Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Grammatical introduction
 Indices to the notes

Group Title: Ilias
Title: Homåerou Ilias
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076206/00002
 Material Information
Title: Homåerou Ilias The Iliad of Homer;
Series Title: Classical series
Uniform Title: Ilias
Physical Description: 2 v. : fronts., illus., plates. ; 17 cm.
Language: Greek, Ancient (to 1453)
Creator: Homer
Leaf, Walter, 1852-1927 ( ed )
Bayfield, M. A ( Matthew Albert ), 1852-1922 ( ed )
Publisher: Macmillan and Co.,
Macmillan and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1908-11
Copyright Date: 190811
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: edited with general and grammatical introductions, notes, and appendices by Walter Leaf ... and M.A. Bayfield ... In two volumes ...
General Note: Vol. 1: 2d ed., rev.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076206
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10058478

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
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        Page xix
        Page xx
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        Page xxiv
    Grammatical introduction
        Page xxv
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Full Text







Plate I.-Homeric Warrior fully armed. (See also Plate VI.)










911 \ '
.'\ .\ N


V. oZ

First Editimi .899
Reptrinted 19ox, iIj r


THE notes to the present edition of the lliad are
based upon those of Dr. Leaf's well-known edition
and his more recently published Companion to the
Iliad. For the additions and alterations made to
adapt the book to its purpose I am myself solely
responsible; but it is proper to state that Dr. Leaf
has read through the sheets and freely given me
assistance in the preparation. He is further to be
understood to assent to any divergences from his
previously published views which the book may
In the preparation of the Grammatical Introduction
I have made use of those three invaluable works,
Monro's Homeric Grammar, Kiihner's Greek Grammar
(an inexhaustible treasury of examples), and Good-
win's Moods and Tenses. It will be seen that I have
adopted Professor Goodwin's theory of the original
meanings of the Subjunctive and Optative ( 41,
42). The section on K(N) and &N (44) gives a
new account of those particles, based on a careful
examination of every example occurring in the Iliad


and Odyssey. The labour of collecting the examples
has been considerable, but it will have been well
spent, if the resulting theory, which covers almost all
the Attic uses of lN, should win general acceptance.
The length to which the section has grown is, I
hope, justified by the fact that the particles occur on
every page of the poems, while no convincing or even
consistent account of them has hitherto been offered.
A far more important matter is treated of in the
Appendix (A) on Homeric Armour, to which atten-
tion is specially directed. If the views there given
are correct, almost everything written on the subject
previously to the appearance of Dr. Reichel's revolu-
tionary work has ceased to be of any value.
The reproduction of the famous Vaphio Cups
shown in Plate V gives an excellent idea of the
freedom and vigour which characterized Mykenaean
art, and may reasonably be taken to suggest the
treatment imagined by the poet for the subjects of
the shield of Achilles. A detailed account of the
cups will be found at p. 350 of Schuchhardt's
Schliemann's Excavations (English translation), a work
which every school library should possess.
I have to thank my friend Miss Alice Knox for
the two drawings of the Warrior, and my colleague
Mr. R. B. Botheras for the drawing of the Hera.

M. A. B.

May 1898.







SIEGE OF A CITY To face page




S ,, 338




BEFORE the beginnings of European history there
dwelt in Greece a people who called themselves
Achaians. They had probably come from the North,
through Thrace, and had settled in Thessaly and
Boeotia, in the Peloponnesos, in the islands of the
western coast, in Crete, and in a few of the neighbour-
ing islands which lie between Crete and the coast of
Asia Minor. They were a pure Greek race, and spoke
a pure Greek tongue, the parent of those dialects
which the Greeks themselves in after years dis-
tinguished as Aiolic.
The main seat of the Achaians was the inland
fortress of Mykenai, in the hills between Corinth and
the Gulf of Argos. But they were divided among
many petty princes, who dwelt in various strong towns,
chiefly along the eastern coasts and the islands, and
with few important settlements-perhaps only Pylos
and Kalydon-in the west. Sparta was probably their
main settlement next after Mykenai.
When they came into Greece we cannot even ap-
proximately tell. But we know that in the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries B.c. they had attained to great
wealth, and had produced a vigorous and beautiful


school of art. They were great builders, and much of
their work is still, after more than three thousand years,
a marvel for boldness of conception and solidity of con-
struction. Their rule must have lasted for several cen-
turies, but at length it fell, about 1000 B.C., before the
invading Dorians, a rude tribe of Greek mountaineers,
who pressed southwards from the hills around Thessaly.
The period at which we become acquainted with the
Achaians is that of the height of their civilization.
Such knowledge as we have of them at this time, the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries B.C., we owe to the
discoveries of Dr. Schliemann at Mykenai, since sup-
plemented by excavations at other sites in Greece. It
is at a later period, probably less than a century before
their destruction by the Dorians, that we gain a more
intimate acquaintance with them through the two great
poems which they have left us as their intellectual
inheritance, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
These poems have often been spoken of as popular
poetry, Volkspoesie, and have even been compared to
the ballad poetry of our own and other nations. It is
now generally recognized that this conception is radi-
cally false. The Iliad and Odyssey are essentially and
above all court poems. They were composed to be
sung in the splendid palaces of a ruling aristocracy, and
the commonalty have no part or lot as actors in them.
Even the slave and swine-herd Eumaios, the only figure
of the lower class of heroic society who takes a leading
part in either poem, is described as of princely birth,
kidnapped when a child and sold as a slave by Phoenician
traders. When the common sort are mentioned in the
Iliad in contrast to the kings' it is in terms of supreme


disdain; only one of them, Thersites, is given an in-
dividuality, and then only that he may be held up to
ridicule and humiliation. This is the first point which
must be clearly grasped by those who would enter into
the spirit of Homer; that the poems are aristocratic
and courtly, not popular.
The next is, that they are not to be regarded as the
outcome of a young and primitive people. They are
the offspring of an advanced civilization, the growth of
centuries; and of a civilization which was approaching
its decline and fall. It was in some respects a civiliza-
tion even more advanced than that which grew out of
the ruin brought about by the invasion of the Dorians.
When we attempt to fix the birthplace of the poems,
we are confronted with a problem of great magnitude
and complexity. After the occupation of the Pelo-
ponnesos by the Dorians, as is well known, three
great streams of colonization began to flow from Greece
to the opposite coast of Asia Minor : the Achaians, lead-
ing the Aiolian migration, formed settlements in the
northern parts of the sea-board, the Ionians in the
centre, and the Dorians in the south. For two reasons
-first, because the traditional knowledge of the poems
came to classical Greece through the Asiatic Ionians; 2
1 The origin of the lonians is still a moot point. According
to Herodotus they were the descendants of the Pelasgi, the
original inhabitants of the Peloponnesos, who had been reduced
to the condition of a subject population under the rule of their
Achaian conquerors, and had been Hellenized by them. There
are good grounds for believing that this is essentially the truth.
2 The student may be reminded that it is mainly from the
lonians of Asia Minor that the literature of historical Greece
took its new birth.


and secondly, because the language in which they have
been handed down, though somewhat mixed, is in the
main Ionian,-it has been supposed that the Iliad and
Odyssey were originally composed in Asia Minor. This
was the unanimous belief of antiquity, and it is main-
tained by many scholars in the present day. There
are, however, almost overwhelming considerations which
point to Achaia as the birthplace of the poems.
There can be no doubt that, wherever and whenever
the poems were composed, they profess to be com-
positions of poets living in Greece proper among the
princes of Achaia. Ostensibly at least they are en-
tirely pre-Dorian. There is not one word of the great
catastrophe which changed the face of Greece, nor a
single hint at the new life which sprang up after the
great migration, and changed the eastern Mediter-
ranean into a Greek sea. The life depicted in the
poems is that of a wealthy aristocracy living on the
produce of their lands, confined to Greece proper and
Crete, with a few neighboring islands, governed by
hereditary kings, and with a geographical horizon only
extending to Egypt on the one side, and perhaps
vaguely to Sicily on the other. But the Ionian
emigrants were above all things expansive and
commercial; their centres were Miletos, Ephesos,
Kolophon, and the other great towns of the Asian
coasts; their ships and their colonies went freely over
all lands, from the recesses of the Black Sea on the
one hand to Marseilles and Spain on the other. To
suppose that people thus overflowing with living
energy should care or be able to remove themselves
entirely from their surroundings and throw themselves


into a description of the past without allowing a single
allusion, or, so far as we can detect, a single anachron-
ism to escape them, is to credit them first with a power
of historic imagination, and next with means of archaeo-
logical research, such as have been hardly equalled in
the history of the world,-not even in our own age, with
all the resources of documentary study to help. For
it must not be forgotten that the world of Homer is a
real world, not a world of fancy. This is evident in
every line of the Iliad, and all but the obviously mythical
parts of the Odyssey. The surroundings among which
the characters move are as real and vivid as the char-
acters themselves; and they are as different as possible
from the surroundings of poets composing in Ionia.
It is not as if we were transported into a mere realm
of fairyland, where the poet could imagine and impose
upon us such scenery as he thought fit. Whenever we
can test the actualities of the poems we find that they
are at all events possible, and in many points they
coincide in a surprising way with the results which
recent discoveries have shewn us.
If in the face of reflections such as these it is
difficult to believe in an Asiatic origin for the poems,
the theory of an Achaian origin, while it presents no
equal difficulties of its own, offers the most satisfactory
explanation of the peculiar dialect in which the Iliad
and Odyssey are written. There is no difficulty in
supposing that when the sceptre of intellect passed
from the worn-out Achaian race to the fresh vigour of
lonia, the latter people took over the poetical inherit-
ance which the old Achaian families, under their new
name of Aiolians, had lost the art of keeping up. And


when the poems were taken over by the new singers, it
followed of necessity that the dialect was changed.
But the change could not be complete. Many of the
words of the old Achaian dialect differed in metre
from the corresponding Ionian words. Where this
happened it was necessary for the new singers either
to change the old text and modify whole lines in order
to introduce new words of their own, or to keep the
old words as they were in spite of their unfamiliarity.
The latter course was that which they adopted, and the
result was the so-called Epic dialect, which, with its
prevailing Ionic colouring, contains many words which
the laws of speech as well as the traditions of antiquity
tell us are Aiolic. As there is no doubt that the
typical Aiolic dialect was that spoken in the northern
colonies of Asia Minor, which were peopled by men
who claimed to be the immediate descendants of the
Achaians, we have every reason to suppose that these
words so strangely surviving among others of different
stock are nothing but relics of the old Achaian dialect
If this view is correct, we may date the oldest part
of the Iliad at least to some time before the Dorian
invasion, which, according to the traditional chronology,
took place about 1000 B.C.; a date agreeing sufficiently
well with the time probably needed for the develop-
ment of the Asiatic colonies, which arose from the
pressure of that invasion, and had already reached a
great height of prosperity and power by 750 B.C. But
1 That is, the First and Second Stratum. The Third
Stratum, though probably post-Dorian, is as likely to have
been Aiolic as Ionic in its origin.

the poems can hardly be much earlier than the invasion;
for there are various signs which indicate that the
civilization which they depict had made some advance
beyond that of which we find the material remains in
the shaft tombs discovered by Dr. Schliemann in the
Acropolis of Mykenai. The date of these has now been
fixed by Mr. Petrie, from comparison with Egyptian
remains, at about 1150 B.c. We can therefore hardly
be far wrong, if the poems were composed in Achaian
Greece, in dating their origin at about 1050 B.c.

A careful examination of the structure of the Iliad
shews that it cannot be the work of a single poet com-
posing uno tenore on a preconceived plan, and that plan
the outline of the poem as it has come down to us. It
is on the contrary the expansion, by successive additions,
of an original poem of much smaller dimensions. This
original poem was the MANIC or Wrath of Achilles,1 to
whose great quarrel with Agamemnon the enlargements
are nevertheless so subordinated that it still remains
the dominant motif of the whole. The portions of the
Iliad which formed the original Story of the Wrath are
very nearly as follows:
1. The whole of A and B 1-52, 441-458, 786-810.
(Achilles wronged by Agamemnon withdraws himself
and his men from the fighting, by way of revenge for the
insult he has received. Zeus at the prayer of Thetis
sides with Achilles, and induces Agamemnon by a de-
lusive dream, which promises him victory, to lead out
O Cp A 1 MANIN ae'Se, eg, e nHxd, Hm 'Axihfioc.


his forces to battle.1 The Achaians are in fact to be
defeated for want of the help of their chief champion.
In the meantime Iris is sent to the Trojans to bid
them come out on the plain to battle with assurance of
2. A 61--end. (The Rout of the Greeks.)
3. 0 592-end, and the whole of rI.- (The Achaians
are driven back to the ships, which the Trojans attempt
to set on fire. Patroklos persuades Achilles to let him
lead out the Myrmidons to battle. After doing great
deeds he is himself slain by Hektor.)
4. C 1-34 (Antilochos brings news of Patroklos'
death to Achilles), and scattered portions of C and
T leading up to the issuing of Achilles from the camp
as told at T 357-399.
5. T 381-end, Q 34-138. (Achilles slays Polydoros
and Lykaon.)
6. 0 5-40 end and X 1-404. (TheSlaying of Hektor.)
Such, or nearly such, is the great tale of the
"Wrath." Even though here and there in detail we
may have missed out some scene,3 or introduced an
episode which does not belong, we cannot fail to trace
in it the sublime conception of one mind, carried out
in flawless strength and impeccable vision. From

1 In B 51 6ropki4N is an alteration; the line occurs in its
original form with noXeu6NUg at 443.
2 Omitting 40-43, 64, 140-144, 248 (?), 796-800. These
lines are those which refer to the wearing by Patroklos of the
armour of Achilles. This had no place in the MANIc, in which
Patroklos goes out in his own armour.
3 We might for instance add, but with less certainty, C 148-
180, 202-313, T 40-87, 137-153, 303-325, T 353-380.


end to end we note the supreme mark of Greek genius,
the unerring relation of the parts to the whole.
Every scene is bright and clear before us as if it alone
were the creation of its author's mind; yet never for
an instant can we forget that each scene is but a
step in the development of a plan-a moment in the
accomplishment of the counsel of Zeus. It is what we
cannot but feel that the Iliad as a whole is not, a
unity and a creation.
One special mark of the story thus disentangled is
too significant to be passed over in silence. The
interest from beginning to end is almost purely human.
The gods form a background or underplot, but their
interference is such as becomes the rulers of the world,
not partisans in the battles. They nowhere take any
part in the fighting; indeed, they seldom appear at all
on the earthly stage. The intervention of Athene in
the first book is expressly confined to Achilles alone-
oTcp paINojaNH- T&'N b' aACON OGTIC 6paTro-,

as though to let us know that this is the way in which
the gods speak to the mind of man. Apollo invisible
stuns Patroklos, and Athene appears for a moment to
bring Hektor to a stand before Achilles. In other
words, the gods appear just so much as to let us
know what are the powers which control mankind from
heaven; but none the less it is purely human motive
and human action which guide the plot.
In this the MANIc is markedly differently from other
parts of the Iliad. It is in quite a different spirit that
we find Diomedes set to fight Ares and Aphrodite, or
Achilles with the River. Even the Odyssey is different,

where Athene is always at hand, or Ino or Kirke, to
give supernatural aid to Odysseus. It is in this
absolute predominance of the human interest that the
MRmc finds the power of appealing to our hearts, not
to our fancy only. From beginning to end of it we
are in the world and not in fairyland.
Second Stratum.-The additions made to this great
story may be divided into two classes. The first of
these, which may be called the Second Stratum of the
Iliad, consists in the main of tales of the prowess of
individual heroes. The type of all of them is the
Aristeia of Diomedes in E and Z. The parts of the
Iliad to be attributed to this stratum are-
1. B (excepting the Catalogue of the Ships and those
portions stated above to belong to the MANic), r, A, E,
Z, H 1-312.
2. N 136-672. (The Aristeia of Idomeneus.)
3. Perhaps the Aristeia of Menelaos over the body
of Patroklos in P.
The term Aristeia well characterizes the whole of
this stratum, in which individual heroes from time to
time come to the front and absorb our interest. Thus
in r and A Menelaos is the hero; in E and Z
Diomedes; in H Aias. The predominance of Ido-
meneus in N has been already remarked.1
This stratum serves a twofold purpose. Its im-
mediate occasion was no doubt to glorify the heroes

1 The whole stratum cannot however be regarded as con-
temporaneous; it is possible to trace within it various sub-
strata. For instance the duel between Menelaos and Paris in
r is no doubt subsequent to that between Aias and Hektor
in H.




of the great Achaian families who seemed to have
received too scanty notice in the MANIC. This of
itself seems enough to mark off this stratum as older
than the Dorian invasion; for the destruction of the old
families was the central fact of the new regime, and the
wrecks of them surviving as emigrants in Asia Minor
can hardly have been able to keep up the old family
state, with the family bard to sing the family deeds.
But the Second Stratum has another meaning, which
to us is the more important. The deeds of famous
ancestors concern us less than the structure of the
Iliad; and upon this the Second Stratum has exercised
a decisive influence. The first blow to the unity of
the plot was given when the Aristeia of Diomedes was
inserted. The feats of Achilles were over-shadowed
by those of Diomedes, and the perfect balance of
the old poem was grievously impaired. Yet what a
splendid compensation we get for such loss as this is !
We gain a superb panorama of the whole siege of Troy.
The Trojan heroes are introduced to us in the same
immortal touches which set Agamemnon and Achilles
before us in A,-Paris, Helen, Priam, Hektor and
Andromache, whom we know little or not at all from
the MtNic, are now in living presentment before our
eyes. The fighting, which was told in somewhat
formal fashion in A and nI, now takes every variety
of incident. We hear of the great families of Greece
and of their noble enemies and kinsmen,-Glaukos
and Sarpedon of Lykia. As Grote rightly felt, it is
books B-H which turn the Achilleid, as he calls his
MfNIC, into an Iliad. The poem has become truly


It is difficult to suppose that the poet of the MANic
is the author of the Second Stratum; he would scarcely
be likely to alter so fundamentally, and (especially in
respect of the interference of the gods in the human
action) with so different a spirit, the character of his
own story. On the other hand it cannot be questioned
that the best parts of these books are entirely worthy
of the author of the MANic: indeed the poet has never
lived of whom the scene between Hektor and Andro-
mache is not more than worthy.
Third Stratum.-We now pass into a quite different
region. As the Second Stratum consists entirely of
Aristeiai, the Third is composed of great individual
poems, led up to and connected by portions of nar-
rative which are in themselves treated as subordinate.
These new poems cannot be ascribed to a desire to
glorify particular heroes: they deal mostly with the
persons whom we already know, and introduce but
few fresh figures. They bear throughout the stamp of
creations composed solely for the sake of the delight
in beautiful poetry.
The most important of them are-
1. The Embassy to Achilles in I.
2. The Capture of the Wall in M.
3. The Deceiving of Zeus by Hera in and 0.
4. The Making of the Arms of Achilles in C.
5. The Funeral of Patroklos and the Games in F.
6. The Ransoming of the Body of Hektor in (.
To these must be added certain subordinate poems
which have not exercised so deep an influence on the
Iliad at large, such as-
7. The Doloneia or Story of Dolon in K.


8. The Fight of Achilles with the River in @, with
its pendant The Battle of the Gods.
9. The Catalogue of the Ships in B,
and numerous shorter episodes which will be discussed
in their proper places. The whole of 0 is an instance
of connecting narrative, introduced only to lead up to
the Embassy in I.
The different work of different hands is here far
more clearly separable than in the Second Stratum.
Four books stand out as notably later than the
rest-I, K, f, 0. The evidence for this is mainly
linguistic and cannot here be discussed; it must
suffice to say that the best scholars are agreed that
these four books shew numerous signs of change
in language, bringing it into close agreement with
that of the Odyssey, which is, as a whole, a good
deal later than that of the MfNic or of the Second
The story of the Making of the Arms of Achilles is
one which has had a marked effect on the construction
of the Iliad as a whole, for it brought with it the
necessity of first depriving Achilles of his armour,
and to this end was first invented the idea of making
Patroklos arm himself in the panoply of Achilles.
This new motive is very skilfully introduced into the
description of the starting of Patroklos from the camp
in n, but still we can see that there was in the
MANIC at first no notion of the exchange of armour.
The idea is no doubt a startling one at first sight, but
the notes on nI and P will shew how small a space the
addition takes, and how little effect it has on the
narrative. It has, indeed, been introduced not only


with skill, but in the most conservative manner. And
here, again, we cannot but be grateful for the innova-
tion, even if we regret the effect it has had on
the older poem; we can, indeed, hardly imagine the
Iliad without the description of the shield and the
magnificent appearance of Achilles at the trench. The
same may be said of the Embassy in I. The speech
of Achilles is one of the sublimest instances of rhetoric
which literature has given us.
If we are to suppose part of the Iliad to date from
before, and part from after the great migration from
Greece proper to Asia Minor, the break must coincide
with the division between the Second and Third Strata.
It is here that we find the greatest change in the spirit
of the work,-the attitude of the poet towards the
poem seems to have been changed. The desire to
glorify the great families of Achaian Greece has passed
away. The first step seems to have been taken to-
wards the development of lyric and elegiac poetry
from epic. In the latest part of the Iliad, the end
of 0, the lamentations over the body of Hektor begin
to wear a distinctly lyric garb. There is thus no
difficulty in setting the Iliad in its proper place in the
development of poetry which, as we know, took place
in the eighth and seventh centuries in the Aiolian
colonies of Asia Minor. Possibly the latest parts of
the Iliad may coincide in time with the earliest
growth of the great lyric school which blossomed into
There is no cogent reason for ascribing the Third
Stratum or any great portion of it to Ionian imitators.
The whole of it, with the exception of some minor


interpolations, may well be the work of Aiolian
successors of the Achaian bards, and have come into
being in the first two centuries of the period of
colonization, to speak roughly, between 1000 and
800 B.C.


