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Suggestions for peach growers in North Florida

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Title:
Suggestions for peach growers in North Florida
Creator:
Young, H. W.
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Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
Language:
English

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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145505681 ( OCLC )

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eL * BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY
Monticello, Florida

NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

January 5, 1965

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report PEC 65-1


SUGGESTIONS FOR PEACH GROWERS IN NORTH FLORID i

by H. W. Young, H. H.* Bryan, A. M. Phillips, J. R. 4gel


Site Selection and Planting

A well-drained sandy loam or sandy clay loam soil with a well-drained su s is suitable
for peaches. A very steep or eroded hillside should be avoided; however, planting on a slope with good air and water drainage is essential.

Several weeks prior to planting, the soil should be prepared and marked to indicate tree locations. Trees may be planted to allow for cultivation both ways, or on the contour. A spacing of 20 x 20 feet is satisfactory, but 25 x 25 feet will permit easier use of spray and cultivation equipment. When planting on the contour, it may be desirable to have the rows 25 feet apart and the trees about 15 to 18 feet apart in the row. Bands 6 to 8 feet wide in the rows where the trees will be planted should be fumigated for nematode control with EDB, DD, or Telone at the rate and preplant waiting period recommended by the company.

Trees about three feet in height are best for planting. Unless extra care is taken a very large or very small tree may not survive. If acquired from a northern source, trees should be obtained in December and planted immediately or "heeled in" (in a fumigated plot) until January. If trees grown north of Georgia and obtained in January or later are planted, premature leaf bud growth may occur that can be killed by spring freezes and result in tree loss.

In planting the trees, dig holes wide enough to easily handle the roots and deep enough to break any existing hardpan. A 14-inch tractor mounted soil auger is effective for this purpose. Plant the tree at the same depth as it grew in the nursery. Any dead or damaged roots should be pruned back to healthy tissue. Add top soil until the hole is half filled, making certain that air pockets are not left under the roots. Continue to add soil, .
pressing carefully with the feet. Water to settle the soil, and fill the remainder-of the hole.

Varieties

For commercial production in this area a variety must produce fruit early and with acceptable quality and firmness for shipment. Such a variety should require between 600 and 650 hours of temperature at or below 45 degrees (by February 15) to produce normal flowering.

Maygold is recommended for North Florida areas west of the Suwannee River. Springtime (w-hite fleshed) and Earligold, about two weeks earlier than Maygold; Junegold, larger fruited and four to seven days earlier than Maygold; and Suwanee, freestone and two to three

1 Associate Horticulturist in Charge, BBHL; Assistant Horticulturist, NFES; Associate
Entomologist, BBHL; and Associate Plant Pathologist, BBHL, respectively.










weeks later than Maygold are suggested to extend the marketing season. Even with Maygold which has a chilling requirement of 650 hours, there is a possibility that after mild winters the flowering and fruiting may be abnormal.

The varieties Hiland, Sunhigh, Flordaqueen, Fortyniner, Saturn, Double Deih, Flordahome, and the dwarf, Bonanza, ma.y be considered for home plantings but are not suitable for co-m ercial uses.

Peach varieties are usually budded onto a rootstock of another variety. Nematode resistant rootstock would be advantageous but additional testing is needed. Nemaguard has performed better than other resistant rootstocks tested. S-37 rootstock is not suited to the North Florida area. A common rootst k like Elberta or Lovell may be satisfactory if the land is fumigated before planting and if the trees are planted in an area where nematodes are not a serious problem. In lighter soils, nematodes may become a problem after planting. Cover crops, such as rye, and the use of mulch around the trees have been reported to reduce the nematode problem.

Fertilization

A soil pH between 5.8 and 6.5 is suitable for peach production. Dolomitic limestone should be used to correct the pUl when soils are too acid. At times soil tests will indicate a need for magnesium when the pH4 is acceptable. In that case:

(1) Use a fertilizer containing 2 to 5 percent magnesium oxide,
(2) Apply Epso.'m salts (magnesium sulfate)
(a) o th soi at the rate of 300 pounds per acre (0.5 pounds MgO9 par mature tree), or
(b) as a foliage spray at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 gallons of water per acre.

Two percent ZnO should be included in all the following N-P205-K20 formulations every third year.
(1) First growing season:
(a) apply 1 pound 10-10-10 per tree in February, or
(b) apply 0.5 pound 10-10-10 in February and 0.5 pound in June.
(c) If the leaves begin to turn yellow by August, 0.2 pound of ammonium nitrate may be applied but should not be applied after August 1.

(2) Two to Five year old trees:
(a) Apply 0.8 to 1.0 pound of 10-10-10, 10-5-5, 8-8-8 (depending on tasoil and/or leaf analysis) per year of age of tree in the orchard in February or split in two applications, one in February and one in June.
(b) This may be supplemented with 0.1 to 0.25 pound of ammonium nitrate per year of tree age applied from June to August 1, if excessive rainfall occurs and leaves are yellow.

