ti l v O f r/ n d a

Commercial peach production in north Florida wou 'd-not-Je possible
without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a
relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the
maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season.
Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given tormany
details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between
a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:,

*TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage Until fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper.
timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to
protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the crawlerer'
stage of each generation of the white peach scale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been
applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying
low volume sprays of l0x (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When
sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree;
therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more
critical -For successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 1 -1- 2 miles per hour and should be, nozzled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.,


lAssistant Entomologist and Associate Plant Pathologist
2This research report was prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullin,
Extension Plant Pathologist; and J. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.:







-2



RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions. Changing formulations or spray volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to: (1) know required amount of formulation to apply per tree;
(2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 1 lbs. per 100 gallon of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree -.hen 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted
accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give corrmercial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays., gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of 'white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season and Ethion-oil combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High voIlume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained.

DISEASES
This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule:
PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofita 'ble.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5-T in the spring after leaf-out;, (3)' use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 1180 for 40 minutes.W




k I


-3


Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, 0 disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.
Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures below 50OF throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water it a rate of I lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus. Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.
Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (Ippm on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water.
Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.



INSECTS
White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler"'stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching.
During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches.
To find infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch.









Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem in north Florida orchards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the' mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard paying particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rated (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essential for good control.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precautions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do no reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adj-acent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.


TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these material-s are used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be spray directly on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees with a minimum of injury.



Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS

,NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED' REMARKS

1. Dormant. Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, 1
After all leaves application lime-sulfur
are off and before for San Jose scale; 2
buds begin to swell applications of 3% oil or
in late winter. *White peach Liquid lime- Ethion-oil spray 14 days
scale sulfur or 3% Qil apart for white peach
*San Jose scale or Ethion-oil . scale. W










# able I (continued)

NAME AND TIME
NO. OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED RECOMMENDEDI


AND MATERIAL


2. Blossom.


3. Petal-fall.
After all petals
are off and before
peach is showing.


Blossom blight.


Scab

Tarnished plant bug. Lesser peach tree borer.


Wettable sulfur or Benlate (see remarks) or Liquid lime-sulfur.


Wettable sulfur or Captan or Benlate. Parathion or Guthion or Imidan. Thiodan.


Mainly for brown rot problemareas. Apply several sulfur or Benlate sprays during bloom to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains of fungi may develop and becoma a serious problem. Benlate resistance may develop where Benlate is used throughout the season Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strain.


Spary tree thoroughly including trunk and larjer limbs.


Do not apply Thiodan more than 2 times during the fruiting season.


4. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or
first cover. Scab Benlate or Captan.
(3/4 shucks Scab
Tarnished plant Penncap M4 or Guthioh Penncap M should not be

bug, Southern or Imidan. applied more frequently
green stinkbug, than 14 days apart.
Plum Curculio.

5. Second cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or' Do not apply Thiodan
14 days later5 Scab. Benlate or Captan within 30 days of
Lesser peach Thiodan. harvest, or Guthion
borer. within 21 days of harTarnished Penncap M4 or vest, or Imidan within 14
plant bug, Guthion or days of harvest.
So. green Imidan.
stinkbug,
Plum Curculio
6. Third cover. Brown rot. Wettable sulfur or For preharvest control
14 days later or Captan or Benlate. of brown rot apply 1 or
4 weeks before Plum Curculio, Same as 2nd 2 sprays of Benlate beharvest of each So. green cover spray. ginning 3 weeks before
variety. stinkbug. harvest.


REMARKS




-6-


NAME AND TIME


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED' REMARKS

7. Fourth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Do not apply Penncap M
Two weeks before Captan or Benlate. or Imidan within 14 days
harvest of each Plum Curculio, Penncap M4 or Imidan. of harvest.
variety. So. Green stinkbug.

8. Fifth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Sevin can be applied up
Preharvest one or Captan or Benlate to one day of harvest
week before Plum Curculio, Sevin. on peaches and 3 days
harvest of each So. green of harvest on nectarines.
variety. stinkbug.

9. Sixth cover. Brown rot. Benlate If weather is hot and
Pre-harvest dry, it may not be necone day before cessary to use Benlate
harvest, in this spray.


10. 1st borer spray.
After all fruit
is harvested.
White peach scale
sprays.


POST HARVEST SPRAYS
Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or Guthion
scale. or Diazinon.


Thoroughly wet scaffold
limbs, trunk, and soil at base of tree to control borers.
Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks apart when crawlers are active.


11. 2nd borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan Apply Lorsban only once 4
30-45 days after tree borer, per season. Registered
1st borer spray. Peach tree borer. Lorsban on peaches only.

