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The use of systemic insecticides for controlling white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), (Homoptera: Coccoidea

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Title:
The use of systemic insecticides for controlling white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), (Homoptera: Coccoidea
Creator:
Whitcomb, W. H.
Publisher:
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory
Language:
English

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University of Florida
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L- / BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABO TO"UME LIBRARY
/ I Monticello, Florida

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report 71-1 884, 0 7toli 21, 19 0


THE USE OF SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROLLII torda
PSEUDAULACASPIS PENTAGONA (TARGIONI), (HOMOP

W. H. Vhitcomb, S. S. Fluker and S. A. Samuels2

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Because the insecticides used in this test had not been cleared for use on
peaches, and because the residual effects were not known, this test could not be performed on commercial trees. Therefore, an abandoned orchard located approximately eight miles north of Madison, Florida, in the Cherry Lake Orchards was chosen. This orchard, approximately four acres in size, consisted of Maygold variety peach trees in their fourth leaf, and had a history of white peach scale infestations.

The randomized block design with four replications was used, and each treatment contained four trees. The treatments were separated by tying strips of colored plastic tape onto the branches of the trees so they could be easily located. Each treatment was assigned a separate color or combination of colors.

The compounds testedwTre Azodrin(R) (3-hydroxy-N-methyl-cis-crotnamide dimethyl phosphate), Bidrin (3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide, dimethyl phosphate), Aldicarb (2-tethyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde O-(Methylcarbamoyl) oxime), Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2 dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate), Disulfoton (0,0-diethyl S-2- [(ethylthio) ethyl] phosphorodithioate), Oxydemetonmethyl (S-[2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl] 0,0-dimethyl phosphorothioate), and Thompson-Hayward TH 427 I (N-t-cyanoisopropyl O,O-diethylthiophosphorylacetamide). A list of the compounds, formulations, methods of application, and rates of application are given in Table 1.

The materials were applied by one or more of the following methods:
(1) granules, (2) foliar spray, (3) injection, or (4) bark application.

Granules were applied to the soil around the drip-line of the tree using a
Cyclone(R) seeder/spreader Model 10 which was adjusted to give a very narrow pattern. To assure that the correct amount of insecticides was applied to each tree, the insecticide was carefully measured into paper sacks before leaving the laboratory.

Foliar sprays were applied using a Meyers hydraulic boom sprayer equipped with a power-take-off pump using a hand gun attachment at 300 p.s.i. The gun was adjusted to deliver a mist to avoid knocking the scales from the branches with the spray. Each tree was sprayed on all four sides to the point of run-off using
1 to 1 1/2 gallons of spray. Insecticides were mixed in 30 gallon quantities, and after each treatment the tank and line was drained and thoroughly rinsed to avoid contamination of insecticides.


IEntomologist and Assistant Entomologist

2Formerly Graduate Assistant


3wo CC





-2-


Injections were made on the trunk of the tree approximately six inches
below the crotch by first puncturing a hole, using a small finishing nail, through the bark into the vascular system. Each puncture was approximately 1/8 to 1/4 inch deep. The insecticide was placed into the puncture using a I ml. hypodermic syringe. The puncture was then sealed with grafting wax to prevent the escape of the insecticide and to prevent the entrance of disease organisms. One injection was placed into the trunk of the tree for each two inches of trunk circumference.

Bark applications were made by using either a paintbrush or a 4 ml. hypodermic syringe.

The paint-on formulation was applied to the bark of the trunk of the tree approximately 6 inches below the crotch using a 3 inch wide paintbrush in a uniform horizontal band, either 3 or 6 inches wide, around the trunk.

The syringe-on formulation was applied in a uniform horizontal ring to the surface of the bark of the tree, approximately 6 inches below the crotch, using a 4 ml. tuberculin syringe.

Treatments were applied 9 August 1968, and counts were made on 27 August 1968 and 23 November 1968.

Counts were made by counting 50 adult female scales per tree, and the
number dead and alive in each case was noted. Care was taken to avoid counting those scales which obviously had been attacked by predators and parasites.

The total number of adult, non-parasitized female scales occurring on new growth on each tree was also counted in order to provide a second perimeter with which to evaluate the treatments.

The data were then statistically analyzed using the Analysis of Variance and the Duncan's 11ultiple Range Test. Abbott's Formula was used to convert percent mortality into "corrected" percent mortality which is a more accurate measure of the control achieved by each treatment.











MATERIALS, FORMULATIONS, METHODS OF APPLICATION
AND RATES OF APPLICATION USED IN SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDE TEST AGAINST THITE PEACH SCALE
Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Treatment Formulation Method of Rate
Application


1. Azodrin


2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin 4. Temik



5. Bidrin


6. Carbofuran 7. Disulfoton 8. Oxydemetonmethyl

9. Oxydemetonmethyl 10. TH 427 1 11. TH 427 I


3.2 lbs. ai per gal. s.c. 16% paint-on 16% paint-on 5% granules



81% technical 10% granules



10% granules



2 lbs. ai per gal. e.c.

2 lbs. ai per gal. e.c.

