Table of Contents

Title: Future possibilities in Florida.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076225/00002
 Material Information
Title: Future possibilities in Florida.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida State Department of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida State Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1945
General Note: Florida State Department of Agriculture bulletin 122
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076225
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text

New Series

Number 122


August, 1945


n flORIDfl



NATHAN MAYO. Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida
August, 1945


Florida is a proving-ground for a
greater variety of agricultural and in-
dustrial ventures than is to be found
in any other state.

The news items here presented indi-
cate some of the possibilities which chal-
lenge the developer and the investor who
has practical visions of the future.

As a guide in selecting projects we
issue this
Future Possibilities in Florida

Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture.


Future Possibilities in Florida


Information on Florida........................... 7

Leading Income-Yielding Crops. . . . . . . . . . 8

Post-War Florida. . . . . . . . . . 11

New Uses for Palmetto........................... 16

Uses of Soy Bean............ ... ......... 19
New Sorghum Syrup........... . ......... 21
New Plastics from Starch............. ......... 22

New Crops for the Glades. . . . . . . . . . . 25
Ceramics in Florida........... .. ..... ...... 32

Pyrethrum ..................................... 33
Victory Over Insects. . . . . . . . . . . 48

Tanning in Florida................. ......... 50

Lime Flavoring.................... .......... 58

CitrusResearch............ . .. ...... 64
Chemo-Plastics ............... .................. 70
Clover and Tung Oil................. .......... 76

Guayule Rubber Plant ........... ............. 79
Synthetic Rubber.......... .... ........... 80
New Grapefruit ..................... ......... 83

Mildew Resisting Bean. . . . . . . . . . . 84
Florida Farmers Owe Least. . . . . . . . . . . 86

Dehydration in Florida........................... 87
Florida's 1944 Farm Crop. . . . . . . . . . . 91

New Florida's Citrus Juicing Plant. . . . . . . . 95
Florida Citrus Canneries. . . . . . . . . . . 96

Cork Oak Plantings in Florida. . . . . . . . . . . 99
Balsa Wood in Florida............... ............ 103

Mahogany Wood in Florida............ ............ 105
Candlenut Oil ................................... 106

Silk Worms in the South.............. ............ 108

Cherimoya in Florida............................. 111

KarakulSheep.............. ...... .......... 113

Florida Drug Plants......... ... .. ............. 116

Florida and Latin America. .. ... .. .. .... .. .. 124

Citrus Pilot Plant.......................

New Fruits Developed...................

By-Products of Citrus...................

Agar-Agar Production in Florida. . . .. . .
Shoe and Shirt Factories in Florida. . . .

Farewellto Cattle Ticks............... ...

DDT and the Mosquito............... ...

Medicinal Properties of Florida Fruits . .

Pigeon Peas......................... ...
Florida Vegetable Crops.................

Chinese Lychee Fruit................. ...

Elderberries Commercially . . . . . . . .

Lumbering in Florida................ ...

Live Stock Pavilions in Florida. . . . . .

Wooden Shoes in Florida.............. ...

Florida Grasses.........................

Fiber Alloys............................

Tobacco in Florida......................

Dithane Increases Potato Yields. . . . . .

Miami as an Overseas Airport. . . . . . .

Toxic and Non-Toxic Legumes. . . . . . .

Electronic Tubes Equipment. . . . . . . .

Two Million Dollar Shark Industry. . . . .

Citrus Dehydration................... ...

Miami's New Industry....................

Long-Range Cattle Development. . . .. . .

Pangola Grass ....... ...... .. ............

Why Paint Manufacturers Should
Locate in Florida......................

Florida's Mineral Pigments ...............

Florida's Mineral Industry . . . . . .. . .

Shell Industry in Florida..................

......... 134

......... 138

......... 141

. . . . . .144

. . . 146-147

......... 148

......... 149

. . . . . 150

......... 152

......... 155

......... 158

. . . . . 161

......... 162

. . . . . 163

......... 164

......... 166

......... 171

......... 174

. . . . . 175

. . . . . 177

. . . . . 180

. . . . . 182

. . . . . 184



. . . . . .189

. .. .... ...192



. . . . . .198


Information on Florida

Florida produces winter-grown vegetables and fruits on
400,000 acres, enough to ship at the rate of 23 carloads an
hour every hour of the year, day and night. Florida's 40,-
000 citrus groves produce up to 76,000,000 boxes of citrus
fruits annually, valued at $190,000,000 1944. Florida's
2,000,000 acres in farms and groves provide a variety of
farm products ranging from cotton, tobacco and grains to
tropical fruits and vegetables, which combine to give a farm
income of $300,000,000 a year. Florida has 1,500,000 cat-
tie. Florida's mineral resources are valued at $18,000,000
in annual output, and Florida's fisheries market fresh fish,
shrimp, turtles and sponges valued at over $10,000,000 an-
nually. Florida's forests occupy 19,000,000 acres and yield
an annual production of lumber, pulp wood and naval stores
having a value of between $40,000,000 and $50,000,000.
Florida's output of manufactured products in numerous
factories reaches an annual valuation of approximately
$300,000,000, and industrial activities extend over a wide
range from ships and paper to cigars, foods and novelties.
As an example of recent industrial progress in Florida, five
large pulp mills for manufacture of kraft paper and con-
tainers have been established. Thousands of acres of sugar
cane have been developed to supply two sugar mills, one
at Clewiston in the Everglades and one at Fellsmere. Can-
ning factories put up 500,000,000 cans annually.
Florida's permanent population is 2,247,038, with an in-
crease of more than 1,000,000 during the winter season.
Florida is today the nation's foremost industrial labora-
tory and proving ground for progressive industrial organi-
zations seeking to develop new products to better serve
Florida field crops are now worth $28,615,000.


. .. . . . .

. . . . . . .


.... .....

.... .....


... .....


Leading Income-Yielding Trees of Florida

(In the following we have used round numbers and average value-
not one special year.)

Citrus ............................$180,000,000

Forest trees (pine and cypress) . . . 80,000,000

Tung ..........
]Pecans .........

Papayas ........
Avocados .......

Coconuts .......

]Pears ..........

Peaches ........

Guavas ........

Mangoes .......

Figs ...........
Bluebenies .....

Persimmons ....


.. ... ......... 540,000

................... 390,000

.... .. ... ....... 200,000

..... ............. 120,000

................... 120,000

........... ....... 40,000

................... 30,000

................... 20,000

................... 14,000

........ .......... 10,000

................... 5,000

Income-Producing Trees that

Would Grow in Florida

Rubber, Coffee, Carob, Cork, Poplar, Black Walnut.

Leading Income-Producing

Vegetables in Florida

String Beans ......

Celery . . . .. . .

Potatoes (white) . .

Cabbage ...........

Peppers ...........
Cucumbers ........

Sweet Potatoes .....

LimaBeans ........

Lettuce ...........


.. . . 3,900,000

. . . 3,800,000

...... 2,500,000

...... 1,000,000

...... 1,000,000

...... 1,000,000

...... 800,000

...... 225,000

Leading Field Crops in Florida

Tomatoes ........... ...........$6,000,000
Corn ........... ...... ........... 5,000,000
Peanuts (Hay and Seeds) . . . . . . . 4,000,000
Tobacco ........... ........... 3,500,000
Watermelons .......... .. .......... 2,000,000
Cotton ........... .. ........... 1,500,000
Strawberries ............. ........... 1,000,000
Velvet Beans ........................ 1,000,000

Sorghum ........... .......... 1,000,000
Cane Syrup ........... ........... 1,000,000

Leading Income-Producing
Domestic Animals in Florida

Dairy Animals . . . . . . . . . . $17,000,000
Poultry .......... ........... 11,000,000
Beef Cattle .......... .......... 7,000,000

Hogs .......... .. ........... 5,000,000
Beef .......... . .......... 4,000,000

Mineral Products . . . . . . . . . . $21,000,000
Fisheries ............ .............. 20,000,000

Compiled by T. J. BROOKS,
Asst. State Commissioner of Agriculture.

A development of the natural resources of the State-hidden
wealth, worth millions, and thousands the "right to work".
The blending of Mechanical and Chemical
knowledge, is the key that unlocks the door
to the Storehouse of Nature's Wonders,
This knowledge is only imparted to those
who possess the faculty and ability to vis-
ualize and utilize the hidden mysteries ob-
scured from unimaginative minds,
The fruition of years of thought, research
and vision of penetrative intellects,
The culmination of this discovery will un-
lock one of the greatest hidden secrets of all
modern times.
Member of the Society of
American Military Engineers.

(Genus Crepus Chamerope)
This variety of the palm family is known as the Saw
or Scrub Palmetto.
It has long been known that there was hidden wealth in
these palms. Valuable chemical properties, numerous resi-
nous gums and other elements of a chemical nature.
This species of palm grows in almost every section of the
state and covers something like 31/3 million acres in Flor-
ida, and is present in nearly all of the gulf states in the
lower areas. It has been considered a parasite of the soil.
Some research has been made that show great commer-
cial possibilities. However, some of the hidden from view
and recently basic elements have been discovered.

Florida- Post-War


This was accomplished by the mechanical separation of
the liquid solution from the fibrous and corky substances
that go to make up the plant. In this way several discov-
eries came to light that otherwise were not possible to di-

There are several medicinal properties in this plant that
have been discovered and put on the market. One of them
known as "Saw Palmetto Extract." This has been ex-
tracted from the berry, and certainly exists in the main
body of the plant, and tests are now being made to isolate
these several medicinal elements and vitamins.

For some time the fibers of the Cabbage palm have been
made into brushes and their lasting qualities are far ahead
of any other type of brushes, no matter for what purpose
they were used.
So far the only practical method of extracting the fibers
has been heating or cooking the stalks of the young palms
for a long period and then separating the fibers. This dis-
solved the gums and other elements and all was lost except
the fibers. This is very wasteful as all the other chem-
ical elements were wasted and all the corky substance was

It remained for the war emergency situation to inspire
the development, and research into the Scrub variety and
through these developments along the several lines it was
disclosed that there were several basic elements in this
variety not present in the Cabbage palm.
One of these elements is now being used by the Navy
Dept. as gun wads, to the exclusion of all other types of
wads in the large guns.
Recently engineers have done considerable research work
to recover the other commercial elements and a machine
has been designed to separate the several basic elements
in this Saw Palmetto into two lines, one Mechanical and the
other a Chemical line, and the several chemical elements


have been discovered that was surprising. Some of them
accidentally discovered and steps are being taken to com-
mercialize the various ingredients into their several parts
as a valuable by-product, and it has also been discovered
that several vitamins are present that will add to the health
of humanity.
The Aqueous content has been surprisingly prolific in
showing several chemical properties, valuable in other com-
mercial lines.
Tannic acid is one of these elements that is present in
large quantities, and while developing this element we ac-
cidentally discovered a basic dye that will tint anything
from light pink to red. The leather industry has been hunt-
ing the world over for a substitute for tan bark that is fast
playing out.
The dye used in the ordinary manner will not fade and
will not wash out, and the Saw Palmetto has a content of
over 40 c/o dye or tannic acid content.
By our mechanical separation of the basic elements we
can now produce Palmetto Cork. Strong fibers and paper
pulp that will produce fine paper stock.
By our mechanical separation we produce almost white
fibers so that our product can be dyed any color to suit the
individual purchaser or the character of the article pro-
It has been demonstrated that there is about 1,200 pounds
of palmetto fibers and cork in a ton of raw material, and
800 pounds of Aqueous content consisting of tannic acid or
dye material.
With our process we can separate the corky substance
from the fibers and the Aqueous content so that each can
be treated in their proper way to produce the elements that
will be commercialized in the several lines.
By combining the fibers and the cork into a board we are
able to produce a high grade insulating material, that will


enter into a superior type of wall board for building air-
conditioned homes and the entire building can be con-
structed of this material, and be far superior to any other
type of building.
Our Palfiber board can be used for both interior and ex-
terior wall construction and will be superior to any other
type of building, as it will not rot, is non-inflammable and
termites will not attack it, and really will be the ideal ma-
terial for homes, and need not be painted, as the desired
color can be worked into the board.
Our engineers have produced a Plastic Flour that can be
readily made into plastic for various articles and done
much more cheaply than any other plastic, as this will be
a by-product with our system, and we also have the dye
for tinting produced in our own processing method.
The heavy root fibers that run into the ground will be
made into heavy fibers for the manufacture of street sweep-
ers of heavy type of brooms. These fibers are the strong-
est of any of the palm family.
Near the bud end of the stalk there is a light woven fi-
ber naturally woven that will be used for cushion material.
This will not require any processing at all and can be used
for automobile cushions or any other place where cushions
are used.
The dye discovered by our engineers has been tried out
on various fabrics and has demonstrated that it will not
harm the most delicate type and is especially beautiful on
rayons and can produce a beautiful sun tan that will not
fade when exposed to the sun-in fact the sun accentuates
the tinting.

(Palmetto Fiber and Cork)
The demand for permanent building material is greater
now than ever in the history of the world. Lumber is al-
most all used up and that you do get is of an inferior type.


In designing our building board we have paid special at-
tention to the durability of our product and at the same
time the insulating quality is of the highest possible type.
Our material is not a substitute, it is a brand new material
that is superior to anything now on the market, and when
manufactured under our patent-protected process it is really
cheaper than a wooden structure.
Pre-fabricated Homes
Now that pre-fabricated homes are in great demand,
both in this country and foreign countries, our engineers
have designed a universal system. The design is such that
any size house or structure can be built out of stock ma-
terial by the use of special designed uprights it is possible
to make any number or any size rooms without ordering
any special material. Otherwise a two-room or a ten-room
house, either one or two stories, can be built out of the
same material, from the basement to the roof.
Our prefabricated structure will keep out the cold as well
as the heat and is really an air-conditioned structure and
now that we have learned how to cool our homes in the
summer, as well as heat them in winter, our construction
is superior to any other style of home, for the North as
well as the South, or even tropical countries.
A patent has been allowed on a method of making
moulded boats and the success of ship construction of con-
crete we have designed a type of boat that will be seamless
and waterproof and fireproof, and will not rot and need
never be painted. And owing to our method of using cork
and fiber the boat will be comparatively light and durable,
as it will be steel reinforced.
McCrary Engineering Company, Inc.


Engineer Finds New Uses for
Saw Palmetto Roots

For many a long year Floridians have done nothing with
the saw palmetto except cuss it, and grub it out with hoes,
axes and even bulldozers in a process liberally lubricated
with elbow grease and sweat.

Now, like many another of nature's ugly ducklings, the
saw palmetto may prove to be a veritable gold mine to Flor-
ida, and a source for many things, from medicine to build-
ing material and dye.
Pierce R. McCrary, pioneer Lakeland resident and long a
member of the engineering profession, has been experi-
menting with the saw palmetto for several years. Now he
believes he has found enough uses for the plant to warrant
chartering a company and instituting a new industry in
McCrary's interests are largely engineering and he has
been concerned mainly with the problem of how to separate
the various physical materials from the chemical elements
in the plant. Because the roots are so tough, they must
be cut into thin slabs and special grinding machinery must
be used to extract the plant's juices.
Efforts are now being made in Washington and in Tal-
lahassee to further his plans, and the machinery of grant-
ing a charter and organizing and financing a company is
already in motion. Several plants will be built in different
parts of the state, he said, and construction work will be-
gin as soon as the necessary preliminary details have been
Medicinal Properties

The possibilities of saw palmetto are not entirely un-
known. The plant has long been included in lists of those


having medicinal properties. Indeed, there is now on the
market a medicine extracted from saw palmetto berries.
These berries also formerly constituted a staple item of
diet for southern Indian tribes.

