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The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the yield of moneymaker and moore pecans in North Florida

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Title:
The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the yield of moneymaker and moore pecans in North Florida
Creator:
Young, H. W.
Publisher:
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
Language:
English

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
145506112 ( OCLC )

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BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY
Monticello, Florida 0

March 21, 1966

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report BBL66-2


THE EFFECT or NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE YI
OF 1-10NEYMAKER AND MOORE PECANS IN NORTH FLORIDA.

by H. W. YOUNG and H. H. BRYAN


An experiment was initiated in 1960 at the North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy, Florida in a pecan orchard that was planted in the early 1930's and consisted of 100 Moneymaker and 91 Moore trees spaced 50 feet apart. The two objectives of this experiment were: (1) to determine the effect of nitrogen, zinc and pest control, and (2) to rejuvenate a run down orchard. The orchard had been used for many years to evaluate disease controls, but it was recorded that for the eight years proceeding 1960, the nut production was practically non-existent.

The results reported here are for the period 1960 through 1965.
During this period Phosphorus and Potassium was supplied each year by the addition of 500 pounds per acre of 0-10-10. Soil tests indicated that Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium levels were high and the pH was about 6.5. Clover and native grass were maintained in the orchard which was used for cattle pasture periodically throughout the year. The pasture was mowed short to facilitate harvesting.

Ammonium nitrate was applied each year before growth started. The rates used, expressed in pounds of nitrogen per acre, were 0, 56 and 122 each year from 1962 through 1965. In 1961 the rates were 0. 18 and 36. Because it was the intent to gradually rejuvenate the entire orchard an individual tree did not necessarily receive the same rate of nitrogen each year,

Table 1 presents the yields in pounds of nuts per tree of Moneymaker and Moore pecans which had been treated with the three rates of nitrogen. It must be kept in mind that the clover provided an additional source of nitrogen. In the same year the nitrogen was applied the two rates of nitrogen applied did not greatly increase the yield of nuts, however, the trend was consistent. When 56 or 112 pounds of nitrogen was applied the yield of nuts was increased slightly regardless of nitrogen application in previous years.

I Associate Horticulturist and Head, Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Monticello, Florida, and Assistant Horticulturist, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy, Florida, respectively.
150 cc





Table 2 is perhaps more significant. This table presents four year yields of Moneymaker and Moore pecan trees treated with three rates of nitrogen from 1961 through 1965. The figure for the average nitrogen applied in pounds per acre for the five years was obtained by totaling all the nitrogen applied to each tree. The totals were then grouped (on a per acre basis) in 100 pound increments and the mean shown in table 2. For example, those trees shown as receiving 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre received between 0 and 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre over the five year period. The trend for both varieties indicated with a clover cover an additional 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre seemed optimum insofar as yield was concerned.

The total yields per tree obtained, as well as nut quality improvement, was not as rapid as might be desired, however, it should be considered that these trees had been in a neglected condition for a number of years and had reached the size where competition for soil moisture was acute. In 1961 and 1962 some of the trees were sprayed for pest control and others were not sprayed. In results reported here this was not considered, even though spraying did increase yields considerably.

Distinct relationship between zinc and nitrogen applications did not exist in this experiment. However, it was interesting to note the different responses of the two varieties to zinc applications made in 1960. Table 3 gives the yields in pounds per tree of pecans treated in 1960 with 0, 2 and 4 pounds of Zinc Sulphate per tree. The Moneymaker variety, regardless of nitrogen applications, consistently gave higher yields where the 4 pounds of zinc sulphate was used. On the other hand, the Moore variety yielded the highest in three of the four years where zinc sulphate had not been applied.













TABLE 1. YIELDS IN POUNDS OF N4UTS PER TREE OF ECMIEYt'ZAKER AND
i!OORE PECANS TREATED PITH THREE RATES OF NITROGEN.



Rate of Nfitrogen applied per acre (2)


YEAR VARIETY 1961 Ioneymaker (1)

i .oore

1962 INoneymaker

';;oore

1963 Moneymaker

Eoore


1964 1965


Moneymaker

Mloore


0

(9) 21.4

(11) 43.5

(56) 36.9

(26) 19.6

(26) 20.0

(26) 19.6 No yield data

(27) 38.7

(20) 21.7


1

(38) 25.3

(11) 46.1

(14) 57.3

(14) 19.6

(29) 23.2

(14) 19.6


(26)

(18)


36.5

17.2


2

(39) 27.4

(38) 46.5

(16) 45.5

(19) 23.9

(31) 19.8

(19) 23.9


(32)

(22)


46.1 25.6


(1) In brackets, number of trees from which data was taken.