2 lbs. ai per gal. s.c. 5% granules


foliar spray


paint on bark paint on bark applied to soil around drip-line of tree injection applied to soil around drip-line of tree applied to soil around drip-line of tree foliar spray


bark
application foliar spray


applied to soil around drip-line of tree


0.8 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

3 in. band on trunk

6 in. bank on trunk

I lb. ai per acre


1 ml. per 2 in. trunk diameter

1 lb. ai per acre


1 lb. ai per acre


0.5 lbs. ai
per 100 gal.

10 g ai per
1 in. trunk diameter

0.75 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai per acre


12. Check


TABLE I.












TABLE II.


PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE W4ITH SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES
Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Treatment Rate Percent Corrected
Mortality Percent
27 August Mortality
1968 (Abbott's Formula)


1. Azodrin 2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin


Temik Bidrin


6. Carbofuran 7. Disulfoton 8. Oxydemetonmethyl

9. Oxydemetonmethyl

10. TH 427 1


11. TH 427 1 12. Check


0.8 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

3 in. band on trunk
6 in. band on trunk

1 lb. ai per acre

1 ml. tech. per 2 in. trunk diameter

1 lb. ai per acre 1 lb. ai per acre

0.5 lb. ai per 100 gal. 10 g ai per 1 in. trunk diameter

0.75 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai per acre


*All numbers followed by the same letters are not significantly different from each other, according to the Duncan 1iultiple Range Test.


85.84 a*


78.54 ab 81.36 a


66.84 87.56 79.36 85.60 91.68


81.49 a 91.42 a


78.55

15.21


82.78 a* 74.69 ab 78.01 a 60.89 a 85.32 a 75.65 ab 83.01 a 90.18 a 78.16 a 89.88 a


74.70 0.00












TABLE III.


-5

PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE WITH SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Percent Mortality 23 November
1968


Corrected
Percent
Mortality
(Abbott's Formula)


1. Azodrin


2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin


Temik Bidrin


6. Carbofuran 7. Disulfoton 8. Oxydemetonmethyl

9. Oxydemetonmethyl 10. TH 427 1


11. TH 427 I 12. Check


0.8 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

3 in. band on trunk

6 in. band on trunk

1 lb. ai per acre

1 ml. tech. per 2 in. trunk circumference

1 lb. ai per acre 1 lb. ai per acre

0.5 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 10 g ai per 1 in. trunk diameter

0.75 lbs. ai per 100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai per acre


*All numbers followed by the same letters are not significantly different from each other, according to the Duncan Multiple Range Test.


Treatment


Rate


80.87 ab* 96.24 a 83.85 ab


75.20 ab* 95.11 a 79.06 ab


88.55 75.25


86.02 92.98 88.48


85.16 67.92


81.88

90.90 85.06


93.36 a 95.58 a


91.39 a 94.27 a


95.83 22.86


94.59 0.00




Full Text
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PAGE 1

BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABO Monticello, Florida TO~U~J\E L\BRARY Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report 71-1 138L ,q ; , o r; fJ 71 M " Ot::tooer 21, 19 O THE usE oF SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR coNTROLLIN ~ : lfiir..PE~vs&ft.~! 0 rida PSEUDAULACASPIS PENTAGONA (TARGIONI), (HOMOP H. H. Whitcomb, S.S. Fluker 1 and S. A. Samuels 2 MATERIALS AND l!ETHODS Because the insecticides used in this test had not been cleared for use on peaches, and because the residual effects were not known, this test could not be performed on commercial trees. Therefore, an abandoned orchard located approxi mately eight miles north of Madison, Florida, in the Cherry Lake Orchards was chosen. This orchard, approximately four acres in size, consisted of Maygold var iety peach trees in their fourth leaf, and had a h:f . story of white peach scale infestations. The randomized block design Hith four replications was used, and each treat ment contained four trees. The treatments were separated by tying strips of col ored plastic tape onto the branches of the trees so they could be easily located. Each treatment was assigned a separate color or combination of colors. The compounds tested wjre Azodrin(R) (3-hydroxy-N-methyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate), Bidrin(R (3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide, dimethyl phosphate), Aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde o-(Methylcarbamoyl) oxime), Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2 dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate), Disulfoton (0 ,0-diethyl S-2-[ (ethylthio) ethyl] phosphorodithioate), Oxydemetonmethyl (S-[2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl] 0,0-dimethyl phosphorothioate), and Thompson-Hayward TH 427 I (N-*cyanoisopropyl 0,0-diethylthiophosphorylacetamide). A list of the compounds, formulations, methods of application, and rates of application are given in Table 1. The materials were applied by one or more of the following methods: (1) granules, (2) foliar spray, (3) injection, or (4) bark application. Granules were applied to the soil around the drip-line of the tree using a Cyclone
PAGE 2