The tannic acid content of the saw palmetto roots has
been investigated by the state chemist and reported to be
from 3.33 per cent to 18.27 per cent, depending on the meth-
od used. A six per cent tannin content from any plant is
considered high and McCrary is basing his plans on an
eight per cent content.
The chemist's report showed the tannin content of fresh-
cut roots was considerably higher than in those that had
been weathered and dried for some time. Thus, McCrary
believes the roots will have to be processed while fresh.

Treating Burns

Tannic acid once was used only in preparing leather and
in the manufacture of inks and dyes.' During the present
war, however, it has been used extensively and with a high
degree of success, in treating burns. Many of the casual-
ties in the war have suffered burns, especially those serv-
ing with armored units where a shell explosion is often
followed by fire. Airmen, too, often suffer burns resulting
from combat or from crash landings.

Tannic acid also is used medicinally in preventing sinus
trouble and in treating many types of skin diseases.

Recent information obtained by McCrary through his
attorney, C. M. Trammell, in Washington, indicates the
following prices set by the War Production Board for tan-
nic acid: 71 to 73 cents per pound in barrels or drums; $1.33
per pound in 1,000-pound lots, and for smaller lots $1.35 to
81.38 per pound in barrels. In powder form the acid sells
for $1.13 in 1,000-pound lots, or at $1.15 per pound in
smaller lots.

Extracting the tannic acid is only the beginning, so far


as products to be obtained from saw palmetto are concerned,
McCrary said.
The tough, wiry fiber can be used in the manufacture of
wallboard, and the plant supplies its own natural gums and
resins to hold the material together. The resulting board
is much stronger and vastly more heat resistant than ordi-
nary building materials. It can be used both for outside
and inside construction and can be finished in any color
desired, the engineer said.
The material separated from the fiber has the same qual-
ity as cork, McCrary believes, and can be employed exten-
sively for the same purposes as cork is now used. The re-
fuse left can be ground into flour and used in the manufac-
ture of plastics, he added.
McCrary said the dye that can be obtained from pal-
mettos will give a non-fading suntan color to fabrics. He
also forecast obtaining such materials as varnish, gelatin
and potash from the roots, while the leaves and stems can
be ground up and used as pulp in the manufacture of paper.
Acres of Palmetto
The engineer estimates that there are three and a half
million acres of palmetto in Florida, which will yield about
eight tons of roots per acre. Use of bulldozers to grub out
the roots will make the raw material cost about $6 a ton.
The plant he has designed will be able to process about 10
tons of roots per day.
McCrary is a member of the Society of American Mili-
tary Engineers. He claims to have installed the first re-
frigeration machinery in Lakeland, and was the designer
of a number of machines used in the ice industry. He also
was first postmaster of Lakeland. He resides at 215 South
Florida Avenue and has been conducting his experiments
in an informal laboratory there.



Research Division National Farm Chemurgic Council
February 15, 1945
The soy-bean is being extensively used in the war effort
as an industrial aid and the bean can often be employed as
a substitute for chemicals more urgently needed in war
production efforts. Like casein, a dairy product, soy-bean
protein has a wide variety of industrial uses. Large quan-
tities of synthetic resins and plastics, drying oils and sol-
vents requisite for war manufacture, are saved by the sub-
stitution of soy-beans and casein proteins in industrial

The following chart indicates the various uses of soy-
beans and many others are being developed in research
laboratories at the present time for postwar products.

Uses of the Soy-Bean

Diabetic foods
Sausage Filler

Plants . . . . .

Soling Breakfast Foods
Flour ...........
Celluloid substitute Infant food
Human food... Soy Milk
Stock feed Bean curd
Meal Fertilizer Soy sauce
Glue Bean powder
Vegetable casein
Water paints Automobile parts
Plastic materials Electrical machine
Parts for noveltie



Oil -c

Food products....
Waterproof goods
Rubber substitutes
Soap stock......*
Printing ink
Core binder
Candles (
Lecithin ........ )

Butter substitute
Lard substitute
Edible oils
Salad oils

Hard soaps
Soft soaps
Special detergents

Leather tanning
Candy manufacture

Bean curd. . - -
Canned soy milk
Fresh soy milk
Soy milk powder
Soy casein . . . -



Paper sizing

Synthetic wool

Stock feed
Soy sauce
Vegetable milk
Boiled beans....-
Dried Baked beans
Beans Soups
Coffee substitute

shen ds
Bean sprouts

Green Canned vegetable
Beans Green vegetable



Hodo, a New Sorghum Syrup Described

Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station
State College, Mississippi
March 15, 1945
Hodo, a variety of sorghum which has been grown locally
in Mississippi for a number of years, has shown definite
value in variety tests and is being recommended for sorgo-
sirup production.
The origin of this variety cannot be definitely de-
termined. Apparently, the earliest mention of it in a pub-
lication was by the late W. R. Perkins, formerly director of
the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station. In Vol-
ume 2, Number 4 of Mississippi Farm Research, published
in April, 1939, he reported that a sorgo called Hodo had
been grown by North Mississippi farmers for an unknown
period of time. He considered it at that time a heavy yield-
ing variety that matures late. Seed of this variety have
been distributed among farmers so that it now is grown
and known by the name Hodo throughout the sorgo-grow-
ing area of the State.
Plants of this variety are late, being a slow grower
and influenced considerably by season. Stalks grow
very tall, reaching a height of 15 feet when grown on good
land under favorable growing conditions. The stems are
stout, tapering toward the top. They are juicy and sweet,
producing large yields of sirup of good quality.
The variety of Hodo branches (suckers) seldom to mid-
freely. It is leafy, that is, the broad, long leaves comprise
a high percent of the total weight of the plant, as compared
to other common varieties.

The panicle (seed head) is erect, mid-compact, and ellip-
soid in form. The glumes which almost cover the seed, are


very dark red, appearing almost black on casual inspection
of a field. The seed are light brown in color.

Appreciation is expressed to I. E. Stokes, Associate
Agronomist, Sugar Plants Field Station, Meridian, Missis-
sippi, for assistance in preparation of the description and
making the photographs.-(This material was provided
through the courtesy of the author and the director of the
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, Dr. Clarence
American paper mills manufacture far more than one-
half the world's production; capacity more than 18,000,000
tons; employees about 500,000; per capital consumption in
the United States about 300 pounds; variety of paper prod-
ucts estimated at more than 14,000.-Paper Digest, Na-
tional Research Bureau.

New Coatings and Plastics From
Starch and Sugars

Eastern Regional Research Laboratory
United States Department of Agriculture
Philadelphia. Pa.
March 15, 1945
Most of the starch produced in this country from various
sources (corn, potato, sweet potato, wheat, etc.) or nor-
mally imported is used for food. The most important in-
dustrial uses of starch are for finishing wearing apparel
and household fabrics in laundries, for sizing paper and
textiles, and for making adhesives. Mild treatment of
starch with heat or with heat in the presence of certain
chemicals modifies its composition and properties, and the
resulting dextrins, thin-boiling starches, oxidized starches,
etc., are suitable for food, adhesives, and sizing materials,
and for various other purposes. By more drastic treatment


with heat and acid, starch sirup and crystalline dextrose
can be prepared.
Chemically speaking, starch is an alcohol and is capable
of all reactions characteristic of the alcohol group. By
these chemical reactions, new compounds-starch deriva-
tives-are produced, which have lost most of the proper-
ties of starch and acquired new physical and chemical char-
acteristics. Of the numerous derivatives prepared thus
far, only one-starch nitrate-has found practical use. This
is used as an explosive.

Work carried out at the Eastern Regional Research Lab-
oratory has revealed that the allyl ether of starch (allyl
starch) possesses properties which promise to make it suit-
able for many purposes. Allyl starch is prepared by the
action of allyl chloride (made from a by-product of the pe-
troleum industry) on starch. The process is described in
detail in an article published in "Industrial and Engineer-
ing Chemistry" (February, 1945). As prepared by this
method, ally1 starch is a gummy but not sticky substance.
It dissolves readily in a number of organic solvents, such
as alcohol, acetone, chloroform, benzene, and toluene. When
the solution is applied to the surface of a smooth, porous or
fibrous material, such as wood, metal, and paper, and the
solvent is evaporated, a smooth glossy coating remains.
When the allyl starch coating is heated for a relatively
short time (1 to 4 hours) at 175 to 210 degrees Fahrenheit,
it becomes resistant to all known solvents, hot oils, and
reasonably concentrated acids and alkalies, and withstands
temperatures up to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Alcohol, gaso-
line, and other liquids could be spilled on a table top coated
with allyl starch without leaving spots or in any way in-
juring the surface, and hot dishes would not leave marks.
The process for making ally1 starch resistant to heat and
various reagents can be accelerated by various means; for
example, by addition of paint dryers (cobalt naphthenate,
etc.) or by the use of infrared or ultraviolet radiation.
A solution of allyl starch can be used for impregnating


wood, paper, and textiles, making these materials more
resistant to wear and various reagents. It may also be
used as an intermediate for plastics. The gummy allyl
starch can be modified by mixing it with substances com-
monly used for vulcanizing rubber, such as sulfur and vul-
canization accelerators. Heating such mixtures in a mold
under pressure produces a rigid material which is highly
resistant to heat and chemical reagents. Ally1 starch pos-
sesses good adhesive qualities, and laminated products of
good strength and quality can be prepared from wood ve-
neer, paper or fabrics by coating the sheets with this ma-
terial and subjecting them to heat and pressure.
A number of interesting and potentially useful deriva-
tives of other carbohydrates have been prepared. For ex-
ample, allyl sucrose has been made from ordinary sugar. It
is a heavy liquid which by heating in the presence of oxy-
gen can be made into a clear transparent plastic material.
Coatings of allyl sucrose are hard and glossy, resembling
enamel more than lacquer or varnish. Similar materials
can be prepared from dextrose, mannitol, sorbitol, methyl
glucoside, and many other polyhydroxy compounds. The
preparation and properties of these derivatives are de-
scribed in two articles published in the Journal of the "Amer-
ican Chemical Society" (October, 1944, and January, 1945).
All behave approximately the same as ally1 starch or ally1
sucrose. Coatings of various degrees of hardness, ad-
hesiveness, or penetrating power, and solvent- and heat-
resistant plastics can be made from them. They are easily
miscible with each other, permitting modification of their
The pro-duction of coatings from allyl derivatives of
starch and other carbohydrates represents a potential in-
dustrial outlet for starch and sugar crops.


Research by Sugar Firm Brings Year-Round

Jobs to the Glades

By CHARLES B. FORBES, Miami Daily News Staff Writer
Miami Daily News, March 4, 1945
Smoke pours out of the stacks of the sugar mill at Clewis-
ton. It has been sending its dark streamers into the Ever-
glades sky since November, and it will be April before the
fires are drawn and the last of the 1944-45 cane sugar
crop crushed.
Some 30,000 acres of sugar cane keep the mill operating
from five to six months of the year. Raw sugar in 325-
pound sacks is shipped to Savannah, Ga., for refining,
while 5,000,000 gallons of blackstrap molasses, are re-
More than 6,000 head of feeder steers graze over im-
proved pastures. Three herds of breeding stock have been
established on the company plantations-Shorthorns, Here-
fords and Aberden-Angus.
A thousand acres are planted in lemon grass, and the
oil derived therefrom is making up a wartime shortage.
In conjunction with Newport Industries, Inc., the sugar
company is increasing its ramie plantings to 2,000 acres.

Huge Starch Plant
Adjacent to the sugar mill and occupying six acres of
ground a starch plant costing $7,000,000 is in the final
stages of completion.
Twenty-four years ago Clewiston was a railroad con-
struction camp. Fourteen years ago it was still a dot on
the map. Today it is a beehive of industry-the center of
a vast agricultural empire.
But that development didn't just happen. What we see
today is the result of careful planning. The company which


set out more than 15 years ago to grow sugar cane probably
had no other ideas than to market sugar and molasses.
The company which took over and is now doing the job
has different ideas-ideas which it does not put into execu-
tion until they've been tested and found to satisfy a need
at a price which will make them marketable and at the
same time return a fair profit to the investor.

Research Counts
When the history of the agricultural development of
the Everglades is written, one word is going to stand out
like a red flag on a field of snow. That word is RESEARCH.

Deposits of organic matter down through the ages
made the Glades one of the richest natural agricultural
areas in the world.

The early settlers in Florida knew of the rich soil west
of the sandy coastal lands. They were witness to the rank
growth it produced in record time. Many who attempted
to farm the area in the territorial days thought the sum
total of their labor should be the planting and the harvest-
ing. The growing was left to nature. When nature failed
them, as it sometimes did, "the land was no good," in the
opinion of men who had scratched the soil to plant a crop.

The mineral content of soils is an important factor in
the production of plant life. Research tells the farmer
what minerals are in the soil and what minerals are needed
to balance soil for a particular crop.

Scientific Control
Glades lands are so rich that when fertilizer is men-
tioned in connection with farming in that area the un-
initiated are apt to lift an eyelid. But scientific control of
the land is what's paying off in the Glades as elsewhere.
Believe it or not, there is such a thing as having too rich
a soil.


The U. S. Department of Agriculture and the extension
service in the state, through their experiment stations,
have done a big job with the tools they have had in the way
of making Florida lands more productive.

But the real job of research in agriculture has been done
by private industry-industry which knew what it wanted
and set out to get it.

Probably no private organization has done more for
the Glades than the United States Sugar corporation and
its predecessor, the Southern Sugar company. They set up
a research department back in 1929. It was a one-man
show for six years, but now it is an organization under
the direction of Dr. R. A. Bourne and staffed by a half
dozen technologists and their assistants.
Wider Markets
Under the leadership of Clarence R. Biting, president
of the sugar corporation, research has become a vital fac-
tor in the expanding program of the company. Bitting has
been charged with adopting a "starvation policy" toward
stockholders greedy for larger dividends. But nobody has
accused him of being niggardly in respect to developing
new processes and wider markets for the increasing num-
ber of products which his company will be able to produce
in postwar times.
Biting believes in plowing the profits back into the
business. Every dollar plowed back increases the assets
of the stockholder. Every dollar Bitting sends out on a
research job comes back to the corporate treasury many-
fold. The research chemists and their assistants at Clewis-
ton and in the field are doing a big job for United States
Sugar and Bitting is backing them to a man.
Biting recognizes technology as the motive power which
will turn the wheels of postwar industry and keep them
turning. He is looking ahead, looking ahead to that period
of competition which will follow war orders and when pro-

ducers will have to be on their toes to keep production at
a high level. If Bitting has his way, United States Sugar
will be in the van of the postwar industrial procession.

Expert on Cane
Dr. Bourne has been in charge of research at Clewiston
since 1929. He holds degrees from Syracuse and Cornell
Universities and is a recognized expert on sugar cane.
Now there are a lot of tricks about research laboratories
and the technicians who operate them like to impress the
layman with their scientific skills. But Dr. Bourne is a sort
of matter-of-fact fellow, who is able to talk about scien-
tific subjects in the language of the layman.
There are six primary group studies in which sugar re-
search men have been taking an especial interest. These
are sugar cane, starch crops, essential oils, vegetable fibers,
pasture and forage crops, and cattle feed.
Just passing them over in a hurry, it would seem that
there isn't anything very difficult here.
Let's take sugar cane to start with. They breed their
own cane. That is, they developed new varieties of cane
adapted to the climate and soils of the Glades. These se-
lected canes are resistant to cold, disease and insect pests,
just to mention a few of the enemies of the cane grower.
Types Developed
So the sugar cane experts develop the best variety of
cane and then keep experimenting with it until they have
a variety which will fight most any natural enemy and
pull its weight in the overall manufacturing program.
Starch crops have no relation to sugar cane. But corpo-
ration has a labor problem. The solution of that problem
may be in providing labor with work 12 months in a year.
At least officials are willing to give that thought a whirl
and to gamble big money that they are right.
So they put up $7,000,000 to construct a starch plant.


