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Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations

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Title:
Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Creator:
Ball, J. C.
Publisher:
Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Language:
English

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
153951157 ( OCLC )

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HP _P
NTI E(L Pill
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER Ll
Monticello, Florida

Monticello ARC Research Report BB1979-2 February 12, 1979
S U , of 1_1
1.p.A.S. Url, ;V. ;
of Florid.,
R E V I S E D

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS

J. C. Ball and W. J. French 1 ' 2

Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends of three factors:

TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach-scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white peach scale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying low volume sprays of lox (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 11, - 2 -2 miles per hour and should be nozzle to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.

RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions.


1 Assistant Entomologist and Associate Plant Pathologist

2 This research report was prepared in collaboration with Gary Simone, Extension Plant Pathologist and J.E.Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.





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Changing formulations or spray volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to:
(1)know required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 11, lbs' per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering
1 gallon of water per tree, then 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial control of important disease and insects pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to I gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season, an Ethion-oil combi _ation spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained.


DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedulePHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the disease trees remain in the orchard, the greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1)to remove all affected trees immediately
after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5-T in the spring after leaf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 1180 for 40 minutes.

Bacterial Spot: This'spray program does not control bacterial spot, a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.









Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures below 50OF throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W4 added to the hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus. Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest, use I lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add
1 lb. Botran and I lb. ob Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.

Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (1 ppm on fruit)
incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water,

Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on
weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.

INSECTS

Catfacing insects: The early sprays for catfacing insects (stinkbug,
tarnished plant bug) are extremely important. Rapid growth of leaves and fruit at this time has the effect of reducing the amount of pesticide contacted by the insects between spray intervals. Therefore, the petal fall and shuck-fall sprays must be timed very accurately, so that untreated surfaces do not remain exposed to attack.

White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler" stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching.
During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control.
At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees, sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches.
To find infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch.
Greater detail on the life cycle and scouting for white peach scale can be found in ENT-38, "White Peach Scale in Florida" by J. C. Ball and J. E. Brogdon, Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser., IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.






-4-


Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem in north Florida orchards;
however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of 41
orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard, paying particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essential for good control.

PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precautions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.

TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to
honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees with a minimum of injury.


Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS

NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
riO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED' RE MARKS
1. Dormant. Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, 1
After all leaves application lime-sulfur
are off and before for San Jose scale; 2
buds begin to swell applications of 3% oil or
in late winter. *White peach Liquid lime- Ethion-oil spray 14 days
scale sulfur or 3% oil apart for white peach
___________ _____*S2an Jose scale or Ethion-oil2. scale.









Table I (continued)


NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED RECOMMENDED1


AND MATERIAL
REMARKS


2. Blossom.


Blossom blight.


Wettable sulfur or Benlate (see remarks or Liquid limesul fur.


Mainly for brown rot problem areas. Apply several sulfur or Benlate sprays during bloom to reduce blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains fo fungi may develop and become a serious problem. Benlate resistance may develop where Benlate is used throughout the season. Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strains.


3. Petal-fall. Scab Wettable sulfur Spray tree thoroughly
After all petals or Captan or including trunk and larger
are off and before Benlate. limbs.
peach is showing. Tarnished plant Parathion or bug. Guthion or
Imidan.
Lesser peach Thiodan. Do not apply Thiodan more
tree borer than 2 times during the
fruiting season.
4. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur
first cover. Scab or Benlate or
(3/4 shucks off) Captan.
Tarnished plant Penncap M4 or Penncap M should not be
bug, Southern Guthion or applied more frequently
green stinkbug, Imidan. than 14 days apart.
Plum Curculio.
5. Second cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur Do not apply Thiodan with14 days later Scab. or Benlate or in 30 days of harvest, or
Captan. Guthion within 21 days of
Lesser peach Thiodan. harvest, or Imidan within
borer. 14 days of harvest.
Tarnished Penncap M4 or
plant bug, Guthion or
So. green Imidan.
stinkbug,
Plum Curculio
6. Third cover. Brown rot. Wettable sulfur For prehavest control of
14 days later or or Captan or brown rot apply I or 2
4 weeks before Benlate. sprays of Benlate beginning
harvest of each Plum Curculio, Same as 2nd 3 weeks before harvest.
variety. So. green cover spray.
stinkbug.






-6-


Table I (continued)


NAME AND TIME


PESTS CONTROLLED


AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS
7. Fourth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Do not apply Penncap
Two weeks before Captan or Benlate. M or Imidan within
harvest of each Plum Curculio, Penncap M4 or Imidan. 14 days of harvest.
variety. So. green stinkbug.
8. Fifth cover. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Sevin can be applied
Preharvest one or Captan or Benlate. up to one day of harweek before Plum Curculio, Sevin. vest on peaches and
harvest of each So. green 3 days of harvest on
variety. stinkbug. nectari nes.


