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Pecan disease and insect control suggestions

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Title:
Pecan disease and insect control suggestions
Creator:
Large, John R.
Publisher:
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
Language:
English

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
145566001 ( OCLC )

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BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY
Monticello, Florida

Big Bend Hort. Lab., MmdmBD6-4 March 1, 1967


PECAN D SEASE AND I SECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS2

John R. Large, Job Van Duyn and H. W. Young1
-A.S. Univ. of Florida
A large number o f ieases-Win sects attack the leaves, shoots and nuts of the pecan tree during the long growing season.

Spraying for control of diseases and insects is a very important factor in
the production of pecans. A good crop of nuts may be totally lost if not protected from pests. In addition to protecting maturing nuts, spraying contributes to the production of a crop the next year by preventing defoliation.

Diseases spread most rapidly early in the growing season and during periods
of high humidity. Some insects such as nut casebearer, weevil and shuckworm occur in orchards at particular times, whereas, others may become a problem at any time. The timing of spray applications is very important and each grower should learn to recognize insect and disease problems to determine the best time to spray.

In applying spray materials all leaves, twigs and nuts should be covered.
It is important that adequate machinery be used and the operator be well trained in its use. Poor coverage during any part of the growing season may lead to severe disease or insect damage.

Spray may be applied by hydraulic ground sprayer, concentrate air blast
sprayer, airplane or helicopter. Some modern sprayers, known as concentrate spray-:, ers, use less water to carry chemicals than conventional hydraulic equipment. Both concentrate and dilute sprays are expressed as the amount of pesticide formulation per 100 gallons of water. The same amount of chemical is sprayed on each tree with either the dilute or concentrate sprayers. Table III gives the gallons of spray per tree for each type of equipment.

The following spray schedule (Table I) carefully followed will give commercial control of important disease and insect pests. However, a general spray schedule is not always the most satisfactory for a particular orchard.

Zineb and Bordeaux mixture are effective against scab, powdery mildew and other fungus diseases, but Cyprex or Du-Ter are more effective against scab. Cyprex and Du-Ter will not control powdery mildew and sulfur or Karathane must be added to control this disease. Cyprex should not be used on Moore and Van Deman varieties. April applications of Cyprex on these varieties caused marginal burning and defoliation of the young leaves. Zineb plus Oil, 2 lbs. + 1 qt./lO0, in April followed by Cyprex can be used on Moore and Van Deman with only slight injury.


iAssociate Plant Pathologist, Research Associate in Entomology and Associate Horticulturist and Head.
2Prepared in cooperation with J. E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist and R. S. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, Gainesville.












Where rosette is present use a spkay Of neutral zinc (2 lbs.) or zinc sulfate (2 lbs. of 65%). Zinc sulfate is very corrosive and will rust out machinery. It must be washed out with soap and water after use.

On scab resistant varieties such as Desirable, Curtis, Elliott, Farley and usually Stuart the total number of sprays may be fewer than on scab susceptible varieties. Prepollination sprays and those to control nut casebearer and shuckworm should not be omitted. In dry weather, if scab is not serious, one or more of the summer applications of Du-Ter may be omitted.

For dooryard trees or in orchards where cattle are grazed, Malathion should be used instead of Parathion. Malathion may not adequately control shuckworm and either EPN or Guthion should be used in commercial orchards (See precautions). For dooryard trees, Malathion is recommended for all insect sprays.

PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, EPN and Guthion are especially toxic and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the entire label before opening any pesticide container and heed all cautions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets and livestock, and preferably under lock and key. Dispose of left over spray materials and all empty containers promptly and safely. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting periods to avoid excess residues and injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. See, Table II on Residue Tolerances.








TABLE I. PECAN SPRAY SCHEDULE.


SPRAY
TIME OF APPLICATION


PEST TO CONTROL


SPRAY MATERIAL(') AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS


1st PRE POLLINATION Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) Bordeaux mixture (6-2-100) or Zineb (65% W/P)
SPRAY: When leaves or may be substituted for Du-Ter or Cyprex. Do
first show green. Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P.) not use Cyprex on Moore and Van Deman varieties.
If a spray program was not followed last year add an insecticide to control over;-wintering laf and nut casebearer. See ist. Cover Spray.