ONE of the most striking features of the Epic Dialect is the
great variety of its stems and inflexions alike of verbs, nouns,
and pronouns. To a reader familiar only with the greater
simplicity of Attic, these forms, from their apparent arbitrari-
ness and irregularity, are apt at first to be nothing less than
bewildering; and the young student is accordingly recom-
mended to read carefully through the following Introduction
at least once or twice before attempting the text of the poem.
The dialect of the Homeric poems is Ionic ; but a few Aiolic
and Doric forms occur. It is sometimes called the Old Ionic,
as opposed to the New Ionic of Herodotus.
As a rule only Epic peculiarities will be dealt with in this
Introduction; no notice being taken of forms and uses which
survived in Attic, and with which the student is presumed to
be familiar.
Attic forms are given in ordinary type, after the Homeric
forms in the heavy type.



1. Vowels

H replaces 6: e.g. KpnH Kdp, p pa, 5p xa XkKC aXkea,
nhounci r6ac e.g.
ou replaces o: e.g. nouXdc roXzs, uOGNoc olkvos.

ei replaces t: e.g. SazNOC tpvos, cran6c o6Tep6s, efpcorTdc
ipordw, CYNeKa uVEKa.
cu is a contraction of eo (Attic ov): e.g. 1pxcu 9pXov, ueu
uov, edpccuc Odpoovs, noel.sUHN 7rowo6,p.yv.
Diphthongs are found in a resolved form : e.g. ndic rats, 4i
ei, 'ATpeCtHC 'ArpeiGrs.
Similarly vowels which would be contracted in Attic appear
uncontracted: e.g. epxeo gpXov, eanmN eTrev.
Prepositions especially suffer apocope : e.g. ndp rrapd, KdT KaTd.
So 5p, pa, &pa.
Many words are found with a smooth breathing which in
Attic are aspirated: e.g. kAioc iXos, iluu (Aiolic) beiv.

2. Consonants

Consonants are doubled or written single according to the
requirements of the metre. Thus we have 'AxiXelc and 'Axih-
Xelc, 'Obucdc and 'Obuccci6c, r6ccoc, aiccoc, 5ccoc, 5nncc,
Inecnci reae, &McCccEro dXlrETo. Similarly we find nT6Xic vr6Xs
and nrTX6k oc r6Xe/oe : this, in order to lengthen a preceding

3. The Digamma
The Digamma (F) is a letter which originally belonged to
the Greek alphabet, but afterwards disappeared. It is a labial
spirant, and had the sound of the English w. It was called
digamma from its form, which resembles one gamma (r) placed
on another. In Homer's time the letter was an essential part
of many words, in which its force must still be allowed for,
although the symbol is not printed in the texts.
When dying out, the letter was not infrequently replaced by
u: thus the u in Excua replaces the F of the earlier form E-xcF-a.
Again the sound survived in many Latin words whose Greek
equivalents lost it: cp. FoiKOS and vicus, FL6ei and video, Fdap
and ver, (F) orepos (where the aspirate represents the lost
digamma) and vesper, Flov and viola (violet). From go, E',
os, or, A two letters, oF, have been lost; cp. Lat. sui, suus.




When using a word which began with F Homer usually
allows for the force of the consonant; e.g.
cc noTr Tic Fepce . .
Kai noT I Tic Fel|nici . .
aYcua napFeincN . .
Frequently, however, the force of the F is neglected, as in
ninXon, oe I Foi oKS . .
Some words which no doubt originally had the F had lost
the sound even in Homer's time; e.g. 6pdco, 8poc, otpaNdc,
cbeco. It was, in fact, lost in all words beginning with o,
excepting the diphthong oi.




4. First Declension

Nom. in -a (for -71s): e.g. inn6T-a, NetpeHreper-a, ei0pon-a.
This is confined to titles of gods and heroes.
Gen. Sing. in -ao and -eco: e.g. 'ATpe~'-ao, 'Arpeti-scc.
This -cco is often scanned as one syllable; and after another
vowel it appears as -co: e.g. Bopd-c, uuuhwi-co.
Gen. Plur. in -cON, -&CON: e.g. KXICi-6CON, naC-&ON.
Dat. Plur. in -Ijci and -jc: e.g. abr-Qci abrais, KklCi-ItC
KX lass. The Attic -ac occurs only once in the liad and twice
in the Odyssey; see on M 284.

5. Second Declension

Gen. Sing. in -oe and -oo (ov) : e.g. 86d-oto So~ov, 6bAbqpe-6o,
'IM-oo. For o6 (from 6s) we should probably in several places
read 0o, though the form is only conjectural.
Gen. and Dat. Dual in -otr both for Second and Third
Declension : e.g. Ynn-oiN, noB-otin.



6. Third Declension
1. Ace. Sing. in -a after H representing HU and eu. Thus we
have from NHO-c, ship, NH-a (for vqv-a, vrFa); from BaciXed-c,
BacakA-a. So the other cases, Baaci-oc etc. Also cOplc gives
eCpt-a. NHOC besides NAa, NH6C, NHI, NfEC, NfCIC, NHCON, NAICI,
gives less commonly Gen. N6c, P1. Ntcc a, N NCCN, N&GCCI.
2. Gen. Sing. Stems in -i retain the I, instead of dropping it
and inserting c: e.g. n6dl-oc 7sXe-ws, uihn-oc. And so in the
other cases. n6Xic gives also n6KH-oc, n6XH-1, n6XH-ec, and
n6Xc-oc, nT6Xe-'.
AOc or 40-c, good, gives gen. &A-oc, perhaps by exchange of
quantity for id-os.
Note that noXi-c makes Gen. nohi-oc, P1. noMX-ec, noXt-ac
etc., following the regular declension of nouns in -vs, as S i-s.
3. Dat. Sing. in -eT, -HI: e.g. Kpdr-e', 'AxiX-fI.
Nouns in -ic also give -i: Neu.cci, K6Ni, uJfi.
Stems in -u, Gen. -u-oc, give -ui (diphthong) : e.g. nXxe-ul.
4. Ace. Plur. Stems in -i and -u which form Acc. Sing. in
-N often form Ace. P1. in -ic and -Oc (for -ws, -vvs): e.g. Sic,
c0c, Bo0c, ixe0c.
5. Dat. Plur. in -ccc and -ca besides -a, as in Attic : e.g. SaFp-
ecci, 86-ecci, n6d-ecci, noki-ecci (r6bss), no.-ecci (roXd s), nocci.
Note the following : rdNU-cci, ana-cci.

7. The Ending -qp((N)
Nouns of all declensions are found with a case-ending -95(N),
which is both Sing. and Plur., with the following meanings:-
(a) Instrumental: e.g. 81H-qpl by force.
(8) Locative: e.g. Spec-cpy on the mountains.
(r) Ablatival Gen.: e.g. Inb Ncupfl-qm from the bowstring.

7a. Heteroclite Nouns
1. There are many Heteroclite Nouns, i.e. nouns shewing
different inflexions by employing distinct stems. Such are
binruxo-c, Ace. irrrux-a: 6XKi4, Dat. 6KK-i: ucafNH, Dat.



6cutN-I: IoKAi, Ace. i&K-a: 'AtIH-c, Gen. "AYT-oc, Dat. "ATha-:
r6NU, Gen. rouN6 (for yovF-6s), Plur. roON-a etc. ; also roNarT-
oc etc. noXk6-c, much, is declined throughout from stem
noAko-, as well as from stem noXu- (see 6. 2 ad fin.)
2. u16-c, son, shews three stems:-
(1) (Stem uio-) ui6-c, ulk, and very rarely uioG, ui@, ulioci.
(2) (St. ui-), Ace. uT-a, Gen. uT-oc, Dat. uT-i, Dual uT-c,
Plur. uT-Ec, ut-ac, ud-ci.
(3) (St. uie(F) for uiu-), Ace. ulk-a, Gen. uk-oc, Dat.
uit-T, Plur. uk-ec, uld-ac.
3. KdpH, head, shews-
(1) Gen. Kapiar-oc, K6pHT-OC, Dat. KapiarT-, KdpHT-I.
(2) Gen. KpdaT-oc, Dat. Kp6ar-i, Plur. KpdaT-a.
(3) Ace. Sing. KpaT-a, Gen. Kpar-6c, Dat. KpaT-i, Plur.
KpdT-CWN, Kpa-Ci.

8. Contraction and Hyphaeresis
1. Gen. Sing. -coc in a few nouns contracts into -cuc: e.g.
edpc-cuc Odipovs, ekp-cuc Opovs.
2. When the combinations ee-a and ce-Y occur in the Ace.
and Dat. S. of Adjectives, the second c of the stem is dropped
by hyphaeresis : e.g. aucKX4a (6uKcrde-a), NHIXa (V yX-a), NHA't
(vXre-i). Similarly in Neut. Plur. KK4-a (KXV-a), rep-a
(y7pa-a), Kpd-i (Kpla-a).
3. The following contracted forms &uKXcl-4c, &uKXe1-ac,
6raKAr-oc, r'aTpoKXA-oc, auppet-oc, cnci-ouc, cnfA-i are for
&uKcec-ac, duKei-ac, 6raKxc-oc, nawTOOKXe-oc, iupped-oc,
cnde-oc, cn&-Y. The metre always admits the uncontracted
forms and these should probably be restored to the texts.

9. Personal Pronouns
First Person.
Sing. Nom. &r6r
Gen. &ua o, Lueo, &ae0, ueu, &JteeN


Plur. Nor. Ianec
Ace. &iune, uAnac, ALiac (once)
Gen. AncicoN, AJicoN
Dat. &fiuu(N)
Dual Nom. Ace. N&I, Ncb
Gen. Dat. NCIN
Second Person.
Sing. Nom. T6NH
Gen. ceto, co, ceO, ceeN, TtOIO
Dat. Tof, re'N
Plur. Nom. (Oua c
Ace. (iune, Ou6ac
Gen. 6uaeim 6N oBN
Dat. inuui
Dual Nom. Ace. cycoi, cpfc
Gen. Dat. camIN
Third Person.
Sing. Ace. &d, 8, jai acr6v
Gen. eTo, go, e5, eCNe oi
Dat. tot, oi
Plur. Ace. ccp, cqcpac, cpac
Gen. cpecoN, ccpON
Dat. cycp(N). aros
Dual Ace. ccpqo (enclitic)
Dat. cpcoTtN (enclitic)
The last is both a Reflexive and a Personal Pronoun. In the
latter (commoner) use it is usually enclitic.

10. Demonstrative Pronouns
6, A, T6, gives-
Plur. Nom. Tof, Tai
Dat. Toci, TQcf, T7C
Obs.-In Homer 6, A, T6 is not the Definite Article, but a
Demonstrative (Personal) or Relative Pronoun.
bbe gives-
Plur. Dat. TokcecCI(N) and To'TCeCI(N)




11. Relative, Indefinite, and Interrogative Pronouns

sc, 9i, 8 gives-
Sing. Gen. go o5 (Sou is a false form), and EHC qi
Tic, who gives-
Sing. Gen. T o, TEO iros9
Dat. Ttcp rTi
Plur. Gen. T6cN rvziW
Tic, any one, gives, besides the above forms unaccented-
Sing. Dat. TCp
Scric gives-
Sing. Ace. Neut. 8TT
Gen. 5rreo, 8Treu, BTCU
Dat. 6TtC3, STCP
Plur. Gen. 6TrWN
Dat. 6Ttoici
Obs.-6 of 6, rt also combines with Tic, as 5 TiC=aT7rr.


It is important to seize the meaning of the following
adverbial suffixes.
-el place where : e.g. bei where, abei here, there, n6ei where?
noel somewhere, aUT6el in that very place, oI6del in the house,
'IkX6el in Ilios.
-ea place: e.g. 9NOa there, where, Vinaiec under.
-e(N) place: e.g. np6cee(N), incpee(N). Distinguish this
suffix with N #eXKiuvar1iK6 from
-eCN place whence : e.g. See, aXXoeeN, AideeN.
This suffix is often used with prepositions: e.g. 6n' ofpa-
N6dCN, &K Ald6eN. It is found in c4eeN soP.
-TIC in a&Tic (Att. abOts) back, again. (Beware of confusing
this word with aGei here, there.)
-be place whither : e.g. oiK6Nae, no eu6Nbe, hXa e to the sea.




13. Augment

1. The augment is frequently omitted; less frequently in
speeches than in narrative, where the context makes it clear
that past time is meant.
2. Many instances occur of verbs which begin with a vowel
taking the temporal augment &-. In most of these cases an
original initial consonant has been lost. Thus F has been lost
in &-drH (e-Fiy-), I-ine (f-Feare), eThoN (f-iov, f-FtSov). c has
been lost in &-dccro, and dYcaTo sat (for -e-4va-, for d-aeS-aa),
etxoN (f-e-Xov). In these cases the c became the rough breath-
ing (&-tea became f-f8), and then this was thrown back on the
augment (f-fS became 9-e3). This did not happen with eTxoN
because of the aspirate x following.
3. In the following the vowel of the stem has been
lengthened after 4-: e-iNbaNe (f-Fditavce), &N-t-cproN (Ad--
Fooyov), and in Perfect stems, as i-ch nei (FeXlr-), i-c@Ke(FLK-).

14. Stem-Variation

1. Many verbs shew their stem in two forms, a long and a
short: thus we have qH-pl and l Cd-pji, YCTH-/ and Ycrd-Mev,
f-BH-v and Bd-Qri, Tien-ye and Tiee-pau. As a rule the Longer
Stem goes with the Shorter Endings, and vice versa, on the
principle of compensation. The Person-endings have accord-
ingly been divided into Light Endings (chiefly those of the
Sing. Indic. Active) and Heavy Endings (all the others).
2. In the Perfects and Aorists in -Kl the longer stem has
gained an additional consonant: e.g. LcrH-K-a, eOH-K-a.
3. Third Plurals of Perfects like nenoieac, Acri4KacI (rare in
Homer), and of Aorists like eHK NI, EacKON, are obvious excep-
tions to the rule, a Long Stem being combined with Heavy
4. qaci, Icraci, kcrac, Tieeci, BiaoOci, zeurNOci, are only
apparent exceptions, being for ya-NT, etc. See 16. 5.



15. Thematic Vowels. Thematic Forms
The tenses which are characteristic of Verbs in -co, i.e. the
Pres., Imperf., Future, 'Strong' Aor., shew before the ending
the vowel e or o: e.g. AX-o-ueN, &AK6--Tr, h6c-o-uEN, 4n6e-o-
NTO. The o is found before j and N, the a before other letters.
These two vowels are called the Thematic Vowels, because they
form out of a simpler stem or root a new 'theme' (Auo-, nueo-,
etc.) for the purposes of tense-formation. In the Subjunctive
(only) they become H and co.
A form which shews no thematic vowel is called Non-
Thematic: e.g. ypn-ui, cT-ni, rNCO-N, EBH-N.
The term 'Thematic' can be applied to a form or teAse or
stem or, as in the case of the Subjunctive, to a mood; but
obviously not to a whole verb.

16. Person-Endings
1. 1 Sing. The ending -at is found in the Subjunctive of
some Thematic Tenses : e.g. oedA-co-uI, Tdx-co-aI.
2. 2 Sing. The ending -cea (found in Attic in the Indicatives
ac-Oa and otlOa) is used in the Subjunctive: e.g. ie&kh-cea,
3. Note the c dropped in tBABH-al (PffX8y-rat), A.tuNH-CI
(-o-at), iLpNa-o (pidpva-oro Imper.) etc. Also the e dropped
(by hyphaeresis, see 8. 2) in EucXe-o (ieKXe-o), utec-ai (pIvoEe-ar).
4. 3 Sing. The ending -ci is found in the Subjunctive,
chiefly when the First Pers. takes -at ; &etdh-c, Tdx-I-cI.
5. 3 Plur. In the Pres. Indic. Act. of verbs in -uL we have
(not, as in Attic, ri0-dea-, t&8-aari, fevyvev-a&s, but) Tiecci,
8iBo0oc, zeurNOci, where the process of formation is nr1e-vrn,
ne-s-vt, rTtOe IcracI is found in Attic as well as in Epic.
6. Besides the ending -caN, used in Attic (p/i- -av, Non-Thematic Past Tenses take an ending -N (for -Pr, cp. Lat.
era-nt): e.g. Epa-N, crTa--N Trl-o-a,, riuee-N rlt 0o--av,, EBs-N
4fS,-uav. Note that the vowel before this N is always short.
7. In the Middle we have after consonants and I (including ei,

ij,.a, o1) the endings -TCra, -TO: e.g. &pHpib--ral, TeTrex-cTaal,
Terpd~-aro, nueof-aTo. Sometimes also after u and H: e.g.
eip-crrai, S BXh-aTa.
8. 2 and 3 Dual. These are for Past Tenses in Attic -TON,
-THN, Mid. -ceoN, -ceHN, and so usually in Homer. But a ten-
dency towards uniformity, which in Attic gives us frequently
-TrY, -rip, acting the opposite way in Homer, gives us three
certain instances of -TON, -TON, i.e. of -TON for the 3rd Pers.


17. The Present and Imperfect

Certain formations, unfamiliar because of their rarity in
Attic, are common in Homer.
1. Thematic Forms:
In -io, -ailo, -cl0: e.g. Tico honour, Kcpa1io mix, eeic run,
xeico pour. There is a tendency to shorten or drop the i before
a vowel: thus we have Tri honour, and Tico, *diNe be thou
wroth, udcerI lash thou; &ralo-maI wonder, but 6rd-a-cee (by
assimilation for &yd-e-a0e); O&ON running, T&e-o-N as well as
T&Xe-O-N (impf.)
In -cao: e.g. zh-eA he lives; iBpC-oNTac sweating; OnNck-
ONrac sleeping.
2. Non-Thematic Forms:
With the suffixes NH and NO (before heavy endings NE and
Ni) : e.g. 6j.L-NH-mI I subdue, nfp-Na-c, pres. part. selling, Kip-
NH mixed, Kip-Na-C mixing, niK-NU-Tra cones near, TI- -NNTUI
they punish, Ki-NU-NTO were moving, baf-NU he feasted, &-Kai-
NO-TO he surpassed. Notice the i for e in Kip-NH (cp. Kep-dV vltt)
and nik-Nurri (cp. ireXas).
3. Some forms belonging to verbs in -6co, -&d, -6co are Non-
Thematic: e.g. CUKX-THN they two despoiled (not an "irregular
contraction of a Thematic cavXa-rTr "), cplr-asuria to love, &i16-
Nmc (tb6w) to live. Similarly in Attic ^j, wretv, & 74 'r, oup,
are really non-thematic formations, for pi-ct, iretdy-ot, etc. the
-a having been dropped, and the & subscript added by analogy.




4. Present Indicatives like uceleTc, UeeieT, TleeTc, baioac,
and Imperfects like abibouN, ()TvieCl, adu6Na, EKipNa are
irregular; being formed on the analogy of contracted verbs,
though they belong to verbs in -ji.
5. The two verbs eTAl and clAi exhibit a great variety of
forms. These are for convenience all given here.
(a) eTJa go:
Pres. 2 Sing. eTcea ET
Impf. 1 Sing. iiia, AiLon ie w
3 Sing. hIe(N), Ai,, eC(N), Ye(n)
1 Plur. '(eN, o.lEN
3 Plur. iaCaN, YcaN, ?iON
Future eYcoual, ecTcrai
Sigmatic Aor. icd6uHN, EICdj.HN, EcicdCOHN
Subj. 2 Sing. YHcea, 3 Sing. YTCIN, 1 Plur. YOcEN
Opt. 3 Sing. iedH
Inf. YJasNal, YcMN
(8) eLui be:
Pres. 2 Sing. cca, eTc et
I Plur. ecUiN
3 Plur. Eact delo
Imperf. 1 Sing. ia, 9a, EHN, EON (ljv and 4)
2 Sing. 'Hcea rcOa
3 Sing. eCN, EHN, 4HN j, ECKE
3 Dual fcmN
3 Plur. EcaN
Iterative ICKON
Future 1 Sing. Eccouai
3 Sing. Eccral, AcceTral
Subj. 1 Sing. Eco and eYco(?)
2 Sing. Ejc
3 Sing. Eijc, ac, Ej
Opt. 2 Sing. Eoic, 3 Sing. loi, 2 Plur. eITE
Imperf. Mid. ecco, 2 Sing.
Inf. EuueNal, ueNan, 'uueN (which is perhaps
iunLeN' for EuACNai)
Participle dabn etc.



18. The Non-Thematic Aorists

(a) With 1 Sing. Act. in -N : e.g. gBH-N, ECTH-N, EKT7-N. The
stem-vowel is occasionally varied according to the principle
given in 14: e.g. 8&-THN, 6inp-B~-caN. Middle forms : xI-To
was poured, XI-ro was loosed, iX-ro (C 615n.), nKX-To, nXAI-NTb
he (they) came near, KTi-AUeNOC built, KT&-.UNOCc killed, ob0T-
useai to wound.
Note the exceptional forms EKTL he slew, OOT6 he wounded,
An-nXwco-c thou sailedst over, kirip-a he grew old, Boch-Trc let hisi
live. The last three are apparently derived from nouns (rX6o-s,
-y/pa-q, plo-T).
(B) With 1 Sing. in -a, six in number: Ecceu-a I urged,
EKH-a 1 burned, Excu-a I poured, AXei6-aro he avoided, Eein-a
and cTna I said, 4fNElK-a I bore.
(r) With 1 Sing. in -K-a (see 14. 2), three in number: ecHKa,
flCOKa, 9HKa and iKa I sent forth.
(2) Aorists from verb-stems in X, u, N, p.

19. The Sigmatic Aorist

1. This Aorist is also non-thematic, but is conveniently classed
alone. The c is often doubled : &K6ucCca, &p6ccal (and Lpiccal)
to draw, seiNicce entertained.
2. There are a few sigmatic aorists formed with a thematic
vowel: e.g. iBice-TO went, TaON came, nchXcce-TON, dual imper.
bring ye me near, Xaes-o lay thee down, bpcc-o arise, oYce-Tr
bring ye, &z-t~r bring ye, 6&sd-uenai to bring.

20. The Thematic Aorist

1. The stem is formed by adding the Thematic vowel e or a to
the short formof the verb-stem (14): e.g. &-Xde-E-To (Xr1-w) he for-
got, ,-nie-o-Nro (relBd-w) they obeyed, L-ypur-o-N (e6ty-w) they fled.
2. This aorist is frequently reduplicated : e. g. ne-meEdN mr0eiv,
Xt-XaeoN fXaOov, Vip-ape, -einoN (contracted eTnoN), hr-aroN.
The last three, but no others, are found in Attic.