12. 3rd borer spray. Peach tree Thiodan Thoroughly wet trunk to
30-45 days after borer. crotch and soil at base
2nd borer spray. of tree.
*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of
Par-athion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/100 gal. water.
1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2 See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthion,
or Imidan should be used.
4 Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity
to provide extended control.
5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval should
be followed.










RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR


PEACHES AND NECTARINES


IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM)


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST. AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach
Benlate 15.0 15.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated
Do not graze treated orchards, orchards. Max. 1 lb. per acre per appli- No time limit. cation. Max. I lb. per acre per
application.
Botran 20.0 20.0 1 day I day
Max. 5 lbs. per acre per Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal.
application as spray; 3.6 lbs. per application as spray; as dust. 3.6 lbs. as dust.
Captan 50.0 50.0 No time limit. No time limit at 5 lbs.
Postharvest same as peaches. per acre.
1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2
lbs./100 gal. spray or
dip. Recharge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added.
Diazinon 0.75 0.75 10 days 20 days


Ethion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than twice during fruiting season. Ferbam 7.0 7.0 Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21
immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max.
Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per 11.5 lbs. per acre per
application. application.
Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days

Imidan 5.0 10.0 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre 14 days
per application.
Kelthane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days

Liquid none none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance.
lime-sulfur
Lorsban 0.05 Do not apply within 14
days of harvest. Do not
allow spray to contact
fruit. Do not graze meat
or dairy animals in
treated orchard.
Parathion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs. Parathion per acre per
year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Penncap M 1.0 1.0 Do not use more than 5


lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from trEated


orchards.


CHEMICAL


*


a


a


A


IDTABLE II.









INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND


,CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND UIHER RLTSRIMIUN).Plictran 4.0 4.0 Do not apply more than 9 lbs/acre pe r season. Do not
tank mix with spray oils. Do not a.ply within 4 wks. of spray oils. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas. Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day
3-9.7 lbs/lOO/A spray or 10-60 lbs/A dust. Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit.

Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than three applications per season. Thiodan 2.0 2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than twice during fruiting season.
*Rates are expressed as active ingredient.


TABLE III.


AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Dilute (IX)


2X 5X lox


Gallons of water per tree: Gallons of water per acre:


40 20


Chemical Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
Botran 75% WP 1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0
Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 2P.0
Guthion 25% WP 1.25 2.5 6.25 12.5
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0
Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Plictran 50% WP* .25 - .38 --Sevin 50% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Thiodan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0

Chemical Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Guthion 2 lbs/gal E.C. 20 40 100 200
KeIthane 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. -- -- .
leaf curl 6 gal. - .
blossom blight 1 gal. - .
Lorsban 4 lbs/gal E.* 96 . .
Parathion 4 lbs/gal 10 20 50 100
Penncap M 2 lbs/gal 32 64 160 320
Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* 48 -- -*Use as dilute only.


Am


RESIDUE





-9- AW


NOTE

This schedule.is a guide to aid the grower, however, all pertinent Information relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of a pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal.



Common Conversions

I pint = 16 oz. = 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces
.8 lb. = 12.8 ounces





,-I -, &




Full Text

PAGE 1

,~ . .f (p ~ ?;:/ , t fN . . :J:>'33L ,.\ AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO Monticello, Florida Monticello ARC Research Report 1977-1 f'"""~ ,. "•"-...,._ December 8 1976 R E V I s / tu ME L ~y7 COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND .j DISEAS~')(fc8MME~IONS J. C. Ball and ~ .fji . ,...French 1 ' 2 -~lI . --. , ..,,.., ,.,, ,"• ~ n,v . .. o .. f tfor:d , '"'•~"'""' . I a Commercial peach production in north Florida"~ourcrn& . I e possible without effective disease and insect control. A1 though the peai:h has a relativ~ly short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tr~e is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good dis ease and insect control program i's impontant, not only in protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungi cides and improved spriiY equipment available to him. NeverthelE!ss, spray. ing for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to , rnany details, some seemingly unimpontant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors: TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit harvest. A f ter the fruit is harvested, then the problem o . f pr oper . timing beco m es very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of th e pests attacking the tree at this time. The Whitepeach scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied tp protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the 11 crawler 11 stage of each generation of the white . peach scale. COVERAGE: Economic pest contra l is dependent on uni fonn ~overage of the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who haye been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equilJllent capable of applying low voltnTie sprays of lOX(apply o i l sprays at dilute rate cinly) . . When sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibi'lity of move .: ment of spray solution from the point where . the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control. ' The sp1ayer should travel atl 2 miles per . hour and should he _ noz zled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table ITT. 1 Assistant Entomologist and Associate Plant Pathologist 2 This resea"'ch report was prepared in collaboration with R . S. Mullin, Extension f>lant Pathologist; and J~ Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.