That plant will process 75,000,000 pound of high grade
starches a year. It will consume the output of 15,000,000
and more acres of land. The sugar company will plant
15,000,000 acres and they'll buy whatever the neighboring
farmers can produce.
Now when we say sweet potatoes we immediately think
of those big, yellow yams filled with sugar. Well, this is
a different kind of sweet potato. This is a big, husky
tuber developed by Dr. Bourne and his associates.
Exclusive Operation
"Our sweet potato program began in 1937," says Doctor
Bourne. "It is a fact that from the standpoint of starch
production we are the only organization in the state in-
terested in that phase of the industry."
The starch factory will operate 10 months in the year.
The potato developed by the research men at Clewiston
can remain in the ground that long without rotting.
The uses for the starch are numerous. It will form the
base of allyl starch, a resinous coating prepared by treating
starch with allyl chloride or bromide. The product is soluble
in most paint and varnish solvents and is readily applicable
to wood, metal, paper, glass, textile and other surfaces.
It has great potential possibilities in the manufacture of
glue. It will be used widely in baking, for the starch is
edible. It will be used as an agent in fermentation in the
production of butylene and alcohol.
Dr. Bourne can go on giving examples of what this starch
is good for commercially until it seems that we will have
starch in everything we eat, wear, ride on or relax on.
Experiments in the production of essential oils began
in 1935. There had been some studies prior to 1917 on
lemon grass production and its oil content.
Heavy Oil Yield
In 1936 Dr. Bourne was ready to test out his plantings
with different combinations of fertilizers. The research


men finally worked out a formula which produced grass
with a yield of 150 pounds of oil to the acre. That com-
pares with 25 to 35 pounds reported in the studies of 30
years ago.
Even with that yield the problem was not licked. The
cost of labor and the lack of a tariff let foreign oils into
the country at about half the cost at which it could be
produced here. To lick that problem the sugar company
devised machines to minimize the labor cost. Today not
a hand touches a blade of grass from the time of the
harvest until the oil is extracted.
Research had still another job to do on lemon grass
before it could be made a paying crop. It found that the
tops of the grass made a good finishing feed for cattle
when combined with molasses and supplemented with a
small quantity of protein concentrate. So that's where
they are today: Producing fresh oil having a minimum
of 75 per cent citral content and also providing Florida
cattlemen with a finishing feed at low cost.
In the field of vegetable fibers the sugar company re-
search men have devoted themselves to developing a variety
of ramie which would best suit the soil conditions and
climate of the Glades. Other fibers may come into the
picture, but right now it's ramie. United States Sugar is
interested in growing the ramie. It has no interest in
processing plants. Research men duck that one, as offering
too many headaches when there were more pressing jobs
to be done.
Ramie Production
So Newport Industries, Inc., of Pensacola, one of the big
wartime plants of the South, is taking the sugar company
ramie output and will convert it in plants to be erected
near Canal Point when the green light is given for new
Pasture, forage crops and cattle feed can be handled


together. The soil experts at Clewiston have earned their
keep. They know what grasses serve the best in the Glades.
Thousands of acres of range are seeded with tame grass.
And on this range the feeders are turned loose.

Finishing steers is one of the tasks to which research
men have devoted their attention. They found that lemon
grass tops and ramie tops when mixed with molasses and
proteins have what it takes to fatten cattle.

They found that the Glades molasses has the edge on any
other molasses in high protein content. Cane grown on
the high-nitrogen soils of the Glades contains approxi-
mately three times as much crude protein, 10 times as
much aides and nearly double the quantity of amino acids
as average cane molasses.

It wasn't enough to have this molasses on hand. There
had to be some way to feed it to cattle. And the simplest
way was adopted. Cattle like molasses as is. So now it
is feed in the field by the simple process of inverting a
steel drum on a metal trough and permitting the cattle to
lick the molasses up as it spreads over the trough surface.

When you talk to Dr. Bourne he'll tell you what the
agronomists are doing and what the research chemists
hope to do and what the expert in this field and in that
think what will happen-but it's all in a matter-of-fact
tone, no boasting; just a part of the day's work.
Some day we may hear more about what's going on in
United States Sugar Corp. research. Some day that big
output of molasses may find its way into alcohol and then
into butylene and the first thing we know we may be rid-
ing on molasses tires.


Tomorrow's Demand for Ceramics
Will Point to Florida

Compiled by Florida Power & Light Company Industrial Development
Department as Part of Its Contribution to the Industrial and
Agricultural Expansion of Post-War Florida
America today is in the midst of a renaissance of crafts-
manship in ceramics. In the last quarter century the art
has advanced to such an extent that the best American
ceramic ware compares with the finest foreign production.
The outlook is for even greater progress in this field.
The quality of any ceramic ware is determined by the
manner of preparation and firing of these materials. The
chief raw material is clay and this material as well as
many other substances needed, is abundant in Florida.
Fine American ceramic ware, conforming to the char-
acter and legend of the countryside in which it was pro-
duced, is finding a ready market. Florida . its exotic
background and its colorful history, plus the further ad-
vantage of its vast tourist population has much to offer
in its ceramic production possibilities.
Today . Florida is on the threshold of a new era in
the pottery field! Florida clays and allied substances
abound in quantities sufficient for production of pottery,
earthenware, china cooking ware, vases and hundreds of
other products.
Ceramic manufacturers can depend on Florida for a wide
variety of essential materials.
Kaolin occurs over a wide area in the lake region as well
as in western Florida.
Bleaching Clay (fuller's earth) was discovered in Gadsden
County in 1893. Five years ago, large outeroppings were
discovered in Holmes, Jackson and Washington counties.
Zirconium and titanium are found in the beach sands.
Common clays, limestone, flint and many other needed
substances are also available.


Pyrethrum Can Be Grown in Florida
Research Division National Farm Chemurgic Council
May 25, 1945
Chrysanthemum (pyrethrum) Cinerariaefolium is the
botanical name for a daisy-like plant, the flower of which
contain pyrethrins, among the most effective insecticides
The use of pyrethrum flowers for insecticidal purposes
probably originated in Persia. Although accounts of the
discovery of the toxicity of pyrethrum to insects differ,
it is fairly certain that pyrethrum was in use in Europe
as an insecticide more than a century ago, and in Persia
considerably earlier. It was first introduced into the United
States about 1860.
Pyrethrum powder and pyrethrum extract in contact
sprays are very effective against certain species of insects.
Pyrethrum powder is a constituent of poultry dust, is also
used for insect control in flour mills, and constitutes an
important agricultural insecticide. It is used for the pro-
tection of such crops as sugar beets (for seed), sweet corn,
beans, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels
sprouts, celery, melons, squash, cantaloupe, cranberries,
grapes, lettuce, mushrooms, and for ornamental shrubs.
Since it has no harmful effect on humans nor on most
domestic animals, pyrethrum extract is particularly use-
ful for sprays designed for household and institutional
protection against flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, bedbugs,
and ants. Other applications are for the control of malaria
by destroying mosquito larvae and as a cattle spray. The
household sprays consist of extract of pyrethrum in mineral
oil, usually a kerosene fraction. Often times the odor is
masked by suitable perfume. Livestock sprays are made
with the heavier mineral oils and various chemicals re-
pellent to flies may be added to these sprays.


One of the newer methods of applying pyrethrum is in
the aerosol form. An aerosol is an extremely fine mist or
fog, where the insecticidal ingredients are broken up into
very small particles and float in the air like smoke in con-
trast to the quick settling of a petroleum-base insect spray.
In an aerosol the insecticidal ingredient dissolved in a
liquefied gas under pressure is propelled from its container
by release of a valve. Highly purified and concentrated
pyrethrum extract is required for the aerosol. The liquefied
gas in present use is dichlorodifluoromethane (known com-
mercially as Freen 12), which is non-poisonous and non-
inflammable. The pyrethrum aerosol is extensively used
for malaria control among Allied troops in combat areas.
Sources of United States and World Supply
Until 1914 nearly all the pyrethrum used in this country
was imported from Dalmatia (Yugoslavia). World War
No. I cut off this source of supply and enabled Japan to
seize the market and control it to a large extent until with-
in the last decade when production was started in Kenya,
British East Africa. Pyrethrum thrives in a warm, dry
climate and, under these conditions, will grow on moun-
tainous or waste land. In Kenya it is grown to best advan-
tage at elevations of 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Flowers can be
gathered throughout the year in this colony, while in both
Dalmatia and Japan there is but one harvest a year. This
gives Kenya a distinct advantage since the fresher the
flowers-the greater the pyrethrum content.
The growing of pyrethrum in Kenya is very little dif-
ferent from the cultivation of any semi-plantation or truck
crop. The crop is started from seedlings, and later by
splitting of large well-established plants. They are usually
spaced about 18 inches apart in order to permit the use
of wheeled cultivators to eliminate weeds which are the
plant's worst enemy. In Kenya, a plant will carry every
stage in the development of the flower head from the
minutest button bud to fully mature heads. Consequently,
it is impossible to harvest the crop by machine and flowers


must ~ ~ ~ 13 be3 picke inivdull in3 th ied aretigi

Kenya~~70 is now. ou ao suc fsupy ltog m


with 1.3 percent pyrethrins, are the best quality. Japanese
and Brazilian flowers have a pyrethrin content of 0.9
percent or less.

Packing and Shipping
According to Kenya practice, the dry flowers are packed
into paper bags holding about 50 pounds. These bags are
shipped to a central point where they are graded and
compressed into bales for shipping. A careful sample is
made of all flowers for export. In order to be designated
as first grade, they must be of good color, contain not more
than 33 percent of immature flowers or 10 percent of dis-
colored flowers, and be free from foreign matter. The
growing, curing and exporting of pyrethrum in British
East Africa is under strict supervision of the Kenya
Farmers' Association and every grower has to be registered
with the Association.

After being graded the flowers are well mixed and
transferred to the loading trough which leads to the hop-
per of a hydraulic bailing press, the cage of which is lined
with burlap. Four hundredweight (448 pounds) are run
in and the bale compressed to the standard dimensions
of 22 x 20.5 x 37 inches. After the bales are branded,
they receive another burlap covering and are ready for
shipment. It requires 60 cubic feet to stow a one long ton of
pyrethrum flowers baled for shipment.
In the United States the flowers and the powder are
transported in barrels. The extract is shipped in steel
drums. The standard size drum is 55 gallons, but some
shipments are made in 30-gallon drums, and in 5-gallon
tin cans.

Since pyrethrum is not grown commercially in this
country, our entire supply depends on imports from
various areas.

Table 2-United States Imports of Pyreth


Pouses Laws: Pove


Italy . . . . . . . 421, 658 $ 41, 865 446

Japan.......... ...... 11,061,949 1,206,692 9,066

Russia......... ... 14,164 625 84

United Kingdom. .

Yugoslavia. . . . . . . 612,965 59,910 838

Total.......... ...... 12,110,736 $1,309,092 10,434

SOURCE: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United Stat

Table 2-United States Imports of Pyrethrum (


COUNTRY --- ----



Br. East Africa............ ..... 66,573 $ 9,535 1,613

China............. .... 2,240 336


Italy............. ..... 66,056 5,388 61

Japan............. ........ 15,203,854 2,000,736 9,934

Russia............ .... 4,620 232

United Kingdom............ .... 80.695 10,886 28

Yugoslavia. . . . . . . . . 154,020 14, 880 118

Total............ ......... 15,578,058 $2,041,993 11,756

SOURCE: Foreign Commerce

and Navigation of the United Stat

Table 2--United States Imports of Pyrethrum

1940 14

SOURCE: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States.










$ 625




$ 65,874


Belgian Congo. .. .. .. .
Br. East Africa.........

Italy.......... ......
United Kingdom. . . .

Yugoslavia. . . . . . .



$ 34,411


Belgian Congo. . . . .
Br. East Africa.........

Perm........... .....
United Kingdom. . . .









$ 5,384


$ 1,842,346


Table 3--United States Imports of Pyrethru:








1937. . . . . .


1939. . . . .














$ 354


.. .. .

. . . .




$ 13,050

1941.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ 130

SOURCE: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United Stats


Prewar consumption of pyrethrum for agricultural pur-
poses and in household sprays was from 10,000,000 to
12,000,000 pounds annually. At present, practically all
supplies are diverted to military purposes, principally as
a constituent of the aerosol used for malaria control in
combat areas.


Current market prices on pyrethrum are quoted in the
Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, Schnell Publishing Company,
59 John Street, New York 7, New York.

Effective July 5, 1944, the Office of Price Administra-
tion revised Maximum Price Regulation No. 298 to in-
clude pyrethum, which had formerly been covered by pro-
visions of the General Maximum Price Regulation.

Restrictions on Supply and Demand

Tariff-Pyrethrum flowers, crude, are duty free. Flowers
"advanced in value or condition" are dutiable at 10 per-
cent ad valorem. Practically all imports are in the duty-
free category.

Bad droughts in British East Africa, and lack of labor
have curtailed production in that country in recent years.
Production in South America is increasing, but is not suf-
ficiently established to counteract lessened production in
British East Africa.


A separate classification for pyrethrum extract was
established January 1, 1941; for pyrethrum flowers and
for pyrethrum flower powders on July 1, 1941. Statistics
for those periods are given below.

Table 4-Exports of Pyrethrum Flowers, Flower

January 1-December 31
Pyrethrum extract

Pounds Value

Argentina................................... 11,917 $ 10,916
Bermuda............. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 402 52
Brazil..... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. 8,674 14,501
British Guiana............................... 50 20
British Honduras. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 114
British India................................. 29,082 21,943
Canada..................................... 103,683 60,101
Chile....................................... 2,676 5,307
Colombia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 825 11, 615
Cuba....................................... 20,214 10,489
Dominican Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 27
Ecuador..................................... 4,170 580
Egypt... 31,407 108,053
French West Indies... 333 255
Greece...................................... 803 2,756
Guatemala.................................. 69 38
Honduras................................... 4,115 550
HongKong..................................i 200 ( 61
Jamaica....... .............................. 662 I 443

Table 4-Exports of Pyrethrum Flowers, Flower Powc

January 1-December 31
Pyrethrum extract

Pounds Value

Mexico...................................... 28,644 $ 26,367
Netherlands Indies..
Netherlands West Indies. . . . . . . . . . . 137 148
New Zealand................................ 20 69
Newfoundland and Labrador. . . . . . . . . 1,075 289
Nicaragua................................... 73 73
Other British West Indies. . . . . . . . . . . 16 19
Panama Canal Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 213
Panama, Republic of . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 162
Peru........................................ 446 1,288
Philippine Islands. .
Portugal.................................... 585 282
Salvador.................................... 32 38
Sweden..................................... 4,164 4,329
Trinidad and Tobago. . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 184
Union of South Africa..... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 30,028 23,610
Uruguay.................................... 6,042 6,044
Venezuela................................... 12,715 8,272

Total........... ........ 321,739 $319,208

SOURCE: Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United Stats


There is no proven full substitute for pyrethrum, but
activators or extenders may be used to lengthen the supply.
As a larvicide for mosquitoes, paris green or oils may be
used, although there is a preference for pyrethrum since
it is safe and clean. Methyl bromide can be used as a
fumigant in delousing clothing and equipment, and the
new insecticide, dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT),
is most effective for this purpose. Nicotine sulfate or
sodium fluoride may be substituted for pyrethrum in com-
batting poultry lice. Various organic synthetics (the
thiocyanates) available commercially, can be used in fly
sprays, in cattle sprays, and for insect control in flour
mills. For household protection against cockroaches, etc.,
sodium fluoride or boras are satisfactory substitutes.
Boric acid is slower in action than pyrethrum but is also
effective in this application.
For use on specific agricultural crops, the following may
be substituted:

Beans (potato leaf hopper).
Beet seed crops-sugar (beet
leaf hopper and plant
Cabbage (caterpillars) *

Celery (leafier).
Cole crops (cauliflower, broc-
coli, brussels sprouts, kohl-
rabi, mustard, turnips, col-
lards, kale).
Curcubits (cucumbers,
squash, pumpkin, water-
melons, cantaloupes, and
other musk-melons).