21. Iterative Tenses
These are formed with the iterative suffix CK and the thematic
vowels (CK-E, CK-O).
1. Presents: q9-cKCO, Bd-CKC go thou, npo-BX3w-CKt-.Eu N to go
before. In most Presents the iterative force is lost.
2. Past tenses, formed (a) from a Present Stem: as ECKe (for
&E-CKB) used to be, Exe-CKe used to hold, ncoX-eccK-To used to sell ;
(B) from an Aorist Stem, as CY'n-CKe used to say, G6ca-cKc kept

22. The Perfect
1. In most Homeric Perfects the stem varies with the person-
ending (14), as in the Attic Perfects ot3a and fanoKa (cp. otb-a and
Yc-ceN, eCTH-xa and 9cra-uJ N) : e.g. OIlKa am like, Dual IYK-TON,
Part. 4OIK= c, Fem. Yi'K-uTa: ninolea, 1 Plur. Plupf. 4-nndme-usN:
&pHpe, Part. Fem. 6pap-uTa: nnnoNea, Part. Fem. nende-uTa.
2. When the short form of the stem ends in a vowel, the
longer stem follows the form of either (a) AIJUONa or (8)
T&TaHKa. Thus we get-
juijoNa "rLia-uJN
aIUNoa-c ju.al-roN j LC-TC
JIUONE Uad.U-TrN JaUneu-ac
and T-rXHKa, T TXHKC-C, TrTAHKC, TtTX--JUIN. Similarly we
have rdroNa and rEra-jeN, TieNHKa and TeeNaCI (reCOl-a-T),
niqpOa and ncqp)-aci, 8.8oIKa and aecia-ueN.

23. The Pluperfect
1. The Singular Active is formed with the Suffix -ca and
the augment: e.g. -rTeein-ca, ANchr-ca, @-ea, 2 Sing. AfiiBH
(id3-eas), 3 Sing. i-ncnoieel (hrevolO-ee).
2. The Dual and Plural are formed by adding the Secondary
Person-endings to the Perfect Stem, with or without the aug-
ment: e.g. d-ntie-xccn, Ecr,-caN, B&Ba-coN. This method is
rare in the Singular: e.g. aeiiC, AdNhNoe, rn-ENNoee,O forma-

tions parallel to that of an aorist like Xvae. The Passives are
all formed in this manner: e.g. &-rTruK-ro, AkXiXa-TO.

24. The Future

1. As in Attic, verb-stems ending in p, X, N, N drop the c
which is the characteristic of the Future, and insert c ; but
whereas the Attic forms are contracted, the Homeric forms as a
rule are not.
Thus we get-
Homeric Attic
ilrrek--co d-Y-eX
Bak--co paX\i
&p-i-co epo
Notice, however, bia- 2. Many other verbs also drop the c, so that we find-
Homeric Attic
&K6-col dexc
iXd-aN 2 eXav
TEX-cO TCXga(,
Kpe_6-co 3 KpefJw
Awn-co3 dvrdro
6mNT|6-&C3 dv7-tiftW
And so am6-co,3 bauaT, TaNd-co, ncpd-aN,3 pdi-co, Kopd-eic.
3. Notice Ac-cec-Tai will be, neco-NwTa will fall; cp. Attic
eoCtata, rXhevro/at. These are formations corresponding to
the Doric Future in -cco.
4. Futures are formed from the stem of the Perfect or Re-
duplicated Aorist: e.g. KCxapA-cE-Tra will he glad (KExapn-6Ta,
KeXydpo-vTo), nemnie-cco (rertb i), nepl--ce-Tai (either from
faltw, and meaning shall appear, or from *4epw and meaning
shall be slain ; in either case notice the peculiar lengthening of
the stem reva-).
1 By assimilation (see 28) for iAdm which is for Ad-.-.w.
2 By assimilation for eAd6v (Ihd-o-eyv).
3 By assimilation.




25. The Subjunctive

1. Tenses that are non-thematic in the Indicative regularly
form their Subjunctives by adding the thematic vowels to the
stem. Thus we have-
Non-thematic Indic. Subjunctive
TY-ueN '-o-mcN fwuev
Evuca Xdc-o-eN aowXev
4-n&nle-uNA nenole-o-LewN
kneIpHC-id-IHN ntipAcc--0rasi reLpi0Trat
2. The Subjunctives corresponding to thematic Indicatives
were formed, as in Attic, by lengthening the e and o to H and Co.
This method encroached on the former, so that we find non-
thematic forms also taking ca and H-
(a) in the Sing. and 3rd Plur. Active,
(b) in the 2nd and 3rd Dual and Plural Middle.
Thus we get (e.g.) Non-Thematic Aor. Subj. Act. of Y-CTH-uI:
crA-co cr-o-jnaN
crA-HC cTr-e-Tro crTi-e-Te
crTI- crT-A-TON crTi-coci

Sigmatic (non-thematic) Aor. Subj. Mid. of Adca:
Mhc-o-nal Xuc-6-aeea
hdc-e-ai Xic-H-ceoN Xiic-H-cee
Xic-E-Tra Xii-H-ceoN KXiC-CO-NTai
3. When the Verb-stem has a long and a short form, the Subj.
takes the long form, as crTA-c, ypA-1, nenole-onue, BA-oues.
The three aorists in -Ka, however, drop the K, as 6HN-i, eA-H,

4. Forms like criOw-.eN, edco-xue (rilOqu) are by mnetathesis
of quantity for ci-To-Aev, Oo-yev.
5. Note the First Singulars ei-co, KiXEi-C, Tpanei-on e.N,
8acmi-c* etc. shewing et for n.
6. Thematic Subjunctives in the Middle occasionally shew
-ecm for -Hal: e.g. ulcr-Eal, KaTicx-eai. Note the scanning
BilXiai (X 380).



7. The Attic Futures (so-called) eouca, xco are really
Subjunctives which have survived with their original meaning.
nm-6ueNa (cp. Att. iri-onat) going to drink, KaKKei-ONTCC going to
lie down, apaiNac thot art for doing, are apparently presents
containing a desiderative suffix -yw.

26. The Optative
The formations do not differ from Attic, save in eidu and euin
(for which see 17. 5) and some exceptional cases which will be
explained in the notes. As in Attic, Non-Thematic Tenses
insert IH before Light Endings and i before Heavy Endings : e.g.
9pa-IH-N, ee-fH-N, pQa-?-ueN, Fi-ec-'-Te.

27. The Infinitive
1. Non-Thematic tenses form their Infinitive byadding -usNal
or (after short vowels only) -JuN to the stem : e.g.
Homeric Attic

Teend-ueNani revidva
Y-.UeN i-r'at
86-nEN o0O-vat (for 8o-lVat)
Obs. iua nE clat, appears to transgress the rule given above,
that MEN follows short vowels only; but it may be for leralpa,
since, wherever it occurs, it may be written S/tEem'.
2. Non-Thematic Tensesalso take the ending -evat, but (except
in I-tNai) this is only found in a contracted form, as in eetNal
(OBE-pat), aooNGa (So- Sat), ypopfNai (eope-Vat).
3. Thematic Tenses take -&d-auNa and -nseN as well as (as in
Attic) -EN: e.g. eine-auNai, Ein-ureN, nhXk-EIN. The Thematic
Aor. shews -6-EIN as well as (as in Attic) the contracted form
-eiN: e.g. BaXkd-EN, SaTN, Iab-EIN.

28. Assimilation
1. Verbs in -co appear in an unfamiliar form by assimilation.


(i) a yields to o or co following; so that
eI-opa& becomes eicop6co
eCopdoLTre ,, etcopd6pTe
eloopdov re ,, elcopcoNTrec
(ii) a prevails over an e or H following ; so that
eicopders becomes eicop6gc
elaopips ,, Eicopg9c
2. When the a is originally long, it sometimes becomes co,
so that
l foPoTes becomes BS4OONTEC
jUevosrd ,, JUCNOINc5c
3. When the a is originally short, the second vowel is
usually lengthened ; so that from eirop&ovres we get, as shewn
above, eliopboavres rather than eidopbovres.
4. Sometimes both vowels are long; as IABtccca, opcbcoc (for
5. Sometimes Verbs in -dco lengthen the second o: e.g.
BH'idtNTec, for i'i60vres.



The use of the cases without prepositions is much freer than
in Attic ; and the freedom frequently found in the Attic poets
(as compared with the prose uses) is largely a survival of the
earlier elasticity.

29. The Accusative
1. The Internal Accusative. -One great purpose served by the
Accusative is to define the mode or limit the extent of the action
of the Verb as an Adverb would. This use is much more
extensive in Homer than in Attic. Not only Neuter Pronouns


and Adjectives, but many Substantives are used adverbially.
Examples are-
(a) Pronouns and Adjectives: T76ae Aaihcral acts with this
fury; T68' iK6NcE C comest on this occasion; Tb l' &UbN Kflp
SxNuTaifor this or therefore my heart grieveth ; 8, 8 TI, in that,
because, as 6 T' &ubN ohItx6CKION Erxoc ~eiNac inasmuch as
thou dost abide my spear ; 6Esa KECKAHrcC, uttering sharp cries.
(B) Substantives: firare CISoNiHeeN ... TN 6W6N UN 'EM-
NHN nep a6Nrare brought on the occasion of the voyage (adv. of
time), over which (ace. of space, i.e. adv. of extent) he brought
back Helen; &rrekfHN ke6NTa going on a message; hamiNNTa
rduoN or T&pON entertaining at a marriage or funeral, giving a
marriage or funeralfeast; oi0 TI IYcpBoc uc STaC KaTXWEEac
not with falsehood ; nan 9pron Ondsoulai in every matter will I
yield; Piyei xeipbc &XCN 6nb niprou XurpbN bhcepoN in mourn-
ful destruction (adv. of manner); qppNa Trpnero was delighted
in his heart; bunac nup6c after the form of, i.e. like, fire; o0
Kre uhNoc ceased not raging (the ace. limits XfrA just as vrdvv
would have done) ; TbN B6dE KNIIAHN struck him on the shin;
Tp&ac T p6JUoc aiNb 6nniXuee ruTa 9KaCTON dread fear came
over the Trojans, each of them (ace. in appos. to TpSac) in his
limbs (ruta limits like an adv.); not6lN ce 'noc ipiFrN EpKOC
686NTc N hath escaped thee over the barrier of thy teeth (EpK.
6&. is modal and equivalent to an adverbial expression indicat-
ing route taken); oY cdrrxkhN I atu' &nokXxuacoNTan shall lick
the blood from thy wound (cc and aTua are the two accusatives
common with verbs of deprivig ; &TreIXiN limits the action
adverbially as in the last example but one). With Adjectives:
BON a6rae6c brave on the occasion of the war-shout, i.e. in war ;
& tiNcoN naNToiac 6perdc better in every kind of excellence.
Obs.-The Cognate Ace. is not the original type, but only a
particular form, of this adverbial use ; so that the term "quasi-
cognate" should be discarded as misleading.
2. The External Accusative.-Verbs of speaking (especially
when compounded, as npocuioa, npocein& ) take an Acc. of
the person addressed: e.g. Enoc T UAmN 6NTION HNiba: epacbN
"EKTopa CenE.


30. The Dative
1. The Locatival Dative is freely used without a preposition.
This is rare in Attic, even in poetry. Examples are : 'IXic
in Ilios, "ApreT in Argos, oipaNc in the sky, oupeci in the
mountains, x6pcp at the dance, B&Neeci XluNHC in the depths of
the lake, Kapbij, cppec, euui in the heart, etc.
2. The Dative is used after Verbs of Motion where we should
expect an Acc. with preposition (so occasionally in Attic, and
cp. Latin it clamor caelo) : KUN4d BdKe threw in the helmet,
nebico nce fell on the plain.

31. The Genitive

1. The Objective Gen. is used very freely, especially with
words indicating emotion, as grief, anger, etc. : e.g. TpdOwN
x6Xoc wrath at the Trojans ; xdhoN ui6c anger at the death of his
son; Exoc cieen grief for thee ; 'EkXNHC 6p.Iu~iaTd Te croNaxdc
TC efforts and groanings about Helen ; XpKoc noXh-oio a bulwark
in or against war; Tkpac dNepcincoN a sign to men; Bij
IdKONToc with force used on one unwilling, in spite of.
2. Gen. of Time in course of which (cp. Attic VwKTcr in the
night): toOc in the morning ; 6ncdpHc in autumn; NHNELUIHC in
windless weather.
3. Gen. of Place within which: NCpoc oO (CpaNCTO ndcHC
] raiHC oT' 6p&ON no cloud appeared on all the land; oiK
"Apreoc AiN was not in Argos ; Toixou TO0 &kTpoI against the
other wall; oi JN bUCOugNOU TnfepioNoc, oi 6N16NTOC some
by the setting, some by the rising sun, in the East . the West;
KONIONTEC neio8o hastening over the plain ; nupbc npAca, to
burn in fire.
No other Homeric uses call for notice here. Special diffi-
culties are treated in the notes.

32. Nominative and Vocative
Special uses of the Nominative are dealt with in the notes.
With regard to the Vocative, note that when two persons


are addressed, connected by Te, the second name is put in
the Nominative: e.g. ZeO ndTep . 'HaXi6c TE.

33. Adverbial use. Tmesis. Compounds
1. Adverbial Use. This is very common in Homer: e.g.
nepi round about, exceedingly ; On6 underneath ; np6 in
front ; EN there ; &up on either hand; &ni over, besides, behind ;
np6c in addition, moreover ; napt besides, close by; Bid apart.
So ndpa, gm, 9NI when used with ellipse of elpi: e.g. n6pa
B' 6NAp the man is here.
2. Tmesis. Verbs compounded with prepositions are fre-
quently found with the preposition separated from the Verb
by one or more words: e.g. Onb B' Ecxcro imceoN and promised
hire (bdeaxe-ro). The term T/t.LtIs, severance, is so far mislead-
ing that it seems to imply that a compound verb has been
divided, whereas the usage represents a stage in the formation
of Compound Verbs at which the meaning of the Preposition
had blended into the meaning of the compound, but the place
of the Preposition was not yet fixed" (Monro.)
3. The following Compound Prepositions are found: &upi
nepf, 6no-np6, Bia-np6, Bal-K, nap-ie, nepi-np6, On-6K. In these
compounds the second part does little more than add emphasis;
the first governs both the meaning and the construction.

34. Prepositions with Nouns
The following are specially Homeric uses-
6Nd (1) with Dat. : a6N CKIATpcp on a staff; (2) with Gen.
(three times in Odyssey, but with n&6s only): BN NHbC &Biccro.
bid is used in a local sense with Ace. (in Attic with Gen.
only): 8th N6KTa uhXaiNaN through the dark night.
KrrId means not only down from (Kar' opavoI), but also
down on, down into: KaT xeoNbc 5jum.LaT niAzac down on the
ground; Kar' 6p9eaKmchu N KxXUT' &xXdc a mist was shed over
his eyes.


nerT is used with Dat., meaning (1) between, in; as jerh
xcpCiN: (2) among, as ueCrh NHUCIN.
nap6 and &ni (the latter also in Attic poetry) are used with
the Dat. with Verbs of Motion (see 30. 2).

35. Improper Prepositions
The following is a list of Improper Prepositions, i.e. Adverbs
used with a case. The beginner will find it worth while to
learn them once for all.

(a) With the Genitive.

grxi near, close to
Nieu, aNeues(N) without, apart
&NTa, uNTioN facing, before
6NTIKpO over against, straight
Arrdc, Arrdel near
eYNCKa on accounOt of
AKdC far from
&K6TepOE On either side
9KHTI by favour of
ec(N) outside of, far from,
apart from
ENBON, ENaoec(N) within

aina at same time wi
iuirba together with
6uo0 together with

ENepee beneath
ENTOC, eNroces within
le6c straight for
jaccHrnc betwixt
uacqia until
N6ccpI aloof from, apart from,
8IceG(N) behind
n6XiN back from
nfpHN beyond, over against
np6cec(N), ndpoiee(N) in front
TfiX, TrHX6e far from
Inatea out from under, side-
ways from under

(B) With the Dative.
th 61u6c together with, equally


(r) With the Accusative.
cYcco within (and with Gen.) dc to (once).

The Pronouns, when accented, are emphatic; when unac-
cented, they are enclitic and unemphatic. Note that ,o, oT, E,


when accented is Reflexive; when unaccented it is equivalent
to the unemphatic a6roP, a6ir, aelv.

37. 6, H, T6
In Homer this Pronoun is not used (as in Attic) as the
Definite Article, though it sometimes comes very near to this.
It has three distinct uses.
1. Substantial: TkN 8' Ardo o6 Xtcco her I will not let go;
aOrbc Kai ToO BaSpa the man and his gifts; eToc 6 TbN nebiolo
lc6KcrTO while he chased him over the plain; &ua TOTci together
with them ; 9K To1T from that time (cp. Attic 7rpb TOO before this
With an adversative particle it frequently marks a change
of Subject (an use surviving in the Attic 6 /tv 6 EC) ; but
it is also ftsed to contrast two acts of the same person: e.g. ToO
AitN iuape', 6 58 ACOKON ... BE XHKXA him he missed, but he
smote Leukcos.
2. Relatival: 'An6XXcomN fiNKTI, TbN 46KOUOC TdKE AHTC
whom Leto bare.
Obs.-the.Ace. Neut. T6 is frequently used adverbially with
the meaning on which account, wherefore, therefore, Tb Kal
KxXaoucc TtrHKa wherefore Ipine weeping.
8. Attributive. In this use the Pronoun is followed by a
Noun or Adjective which defines it: TOO Bacafioc 6nHNkOc,
him, the king untoward, where the order shews that TOO could
not be the article; oTc B' 6 rdpcoN jIr~AcTa, among whomsoever
an old man (strictly he that is an old man) is present : here
rEpcON explains 6 (quasi 6 ydpw 6p) which would not be clear
without it, and we have the origin of the generic use of the
Attic Article; A 8' 6cKOuc' teua TOTl runk KiEN she, the woman,
went; E8eicN 8' 6 rdpcoN he, the old man; with adversative
particle marking a contrast : poXKbc EHN, xcaXbc 8" repON n68a,
T7 8U o L &uo, bandy-legged was he, and lame of one foot, and
then his shoulders, etc. ; of Bpicro they, the bravest; with
numerals marking contrast: Tobce Aun Tvccapac abT6c ExcoN
6riTakX' &ni q6TNru, Td) 82 86' AINCig BaGKCNfour he kept .
but the other two he gave to Aineias.


With this use, though precision in translation should be
aimed at as far as possible, it is sometimes necessary, in order
to avoid pedantry, to translate as though the Pronoun were
actually equivalent to the Definite Article of later Greek.

38. The Relative oc, i, 0
1. The Relative Pronoun is sometimes used as a Demon-
strative, an use which has survived in Attic, as in the phrase
fi Sc, said he : e.g. mn B' 8c ypdrol let not even him escape.
2. Note the following uses of the Neuters as conjunctions:
(a) 8, 5 TE, &ri (fr. 6asr), for this, that ; in that; because : e.g.
TapBr4cac 8 ndrH Bidoc dreading because (strictly for this, that)
the missile stuck; THMXUaxoN eaauazoN 8 eapcaXtcoc 6rd-
pcuen they wondered at Telemachos for that he spake with
(8) 5, 8 TE, STI, meaning how that, that: e.g. e6 Nid TO oTha
Kai aTrbC 6 uOI j6poc &Nedb' 6 hcema I know that it is my
doom; rirNccKCON 8 T' aNaXKic EHN knowing that she was no
3. The Relative Adverbs are used demonstratively with aUN
and Sd: as 6T UN ... 6Tt& at one time . ,at another
time: TB 5' Ecoc usN P' An&roNTo they twain meantime were


39. The Perfect and Pluperfect
The Perfect denotes a condition or state of things resulting
from an action. Accordingly, wherever possible, it should be
translated by an English Present ; and similarly the Pluperfect
by an English Imperfect. The following examples will furnish
hints for doing this. (Notice that the Perfect Active of
Transitive Verbs is very commonly intransitive.)
Baico kindle: 8deHe is ablaze
SpNUrUa stir : 5pcope is astir
SAhXun destroy : XoXha I am undone




TAKO melt: TrTHKa I am pining away
baKpdco weep: BeadKpucaI tho? art bathed in tears
nroJAal fly: nrenoTifaTi are on the wing
BoioAouna wish: npoBBouXa I prefer
aipKoALu look: 8d4opxe is gazing
Tedxco make : TTruKTal is (by being made)
uAepoAal divide: ~uope has for his share
KAcuoW labour : K9KM.HKa I nam weary
Participles, KCKOTHCOC in wrath ; TrTIHCoc vexed ; ncpukar-
agaoc on the watch.
Verbs expressing sustained sounds are usually in the Perfect:
rdirwe shouts; S Bpuxe roars; uE.UKC6c bellowing; KxKAHrFcc
crying out.

