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Evaluation of different fungicides for the control of peach scab (Cladosporium Carpophilum), brown rot (Monilinia Fructicola), and Rhizopus Rot (Rhizo

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Title:
Evaluation of different fungicides for the control of peach scab (Cladosporium Carpophilum), brown rot (Monilinia Fructicola), and Rhizopus Rot (Rhizo
Creator:
Large, John R.
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Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
Language:
English

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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145741568 ( OCLC )

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BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY
MONTICELLO, Florida

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report BBL 67-9 April 20,1967

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF PEACH SCAB
(CLADOSPORIUM CARPOPHILUM), BROWN ROT (HONILINIA FRUCTICOLA), AND
RHIZOPUS ROT (RHIZOPUS SP.), ON MAYGOLD PEACHES ATIN 1966. "S'V'_4l

by J. L. Large -. 1 LGG ,VN

INTRODUCTION

The production of peaches is a new but rapidly groyinb3 Ha. I
The 1964 Dare report states that there are at least 4,000 acres now in young and non-bearing trees. In 1966 Sharpe (Florida Grower and Rancher, August, 1966) estimated that around 3,500 acres have been planted in Central Florida, North of the line extending from Brooksville to Sanford; and Young, 1966 (Mimeo Report BBL 66-4) estimated there were 3,953 acres in North Florida, principally in Madison, Jefferson, Holmes, and Leon counties. With this rapid growth in commercial production there is a need for research on timing of applications and testing of fungicides for the control of the following leaf and post harvest diseases;

1. Brown rot and blossom blight Monil&nia fructicola (Wint.) Honey.
2. Bacterial leaf spot Xanthomonas pruni (E.F.Sm) Dows.
3. Scab Cladosporiu carpophilum "(Lev. Aderh.
4. Rust Tranzschelia discolor (Fckl) Tranz & Litv.
5. Peach leaf curl Taphrinia deformans (Berk.) Tul.
6. Brown rot of fruit Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey.
7. Grey Mold of fruit Rhizopus Ms.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

Maygold peach trees, planted in February 1964, were sprayed with eight applications with a hand gun using dilute sprays applied at 450 P.S.I. The first was a dormant spray of liquid lime sulphur, 5 gal/100 gallons of water applied just before bud break (March 1). This spray was used in all treatments except the unsprayed check. The dormant spray was followed by fungicide and insecticide spray applications on March 22 (shuck split), April 5, April 28, May"6, May 12, May 19, and May 24. Malathion 25WP, 3 lbs/100 was used in dormant and first 3 cover sprays. Guthion 75W, 4 ozs/100 was used in I. the four May applications to control insects.

Ten fungicides with three one-tree replications of each treatment were used. Botran 75W., 1.2 lb/100 was included in the last three sprays on half of the trees. Leaf disease counts were made April 4, 19, and May 3rd. The monthly rainfall was as follows; (1) March 2.72 inches " r ' ' o.9 Va6q-Li June 1 to 15, 5.72. HUME LIBRARY


PJIAY 1 95i7
1 Associate Plant Pathologist

SFA S_ - Univ. of Florida


200 cc


I I Ill II








-2-


FUNGICIDES TESTED

The fungicides tested were; Daconil: (2787) 2 lbs/100; Difolitan 8OW,
1 lb, and 1 1/2 lbs/lO0; Captan 50W, 2 lb/lO0; Cyprex + Captan SOW, 1/2 lb +
1 1/2 lbs/lO0; Kolofog, 6 lbs/lO0; Kolo-100, 6 lb/lO0; Sulphur, 6 lbs/lO0; Polyram 80W, 2 ibs/QO0; Kocide, 6 lbs/lO0 (2 applications) then sulphur, 6 lbs/100; Dormant Lime-Sulphur 6 lb/l0O; and unsprayed trees. Botran 1.2 lbs/ 100 was used on half the trees (3) of each treatment in the last 3 applicat- r, ions and for one treatment it was used in 7 applications with Difolitan 8OW.