-2Injections were made on the trunk of the tree approximately six inches below the crotch by first puncturing a hole, using a small finishing nail, through the bark into the vascular system. Each puncture was approximately 1/8 to 1/4 inch deep. The insecticide was placed into the puncture using a 1 ml. hypodermic syringe. The puncture was then sealed with grafting wax to prevent the es.cape of the insecticide and to prevent the entrance of disease organisms. One injection was placed into the trunk of the tree for each two inches of trunk circumference. Bark applications were made by using either a paintbrush or a 4 ml. hypo dermic syringe. The paint-on formulation was applied to the bark of the trunk of the tree approximately 6 inches below the crotch using a 3 inch wide paintbrush in a uni form horizontal band, either 3 or 6 inches wide, around the trunk. The syringe-on formulation was applied ifin a uniform horizontal ring to the surface of the bark of the tree, approximately 6 inches below the crotch, using a 4 ml. tuberculin syringe. Treatments were applied 9 August 1968, and counts were made on 27 August 1968 and 23 November 1968. Counts were made by counting 50 adult female scales per tree, and the number dead and alive in each case was noted. Care was taken to avoid counting those scales which obviously had been attacked by preditors and parasites. The total number of adult, non-parasitized female scales occuring on new growth on each tree was also counted in order to provide a second perimeter with which to evaluate the treatments. The data were then statistically analyzed using the J\nalysis of Variance and the Duncan's i!ultiple Range Test. Abbott's Foymula was used to convert per cent mortality into ncorrected 11 percent mortality ~,rhich is a more accurate mea sure of the control achieved by each treatment.

PAGE 3

TABLE I. -3MATERIALS, FORMULATIONS, METHODS OF APPLICATION AND RATES OF .APPLICATION USED IN SYSTE'HIC INSECTICIDE TEST AGAINST mUTE PEACH SCALE Cherry Lake Orchards, r!adison County, Florida, 9 August 1968 Treatment 1. Azodrin 2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin 4. Temik 5. Bidrin 6. Carbof uran 7. Disulfoton 8. 0xydemeton methyl 9 Oxydemeton methyl 10. TH 427 I 11. TH 427 I 12. Check Formulation 3.2 lbs. ai per gal. s.c. 16% paint-on 16% paint-on 5% granules 81% technical 10% granules 10% granules 2 lbs. ai per gal. e.c. 2 lbs. ai per gal. e. c. 2 lbs. ai per gal. s .c. 5% granules Method of Application foliar spray paint on ,, . bark paint on bark applied to soil around drip-line of tree injection applied to soil around drip-line of tree applied to soil around drip-line of tree foliar spray bark application foliar spr~y applied to soil around drip-line of tree --Rate 0.8 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 3 in. band on trunk 6 in. bank on trunk 1 lb. ai per acre 1 ml. per 2 in. trunk diameter 1 lb. ai per acre 1 lb. ai per acre 0.5 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 10 g ai per 1 in. trunk diameter 0. 75 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 1.5 lbs. ai per acre

PAGE 4

TABLE II. -4PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE t1ITH SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August i968 Treatment 1. Azodrin 2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin 4. Temik 5 . Bidrin 6. Carbofuran 7. Disulfoton 8. Oxydemeton methyl 9. Oxydemeton methyl 10. TH 427 I 11. TH 427 I 12. Check Rate 0. 8 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 3 in. band on trunk 6 in. band on trunk 1 lb. ai per acre 1 ml. tech. per 2 in. trunk diameter 1 lb. ai per acre 1 lb. ai per acre 0.5 lb. ai per 100 gal. 10 g ai per 1 in. trunk diameter 0.75 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 1.5 lbs. ai per acre Percent Hortality 27 August 1968 85.84 a* 78.54 ab 81.36 a 66.84 a 87.56 a 79. 36 ab 85.60 a 91.68 a 81.49 a 91.42 a 78.55 ab 15.21 C Corrected Percent Mortality (Abbott's Formula) 82.78 a* 74.69 ab 78.01 a 60.89 a 85.32 a 75.65 ab 83.01 a 90.18 a 78.16 a 89.88 a 74. 70 ab 0.00 C *All numbers fallowed by the same letters are not significantly different from each other, according to the Duncan Hultiple Range Test.

PAGE 5

.... , , -... -5TABLE III. PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE HITI! SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968 Treatment 1. Azodrin 2. Bidrin 3. Bidrin 4. Temik 5. Bidrin 6. Carbofuran 7. Disulfoton 8. Oxydemeton methyl 9. Oxydemeton methyl 10. TH 427 I 11. TH 427 I 12. Check Rate O. 8 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 3 in. band on trunk 6 in. band on trunk 1 lb. ai per acre 1 ml. tech. per 2 in. trunk circumference 1 lb. ai per acre 1 lb. ai per acre 0.5 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 10 g ai per 1 in. trunk diameter 0.75 lbs. ai per 100 gal. 1.5 lbs. ai per acre Percent Mortality 23 November 1968 80.87 ab* 96.24 a 83.85 ab 88. 55 ab 75.25 b 86.02 ab 92.98 ab 88.48 ab 93.36 a 95.58 a 95.83 a 22 .86 C Corrected Percent Mortality (Abbott's Formula) 75.20 ab* 95.11 a 79 .06 ab 85.16 ab 67.92 b 81.88 ab 90 .90 ab 85.06 ab 91.39 a 94.27 a 94.59 a 0~00 C *All numbers followed by the same letters are not significantly different from each other, according to the Duncan Multiple Range Test.