40. The Imperfect
The Imperfect is by Parataxis (see 46) constantly used in
Homer to describe a concurrent subordinate action, when
in later Greek a subordinate clause or participle would be em-
ployed: e.g. qnuxhc "ATi npofayreN I ApcroiN, aUOroc S hopia
TeOxe KlxNecci the plague sent forth the souls of heroes to
Hades, while it made themselves (i.e. their bodies) a prey';
& c ~Spa coNI-caC a&Ke lEqpoc 6prup6HXoN, I Atac zcacrfpa
Wiaou 'he gave a sword while Aias gave (in exchange) a

41. The Subjunctive 1

1. In Principal Clauses the Subjunctive has the meaning
of a Future. For emphatic statements, such as threats or
1 Prof. Goodwin (Moods and Tenses, Appendix I ed. 1889) has shewn
that the old theory, by which will and wish were regarded as the original
meanings of the Subjunctive and Optative respectively, is probably in-
correct. In his view the original sense of EA0( is I shall go, that of EXOoPIe,
Imay go; the latter being a "weaker form for expressing future time"
than the former. The meanings let me go (Osw) and may I go (FA0oIs)
he regards as secondary, not original. It cannot be shewn that the
Subjunctive carries an expression of the speaker's will in any degree in
which the same may not be said of the Future Indicative.


prophecies, it seems to be preferred to the Future Indicative.
Examples are-
a8co.ual dc 'Ai'ao Kai AN NICKICCCI qMCiNC
I will go down to Hades and shine among the dead (a threat
uttered by Helios).
ou rdp nw TofoUC YBoN 6Ndpac, o00k Ybco.ual
I never yet saw .. ., nor ever shall see.
In this use the Mood may be "pure" (i.e. without a
particle), as in the examples just given, or it may take KC(N) or
SN : e.g. Areb B4 KEN aOT6C EXCOUal in that case (KeN) I will take
her myself; obK SN TOt xpaocuj shall surely not then (iN) avail.
On the use of Kx(N) and IN in Principal Clauses see 44 A.
2. Hortatory. -The Hortatory use of the Subjunctive
(Eeco let me go, XheOCOeN let us go) is apparently a derivative
from the preceding. The use is so familiar that examples are
3. In Subordinate Clauses Homer uses at, el, bre, 6nn6Te, Sc,
cth etc. with the "pure" Subjunctive ; especially where, as in
similes, the point is the expression of the verb-notion pure and
simple, apart from all circumstance. Examples are-
cbc i XkON A N Bouci eop&N &s aibxea &iS
As a lion breaks a neck.
ei 9' aG TIc aIaijcl eeoN ANI oTNoni n6N'rT, TAIrcoJua
If some god again shall wreck me.
oTc Y' 6 rdpcoN uCTrTciN
Those whom an old man is among.
Contrast this with the Attic use, where iN is required, as in
i6N (el aN), fi, TaN etc.
KE(N) and aN when employed in Homer (no doubt by a later
use) add a meaning of their own, on which see 44 B.
4. In Final Clauses Ke(N) or SN is usually added with cbc,
but rarely with the more indefinite ncoc.
Obs.--Sipa, (oc, and etc 8 (Kr) are-
(a) Temporal, meaning so long as: e.g. Sp' ke AH ON so
long as ye wish; eic 8 K' 6uTJMH I BN CTrHccC JUNIJ so long as
breath remains.
(8) Final, meaning until, to the end that: e.g. 6NixNecON


eelt tuneboN, 8(pa KEN eUpj he runs on tracking until he find ;
etc i Kc Tr eCcp 'IXou EpcoueN until we find the goal of lios ;
5yp' 6 nracbcKyjc to the end that thou mayest know. The
insertion of Ke(N) and EN is governed by the meaning of those
particles, for which see 44 B.

42. The Optative

The Optative shews kinship with the Subjunctive in that
it refers primarily to Future time; it differs from it in being
less forcible. Whereas 'lP means I shall see, iToiuHN means
I may see. Thus primitively the Mood expresses Concession,
and in this use hovers between Concession of Possibility
(Potential use) and Concession in the sense of Permission.
Side by side with this primitive use by which lboiuHN means
I may see, but apparently derived from it, we find the Mood
used to express a Wish: laoIuHN means may I see. It is from
this latter use, regarded as the primitive one (but see p. xlviii,
footnote), that the Mood has taken its name.
The following are examples:-
1. Concessive or Potential.
ei B' aO ncoc T62 nacl cpikoN K1a ABi raNoTro,
A ot TOI[ oKtoiTro n6dXc flpiduolo 0NaKTOC,
aurTc B' 'ApreiHN 'EXeNN MeN&-aoc roroI
And if, again, this should be welcome and pleasing to all,
King Priam's city may remain a home and Menelaos may take
Argive Helen back again.
o 8' IAol (piX6THTm Kal SpKia nIcr T au6NTec
NUaOITe TpoiHN plBCtbXaKa, TOi rt NECeAWN
And the others pledging friendship with oaths sincere-ye may
dwell infertile Troy, and let them return.
Observe how the Optative is here balanced by the Imperative
NececoN and in the following example by N&ONTai in its future
ot laoi (pqi6THTT Kxal fpKia nlcrT TOJauNTEC
NaioIJueN TpoiHN piB~cbXaKa, Troi NONTral
We may dwell in Troy, and they will return.


XAr' Epitoc, TpGcac 8& Kai aOTiKa ToC 'AxihXebc
8CTCoc &zSXdccic
Cease from contention, and (for aught I care) Achilles may
drive forth the Trojans.

oO JiN rdp TI KaKCiTepON i0Xo ndeolui
For surely naught worse can I suffer.
This use is generally marked by the insertion of Ke(N) or EN,
as in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences (see 44).
Obs.-The Potential Optative is found in Homer four times
in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences, and more frequently in
Potential Sentences without any protasis, referring to past time.
Ka( Nd KEN INe' 6n6XoITo LN E aNBpCQN AiNeiac,
ci Jui ap' 6ms N6HCE lbc euraTHp 'A Aineias would then have perished, had not Aphrodite per-
ceived. (Cp. E 388, P 70, a 236. Probably P 399.)
Tuet8iHN 8' 00K SN rNoiHC norTpoICl UETeiH
Thou wouldst not have known to which side the son of Tydeus
Homer also habitually uses the Optative (not the Impf. Indic.)
in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences referring to present
eiOi 6C KEN (pIaieN
If any other had told that dream, we should (now) say, etc.
''The Optative with KE in such cases expresses merely what
could happen, without any limitations of time except such as
are imposed by the context; and according to the limitations
thus imposed we translate such optatives (with more exactness
than they really possess) either as past or as future (Goodwin).
2. Hortatory.
A*UHt TIC iXAoc hua TpccoN YTco 6&nip
KApis TIC of EnOITO rEpaiTEpoC
Let a herald accompany him.
In some cases it is difficult to decide between the Hortatory
and the Permissive sense.


3. Wish. Identical with the Attic use.
4. Request. This follows from the preceding.
TraO' eYnoc 'AxiXKf
Say (I wish thou mayst say) this to Achilles.
Or the use may be concessive: Thou canst say.
5. In Subordinate Clauses the usages are those of Attic, but
the Optative frequently takes KE(N) or sN where EN is inad-
missible in Attic (see 44 B), and it is used indifferently
with the Subjunctive after primary tenses in the principal

43. The Infinitive
The Infinitive is the Dative ofa Verbal Noun. This is clearly
seen in the following examples, which will help to explain many
others: b5&Ke arasN gavefor leading away ; BR ICN Na took a
step for going ; n&ane NEeceal sent for returning ; &neuIcpiuHCaN
'Axauol albcl ceal shouted assent to reverencing; Ynnoi I rric
fccaN npoaurcTN were near for escaping with; Eppir' &Nn rBoXcal
shudders at meeting; ned o0i capi Meoc xpeoc o~aU cibnpoc
I xaKKbN 6NacxCOmI their flesh is not stone or iron for with-
standing (so as to withstand) bronze; eeilN Taxiic swift for
44. Ke(N) and jN1
The origin of Ke has not been certainly traced. From its
uses in Epic poetry, which are our only guide, it appears to
have been originally a demonstrative particle meaning there,
and may accordingly be identical with the ce in the Latin
hic-ce, illi-c, etc.
The etymology of iN is equally obscure ; but in Homer its
meaning and use are practically identical with those of KE.
The fact that it is used much less frequently in Homer than KE
1 Before reading this section the student should grasp clearly the
original meanings of the independent Subjunctive and Optative, as given
in 41 and 42.


(the proportion being 1 to 4), but afterwards completely super-
seded that particle, points to its being of later origin. Exam-
ples of both words are given below indiscriminately.
A. Definite Use.-The meaning is there, in that case, under
the circumstances, then, so, now,-all equivalents of the primi-
tive signification.
1. With Subjunctive in apodosis.
[CE 8 KE UkI BacCIN,J Erd ;A KEN aKOTbc aeXhai
'Then I will take her.'
2. With Future Indicative (Ke not infrequently, iN once).
6 \' Ye', arc) ai Kx T0! XapiTCN aiaN 6nKOTepdcoN
'Nay go, and then I will give thee one of the younger
&uol a KE TCOTC jA.eICETraI, Sppa TeCXAccc
'My own care shall these things now be, that I may ac-
complish them.'
arT6N B' tN ndauaTdN us ~ KiNEC npCTHcI e6pipclN
&LuHcral ApOoucIN
'And myself then last of all dogs shall tear.'
3. With Optative.
(a) In Potential Sentences (without protasis). Whereas
the 'pure' Optative paiHN means 'I may (might, can, could,
would, should) say,' a vague general statement (see 42), qaiHN
Ken means 'I may there say,' the particle serving to limit the
statement to a particular act or particular circumstances of
saying; compare our use of there in there might be objections.'
It is unnecessary, and would generally be clumsy, to reproduce
the particle in translation.
Enelrr KEN aOTe cpkON naTia xKaioicea
'Then thereafter thou couldst weep for thy son' (a par-
ticular weeping).
nXHcioN 6lXAX cN" Kai KEN Bio'crTe6Ceiac
'The rocks are near each other; and thou mightest shoot an
arrow across.'

(B) In the apodosis of Conditional Sentences.
&X' EY o i TI nieolo, T6 KEN nohi K4p1ioN ETH
'That would (then) be much better.'
4. With Imperfect and Aorist Indicative in Past Potentials
and apodoses of Conditional Sentences :-
6n6 KEN TarcacippoNd nCp abec ePeN
Fear might have seized even the stout-hearted.'
Kai Ni KE rb Tp TON OeOIC &Nae'aNT' n4iIXaioN,
ci IAl K.T.X.
'And then they would have wrestled a third time, had not' etc.
Obs. 1.-With the Imperfect Indicative in such sentences, the
reference is in Homer always to past time; never, as in Attic,
to present time. For reference to present time Homer uses the
Optative; see 42.
Obs. 2.-As the Indicative cannot express potentiality, its
use in Past Potentials is, strictly speaking, incorrect, and was
no doubt a later development (that is, a substitution for the
Past Potential Optative of the earlier language,-see 42. 1.
Obs.), adopted for its convenience. Accordingly the account
of Kc given under 3 (a) above may be taken to apply here also.
B. Indefinite Use. -In subordinate clauses the particles
mark indefiniteness of time, occasion, circumstances, manner,
etc. This transition, at first sight surprising, finds an exact
parallel in the Latin olim and quondam, which originally mean-
ing at that, or a certain (former) time (olim, like Ke, must first
of all have meant there), came to mean 'at a former time,'
'formerly' ; 'some time' or 'some day' (future) ; 'at any
time,' 'at times,' 'often.' Cp. Verg. Aen. 4. 627 nunw, olim,
quocumque dabunt se tempore vires, 'now, some day, whenever,'
etc. ; Lucr. 6. 109 carbasus ut quondam magnis intent theatrics I
dat crepitum, 'as at times,' etc.; Plaut. Asin. 3. 3. 128 quid olim
homiinist salute melius ? what is at any time better than health?'
Compare also the colloquial use of hodie= ever, at all, in Plautus
passimm), Hor. S. 2. 7. 21, Verg. A. 2. 670 numquam omnes
hodie moriemur imlti; and the indefinite meaning of the
adverb so in who-so, whosoever, when-so, whensoever, etc.


1. The following example, where tN refers to a time at once
definite and indefinite, marks a half-way point in the transition
(ep. Verg. A. 4. 627 quoted above) :-
Ecral uhAN BT' aN aCTE q(PiHN rXauKKCnia EYnt
'Surely there will be a time when some day (SN) he shall
again call me his darling of the bright eyes.'
Cp. 0 111 where 6nn6rT replaces ST' SN:-
Ecceral 1 Acc AH beXH 1 jCON fico ap
6nn6Te TIC Kal B&uk o "Apel &K euabN XHTrai.
2. The particles mark indefiniteness of time or occasion with
Tre, 6n6TE, &nEi, SiT, pa, coc (eYcoc, EToc), eic 8, Relative
Pronouns, and ci. The meaning is upon occasion, at any time,
In this use the particle practically adheres to the adverb,
conjunction, or relative, changing when into whenever, when at
any time, who into whoever, etc. In some cases, especially with
el, it is difficult to say whether the particle is temporal or
modal; see (3) below.
CBc D' 8T' 1N Nbp' STH nUIKINh XdBil
'As when at any time a grievous curse' etc.
'So long as ever Hektor shall lie.'
6qppa KEN &C KXIlCHN rIHAHIdbEw0 6qfKcHal
Until (sometime) I shall come.'
oFi' iXION fnoc 9cceral, STTI KEN EYnH
Whatso-ever he shall say.'
cY nep rdp K' &eeXICIN 'OXunimoc
'If ever the Olympian shall wish.'
Contrary to the Attic use, the particles are used also with
the Future Indicative and Optative in protasis-
STr KtN TIN' EnizdqhXoc x6doc YKOI
'Whenever fiercely swelling wrath seized any man.'
acbcco rbp bi(ppoN TE BcCo T' ApiadxeNac Ynnouc,
'I will give . to the man whosoever may dare.'


etc 8 Ke euol jdka n6dra naTHTp &noaScEl EaSNa
Until her father shall give back.'
e K' nTI c' cppaiNONTa KIXIcoual
'If ever again I shall catch thee raving.'
3. The particles mark indefiniteness of manner, quality,
degree, with Modal Adverbs, Relative Pronouns, and i. The
meaning of cY KE (eN) is if at all, if in any wise, if haply, and
so simply if. This appears to be the commonest use of 'i Ke.
For the transition to modal indefiniteness compare the modal
use of nod, n6, noT, e.g. P 366 ob& Ke (paiHc I Tre nrT'
AdtION C60N UJUnNaII oiie ce kNHN, 'nor wouldst thou have
thought that there was still sun or moon at all (nror).'
(a) With Subjunctive in protasis-
dCc BN tir&N Ynco, ncieGou.oea n6NTec
As (howsoever) I shall say, let us all agree.'
'Taking the form, of whatever kind it be, wherein ye shall
have seen him when asleep' (of Proteus).
'If in any wise they shall not give.'
(B) With Future Indicative and Optative in protasis-
eY K' 'Axiloc 6rauo0 mcrbN &raTpoN
Tcixel uno TpicnN TaxtCc K6NEC &IKICOUCIN
'If haply dogs shall tear.'
eY KEN e6NaT6N re TpromucN
'If in any wise death should not be our fate.'
(r) Here belongs the use with el in sentences like the
following where there is an, ellipse of to try, to seek, to find out,
or the like :-
AcekbN rbp AfH xeTpac 6Nacxtu1e, aY K' .EHACg
'It is good to lift the hands to Zeus, (to try) if haply he
will have mercy.
6&X' Brr', a' K4N ncoc ecGopiEo.uN uToc 'AxaC&N
But come, if haply we can arm' etc.


4. From the modal use after verbs of considering etc., as for
instance in
qpp6zCceal . bnncoc KeN NR6C Te c6qc
'To consider how in any wise thou shalt save the ships'
comes the
Final use of &c Ke (N) :-
&6c KEN 'AxtXetic I b cpcoN &K rplp6iao0o kdXI
'In order that Achilles may get gifts of Priam.'
4 a. Sc KC is many times used like 6Sart in a generalising
sense, to mark that what is referred to is considered as belonging
to a class. The use is found with the Future Indicative, Sub-
junctive, Optative, and once (c 264) with a gnomic aorist.
'Men that will (such as will) honour me.'
py6puax' a KEN nafUCCI
'Drugs such as will allay.'
edcEXXa, 1 4 KEN . KAMI
A storm such as may burn.'
5. In the statement of Alternatives (whether in independent
or subordinate clauses) KE is found with fi in either or both
clauses. The meaning seems to be no more than to take a
case; it may be; possibly; haply; perhaps. Indeed the force
of KE is so slight that the particle is sometimes scarcely
capable of translation.
CHAupoN BA oio CIN fEC6s EI 'InnacEfCIN . .
ii KEN .WhM n6 boupi Tundec 6nr euj N 6k4ccHC
'Either thou wilt boast over the two sons of Hippasos, or,
it may be, wilt lose thy life.'
Ta Ke U6X' 4i KEN jLUEINE, Kal &CCi LEN6d nep 60oTo,
A Kd uLE TeGNHUTaN WNI .urdpoiCIN E anEN
'In that case he would either have stayed or have left me
dead in the house.'
The Kx after T& goes with LuIN and iheineN.


SConsider whether thou wilt save Aineias or leave him.'
&6X' Apito ukN rc6N, YNa eId6Tec fi Kce edNWOcEN
i KEN &KEUduLNOI edNCTON Kal KHa (pa FiroEN
'In order that knowing we may either die or . escape
death,' etc.
The same use is found in a 692
ii T' Acrl BIKH GEicN BaciXkiCON
& XoN K' &xeafipijci poTiN, axhoN Ke cp1Koi
As is the wont of kings ; one man haply he (the king) will
hate, another perhaps he may love.'
6. To this head belong the six instances of KE following aN
in the same clause-
(a) In independent sentences:-
ac oUT-' iN KEN "ApHc 6N6caiTo aereKe06N
oUTr K' 'AeNwaiH (N 127)
'Which (phalanxes) neither haply would Ares have de-
spised, nor haply Athene' (supposing the case of their en-
countering them).
col V' BN rit nounbc Kiai KC KUTbN "Aproc iKOiLHN,
NaiUKirCC N NHI OOQ 1 nezbc 6uapTrON ( ) 437).
'As escort to thee I would go even haply (to take a conceivable
case involving great devotion) to Argos.'
of B' VeaxoN TOie tN KC Kal AieXON aGTrc ik&cea,
riccapec, artip &A niunToc uLera TOTCIN rX&ArHN (i 334)
And those drew the lot whom I should myself have haply
wished to choose' (Kc : in the case of my having decided to
choose assistants instead of drawing lots).
(B) In subordinate clauses :-
fpp' BN ALN KEN 6p5 'AraFCu NONa nouitNa Xac&N
elNONT' N npoudSxoiciN AN1apouNTU CTrixac W p&N,
T6(pp' 6NaxcpeiTF . . . .
aehp knel K' K.T.h. (A 187)
'So long as in any wise he shall see.'


8pqp' aN 1IN KEN bo6paT' &N &puONIHCIN 6papy,
T76dp' CabTO JueN&C Kal TXrCOJual SXrea ndcxcON'
aOT&p tndN 5ri K.T.A. (e 361)
'So long as in any wise the timbers shall abide in the
Upp' aN atN K' 6rpobc YOUEN Kai 9pr' 6Nepc6ncoN,
T6ppa ....
abrTp 4ninN ndXhOC K.T.X. (z 259)
'So long as in any wise we shall go by the fields.'

C. Exceptional uses (and others apparently so).
1. Once, X 110, KE occurs with the Infinitive. The passage
belongs to B. 5-
&Uol a8 T76' BN nohb KtpaION EYH
rNTHN f 'AxiXPta KTrraKTEiNONTa Nitceai
Ak KEN abOT6N 6Cceal &UKrcI&C npb ndXHoc
Or (on the other hand) myself to perish.'
Obs. In I 684 we have a solitary instance of aN with in-
finitive; it is the common Attic construction in oratio oblique.
2. In r 138 (and 255, where the line is repeated) we have
Ke apparently with a Participle-
But as Tc is a pronoun, KE can be separated from the
participle : translate, to one of them, when he has conquered,
thou shalt then (Ke) be called,' etc.
3. co 88,
anH Ju N noXicon T76yc 6NrpcB N rNTeB6XHCac
Ap6cON, 5TE K&N nOT' noypeIu.sNOU BaCIXfiOC
'Whenso, after some king's death, the young men gird
themselves, and make them ready for the meed of victory.'
Here ZJNNUNTCII is probably a subjunctive (see on T 32),
and direvrtvovTra should be changed to -cONTal.
In M 41, where the indict. -rpdcemra occurs after 6r' dv, we
may read, as Monro suggests, Sr' ENaNTa for Br' P 7re.


In S 484 Te should be read (with a few Mss.) for Ke.
4. For V 526 see note ad loc.
5. B 546,
A r6p uIN ZCO6N re KixACEaI, KEN 'Op&CTHC
Here we may either regard fi KEN as corresponding to fi,
and class under B. 5 ; or KEN KTETNEN may he a past potential,
'Orestes may have slain him.' Cp. Goodwin, M-1. and T. 245.
6. Z 281, 6c Ka of aO0el I ra-ia x6Noi. As KE has no place
with an opt. of wish, we must correct to at.

45. Some other Particles

Spa (apocopated Ip and pa) means accordingly, so, then, it
seems. It introduces a natural sequel of something preceding,
or in alternatives gives a slight emphasis to one: e.g. eYT' apa
S. .ET re, whether, as may be, . or. It is frequently in-
capable of direct translation.
at frequently marks the Apodosis ; it is then called 9 in
BA (the unemphasised form of i-aBH, Lat. iam) is a temporal
particle meaning now, now at length, by this time: e.g. fnel BA
when now ; NON BA now at last; BA T7TE a strong then (lit. then,
at that time) ; oUtrio BA thus now or then; noXol i i many now;
T6rd SI niunToN Lroc this is now the fifth year ; pnHTepol . .
Sh kcecee naIphUen easier will ye now be to slay.
El (aT), an exclamatory particle : el 8' are now, come; or come
now; go to. It occurs with wishes alone and in eYee, el r6p.
Ad (5) means (1) either, or; (2) than; (3) 1 ( ) ... 1. (At)
have the meaning of E'Te .. e'TE, sive . sie (seu).
A-iuN .. A-Bt means both . and: Ai and ibt standing
alone mean and.
eAN gives a mocking emphasis (like irrov, credo), I suppose,
Itrow: e.g. oO eiAN UN niXiN aOTic 6N1CEI euabc riNucOp not
again, I trow, will his bold spirit move him.
Ads, ILAN, siU are all forms of the same particle. They


give lively emphasis. Sometimes the translation must be yet,
howbeit, when a clause adversative in itself is introduced: e.g.
o cpHcan aCbceiN A AIlh Tpatc re KaONTal howbeit the Trojans
truly bid him.
N6 (the Attic vP) gives a slight emphasis: Tic NU who,
oGN in Homer does not mean therefore or then (inferential).
It merely gives a slight emphasis and may frequently be
translated by withal: e.g. Hpu.l rhp oaN for Isay withal; Anei
oiN when now. It is frequent (as in Attic) in the combinations
eYr' oiN .. eCT, OiT' 0ON .. OTC.
nip gives emphasis. Though frequently appearing in Con-
cessive clauses, it never of itself means although.
TE is used (1) like the Latin que as a copulative conjunction;
(2) it marks a statement as general, and is accordingly frequent
in maxims, proverbial sayings, general statements, similes.
In this use it is incapable of translation. For its generalizing
force compare the Latin que (with which it is identical) in
ubique, quieumque, namque.
TOI marks an assertion which is common knowledge with the
hearers or which they are expected to admit: surely, we know,
thou knowest, it will be admitted, the Latin profecto: e.g. Aueic
TOt fnarTpcN Adr' 6uiNNoMec ex6uiee' eTNai we, thou knowest,
boast to be; uATri rot puTd6oc jrir' 6jaliNcoN 1k BiHlPN by skill,
we know, the wood-cutter is far better than by force.