(3) Six year and older trees:
(a) Broadcast 600 to 1000 pounds of 10-10-10, 8-8-8, 10-5-5 or
5-10-10 per acre (depending on soil and/or leaf analysis, and shoot growth) in February, or split in February and June applications.
(b) Supplement fran June to August 1 with one application of 0.5 to 1.5 pounds of ammonium nitrate per tree if leaf analysis, leaf chlorosis or excess rainfall indicates a need.





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Excessive fertilizer in single applications, especially during the first year, may cause death of young trees if rainfall occurs shortly after application. Shoot growth greater
than 2 feet on mature trees during a season is excessive and nitrogen levels should be reduced accordingly. Recommendations listed here are only generally applicable. Soil tests, possibly leaf analysis, vegetative growth and fruit yield the previous year should be considered and discussed with your county agricultural agent before a more exact re7:2:.-,Cn can be made.

Irrigation

Since a dry period often occurs in April and May and since research in other areas indicates that adequate moisture the month previous to harvest is essential to obtain good fruit size, it is recommended that 2 to 3 inches of irrigation water be applied 3 to 4 weeks prior to the first harvest if there is no rainfall at that time. The water requirement for peaches is more cr-*tical during this period than any other period annually and water should be applied if at all possible. Normally the crop would require a minimum of 2 inches of water every 2 weeks, and irrigation should be used when it is not provided by rainfall. Irrigation water just before or during harvest is likely to reduce fruit quality and should not be applied within 2 weeks of harvest.

Tree Training and Pruning

Pru-ne to a height of 30 inches at planting and remove all except the most vigorous l"-teral
branches. If trees are large, select three or four of the best wide-angled branches, originating within a space of 12 inches on the tree trunk, with the lowest br-anch about 18 inches from the ground level. Cut or pinch off all low growing suckers. During the first winter remove about one-third of the scaffold branches to an outside lateral branch. Remove all watersprouts and limbs that are too low to the ground. Rub off sucker growth from the main branches early each spring. The main objective of pruning young peach trees-is to develop strong well-branched frameworks. Keep the center of the tree fairly open, leaving enough shoots toward the center and upward to protect the tree trunk from sun scald. Young trees need to have scaffold branches on the main and secondary frc-rework; therefore, cutting back and thinning out of crowded branches is necessary. Because of the rapid vegetative growth in North Florida, it will be necessary to select these scaffold branches the first
year by pinching or cutting out undesirable shoots.

When the trees reach bearing age, pruning is done to maintain profitable fruit conditions. Thin out weak, unproductive wood and thick parts, and cut back rangy branches. Upright branches should be pruned back to outward growing laterals. It is desirable to control the height of the tree so that trees can be pruned and harvested from the ground. Permittirg the trees to grow taller usually produces higher yield per tree but increases the operating cost.

For further information on pruning and training, consult "Peach Growing East of the Rocky Mountains", Farmer's USDA Bulletin 2021, which is probably available from your county agent.

Thinning

Peach trees usually set more fruit than can be matured to marketable size. It has been reported that overloaded trees reduce the number of flowers the following year*. Early
thinning (between the flowering stage and hardening of the pits) has 4 fcn'-fod P-1.'ose:


*Turkey,' H. B. and Olav,Einset. 1938. Effect of fruit thinning on size, color, and yield of peaches and on growth and blossaning of the tree. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 36:314-319.





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(1) increase number and size of leaves, (2) increase fruit size, (3) improve early ripening, and (4) produce more fruit buds for the next year.

No information is currently available on the use of chemical sprays for thinning in Florida. The fruit should be thinned by hand to leave one fruit every 5 to 7 inches along the branch.

Rabbit Control

Rabbits can be a serious pest problem. Usually young trees are affected more than older trees. By girdling young trees, rabbits may actually kill an entire planting. Although the use of wire screening guards is the only certain way of controlling rabbit damage, Arasan 42-S (A Thiram compound) has been used as a repellent with considerable success. Arasan 42-S is either brushed or sprayed on the parts to be protected.

Insect and Disease Control

The pest control schedule suggested for North Florida is outlined in Table 1. This schedule will not control bacterial spot, which has not been a serious problem with the early varieties as long as tree vigor is maintained. Heavy rainfall, unusually large insect infestations, and special disease problems may require additional sprays. Normally, if rainfall occurs within 48 hours of application, the spray should be repeated. Timing of the sprays is more important than the number of sprays applied.

Phony peach is a virus disease of peaches that is spread by leafhoppers, sucking in-cects that feed on the small branches of peach and plum trees, from affected trees in the orchard or from wild plums growing near the orchard. Leafhopper control would reduce the spread of the virus, but, a more effective control would be: (1) to remove all affected trees immediately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Amate or 2, 4, S-T in the spring after leaf out; and
(3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony virus. It is safe to replant certified trees in locations where phony peach trees have been removed from an orchard. Contact your county agricultural agent for more infonnation on the detection of the virus by symptoms of growth and by chemical means.

An alternate spray schedule for home gardens is suggested in Entomology Mimeograph No. 32 (October, 1964). To control diseases in home garden peaches add 3 tablespoons of wettable sulfur or 1.5 teaspoons of 50% Captan w.p. per gallon of water to the March to the preharvest insect sprays recommended in Mimeograph No. 32.