9. Sixth cover.
Preharvest one day before harvest.


1st borer spray. After all fruit is harvested. White peach scale sprays.


Brown rot.


Benl ate


POST HARVEST SPRAYS
Lesser peach Thiodan
tree borer,
Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or Guthion
scale. or Diazinon.


If weather is hot and dry, it may not be necessary to use Benlate in this spray.


Thoroughly wet scaffold limbs, trunk, & soil at base of tree to control borers. Apply 2 sprays 2 is apart when crawle s are active.


11. 2nd borer spray. Lesser peach Thiodan Apply Lorsban only
30-45 days after tree borer, once per season.
1st borer spray. Peach tree Lorsban Registered on peaches
borer. only.
12. 3rd borer spray. Peach tree borer Thiodan Thoroughly wet
30-45 days after trunk to crotch and
2nd borer spray. soil at base of tree.


* White peach scale and
Parathion and Guthion. water.


San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of
Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/lOOgal.


1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2 See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthion or Imidan should be used.
4 Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual
activity to provide extended control.
For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval
should be followed.










RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESI DUE TOLERANCES


(PPM)


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach
Benlate 15.0 15.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated orDo not graze treated orchards. chards.
Max. 1 lb. per acre per appli- No time limit. cation. Max. 1 lb. per acre pre
application.
Botran 20.0 20.0 1 day 1 day
Max. 5 lbs. per acre per Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per
application as spray; 3.6 lbs. application as spray; 3.6 as dust. lbs. as dust.
Captan 50.0 50.0 No time limit No time limit at 5 TFbs. per
Postharvest same as peaches. acre.
1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs.! 100 gal. spray or dip. Recharge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25
gal . added.
Diazinon 0.75 0.75 10 days 20 days
Ethion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
than twice during fruiting season.
Ferbam 7.0 7.0 Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21
immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max. 11.5
Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per lbs. per acre per applicaapplication. tion.
Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days
Imidan 5.0 10.0 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre 14 days - 6 lbs. max. per
per application, acre per application
Kelthane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days
Liquid none none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance.
lime-sulfur
Lorsban 0.05 Do not apply more than once
per season. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not allow spray to contact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard.
Parathion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year.
Do not apply Within 14 days of harvest.
Penncap M 1.0 1.0 Do not use more than 5 lbs.
active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated orchards.


TABLE II.


CHEMI CAL









INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND


CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* W
Plictran 4.0 4.0 Do not apply more than 4.5 lbs. active per acre per season or
more than 4 times. Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do not apply during the same season that a summer spray oil is used. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas.
Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day
Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit.
Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
than three applications per season. Thiodan 2.0 2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more
than twice during fruiting season.
* Rates are expressed as active ingredient.


TABLE III.


AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE


REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS.


Dilute (IX)


Gallons of water per tree: Gallons of water per acre:


200


lox
.2
20


Chemical Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
Botran 75% WP 1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0
Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Guthion 25% WP 1.25 2.5 6.25 12.5
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0
Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Plictran 50% WP* .25-.38 --Sevin 50% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Thiodan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0

Chemical Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Ethion 4.Ibs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Guthion 2 lbs/gal. E.C. 20 40 100 200
Kelthane 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 . .
leaf curl 6 .
blossom blight 1 .
Lorsban 4 lbs/gal. E.C.* 96 . .
Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. 10 20 50 100
Penncap M 2 lbs/gal. 32 64 160 320
Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* 48 . .
* Use as dilute only.


RESIDUE





-9





NOTE

This schedule is a guide to aid the grower; however, all pertinent information relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of a pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal.




Common Conversions

1 pint = 16 oz. = 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces .8 lb. = 12.8 ounces







Full Text

PAGE 1

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER N~H~lf LIBR1vf:;;•-e• Monticello, Florida Monticello ARC Research Report 8B1979-2 MAF~ :.:: G 197 9 February 12, 1979 I.FAS U . , . . . . rnv. of Florid~ i REVISED i COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS J. C. Ball and W. J. French 1 ' 2 Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected to con stant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends of three factors: TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungi cide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit har vest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peachscale is normally con trolled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the 11 crawler 11 stage of each generation of the white peach scale. COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying low volume sprays of lOx (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). ~Jhen sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more critical for successful pest control. The sprayer should travel at 1 2 miles per hour and should be nozzled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III. RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida conditions. 1 Assistant Entomologist and Associate Plant Pathologist 2 This research report was prepared in collaboration with Gary Simone, Extension Plant Pathologist and J.E.Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.