46. Parataxis
We frequently find in Homer two co-ordinate clauses where
logically one is subordinate to the other. This is called napd-
Tazic, co-ordination. Examples are :-
6AhXa T7 AiN T' aNEGuoc xaudaic xE6i, tiAa b e&' 0kH
TrHAe6coca <:de, Uapoc W' anmrirNmral &pH
The leaves that be the wind scattereth on the ground, and the
forest buddeth and putteth forth more again, when (lit. and) the
spring cometh on.


CTUr Te Kai TpcScN 6d6xouc Kai Ninla TiKNa,
aY KEN TuBtoc UIbN rn6cxj 'DIou ipflc
If so haply she may pity .., if she may keep the son of
Tydeus from llios.
Here we should have had in later Greek diroeaXoea, by keep-
ing away.
oi Ba NON kaTai ciru, n6XAuoc Mt ninauTal,
6cnlci KeKhLULNOI
They now are seated in silence, for the battle hath ceased
See also 40.



47. Hiatus

With regard to Hiatus, which is frequent in Homer, the
following facts may be noted.
1. A long vowel or diphthong in thesis preceding Hiatus is
generally shortened: e.g. KX0eOl Aeu I pprup6ToE': xpucctO I &Nh
cKinTpcp (with synizesis of -4) : hut CumecO I e| nrOTr TOI.
2. A long vowel or diphthong in arsis remains long: e.g.
uvcrkpl~ biN o'YKi : Ei HBA nOTE.
3. Hiatus is often accounted for by loss of the digamma:
e.g. AUCTripc kni oYKcO (FolKY) : 'AraatsuNONi iiN'aNe (rFaS-)
Obs.-The principle of shortening a long vowel before a
vowel following works also inside a word. Thus we get Yhxoc
and YXaoc, fxHN and XfN, B13tXIa (a dactyl); and many bye-
forms, as xdX6Koc (XdXKEcos), 6Xo6c (dXos6s), CLKa (iKEZa),
BaedHC (pa3enls).

48. Lengthening of Short Syllables
1. A short vowel is always lengthened before initial p, and
in certain words before X, n, N, c,: e.g. &nil\ pHriTNOC:


noXXk AI IcourN : KaTj uoTplaN : bN\I unrL6py : EraTr T
cdpKlac TE: KaTrl cEINJOkC (for bFINO6C). These examples are
but a few out of a large number.
2. The group of words referred to above also produce a similar
lengthening by doubling the initial consonant in Compounds and
after the Augment: e.g. 6no-ppinTc: t -auueXiHc: 6rd-NNI-
coc: en- ccecdca : ppiya: &XXicccro: BeiceN (also written
EelceN, though scanned - u).
8. A short syllable in arsis is frequently lengthened,
especially at a pause in the verse : e.g. &Kn6pcal fplp[iolo
n6XiN, eO W oYKab' iKAcea : xepciN On' 'ApreicoN qpeieNoC tN
narpiBi ralij.
4. Besides the instances given above and in 1 and 2 the
following variations may be noticed. Homer has diNip and
aNmp: 'Apec "Apec together beginning a line: 5NOaLU and
oiNOua: ypiAe KaclrNHTe beginning a line. There are many
others. Notice also the following words, where in Attic the
vowel is short, but long in Homer: Tcoc, KaX6c, 9eANCO, TiNCO.

49. Elision
1. The -ai of the Verbal Endings -ual, -TW, -Tai, -ceai may
be elided: e.g. BodXo,' arcb: AnlKicer' 6N6rKH : npiN Xticace'
2. The or of not, coI, TOI is occasionally elided: e.g. KaI a'
oYp 6UdNECT: oO NI T' o601ol aYTnot.
For further information on Homeric Versification see Prof.
Jebb's Introduction to Homer, Appendix 5.

PLATE II.-Fragment of a silver bowl found at Mykenai, and representing the
siege of a city.


MdyX 'ril Ta v vavowv.

Poseidon fareth over the sea from Samothrace to stir up the valour
of the Achaians.
Zelw 8' Crei obv Tpcoad re Kal 'Eicropa vivo-
T0o lEv e'a raaph T1 ,- rovov 7' XeT cEv Ialb 0obv
vwoepefLQ aTo;' 86 ?rdhXwT 7pe7rev wocre oaewtv,
vdoartv E4' t7rmrowroX(Ov Opyjcwv iKaOoppfevo alav
Mvo-cv T7 gxeiaUXWV Ial i yav&wv 'Ir ?poXywov 5
7/Xa/croda'ywV 'A/3lwv re, 8ucatordrowv avpdarwv.
T9 Tpoiiv 8' o 7rca/dav E'r T op-rev 'o-o-e ctaeiwo"
ov yap 5 7' acavLdraov rt' EdXVreTO by carat Ovt\)v
dxO06v 'j Tpceao-crw apr?7dev i4 AavaoFcrv.
oi8' aXaooiIcororv elye Kpelov evoo-~lOwv" 10
Kcal yap 6 OavTzawv 'o-To wrrX'eptv e fiaXyv Te

OpirclMy E'vO6ev ryap E4alvcEro Irao-a pciv "I8r,
awvero 8 IIptdlpoo 7roXt xal vi4e,? 'AxatVw
e'v' ap' r7' Ed 6X9 x ;er' icv, eXuatpe 8'
'Axaob i 15
Tpw-cav Batvatfcvovy, Atl 8 Kiparep4v pe' Teo'aa.


av'rica 8' "4 O'peo? ,cae/rja-ero 7rat7raXo6evTo
cpanrva wroOr 7rpo3fid* 7pipe 8' oipea acpaxp
Kcal br]
7woablv Vir a oavaroc loc-ei8aedvo OI'Tdov'oF.
T7plF tLv opearT' lIw, TO 8e TEpaTrv IKerTO
TeKJicwp, 20
A"yd e va 6' ol chvra 8 Xpvo-Ja pappialpov7a TerevyaTai, a cOra alel.
0"' e'AOv bVr' o'yeo- Tvcero "a 0o ro' t'(w
ev c'c)~ni OX L WT&1JOKETO XaX/cK7roo8 I7T
a tKirera, xpvco yv eelplav Icop1(ovre,
Xpvo-b 8' avT'rs 8vve rep' Xpot, ryv'ro 8' ltud-
cr0,7rv 25
pveil ev ETiKIrov, EO S' e7e/3o-eTo Sl'pov.
Tr 8' 8 dtav e7r Ic/a'*aT* araXXe 8e KcrjTe r' avTro
raVTOOeV eI c KevOpwuv, o08' iyPvol%'rev avacKra'
ylo0a-vvr 8B OedXaro-aa StLo-TaTO' Tro 8 7TETOVTo
AP Oa pdX', oi8' b;rvzep9e 8taivero XaXKreov
ao(v. 30
TOv 8' 6E 'AXat&v vjaq EiocKapOpoL1t pov '7iroi.
6eT 8e' Tb oreov' epav e /38le17e fe'v9feo-cb Xflvi,
peao-a ry Tver48oo Kal 'IluI pov waraao2-o-qa *
Ev0' Tw7rrov eaoT nre aIoeiS div voa'iov
X-a<, e dXEwv, 7rapa 8' dtap6po-ov /3Adev 4e8ap 35
AS/eva* ip1t 86' woaoir wc'8a9 eaXe Xpoo-elaq
appjlicrovJ aXv'rovg, t%4p' .i'reSov aviOt e'volev
voo-'rj-avra avaiKTa. 8S' d aTpaTro (Xer'

He encourageth the two Aiantes.
Tpmev Se SfXoyl la-oi do xe'e E OvBe'XX
"'EiC'op Ilptaply. ld aiOTOv euLa)Tes e'rOVTro, 40
I&3potot abiaxo" e'-XrovJro Sc vYa, 'AXat6iv

IIAIAAO N (xm) 3

alprao-ev, KTevewc 86 ?rap' aTo'7e rdvraV dpIUrov I.
AXXa IIoo-etSav r yatioxos evvoo- aiyo,
'Apyeiovq i'ropvve, &3aOei ?s if' AE dE' cSwv,
elto-drevoo KidXavT 8e/a9 Kal Arei'pea cowvrv. 45
A'iavre 7rpw'rw 'po-ef)', piepLaT Ka ical aTvr7
"A''avre, o0-ao pjiv re o'adaere Xaov 'AXato&v
aXji fcaIriCaev, py 8&i Kpvepowo 6b3oto.
AXXy l'v yacp edy 7'r oZ e &iSa Xeipaq a'rov1
Tpwov, o) fe'ya re6Xo v7repK/arTe7~pfav O w 50
eovo-lv hap 7ravTaq evKcvrlfSe' 'AXatso
7Ty 8 a6 alvoTarov 7reptSel8a, trj r7rdawpev,
7 vo a-v An0; Xory eL'ceXo 7ye/Aovevel
"Eic~wp, Ov At ve EDer' eptc&aevio 7ratv elvat.
a(v S' w&e 0e&v r( ev? MV peca 'rotio-jetev, 55
avrc 00'ao'radpevat Kparepo7 Kcal avwoylev a'XXovi "
TW ice Kal oea-rv- evopv 7rep orrOatrT wbo vr9Sv
icvrorpwv, el cal ptv 'OXt./.to. a.s dryelpet."
7 ical a-icpravip yatoxoo evvouro'yaoO
APd OTo'pO KeKcor T' rXAcev pevewo' Icparepoto, 60
yvla 8' ~'Opicerv eXapd, iroaa ical Xyelpa< 'rrepOev.
adto 8', 7'T Ipfl7 cinrrc epov &pro ereatal,
8 d f AT' alylXtrow irrTpi 'rept/.ticeoq apOel
oppjoy 7re8loto ticeLpw opveov aXXo,
wa A o TWV 'tv 0e oo-eitSaW ro evooi v. 65
Trowv e'vyW o rpao-ev 'OitXLo, raxvb At'a',
alira 8' ap' A'avra 7rpoa,-cn TeXapwvtov vlov
" Alav, irel. rt7 v 6@ O Iewv, ot "OXVyIrOV eovai,
iiavT 8 elSfevoo IcxXeTrat rapa vyvo-I u'axecrOa6-
ov' 1o ye KdX a r-71i, Oeoirporro, o tLvL~r-Tr 70
,xvia yap /Jer6TO i-re wroSv 48 1cvrltxdwv
e v' oyvv a7rovroVTO aplyvTroTe 8 Oeol "rep.
8ca 8 o' efto avbT Ov~O ib ovT r eo-Ta' Soto'-

4 IIAIAAO N (xim)
/iaXXov e(pop/arat 'oXep/e' q'Sev paXe"-Oat,
patptoaoe 8' evepOe ~d6oS; ca Xepe? ivrep0e." 75
rbv 8' a7rapetl/3~evo; irpoadce' TeXafuxovto A'la"
" ovT vuv icalt eol rrept 8o0paT' Xyepec; a'rroC
Ckatpco-/t, cal upo phevoqo wopope, vepOe 8' vrooralv
eoav-rvat apo.orepotuL p.EvoLtvww 8 I al oto?
'"Eicopit Iptap~tly al/jTov /Ale/a&oT pa'dXo-Oat." 80

He stirreth up others of the Argives.

d(4 ol Ifv To 70taa wrpo? aXXijXov aeyopevov
xdpi, lyly o-avvoL, T7rV 0-06v Oeoe, 1p3aLe Ovj -
Trdpa 8 rO~~v 'o r tOv yatloXoX; pwpev 'AXatov;,
o'' irapa v 'i7vo Oo Boyav avervxov blov i Top.
Tr&v "' p/a T aipyaXL icaia/u7-p XeXvvro, 85
icar cowv Xoq /carea Ovphv ey'yveTro SepicofePvotrs
Tpwa?, Tro pe'ya Trexiog v'epcaTeiCr3a av d7/iX)y
'Tos oti ry' el opCoWvre; v'7r opvat aicpva \Xe3ov-
ov yap 'av Oev'efo-ar b"rTe icalcoD. &XX' evooi-
peta /peetLo-/dpero icpa'repas opvve dXay yas. 90
TeDfipov rct 7rp6)rov ical A7t'Tov 0Xe iceXevov
IInveXejev 0' pwa Ooavrd re AiltTrvpov re
Mipioviv Te Ial 'AvriXoXov, p/r.o-pa9 aVT7F
TOV o Y7' e'7orpvvv rrea Trepoevra jrpoc'8a'
ai8's, 'ApyeotI, Ko poL veov 1p/lLv ery yef 95
papvaphvoato-, 7rrotsa o-awco-eevas veaw APdt
el' 6 i ~? ooroXc'eto jLO'eo-r ee XevyaXoeo,
vfi3 8' eleTaat 7Jap Vro' Tpdecro- Sa/lrvat.
7 ro rot, pe'ya OaOpa 7~6' o aXlolv-w p) ~pa,
Setvov, 8 o 7Tro7 6~yw 7 yereXev'r-7eo-aoOait f paorcov,

IAIAAOZ N (xm) 5
TpOaq E rpf'eTepa,? levac vea?, o To wrpo weep 101
rvFaKtvjI; AXd7c foco-tv eolicecav, at' re KaOi' XiXv
Oo'v 7raptaXhlv 7e XtVcw v 7jta wrrXovrat
avrw rjXdaGc-Kovo-acat advXKtee, oaV' 'Tr Xadpi'-
&o Tpweq To 'wrpiv ye p evof Kal Xetpaf 'AXatov 105
it/iVELV OKIC E0XCO KOV evavplov, ov' if3atoOv.
viv 8e ica's wr~ro IKoolXy9 '7rl vn otI pdovraT
7yepjvoV IcaKloTfd7 IfeOCIpoV1vy-l 7re TXav,
ol KIeVy) epio-avTe6 !1AVwViLev Oic EJOeXov-i
vyrj&v lcKVrdopwv, aXXa icreivoTaL av' aVraq. 110
aXX' el ic Kal trLjTrav eTi-TVljov a't bO eO Trl
fpoW. 'A.rpetor' evp icpeleov 'AyaCieivowv,
ofveic dariT/Lte TroSocea rIIlXXdi va,
lja' 7"y o7' emro cOTt IfeOtBiesvat rroXepoto.
jXX' adce'opeOa Offaiaov aK~ca'al 'TOt peCve dr-
GXwv. 115
bJllE 8' O/CT KEr IcaIXa EaieCTe OovptSo' AXc4'j
WrveTs lapwfLroi Tovrevs vav a-Tparov obv f v yc' ye
av8p' paaXeo-aoallpMv, 09 7 9 ToXE/Aoto PeOefl,
Xviyp9 dviv V -Mv -e veLeaoa-'fas 7repi Kclpt.
91 Trerove, rTda 8f rt icacOpv ro 'rTre 7T eiov 120
T76 e PeO'rlloa'vy* ahXX' 4v opeoa 06C-0e c0ao-'ro
al8M ical vteartvw 8\ ryAp ,l4ya veidop 'pwpev.
"ErrKTp 8 7rapa vvvcl /pov a'yaOi; roXeptfieL
KcapTepos, 'ppfev 8e trvXav cal ~acapov oX'Xa."

They make a stand about the Aiantes.

&; pa KcEevrTLOOV yaLJoyo' Wpo-e)v 'AXatov. 125
dA1 85' ap' Aiavurav 80oovg 'aravro OdaXayyev
Ktaprepal, as oT aIv icev "Apip ovoaatvro tfeTrEXXOw
o7'e ic' 'AOavatl Xaoao--o'o ol yap aiptoi-o

6 IAIAAOX N (xim)

,cptw vref Tpoadf re Ical E'Ecropa 8Fov li/.Lvov
pdSavregs S&pv 8ovpt, o-aicoc acrdcei ..rpoOeX vVoy 130
lao-7rls alp ao-rl8' Epet8e, Kcopv icopvv, dvepa 8

*rabiov 8' irrvoicoyot icKpvOeC' Xalwrpoao-' dcotor
vevvroVT ls orvicvol e erdcraoav AXX otci'v.
yea -8 7r-'a-rovTo Opa-creidwv ro yetpP 134
o-eCLoev' ol 8' 101 cpveov, /ietaoav 8e laxeo-rOat.

The Trojans set on them furiously.

Tpo&e 8e 7rpovTrvav doXXes8, 'pXe 8' ap' "Eclop
avTticpvg tjefLawo, oXooi'poXo? ok a'ro reprfPl,
ov T7 KaTa O-Tefavd7i vrOTap/o XEt/appoog wO'y,
p7ta T daTre'rT r/3pp, avaeieos e'uara ?Irpr)7v
ifrt 8' dva0poa-cwv rv e erat, IrTvre'e 8e' 0' 7
avTrov 140
v6X9 6 8' do-OaXciog 0o'et efreSov, elo Lcy rat
lao-6rSov Tore 8' oi Ti KVXvleiv a Eo-ravf6evO; 7rep'
A" SEKTcap eOWls pLeV drel eEt A 'pL aXdcru-oij
tI f
pea 8ieXevto-eo0ats ticrala Ical vba4 'AXateov
c'elvwcov XX' ore 78 rv'icvjr vEcVvpo-e dCXaytvi,
oT7j pa udX' EyXpioO0elk ol 8' Avrlot vlev
'AXauv 146
VvOcaroVTes iC e'L re ical ElyXeo-v Atipsyvoo-rw
or-av aTro r o4elatv 8' e xao-a'devo LepXei0.
qvo-ev 8\ 8tarpv-tov Tpcecrcr yey/evwc9
"Tp&e~ Kal Atco te ical Aidpavots /yXiaXq'ral, 150
rappfeve'r o1 'roI rpov C4e a-rXaova-tv 'AXatol,
Kal p~ .a 'rvpy?7lSv oe/ac av ro9 apTv7avT79,
otA' oL, XaydoaovTat V' eyXeo, el dreov fe
5poae 0e&v WoptUITO, epl7yovvro ~ro's- "Hpiy."


Deiphobos encountereth Meriones.
(59 elro7v 7oTpvve eIvo'i Kal Ov1LoLv icdao-rov. 155
A9l7'oog 8S' e'v roFor ILe'a Opove' O e/3pefpice
Hptald'87G ,rpoa-ev 8' eXev d-cEri8a 'rrvToo' eio'-yv,
icoDoa 7roo-i 'rpop/3fcit caal vrao-rl8ta v'poro8l'wov.
Mrpiovlq 8' avroto rtTvo-iceo 8ovpt' aetvw,
cal /3pxev, ob' acIpapTe, Icar7 dao-'a rravo'oa
eUo-Ia 160
ravpellv T7F 8' oiS 'e 8& a-aaev, AXXa 7 roXb rpiv
v icav-Xo Edyq 8otXibv Spv A t7000o/3o,? 8
a 'ar8a Tavpel'rv a-x'Q a7ro So, 8e0o-e 8\ Ov/uL
yXo, Miptovao Saitpovo avrap ry' i7po
'r Tripov elo ; vo ; ejxyd o, Xyo-aTro 8' alvwso 165
Adjforepov, vtuK]c; Te Kal 'ryeo?, 8 4vveage.
834 8' lievae rapd 'e ,ckto-ia? ica2 v4a? 'AXas&v
ol~do/ievog 86pv jpLa cpov, 6 ol Icso-lXry XXetr'-o.