DISCUSSION OF LEAF DISEASES

Blossom blight, Peach leaf curl, bacterial spot, and rust were of minor importance on sprayed foliage this season. Scab was serious (39% infection) on unsprayed trees. No scab was found on trees sprayed with Captan 50W, 2 lbs/100, Captan + Botran, 2 lbs + 1.2 lbs/l0O, Polyram, 2 lbs/100, or Daconil (2787) + Botran, 2 lbs + 1.2 lbs/lO0. Leaf counts made May 28 to May 30, indicated that peach leaf curl, bacterial spot, and rust were of minor importance on sprayed trees this season. (Table I).

Bacterial spot was most severe on leaves sprayed with Kocide 2 lb/lO0. Two applications of this fungicide, which contains copper hydroxide, caused yellowing and marginal necrosis of the foliage, with :30 to 50% defoliation. These trees were sprayed with Sulphur 6 lb/lO0 in the last 6 applications.

CONTROL OF STORAGE DISEASES

Peaches, 30 per tree, (90 per spray treatment) were stored at room temperature, 70 to 80 degrees F., for 4 and 7 days.

The percentage disease infection after 4 and 7 days are recorded in Table II.

The disease infection on the fruit was very light and generally less
than 5 per cent, after 4 days storage at room temperature. The best disease control after 4 days storage, 100 per cent was obtained with Difolitan 80W. + Botran, 1.5 lb. + 1.2 lb/lO0; Captan 2 lb/l00, 98.33 per cent; and Sulphur 6 lb/l00 98.34 per cent. The least effective fungicides after 4 days storage were: Daconil (2787) + Botran, 2 lbs + 1.2 lbs/l00; 11.67 per cent and Kolo 100 + Botran, 6 lbs. + 1.2 lbs/100; 15.47 per cent diseased fruit. The disease on the unsprayed peaches was very light as only 7.58 per cent brown rot infection developed during these 4 days in storage. The best disease control after 7 days storage at 70 to 80 degrees F., was obtained with Captan 50W + Botran, 2 lbs. + 1.2 lbs/lO0, 85 per cent followed by Difloitan 80W + Botran, 1 lb. + 1.2 lb/100, 84.5 per cent

The addition of Botran in the last three spray applications improved the effectiveness of Difoliation SOW, Captan and Sulphur in controlling Rhizopus rot, but did not reduce the brown rot infection. In these tests Botran reduced the fungicidal effectiveness of Cyprex + Captan. After
7 days in storage Kolofog and Kblo 101 were not as effective as Sulphur in controlling Brown rot and Rhizopus rot.









TABLE 1. Leaf Disease Infection of Peach Foliage, Data Taken April 4, 19, And May 3, 1966. Scale of Infection 0, Trace to 5.




TREATMENT Pounds/100 Leaf Bact. Leaf Bact. Scab Leaf Bact. Scab Rust Curl Spot Curl Spot Curl Spot

Daconil(2787 ) 2/100 0 T T 2 0 0 T T o
Pifolitan 80 W 1/100 0 T T T 0 0 0.5 T 0

Captan 50 W 2/100 0 T 0 T 0 0 0.5 T 0.5

Cyprex * Captan 1/2-100 0 T T 1- 0 0 1+ 1- T

Kolofog 6/100 0 T 0 0 0 0 0 T 0

Kolo 100 3.6/100 0 T 0 T 0 0 T 0 0.3

Sulphur 6/100 0 1+ 0 1- 0 0 T T T

Polyram 2/100 0 T T T 0 0 0.5 T T

Kocide 2/100 0 1+ 0 4 0 0 3 T 0
(2) S-61b./100
Botram 4/100 0 T T 1 0 T 1 0.3 T

Dorm Lime-S 6/100 1+ 0O T T 0 0 T 0.25 0

Not Sprayed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T T 0

T-TRACE








TABLEiI. Fercentage of Diseased Peaches After St4 rage at 70 Degrees to 80 Degrees F.
luring A 4 and 7 Day Post Harvest Ripening Period.


Fungicide,rate pe-r 100 gal. of water & no. of sprays
(7) or (3).