(2) Rates of Nitrogen in pounds per acre.

0.- None

1.- 56 in every year except 1961 when 18 was applied.

2.- 112 in every year except 1961 when 36 was applied.


THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD
OF NONEYMAKER AND MOORE PECANS Ii4 NOFTH FLORIDA.

by H. V. YOUNG AtND H. h. BMYAN














TABLE 2. FOUR YEAR YIELDS OF 1,O1EYE:AKLR AND iOORE PECANS
TREATED WITH THREE RATES OF NITROGEN FROA 1961
THROUGH 1965. (110 YILLD RECORDS FOR 1964).


Average Nitrogen applied in pounds per acre for
5 years


50

150 250


Total four year yield of nuts in pounds per tree".


Moneymaker
(16) 102.2

(29) 112.3

(18) 154.4

(15) 152.4

(10) 110.2


uoore
(8) 101.9

(15) 115.1

(17) 112.7

(12) 122.1

(8) 102.1


* In brackets, number of trees included in data.















TABLE 3. YIELD IN POUNDS OF NUTS PER TREE OF PECANS
TREATED IN 1960 WITH THREE RATES OF ZI11C
SULPHATE.


Pounds of Zinc Sulphate applied
per tree.*


Variety

11oneymaker


Year

1961 1962 1963 1965


0

19.1 (22) 33.1 (22)


16.*1 38.7


(22)

(22)


2

23.1 (56) 41.6 (56) 18.9 (56) 40.0 (56)


4

30.2 (9) 44.8 (9) 25.4 (9) 44.4 (9)


iKoore 1961 50.6 (3) 32.2 (47) 30.8 (10)

1962 27.2 (3) 18.5 (47) 10.7 (10)

1963 24.4 (3) 20.0 (47) 19.1 (10)

1965 21.4 (3) 21.9 (47) 21.2 (10)


* In brackets, number of trees included in data.




Full Text

PAGE 1

/jO F 6 3 /, ?7 V BBL 66-2--Barch 21, 1966 BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY ,,~J :;[ f;_'f"-,:,~,~ (l {rt:_~~ ~ , ~ / ~ o ~ .. . . Monticello, Florida v'P ' ~t-'\ Big Bend Hort. Lab. l1imeo Report BBL66-2 l l '1 . ) \ -;:i // ~c) ~/, 't,; ,,;,, THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE YI OF MONEYHAKER AND MOORE PECANS IN NORTH FLORIDA. by H. W. YOUNG and H. H. BRYAN An experiment was initiated in 1960 at the North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy, Florida in a pecan orchard that was planted in the early 1930 1 s and consisted of 100 Honeymaker and 91 Moore trees spaced 50 feet apart. The two objectives of this experiment were: (l) to determine the effect of nitrogen, zinc and pest control, and (2) to rejuvenate a run down orchard. The orchard had been used for many years to evaluate disease controls, but it was recorded that for the eight years preceeding 1960, the nut production was practically non-existent. The results reported here are for the period 1960 through 1965. During this period Phosphorus and Potassium was supplied each year by the addition of 500 pounds per acre of 0-10-10. Soil tests indicated that Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium levels were high and the pH was about 6.5. Clover and native grass were maintained in the orchard which was used for cattle pasture periodically throughout the year. The pasture was mowed short to facilitate harvesting. Ammonium nitrate was applied each year before growth started. The rates used, expressed in pounds of nitrogen per acre, were o, 56 and 122 each year from 1962 through 1965. In 1961 the rates were o, 18 and 36. Because it was the intent to gradually rejuvenate the entire orchard an individual tree did not necessarily receive the same rate of nitrogen each year. Table l presents the yields in pounds of nuts per tree of Moneymaker and Moore pecans which had been treated with the three rates of nitrogen. It must be kept in mind that the clover provided an additional source of nitrogen. In the same year the nitrogen was applied the two rates of nitrogen applied did not greatly increase the yield of nuts, however, the trend was consistent. When 56 or 112 pounds of nitrogen was applied the yield of nuts was increased slightly regardless of nitrogen appli cation in previous years. 1 Associate Horticulturist and Head, Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Monticello, Florida, and Assistant Horticulturist, North Florida Experiment St~tion, Quincy, Florida, respectively. 150 cc