Of the slaying and spoiling of Imbrios.
ol 8' AXXoo paipvavTo, 03o0 8' aor/Sco-TO' opcopeb.
TeDicpo;v 8\ -p rpro' TeXaCja)vto avSpa icar6ecra, 170
"Ip/ptov al'rx ro7Tl'v, voXvtiHr7ov Mevropov vt'v.
va e 8e IIH8atov Tprv dhO9ev v'la 'Axa7iov,
Kcovpvv 8c HIps~aoeo vodr'v X'e, M e8ue-LKa'c-T'-a
avrap 7reb Aava&v ve'e 7'7XvOov A('e'tXo-raa,
a' elJ "IXeov 77xOe, LperflTrpere 86 Tp6eoa-c, 175
vale Sc -rap Ipediuo-' 68 6 pev Tiep le ra retceccti,.
rov k' vio' TeXap,&voy? br' ova-ro'; e'yei paicp6
Tv3', dc 8' ecoraerv Ey"XO,? 6 8' aC) 'erecev
,fieXiij &;,
' T' 6peo0? IcopvU0j "caOev 7reptosatvoe'voto 179
XaXiK rapvotQe'v iT'r pepa X9ovi O4XXa reXado-o-y

8 IAIAAO N (xm)
s o reoev, Auo'b 86e ol fpd'xe Tevdea 7roitclXa XaXdkc.
TeDKcpog 8' 6pOltjB neptzaO, &ba O rtevXea 8o-art
"EIKTc'p 8' opp)OeLvTo' daKOIvTro-e 8ovpbl paev6S.
dIXX' 6 pLv avra 18o v Xeva7To XdXiceov 6'y"oq
TVT 6v, o 8' 'A/1tIpaXov Kredrov v' 'ATrcopbivow
vsoa-o/pevov 7roXe/LoVSe IcaTa o-'rTj00o de Sovpp. 186
8ov'7r)o-'ev 8 'rreoacv, Apd',f3a.e 8' Tede' E7r avTr.
"EicrTp 8' 'p 'Oq ecopvOa Kpordc0otv apapvtav
cpaT aspap7Trda /eyaXrTopo 'AtL/aXoto-
A'tav 8' Jp170Ev'ro 8pzpea'ro So vpt 4aewv 190
"E/cTOpor" dXX oi rvy Xpo e'o-raTo, 7 a9' 8' apa
oapepSaXE IceicdXvO"' 8 8' 'p' o0-718o, o/,baXov
So'e 84 put o-0'vei p."eyX & x6 8yd'a'aro rto' CaO'
veKcpcv AJPooTepwv, T70O 8' e'elpv'o-aav 'AXato
'Aklut'1aXov h'v icpa ''-Tiot 82iV Te Meeo-OEa V, 195
apXol 'AOWvatov, IKc'ltrav eCrTa Xaov 'AXaiwv,
"I/3 ptov abr' A' avre, pepaore OoVptSoi aX/CIc.
o Tre 8v' alya Xeovre Kvv&v ivro capXapo8OVTrv
ap7rdIaavre cipr7ov av va pwr a 'IvlcvCa,
bfoDv vTrep ryal,' /LerTa -yauLfr7XCfo-w eXOVTE, 200
co pa rTOv iAf 'XeovTe 8&o A'iavTe icopvO-r'r
Tevxea a-vXj1rav icefaXjv 8' racX,? aAr7o 8etpr/9
i xcev 'OtXt a'8 ,ceXoXw1cevoV 'A p xoto,
rice 84 ruv ao-atpriSov itxsdfievoq Vo' oflixovJ
"EIcKopt 8e TrporadpotOe vro8cv rCo-eav Ev Kcovlyct. 205

Poseidon meeting Idomeneus spurreth him to the battle.
ical roTe 8r rep t le'pt Ho et&dYwv eXoxf&l
vlcvoZo 'reco'oroT ev alvn~ 87tor7irt,
/3 8' levab rapa 7e KXtuila ,ca' vjay 'A ata&v


'opvvoev Aavaov", Tpweor~a Se lc'8e' e'reveve.
'IBo/evev 8' aipa tol ovupucvrT avreTCoX'7O-ev, 210
epXoievoy rap' ralpov, 6 ol veov e dc roo\ o
?6XOe ica' ly6vvrv 8eoX7?oLevo? Ols aXicK.
rbvy pv e7aipoL &veutcav, 6 8' IjTpoti rETtTEolXa
isev cxtaKXolrv" eT 'Yap roX4lporo Mtevolva
avTtaav. T7ov 8E 'rpoo-E77 icpelwv bvoit'0lv 215
eloa/dYevo' 0oy'ryjv 'Av8palpovo, vlt @0oavTt,
t8 v'w Q TIIXevpvL iKcal alrewvy KaXvS8vt
Alrwhooa-w v vacrae, Oeov 8' ', Ti'eo 81,a*
"' I8oievef3 Kpp'T&v /3ovX'rlpe, oroD roto a7rebXal
o'iXov'ra, Tar Tpoalv jrelheov vtie 'Axatsiv ; 220
TrO 8' aZ5r' 'I8opevevf Kpi'r&v 7'? avrlo'v 0STa-
o" odav, ov 7'r avVPp vvv 7' a'rTto?, 'o-ov ero ye
yL'yvcoIo-' ?radvTe' ryap 'rTirTa'e0a 7wTroXeI'ew.
ot're T'tv 8o0 't'cXye aKrlptov oV Tre SKV
eicawv av8v e'rat roXe' ov icacv 4~v XX X Tovy oTbo 225
pXXet 87 4lXov elvac v7rep'pevl KpovIav,
vrivvpvov' dAroX'o-0at atr' "Apyeo bv0dS8' 'AxatoiF.
aXX O@6av, Kcal yap TO 7rapo' eLve8e7Sto jacr-Oa,
Orpvvets 8' Kalb iXXov, b're Jetievra 'i'87at-
T~@ vVv Ir/7a' aroXXlye ICe ev4 X e OrT dw CKa'T." 230
TOv 8' 1Ij/el3perT' rretra IIoo-e8ciav ePvooail'Xov*
"'IBotevev, P/Z iceLvoF av'p e"'t voar4aetver
d6 Tpolt'r, dXX' avOt cvvWVJv pi~rri0pa 'yevoTo,
o'? Tt( e r' iJ/aTr T 8oe EKiL' PiOelly ti iue-XeoOas.
aXX' alrye rvedea 8evpo Xa/c(v W0 Tavra 8' a/a
XP s235
8rev'ev, at ic' beXo Tt ryePc6V/ea ical SV' Ivre.
a-vUdeppr'T 8' ApeCrj 7reXe avSpiv cal pdj a Xv-
vct 86 Kal i /yaOoiZotv 'wrto-iralpeo-ra pi'ea-Oai-."


Idomeneus, having armed himself, meeteth Meriones, who is coming
to the hut to fetch afresh spear.

SaL7r)v 0 ir v a iv aiT' Sr O6eoF Ap rovov Av8puv*
'I80opereb 8 8' 6re 8 KoICXa-lIv VTVIrTOv I ave, 240
8Vuo'erTo T6e a IaXa '7repi Xpot, iyev'ro ~ 8Ope,
r 8' fpev Li'Tepo7r e'vaXlycTro, iT re Kpovtwv
Xep iXapfv 3 ETrlvav a.' alyXievTro 'OXpwov,
8eucv'; ao-Tia 3poTo0o-ECrtv pi~Xot 8S' ol avyali
OD< rao xaXKto 'Xa/Le rire pep aT2j8ero-oa- ovro. 245
M~ypouvr 8' lapa ol Oepa'COv Ov avTre/3pdXToev
r677yy e Cic KX7rl7- tetCa 'yap 86pv XCXiceOV 7'e
ol&eOes';o TOV 8'vb 7 rpoo-a'er oa-0vo' 'I8opev8o0-
Mlpt0'dv MoXov vie rwo'8a; rTax, IlrTa' eTal-
itr' X0e ?7e b P/3e/3X7at, P/eXeo? 8e ae TEIpeL adcwicij,
.ie eV /71'yer77; /IET' LO Xv0es ; ov~8 Trot aToF
7orOat EVi ) I ctoX'lVi XtXalopab aXXa fPi 'eo-at."
rTO 8' a M7ptdovl 71erVvIpeVO's a'vrov 7ivo6a-
['IofLeveD Kp7r7T(v /povXi70ope XaXKOXTiwvwv,] 255
pXol'a', e 'i T1 7, Ce7YOV 'vl, Ticatl7yaT XEeLi77at,
oleoyemvor 6TO vv 7Ap Icareaap.ev, 8 'nrpw eXea'Cov,
bo- r ia AltdLfooto p/aX(v Vrwepr7vopovTOs."
Trv 8' aiT 'I8ofpeveb Kpi7Tov ,70 av'vrlov i7Ba"
8ovpaTa 8', at K' cE0Xyo-0a, cal i Kcal el'coo-
1j7eb6 260
eoTaoTa' v ICXic rp-wpb evworta 7rara, avdovra,
TpOct, Ta Icra Ievwv adroaivvuLat. ov y7p o~w
avSpwv 8vaEyaevewv hKc To-rapevoF 7-roXetL vewV
TrI PLOL 8ovpa'ra T eaOTL ical aoTwleE 6oaX'a-eo-aa
cal pv0c s ical O9LprlKep XapLwrpov yavfovrTe'." 265

IIAAOZ N (xii) 11
rov 8' ab Miptovi 7rewrvvapfvor avriov qi8a'
Kca TotL tuot 7rapd e icXto-.aly cal v7li L.eXatvy
7roXX' evapa Tpwov- dXX' ov o-Xe8ov eao-v AXea0at.
o'8e 'yp o~8' ife jsyU XeXaa-ievov Levat axKrv,
aXXa f eP rp('Toto't X pLa v ava' cv8tavetpav 270
-ra-/pat, Owr7rOr velKo opowpfrTat 7roXe'poto.
aXXov rrov TWtva utiXXov 'Axacov XaXKOXL1(Jov')v
X20o pLapvdpcvos, o- 86 'i'Sfevat avrov oio."
Idomeneus beareth witness to the valour of Meriones.
-ov 8' a'v 'I8o0pevev, Kprl7-v Ay'e aviTrov r68a-
o8, apeTr v o6 ec-o-a 71 or- Xp? TravTa X ye-
a-at ; 275
el yap vvv 7rapa vqova-o Xeyole0' a 'r-vre, a'ptarot
de 'Xoov, gvOa pdLa 'r-T' ?per'f 8taeleac dvSpwv,-
'vO0' 0b' re CSeAtXo avp, 0o T' a?,icqpo', eEefadv0aff
TOI pIJe yap re Ica/coD TpereTrat Xpyps Xv8Xu a'XX.y,
o0Se ol arTpc'/av' i-Oat edp?7Tve'' ev cfpeo- 6Ovpd, 280
aXa\d /LETOKCdXahe /ca e7r daUo07Topov9 ro'daS. Zet,
ev Te ol icpa86l 'ieydrXa O-TepvoLo- 7raTardo-et
IKcpas otoLevcp, -ra'Tayog 8 e 'e TyyveT' o8~vwTv
TOD 8' dyaOoD o"' ap TpE'reTat Xp(B oviTe Tt XlI]v
Tappe3, dreiSr8v TrpjTOV o-iriTat Xoyor davzpv, 285
dpaTat a raix-Tua pcryri/ervat ev 8at Xvyp--
ov8' K ev 0ab a rv ye 'pevo9 /cac Xepa 0'VOITO.
i' Trep 'yap ice /3eXo 'wovev evo. sE TVTre)',
o~c av ev v ae'v' .7.to-r e rro-ot /3Xoq oW8' i vCyO,
aXXa IEv f (970Tpvmv ?j v-P voq8 t aTado-ete 290
7Trpo-a-o le/LCvoto /ecTa 7rpofdayov oaptrij v.
aXx' ciye tgic et TaVTa XeYc' ea9a vprVl'tot Wo
CoTraore, f/4 7rov Tt9 rcTrepta)Xcow vCeCcr~jo-y
aXXa or- ye icXtio-lrv8e KIcW 'Xeev 3pt/ov eX'yov."


Idomeneus and Meriones go forth to the battle.
v Cdro, M1p1vr6; 8'o 00o dTrXavTro "Apr7 295
icap raXIyuo IXi Ko-lOrev velveTro XaXhieov 'ryxow,
8 fi SeaerT' 'ISopcvva pea iTa 7roX epoo pIep/rl<.
olo; /8 poTroXoybO "Api? r7roXepodve 'eereeo-L,
T, E'oo 4 flo i'ko vloe al a cpaTep' Ical 'Tappf r
eu7rTro, O' T E6f08ln-e TraXdaipovd 7rep woXe/Lt-
ao-rv7 300
TO 7 app' eIC OpyK'j; 'Elpapov pUe'ra Owp'areoa'ov
E\ ILETa Xeya'; /LeyaXlTOpav' ovi' apa To' ,ye
c vov aiforiepwv, d7Qpo'' fi IcafiSou ebw'icav*
EXVGV aITE' COPl), aTc'paOte 8 K)80Zo
Troio MqypeOsv rI T al 'I'8o 'eve'? ayoi Av8p&v
7rto-av e'; 77rOe'ov iceIopvO/e'voi a'oro xt aXK/c. 305
Trv cal Mpetdv1ry; rpdoepo' T rpof pOvov ee're
" AeviaXi8l, 7T^ T' alp p/UporaG KaraaUvval 6/etXov ;
g errL\ &S~ec V TrarTo'; TTparov, G va /e-cra-ovq,
7 7Tr' apteip epodev ; irel ov iroOtL erroa,0a orTO)
Seveao0at 7roxeo'o Ic'p) icIKO'ovr)VTa; 'AXaLo ;." 310
Trb 8' aT' 'Io'0fevev? Kpr&v dy70? av v iT va-"
"' vrlvl pl v iaola-lcr avvev ela-L Ia'l aXXot,
AIavr re 8) TeGcpo 0B', alpsio-r 'AXacov
ToGoo-vvy, jyaaOo S tIal Ev cra lry vl vl'v
o, IP, ~~v ASorv X ical Era-v vov P ro TOX'LO 315
["Ecropa IIptaiSer8v, cal ed p/Lda icapTepo~ dE-Trw].
airrV ol eo-e Tat, pAdXa 7rep fleL/a&t IdaXeafOat,
IceLvwv vetc(o-avTe iEOvo ical Xyepa; a aTTov(
vfla; evtvrprj-at, oTre ILj arTo' 7ye Kpovowv
eJI3dXot alO6peevov 8aXbv vea-ae Ooyoa w. 320
av3p 8 fic oe tIV e!eie p /yas TeXa/ ~cvo' A'a;,
&; OVrI- T' E' c atel e'a80 Ar7L'TCepo' atrcqv,
XaXKc Tre prlbCro' IeydoXa'I T 6re XepfaBoI tv.

IIAIAAO N (xmi) 13
oi~' av 'ALXX\i,, P ,qrjvopc Xwpjo'-eIev
1 7' abToO-TaSly 8troo 8' ovr etr) 'ErTv epl'ettv. 325
v6tv 8' )8' r' cp apto-' e 'e -Tparov, uodpa Trato-Ta
ed80oev, ri T7) eYo S' OpCoIPev j6 rSi T 7/V."
q 0aTdro, Mypeto'rlp 8' 00o a7aravro, "Aprl
ipx' 'itev, bp' aclucov'ro KcarTa crpardv, f tEv

They fight in the mellay. Poseidon still favoureth the Achaians
against the will of Zeus.
ol 8' ,? 'ILBoevrla '80ov (pXoy' e'iceXov acXK 330
a Tov cal aepirrovra, aov vreao-" 8as8aXe'oao-,
IKeCIcXO/ evoL t ca6' otLLXo v Er' avTr. r vrave o /3&jr-av.
ToV 8 6" ov lOr-TaTo VEiKOF e'rpi 7WpvkvYa- veeaaw0,1.
c? 8' 0b'' bro Xevya yev aviev Tre PXO-wt Aiv ast
o77Tt Tr), OTC T6 'rXe0-T7 ICo'u e.c't Ke/ev0ovu 335
ot 7' a/iV8t Kcovlr)v eryXr la7r7ao-trov ,OIyXXrlv,
ow apa T7V O/'Oo-' ?XOe Ipiax, pepaoaav 8' 8 i 0iAv3
aXXrXoUx v caO' b'pXov Evatipefv ofei X'aX/c.
'Op4Iev Se p-dXl OcoI-l/lP/poo0 eCYXvCYo-
L ,aKcp7, ;X eov T7aueoa- 'poa9 6'o-a-e 8' altepSev 340
av 57 XaXceir icopvOov "7ro Xaprropevdwov
OwprlCWav fTE veooa-cjlKTWv oaicewv 7e faetvwiv
epXOI4ewvv alpuvss. IadXa Icev paovKiap8to efly,
i T7ore 'yrjaeteerv e 1wv avov o xb' '/coL7ro.
Ta) 8' d OAs 4poveovre 86w Kpdoov ve icpaTrai
av8pacr-vw 'jpdea-cr-w dreTE' ov aXyea Xvypd. 346
Zeb /Ie=v a TpCueo-- xa E /ica T E/copI 8Xero v'rlv,
KvSa'vov 'AeXrga rrdo8a raxvv- o08' 6' ye Trdaj7rav
ijOeXe Xaov Xe'o-0at 'AXacLncK 'IXOts rrpo,
AXXea eTWr Kv8awe ixal vlea KapTepdoviov. 350
'Apyelovu Se Iloa-estdwy opdOvve ITereXe0v,

14 IAIAAO N (xni)
Xc0py breava86a 7roXL O AXLv' OlXero yapp pa
Tpwo-bv Sapvalpvov,, Adl 8 rcparepwo eveplea'oa.
77 /Lav A/1o0r0poTa Iv otL v yErvoI 18' ta trarp17,
aXxa Zev? rpoepov 'yeyovet /ca'l 7rXelova '8,q. 355
T7 paa Ical 1, a8Ba1 v pEhV Aeefevaas AXe'eve,
\d6py 8' 8alv E'ye iKcara o-rparTO, av8pt eolKIc.
Ti 8' f'pcoo? lpaTrepli Kal O otooo rTroXEpoto
7reipap deraXXadavref e7 a/1iorTpo' t 'rdWvvo-a-av, 359
appcKTOv T aVTOv re, T' '7roXXWv yovvaT ~Xvo-ev.

Idomeneus slayeth Othryoneus.

vOa, Peoa7roXio 7rrep ewv, Aavaocr- KeXevo-av
'Iofopevew Tpeco-c-t teTrda'Xvos Ev cd (pov Wpa-e.
er'Ove yap 'OOpvovja Kap ,/cr6-ev e'vov eovra,
S' pa veov 'roXe'pOto /ekEa /cXE'~ e6tirXooveiL,
T6fre 8' IIpti/oLo OviyaTrpv el8os apio'Trqv 365
Karo-a-dvpriv avee8ov, bvr i;a 'ro 8& pe'ya a'pyov,
ic Tpoibl ae'icovTra airwm-Eoa v vla? 'AXatcov.
T(3 8' 6 fyp'ov HIpiapo yeo 7-t60- cal KarTvevoe
8o-41jefvar- J 8c' ftpva9' b'roo-Gao-ly atrto roaa.
'Io/jLEVEv 8' avroto TrTvo7ceTO 8ovp'l aewtvw, 370
ical 3dXev vti 3tspdvra TrvXwv ob8' pxceo-e O6pf]
XdXKeoV, vby ope'rKce, Le-y 8' &v yao-Tipt 7Tre.
8ovt'7io-ev 86 rea-v- 6 8' erev;aro (wvs'crev 're
"'OOpvoveD, 'rep' 87 ae /3por7iv aivlfo.' aTrdvTrv,
el eTebo 877 7raa TeXevr17o-eL, 'o' vTreCOYT7 375
Aap8avt'8 Ilptd, 6e 8' iTrao-Xero Ovyarepa 77v.
tcal e TI roC ltefit rTcra 7' roo-XpoEevoL TeXloaipev,
SoJev 8' 'ATped'ao Ovyarp&v elgo0 dpto-Tpv,
"ApIeov ca~ayoiovTe, 6orvtciev, et ice a-vv avp 8iv
"I\ov cKrepcOyi1, ev vatoIevrov rroXle0pov. 380

aXX' e-ev, 6'p' e'7T vvral awvveoieOa 7ovTrordpoto-
a/1 / 4 ydaaLm, e're oi To& e'efvowTa IcaKcol eltev.

Idomeneus slayeth Asios, but Deiphobos slayeth Hypsenor.
w; eL7r(Wv 'o080 AE/ce caTa icpaTEp7v v /L-LIv7
lpwi 'I8ofevew- rc 8' "Ao'-toV '9ev ap -)rop
rverft 7rpoo-0' r7rwvc To 8' 7rvelovre icar' ILwv 385
altv I'X' rioo, 0epa7rawrv a 8S lero OVIu4
'I8o/0eva /paXer 68 e tttv c960devo9 /3AXe 8ovpl
Xatpov V'r' avOepewva, StaTrpo 8 XaXKcv e'Xao-o-ev.
prtre 8', (B oTre T 7 p1? p? 'pLVp rV aXepwcl
'rlTv /3Xo w0p, Tr v T oipeo-c 8Ercrove9 av8peT 390
e rapAov re1 ceo-'-ec veicecrKe v7tov elvatr
; d 7rpdo-O' T'Irrov Icat 8p pov KeT'ro ravva9elV,
/3~pvxyw I'8 cLOo Se8payp~Lvov al/a7crTo-o-lV.
edc 81 ol W vioxo9 7rXiyl pevaV, a? irapo; el yv,
oi8' o 7' ETroX/fL1L-v S 'LWI ro XEtpa; aXtvas 395
&aI' (Trov o'rp'at. TOV 8' 'AvrilXo Xo peveydp-

8ovp'i ILdAov 7rTepoVri-e TVydrV o,"' ip~ceo-e O9Prlf
XcXdceoV, 'ov fopecav-ce, 8ie'ly 8' Ev yaoarEp iT/fjev
avrap o daoO8aivo v EvepfyEo0 c'7rTeo-e Sifpov,
ITTrov 8' 'AvirXoXoV /peyaOv/iov NEo-ropo9 vdtq 400
iedkaoe Tpcwv /er' evicvs'jyaV 'AXatovov.
Aiy7opoo S8 cdiXa o-xe8ov I7Xv0ev 'I80oevro0,
'Aotov aXv/pevoPV, ical aKr~ovTa-e ovp'l aetvw.
a 1,X o /ev ava 168i )Xe'a7To XadKEOv E'YXOo
'I8oleveuV icpvi/0 I ryap Ir' dcO-ri8S 7rdv'-oa-' &ia-7,
71-v ap o ye tvoao-t pooov ialt vcpori XahXa 406
SwevWrjv 0opeea-ce, 8vw Icavoveo--' apapviav-
7T iro Fra edAX7, 'TO S' r'7rep'Tao yd X ceov yYoV,
capfaXdov 84 ol daort? dretOpeav7roV alvcev

Xygeo0 ov8' aXiLp tova p/apelr f Xyepbs '^ ev, 410
4XX' 3axl' 'IInraa-~'Srv T'T*rjvopa -roiteva Xa5ov
i7rap v7ro wrpatrl8wv, elOap 8' b7o\ yovvaT' evue.
A'riop/o 8' EIcra'yXov Erev'aTo tpaKcpov avo-a'
" ob iav avrT'' arTro Keli' "Ao-to, aiXxd o1rt
ei "At8' 7Trep iova 7rvXdpTao IcpaTrepoo 415
yrj'ewfv IcaTr OvBvOV, i7rel pa oi .Traa-a *ro7r7dv."
cos sa7', 'Apyeloto-r 8' a'Xo? yfverT' etapIfvolo,
'AV7tLkXX) 86 pAdXurra 8atifpovt Ovpv o'ptvev"
&XX' ov8' avv a cv t rep oo apleXro-ev erTapov,
aXha Odeov r'epl138i ical l odicot ai picaXvJe. 420
TV ACV e7reC' bvtroSvr08 e 8V0 eplllpef eTrapos,
Mico-Trev, 'Eto(o vrat? Kcal 8iov 'AXaio-Top,
vag ~irt yXacvpah cepe7] v 3apca o-TevaXov7a-

Idomeneus slayeth Alkathoos and crieth on Deiphobos to stand up
against him.
'ISolpevev 8' ob Xj'ye Pevo' PL/eya, tero 8' atel
e Twa Tpwva v epe/3vv' VVKTI icaXv'ra 425
4 avTO's 8ovurfoat r a/jtvwov Xotyov 'AXaoiZ.
v0' Alorv 'rao 8toTpecfpo0 tlXov vliv,
pw.' 'AXKhdo oov---ya,/3pbq 8' -v 'Aryxo-ao,
'rpeor18VTa'-Tv 8' ~'wvte OvyaTpor v 'I7r7roSpfetav,
7 v repf K5ipt Olk'o-e 7ra- p cal 7roTvta lujrTqp 430
ev pteydp 7raao-v ryap o/lAXtKiclrv eiceicao-TO
Kc~aXei ical epyoato-v 186E peori 'rovo ca ial tprI
,y.aev v' p opto-To E'vi Tpol? evpe--
TOV 760' Wr 'I8ofpev e IlooetSdov e6adpao-e
Oe'X!aq ocrae Oaevwd, 7re'8o-e S6 8 al~i8ea yvia" 435
o76e 'yap eio'TLo-w Cvy7eev S8var' ov'7" daLaO0at,
aXX' c&' e o-7aTijX'v 4 86 8vpeoiv vt'freTr 7ovV
a7pepas earTaoTa 7T709Oo pjeo-ov ov'Taa-e 8ovpl

IIAAO N (xm) 17

"ps 'Io80ere', 'ev f e8 o0 ApdVll yvr0va
aX&iceov, 05 ol 'rpoa'-ev ao XpoO IcpKeI bXe0pov"
8' TOe 7' abo vcev a EP petic6evo 7rep' 8ovp. 441
8ovTJe7Tv 86 reaUO', 8opv 8 ev 1cpa8ly re7T'7yet,
' p ol acr'ralpovova v oplaov weXefJ tev
e'yXeor ~v0a 8' ter-' lClet e'vo, b'P/3pos "Aprs.
'I8oj0eve,? 8' ecwrayyXov ezev'aaro patcpov dlo-awa 445
" Ailo3p', q dlpa 87' wi eir/icopev aigtov elvat
Tpel evo' alvr', 'e ar-Oat,; ew7el E v rep e1 xeaL OV'TO
Satoodv', Aa XX cal aLr-T ? vawrlov Zora-' epo,
"dpa 'i8y, o1o Znrvbs y vo? evafS' licvw,
o ?rpvpwov M'lwa rice Kp'jry E'iovpov' 450
Miltvo 8' asb reice0' vl.v wApvpAova AevicaXlwva,
AevicaXlCo v a6 TcKE TroXe wodv' idvpea-wv avaTcra
KpjTy dv Evpely vfiv 8' 6vOd8e ve' gvebicKav
aooi re Icacov Keal ra-rpt Ical l Xocort Tpe'o-rtv."