PAGE 2

I -2Changing formulations or spra_y volume without changing the amount of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore important to: (l)know required amount of formulation to apply per tree; (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 lbs: per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree, then 3 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 lbs. per 500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted accordingly. SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial control of important disease and insects pests. The rates given in Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being applied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant season, an Ethion-oil combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be maintained. DISEASES This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray schedule: PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from in fected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers. Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist. The longer the disease trees remain in the orchard, the greater the chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become unprofitable. Control recommendations are: (l)to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5-T in the spring after leaf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes. Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a dis ease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

PAGE 3

-3Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures be low 50F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus. Benlate is ef fective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest, use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. ob Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days. Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (1 ppm on fruit) incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydrocooler water, Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, especially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control. INSECTS Catfacin insects: The early sprays for catfacing insects (stinkbug, tarnished plant bug are extremely important. Rapid growth of leaves and fruit at this time has the effect of reducing the amount of pesticide contacted by the insects between spray intervals. Therefore, the petal fall and shuck-fall sprays must be timed very accurately, so that untreated surfaces do not remain exposed to attack. White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive pests on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and entire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; therefore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable "crawler" stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from eggs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked eye, and are best seen with a lOx hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle. The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs around 7-9 days after hatching. During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control. At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees, sprays should be timed to the crawler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second spray two weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still hatch ing). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches. To find infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree every week for egg laying and crawler hatch. Greater detail on the life cycle and scouting for white peach scale can be found in ENT-38, "White Peach Scale in Florida" by J. C. Ball and J. E. Brogdon, Fla. Coop. Ext, Ser., IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 .

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-4Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem in north Florida orchards; . however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur and in some orchards or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites' rapid rate of in crease, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight, and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard, paying particular attention to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before mite populations become too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at recommended rates (Table III) and observe time limitations (Table II). Use high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essential for good control. PRECAUTIONS Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau tions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and a 11 empty containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment. TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter. Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on the bees in the field. Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees with a minimum of injury. Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTR~LLED AND MATERIAL rm. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS 1. Dormant ... Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, 1 After all leaves application lime-sulfur are off and before for San Jose scale; 2 buds begin to swell applications of 3% oil or in late winter. *White peach Liquid limeEthion-oil spray 14 days scale sulfur or 3% oil apart for white peach *San Jose scale or Ethion-oil2. scale.

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-5Table I (continued) NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDEDl REMARKS 2. Blossom ... Blossom blight. Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot probor Benlate (see l em areas. Apply several remarks or sulfur or Benlate sprays Liquid limeduring bloom to reduce sulfur. blossom blight damage. Benlate resistant strains fo fungi may develop and become a serious problem. Benlate resistance may develop where Benlate is used throughout the season. Alternate fungicides to reduce the buildup of resistant strains. 3. Petal-fa 11 ... Scab Wettable sulfur Spray tree thoroughly After all petals or Captan or including trunk and larger are off and before Benlate. 3 1 imbs. peach is showing. Tarnished plant Parathion or bug. Guthion or Imidan. Lesser peach Thiodan . Do not apply Thiodan more tree borer than 2 times during the fruiting season. 4. Shuck-fa 11 or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur first cover ... Scab or Benlate or (3/4 shucks off} Captan. Tarnished plant Penncap M 4 or Penncap M should not be bug, Southern Guthion or applied more frequently green stinkbug, Imidan. than 14 days apart. Plum Curculio. 5. Second cover 5 Brown rot, Wettable sulfur Do not apply Thiodan with14 days later Scab. or Benlate or in 30 days of harvest, or Captan. Guthion within 21 days of Lesser peach Thiodan. harvest, or Imidan within borer. Penncap M 4 or 14 days of harvest. Tarnished plant bug, Guthion or So. green Imidan. stinkbug, Plum Curculio 6. Third cover ... Brown rot. Wettable sulfur For prehavest control of 14 days later or or Captan or brown rot apply 1 or 2 4 weeks before Benlate. sprays of Benlate beginning harvest of each Plum Curculio, Same as 2nd 3 weeks before harvest. variety. So. green cover spray . stinkbu .