2nd PRE POLLINATION Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) Early sprays prevent scab from becoming estabSPRAY: When leaves Downy Spot or wished on rapidly growing foliage. See remarks
are half grown. Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P) oi fungicides - 1st. Pre-pollination Spray.


1st. COVER SPRAY: Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P)
When nuts are Other or
about 1/4" long. foliage Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P) Tais insecticide application is very important,
diseases plus be sure coverage is complete. If nut caseNut Case- Parathion 2 lbs. (15% W/P) bearer population is heavy, make a second app. bearer or lication of insecticide one week later.
Aphids Malathion 3 lbs. (25% W/P) See remarks on fungicides - 1st. Pre-polliMites or nation Spray.
EPN 2 lbs. (25% W/P)
or
Guthion 2 lbs. (25% W/P)
or
Thiodan 2 lbs. (50% W/P)

(1)Equivalent amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticides may be used. Do not
use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concentrate formulations.


REMARKS







-4-


TABLE I. Continued:


SPRAY
TIME OF APPLICATION


PEST TO CONTROL


SPRAY MATERIAL(1) AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS


2nd COVER SPRAY: Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) Sulfur (2 lbs.) is added to Du-Ter or Cyprex
Three weeks after Powdery or for powdery mildew control. If sulfur does
first cover spray mildew Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P) not control powdery mildew, use Bordeaux
Other (6-2-100). If aphids or mites are a problem,
foliage use parathion or malathion.
diseases


3rd COVER SPRAY: Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) If brown spot is serious use Du-Ter. If
Three weeks after Powdery or aphids or mites are a problem, use parathion
second cover spray. mildew Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P) or malathion.
Other
foliage
diseases


4th COVER SPRAY: Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) If aphids or mites are a problem, use
Powdery or Parathion or Malathion.
mildew Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P)
Other
foliage
diseases


equivalentt amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticide may be used.
Do not use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concentrate formulations.


REMARKS









TABLE I. Continued:


SPRAY
TIME OF APPLICATION


PEST TO CONTROL


SPRAY MATERIAL(I)
A14OUNT PER 100 GALLONS


5th COVER SPRAY: Scab Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) Aply 2nd and 3rd shuckworm sprays at
When shell of nut Powdery or 2 week intervals.
begins to harden, mildew Cyprex 1 lb. (65% W/P)
about August 10. Other plus
foliage EPN 1 1/2 lbs. (25% W/P)
diseases or
Shuckworm Guthion 2 lbs. (25% W/P) Aphids
Mites


(1)Equivalent amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticide may be used.
Do not use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concentrate formulations.


REMARKS"







-6


TABLE II.* RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR CHEMICALS RECOMMENDED FOR
PECANS IN THIS PUBLICATION.

CHEMI CAL RESIDUE TOLERANCE INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
(PPM) HARVEST AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.


EPN 0.5


Guth ion


Do not apply within 21 days of harvest.


Do not apply after shuck split. Do not graze livestock in treated orchards within 21 days after treatment.


Malathion 8.0 No time limitations.


Parathion ---Do not apply within 15 days of harvest
or after shuck open.


Bordeaux Mixture Exempt No time limitations.


Du-Ter


not not


apply after shucks start to open. graze livestock in treated orchards.


Cyprex ---Do not apply after shucks start to open.
Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchards.


Zineb ---Do not apply within 45 days of harvest.


Sulfur Safe No time limitations.


Thiodan ---Do not apply after shuck-split. Do not
graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchards.


I










-7-


TABLE III.


GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREE SIZE.


TYPE OF EQUIPMENT


GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREE SIZE


Small
(Under 25 feet)


Medium
(25 - 35 feet)


Large
(Over 35 feet)


4 - 10


AIR BLAST HYDRAULIC MIST BLOWER


AIRPLANE


1 1/2


5 - 15


7 1/2 - 30


30


2 1/2


FROM: Harris, E. D. and N. E. McGlohon. 1967
Pecan Insects and Diseases and Their Contr~l.
Ga. Ag. Ext. Service, Bulletin 644.