Deiphobos calleth on Aineias to rescue the body of Alkathoos, but
Idomeneus standeth his ground.
ca d 7ro, ATi'op o? 8v 8tidv8tXa peppjip4fev, 455
7 r -iva 7ov Tpcav Erapo-a-atro feyaOv~wv
atJr AvaXwprlo-av, 7retp1rcatro cal oloq.
8e 84 o0l poveovTrt 8oda'a'aTo Kcep8tov elvat,
/3Svat 7r' Alvela 7Ov S' baoraroV ev epevf do'tov
co-raor aleb yap Ilpip dwere'iyrvte S p, 460
ovVeXc' dp' 0-0'ov Eovra mper dv8pd ac o5 rt TIe-Kev.
ayXoD 8' lra'ipevo' 6rea VT6epoevra 7rpoa-'jv8a
"Alvela Tpwyv /ovX'1c0ope, vPv moe fidXa Xpi
ya,3ppp A1LvvefLevat, et' p r71 ce IriKO8- Wicve'.
AX' 75ev, 'A ,caoo erravvop ev, '? r-e rapov rye
ya/3ppog 406v 'Ope'e 8o~ o 've t ev rvrbov vra 466
TOv 8 roTi 'IvopLe i SovpKicXv'rbV iervdpt&ev."

18 IIAAO; N (xm)
AT5 doT0, r7 8' &pa Ovpov evt a-'rrlOeaaw tpve,
j 86 /er I80 1ev' 'ISo ~7a a 70a oXpoto jer/oXct L.
Axx' ovi 'ISo/jevfa f6o/3o Xdf/3e T77Xvye7ov ai, 470
AX oev', & 7-e 7tv; o-r ovpea-rv aXKt 'l 'rero.;,
8o 7e 1,6veM KoXoa-vpTO 7 e'repXolpevov 'iroXbv av8pwv
X'pw 'v oloroX0, fplao-ae 8 Te virov iV7repfev'
b3OaXt\ 8' dpa ol rvpl XaTrreofo avrap ds8ov7a
Orjyea, Aie'ao-0ae fepawa\ Kv'vaq Sa /cal advpa;' 475
6o ievev 'ISo/8erev9 8ovptCXKvrTo, o 8' bvre7iepes,
Alvelav ertiovra 3poi7oov- abe 8' &Taipov,
'Ao-rKdXadv r' eaoopwv 'Aoapad re AtfLTrvpod re
Mnptpv'dV T6 ical 'AvTlXoXov, P/7rorwpaq AvT7'"
T705o 7' )roTpv07P v '"rea 'rTTepoevra 'poro-av8a- 480
" SeDTe, iXot, ical f/' oi aLvLvere6 Seia S' alvrw
Alvelav er7rovTa 7ro 8a TraXvv, 59 ort e6retov,
03 /cXa Kap7rpo; e7t /a pX' e'vt w &Tar Evalpewtv
ical 8' e'XEt r/3is l vOo, 6 e /cpa7roF EtO at /itrov.
el ya7p otfJlr]eitKl y yeyvofLefa T71c8' E67ri Ov/Lj 485
aL icer \ (pepot7o pL'ya cpa7oq l cepotll'zv."

The fight rageth rowzd the body of Alkathoos.
04 e'aO', ol 8' apa 7'rdvr e'va Opeo- Ovl9Lvp
S'rXhorio ea'ro-jav, o-adce' wl/oo-t /chc avre.
Alvelas 8' erepwOev eKce'cX6eo oZ0 gT7dpot-t,
Adopov 7e6 Ilaptv 7T' eopJv ial 'Ay vopa 8oov, 490
ot ot alp' 1yyloveo; Tpdowv 'oav- avTap e'TeTa
Xaol 7rovO ', f e6Y 7e6 p.te7 cIXo 'erovwro p Xa
'rtol~vE c 6Kpoa vrl' I rydvvTraV 8' "apa 7e Ope'va
A Alvela Ovuty e V aOrTjOea'60 yeyiOjes,
cSb 'Se Xaov egvoy errtrc7rotoIov e o ar' 495

ol 8' Af' 'AX/caO'a avboo-xeSov pt jOi'7r-av
Laicpolct vo-roo-a- 'reppt o'rl-0eao-t SX aXico
o-pecp8aXeov KICova'/3 e Tturvaoe'vwv a0' Suh\ov
dxxjaXwv. 8vo 8' av8pev aprtot 0oyov a'XXcov,
Alvela' re ica' 'I80otevekf, aTrdavrot "Apri, 500
Ievr d'XXiXov 7raplew evpoa, vwXei xaXIc .
Alvelaa 8' rrp'rov ailcovr'aev '180oevrjo,-
aEX' o tp~v avra 18v j7Xevaro Xydlceov "yvol,
alyr) 8' Alvelao cpa8atvofph icaTra yaL'o 504
veT,% dvel ke ai tov o-7ta /3ap a7r yetpo povUev.
'IoLepwvev 8' ilpa OlvooLaov 8dXe yacrTpa io'-crr-v,
pgje Se 0O)p9ycoK yv/aXovv,8t 8' bvrTpa xaX/Loq
4vo-'- 86 v IovPt't i7 reao'wv AXe yalav ayoacrrT.
'Io80/lvev 8' e i pv ve'cvo BoxsXyo-aicov e'yo,
Ieda~rcaar', Wo;8' "p' "' iXXa 8vv~4c-aro revXca
eo-vrao-da, ovu ap, T a 27
icaXh\ 510
/luotr adfeXo-eOa- rwelyero yap fleXVea v.
ov yap er' eIpr8a yva v wrogw v OPfpqvOpV Lre
oy' ap riiaL at ec' Eov PeXog or'UT axaa-9tar
7)o pa ical ev Tra8ly' ELv a a/jvero v7rXe9 9ftap,
trpcr ra 8' otc'rite Pi Oa ro68e? iepov cK TroX/koto.
70ro /3d8asrv a7rtovTro aicorTee S8ovpt' jaeatvw 516
A7lio/3po 8\ yp ot' .e..v o .oV .Leveq atel.
aXX' o ye IcaL t7O' aijapTEV, 6 8' 'A a'cdaXaov fdXhe
vov 'Evvalotoo Vs' SlAov 8' 6o3ppov fy/XO
aXfev, 8' dv 1covlyo-rt reoa'ov eXe yacav ayorT. 520

Deiphobos is led wounded from the battle.

oz8' apa wr&) Tst w7rriVTu-o Spt 'rrvUO 6'/3olpqo "ApiS
Vyot coLo 'weaTovTo evi Icparepy V;o'tvy,


a\X' a 7' p' aip cpw 'O\Uvpr r vpvinorao

Tro, Atb f3ovlj~cyvw eejX4EVO, 'v6a 7rep aXXoo
a9Ovarot Oeo'l ?o-av eepyo/Ideot roXfIE/oto" 525
o01 JtLU' 'AcAicaXld abroao-eS&v 'cpp~4O'jaav.
Ail'opov /3o Lv ar' 'AciKaXcadov '4irjX'ra paetwvv
4qpTrao-e, Mnptovry, 8' 9o6 arTXavrov "Apt
Sovpl f8paxyova TrAJev E7radX/levo, dEc 8' dpa XEspo,
ai~ Tjrvt rpvadXeca xapal /30P~p/ e re o-ouo-ra. 530
Mqpeovi 8' eavTTcF erdXeLuevoa, al'yvzbT; wO ,
9eppvc-e rrpvjfvo'o 3ppaXlovo 6'/3ptov ey"XO,
a*' 8' erdpWV ell; 'evo EatlferoT. Tov 8e IIOXiT7qg
avroKcaao-iyvlrTO, 7repit PEo-a XUpe T'LT'va,
einyev roiXe'poLo 8va-o7XEO', 68p' 'iiceO' 'TrovF 535
Mrcea,, ot ool 0zrrOe pd'X i~ s)8 -rroXEA1oto
go-Traoav lvioXdv Tre ial ap/taTa aroticiX' eX'OVTre"
o' TOrv y' 7Trpor iOaTv 0epov p3apea 0-TEVaXOvTa,
TrepoPevov Kcar 8' aZ/a veovTarov eppee XeLp6o.

Antilochos doeth valormosly, being holpen of Poseidon.
ol 8' AXXot lidpvavro, /3o9 8' a'/o-3reroa-O oppet.
Alvela, 8' 'Aoapqa KaXr-TOpl8qv Tropouo-a 1 541
Xati/ov Tv'r 7ri ol er-rpapfjevov, 8eQ 8ovpi'
eicXKivl' 8' TEpOBe Icapi?, e'rt 8' ado-vi? jd0Q]
ical iKpv9, A p IL ol Odvaroia XVo OV popaiCrT7.
'AvrTiXoxo? 8e O6eva ieTraaerpEfd'vTa 8oacevo-a' 545
oiTaoe' eirat aq, b7r 8\ bXep3a 'rao-av C'copoev,
e ava v owa 9Oovaa 8taprepfe avyev' IKvae
Av Aro irao-av a'i epoev, o 8' i7IOrZr dv o VilyO
Kawtraeev, lapf Xeipe hXot &rapoCo" reardao'a-a.
'AviTOXOa 8' eweropovo-e cal' at'vvro revXe' rw'
cWmoyv 550

'ra7rralvowv Tpoe 7r8E rept-Traa v aXXo0ev IXXoo
oviTaov oadcos evpv 7'avawloov, ove 8vvavTO
l'o- derTtypdfat rTpeva Xpoa vr')7X xakhic
'AVTrX'XOV' Vept 'yap pa Hoact8S ov evooa-i ov
NC4-ropo v O w 'pvro ical Ev roXXoZot 8eXeo-acr. 555
oj LLEv cydp 7roT' avev Srcov 7v, ciXXh car aivroiv
aorpwrOar' oU& oat &yxo0 'X' Arpiea;, aXXah ~cX'
a-reufeyvov eXUeXicroa TrIv7OceTO SB qpeo-lv oar
Srev d/ov7ni-a-aa 4j' aXe8bv opplgOrjvat.
aXX' o X9O0' 'ASdiavra rtTv-rvoievoV9 ical'
b' eXov 560
'AtaIdSv, O6 0 oi07a pcJov a-aico toe' xaXi/c
e'y/v0ev opprl oek a'.gevvwoa'ev 8e ol al'ypXv
KcvavoxaaTa 1Ioot8a'edw, 3tOc'TOIO FCeyrpa,.
icatl Tb v aLTroDv EWi a e o-a7caXoho ruvpcava79,
ev a'dcet 'AvTXdXOLo, TO 8 jtLov Kict' e7rl yatl9q
a1 E rdpev et9 'evo edaero Kicp' AXeelvZv 566
MS7polvfl S' arto'rva jieraa-Tro/evoS /3Pae 8ovpi
altolwv re fiea -ryV cal o-ia aXo, evOa I/aXTo-ra
ylyver' "ApF9 daXeyeyvov ot~vpoci-e fpo'roio-v.
Ov9a ol 'YXO? 'rev 6 & a Trotevo r 7rep' 8ovp't 570
ro-rwasp, Wa ore /pois, dTO 7' ov'pect /3ovic6lo
LkXXao-i oVi e'O'ovra 8fly 8'a-avTeV a'ovotv-
s TU 7rTeL 9y7r oratpe /lovvla 7rep, ovi r adXa 2v,
obpa ol db Xpoo e'yyXos avecordraaa' eyyvl Ov eXOAov
lpwa M77ptov09 TOb 8 KO-COTO9 o'-o-oe icaXVE. 575

Helenos smiteth Deipyros, but is himself wounded by Menelaos.
A'll7rvpov 8' "EXevoV (fei c-ye8XSv Xao-e Kcopo-'l
Oprfo1i9 ptgeydXhp, a7 Tr 8e TpvdaXetav apagev.

7) piev daro7rXa7yXOeToa xalpa rwo-e, Ical rtv 'AXatWv
/Lapvapyvwv LpeTa 'ro-cal KvXtv80oievrv dncooa-ee
Tov 8' tcar' 860aX7iS)v epep3evvr) v; deid Xv4ev. 580
'Arpet-Sv 8' a'Xov elxe, po'v Ayaobv Mev'Xaov,
,J3 8' EravretXyca 'EXE'vw 1qpot aivaIcTt
;v 8d'pv ucpadowv- 6' 86'ov '4yxvv aveice.
) 8 pp' o'liapTri8rv p6 v r 'YeF 6vOevVre
t~e' aiovritcaat, 8' a7ro vevpj ov osbr 585
IIpeuliSTs /Jv efreera caiar or7T0o0 3axev Zm
Od7pOicov yvahXov, aro ira'aro .jricpov otarTO.
a 8' Jr' r ra'rTo? rrvofwv .~eydXarv ,car'

OpdwacKwo-v ica/iot jeaXavoXpoe;v A epeC'/sv0o
7rvoy "7ro Xtyvpjy ical Xuijrpov epwy, 590
Ws a7r O 0wp'icov MeveXaov ,KvaXiftolo
roXX, v dro7rXayrX0el9 E/ca e'rraTo 7rcicp; oe6o-ro.
'ArpEitSd 8' apa XeZpa, 3pov ayaO&b Mer~Xaoq,
2rv 3d Xev, exe Trov d, oov" dv 8' lipa TrOC
AvvrKcpIv Sta Xelpoh e'xXaTro XydXCeov E'YXO. 595
at 8' e 'pov els eOvo dXl'fero Kicp' aXeeivev,
Xetpa ?rapaicpekdo-av q To 8' e'd6XiceTo jEI tvov
cal rO /v d/ Xe~c epo? pvo-ev peydv.Lo' 'Ayvwop,
arv v 8\ & vv uev 8 v-E peefi ol~b' awriT,
c-aev8'vr, Gv dpa ol Oepa'wv 'Xe 7rotwLevi Xaaov. 600

Menelaos slayeth Peisandros.
IIelaavSpov 8' tlOV MevEXlov Ic KaXi~Loo
Ite" rv 8' 'y6e iolpa Icac) Oavdroto Treoo-8e,
a-ol, MeveXae, &afIjvat.jv aivy 8r7torlrt.
ol 8' &Te 8 a-X'e\S "o-aav er' agXX4Xoto-v Love9,
'Arpeti'Si Jev p ptapre, 'rrapal 8' ol erpda'r7 E'lYos,

IIAAOX N (xm) 23
Ileloav8po, S8 ao-cov MevedXov cvSaXLipoto 606
ovraa-ev, ovae S&tarpo 8vvlOr-aTo XaXlcv dXa'o-ra&
ea'Xe0e yAIp ota'cos e1vpv, Ka'reicXcaa0r 8' tv KavXc
I'to ,' & (cpeoav a-t 'dp Kcal E"eX7erTo bicrv.
'Arpe'tSrs 8~ pvo-ac-drofvo 6tos dapyvp'rpXov 610
&XT' e erl IIecrdv8p 6 8 'r' ao-?r8o eLXeTO
ica) lv
Ai&vl v XevaXacov, dXavm ad'pu1 7reXcicicO
/iatcp4p EvroTW p- a'l 8' aXXrqVov bOlIcOVTO.
rot 6Ob o )V icopvyo9 (qdXov ijxao-ev lro8aa-el'rjy
alpov 'T O XAoov avr'ov, 6 86 7rporwtvora 7e'lTWorov 615
pLvo i~ rep rvJkdr/fl Xadie S' d8ora, Tr 86 ol o-aae
7rap 7roo-bv alaroevrma xafab 7Treov ev Icovi7o'w,
8v'On S 7recrwv. '6 8 Xa\ 'v ocr r7jcrOe /alvwv
eved a7' eevIpee Ical eai vXOevo eW'ro, vis8a-
"Xel*feTed Ol oT-Ww ye ve'a Aavatov TaXvWrXaov, 620
Tp&kev b7replaXot, 8etvf a dicp7-Lrot avmnj.
AXE'l s aepv X/39; re ical ata'o-eoq ov'c rit8eveFp,
Av 'L Xw/3prjaao-e, Kcaical i ves, ov'8 T( Ov/r
ZiJvob ep/3pepiLeTe(W XaXev 8e8eaacre priUtv
EsLVeiov, 0 T VOT' Vppi S&a0f O wpo-e n-oLXt ahirriv-
o pev covUptilrv &XoXov t I cal KicTr7aTa WroXXa 626
iha oLteo-O' avLa'yovToes, Erdel OeLE'o-0e 7rap' awry
vPv av 'rv vvov vZPvov pevCaivere 7rowTOpo'ol
irfp jXobv /3axewv, KTrelva 8' jpwas 'AXastoyav.
,xa'd 7ro0 aX'L-reafe ical do-tCevol 1rep "Api7o. 630
ZeD ri-drep, 7j e 6re o aao- repi Opevas eppevat
Av8pOv TiO 0e5v, cdo S' r'c rc8e Tvra vTa TeXovTaL'
oTov 8 av-pe8Co-aO aplicab bvp o Ty7o-L,
Tpwo-iv, TWV pmevo alv raaiaoOaxov, ob'e 8vvav-ab
v6rot8o, KIcopeo-aao-Oa d6iobioo 7roXoiX'OLo. 635

24 AIAIAAO N (xiii)

IravTav pEV KopoP e6ar, ical vvov ical atXrOTv77
poXvrrm re TyXUhrep Kicatl lp'iovoy opXvf1iolo,
TCoV rEp Tt /cal p/t XXov eeX8eTrat 6~ pov Elvat
S'roX4elov- Tpwoe s CaX?7S dy i pdITOL eaao-v.

Harpalion is slain by Meriones.
o r elv'I w Ta IV evre aTro Xpoo' atliaToevTaO 640
a-vXsr-aa &r-poto- 818ov MeveXao, (iL "cov,
avTos 8' ar' earTt3 tlc~ v 7rpoldtaXos~o-w vIl' 1.
va ol vtI e'7raXTro IIXaviaq eov pao-ac&roq
'Ap'7raXlwv, pa rarp'b AiXcp breTo 7r'oXqei4wv
de Tpoitv, ob8' a'Srt? dAciKcero 7rarpl8Sa cyaav- 645
oq pa 7TOT 'Arpe'8ao pfe'ov roo-ioF oraace Sovpl
eyyvev, ovSe 8ta7rpo 8vv5jo-aro XaXnov ef~i o'at,
ar 8' erapov el' WOvos C'yd'ero icp' aXeefvw',
7rdaToo-e '~rra7Taiwv, iL r T? xpoa xaXKc eravpy.
Mnpuovi, 8 aSrtoV'roq L'e XaXK']pe oso-rov 650
ial p' /aXe yXovu'v Icara BeCtor" avrap oto-7
avT(ipvF Icara Kw;arv VrT' o'rfov ie E'Trep"'aev.
,oLpYvoc & IcaT a38O, it Xwv e'v Xep-alv eTabpov
OvLOV ad(oTrO7VEL(, W's re o-CwOX'17 ef7r yab
ICKeTO rTa0ebl ec 8' alpa ie'Xav pee, 8eve 8c yalav.
TOv p v IIa4Xayo/ve? /.eyaXilopev ajtLetorvovTo, 656
de Spopov 8' avaro-avrfe a'yov Trpo-rt "IXtov Ipnv
ayvfJevor, tIfeea 84 o-t rar7Tjp ice Saicpva Xelpwcv,
7rotv? 8' of T v? Trat8o Erly'v ro TeO TveOiTroE .

Paris slayeth Euchenor in fulflment of a prophecy.
TO7 8c Idptg udXa OvljOv daroicraFdvoto XoXO O.0
eivo, ryap ol' Av 7roXEaov /peT HIacXayovec-o'" 661
T70 8 'ye XWOievo 7rrpoteb XaXKlcpe o0r'rd.