-5

Table 1. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS.

Name and Time Material per Pests
of Spray 100 gallons Contolled Remarks

1. Dormant Liquid lime-sulfur 6 gals. Leaf curl If scales are a problem;
After all leaves Where there is a scale in- Scab 1 application limeare off and before festation use 12 gal. Scale sulfur for San Jose
buds begin to liquid lime-sulfur per 100 scale; 2 applications oil
swell in late gal. spray - or a 3% oil spray 14 days apart for
winter, spray. (Mineral oil). white peach scale.


2. Blossom Wettable sulfur (sulfur Blossom blight Mainly for brown rot
content 80% or more) 6 -caused by brown problem areas only.
lbs. - or Captan (50%) W/P rot fungus
2 lbs. Scab


3. Petal-Fall Wettable sulfur (80% +) Brown rot Do not apply parathion
After all petals - 6 lbs. Plum, Curculio within 14 days or Guthion
are off and before plus Catfaring within 21 days or dieldrin
peach is showing Parathion (15%) - 2 lbs. insects, within 30 days of harvest.
or Scab Spray tree thoroughly
Guthion (25%) 1 1/4 lbs. (See spray including trunk and
or notes) larger limbs.
Dieldrin (50%) 1/2 lbs.


4. Shuck-Fall or Wettable sulfur (80% +) Brown rot See remarks above.
First Cover - 6 lbs. Scab Especially important for
3/4 shucks off plus Plum Curculio plum curculio and scab.
Parathion (15%) - 2 lbs. Catfacing or insects
Guthion (25%) 1 1/4 lbs.
or
Dieldrin (50%) 1/2 lbs.


5. Second Cover Wettable sulfur (80% +) Brown rot See remarks above.
- 6 lbs. Scab Especially important for
7-10 days later plus Plum Curculio plum curculio and scab.
Parathion (15%) - 2 lbs. Scale or
Guthion (25%) - 1 1/4 lbs.


6. Four weeks before Wettable sulfur (80% +) Brown rot / See remarks for First
harvest - 6 lbs. Plum Curculio Cover above.
of each variety plus Oriental fruit
Parathion (15%) - 2 lbs. Moth
or Scab
Guthion (25%) 1 1/4 lbs.






-6

Table 1. Continued.


Name and Time Material per Pests
of Spray 100 gallons Controlled Remarks

7. Two weeks before Wettable sulfur (80% +) Same as No. 6
harvest - 6 lbs.
of each variety plus
Parathion (15%) - 2 lbs.


8. Pre-harvest Wettable sulfur (80% +) Same as No. 6
One week before - 6 lbs.
harvest of each
variety


Trunk sprays (Drench
trunk, lower branches Thiodan (50%) 1 1/2 lbs. Peach Tree Thoroughly wet trunk,
and soil at base of or Borer lower branches and soil
tree) - Parathion (15%) 3 lbs. at base of tree.
July 15 or
DDT Wettable powder 50%, 8 lbs.
or
Dieldrin (50%) 6 lbs.


Trunk Sprays
August 15 Same as above. Peach Tree Same as above.
Borer


September 15 DDT wettable powder (50%) Peach Tree Same as above.
8 lbs. Borer
or
Parathion (15%) 3 lbs.

SPRAY NOTES: (1) Captan can be used instead of wettable sulfur for brown rot at the rate of
2 lbs. 50% Captan wettable powder per 100 gallons. (2) Sprays may be needed prior to First Cover to control stink bugs on early flowering varieties to prevent "catfacing" or dimpling of fruits. Use parathion or dieldrin at rates for curculio. (3) An Ethion-oil combination spray can be used for scales during the dormant period instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of 46% Ethion emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. Then add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. See remarks above for number of applications.

MINIMUM DAYS BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST: Parathion-14; Guthion-21; dieldrin-30;
Zineb-30; Thiodan-30; Ethion-30; Sulfur-no time limitations; Captan-no time limitations.

PRECAUTIONS: Read and heed all cautions and warnings on the pesticide label. Parathion and Guthion are highly toxic insecticides and should be applied only by a trained and properly equipped operator. Store pesticides out of reach of children, irresponsible people and livestock, and preferably under lock and key. Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely.


600 cc





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AMOUNT


EXTENSION mTOLOGY MnMEOGRAPH NO. 32 (REVISED)

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE & HOME ECONOMICS University of Florida and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperatins - Gainesville

Gainesville, Florida
Revised October, 1964

SUGGESTED DOORYARD PEACH AND PLUM INSECT CONTROL PROGRAM

James E. Brogdon
Extension Ent omologist

The most important insects of peaches and plums are common to both crops in
Florida. The plum curculio, scales, stink bugs, and peach tree borers are the
ost common insect pests.

What Causes "Wormy" Peaches and Plums?