PAGE 2

i .,. -2Table 2 is perhaps more significant. This table presents four year yields of Moneymaker and Moore pecan trees treated with three rates of nitrogen from 1961 through 1965. The figure for the average nitrogen ap plied in pounds per acre for the five years was obtained by totaling all the nitrogen applied to each tree. The totals were then grouped (on a per acre basis) in 100 pound increments and the mean shown in table 2. For example, those trees shown as receiving 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre received between O and 100 po\ll'lds of nitrogen per acre over the five year period. The trend for both varieties indicated with a clover cover an additional 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre seemed optimum insofar as yield was concerned. The total yields per tree obtained, as well as nut quality improve ment, was not as rapid as might be desired, however, it should be consid ered that these trees had been in a neglected condition for a number of years and had reached the size where competition for soil moisture was acute. In 1961 and 1962 some of the trees were sprayed for pest control and others were not sprayed, In results reported here this was not con sidered, even though spraying did increase yields considerably. Distinct relationship between zinc and nitrogen applications did not exist in this experiment. However, it was interesting to note the different responses of the two varieties to zinc applications made in 1960. Table 3 gives the yields in pounds per tree of pecans treated in 1960 with O, 2 and 4 pounds of Zinc Sulphate per tree. The Money maker variety, regardless of nitrogen applications, consistently gave higher yields where the 4 pounds of zinc sulphate was used. On the other hand, the Moore variety yielded the highest in three of the four years where zinc sulphate had not been applied.

PAGE 3

TABLE l. YIELDS IN POUNDS OF NUTS PER TREE OF MCNEYr"!AKER AND i lOORE PECA N S TREATI:D H ITH THP.EE RATES CF NITROGEN. Rate of Nitrogen ap;elied Eer acre YEAR VARIETY 0 l 1961 iloneymaker (l) (9) 21,4 (38) 25.3 (39) i-ioore (11) 43,5 (ll) .46.1 (38) 1962 I 1 oneymaker (56) 36. 9 (14) 57.3 (16) Moore (26) 19,6 (14) 19.6 (19) 1963 Honeymaker (26) 20.0 (29) 23.2 (31) Hoore (26) 19,6 (14) 19.6 (19) 1964 No yield data 1965 Honeyrnaker (27) 38.7 (26) 36,5 ( 32) Noore (20) 21,7 {18) 17,2 (22) (1) In brackets, number of trees from Hhich data was taken, (2) Rates of Nitrogen in pounds per acre. 0,None 2 27,4 46.5 45.5 23, 9 19,8 23, 9 46,l 25,6 (2) 1.56 in every year except 1961 when 18 was applied. 2.112 in every year except 1961 when 36 was applied, rm: EFFECT OF HITROGLN FERTILIZATION ON THC YIELD OF cIONEYMAKER AND MOORI: PECANS fo NORTH FLORIDA. by H, \;, YOU!SG Nm H. h, BRYAN

PAGE 4

TABLE 2. FOUR YEAR YIELDS OF ;;Ql!EYl:/1.KLR AND EOORE PECANS TREATED HITH THREF RATI:S OF NITROGEN FR0i 1%1 THROUGH 1965. {NO YILLD RECORDS FOR 1964). Average Nitrogen applied Total four year yield of nuts in pounds per acre for in pounds per tree;';. 5 years i-loneymaker aoore 50 (16) 102.2 (8) 101.9 150 (29) 112. 3 (15) 115.1 250 (18) 154.4 (17) 112.7 350 (15) 152.4 (12) 122.l 450 (10) 110.2 (8) 102.1 * In brackets, number of trees included in data.

PAGE 5

v0 \ :,.. TABLE 3. YIELD IN POUNDS OF NUTS PER TREE OF PECANS TREATED IN 1960 WITH THREE RATES OF ZI?lC SULPHATE. Pounds of Zinc Sulphate applied per tree.,~ Varieti Year 0 2 4 lloneymaker 1961 19.l (22) 23.1 (56) 30.2 (9) 1962 33.l (22) 41.6 (56) 44.8 (9) 1963 16.1 (22) 18,9 (56) 25.4 (9) 1965 38.7 (22) 40.0 (56) 44.4 (9) 1-ioore 1961 50.6 ( 3) 32.2 (47) 30.8 (10) 1962 27.2 (3) 18.5 (47) 10.7 (10) 1963 24.4 (3) 20.0 (47) 19.l (10) 1965 21,4 (3) 21,9 (47) 21.2 (10) * In brackets, number of trees included in data.


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