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Table I (continued) NAME AND TIME NO. OF SPRAY 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Fourth cover ... Two weeks before harvest of each variety. Fifth cover ... Preharvest one week before harvest of each variety. Sixth cover ... Preharvest one day before har vest. 1st borer spray ... /\fter a 11 fruit is harvested. White peach scale sprays ... 2nd borer spray ... 30-45 days after 1st borer spray. 3rd borer spray ... 30-45 days after 2nd borer spray. -6PESTS CONT,ROLLEO AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDEOl Brown rot. Plum Curculio, So. green stink bu . Brown rot. Plum Curculio, So. green stinkbug. Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Captan or Benlate. Penncap M4 or Imidan. Dusting sulfur 80% or Captan or Benlata Sevin. Benlate POST HARVEST SPRAYS Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree borer. White peach Parathion or Guthion scale. or Diazinon. Lesser peach Thiodan tree borer, Peach tree Lorsban borer. Peach tree borer Thiodan REMARKS Do not apply Penncap M or Imidan within 14 days of harvest. Sevin can be applied up to one day of har vest on peaches and 3 days of harvest on nectarines. If weather is hot and dry, it may not be necessary to use Benlate in this spray. Thoroughly wet scaffold limbs, trunk, & soil at base of tree to control borers. Apply 2 sprays 2 .s apart when crawle are active. Apply Lorsban only once per season. Registered on peaches only. Thoroughly wet trunk to crotch and soil at base of tree. * White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/lOOgal. water. 1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended. 2 See "Spray Notes" page 2. 3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthion or Imidan should be used. 4 Penncap Mis a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity to provide extended control. 5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a 7 day fungicide spray interval should be followed.

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TABLE II. CHEMICAL Benlate Bot ran Captan Diazinon Ethion Ferbam Guthion Imidan Kelthane Liquid lime-sulfur Lorsban Parathion Penncap M -7RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION. RESIDUE INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 none 1.0 1.0 15.0 20.0 50.0 0.75 1.0 7.0 2.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated orchards. Max. 1 lb. per acre per appli cation. 1 day Max. 5 lbs. per acre per application as spray; 3.6 lbs. as dust. No time limit Postharvest same as peaches. 10 days Do not graze treated or chards. No time limit. Max. 1 lb. per acre pre apalication. 1 ay Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal. per application as spray; 3.6 lbs. as dust. No time limit at 5 lbs. per acre. 1 day at 6 lbs. per acre. Postharvest 1 to 1.2 lbs./ 100 gal. spray or dip. Re charge when vol. down 25% with .5 lb. for each 25 al. added. 20 days Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice during f_r,,_u,_ t_i_n~g_s_e_a_s_o-=-n_. ----=--,:--:----=----=-c~Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21 immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max. 11.5 Max. 5.7 lbs. per acre per lbs. per acre per applicaapplication. tion. 21 days 21 days 10.0 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per application. 14 days 6 lbs. max. per acre per application 10. 0 14 days 14 days none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance. 0.05 Do not apply more than once per season. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Do not allow spray to con tact fruit. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchard. 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. 1.0 Do not use more than 5 lbs. active per acre per year. Do not apply later than 14 days before harvest. Do not graze or feed cover crops from treated orchards.

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CHEMICAL Plictran Sevin Sul fur Systox Thiodan RESIDUE TOLERANCES (PPM) 4.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 none none 0.75 0.75 2.0 2.0 -8INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION ANO HARVEST, ANO OTHER RESTRICTIONS.* Do not apply more than 4.~ lbs. active per acre per season or more than 4 times. Do not tank mix with spray oils. Do not apply during the same season that a summer spray oil is used. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover crops growing in treated areas. 3 days l day No time limit. No time limit. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than three applications per season. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season. * Rates are expressed as active ingredient. TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS. Dilute (IX) 2X 5X lOX Gallons of water per tree: 2 1 .4 .2 Gallons of water per acre: 200 100 40 20 Chemical Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons. Benlate 50% WP Botran 75% WP Captan 50% WP Ferbam 75% WP Guthion 25 % WP Imi dan 50% WP Kelthane 85% WP Parathion 15% WP Plictran 50% WP* Sevin 50 % WP Sulfur, wettable 80% Thiodan 50 % WP Chemical Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Guthion 2 lbs/gal. E.C. Kelthane 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 1 eaf curl blossom blight Lorsban 4 lbs/gal. E.C.* Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E.C. Penncap M 2 lbs/gal . . Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal* * Use as dilute only. 0.50 1.0 1.00 2.0 2.00 4.0 2.0 4.0 1.25 2.5 1.5 3.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 .25-.38 2.0 6.0 1.5 Ounces 16 16 20 16 12 6 1 96 10 32 16 48 4.0 12.0 3.0 of emulsifiable 32 32 40 32 20 64 32 2.5 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 6.25 12.5 7.5 15.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 60.0 7.5 15.0 concentrate/ 100 gal. 80 160 80 160 100 200 80 160 50 100 160 320 80 160

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------------------------------------------. . -9NOTE This schedule is a guide to a i d the grower; however, all pertinent i nformation relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct use. Use of~ pesticide inconsistent with the label h illegal. Common Conversions 1 pint= 16 oz. = 473 millil i ters 1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints 1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints 1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters 1 lb. = 16 ounces .1 lb. = 1.6 ounces .4 lb. = 6.4 ounces .8 lb. = 12.8 ounces

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