The plum curculio is a hard snout beetle about 3/16 of an inch long, brown
mottled with gray. The female curculios cut crescent-shaped slits in the fruit and lay eggs in them. The eggs hatch into whitish, legless grubs that feed in the fruit, and may cause young peaches and plums to drop. Nearly mature fruits may remain on the trees, but will be "wormy". Wild plums are an excellent host for the plum curculio, and the insect is especially troublesome where plums are common. Usually it is not necessary to spray for this pest in the southern part
of the state. (See back page for Control.)

( )Other Insect Pests

Two scales, which are found principally on the twigs and branches, are pests
of peach and plum trees. The San Jose Scale is gray to smoky black in color and
gives the heavily infested branches a roughened, gray appearance. White peach
seal' appear-as- cottony patches on the twigs and branches. Thorough wetting of
he bark when spraying for the plum curculio should aid in the control of these
s ales. (See back page for Control.)

The peach tree borer is a serious pest of the peach, but less destructive to
plum trees. The larva or young usually enters the tree trunk at the surface of the soil. Sprays are directed at the adult moths or the young larvae after they emerge rom the eggs and before they can enter the tree trunk. (See back page for Control.,
Stink bugs may attack peaches as they are nearing maturity. Malathion will
aid in their control. (See back page for Control.)

Sprays: In order to be effective sprays should be applied on a schedule.

Sprayers: Insects can be controlled most effectively with power sprayers,
but most home gardeners with only a few trees will not have this kind of equipment.
A .2 or 3 gallon compressed air sprayer should be satisfactory, provided sufficient hose, an extension rod and a suitable nozzle are used. Since this sprayer has no


(over)







means of agitation-to keep the wettable powder pesticides evenly mixed in the water, it will be necessary to shake the sprayer rather frequently. A sprayer with some means of agitation is preferable.

Pest Control

(Dec.-Jan.) SCALES: If San Jose scale is a problem apply a dormant oil spray (3%
actual oil) in mid-winter (Dec. 1-Jan. 15). If white peach scale is a
problem make two applications two weeks apart within the above dates.
To make the spray thoroughly mix cup of 80-90% oil in 1 gallon of water.
Do not spray if freezing temperatures are expected within 4 hours.

.(Mar.-Al) PIM CURCULIO: Apply a spray mixture of malathion plus methoxychlor or
Sevin at weekly intervals beginning March 1st and continuing through the first week in April. To make the spray mix 4 tablespoons of 25% malathion wettable powder or 2 teaspoons of 57% malathion: liquid concentrate per gallon of water. Then add 3 tablespoons of 50% methoxychlor
wettable powder or 2 tablespoons of 50% Sevin wettable powder. For 25
gallons of water the amounts should be 1 pound of the 25% malathion
wettable powder or 1 pint of 57% malathion liquid concentrate plus 3/4
1
pound of 50% methoxychlor wettable powder or f pound of 50% Sevin
wettable powder. Spray thoroughly the entire tree including the trunk
and larger limbs. This will aid in the control of scales.

(Pre-harvest) STINK BUGS may attack peaches nearing maturity. If sprays are needed,
apply Sevin at 2 tablespoons of 50% wettable powder per gallon of water
( pound in 25 gallons).

(July-Sept.) PEACH TREE BORER: Make 3 applications--July 1, August 1, September 1, using 2 tablespoons of 50% Thiodan wettable powder or 6 tablespoons of
50% dieldrin wettable powder per gallon of water. If neither Thiodan
nor dieldrin is available, use 8 tablespoons of 50% DDT wettable powder
per gallon of water. Apply thoroughly to the trunk, being especially
careful to wet the soil at the base of the tree.

SOIL APPLICATIONS FOR PLUM CURCULIO: Aldrin, dieldin or heptachlor applied
unLfconiy over the soil under the spread of the tree as a dust, spray or granule and immediately worked into the soil will help to control the plum curculto by killing many of the larvae in the soil. Applications can be made anytime before the "drop"
-of "wormy". peaches. A convenient treatment is to apply 2- dieldrin, aldrin or heptachlor granules or dust over the soil under the tree and extending a short distance out beyound the drip of the tree and work into the soil. For an area in a circle extending 10 feet from the tree trunk, apply 1 pound of the 2% granules or dust. Repeat the application every 3 or 4 years. This soil treatment is not a substitute for spraying for plum curculio; it is only a supplemental measure.
PRECAUTIONS

Insecticides are poisons and should be handled and stored according to the precautions on the label. Wash dooryard peaches and plums before they are eaten. Do not apply malathion within 7 days of harvest of peaches or 3 days of harvest of plums; or Sevin within 1 day of harvest of peaches or plums; or methoxychlor within 7 days of harvest of plums or 21 days of harvest of peaches.

The use of trade names in this mimeograph is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. it is not a guarantee or waranty of the products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.