PAGE 2

-2RATES: . Fungicides and insecticides a re recorrmended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxi c under Florida con ditions. Changing formulations or spray volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to: (1) know required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recorrmended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 lbs. per 100 gallon of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer Hhen traveling 2 MPH is found to be de 1 i veri ng 1 ga 11 on of water per tree : hen 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different p ' ercent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly. SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give corrmer cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Tabl i e III are based on dilute formulations with 2 . gallons water being ap plied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequate ly cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season and Ethion-oi . l combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixihg 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained. DISEASES This section wi 11 discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule: PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist. The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, th,~ greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofita _ ble. Control reconmendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed iately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Arrmate or 2,4,5-T in the sprin~ after leaf-out; (3'}' use nursery stock certified to be free ' of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made , phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes.

PAGE 3

-3Bacterial Spot: This spray program does ~ not control bacterial spot, disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc. Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhi zopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera tures below 500F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water :it a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus. Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in . place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydro cooler every 1 or 2 days. Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) pl us Benlate (lppm on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydro. cooler water. Rust:. Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es pecially those 1 ow in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures . . Sulfur may provide some control . I 1 NSECTS White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and en• tire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; there fore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawlermstage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching. During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees sprays should be timed to the craw ler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second : spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches. To find infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch .

PAGE 4

-4Mites: Spider mites are generally not a pro bl em in north Florida orchards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard paying particular atten tion to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations be come too high, as the . se are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rated (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is : essential for good contr , ol. PRECAUTIONS Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau tions and warnings . on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do no reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adJacent areas. Do not be res , ponsible for further polluting our environment. TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES Lorsban, Pennc:ap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are , . used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter. Thiodan and Systox are mod~rately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be , spray directly on the bees in the field. Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees with a minimum of injury. Table l. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS 'NAME AND TIME rNO .. OF SPRAY . 1. Do
PAGE 5

. ~. ---•""' ' . . -5.able I (continued) NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTRLLED AND MATERIAL NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS 2. Blossom ... Blossom b 1 i ght. Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot probor Benlate (see 1 em.areas. Apply several remarks) or Liquid sulfur or Benlate sprays lime-sulfur. during bloom to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains of fungi may develop and becoma a seriious problem. Benlate resistance may develop where Benlate is used throughout the seas on. Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strain. 3. Petal-fall ... Scab Wettable sulfur Spary tree thoroughly After all petals or Captan or including trunk and larJer are off and before Benlate. limbs. peach is showing. Tarnished Parathion or plant bug . Guthion or Imidan. Lesser peach Thiodan. Do not apply Thiodan tree borer. more than 2 times during . the fruiting season~ 4. Shuck-fa 11 or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or first cover ... Scab Benlate or Captan. (3/4 shucks off) Penncap M4 Tarnished plant or Guthioti Penncap M should not be bug, Southern or Imidan. applied more frequently green stinkbug, than 14 days apart. Plum Curculio. 5. Second cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or' Do not apply Thiodan 14 days la ter 5 Scab. Benlate or Captan within 30 days of Lesser peach Thiodan. harvest, or Guthion borer. Penncap M 4 or within 21 days of harTarnished vest, or Imidan within 14 plant bug, Guthion or days of harvest. So. green Imidan. stinkbug, Plum Curculio 6. Thi rd cover ... Brown rot. Wettable sulfur or For preharvest control 14 days later or Captan or Benlate. of brown rot apply 1 or 4 weeks before Pl um Curcul i o, Same as 2nd 2 sprays of Benlate beharvest of each So. green cover spray. ginning 3 weeks before va ri eti'.. stinkbug. harvest.

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NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY 7. 8. 9. 10. Fourth cover ... Two weeks before harvest of each variety. Fifth cover ... Preharvest one week before harvest of each variety. Sixth cover ... Pre-harvest one day before harvest. 1st borer spray ... After all fruit is harvested. White peach scale sprays ... -6PESTS CONTRrLLED AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDED Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80 % Captan or Benlate. PlLDTI Curculio, Penncap M 4 or Imidan. So. Green stinkbug. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80 % or Captan or Benlate Pl um Curcul io, Sevin. So. green stinkbug. Brown rot. Benlate POST HARVEST SPRAYS Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree borer . White peach Parathion or Guthion scale. or Diazinon. REMARKS Do not apply Penncap M or Imidan within 14 days of harvest. Sevin can be applied up to one day of harvest on peaches and 3 days of harvest on nectarines. If weather is hot and dry, it may not be nec ces sary to use Benlate in th i s spray . Thoroughly wet scaffold limbs, trunk, and soil at base of tree to control borers. Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks apart when crawlers are active . . 11. 2nd borer spray ... 30-45 days after 1st borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Apply Lorsban only once per season. Registered Peach tree borer. Lorsban 12. 3rd borer spray... Peach tree Thiodan 30-45 days after borer. 2nd borer spray. on peaches only. Thoroughly wet trunk to crotch and soil at base of tree. *White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of Pa . "athion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/100 gal. water. 1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended. 2 See "Spray Notes" page 2. 3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M~ Guthion, or Imidan should be u~ed. . 4 Penncap Mis a slow release fonnulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity to provide extended control. ; 5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval should be followed.