Bordeaux mixture or sulfur.

No effective substitute.
Rotenone, cryolite, paris
green, calcium arsenate-
if used before heads form.
No effective substitute.

Rotenone for melon worm
and pickleworm; cryolite
before fruits form for
melon worm and pickle-
worm; nicotine for squash


Rotenone, oil emulsions,
fumigation, organic
Rotenone, fumigation.

Rotenone cryolite, paris
green, calcium arsenate.
Fumigation with hydro-
cyanic-acid gas (less
Dichloroethyl ether.

Nicotine, oil emulsions, or-
ganic thiocyanates. Soap
sprays for Japanese beetle.

Barium fluosilicate.

No effective substitute.

Nicotine sulfate.

Greenhouse flowers (miscel-
laneous insects).

Green vegetables (red spid-
ers, thrips, aphids, and
striped cucumber beetle).
Lettuce looperss).

Mushrooms (mushroom

Seed and market garden
sweet corn (ear worm).
Shrubs, vines, and flowers.

Tobacco (flea beetles and
thrips) .
Tobacco (tobacco moth in
open warehouses).
Tree fruits (aphids and leaf

Trade Associations

Agricultural Insecticide and Fungicide Association (man-
ufacturers), 285 Madison Avenue, New York, New York.
National Association of Insecticide and Disinfectant
Manufacturers, 110 East 42nd Street, New York, New York.

Processors and Dealers
The following commercial directories on file in the Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce carry listings of the
principal pyrethrum importers, processors, and manu-
facturers of finished pyrethrum products.
Chemical Buyers' Guide Boolc. Annual. Buyers' guide-
book number of "Chemical Industries." Tradepress Pub-


fishing Corporation, 522 Fifth Avenue, New York 18,
New York.

Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter Green Book. Annual.
Schnell Publishing Company, Inc., 59 John Street, New
York 7, New York. $5.00 a year's subscription to "Oil,
Paint and Drug Reporter."

Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers. Annual.
$15.00. Thomas Publishing Company, 461 Eighth Avenue,
New York 1, New York.

Economic References

Military Needs Stimulate Development of Insecticidal
Aerosols. By Lyle D. Goodhue. "Chemical Industries,"
May, 1944. Tradepress Publishing Corporation, 522 Fifth
Avenue, New York 18, New York.

Pyrethrum. "Soap and Sanitary Chemicals," April, 1944.
MacNair Dorland Company, Inc., 254 West 31st Street,
New York 1, New York.

Activated Pyrethrum Mosquito Sprays. "Soap and Sani-
tary Chemicals," February, 1944.

Pyrethrum and Rotenone Situation. By Harold Noble.
"Pests," August, 1943. National Pest Control Association,
3019 Ft. Hamilton Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Insecticides for the Army. "Soap and Sanitary Chem-
icals," November, 1942.

Kenya-And the Story of Its New Established Pyre-
thrum Industry. "Soap and Sanitary Chemicals," March,

Harvesting Pyrethrum. Circular No. 581. January, 1941.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 29 pp. 5c. Available from
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 25.

Pyrethrum-A Long-Range View of Production and


Markets in Japan. By Herbert Leopold. "Soap and Sani-
tary Chemicals," September, 1938.
Pyrethrum-Its Culture and Possibilities as a Crop in
the United States. By A. F. Sievers, 1940. Available upon
request from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agri-
cultural Engineering, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington. 25, D. C.

Pyrethrum Flowers-Kenya, a Better Source. "In-
dustrial and Engineering Chemistry," July, 1938. American
Chemical Society, 1155 16th Street, N. W., Washington 6,
D. C.
Points for Pyrethrum Buyers Learned by Pyrethrum
Growers. By R. W. Culbertson. "Soap and Sanitary
Chemicals," October, 1935.
Directions for Grozoing Pyrethrum. By A. F. Slivers,
1934. Available on request from the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.

Pyrethrum. A comprehensive monograph on pyrethrum
flowers. By Charles B. Gnadinger, 1944. 269 pp. McLaugh-
lin-Gormley-King Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Pyrethrum Investigations in Colorado. By Gnadinger,
Evans and Corl. Colorado Agricultural College, Bulletin
No. 401. 1933. Colorado Experiment Station, Fort Col-
lins, Colorado.
Source: Pyrethrum. By L. N. Markwood and Laura G.
Arrington, Chemical Unit, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce, United States Department of Commerce, Wash-
ington, D. C.


Victory Over Insects, Blight Is Promised

By WII.I.IAM H. BISCHOFF, Miami Daily News Staff Writer
Miami Daily News, May 6, 1945
Scientists of the University of Florida's Belle Glade ex-
periment station pulled aside the veil of the future the
other day and gave growers a peek at the possibilities of
agriculture under the controlling hand of science.
Those who came, some even from Cuba, Texas and South
Dakota, in response to an invitation from Dr. R. V. Allison,
vice director in charge of the Everglades station, saw
promise of victory over insect and blight. They also saw
proof that nature's habits can be changed for the benefit
of man.

Of most promise in the war on insect and disease was
DDT, the wonder insecticide now being used exclusively
by the armed forces.
Million-Dollar Gift
When Dr. George R. Ruehle and his fellow scientists at
the Homestead experimental station developed the fungi-
cide known as dithane, they made a contribution to the
South Florida potato growing industry worth more than
$1,000,000 the past winter season alone. But when Dr. G. R.
Townsend and Norman Hayslip introduced DDT into the
war on late blight in potatoes at the Everglades station,
results in experimental plot were even more remarkable.
The DDT fungicide has yet to be proved under commer-
cial conditions. But plots of potatoes treated with it at the
Everglades station showed almost complete resistance to
blight. Next in blight resistance was dithane to which
zinc and lime had been added.
Only fungicide besides the dithane-zine-lime which com-
pared in results to the DDT compound was one similar to
it, but without the DDT added. Used with DDT added,
zine dimethyl dithio carbamate almost completely warded


off blight and insect damage. Used without DDT those
ingredients were more successful than any of the old
Bordeaux-sulphur, and copper-based sprays. But the re-
sults with the DDT mixture were far outstanding.

Stymied by an infinitesimal insect which does damage
far out of proportion to its size, the Belle Glade experi-
menters have so far been unable to use DDT successfully
on celery. The tiny but destructive insect is the aphis. DDT,
the scientists explained, kills the lady bug which eat the
aphis. But the effect of DDT on aphis is as yet question-

Science Impatient

But dithane was a high scorer in protecting celery from
insect and disease depredations. Dithane by itself was
among the best of 14 different treatments tried on celery.
When dithane was mixed with zinc and lime, the best stand
of celery was obtained.

Once the business of planting potatoes consisted of put-
ting the seed potatoes in the ground and awaiting nature's
good time for the plant to grow therefrom. But science
was unwilling to wait while potatoes "slept" through a
normal period of dormancy. Agricultural scientists set out
to find means of breaking this dormancy and urging the
potatoes on to early growth.
Results of dormancy breaking were demonstrated by
Dr. Townsend in experiment station potato plots. When
seed potatoes were soaked in ethylene chlorohydrin the
plants were five-fold ahead of untreated seed at the end
of 30 days. Potato plants whose seed had been treated
with a preparation called Ohio dust showed three times
the growth in 30 days as plants of untreated seed.
Yields of potato seed whose natural "sleep" had been
interrupted, moreover, were greater than those allowed to
germinate naturally.


Coupled with their day to day and year to year fight
against pests which take heavy annual toll of Florida's
big money vegetable crops and their search for new culti-
vation and treatment to speed growth and increase yield,
is the search of the Everglades scientists for better va-
rieties. Currently more than 50 potato varieties are being
tested at the Belle Glade station. Of the varieties new to
Florida the scientists have found most promising Sebagos,
Chippewas and Pontiacs for quality and resistance to disease.
Sequoia potatoes which showed promise in experiments
were a disappointment to potato growers of the Belle Glade
area who tried them out this year in commercial plantings.
The commercial growers pronounced Chippewas the most
promising new variety.

The Tanning Industry in Florida

Compiled by Florida Power & Light Company Industrial Development
Department as Part of Its Contribution to the Industrial and
Agricultural Expansion of Post-War Florida

To have a clear understanding of the possibilities of a
Tanning Industry for Florida, it would seem advisable,
first, to get a true, up-to-date picture of the Florida Cattle
As a matter of interest, Florida was the birthplace of
the cattle industry of America.
During recent years, much attention has been given to
the beef cattle industry of Florida. Cattlemen have demon-
strated that a higher grade of animals can be raised than
had been produced in years past. It has been found that
improved pastures can be developed thereby making more
feed for cattle than obtained from native pastures only.
With improved conditions, cattlemen have found it possi-
ble to improve the blood within their herds by introducing


purebred bulls of well recognized beef breeds. With bet-
ter grazing and feeding conditions and by using bulls of
pure breeding the grade offspring is of higher quality
and has brought more on the markets than the scrub cat-
t1e of a decade ago. Hence, it can be seen that it is only
recently that the cattlemen and farmers of Florida have
given constructive thought to cattle raising, and have put
into practice measures that have improved the beef cattle
produced within this state.

In 1923, the Federal Government, in cooperation with the
State Livestock Sanitary Board, began a definite program
to eradicate the Texas fever tick from Florida. The eradica-
tion of this destructive parasite was a slow but certain pro-
cess, and was carried out without interruption until the
Indian Reservation in Collier county was reached in 1939.
At that point, the eradication program was held up for ap-
proximately five years, due to the fact that another strain of
the Texas fever tick was found. That strain preferred to
infect deer, yet would attack cattle and spread the infestation
and disease throughout the herds of cattle in the area.
Finally, in September, 1944, the entire state of Florida was
declared free of Texas fever ticks.

The beef cattle business has undergone rapid develop-
ment in Florida during the past decade, as a result of the
eradication of the Texas fever tick and recent discoveries
in animal nutrition.

Florida is the only state in the Southeast that is classed
as a "range cattle state". The term "range cattle" is mis-
leading, since it implies that the cattle are grazed on open
range, when this is not the case. It is estimated that over
80% of the cattle in Florida are behind fences. The term
is applied to cattle that are grazed in large herds and on
large fenced pastures. Cattle are kept on many pastures
of 25,000 to 80,000 acres and even larger, that are fenced,
and on these large pastures the cattle are referred to as
"range cattle".

It is exceedingly difficult to get a fair estimate regard-
ing the actual number of beef cattle within this state:
however, information from the U. S. Department of Agri
culture states that there are more than one million head
of beef cattle in Florida. There has been a steady increase
in number of cattle on ranges during the past ten years.
As improved pastures are developed, this increase will
likely continue.

Well cared for cattle, free from tick fever and open range
hide blemishes produce the best quality hides. Nearly all
persons in the trade agree that for some years, Florida
hides have had a bad reputation, principally because of
parasitic defects. However, as stated, within the last few
years, up-breeding of Florida cattle and elimination of
the tick pest have, to a large extent, removed the actual
basis for this disfavor, though there is no doubt that it
still exists in the minds of some hide buyers. At the present
time, with Florida hides being mixed by brokers with
hides from other areas, such disfavor is not being felt

Hide Supply

There is a wide discrepancy between figures issued by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture and those issued by
other agencies, both with regard to cattle numbers in the
state and with regard to slaughter. Official figures for
the U. S. Department of Agriculture indicate total slaughter
and shipment of approximately 175,000 head of cattle;
estimates by Florida sources indicate 300,000. This amount
of hides is more than sufficient to support two minimum
sized tanneries.

As a source of hides, there are four packing plants, with
Federal inspection, in Florida. In addition, there are thirteen
other independent packing plants that slaughter cattle.
Most of these plants began operations within the past


On the basis of information given, it appears that tan-
neries are commercially possible in Florida. Provable cat-
tle slaughter in the state is in excess of 175,000 head per
year and, in addition, a tannery located in the state should
be able to draw on hides produced in packing plants in
Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina.
Expert opinion has it that a minimum tannery operation
must process 200 to 300 hides daily, although there is a de-
cided trend toward larger plants. On the basis of this
opinion, it would appear that this state could support two
minimum operations-one in the Southern and one in the
Northern part of the state, for maximum benefits to be
derived from transportation savings.
Present Industry
Information taken from Manufacturers, 1939 State
Series, Bureau of the Census, United States Department of
Commerce, shows Florida as having three small tanneries
located in Escambia, Levy and Dade counties.

Leather Manufacturers in Florida
Number of Wage Cost of Value of
Establishments Earners Wages Materials Product
3 21 $10,477. $38,134. 874,877.