Full Text

PAGE 1

/00 ;::t 3 C,,,,,, BBL &J-:./ BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY Monticello, Florida NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION Quincy, Florida January S, 1965 Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report PEC 65-1 / . ,.,,--SUGGESTIONS FOR PEACH GROWERS IN NORTH FLORID If' j ,',~ by H. W. Young, H. H. Bryan, A. M. Phillips, J. R. eb,gel t \~-;! l\it ,J; Site Selection and Planting ~vif ~t,"' A well-drained sandy loam or sandy clay loam soil with a well-drained su -s -~ is suitable for peaches. A very steep or eroded hillside should be avoided; however, planting on a slope with good air and water drainage is essential. Several weeks prior to planting, the soil should be prepared and marked to indicate tree locations. Trees may be planted to allow for cultivation both ways, or on the contour. A spacing of 20 x 20 feet is satisfactory, but 25 x 25 feet will permit easier use of spray and cultivation equipment. When planting on the contour, it may be desirable to have the rows 25 feet apart and the trees about 15 to 18 feet apart in the row. Bands 6 to 8 feet wide in the rows where the trees will be planted should be fumigated for nematode control with EDB, DD, or Telone at the rate and preplant waiting period recommended by the company. Trees about three feet in height are best for planting. Unless extra care is taken a very large or very small tree may not survive. If acquired from a northern source, trees should be obtained in December and planted immediately or "heeled in" (in a fumigated plot) until January. If trees grown north of Georgia and obtained in January or later are planted, premature leaf bud growth may occur that can be killed by spring freezes and result in tree loss. In planting the trees, dig holes wide enough to easily handle the roots and deep enough to break any existing hardpan. A 14-inch tractor mounted soil auger is effective for this purpose. Plant the tree at the same depth as it grew in the nursery. Any dead or damaged roots should be pruned back to healthy tissue. Add top soil until the hole is half filled, making certain that air pockets are not left under the roots. Continue to add soil, pressing carefully with the feet. Water to settle the soil, and fill the remainder of the hole. Varieties For commercial production in this area a variety must produce fruit early and with acceptable quality and firmness for shipment. Such a variety should require between 600 and 650 hours of temperature at or below 45 degrees {by February 15) to produce normal flowering. Maygold is recommended for North Florida areas west of the Suwannee River. Springtime (white fleshed) and Earligold, about two weeks earlier than Maygold; Junegold, larger fruited and four to seven days earlier than Maygold; and Suwanee, freestone and two to three 1 Associate Horticulturist in Charge, BBHL; Assistant Horticulturist, NFES; Associate Entomologist, BBHL; and Associate Plant Pathologist, BBHL, respectively.

PAGE 2

-2weeks later than Maygold are suggested to extend the marketing season. Even with Maygold which has a chilling requirement of 650 hours, there is a possibillty that after mild winters the flowering and fruiting may be abnonnal. The varieties Hiland, Sunhigh, Flordaqueen, Fortyniner, Saturn, Double Delight, Fiordahome, and the dwarf, Bonanza, may be considered for hane plantings but are not suitable for commercial uses. Peach varieties are usually budded onto a rootstock of another variety. Nematode resistant rootstock would be advantageous but additional testing is needed. Nemaguard has perfoxmed better than other rcsistc:nt rootstocks tested. S-37 rootstock is not suited to the North Florida area. A co1mnon rootst'.'.':'~!~ like Elberta or Lovell may be satisfactory if the land is fumigated before planting and if the trees are planted in an area where nematodes are not a serious problem. In lighter soils, nematodes may become a problem after planting. Cover crops, such as rye, and the use of mulch around the trees have been reported to reduce the nc~atode problem. Fertilization A soil pH between 5.8 and 6.5 is suitable for peach production. Dolomitic limestone should be used to correct the pr! when soils are too acid. At times soil tests will indicate a need for magnesium when the pl-I is acceptable. In that case: (1) Use a fertilizer containing 2 to 5 percent magnesium oxide, (2) Apply Epsom salts (magnesiui:n sulfate) (a) to the soil at the rate of 300 pounds per acre (O. 5 po.mcls tg0 p~r mature tree), or (b) c:i.:::; a foliage sp:.'3Y at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 gallons of water per acre. Two percent ZnO should be included in all the following N-P 2 05-K20 foxmulations every third year. ( l) First g1--owing season: (a) e.pply 1 pound 10-10-10 per tree in February, or (b) c.pply o. 5 pound 10-10-10 in February and o. 5 pound in June. (c) If the leaves begin to tum yellow by August, 0.2 pound of a-r:monium nitrate may be applied but should not be applied after August 1. (2) Two to Five year old trees: (a) Apply o.a to 1.0 pound of 10-10-10, 10-5-5, 8-8-8 (depending on tle soil and/or leaf analysis) per year of age of tree in the orchard in February or split in two applications, one in February and one in June. (b) This may be supplemented with O.l to 0.25 pound of ammonium nitrate per year of tree age applied from June to August l, if excessive rainfall occurs and leaves are yellow. (3) Six year and older trees: (a) Broadc~st 600 to 1000 pounds of 10-10-10, 8-8-8, 10-5-5 or 5-10-10 per acre (depending on soil and/or leaf analysis, and shoot growth) in February, or split in February and June applications. (b) Supple~ent fran June to August 1 with one application of 0.5 to 1.5 pou.,ds of ammonium nitrate per tree if leaf analysis, leaf chlorosis or excess rainfall indicates a need.