300 cc




Full Text

PAGE 1

BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY Monticello, Florida Big Bend Hort~ L~ ; ~riniotf~l> o~BBn ~ & -4 ;; i .JJ !1J1 L ,: . . . jC) ;l. [J\f ., .__ 1 U ~ tft i l J March 1, 1967 PEC~N . D}~~~SE AND I SECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS 2 ' .:. J k : ,.J John R. Large, Joh Van Duyn and H. w. Young 1 I --~A.S ... Univ. of Florida 1 A large number of cilseases ahcrinsects attack the leaves, shoots and nuts of the pecan tree during the long growing season. Spraying for control of diseases and insects is a very important factor in the production of pecans. A good crop of nuts may be totally lost if not protected from pests. In addition to protecting maturing nuts, spraying contributes to the production of a crop the next year by preventing defoliation. Diseases spread most rapidly early in the growing season and during periods of high humidity. Some insects such as nut casebearer, weevil and shuckworm occur in orchards at particular times, whereas, others may become a problem at any time. The timing of spray applications is very important and each grower should learn to recognize insect and disease problems to determine the best time to spray. In applying spray materials all leaves, twigs and nuts should be covered. It is important that adequate machinery be used and the operator be well trained in its use. Poor coverage during any part of the growing season may lead to severe disease or insect damage. Spray may be applied by hydraulic ground sprayer, concentrate air blast sprayer, airplane or helicopter. Some modern sprayers, known as concentrate spray~~ ers, use less water to carry chemicals than conventional hydraulic equipment. Both concentrate and dilute sprays are expressed as the amount of pesticide form ulation per 100 gallons of water. ' The same amount of chemical is sprayed on each tree with either the dilute or concentrate sprayers. Table III gives the gallons of spray per tree for each type of equipment. The following spray schedule (Table I) carefully followed will give commercial control of important disease and insect pests. However, a general spray schedule is not always the most satisfactory for a particular orchard. Zineb and Bordeaux mixture are effective against scab, powdery mildew and other fungus diseases, but Cyprex or Du-Ter are more effective against scab. Cyprex and Du-Ter will not control powdery mildew and sulfur or Karathane must be added to control this diisease. Cyprex should not be used on Moore and Van Deman varieties. April applications of Cyprex on these varieties caused marginal burning and defoliation of the young leaves. Zineb plus Oil, 2 lbs.+ l qt./100, in April followed by Cyprex can be used on Moore and Van Deman with only slight injury. 1 Associate Plant Pathologist, Research Associate in Entomology and Associate Horticulturist and Head. 2 Prepared in cooperation with J.E. Brogdon, Extension Entomolo&ist and R. s. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, Gainesville.

PAGE 2

-2Where rosette is present use a st,tiay bf neutral zinc (2 lbs.) or zinc sulfate (2 lbs. of 65%). Zinc sulfate is very corrosive and will rust out machinery. It must be washed out with soap and water after use. On scab resistant varieties such as Desirable, Curtis, Elliott, Farley and usually Stuart the total number of sprays may be fewer than on scab susceptible varieties. Prepollination sprays and those to control nut casebearer and shuck worm should not be omitted. In dry weather, if scab is not serious, one or more of the summer applications of Du-Ter may be omitted. For dooryard trees or in orchards where cattle are grazed, Malathion should be used instead of Parathion. Malathion may not adequately control shuclc.worrn and either EPN or Guthion should be used in commercial orchards (See precautions). For dooryard trees, Malathion is recommended for all insect sprays. PRECAUTIONS Parathion, EPN and Guthion are especially toxic and should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the entire label before opening any pesticide container and heed all cautions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets and livestock, and preferably under lock and key. Dispose of left over spray materials and all empty containers promptly and safely. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting periods to avoid excess residues and injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesti cides to adjacent areas. See, . Table II on Residue Tolerances.