Peaches harvested
Number


After 4 days Fruit affected Scab Healthy Brown Rhizopus
% % Rot% Rot%


After 7 days
HealthyBrown Rhizopus % Rot% Rot%


Difolitan 80W(7)Botran 75W(7)
1.5 + 1 lb./100 Difolitan(7)+Botran (3)
1 lb + 1.2 lb./100 Difolitan (7).1'Ib./I00


2.0 lb. + 1.21b./100 Captan (7) 2 lb./100 Cyprex 65W+Captan(7)+Botran(3)
0.5 lb.+1.5 lb.+1.2 lb;/100 Cyprex + Captan (7)
0.5 lb. + 1.5 lb./100 Sulphur(7)+Botran(3)6#+1.2/100 Sulphur(7) 6 lb./100 Liquid Lime-Sulphur(1then Botran
(3) 6 lb. then 1.2 t o./100 Liquid Lime Sulphur(1) 6 lb./100 Not sprayed


1042 0.0

627 7.8 757 5.0


457 0.0 651 4.2 495 3.6


757 1.1 531 3.3
1229 1.7


717 15.6 679 23.3 1873 39.3


100 100


0. a O. Oa
a


76.5 16.8a 5.0a


O.Oa O.Oa 84.5 15.5a 2.2a


95.6 0.9a 3.5a 75.9 12.9a 11.2b


96.7 3.3a O.Oa 85.0 12.5a


2.5a


98.4 0.8a 0.8a 80.0 10.9a 6.6a 92.5 O.Oa 7.5b 63.3 10.Oa 25.6b

97.7 2.3a O.Oa 72.0 21.9a 5.Oa 96.5 3.5a O.Oa 63.0 26.1b 10.9b 98.3 1.7a O.Oa 63.3 11.7a 24.2b


93.4 6.6b O.Oa 73.9 19.5b 6.6a 97.6 1.6a 0.8a 43.1 44.7c 9.8b 92.4 7.6b O.Ob 40.3 33.1c 25.4b


*All scab data was taken at harvest.
**Thirty rot-free peaches were selected from each tree per treatment. These peaches were stored at 70-80 degrees F. for 4 and 7 days to determine the residual effectiveness of the pesticides. In some cases blue mold on fruit or brown rot and rhizopus rot on one fruit caused the total percentage to be more or less than 100 percent.

Values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the .05 level.




Full Text

PAGE 1

BIG BEND HORtICULTURAL LABORATORY MONTICELLO, Florida Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report BBL 67-9 April 20,1967 EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF PEACH SCAB (CLADOSPORIUM CARPOPHILUM), BROWN ROT (HONILINIA FRUCTICOLA) AND RHIZOPUS ROT (RHIZOPUS SP.), ON MAYGOLD PEACHES AT l-1~lif.1.r.ELL8,.Afr1A _ .. I IN 1966. tJ . ..IUl,:1 1 .u, I 't/ .:f ( by J. L. Large~ l INTRODUCTION The production of peaches is a new but rapidly gro in{'~Y~.S.iliJWfilbla. The 1964 Dare report states that there are at least 4,0nn acres now in yoiliig and non-bearing trees. In 1966 Sharpe (Florida Grower and Rancher, August, 1966~ estimated that around 3,500 acres have been planted in Central Florida, North of the line extending from Brooksville to Sanford; and Young, 1966 (Mirneo Report BBL 66-4) estimated there were 3,953 acres in North Florida, principally in Madison, Jefferson, Holmes, and Leon counties. With this rapid growth in commercial production there is a need for research on timing of applications and testing of fungicides for the control of the following leaf and post harvest diseases; l. Brown rot and blossom blight Monil~nia fructicola (Wint.) Honey. 2. Bacterial leaf spot Xanthomonas prtmi (E.F.Sm) Dows. 3. Scab Cladosporium carpophilum (Lev.) Aderh. 4. Rust Tranzschelia discolor (Fckl) Tranz & Litv. 5. Peach leaf curl Taphrinia deformans (Berk.) Tul. 6. Brown rot of fruit Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey. 7. Grey Mold of fruit Rhizopus 2.E,_S. METHOD OF PROCEDURE Maygold peach trees, planted in February 1964, were sprayed with eight applications with a hand gun using dilute sprays applied at 450 P.S.I. The first was a dormant spray of liquid lime sulphur, 5 gal/100 gallons of water applied just before bud break (March l). This spray was used in all treat ments except the unsprayed check. The dormant spray was followed by fungic ide and insecticide spray applications on March 22 (shuck split), April 5, April 28, May s, May 12, Hay 19, and May 21J. Malathion 25WP, 3 lbs/100 was used in dormant and first 3 cover sprays. Guthion 75W, 4 ozs/100 was used int the four May applications to control insects. Ten fungicides with three one-tree replications of each treatment were used. Betran 75W., 1.2 lb/100 was included in the last three sprays on half of the trees. Leaf disease counts were made April 4, 19, and May 3rd. The monthly rainfall was as follows; (1) March 2.72 inchea.; Apnj] 0..99j ~'ay 6,9.5i June 1 to 15 , 5 72 HUME LIBRARY 1 Associate Plant Pathologist MAY S 1957 200 cc