PAGE 3

-3Excessive fertilizer in single applications, especially during the first year, may cause death of young trees if rainfall occurs shortly after application. Shoot growth greater than 2 feet on mature trees during a season is excessive and nitrogen levels should be reduced accordingly. Recommendations listed here are only generally applicable. Soil tests, possibly leaf analysis, vegetative growth and fruit yield the previous year should be con sidered and discussed with your county agricultural agent before a more exact rec::)i :i..~ :::. :).r.~.:-:::icn can be made. Irrigation Since a dry period often occurs in April and May and since reseai--•ch in other areas indicates that adequate moisture the month previous to harvest is essential to obtain good fruit size, it is recommended that 2 to 3 inches of irrigation water be applied 3 to 4 weeks prior to the first harvest if there is no rainfall at that time. The water requirerr.ent for peaches is mere c~•itical during this period than any other period annually a.,d water should be applied if at all possible. Normally the crop would require a minimum of 2 inches of water every 2 weeks, and irrigation should be used when it is not provided by rainfa).l. !1--rigation water just before or during harvest is likely to reduce fruit quality and should r.ot be applied tri thin 2 weeks of harvest. Tree Training and Pruning Pru.rie to a height of 30 inches at planting and remove all except the most vigorous lateral brcmches. If trees are large, select three or four of the best wide-a11gled b1"anchcn originating within a space of 12 inches on the tree trunk, Hith the lo1;est branch about 18 inches frcm the ground level. Cut or pinch off all low growing suckers. During the first winter remove about one-third of the scaffold branches to an outside lateral brz:ich. Rer.love all watersprouts and limbs that are too low to the ground. Rub off sucker growth frcm the main bra.~ches early each spring. The main objective of pruning young peach trees . is to develop strong well-branched frameworks. Keep the center of the tree fairly open, leaving enough shoots toward the center and upward to protect the tree trunk from sun scald. Yo\lllg trees need to have scaffold branches on the main and secondary framework:; therefc1,e, cutting back a.id thinni.rig out of crowded branches is necessary. Because of the rapid vegetative growth in North Florida, it will be necessary to select these scaffold branches the first year by pinching or cutting out undesirable shoots. When the trees reach bearing age, pruning is done to maintain profitable fruit conditions. Thin out weak, unproductive wood and thick parts, and cut back rangy branches. Upright branches should be pruned back to outward growing laterals. It is desirable to control the height of the tree so that trees can be pruned and harvested from the ground. Penni ttir,g the trees to grow taller usually produces higher yield per tree but increases the operating cost. For further information on pr\llling and training, consult "Peach Growing East of the Rocky Mountains", Farmer's USDA Bulletin 2021, which is probably available from your county agent. Thinning Peach trees usually set more fruit than can be matured to marketable size. It has been reported that overloaded trees reduce the number of flowers the following year*. Early thinning (between the flowering stage and hardening of the pits) has fc t1 :, ... fold p t . ::-:;:oGe: * Turkey, H.B. and Olav,Einset. 1938. Effect of fruit thinning on size, color, and yield of peaches and on growth and blossoming of the tree. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 36:314-319.

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(l} increase number and size of leaves, (2) increase fruit size, (3) improve early ripening, and ( 4) produce more fruit buds for the next year. No information is currently available on the use of chemical sprays for thinning in Florida. The fruit should be thinned by hand to leave one fruit every 5 to 7 inches along the branch. Rabbit Control Rabbits can be a serious pest problem. Usually young trees are affected more than older trees. By girdling young trees, rabbits may actually kill an entire planting. Although the use of wire screening guards is the only certain way of controlling rabbit damage, Arasa.., 42-S (A Thiram compound) has been used as a repellent with considerable success. Arasan 42-S is either brushed or sprayed on the parts to be protected. Insect and Disease Control The pest control schedule suggested for North Florida is outlined in Table 1. This schedule will not control bacterial spot, which has not been a serious problem with the early varieties as long as tree vigor is maintained. Heavy rainfall, unusually large insect infestations, and special disease problems may require additional sprays. Normally, if rainfall occurs within 48 hours of application, the spray should be repeated. Timing of the sprays is more important than the number of sprays applied. Phony peach is a virus disease of peaches that is spread by leafhoppers, sucking incects that feed on the small branches of peach and plum trees, from affected trees in the orchard or from wild plums growing near the orchard. Leafhopper control would reduce the spread of the virus, but, a more effective control would be: (1) to remove all affected trees immedi ately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Amate or 2, 4, 5-T in the spring after leaf out; and (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of phony virus. It is safe to replant certified trees in locations where phony peach trees have been removed fran an orchard. Contact your county agricultural agent for more information on the detection of the virus by symptoms of growth and by chemical means. An alternate spray schedule for home gardens is suggested in Entomology Mimeograph No. 32 (October, 1964). To control diseases in home garden peaches add 3 tablespoons of wettable sulfur or 1.5 teaspoons of SO% Captan w.p. per gallon of water to the March to the pre harvest insect sprays recanmended in Mimeograph No. 32.