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-7.TABLE II. RES !DUE TOLERANCES AND LIMlTATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED ' FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN TH IS PUBLICATION. RES[ ; OUE -'-'CH"""""E_MI~C ___ AL~ __ T--'-OLERANCES (PPM) INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach Benlate Botran Captan .Diazinon Ethion Ferbam Guthion Imidan Kel thane Liquid 1 ime-sulfur Lorsban Parathion 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 none 1.0 1.0 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 2.0 10.0 10.0 none 0.05 1.0 1.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated orchards. Max. 1 lb. per acre per appli cation. 1 day Max. 5 lbs. per acre per application as spray; 3. 6 1 bs. as dust. No time limit. Postharv'est same as peaches. 10 days Do not graze treated orchards. No time limit. Max. 1 lb. per acre per application. 1 day Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per application as spray; 3.6 lbs. as dust. No time limit at 5 lbs. per acre. 1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./100 gal. spray or dip. Recharge when vol . down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 gal. added. 20 days Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than tw 1 i ce during fruiting season. Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21 immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max . Max. 5. 7 lbs . per acre per 11. 5 1 bs. per acre per application. application~ . 21 days 21 days 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per application. 14 days 14 days 14 days Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not allow spray to contact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard. Do not apply more than 5 lbs. Parathion per acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not use more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before har vest~ Do not graze or feed cover , crops from treated orchards. -----------------------------------,

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.CHEMICAL Plictran Sevin Sulfur Systox Thiodan RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM) ~. 4 .0 4.0 10~0 10.0 none none 0.75 0.75 2.0 2.0 -8!NTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND .• HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRirJ _ c...;T..;..I..:..ON.,;.;;;S...,;;,.._*_ i ______ __, __ ' Do not apply more than 9 lb~acre pe~ season. Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do not ar,ply within 4 wks. of spray oils. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas. 3 days 1 day 3-9.7 lbs/100/A spray or 10-60 lbsf,A dust. No time limit. No ~ime limit. ' ' Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply mor~ than three applications per season. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season. *Rates are expressed as active ingredient. TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS Ga'llons of water per tree: Gallons of water per acre: Chemical Benlate 50% WP Botran 75% WP Captan 50% WP Ferbam 75% WP 1 Guthion 25% WP Imidan 50% WP Ke 1 thane 85% WP Parathion 15% WP Plictran 50% WP* Sevin 50% WP 1 Sulfur, wettable 80% Thiodan 50% WP Chemical Di azinon AG500 4 lbs/gal E. C. Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Guthion 2 lbs/gal E.C. ~!lthane 4 lbs/gal E.C. Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects leaf curl blossom blight Lorsban 4 lbs/gal E.* Parathion 4 lbs/gal Penncap M 2 lbs/gal Systox 2 1 bs/ga l E. C. Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* *Use as dilute only. Oil ute (IX) 2 200 2X 1 , 100 5X .4 40 lOX .2 20 Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons. 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0 1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0 2.00 4~0 10.0 20.0 2. o 4. o 10. o _ __;:2~Q..:... o=----t.25 2.5 6.~5 12.5 1.s 3.o 7.5 1~.o 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 .25 .38 2.0 6.0 1.5 4.0 12.0 3.0 10.0 30.0 7.5 20.0 60.0 15.0 Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal. 16 32 80 160 16 32 80 160 20 40 100 200 16 32 80 16 .:..;;o;__ __ _ 12 gal. 6 gal. 1 gal. 96 10 20 50 100 32 64 160 320 16 32 80 160 48

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NOTE This scheclule is a guide to aid the g1rower, however, all pertinent infonna tion relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of~ pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal. ' Common Conversions 1 pint= 16 oz.= 473 milliliters 1 qt. = 32 oz.= 2 pints 1 gal.= 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints 1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters 1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces .8 lb. = 12.8 ounces

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. / J


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