PAGE 3

-3TABLE I. PECAN SPRAY SCHEDULE. SPRAY TIME OF APPLICATION 1st PRE POLLINATION SPRAY: When leaves first show green. 2nd PRE POLLINATION SPRAY: When leaves are half grown. 1st. COVER SPRAY: When nuts are about .1/4" long. PEST TO CONTROL Scab Scab Downy Spot Scab Other foliage diseases Nut casebearer Aphids Mites SPRAY MATERIAL(l) AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P.) Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) plus Parathion 2 lbs. (15% W/P) or Malathion 3 lbs. (25% W/P) or EPN 2 lbs. (25% W/P) or Guthion 2 lbs. (25% W/P) or Thiodan 2 lbs. (50% W/P) REMARKS BJrdeaux mixture (6-2-100) or Zineb (65% W/P} m~y be substituted for Du-Ter or Cyprex. Do not use Cyprex on Moore and Van Deman varieties. If a spray program was not followed last year add an insecticide to control over~wintering l~af and nut casebearer. See 1st. Cover Spray. Eirly sprays prevent scab from becoming estab lished on rapidly growing foliage. See remarks Ol fungicides 1st. Pre-pollination Spray. TJis insecticide application is very important; b? sure coverage is complete. If nut caseb ~arer population is heavy, make a second app.;;; lication of insecticide one week later. Sae remarks on fungicides 1st. Pre-polli n:1.tion Spray. {!)Equivalent amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticides may be used. Do not use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concent~te formulations.

PAGE 4

TABLE I. Continued: SPRAY TIME OF APPLICATION 2nd COVER SPRAY: Three weeks after first cover spray 3rd COVER SPRAY: Three weeks after second cover spray. 4th COVER SPRAY: PEST TO CONTROL Scab Powdery mildew Other foliage diseases Scab Powdery mildew Other foliage diseases Scab Powdery mildew Other foliage diseases -4SPRAY MATERIAL(l) AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) Du-Ter 1/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) REMARKS Sulfur (2 lbs.) is added to Du-Ter or Cyprex for powdery mildew control. If sulfur does not control powdery mildew, use Bordeaux (6-2-100). If aphids or mites are a problem, use parathion or malathion. If brown spot is serious use Du-Ter. If aphids or mites are a problem, use parathion or malathion. If aphids or mites are a problem, use Parathion or Malathion. (l1;quivalent amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticide may be used. Do not use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concentrate formulations.

PAGE 5

TABLE I. Continued: SPRAY PEST TO TIME OF APPLICATION CONTROL 5th COVER SPRAY: When shell of nut begins to harden, about August 10. Scab Powdery mildew Other foliage diseases Shuckworm Aphids Hites -5SPRAY MATERIAL(l) AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS Du-Ter l/2 lb. (50% W/P) or Cyprex l lb. (65% W/P) plus EPN l l/2 lbs. (25% W/P) or Guthion 2 lbs. (25% W/P) REMARKS~ A)ply 2nd and 3rd shuckworm sprays at i week intervals. (l)Equivalent amounts of emulsifiable concentrate formulations of insecticide may be used. Do not use Du-Ter with emulsifiable concentrate formulations.

PAGE 6

-6TABLE II. RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR CHEMICALS RECOMMENDED FOR PECANS IN THIS PUBLICATION. CHEMICAL EPN Guthion Malathion Parathion Bordeaux Mixture Du-Ter Cyprex Zineb Sulfur Thiodan RESIDUE TOLERANCE (PPM) o.s 8.0 Exempt Safe INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS. Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. Do not apply after shuck split. Do not graze livestock in treated orchards within 21 days after treatment. No time limitations. Do not apply within 15 days of harvest or after shuck open. No time limitations. Do not apply after shucks start to open. Do not graze livestock in treated orchards. Do not apply after shucks start to open. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchards. Do not apply within 45 days of harvest. No time limitations. Do not apply after shuck-split. Do not graze meat or dairy animals in treated orchards.

PAGE 7

TABLE III. GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREt SIZE. TYPE OF EQUIPMENT . . GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREE SIZE Small Medium Large ( Under 25 feet) (25 35 feet) ( Over 35 feet) AIR BLAST 4 10 5 15 HYDRAULIC 15 20 MIST BLOWER 3 4 AIRPLANE l 1/2 2 FROM: Harris, E. D. and N. E. McGlohon. 1967 Pecan Insects and Diseases and Their Contr~l. Ga. Ag. Ext. Service, Bulletin 644. 300 cc 7 i/2 30 30 5 2 1/2


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