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-5Table 1. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS. Name and Time of Spray 1. Donnant After all leaves are off and before buds begin to swe 11 in late winter. 2. Blossan 3. Petal-Fall After all petals are off and before peach is showing 4. Shuck-Fall or First Cover 3/4 shucks off 5. Second Cover 7-10 days later 6. Four weeks before harvest of each variety Material per 100 gallons Liquid lime-sulfur 6 gals. Where there is a scale in festation use 12 gal. liquid lime-sulfur per 100 gal. spray or a 3% oil spray. (Mineral oil). Wettable sulfur (sulfur content BO% or more) 6 lbs. or Captan (50%) W/P 2 lbs. Wettable sulfur (80% +) 6 lbs. plus Parathion ( 15%) 2 lbs. or Guthion (25%) l 1/4 lbs. or Dieldrin (50%) 1/2 lbs. Wettable sulfur (80% +) 6 lbs. plus Parathion ( 15%) 2 lbs. or Guthion (25%) l l/4 lbs. or Dieldrin (50%) 1/2 lbs. Wettable sulfur ( 80% +) 6 lbs. plus Parathion ( 15%) 2 lbs. or Guthion (25%) l 1/4 lbs. Wettable sulfur ( 80% +) 6 lbs. plus Parathion ( 15%) 2 lbs. or Guthion (25%) l l/4 lbs. Pests Contolled Leaf curl Scab Scale Blossom blight caused by brown rot fungus Scab Brown rot Plum, Curculio Catfadng insects. Scab (See spray notes) Brown rot Sc~ Plum~ Curculio Catfacing insects Brown rot Scab Plum Curculio Scale Brown rot I P lurn Curculio Oriental fruit Moth Scab Remarks If scales are a problem; l application lime sulfur for San Jose scale; 2 applications oil spray 14 days apart for white peach scale. Mainly for brown rot problem areas only. Do not apply parathion within 14 days or Guthion within 21 days or dieldrin within 30 days of harvest. Spray tree thoroughly including trunk and larger limbs. See remarks above. Especially important for plum curculio and scab. See remarks above. Especially important for plum curculio and scab. See remarks for First Cover above.

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Table 1. Continued. Name and Time of Spray 7. Two weeks before harvest of each variety 8. Pre-harvest One week before harvest of each variety Trunk sprays (Drench trunk, lower branches and soil at base of . tree) July 15 Trunk Sprays August 15 September 15 Material per 100 gallons -6Wettable sulfur ( 80% +) 6 lbs. plus Parathion (15%) 2 lbs. Wettable sulfur ( 80% +) 6 lbs. Thiodan (50%) 1 1/2 lbs. . or Parathion (15%) 3 lbs. or Pests Controlled Same as No. 6 Same as No. 6 Peach Tree Borer DDT Wettable powder 50%., B lbs. or Dieldrin (50%) 6 lbs. Same as above. DDT wettable powder (50%) 8 lbs. or Parathion (15%) 3 lbs. Peach Tree Borer Peach Tree Borer Remarks Thoroughly wet trunk, lower branches and soil at base of tree. Same as above. Same as above. SPRAY NOTES: ( l) Captan can be used instead of wettable sulfur for brown rot at the rate of 2 lbs. SO% Captan wettable powder per 100 gallons. (2) Sprays may be needed prior to First Cover to control stink bugs on early flowering varieties to prevent "catfacing" or dimpling of fruits. Use parathion or dieldrin at rates for curculio. (3) An Ethion-oil combination spray can be used for scales during the dormant period instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of 46% Ethion emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. Then add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. See remarks above for number of applications. MINIMUM DAYS BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST: Parathion-14; Guthion-21; dieldrin-30; Zineb-30; Thiodan-30; Ethion-30; Sulfur-no time limitations; Captan-no time limitations. PRECAUTIONS: Read and heed all cautions and warnings on the pesticide label. Parathion and Guthion are highly toxic insecticides and should be applied only by a trained and pro perly equipped operator. Store pesticides out of reach of children., irresponsible people and livestock, and preferably under lock and key. Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely. 600 cc