Quality of Hides
With reference to quality, it is the opinion of tanning
experts that present-day Florida hides, if properly handled
and tanned, will compare favorably with leather made any-
where in the United States. All grades of hides are avail-
able, from the poorest to the best. Also, in various weights
up to the heavies.
Florida offers very excellent possibilities for successful
operation of a tanning industry:

1. The availability of hides.

2. The great saving in fuel, due to fine, sub-tropical
3. The availability of certain tanning materials.
4. The saving in transportation of finished leather over
hides. Hides go to Boston, New York and Chicago to
be tanned, and then finished leather is shipped back
to St. Louis, Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio, and other
midwestern cities.
5. It is practically an assured fact that if a tannery is
located in Florida shoe factories and other leather
manufacturing industries would follow. The retail
shoe market in the southern states is extremely large.
Furthermore, a good potential market for both fin-
ished leather and shoes exists in Cuba. Cuba im-
ports rather large quantities of both upper leather,
cut soles and sole leather; also shoes, from the states.
The State of Florida also produces large quantities
of shark skins and reptile skins which, when tanned,
are extensively used in women's fancy shoes.
In the final analysis, Florida has many advantages over
the North for leather tanning:
-An excellent supply of hides;
-Ideal locations for tanning;
-Availability of good water;
-Availability of labor;
-Close proximity to the mid-western shoe manufac-
turers, the Central and South American Markets, and
-The finest leather-making climate to be found any-

The post-war outlook for this industry is extremely
favorable. Due to the tremendous consumption of leather
for Government use, there is a limited quantity available
for civilian use. Furthermore, with shoe rationing in ef-


feet for the past two years, the civilian supply of shoes is
at the lowest point in the history of our country. Added
to that is the fact that there is no leather being produced
today, to any great extent, in the rest of the world. There-
fore, it will be up to the United States to furnish the world
with the various types of leather and leather goods for a
considerable time after the war.
Vegetable Tanning Materials and Extracts
(A Possible Florida Industry)
There exists today a definite shortage in this country of
tanning materials. These materials consist principally of
(1) chrome compounds, and (2) vegetable extracts contain-
ing tannins-the most important commercially being que-
brache, chestnut, mangrove, gambler, wattle, sumac, etc.,
all of which with the exception of chestnut are imported.
Possibilities for the development of such an industry
in Florida center on several natural materials-mangrove,
native palmetto and scrub oak.
Mangrove: It is reported by the Leather Division of the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce that some 35
years ago, a considerable industry was engaged in Florida
in producing mangrove extract from the extensive growths
along the lower Gulf Coast and the Everglades-the in-
dustry finally declining because of competition for labor
by the railroads.
It is reported, by a Palm Beach resident, that during
World War 1, Northern interests purchased considerable
tracts of mangrove in the Everglades region and prepared
to set up an extraction industry there when the end of the
war once more brought imported materials back into the
Every effort should be made to obtain the erection of ex-
tracting plants in the state. Obviously, the farther the pro-
cessing is carried in the state, the greater the benefits to
the state and potential tanneries.
Palmetto: That both the Florida scrub palmetto and cab-


bage palmetto have possibilities for the production of tannin
has long been recognized. It is reported that some thirty or
forty years ago, a small operation on Meritt Island was
engaged in preparing palmetto extract, largely for ship-
ment abroad. Recent research at the University of Florida
produced a satisfactory piece of leather by using an extract
from scrub palmetto in combination with other extracts.
Cabbage palmettos are being used. This extract is ob-
tained by clarifying and concentrating the waste-liquor
derived from boiling cabbage palmetto hearts in the pro-
duction of fiber for brushes. Several such brush plants are
located in this state.
Scrub Oak: Work in progress at the University of Florida
indicates that a tannin extract industry in the state is
possible. The scrub oak contains appreciable amounts of
tannin of a grade capable of tanning leather. Since the chest-
nut blight in Virginia and the Carolinas there has been no
good source of domestic tannin available. It is estimated
that within the next few years, all of the chestnut will have
been used up, and then the United States will be almost
entirely dependent on foreign sources of tannin. There is
reason to believe that the scrub oak in Florida may pro-
vide an answer to that problem and is well worth investi-
gating, from a financial standpoint.
"First Progress Reports, Vegetable Tanning Materials
and Extracts"-Tannery study by Florida State Chamber
of Commerce.
E. E. Nairne, Chemical Engineer, P. O. Box 2267, Holly-
wood, Florida.
Economic Leaflet, "The Beef Cattle Industry of Florida",
by Arthur L. Shealy, University of Florida.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census
of Manufacturers for United States, 1939.
R. A. Morgen, Assistant Director, Engineering Experi-
ment Station, University of Florida.

Census of Manufacturers--1939


Number Earners
Industry of Salaried (Average Salaries
Establish- Personnel for the
ments Year)

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock,
Findings. . .. ........ 520 1,955 18,845 $ 4.546.390 $
Clothing, Leather and
Sheep-Lined. . . . . 97 443 4,672 971,712
Dress and Semi-Dress
Gloves and Mittens ... 49 207 3,396 373,941

Footwear (except Rubber) 1,070 14,082 218,028 29,416,005 If
Industrial Leather
Belting and Packing... 190 489 2,337 1,342,410
Leather Goods Not
Elsewhere Classified. . 160 231 2,462 617,849
Saddlery, Harness and
Whips............... 156 366 2,755 706,058
Small Leather Goods..... 118 370 3,615 938.708
Suitcases, Bags and Other
Luggage.............. 329 908 8,326 2.380,936
Women's Pockethooks and
Handbags. . . . . . 286 985 14,048 2,558,125


The Recovery of Flavoring Oil from Persian

Limes-Preliminary Experiments'

Research Fellows, Florida Citrus Commission

Chemist in Charge, Citrus Products Station3
Winter Haven, Florida
The Fruit Products Journal and American Food Manufacturer, New York 3, N. Y.,
June, 1944 issue, Vot 23, No. 10, pp. 306-8.
In processing limes (citrus Aurantifolia) the recovery of
oil is an important consideration. Lime oil, extensively used
by manufacturers of confections and flavoring extracts,
has demanded higher prices than other volatile oils pro-
duced from citrus fruits in the United States.
The Persian lime, about twice the size of the West Indian
or Key variety, is being produced in increasing quantities
in South Florida. A portion of each crop is unsuitable for
shipment to fresh fruit markets because of size and grade
restrictions. Juice recovery from the cull fruit is being
undertaken and interest has arisen in the quantity of oil
that might be recovered by various methods. Guenther"
has reviewed the manufacture of lime oil and reported the
low yield of 0.06 per cent of cold-pressed and 0.15 per cent
of distilled oil from Persian limes.
Since cold-pressed lime oil is superior in flavor and stabil-
ity to distilled, it seemed desirable to learn what method
of recovery would yield a maximum of oil without distilla-
tion. The object, therefore, in the following limited tests
was to compare the efficiency of various methods of secur-
ing oil emulsions and the adaptability of these emulsions
to yielding cold-pressed oil on centrifuging.
1 Agricultural Chemical Research Division Contribution No. 137.
Present address-Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative, Lake Wales,
8 Operated by the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry
Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agri-

Table 1-Oil Content and Weight of Whole Fruil
(Oil analysis was by steam distillai


Test Fl
Point of Sampling
Weight Oil Content
lb. lb.

1. Whole Fruit*......... ..... 100 0.323

2. Renamed Juice.......... .... 45.4 0.012

3. Renamed Halves............ .... 53.3 0.282

4.PressingResidue.......... .... 35.6 0.033

5. Screening Residue........... .... 2.3 0.021

6. EmulsionbeforeCentrifuging.............. 18.3 0.159

7. CentrifugedEmulsion........... .... 14.5 0.004

8. SludgestromCentrifuging............ .... 0.4 0.020

9. Cold-pressed Oil from Centrifuge. . . . .. 0.11 0.110

*Unwaxed fruit from second shipment of limes.


The tests were made on cull fruit packed in bushel baskets,
forwarded by express from Homestead to Winter Haven,
Florida, and held in 40, F. storage until sorted and processed.
The first shipment of fruit had been previously waxed; the
second had not been subjected to this treatment.

In all tests a Sharples Model M-41-23-8 CM laboratory
Super Centrifuge, having an inside bowl diameter of 18/4
inches and a No. 10 dam ring (diameter 15/16 inch), was
used. The rate of flow through the centrifuge was about
500 ml. per minute.

Two types of presses were used for extracting the oil.
One was a commercial-type screw press consisting of a
tapered, stainless steel screw, which turned in a heavy
cast-brass case having 1/a-inch perforations underneath for
discharge of the emulsion; the other was a corrugated-roll
Pipkin press.
Emulsions of lime-peel were prepared from dreamed and
undreamed fruit by passing through the screw press or
through the Pipkin press. The resulting emulsions were
then screened and centrifuge. The oil contents of the
emulsions and those of the residues from processing were
determined by a steam distillation method' in which the
condensed oil was received in a separatory trap graduated
in milliliters and 0.05-ml. fractions. Distillation was con-
tinued until the quantity of oil separated within one hour
was less than 0.05 ml. In six tests, emulsions prepared
with the screw press contained appreciably more oil by
analysis than did those prepared with the corrugated-roll
Pipkin press. Emulsions of dreamed fruit consistently con-
tained more oil than did emulsions of undreamed fruit.
However, no cold-pressed oil was recovered by the cen-
trifuge from the emulsions prepared from the first ship-
ment of limes, which had been waxed.

Reamed Juice (2)

Pressing Residue (4)


Fruit halved; then dreamed by
pressing against a rotating burr


Reamed halves passed through
tapered-screw press (300 r.p.m.)
(Water added while grinding)


Passed through reel-type
screen (25 mesh)


- ICentrifuged Emulsion

SSludges (8)



Screening- Residue (5)



Table 2
Properties of a Sample of Cold-Pressed Persian Lime Oil
Specific Gravity at 20/20" C. 0.844
Optical Rotation at 20' C. + 40' 34'
Refractive Index at 20" C. 1.4865
Aldehyde Content (Calculated
as citral) 8%
Total solids 11.6%
Solubility at 20, C. Clearly soluble in95% alcohol;
not clearly soluble in 10
volumes 90%.
Optical Rotation of
the 10% Distillate at 20" C. + 50" 54'
Refractive Index of
the 10% Distillate at 20* C. 1.6834
Odor and Flavor Characteristic, full and rich

In two additional tests, Fx and F2, renamed halves of
unwaxed fruit were passed through the tapered-screw press
and the resulting emulsions were processed as indicated
in Chart 1. The distribution of oil in the whole fruit and in
the products of successive steps in processing was deter-
mined by steam distillation of samples taken at 9 points.
The results, given in Table 1, indicate that not all of the
oil present in the whole fruit was accounted for in the pro-
cessed subdivisions. Two possible causes are the volatile
nature of the oil and the difficulty of obtaining representa-
tive samples of the whole fruit and of the various subdi-
visions. Upon averaging the results of the two tests, it
appears that about 32 per cent of the oil present in the
whole fruit, or about 60 per cent of that present in the
screened emulsion, was recovered as cold-pressed oil. The
average recovery was 0.10 per cent on the weight of fruit.


The properties of the cold-pressed oil recovered in Tests
Fx and F2 Were determined by A.O.A.C. methods" and are
presented in Table 2. The specific gravity, optical rotation,
and other physical constants of the oil were found to agree
very closely with a sample of cold-pressed Florida (Persian)
lime oil analyzed by Guenther".
Preliminary tests were made on the quantity of oil present
in and obtainable from cull Persian limes, including a com-
parison of extraction equipment and treatments in recover-
ing the cold-pressed lime oil.
By use of a tapered-screw press around one-third of the
oil present in the whole fruit was recovered as cold-pressed
lime oil in a Laboratory Model Sharples Super Centrifuge.

The properties of cold-pressed oil extracted during the
tests were determined.
The authors acknowledge the assistance of G. N. Pulley,
U. S. Citrus Products Station, in conducting these tests.
1 Anonymous. Volatile Oil in Spices. Journal of the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists. Vol. XVII, No. 1, p. 70-72. (1934).
2 Guenther, Ernest. The Production of Oil of Limes. American
Perfumer and Essential Oil Review. Nov. and Dec., 1942. Jan., Feb.,
March, and April, 1943. (18 p.).
8 Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis of the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists, 5th Ed. 757 p. Association of Official
Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C. (1940).
4 Pipkin, Wilbur. Method and Machine for Extracting Oil from
the Peels of Citrus Fruit. U. S. Patent No. 2,004,056. (June 4, 1935).


A Second Year of Citrus Research

On By-products and Problems of the Citrus Canning and
Concentrating Industry in Floridat

The Fruit Products Journal and American Food Manufacturer
November 1944 issue, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 71-3
June 1944 marks the end of the second year of co-opera-
tive research on citrus by-products by the Florida Citrus
Commission and the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial
Chemistry, Agricultural Research Administration at the
U. S. Citrus Products Station, Winter Haven, Florida. Three
Florida Citrus Commission research fellows, in cooperation
with Federal chemists, have dealt with research on citrus
by-products and the problems of the canning and concentrat-
ing industries.
Wartime emergencies have increased the demand for im-
mediate and reliable information on such problems as the
suitability of glass containers as a substitute for tin con-
tainers in packing citrus juices, the storage life of these
canned goods, and the prevention of losses from spoilage
of canned citrus products. Special projects planned to meet
these needs, along with the ever-important work on utiliza-
tion of citrus by-products, have made up the research pro-
Concentrates and Powdered Juices
Before the war Florida was producing 3 per cent of the
U. S. total of concentrated citrus juices; in 1943 its four
commercial plants turned out over 35 per cent of the total
purchased by the Government for Lend-Lease shipment
to our Allies.* Such concentrated products will likely have
even greater popularity after the war when increased
quantities may be made available to hospitals, institutions,
1 Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry Outside Publica-
tion No. 4369.
*Figures taken from Western Canner and Packer, Vol. 35, No. 13, p. 25.


hotels, and restaurants throughout the country; and citrus
concentrates from Florida will probably help in post-war
feeding problems in Europe.

With a view to improvement of the flavor and keeping
qualities of orange juice concentrate, three Florida pack-
ers during the past season have furnished samples of con-
centrate for bacteriological, color and flavor examinations,
and chemical analyses. Tests are being made regularly
on the concentrates kept at various storage temperatures.

Work is in progress on comparisons of orange juice
concentrates made at the temperatures and pressures used
in commercial plants, with those made at lower temperatures
and pressures. Some of the latter concentrates have been
diluted with various amounts of fresh orange juice before
canning, and a public service patent is being applied for in
order to protect this process for public use. Some of these
products have been quick-frozen for 8, F. storage, and
some are being held in cold storage at 40. F. The recon-
stituted juices are being compared at intervals for color,
flavor, and vitamin C content.

A double-drum dryer with facilities for producing a
high vacuum has been installed for the purpose of study-
ing its suitability for drying citrus juices, and several
promising dry products have been made from orange
juice by the addition of stabilizing materials. Experi-
ments are being continued with the aim of producing a
good quality, pure dry orange powder at a moderate cost.
It is also planned to attempt the preparation of other
powdered citrus juices by this method.

Glass and Tin-Packed Products

Investigations were made of the changes occurring in
unsweetened orange juice and grapefruit juice during com-
mercial processing and subsequent storage for 6 months
of products packed in glass and tin containers. Processing
studies made at the canning plant indicated high vitamin

C retention in the juices (98-99 per cent). Samples were
stored at room temperature (average 80* F.) and in cold
storage (40" F.). It was found that bottled juices lost
slightly more vitamin C during 6 months of storage than
did juices in tin containers, but at the end of the 6 months'
storage period all juices regardless of type of container,
could still be considered excellent sources of vitamin C.
During the storage period all bottled and canned juices re-
tained their color well with the exception of the bottled
grapefruit juice held at room temperature, which at the
end of 5 months showed definite browning. In general,
all cold-room samples of juice showed little change in
flavor during storage. At the end of the 6 months' stor-
age period at room temperature, however, the orange juices
in glass and tin containers were somewhat off-flavor;
the bottled grapefruit was considered unpalatable, but
the grapefruit juice in tin containers was still satisfactory.
These results (Moore, Wiederhold, and Atkins, 1) indi-
cated that plain tin was preferable to glass for packing
grapefruit juice when the juice was to be stored at room
temperature. Glass-packed citrus juices should be kept in
cold storage for maximum retention of vitamin C and to
retard the development of off-flavors and colors. These
orange and grapefruit juices packed in cans or bottles,
even after a year's storage at 40. F. were good in flavor,
had an attractive color, and remained excellent sources of
vitamin C. This work is being continued and a further
report giving these results for a year's storage period will
be published at a later date.
In an effort to obtain information on the shelf life of
glass-packed citrus juices after removal from cold storage,
a pack of grapefruit juice in glass containers was put up
by the research fellows at the U. S. Citrus Products Station,
Winter Haven, Florida. This experimental pack is being
stored in the cold room (40* F.) and samples removed to
room temperature at intervals, to be held at room tempera-
ture for varying periods of time before testing. Control
samples are being stored at 40' F. and at room temperature.


Periodic examinations are being made for retention of
vitamin C, color, and flavor.