PAGE 2

, . -2FUNGICIDES TESTED The fungicides tested were; Daconil: (2787) 2 lbs/100; Difolitan SOW, l lb, and 1 1/2 lbs/100; Captan SOW, 2 lb/100; Cyprex + Captan sow, 1/2 lb+ l l/2 lbs/100; Kolofog, 6 lbs/100; Kolo-100, 6 lb/100; Sulphur, 6 lbs/100; Polyram 80H, 2 lbs/100; Kocide, 6 lbs/100 (2 applications) then sulphur, 6 lbs/100; Dormant Lime-Sulphur 6 lb/100; and unsprayed trees. Botran 1.2 lbs/ 100 was used on half the trees ( 3) of each treatment ln the last 3 applicat.:. Ji ions and for one treatment it was used in 7 applications with Difoli tan 80W. DISCUSSION OF LEAF DISEASES Blossom blight, Peach leaf curl, bacterial spot, cmd rust were of minor importance on sprayed foliage this season. Scab was sEirious ( 39% infection) on unsprayed trees. No scab was found on trees sprayed with Captan SOW, 2 lbs/100, Captan + Betran, 2 lbs+ 1.2 lbs/100, Polyram, 2 lbs/100, or Daco nil (2787) + Botran, 2 lbs+ 1.2 lbs/100. Leaf counts made May 28 to May 30, indicated that peach leaf curl, bacterial spot, and rust were of minor impo rtance on sprayed trees this season. (Table I). Bacterial spot was most severe on leaves sprayed with Kocide 2 lb/100. Two applications of this fungicide, which contains copper hydroxide, caused yellowing and marginal necrosis of the foliage, with 30 to 50% defoliation. These trees were sprayed with Sulphur 6 lb/100 in the last 6 applications. CONTROL OF STORAGE DISEASES Peaches, 30 per tree, ( 90 per spray treatment) we1~e stored at room temperature, 70 to 80 degrees F., for 4 and 7 days. The percentage disease infection after 4 and 7 days are recorded in, Table II. The disease infection on the fruit was very light and generally less than 5 per cent, after 4 days storage at room temperature. The best disease control after 4 days storage, 100 per cent was obtainod with Difolitan SOW. + Botran, 1.5 lb.+ 1.2 lb/100; Captan 2 lb/100, 98.33 per cent; and Sulphur 6 lb/100 98.34 per cent. The least effective fungicides after 4 days storage were: Daconil (2787) + Botran, 2 lbs+ 1.2 lbs/100; 11.67 per cent and Kolo 100 + Betran, 6 lbs.+ 1.2 lbs/100; 15.47 per cent dfoeased fruit. The disease on the unsprayed peaches was very li-ght as only 7. 58 per cent , brown rot infection developed during these 4 days in :;;torage. The best dis/ ease control after 7 days storage at 70 to 80 degrees F. , was obtained with 1 Captan SOW + Botran, 2 lbs. + 1.2 lbs/100, 85 per cent followed by Difloitan aow + Botran, l lb.+ 1.2 lb/100, 84.5 per cent The addition of Betran in the last three spray applications improved the effectiveness of Difoliation BOW, Captan and Sulphur in controlling Rhizopus rot, but did not reduce the brown rot infection. In these tests Botran reduced the fungicidal effectiveness of Cyprex + Captan. After 7 days in storage Kolofog and Kolo 101 were not as effective as Sulphur in controlling Brown rot and Rhizopus rot.