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1:~ ~R;AL ~) R l'.:=====::::1 I TIME ;j) : I AM.U ~ I WAY fi ' T~ EXTENSION ENTCMOLOGY MIMEOGRAPH NO. 32 (REVISED) _J_ C.,..,.. ===== = ,,,,,,.,,,... === = = = == =====\ :e •===~A U . . . . COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE I!: HOUR ECONOMICS UniYenity of Florida and United States Department of Airrlculture Cooperatlnu Galneevllle Gainesville, Florida Revised October, 1964 SUGGESTED DOORYARD PFACH AND PWM INSEC11 CONTROL PROORAM James E. Brogdon Extension Entomologist The most important insects of peaches and plums are common to both crops in Florida. The plum curculio, scales, stink bugs, and . peach tree borers are the ost common insect pests . . .. What Causes "Wormy" Peaches and Plums? The plum curculio is a hard snou:t beetle abou:t 3/16 of an inch long, brown mottled with gray. The female curculios cut crescent-shaped slits in the fruit and lay eggs in them. The eggs hatch into whitish, legless grubs that feed in the fruit, and may cause young peaches and plums to drop. Nearly mature :fruits may remain on the trees, bu:t will be "wormy". Wild plums are an excellent host for the plum curculio, and the insect is especially troublesome where plums are common. Usually it is not necessary to spray for this pest in the southern part of the state. {See back page for Control.) other Insect Pests Two scales, which are found principally on the twigs and branches, are pests of peach and plum trees. The San Jose Scale is gray to smoky black in color and gives the heavily infested branches a roughened, gray appearance. White peach . . sca;l..es . , .. appea~ -as .. cottony patches on the twigs and branches. Thorough wetting of lf~?d.i 1 ~h1Ee~biaark when spraying for the plum curculio should aid in the control of these sales. (See back page for Control.) The peach tree borer is a serious pest of the peach, but less destructive to plum trees. The larva or young usually enters the tree trunk at the surface of the soil. Sprays are directed at the adult moths or the young larvae af'ter they emerge rom the eggs and before they can enter the tree trunk. {See back page for Control •. Stink bugs may attack peaches as they are nearing maturity. Malathion will aid in their control. {See back page for Control.) Sprays: In order to be effective sprays should be applied on a schedule. Sprayers: Insects can be controlled most effectively with power sprayers, but most home gardeners with only a few trees will not have this kind of equipment. A . 2 or 3 gallon compressed air sprayer should be satisfactory,provided sufficient hose, an extension rod and a suitable nozzle . are used. Since this sprayer has no (over)

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means o:f agitation .to keep the wettable powder pesticides evenly mixed in the water, it will be necessary to shake the sprayer rather frequently. A sprayer with some means of agitation is preferable. (Dec. -Jan. ) Pest Control SCALES: If San Jose scale is a problem apply a dormant oil spray (3% actual oil) in mid-winter {Dec. 1-Jan. 15). If white peach scale is a problem make two applications two weeks apart within the above dates. To make the spray thoroughly miX cup of 80-90% oil in 1 gallon of water. Do not spray if freezing temperatures are expected within 4 hours. PUJM CURCULJ:O: . . Apply a spray mixture of malathion plus methoxychlor or Sevin at weekly intervals beginning March 1st and continuing through the first week in April. To make the spray mix 4 tablespoons of 25% malathion wettable powder or 2 teaspoons of 57% malathion : liquid con centrate per gallon of water. Then add 3 tablespoons of 5CP/o methoxychlor -wettable powder or 2 tablespoons of 5CP/o Sevin wettable powder. For 25 gallons of water the amounts should be 1 pound of the 25% malathion -wettable powder or pint of 57% malathion liquid concentrate plus 3/4 pound of 5CP/o methoxychlor wettable powder or pound of 5CP/o SeVin wettable powder. Spray thoroughly the . entire tree including the trunk and larger limbs. This will aid in the control of scales. (Pre-harvest) STINK BUGS may attack peaches nearing maturity. If sprays are needed, ajply Sevin at 2 tablespoons of 50% wettable powder per gallon of water ( 2 pound in 25 gallons). . (July-Sept.) PFACR TREE BORER: Make 3 applications--July l, August 1, September 1, using 2 tablespoons of 5ofo Thiodan wettable powder or 6 tablespoons of 50% dieldrin wettable powder per gallon of water. If neither Thiodan nor dieldrin is available, use 8 tablespoons of 5CJfa DDT wettable powder per gallon of water. Apply thoroughly to the trunk, being especially careful to wet the soil at the base of the tree. SOIL APPLICATIONS FOR PLUM CURCULIO: _ Aldrin, dieldin or heptachlor applied unifarm1y over the soil under the spread of the tree as a dust, spray or granule and immediately worked into the soil will help to control the plum curculio by killing many of the larvae in the soil. Applications can be made anytime before the "drop" . of "wormy.II peaches. A convenient treatment is to apply 2~ dieldrin, aldrin or hepta- •chlor granules or dust over the soil under the tree and : extending a short distance out beyound the drip of the tree and work into the soil. For an area in a circle extending 10 feet from the tree trunk, apply 1 pound of the 2'/r, granules or dust. Repeat the application every 3 or 4 years. This soil treatment is not a substitute for spraying for plum curculio; it is only a supplemental measure. PRECAUTIONS Insecticides are poisons and should be handled and stored according to the pre cautions on the label. Wash dooryard peaches and plums before they are eaten. Do not apply malathion within 7 days of harvest of peaches or 3 days of harvest of plums; or Sevin within l day of harvest of peaches or plums; or methoxychlor within 7 days of harvest of plums or 21 days of harvest of peaches. The use of trade names in this mimeograph is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. it is not a guarantee or waranty of the products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0007650900001datestamp 2008-11-10setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Suggestions for peach growers in North Florida dc:creator Young, H. W.dc:publisher Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Floridadc:type Bookdc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00076509&v=00001145505681 (OCLC)dc:source University of Florida