Citrus Juices

In cooperation with the Florida Canners' Association,
a survey was made of the vitamin C retention in Florida
grapefruit juices during commercial canning. Twelve cen-
tral Florida canning plants which packed over half of the
unsweetened grapefruit juice canned in the state, co-
operated in this survey. Equipment for sampling and test-
ing of the juices was taken to the plants and all analyses
were made at the plants on unsweetened grapefruit juices.
Samples were taken at various points in the canning opera-
tion so that the part of the plant procedure causing the
loss, if any, could be ascertained. The results obtained
(Moore, Wiederhold, Atkins, and MacDowell, 2) indicated
that with the present methods in use in Florida, over 97
per cent of the vitamin C was retained during the canning
operations. Samples of these canned juices were brought
back to the laboratory and stored at room temperature to
furnish information on retention of vitamin C. After 6
months of storage there still remained, on the average, 83
per cent of the vitamin C that was in the freshly canned
grapefruit juice. Results of this study on storage will be
published in the near future.

In order to answer requests for information on how
rapidly vitamin C is lost from freshly extracted orange
juice and grapefruit juice, a controlled experiment was
carried out, using hand-reaming and machine-reaming for
extraction of the juices, which were then stored in covered
and uncovered glass jars at room temperature and in a
cold room (40" F.). This investigation indicated that fresh
grapefruit juice and orange juice retained over 97 per cent
of their vitamin C content even after 3 days at room tem-
perature, at the end of which time many of the -samples
had started to ferment. A complete report on these find-
ings is being submitted for publication.


Citrus By-products
A process was developed (Atkins, Moore, and Heid, 3)
which it is believed will benefit growers greatly in the
profitable disposal of surplus tangerines, thus helping to
stabilize tangerine production and marketing. Besides
recovery of cold-pressed peel oil, the method provides for
either the production of a concentrated beverage base or
a bland table sirup. These products, because of their value
as by-product outlets have already attracted the attention
of several local citrus processing plants, that have available
equipment necessary for their manufacture. The high food
value and pleasing flavor of these sirups and beverage bases,
together with current shortages, should insure a receptive
A part of each year's crop of Persian limes is not shipped
because of market conditions and because of size and grade
restrictions. There is increased interest in the quantity of
oil from this fruit which may be recovered by various
methods. Lime oil is extensively used by manufacturers
of confections and flavoring extracts and has demanded
higher prices than most other volatile citrus fruit oils.
Preliminary tests (Atkins, Wiederhold, and Heid, 4) in-
dicated that by the use of a tapered-screw press about one-
third of the oil present in the whole fruit could be re-
covered as cold-pressed lime oil in a laboratory model
centrifuge. Work on this project will be continued this
season, and also some experimental work will be done on
the preparation of powdered lime juice.
A process was developed (Pulley, Moore, and Atkins,
5) for the preparation of crude dried citrus pectin from
waste grapefruit peel. The crude pectin, or refined po-
mace, is produced by leaching properly treated grapefruit
peel with water and then drying and grinding the leached
peel. The grapefruit cannery residue, about half of which
was formerly hauled and dumped on pastures, groves,
and wasteland, is the source of the raw material that can
now be used for making either crude or pure pectin. Two


plants in the state have taken advantage of this experi-
mental work and a high-grade product is being manu-
factured commercially.
An analysis of the vitamin C. content of citrus fruit
used in commercial canning indicated that the juice of the
oranges and grapefruit examined contained only about
one-fourth of the vitamin C present in the fruit. It was
found that the peel and pulp remaining after juice ex-
traction represented a good source of vitamin C which
might be extracted by various metho.ds. Further experi-
ments are in progress on the extraction and concentration
of the water-soluble constituents of the peel and their
inclusion in beverage bases as a source of fruit flavor, nat-
ural vitamins, and pectin.

(1) Changes Occurring in Orange and Grapefruit Juices
During Commercial Processing and Subsequent Stor-
age of the Glass-and Tin-Packed Products, Edwin L.
Moore, Eunice Wiederhold, and C. Donald Atkins.
Fruit Products J. 23, (9), 270-275, 285 (May 1944).
(2) Ascorbic Acid Retention in Florida Grapefruit-Juices
-I. During Commercial Canning, Edwin L. Moore,
Eunice Wiederhold, C. Donald Atkins, and Louis G.
MacDowell, The Canner 98, (9), 24-26 (January 29,
(3) Tangerine Juice Products, C. D. Atkins, E. L. Moore,
and J. L. Heid, Fruit Products J. 23, (5), 132-134,
152, 153, 157 (January 1944).
(4) The Recovery of Flavoring Oil from Persian Limes-
Preliminary Experiments, C. D. Atkins, Eunice Wied-
erhold, and J. L. Heid, Fruit Products J. 23, (10),
306-308 (June 1944).
(5) Grapefruit Cannery Waste Yields Crude Citrus Pectin,
G. N. Pulley, E. L. Moore, and C. D. Atkins, Food In-
dustries 16, (4), 94-96, 136, 137 (April 1944).


Chemo-Plastics Industry in Florida

Compiled by Florida Power & Light Company Industrial Development
Department as Part of Its Contribution to the Industrial and
Agricultural Expansion of Post-War Florida


An industry is an organization of people which makes
products that are useful to other people. The chemical in-
dustry makes new and useful materials from other ma-
terials-not by forming, shaping or mixing ingredients,
but by using chemical reaction to build fundamentally new
chemical substances from old ones.

In this manner the various types of plastics were

The term "plastic", when applied to substances which
we are accustomed to seeing in the form of solid, rigid
articles, at first seems quite incongruous to us. Upon in-
vestigation, however, we learn that this general term is
applied to any substance that can be given form by the
application of heat or pressure or both, and yet retain
that new form after the stress or heat is removed.

The chemical industry is divided into two categories-
a great many industries utilize chemicals in the processing
of goods into finished products, and in many cases the
processes are partly chemical in nature. These industries
are classified as the "chemical process industries". Among
such industries are some of the leading consumers of
chemicals, as distinct from the "chemical industries", which
produce, through chemical reactions, individual chemicals
for their own use. The separation is generally made as
shown in the following chart.


Chemical Industries Chemical Process Industries

Heavy Chemicals Fertilizers
Fine Chemicals Iron and Steel
Synthetic Organic Chemicals Non-Ferrous Metals
including Dyes and Inter-
Glass and Ceramics
Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
Explosives Rayon
Compressed and Liquefied Sugar
Industrial Alcohol
Paint, Varnish, Lacquer
Wood Distillation Products
Pulp and Paper

Products of the "chemical industries" account for 2.170
of the total value of all manufactured products in the United
States in 1939, whereas the "chemical process industries"
account for 20 to 50% of the value.

Growth of Chemical Industry

The chemical industry has shown an exceptional growth
of assets, capitalization and sales volume over the last
twenty years. Net earnings have been uniformly high,
as compared with most industries, and this has been re-
flected in accumulation of a substantial surplus, the pay-
ment of regular .dividends, and the re-investment of large
amounts in the industry in the form of new plants for estab-
lished products and research and development of new pro-
cesses and new products.

The Chemical Industry-Combined Totals
Securities & Exchange Commission Data on
38 Companies, not including fertilizers

$ (000,000 Omitted)
1939 1941
Net Sales (Volume of Business) . . . . 1,047 1,755
Net Profit from Operations. . . . . . 189 431
Net Profit after all Charges. . . . . . 200 223
Total Dividends...................... 160 172
Total Assets......................... 1,946 2,372
Capital Stock......................... 919 915
Surplus ................. ........... 678 793
Net Profit from Operations (% Sales) . .18.0% 24.5%
Net profit after all Charges (% Sales) .19.1% 12.7%
Ratio of Current Assets to Current
Liabilities ..................... 5.49 2.29
Since "Plastics" is the giant baby of the chemical in-
dustry, it is believed that the foregoing brief mention of
the industry is of interest.

Plastics are divided into four broad divisions:

1. Synthetic resins 3. Protein substances
2. Cellulose derivatives 4. Natural resins
The various materials which enter into the production
of plastics may be roughly grouped as binders, fillers, dyes,
pigments, plasticizers, solvents, gardeners, lubricants, ac-
celerators and catalysts. The boundaries in this grouping
are not well defined, however, as the same substance-
wood, for instance-may be used for making the binder
in one case and the filler in another.

Binders include synthetic resins, cellulose compounds
and protein substances, all of which may be used either


with or without fillers in the production of plastics. The
urea resins are clear binders that are best mixed with
purified and bleached wood cellulose.
The cellulose binders are made from pure cotton liners
or from pulped wood and there is considerable rivalry be-
tween these two sources. Other sources also are appearing
on the horizon and the successful use of cheaper waste
products may develop at almost any time to modify the
price differential. In making the binder, the fibrous ma-
terial is treated with chemicals of which nitric acetic
acids are important.
The more usual fillers are wood flour, asbestos, graphite,
mica, cotton and paper.
Diatomaceous earth, of which Florida has vast quantities,
is another fine grained filling material of prospective im-
portance to the plastic industry. It consists of the siliceous
remains of minute organisms known as diatoms. When
powdered, it frequently contains 94% silica and 6% im-
purities. It is used in heat insulation, sound insulation and
as a volume filler or plastic cheapener.
Source of Raw Material
Farms soon may be an important source of raw ma-
terials for plastics particularly in connection with such
crops as oats, corn and soy beans. The annual figure for
soy bean production for plastics runs close to one million
pounds. Wood fiber, cotton seed hulls are especially promis-
ing for their lignin content, which may be utilized before
many years in the production of an inexpensive resin.
Considerable attention has been given to the use of car-
bohydrates in resin formation, due to the ready availability
of large amounts of molasses waste and of various sugars
at relatively low prices.

In producing one ton of cane sugar, about one ton of
cane bagasse is also produced and the latter product was


entirely wasted until within recent years. It is now used
for making excellent quality fiber board. A Government
bureau has estimated that more than a hundred million
tons of cellulose material are wasted annually as a by-
product of our grain and other crops, and that this waste
could be materially reduced by the ingenuity of plastics
manufacturers. In this connection, it is interesting to view
the development of furfural plastics which, within the last
few years, have brought a former waste product into promi-
nence in the industry. In France, nut shells are being
ground for use as a filler for certain plastics, and some
attempt is being made to mix ground nut shells with wood
flour for the same purpose.
The furfural plastics are of special interest to Florida,
by reason of their source of raw materials. Grain husks
and other farm by-products find an excellent reclaiming
market in this connection.

Florida offers the plastics manufacturer-that is, the
producer of basic plastics powders and pellets-an un-
limited supply of raw material. Cellulose, acetate, cellulose
nitrate, rayon viscose, transparent cellulose and lignin
plastics all have their raw material source in southern pine.
Also, Florida can supply lignin, bagasse, rosin, turpentine,
citrus pulp and palmetto-all vital to the industry.

Molding Practice

The large chemical companies, as a rule, produce only
plastics in the form of powders or pellets, which are shipped
to a fabricator or so-called molding company in drums or
In the fabrication of plastics today, molding occupies
by far the most important position. Other processes are
making headway; extrusion, for instance, has made rapid
progress; also, the injection method. However unlike the
situation in the metal industry where foundry practice
has bowed to the newer processes of rolling and forming,


the molding art will probably always be the most important
branch of plastics manufacturing. Despite this, there are
many points of similarity between molding in the plastics
industry and foundry work in the metal industry. Both
are largely localized. Both have numerous plants scattered
all over the country, each with its local trade. The average
molding company in either industry is a customs shop,
doing most of its work for an ever changing list of cus-
tomers and orders.

Considering the localized tendencies of the plastics
molding industry it would be logical to assume that Florida
can offer a ready and profitable market to a molding

The manufacture of cellulose from cotton or wood pulp
is a typical example of the use of farm products, crops
and forests as raw materials for the production of

The field has received considerable impetus from the
establishment of four Regional Research Laboratories of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. These laboratories,
in the last few years, have developed acrylate resins from
lactic acid, but adiene from corn, natural rubber from
numerous shrubs and a rubber substitute, norepal, from
soy bean oil and glycol. The synthetic wool fibers made
from plant and animal proteins (casein, soy bean and corn)
have not proven competitive as yet, but if certain improve-
ments could be made, a wide field of use and perhaps a
new industry would be opened up.

Many chemical products, such as isoprene and camphor,
have been developed recently from rosin and turpentine
derived from the pine forests in the south. The develop-
ment of a chemical process for making satisfactory pulp
for paper and box board from southern pines has made the
industry a typical chemurgic operation.


1. Industrial plastics, by Herbert R. Simonds, Pitman
Publishing Company.
2. Some Aspects of the American Chemical Industry,
by Dr. Henry E. Palmer and Dr. George E. P.
Smith, Jr.
3. Industrial Research, by Dr. Raymond D. Gerwe.
4. Chemical Industry Survey 1943, Merrill, Lynch,
Pierce, Fenner & Beane, N. Y. C.

Florida Has Found a Natural Co-operation

Between Alyce and Tung Oil

Alyce Clover Hay, now being advertised by the growers
as "Florida's Alfalfa", promises to revolutionize the cat-
tle and dairy industry of the Peninsula State. It is being
successfully raised as a yearly intercrop, grown between
the recently planted trees of North Central Florida tung
groves which are not yet producing cash returns in tung
nuts and oil. These two cultures-Alyce clover from India
and tung nuts from China-are an ideal combination, as
they both prosper in the same type of soil, thus minimizing
the non-productive feature of the four-year period required
for tung trees to get into all commercial production.
The seed of this plant were accidentally imported from
India 20 years ago and the clover grew among the orange
trees, reseeding itself from year to year. Interest was
aroused by the fact that the orange trees in that part of
the grove where the clover grew were each succeeding
year yielding more and better fruit than other trees.


A Good Soil-Builder
Alyce clover soon proved its worth as a soil-building
crop. It was also found that Alyce clover, power under
after it has gone to seed, is excellent as a fertilizer be-
cause it supplies all necessary organic matter in addition
to being so rich in nitrogen. One of the advantages stressed
by Florida farmers is that Alyce clover is so easily cut
into the ground.
Alyce clover hay is sweetly scented, has tender stems
and small leaves. It .does best on good sandy loam, and
should not be planted on heavy, wet land or on land in-
fested with root-rot organisms. The yields per acre run
from one and one-half to five tons of hay. Ten pounds of
seed to the acre is deemed ample for a substantial hay
stand and five pounds of seed for permanent pasture when
sown with other grasses.
In talking to the growers of Alyce clover it was learned
that the seeds germinate in from a week to ten .days after
planting, which may be deferred to the first week of June.
There is a quick and luxuriant growth during Florida's
rainy season and under normal conditions the first cutting
of hay is made some time in August. To cure Alyce clover
hay it is not necessary to build stacks around the poles-
Due to its low moisture content this hay can be windrowed
a few hours after it has been mowed, if the weather is
hot and dry.
A first seeding is all that is required. When the seed
crop is harvested, either in October or November, a suf-
ficient quantity of seed shatters and falls to the ground
to provide a perfect reseeding the following year. The
seed lies dormant until the land is diced or broken in the
late spring.
To insure the best results a carefully prepared seedbed
is essential. The soil is thoroughly pulverized by discing
and cross discing. The seed is then broadcast and covered
lightly with a scratcher. Packing after seeding is advised
if at all possible to do so.