PAGE 3

TABLE 1. Leaf Disease Infection of Peach Foliage, Data Taken April 4, 19, And May 3, 1966. Scale of Infection 0, Trace to 5. TREATMENT Pounds/100 Leaf Bact. Leaf Bact. Scab leaf Bact. Scab Rust Curl Spot Curl Spot Curl Spot l)aconi1{2787) 2/100 0 T T 2 0 0 T T 0 Difolitan 80 W 1/100 0 T T T 0 0 0.5 T 0 Captan 50 W 2/100 0 T 0 T 0 0 0.5 T 0.5 Cyprex -1 .Captan 1/2-100 0 T T 10 0 l+ 1T Kolof-og 6/ 100 0 T 0 0 0 0 0 T 0 Kolo 100 3.6/100 0 T 0 T 0 0 T 0 0.3 Sulphur 6/100 0 l+ 0 10 0 T T T Polyram 2/100 0 T T T 0 0 0.5 T T Kocide 2/100 0 l+ 0 (2) S-6lb./1-00 4 0 0 3 T 0 Botram 4/100 0 T T 1 0 T 1 0.3 T Dorm Lime-S 6/100 1+ , ,,--.,. (~ 0 ) T .•. ~/ T 0 0 T 0.25 0 Not Sprayed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T T 0 T-TRACE

PAGE 4

TABLEil. fercentage of Diseased Peaches After StJrage at 70 Degrees to 80 Degrees F. Curing A 4 and 7 Day Post Harvest Ripening Period. Fungicide,rate per .. 100 gal. of water & no. of sprays (7) or (3). Peaches After 4 days Fruit affected After 7 days harvested Scab Healthy Brown Rhizopus HealthyBrown Rhizopus Number % % Rot% Rot% % Rot% Rot% Difolitan 80W(7)Botran 75W(7) 1.5 + 1 lb./100 Oifolitan(7)+Botran (3) l lb+ 1.2 lh./100 [ti f o 1 i tan ( 7 ) . 1 ' 1 b / l 00 . . . •. . . l , Captan 50W(7)~B6tfifl(1) 2.0 lb. + 1.2lb./100 Captan (7) 2 lb./100 Cyprex 65W+Captan(7)+Botran(3) 0.5 lb.+1.5 lb.+1.2 lb;/100 Cyprex + Captan (7) 0.5 lb. + 1.5 lb./100 Sulphur(7)+Botran(3)6#+1.2/100 Sulphur{]) 6 lb./100 1042 0.0 627 7.8 757 5.0 457 0.0 651 4.2 495 3.6 757 1. l 531 3.3 1229 1. 7 Liquid Lime-Sulphur(llthen Betran (3) 6 lb. then 1.2 lb./100 717 15.6 liquid Lime Sulphur(l) 6 lb./100 679 23.3 ~ot sprayed 1873 39.3 *All scab data was taken at harvest. 100 0.0~ . , 100 O.Oa 95.6 0.9a 96.7 3.3a 98.4 0.8a 92.5 0.0a 97.7 2.3a 96.5 3.5a 98.3 1.7a 93.4 97.6 92.4 6.6b 1. 6a 7.6b o. oa 0.0a 3.5a O.Oa 0.8a 7.5b 0.0a O.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.8a O.Ob 76.5 84.5 75.9 85.0 80.0 63.3 72.0 63.0 63.3 73.9 43.1 40.3 16.8t 15.5a 12.9a 12.5a 10.9a 10.0a 21. 9a 26.lb 11. 7a 19 . 5b 44.7c 33.lc s. oa ;:; 2.2a 11.2b 2.5a 6.6a 25.6b 5.0a 10.9b 24.2b 6.6a 9.8b 25.4b **Thirty rot-free peaches were selected from each tree per treatment. These peaches were stored at 70-80 degrees F. for 4 and 7 days to determine the residual effectiveness of the pesticides. In some cases blue mold on fruit or brown rot and rhizopus rot on one fruit caused the total percentage to be more or less than 100 percent. Values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the .05 level.


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