An Oil of Many Uses
Tung oil was known to and used by the Chinese for
centuries before it was adopted in the United States. It
is admitted to be the best drying and waterproofing oil
of vegetable origin known to technical science. When dry,
it forms an impervious film, without pores, that effectively
excludes all moisture.
The use of tung oil in industry extends into more than
200 .different channels, with scientists discovering more
and more uses each year. It is used in some form by about
1,000 American manufacturing concerns.
Because of the restricted area of production the de-
mand for tung oil in the United States may always ex-
ceed the supply from both foreign and domestic sources.
During the fall seasons of 1912 and the four years fol-
lowing the Paint Manufacturers' Association of the United
States and the National Varnish Manufacturers' Asso-
ciation sponsored practical experimentation with the tung
tree and it was definitely demonstrated that the best re-
sults were obtained in the southern portions of the states
of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, half of the Pen-
insula of Florida, the eastern and northern Gulf counties
of Texas, and southern and southeastern sections of Georgia.
The main requirements in establishing tung tree groves
are (1) slightly acid soil; (2) plenty of rain, at least 40
inches per year; (3) sufficient elevation to allow perfect
drainage, so that the roots will not stand in water; (4)
temperature warm enough to prevent killing frosts and
yet cool enough so that the tree, which is deciduous, will
shed its leaves and remain dormant during the winter.
The output of 4,000,000 pounds of tung oil in the United
States is only a small drop in the huge bucket of America's
yearly consumption, which can best be visualized by stating
that in 1936 the United States imported 134,829,996 pounds
of tung oil from China. The potential American market
is estimated in value to be at least $135,000,000.


Guayule Is Potential Rubber Source
Released Feb. 18, 1945
Writing on guayule as an American source of rubber,
Loren G. Polhamus of the Agricultural Research Admin-
istration points out that the home of wild guayule does
not provide the conditions under which the shrub grows
best and produces the most rubber in the least time. The
wild guayule area in northern Mexico is much too dry for
the plant to do well, he says in an article in the February
issue of Agriculture in the Americas, published by the
Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, U. S. Department
of Agriculture. It grows wild there because it is better able
to stand the severe conditions than plant competitors for
food and moisture.
For rapid growth and accumulation of rubber, guayule
makes good use of more fertile soil and of moisture from
irrigation. Cultivation protects it from weed competition,
and cultivated guayule is ready for harvest with high rub-
ber content after 4 or 5 years. Growing wild in its arid
native home, the shrub may need 10 to 20 years to be worth
The future of guayule as an American rubber crop can
not be foretold, says Polhamus. Experiments with guayule
culture during the wartime emergency when price was a
secondary consideration has enabled experimenters to make
a "good start in establishing the foundation for an eco-
nomical cultivation of the shrub in Latin America and the
extraction of rubber from it." Cultivated guayule, he be-
lieves, is definitely a potential source of rubber supply.


Farmers Plan to Aid Bitting Rubber Plans

Synthetic Plant Envisions Use of Crops
From 100,000 Acres

Miami Daily News, April 22, 1945
Everglades farmers made plans to obtain more detailed
information from Clarence R. Biting, president of the U. S.
Sugar Corp., regarding production of a synthetic rubber in
the Okeechobee area, preparatory to their joining with the
company in the possible production of 100,000 acres in new
The entire proposal, as conceived by Bitting and placed
before the War Production Board would entail an estimated
investment of approximately $75,000,000 from raw land to
final processing plants.

Bitting proposed that federal agencies put up $50,000,000
of this amount and that lands, machinery and other allied
assets of the sugar company and Okeechobee farmers be
counted in at $25,000,000. The sugar company executive
suggested formation of a new corporation to operate the
plastics production program without profit for war needs
through the duration.
He said the sugar company would lease the new corpora-
tion an estimated 4,000 acres for processing plants, right-
of-way, storage warehouses and other buildings for $1
a year.
At the end of the war he declared the proposed
huge new industry could be converted to the manufacture
of articles for which there is a peace-time demand and
said he believed the industry could do this on a profitable
basis to itself and to co-operating farmers.

A committee composed of Mrs. Ruth Wedgworth, Belle
Glade; Sam Chastain, Pahokee; Ralph Kurtz, Fort Myers;


Howard Haney, Belle Glade, and N. N. Starling, South Bay,
was named to inquire into Bitting's proposal in behalf of
Lake Okeechobee region growers.

Members of the committee are expected to meet with
farmers of the area and arrange a conference with Bitting
to discuss the matter in detail the next week or two.

Biting outlined his plan at a meeting in Clewiston at-
tended by 150 farmers and business men from various
South Florida cities.

He said a plastic could be made from peanuts, sweet po-
tatoes and sugar cane which can be used for water and oil-
proofing materials such as raincoats, balloon fabrics, life-
rafts, tarpaulins; forming protective coatings for me-
chanized equipment; stabilizing the viscosity of lubricat-
ing oils for planes, tanks and kindred motor-driven mate-
riels of war.

In addition, according to Bitting, the proposed industry
could produce "many other chemicals not presently pro-
duced in sufficient quantity to meet the war demand."

He estimated that if the entire production of the pro-
posed 100,000 acres to be put in cultivation were devoted
to manufacture of synthetic rubber alone, it might meet
as much as 10 per cent of the nation's rubber needs. How-
ever, the vegetable derived rubber, under processes evolved
to date, would not be satisfactory for the manufacture of
automobile tires.

Biting said the sugar company now has some 30,000
acres in cane production and would put an additional
50,000 acres to sweet potatoes and peanuts. He proposed
that farmers of the area put in the other 50,000 acres to
make up the proposed 100,000 total. The farmers would
sell their crops to the proposed new corporation under con-
tracts somewhat similar, Bitting said, to contracts under
which they now grow cane for the company.


The sugar company chief said his concern had been ex-
perimenting with plastics and plastics for the last five or six
years and that the war has fathered only a part of the pro-
gram which he outlined to the farmers. Potato starch and
peanut oil plants, he indicated, were proposed as company
enterprises long before the rubber shortage became ap-
Batting estimated the synthetic rubber could be pro-
duced for approximately 25 cents a pound, but the time
required to get the proposed huge plants and acreage into
operation was something he would not estimate. He pointed
out the scarcity of steels and other building materials and
delay in deliveries made the estimate of an operation date
too hazardous.

However, he said peanuts and sweet potatoes could be
grown in vast quantities within a year or so from the date
of the "go-ahead" signal.
Most of the patents covering manufacture of the syn-
thetic rubber, Bitting reported, are owned either by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture or the sugar company.

With his proposed program in full operation, Bitting
estimated that an additional 20,000 heads of families would
be employed in the Okeechobee region and the farmers of
the area would have, in addition to winter truck, three
stable crops-cane, peanuts and sweet potatoes.


Nicholson Claims New Grapefruit

Star, Orlando, October 31, 1943
Development of a new early variety of seedless grape-
fruit which he believes will partially revolutionize the
Florida citrus industry was claimed yesterday by Donald
J. Nicholson, Orlando citrus grower and researcher.
The fruit, which Nicholson says he will patent but to
which he has not yet given a name, was plucked yester-
day from a sour orange stock and handed to a Sentinel-
Star reporter. There were perhaps a dozen of them on
the tree, along with all manner of other budded citrus
fruits with which Nicholson is experimenting.
We took the grapefruit to the studio of Lynn Brudon,
Sentinel-Star photographer, who photographed it. Then
we cut it in half and photographed it again. Then we ate it.

The grapefruit was a comparatively small specimen.
Other larger ones, were growing on the tree. But it was
definitely ripe and sweet to the taste. Any further judg-
ment of the fruit's value must be left to experts. Whether
it is really better than other early Florida grapefruit,
whether it uniformly ripens at this date, whether it will
grow in commercial quantities and whether it is adaptable
to shipping conditions, are questions that must be an-
Nicholson claimed his grapefruit will:
Provide Florida growers with a grapefruit that will
ripen early enough (by Nov. 1) to reach the market ahead
of other sections with a real quality fruit.
Provide the public, long before they are accustomed
to getting really good grapefruit, with a seedless fruit, so
sweet that even the most particular can eat it without sugar.


Rust, Blight and Mildew Whipped with
New Bean by Local Scientist

Belle Glade Herald, October 29, 1943
Mildew, bacterial blight and rust have played havoc with
beans in the Glades in recent years, and an endeavor to
find a bean resistant to these with the ability to produce
quality and quantity equivalent to the Bountiful, or flat
beans, has proved successful in the Florida Belle.
At the All America trials, which is a sort of a friendly
contest among the seed trade where 15 judges consider
whatever new or improved strains are submitted to them
and make the awards that they, as professionals, consider
are deserved. This is to stimulate improvements and ad-
vance in the profession.
The Cornell Seed Co., of St. Louis, which is one of the
houses to whom samples of the Florida Belle were given,
submitted this seed for evaluation. There were 33 sub-
jects for consideration and only three took awards of
which the Florida Belle is one.

The judges by their system of scoring gave the Florida
Belle 33 points, which lacks two of the necessary number
to receive a bronze medal. However, the award carries
honorable mention for the Florida Belle.
The Florida Belle, if you don't know it, is a product
of scientific cross breeding, selection and propagation
which had its beginning at the USDA Horticultural labora-
tory in South Carolina by Dr. Wade, one of the scientific
tinkerers with vegetable ancestry and posterity.
Dr. Wade sent to the Everglades Experiment Station
47 "lines"-that is results of cross breeding-and Dr.
Dick Townsend nursed the hybrids to whatever maturity
nature allowed them. Seven plants were chosen at the


first selection, and these finally dwindled to two whose
vigorous growth, quality and quantity of fruit gave promise.
These two plants, it having been decided that they
were worthy, were named the Florida Belle and Florida
Wax. The Florida Belle's parents were the Black Valentine
and the U. S. No. 5 Refuge, which was Papa and which
Mama is not indicated. It possesses the qualities of the
Bountiful as to yield and palatability but is more stream
lined, being narrower and longer.
The Florida Belle has been grown in all parts of the U. S.
practically and has been found a successful producer
wherever grown.
Best of all the Florida Belle is immune to four strains
of rust, highly resistant to 12 and susceptible to 2; it is
also resistant to mosaic, mildew and bacterial blight. This
quality enables the pod to be matured before these diseases
remove all food from the plant.
There are 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of the seed in the
hands of seedmen who are busy planting to produce more
seed. The Kilgore Seed Company will have approximately
100 bushels available for local farmers, besides several
farmers have saved seed from last year's plantings.
All this from one bush selected by Dr. Townsend in the
dry hot spring of 1940.
This outstanding accomplishment through the work of
Dr. Townsend adds laurels and justification to the exis-
tence of the Everglades Experiment Station and its corps
of technicians.


Florida Farms Owe Least

Orlando Sentinel, May 5, 1944
An honest debt, even a farm mortgage, is no. disgrace,
for often a loan helps a man to get on his economic feet
and a mortgage usually paves the way to full ownership
of home or farm, but there is no relief to equal that of a
newly-lifted mortgage.
In this respect farm owners in Florida have an enviable
position as compared with farmers in the other Southern
states, for Floridians owe only 28 per cent of the value of
their farms, while in all other states of the South farmers
owe from 35 on up to 38 per cent.

Georgia stands at the head of the list which may ex-
plain why so many Georgians come to Florida, which is
undoubtedly to get out of debt in both states, for the cash
returns from Florida acres are often phenomenal.
To be sure, Georgia is somewhat handicapped by fre-
quent loss of its peach crop by frost and by the fact that
pecans bear only every two or three years, and by the
further fact that Georgia field crops often come on the
market in competition with those of other states.
But seeing so many of our readers are former Georgians,
which means always a Georgian at heart, we hasten to
express our opinion that new methods of agriculture and
greater .diversity of crops are bringing Georgia out of debt.
Up there they are improving their livestock and raising
the feed with which to finish it for home or market; they
are putting their peach buds on root-knot resistant plum
and other stock; they are experimenting with peach
varieties that follow the calendar rather than the weather,
holding back their bloom until the proper season in the
spring, and they are expanding new cash crops such as
tobacco and peanuts to their former steady diet of cotton.


Other Southern states are showing similar progress
and the mere fact that their farms will carry such a heavy
burden of debt indicates the confidence of capital in their
operation and future, a confidence that recent farm history
But we regard Florida as agriculturally a specially
favored state, for its citrus commands better prices and a
wider demand year by year; its vegetables usually go
to market when other areas are yet unready, and its live-
stock becomes increasingly more profitable as better ani-
mals feed on better pastures.
The lands that produce the best bring the highest
prices on the market, as is shown by the daily reports of
sales of citrus, celery and tomato land, the muck areas
and established farms.
We shouldn't like to be found guilty of boosting Florida
overmuch, but when the boosting is started by expert
statisticians we feel we are by no means misrepresenting
the situation when we amend Horace Greeley's advice
and urge young men to come to Florida.

Dehydration Takes on New Value in Florida

Tampa Tribune, March 12, 1944
The dehydration of vegetables has taken on a new lease
of life because of the demands during World War II and
although it is but an infant industry in Florida, it is un-
likely that the industry will collapse so completely as after
World War I, Dr M. K. Veldhuis, head of the Winter Haven
citrus laboratory, said today.
In fact Dr. V'eldhuis believes that a starving world after
the war will have to be fed by the Allied nations until it
is rehabilitated. The problem of transportation of huge
quantities of such foods will be so acute that it will be


necessary to reduce the bulk of such shipments to a mini-
mum degree, thereby utilizing the compactness, the edi-
bility, and the food cost factor of dehydrated foods.

Future Bright

As to the future of .dehydrated vegetables processed
in Florida, the matter is somewhat problematical. But
because of Florida's heavy production of cabbage and sweet
potatoes, these will undoubtedly constitute the bulk of the
state's dehydration processing. It is not generally known
that Florida is one of the largest producers of anap or
green beans in the country. The 1942-43 season's pro-
duction of green beans from 80,000 acres was 7,795,000
bushels and the Winter Haven laboratory is now carrying
on tests and studies to determine which of the many va-
rieties of green beans will dehydrate satisfactorily to
meet army specifications.
The same season of 1942-43 showed a production of
85,000 tons of cabbage from 10,000 acres, which is startling
in comparison to production in five years ago of 33,000
Sweet potatoes, on which commercial production in Flor-
ida has been started, reached a total last season of 1,608,000
bushels. With the results and findings obtained from the
Winter Haven laboratory, two Florida plants are already
in production.
Cabbage Unit
At Zellwood, there is in operation a plant dehydrating
cabbage with a probable 60 to 70 tons per day of the de-
hydrated material, requiring some 1100 to 1300 tons of
raw cabbage to obtain this processed amount.
Not to be overlooked and with bright promise of a profit-
able future is the dehydration of grapefruit peel. While
not a vegetable, it is still a dehydration process, providing
a base for fruits and jellies, the bulk of which goes to


Great Britain. This dehydrated grapefruit peel or pectin
in the final processed form looks much like fine grits or
white cornmeal.

A plant at Wauchula is now starting dehydration of the
peel with an estimated six tons per day of the finished
pectin powder. At the Wauchula plant, grapefruit peel is
processed two tons an hour for 10 hours with the peel ob-
tained from approximately 2,000 boxes of grapefruit. The
finished pectin powder is packed in hundred pound sacks,
shipped and upon receipt overseas, 50 pounds of sugar is
added to each pound of pectin powder to give form and com-
plete the product which makes jelly "Jell." Although com-
mercial pectin has been processed for many years in this
country, it has heretofore been made from apple or other
fruit bases, instead of a citrus product derivative.
The three Florida dehydrating plants now in operation
use the internal type hot air dryer, with wagons and trays
which are fed into the heating process by mechanical
means. While dehydrating is not a complicated process
of manufacture, yet it requires careful watching of tempera-
tures and movement through the dryer.
Winter Haven Processor
The small dryer used in the Winter Haven laboratory
for tests and studies of dehydration is much similar in
construction and with the same necessary processing as is
used in the commercial plant. For example, in running
through sweet potatoes, they are first washed, then peeled
by immersion in strong lye solution, followed by spray
washings to remove any lye. The potatoes are then moved
over an inspection belt where any blemishes or spots not
removed by the lye, are cut out by hand. Then to the slicing
machines, where the potatoes are either sliced, or in strips,
julienne style or diced. From here they pass to the steam
box heated at 190 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit for from
three to five minutes so as to destroy enzyme activity
(which causes vegetables to go off flavor).


After blanching process, vegetables are spread on trays,
then trays stacked one on top of another, 20 to 24 trays
high, and fed into the dryer tunnel at predetermined in-
tervals; each truck or wagon trays so advanced as to al-
low entrance of following wagons to be placed in tunnel.
The wagons in the dryer are continually under a hot blast
of hot air, usually about five to eight hours, about six hours
for sweet potatoes. Much the same process ensues on cabbage
and other vegetables, except the preliminary trimming,
cutting or coring.
As for post war consumption of dehydrated vegetables
in the United States, there are some authorities who be-
lieve the brightest prospects of large scale exists in de-
hydrated vegetables for prepared soups, not only for the
housewife, but for institutions, hotels and restaurants.

It has been questioned as to what definite benefit the
post-war production of dehydrated vegetables would be
to the Florida farmer. Putting it simply, George Pulley,
associate chemist of the Winter Haven laboratory quoted
Dr. W. W. Skinner, head of the bureau of agricultural
and industrial chemistry, a veteran scientist of 40 years
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, as follows:

"Our fellow scientists at the Winter Haven laboratory
have concentrated since its establishment in 1931, on
problems and research of citrus and citrus products, but
have not overlooked or neglected when called upon to
establish research on vegetables and other Florida products
of the soil. We firmly believe and abundant evidence is
here that when we experiment, conduct research, find
results and pass on the recommendations of our findings
to the citrus grower or the grower of other fruits or veget-
ables, that we definitely are helping to develop additional
market outlets, which in turn serve to stabilize the in-
dustry, the market and price."


Florida's 1944 Farrn Crop Is
Valued at $277,000,000

Nearly Five IVIillion Tons of Food
Produced in State

Times-Union, Jacksonville, December 31, 1944
Florida farmers in 1944 produced nearly five million
tons of food, feed and essential oils from nearly two million
acres, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture reported today in its annual
crop summary.
In addition nearly 80,000 tons of vegetables, mainly
beans, cabbage, celery and escarole, were left in the fields
as a result of market conditions.
The value of crops harvested amounted to $277,000,000
compared with $234,000,000 for the previous year. 1VIost
of the increases were in fruits and vegetables.
Production of general field crops in 1944 was about
three per cent smaller than in 1943 but continued at a high
level. It is estimated that about 645,000 tons of food and
feed crops were produced compared with 667,000 tons a
year ago. Value of the crop harvested was placed at $41,-
853,000 compared with $41,215,000 last year.
A record citrus crop of 80,990,000 boxes raised the total
production of Florida's 1943-44 fruits and nuts to slightly
over 3,500,000 tons compared with 3,000,000 tons last sea-
son. At packing house door level, the valuation totalled
$153,000,000 in 1943-44, a gain of $38,000,000 over the
1942-43 season. Of these totals, citrus accounted for
$149,720,000 in 1943-44 and $113,041,000 in 1942-43.
Growers during the 1943 season planted about 260,000
acres of vegetables and brought 251,000 acres to harvest.


They produced about 856,000 tons of food but abandoned
79,000 tons. FOB valuation of the 1943-44 harvested
vegetables was placed at $81,825,000 compared with
$77,548,000 last season on 648,000 tons harvested from
183,450 acres.
The following table shows the production and value of
the various fruits, nuts, vegetables and farm produce for
the calendar year 1944 (the season 1943-44 in case of
fruits and nuts) :

Grapefruit-31,000,000 boxes, $44,290,000.
Oranges-46,200,000 boxes, $96,198,000.
Tangerines-3,600,000 boxes, $8,244,000.
Limes-190,000 boxes, $988,000.
Avocados-5,200 tons, $707,000.
Grapes-600 tons, $156,000.
Peaches-121,000 bushels, $363,000.
Pears-176,000 bushels, $194,000.
Pecans-5,100,000 pounds, $1,195,000.
Pineapples-4,000 boxes, $22,000.
Tung Nuts-7,000 tons, $665,000.
Lima Beans-4,500 acres, $1,436,000.
Snap Beans-96,500 acres, $18,869,000.
Cabbage-23,500 acres, $4,309,000.
Cantaloupes-550 acres, $124,000.
Celery-9,900 acres, $14,530.000.
Cucumbers-6,300 acres, $2,079,000.
Eggplant-3,500 acres, $1,501,000.
Escarole-2,350 acres, $645,000.


Lettuce-2,450 acres, $562,000.
Green peas-2,500 acres, $450,000.
Green Peppers-8,950 acres, $4,964,000.
Strawberries-1,400 acres, $1,107,000.
Tomatoes-34,900 acres, $19,723,000.
Watermelons-25,500 acres, $5,095,000.
Corn-719,000 acres, $11,648,000.
Cotton Lint-32,700 acres, $1,224,000.
Cottonseed-Not given, $240,000.
Oats-20,000 acres, $512,000.

Cowpeas-12,000 acres, not given.
Hay-127,000 acres, $1,216,000.
Peanuts-112,000 acres, 85,250,000.
Potatoes-32,500 acres, $6,821,000.
Sweet Potatoes-20,000 acres, $3,080,000.
Tobacco-21,600 acres, $10,267,000.

Sugarcane: For syrup-14,000 acres $2,128,000.
For Sugar-29,400 acres, $4,608,000.
Velvet Beans-194,000 acres, $1,152,000.


Florida Citrus Canning Brings in $82,000,000

30,000,000 Cases in Year Tops Record

Highlander, Lake Wales, September 15, 1944
Florida citrus canners, the fastest growing division of
the canning industry, put up a total of 30,973,000 cases
of juice and segments during the last season, by far the
largest amount ever turned out, the district office of the
bureau of foreign and domestic commerce said in Jack-
sonville yesterday.

In Tampa, C. C. Rathbun, secretary of the Florida Can-
ners association, said this output, which went into enough
cans to reach twice around the world if placed end to end,
brought the canners about $82,000,000.
This $82,000,000 Florida industry is less than a quarter
of a century old. Rathbun's records show that 10,000
cases were sold in the 1921-1922 season. Ten years ago
that number had grown to 6,000,000 cases.

Growth Since 1940
The report by William A. Dunlap, district manager of
the Jacksonville office, said the output for 1940-41 was
19,142,206 cases; 1941-42, it dropped to 16,658,364; 1942-43,
it was 22,185,889, and last season, 30,973,006 cases.
The last season's output consisted of:
Grapefruit segments. . . . . . . . . . . . 895,818
Broken segments.................... ....... 47,429
Grapefruit juice....................... ..... 16,778,124
Orange juice.......... .................... 7,075,467
Combination juice. .. .. ... .. .. .. . .. .. . 6,176,168

To get this much juice the canneries bought 29,060,799
boxes of fruit, consisting of 659,355 boxes put into seg-


ments; 19,677,705 for grapefruit juice and combination
juice, and 8,723,739 of oranges for orange juice and combi-
nation juice.
Would Fill 10,000 Cars
In an effort to help the layman grasp the magnitude of
the Florida canning industry, Rathbun said the season's
output represented 743,352,124 No. 2 cans, or nearly
100,000,000 gallons of juice.
The state's juice output, he said, would fill 10,000 rail-
road tank cars, and would require 200 trains of 50 cars
each to haul them out of the state.

Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative Will
Soon Start Another Monster Building to
House Juicing Plant: Bins Also Increased

Fire-Proof Structure to Cost $35,000.00 Being Added to
Plant: Fruit Bin Capacity Almost Doubled Along
With Development of Great Plant

Highlander, Lake Wales, August 6, 1943
The Florida Canners Cooperative took out a building
permit Thursday morning which starts in motion the
various sorts of machinery to erect a large concrete block
reinforced building upon the spot where the old one stood,
for the purpose of housing their splendid juicing plant.
The new building which will be pushed to completion as
soon as possible under the present war conditions, will
start in around two weeks, officials state. In pursuance
of their long-established custom of giving employment to
local people as much as they can, the company will use
many of their present employees. Some of the people em-
ployed at the plant are good structural steel men, carpenters,


painters, concrete men, and it is almost impossible to men-
tion a trade that is not represented to a greater or lesser
extent. As many of their employees as can work in the
new building will be used. The building will be about 60x140
and will be practically fire-proof and perhaps be ready in
time to catch much of the coming crop.
The company's fruit bin capacity is also being increased
under the new building program. This work is in addi-
tion to the new juice plant structure and gives the Citrus
Canners almost .double their present capacity of fruit bins.
This company has been in operation for several years,
and their constant enlargement plainly indicates the quality
of financial leadership at the head of the concern. Speaking
as a newspaper, this paper considers it a lucky day when
Lake Wales landed this great institution.

Florida's Citrus Canneries Bring

Record Season to End

Editor, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Florida citrus canneries are ringing down the curtain on
the 1943-44 season after having already put close to 19
million boxes of grapefruit and 6 million boxes of oranges
into cans as segments or juice, more than one-third of
which has been taken by the armed services and by the
government for Lend-Lease shipment. Despite difficulties
occasioned by labor shortages, failure of the government
to set prices promptly, and other wartime causes, the can-
ners have come through with flying colors, a number of
them winning the War Food Administration's Achievement
"A" award.
Grapefruit goes into the cans as either segments or
juice, oranges as either orange juice or blended orange-


grapefruit juice. The canners were required to set aside
specified percentages of their packs for government,
which now has around 9,500,000 cases of grapefruit juice
reserves from the total 1943-44 United States pack.

These canned citrus products now rank as one of the
leading canned foods of the nation, having zoomed to their
present position of prominence in less than a quarter
century. The first experiments at canning grapefruit,
made in Florida about 1915-16, were unsuccessful. Four
years later two Americans, working independently of each
other in Puerto Rico, succeeded in canning grapefruit that
was acceptable to the market. The next year-the season
1920-21-two different men in Florida canned and sold
grapefruit. By persistently following a trial and error
method they finally overcame many difficulties and dis-
appointments and developed a technique which was used
as a starting point. By 1921-22 the industry may be con-
si.dered to have reached commercial importance, with
9,000 boxes of citrus canned.

Not until 1928-29, however, did the industry make a
real dent in Florida's citrus production. That year one
million boxes of citrus fruits went into cans, the next year
the number rose to one and a half million boxes of grape-
fruit and 40,000 boxes of oranges. By 1929-30 the industry
had grown to the point where nine million boxes of grape-
fruit and four million boxes of oranges went to the can-
neries. During 1942-43 the canners took over 17 million
boxes of grapefruit and three and a half million boxes of
oranges. The canneries took 64 per cent of Florida's 27
million boxes of grapefruit crop that year. In Texas the
same season the canners took 7,850,000 field boxes of that
State's 17,800,000-box crop, 44 per cent.

D. B. Timmons, marketing economist with the State
Agricultural Extension Service, in cooperation with C. C.
Rathbun, secretary of the Florida Canners' Assn. in Tampa,
has made complete studies of citrus canning in Florida


during many recent seasons. He says that during the
1942-43 season 51 citrus canning plants operated in 14
Florida counties, Polk with 24 having the largest number.
Lake had 6, Hillsborough 5, Orange 3, Pinellas, St. Lucie
and Manatee 2 each, and Volusia, Hernando, Pasco, Lee,
DeSoto, Hardee and Highlands 1 each.
Principal market for canned grapefruit products has
been in the continental United States, but by the time the
current war broke out there was a growing foreign .demand,
especially for segments. What the future holds in that re-
gard remains to be seen, but it is entirely possible that con-
siderable foreign demand for both grapefruit and orange
products in cans will develop.
In his summary of the 1942-43 canning season Timmons
presents the following facts:
Citrus segments processed amounted to less than one
million cases, compared with a normal of between 3% to
4% million cases. Canned citrus salad was almost entirely
eliminated. Less than 4 per cent of the grapefruit pack
went into segments, almost 11 per cent into combination
juice, and nearly 87 per cent into juice. Approximately
60 per cent of the oranges going into cans were for juice
and 40 per cent combination juice. The total field boxes
of grapefruit used by the canners during the 1942-43 sea-
son amounted to something over 17 million. Nearly 15%
million, or 91 per cent of this, was seedy grapefruit and
1% million, or 9 per cent was seedless.
The total number of boxes of oranges used for combi-
nation juice was 1,433,314 and for orange juice 2,117,464,
giving a total of 3,550,781 field boxes of oranges used
by the canners. In addition, almost 3 million boxes of
oranges were used for concentrate.


Experimental Cork Oak Plantings Are
Now Completed in St. Johns

St. Augustine Record, January 28, 1945
The official launching of a cork oak planting program on
an experimental basis was completed the past week with
city officials and forestry representatives of the State
Extension Service and the Florida Forest and Park Service
participating in the planting of a cork oak tree in the Plaza.

An optimistic note was sounded by Truman E. Pease,
Farm Forester, as to the growth of this specie, Quercus
Suber, cork oak, on the varied types of soils here in St.
Johns County. Some of the earliest plantings set out at
the experiment station at Hastings have shown that sur-
vival will be about sixty per cent. One of the three cork
oak trees now growing at the local station is growing
faster than any cork oak planted in the United States
in the stepped-up planting program being initiated by the
Crown Cork and Seal Company.
Information received on the growing conditions for this
specie in Spain and Portugal indicates a better quality of
cork to be had from cork oak trees grown on poor soil,
with the quantity of cork being produced on trees grown on
more fertile soils.
Stripping of the bark is carried on during the summer
months. Care must be taken not to injure the inner bark
of the tree, for if this is cut, the tree will bleed and die.
Better prices are received for larger pieces of cork which
necessitates skilled workers in removing the bark. The
bark varying in thickness will yield from twenty-five to
several hundred pounds. After proper seasoning, Pease
stated that the cork bark is then boiled in copper tanks
to remove tannins and any other water soluble materials
that might be present.
Farm Forester Pease pointed out that while evidence


of cork oaks planted in the state was found at Dade City
and Quincy, the first stripping of cork oaks in this state
of those planted now, can be done in fifteen to twenty
years, thereafter a stripping can be made each seven to
ten years.

Florida May Produce Cork; Expert Tells
C. of C. of Possibilities

Jacksonville Journal, May 27, 1944
Possibility that northern Florida may become a cork
producing center was foreseen when members of the
Chamber of Commerce agricultural division met with Dr.
G. B. Cooke, research chemist from the Crown Cork &
Seal Co., of Baltimore, and Robert Hoskins, public relations
representative of Florida's Forest and Park Service, yes-
terday afternoon.
Climatic conditions in many parts of Florida are similar
to those in the cork producing area of Europe, Dr. Cooke
said. And with the long growing season in this section,
the cork industry shows excellent possibilities.
C. E. McManus, president of the company Dr. Cooke
represents, has made 10,000 free seedlings available for this
area, according to the research chemist. They may be
secured through C. H. Coulter, assistant state forester in
charge of applied forestry at Olustee.
Cork Oak plantings were begun on a small scale in Florida
in 1942, and present plans are to expand the program as
rapidly as possible, since cork is a vital war necessity and
is at present imported from Europe.
Louis R. Fendig, chairman of the Chamber's agricul-
tural group, has urged interested planters to contact the
assistant state forester at Olustee.

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