IIAAAOM N (xni) 25
?v 8' Tt~ EiXUYvop HoXvitov jL'LvToL9 vlit
aives~o 7- a7yaOo Te, Koptvw0t oblica vatov,
eo "' ,b e18 fo, Icjp xolv a e r vro 'patve. 665
7oXXaICL yc1p ol eLTre ypwv ayaOby HoXvio0
vovao-w vr appyaXey Olo-Oat ohf bv -ipeyapoto-v
Super' 'AXait v'vv bvvwv br'r Tpceo-t SaEzvalt
'ro p a' a 7r' apyaXre'v orwjv aXevev 'AXabZv
voovao TE o-r7yeprv, Eva pdL7 rdaOot AXrya OBVt. 670
rov /3dX' wrb yvaOlpoio Ical ovaTrog- ca 8e Ov/pb
XeT' a'7ro fpL XE, V, o-rvT epO9 8' aipa ,LV o'tcTO

Of the fighting on the left of the ships.
6A o0 Iev jpapvavTo 81/aV? 7rvpoh alloa/voo'
"EiKcWp 8' OIK ceTreIrvTO S(tBtXO A, oi e Tb ,
oTTr pa ol vnowv 7T' ap-Trepa' StIOWVTO 675
Xaol bUr' 'Apyeiovn raya 8' av Ical Icv0So 'AXativ
etrXeTro Tro 'io? yap yaLyoXo evvoo-~yatas
trpv' 'Apyelov', 7rpo 8 a-O'vet a "rb a/LVpvev
aXX' G'ev, 7 T- 7rp@&Ta 7riXa KIal TreFLXo 'o-aXTo
pfaiJLevog Aava&iv vricnva orTIXa da-7rt-aTdw 680
e'v' 0'-"av A"'avT'o E ver e Ica' lp Ip eo-r aov
OBv 6b' Xo 7 roXhs elpvufEvat, avrap f7repOe
7TeZyoX E88'r8jT XOa/~aXh7TaTov, 'vOa tdXto-Tra
aXpie76 ylyrorVTO PdXy alTro Te KIaL wIroL.
a'vOa 8 Bowrol Icai JIove9 AXrceXLylWveq, 685
Aolcpot icalt POot icaL patSdIU evTre 'Evretob
a'-rova~y dra'to-covra vecov e'ov, ox;c 8vwavro
wro-aa aarofelov XoyY eL 'ceXov "E~ ropa MoYr
ol (Uiv 'AOnvaiwv 7rpohxfeXy/LvoaL v S' dpa ToTiaIv
7pX' vt'o ITereSo Meveo-tOei, ol 8' al' eT'rovo 690
$eiSaa rTe ntElo, Te Blai 7' e't9* aTayp 'Evretr

26 IAIAAO N (xm)
)AevXeiSBv 7 ME'fe 'AptoOwv re Apact'o? 7re,
Irpo 1owv 8e M80ov T7e eve6TrToX6' e T Io8opicfl.
r Tos o E~e volOoq vlb' 'OLXjo Odeoco
fcrce, ME8om A'iavro a8eXfeo', avTap vatev 695
dv cUXdcLy, 'ya qlr erio 7raTpl8oq, dcvSpa caTratcrd',
IyvOrobV 1.rTpVWq7 'Epsd(7rt8o, 7v E' 'O Xee
awrap o 'I~licXoeo t7ratV 7TOD vXaKc8ao-
o0 pev 'rpo ~Olwv pLeya8,pLwv OOpr1X7yev7S,
vadstv apvvobtevo /peTa BowroUv eld'Xovro. 700

Of the two Aiantes and the Lokrian archers.
A'las 8' ovtce7t rradpl/rav, 'OXjo Tax'b vloe,
L'Tra'T r' A'avro, TeXapoviov, ov3' '/3av,
dAX' 6' E' ev VEtw Poe OLvotre 7~l'C70v aporpov
Zo-ov Ovv 6'xovre LcvaLverov* apll 8' aipa oa-s
'rpvpvoto-w Icepdieora-t roXvF vaK/Ciclel I'8pP 705
TW Iev re [v7obv olov e'V oov Apb .l eepyet
lepew icaTa w ica, r pee 8 7Te rXao-ov apovprlj
A) 70o rrap~3epa/Te pIaX' o7'raoav dXXhjXottv.
AXX' j ro TeXapbwovt'i8y 'roXXoi r7e cal eo'0Xo
Xaol e'rov0' "Tapot, ot ol o-aIco e-eeXOVrTO, 710
oT7roTre tv IcKLa7To 76 e cal t16pC9 yovwvaO' 'icostTO
obv' ap' 'O aed8y pe7yaX1r7ope AolKpo' errovro*
oi ryap 0- ( a-Ta8'l bo-v'zLy piLve i~Xov Icrjp
ob 7lyp eXov Icd'pvOa; X(ahlKrpea9 lr'ro8ao-e'ag,
ove' eyov aro-'ri8a sI ecVKcov tcal iteli va 8oipa, 715
aXX"' /pa rTooeou ical vo-T7pecet olo ei4m
"IXto els ap evro 7 er '7tOOTreTE, oloa-w "er7a
Tapiea 83XXovrTs Tpcowv pTyyvvro cdXayyas.
8j pa r7T ol IpEv prpo'-ae a-bv e freao-t 8aSaXeoto,
pdpvavTro Tpwo' v 7e Kal "'Eiropte aXa o1copvo-r,', 720

IIAAAOT N (xmI) 27

of 8' '7rreev 3dXXovTeq e'AdvOavov ov8' e' Xydp/l
Tpeq p.pivrl'o-covro avveicXoveov yap owroi.

Polydamas counselleth Hektor to call more Trojans to help him in
the assault.
v0a Ice XevyaXeC'k vpo6v aro cal KcXtotr-wv
Tp&es eX'wpTrav rporT "IXLov vepoeaa-cav, 724
el /W) IIovXv8diLav Opacr-v "Eicropa elre vrapaardS"
""EicXop, a'riXavo dr o-t ,rapapplroiort wirO&Oat,
oviveic Tbo Trep~ SoKe ebh'c 7TroXeC 1 'a 'pLya
rovverca ,cal /ovXj E4Xet 'reprd8peSevat A~XXov.
aXX' o o' s ia alia -avTva 8vvsaoeal av'ro' eXeraOab
&Xp phv yap '8oice eov '7roXef qita pya, 730
[A'Xa 8' qopXr-v'v, 'eTepc icaptv cal aot8iv' ]
AiXXT 8' ev (77 e-cr TOelT voov ei;pvora Zebv
'eao-ov, Troi 8 re 7roXXotl rwavpL'aKovT AdvOprot,
cal 7re roXea o ecrdco, pidXta-ra 84' T avTOf ave'yvw.
po /j, 735
avTap erywv epew, w os J So ce elval aprTra. 735
irdvy ydp ae 'Trept orrd 'avoy 7roXed/oto 8'8pee
Tpcoem 8a/ peyadOvLOt, e7rel icarh reTXyo / 'ro-av,
ol pI &ev e~-rao-vw av 7refXeo-t, 01 8\ I 'ovTra
rnavpoTepoc 7rXe6veo-a-i, /ce8acOeve'C Karaa vra,;. 739
aXX' avaxacco-ad'evoq cAde e~vO9f8e rdvravs apoT-rov.
'vOev 8' av Ad Xa rwao-av ertipaora-atlOea ovXv,
SKIeV CA\ veor-at VroXVICXrjtoL- 7'reo-t v,
a' ic 0o0- 0Oeb 8of/eval Kpdcpro, 77 Icev C7Ta
wrAp vq6wv 'eX0opev aerrFLove. 7 yap eyr) ye
8elS8w, lhb T70o XO v adrorTlo wvTa 'Axatot 745
XpefZo, ~dl rapa viLr-ov Av'p aTOq vroXleoto
/,iwLes, OV oV/cCer 'rdyXv pXitXX oX~o-eoOaaL oe."
&9 cdaro HIovXvd84pa, i8e 8' "EcropC pi0tDOO

28 IAIAAOX N (xrm)
[abrbica 8' oxEaO o0Jv f TevXo-taw aXo Xa/Aage,]
/calt uv a wv]craa e'rea rrTEpoevra rrpoo-iv'8a 750
" ovXv8dta o-r /pev arvTov eplcaace 7Tra Ta apl-
avrap ey' Icewo-' e6q K /Ica ATto 7TroXoto
alifa S' Xvecr-otLa arevT, E'rrv e o To qertr tXLO."

Hektor seeketh in vain for Deiphobos and Adamas and Asios and
others; he raileth at Paris, who biddeth him lead on to the battle.
p pa xcal o pj'l' Spei v1'6ev B o'trc ,
IKeicX'qry, 8ta Se Tpawv 7rreTr r' 8eTr covpov. 755
ol 8' HavOoti'Sjv ayanrrvopa ITovXv8adavra
'av7T TE7reo0'evov, e7re "E/ITOpoe 'IXvov aS8j'v.
abrap Arjlf)o/3'v Te tlyov 0' 'EXi'voto avaCTrov
'Aota~s8v T' 'ASdlavra i~a' "Actov 'Tprdicov vltv
0otIra va 7rrpojdXov4 8 4tpevor, etl 'ov e' Epot. 760
TOWV ep' OvierTt 7rLdpraav aTrm/JovaV oMt' voXe-
oXX' of pey 87 vrluovv ert rrpvUttvpr tv 'AXatv
Xeplyv rr' 'Apyelwv ieaCo *vXag oXeo-avre,
ol 8' e TeivesL '-av e/3Xr/Lvos ovTa/levol Te.
rTV 8e rdX' e6pe LaXIwr d'pto-iarepa 8aKpvoeUo-'q9
8 Aov 'AXe'hav8pov, 'EXfver 7rTOCiV 17vKIOLoroo, 766
Oapo-vvovO' &drpov; Kal e''roTplvovTa p"'eo-0a.
ayXOu 8' tardatevog rpoao-eT alo-apoti 6er1ero-at
" Avo-rapt, elSog apto-r, ', vvatlavey s repo7Tevra,
7roD Tot A7t1o~ope? re il8' 'EX ovoto avaicroq 770
'Ao-ncI8 7' 'A&4at j8' "Ao-to 'TpTrdcov vl ;
Irov 8e Tro 'OOpvovev ; ;vvv W'ero rao-a ,car' a'cpiq
''"hIto al rertv, vvv Trot a-o alirv\i o'Xepov."
TOVy aire 7rpoo'eetrev 'AXe'av8po Oeoesr84"
""Etcrop, 4rel TOI OvmbsT avalrTov alretaao-at, 775

IIAIAOZ N (xir) 29

AXXoe 8r7' 7rTe p iaX ov p pw -a 7roXe Loto
AeXXo, 17Tre' o/ b ra0'iTrav avaXicta yelvaro
E oi5 yap 'wapa vylva'l paiXrv 7yeLpa9 Craipwv,
eic TO7 8' 6v 48' 6ovTeV otIeopjev Aavaoori
vwXepeA'ao erapo Sc icaTre'TraOev, obv o-r prTaXXvs"
olo AIl'Po/3PO Tre /l 0' 'EXivolo avaKTro 781
otxeeOov, ukalcpyq-L terv/itleVO e lyoXet-bw
adPoTre'pm Kara Xdpa, d'vov 8' 'Etvve Kpovlwv.
v0v 8' 'pX', oT'rr ao-e pa8G1r OvplE re KeXevef
ip/je9 8e /e/UalfeT? alp' e4roMleO', o8e 7-1 T frj7k 785
dXic- Sevriaeo-oOat, ob'Cr Svapl'I ye 7radpeao-rt-
7r-Ap SvapLte 8' o "ic 'o-r icat e'aa-vevov 7rOXcptIertv."

2Te Trojans rally after Hektor, whom Aias taunteth.
wA el'rwv 7raperreta-ev Abedeooo Opeva9 1p(0.
3av 8' 'Juev, 'vOa pdaXto-ra ztgX" ical O~ho'reF fev,
tdpl T'e KefptlVuv Ical Adpkova IlovXv8a'davra, 790
daX/iciqv 'OpOatlov e icalt avrleoov floXvOjr'T7v
IId'XfJvv r' 'AO-icdvov re M6pvv 9' vI 'Ir,7roT'dwvo,
oi' 6I 'Aao-cavirl'v eptl3 aico0 'XOov dpoe/3o
'io T 7 TrporTepy ToTre Zeu Jopc-e acd'eo-0at.
o0 8' ~a-av apyaxlwv ave'lwv ar.aXavTos 1i XXy, 795
0 pa' wvro 3povr; 'rarTpo Atb eZatt '8ov8e,
ew7rea-l 8' oLjud8w lX plo-',yerat, d'v 8e Te roXa
icLp a 7radfoa a6Xgovra woXvdXoo-aloto Oada'r-o-F,
avpTa eaaXrptdovra, 'rp' pA'v T' dAX, arvTap dIr'

(A; Tpt5eV 'rpo pt v aXXot dp'7po&re, avTap e'r' AIXXot,
XaXKcS pappaLpov7'e at' rye.Lovea a'w EWOiTOr. 801
'EKTCop 8' 7yE to fpoTroXoty7O lo-o; "Apni,
IIpeaplbjiS 'rpoa-Ov 8' 'xver do-'rl8a ridvToo' 'loyv,

30 IAIAAO0 N (xm)

pwvoo-tv 'rvic'7evV, roXXO 8' 0',reXrXaTro xaXlio'd
dfJ/u/ 84' ol icpoTaroto-t 0faew o-deleTro 71-1X17. 805
ravy 8' dp daXa'yas E7retpario 7rpo'ro87tov,
etl 7rw ol el etav ;rao-wrl8ta 7rpoPtP/3,)VT
AdX' ov ro-bY'et O8vwv e'i oTr e-'rc-tv 'AXativ.
Mala 8' irpwroo 7rapocaXe'co-aro, /axpa /cph 3/3dowv
8atiodv'i, oaXeSbv e'X0' rt i SeeSo-o-eat arT-o 810
'Apyedov ; ov Trol 't pidaX9F da j iov9e' elte6v,
aIXXa Atov /da'o-ryt icai/cy eSa4Iptrev 'AXaeot.
7 7'0v 7Trov T O veo deX7erat deaXa7rdaeetv

XEp04v b' CT' I oL "V9 '
viia* ad'ap 84 re Xetpe; AdLveCv el-l Ical ly/lv.
SIce K roX1 Ofbair e'v vaeo4pvi TroXL? flirbe 815
v epo-v v /' IjEITpep-V dXo000-V T 7e Erepop] re.
croi 8' abT6 v s'j L' -eSOv 'jLervat, 7TroTre f)evey(Ov
apr'-y At 7raTpl Ical liXXot 4aava'Toto~c
OBd-a-ova iprlicv fpevae icaXXiTptXa 'tIfTrov9,
o r0 itvOw o'-ovoC ICOVOVTEr 'n r~loeo." 820

Hektor in turn taunteth Aias, and the Trojans charge the Argives.
os apa ol eTrOvTtL ejre7rraT0 8efo' o'pves,
aierb's ,f#eratre' rl' 8' laxe Xalo 'Axaetov
Odpo-vvo' olwvw. 6 8' a'd/ei/3ero caI8tIjo,'EiCTwp
" Alav AapToe7re', R/ovyd ee, olov a'e-rev.
el 'yap yv OviTor ye Atos' gra~e alyioxto 825
etf1 ?7/aTa 7ravTa, Trecot 84 1e '7ror'va "Hpr,
TolfI77V 8', 's reI' AOval' Ical 'ATroXXwv,
g v!pv /ep'rl ije Iaicov 0pet 'Apryefoto-
iraio- /LaX -' 8E cvo Troai .recrsj -eat, a'l ce Ta-
Aewtvat eov Sopv "aicpov, o Tro ypoa Xeeptoev'a 830
8d6e* daTap TpcOwv Icopeet Kivvaq 48' olwvova
S1 ical aOdpxceacr-, 7reao-Cv ejl vqvo-v 'AXacwv."


on apct Orvaa' 'o77y7a-aro, rolt 8' alp' 65-romro
Oeo e'7r' 8' Xela~ Xa'g I to-oOcv.
'Apyeiot 8' 97rE'pWOev dqn'aXov, oi8d Xa69ov'ro 835
04i,?, 4?XX' k'Pcvov Tpcowv E'wto'v- pa'pt'0-rov-.
X' 8' joo7-'poW v itIer' aiOe'pa Kalb Atb aayrvfa.


Atoh aTraTy.

Nestor, hearing the noise of the fighting, goeth forth from his hut
and seeth the Achaians flying in rout.
NEo-Topa 8' obc ~'Xaev laxI rtvovrd ?rep

AXX' 'Aao-KcX7rr&dr v Trea 7rTepoevTra rpoo-UvSl6a
" apdeo, S~e MaXaov, o7ro? e'0o-ra 'rdae epya-
jieiov ~8 7rap' vnovao po' OaXepCov al5c v.
AXXa o-' pI vviv rfve KcaOjc'evov a'iOora olvov, 5
el~ O IC Oepp~e XoerTpa cv7rXt6capo? 'EKcaCp6
Oepp~jvy cal Ko'?ry aTro SpTrov alJaaToevTa-
avTap dymyv ekO&v T'ra e'o-o/pat de 7rept(w'jv."
0 eiTrov o'aKco exee TETrvy/iEVOv vov Vo o,
Kcelpevov ev /CX kol', Opaao-vrjeoF tIrro86apoeo, 10
XaXKc 7rafuaivov" 6 8' 'X' ao-Tri8a wraTpoy goo-
e~'ero 8' AiXceILOv c'yXo?, dacaxI.Evov 6i XaXKl~.
UrT 8' eKC 'ro; cXteCrly, Trdxa 8' 'eia'oev ep yov a~desti',
Trov iLev popvol ovW, TroWv 8 KIovvoeTa 7 6'7eo-e,
Tpoa bV7repO0Vpov' ,oepi'pwrT-o 6 reXo? 'AXatCXv. 15
( 68' b'r Trop p'y rre'Xayo, p ,eya Atvpart KWc 6,
oao--Opevov XLyEorV aveipwv atf'rlipah IcevOa,
aiv roa, oi8' dpa Te 7rpoicvXwveTrat ob6' bepw'e

IAIAIAA02 S (xIv) 33

7rptv Tva iceicpifevov caTa/3ievast d~ AtoV o ,pov,
ao 0 yepov ppiaive Said p /evoV Kca' raT evf 20
Si80aSc', pLE' b'ptXov 'oi Aava&v rTaXvnrXwov
je IeTr' 'ATpet8frv 'Ayajzpivova 7roqle'va XaCov.
oBe 8 ol cpoveovtr Sodao-aTo ice'Lov elvat,
/3ivat dr"' 'Arpet8rv. ol 8' aXX-Xjovs bvdptlov
Spapvdlevot, Xca'e 8c adst rpt Yi Xpoi XaXlKo<, drcip7'
vvaoa-oplevwv /ieaL re ical 'ygeo-wv aipvyvotoaic. 26

He is met by three of the chieftains, who are wounded, and they
take counsel together.
NEo-Top Se c vl/Xsvro 8torpee/ev 8paoa-eij
rrap vrYlov dviovl re, o /oeo P63XarTo XaXkcZ,
Tv8etSri 'OSoo-ev 're 7cal 'Arpe'1Sv 'Aya/ie'vwv.
7ro6XXbv yap airdvveve ltdX7 p edlpvaro v ep 30
0iv' 90' AXo's? roX,"q' tA ryap Prpo(as 7re8sovSe
e' pvaoav, arTap Te~XZyo E7T 7rpuv vyu v Setfav.
ove ya'p oa8' eBpvF rep owv e6'vvro-a-o iraSa'
aiytaXbf vai Xas ive, a retovoro a Xaol"
-7 pa 7rpolcporo-aca e'pvav, tcal 7r- aav aTrdao-i) 35
lo'voav orO7tpa t/aicpov, oa-ov -vvfe'pyaOov a'cpat.
7( P' oi 7' j Oelovrea aUVTr Kalt roXeoto,
e'Y/Xet pe 0ojvot KLov ci 0p6oo aXYvvro 84 cr0-
Ovb ~ vli o-r'fa-O'aw & Se v'PXjy'ro yepato'
Neo-raop, T7rTffe 86 OvbpJov dv'l crTr7e v 'AXat&v. 40
'bv xcal cwv4vra- 'rpoao-o tKpewov 'Aya/a'/vwvo
w Ne'aTop NrXi d8Si, fp'ya Kc8v0 'AXatuv,
Ti7rTT Xincrov 7troXe/ov SaiOtaovopa 8efp' aitcidvet ;
Sel8ta, r 8i pot reeao-y 'Troq 6'/3pPio "EKcrep,
0) 70ro 7-' r&reXrc-rev Ei7 Tp)ea a-' dyopevwv, 45
f4 7rphv rIap vij&v 'rport "IXtov cbrov'eoOae,
7rptv 7rvpl vjacq vw'rpi-at, Te'dvat S6 cai al ov; .

34 -IIAAAOE S (xIv)
KeEvo r()? Ayopeve- ra 81 virv vravTa TeXeTrat.
S7rorot, 17 pa cal XXoc e 77vic1jSe1 'AxasoL
dv Ovpc 9iXXovrat 4oil 3dXov, iSv Trep 'AXLX-
Xa 9, 50
o68' EOeXova- ttd/XeoOaa dehl 7rpv~val ve-a'ir."
TOV S' /ipLeL eTretra Feprjvto Ir7roT-a Neor-Tp-
8' raTa 7y' &Toia TereTyaT a, oe Kicev
Zev b /3 pePfi-,rF ad'roq Trapa'relcr7vavro.
TEYXO, /LEV yap 81 KIcaTepp7PL7rev, dp ie'm7TepLeV 55
aippr7Irov vlouiv Te ica av'rOV lcap 'ea-'0Oat
ol 8' 47r vIvao-r Oo^oa-t Xv adXla ov 'xovo-r
volXe/L" ouf' av 6Tt yvoiflv, tL6aa irep icortd'1-dv,
oirrroTrpwOev 'AXato' optvo~0evot icXoveovTrat,
5 ripL icTelvovTrac, dvTj 8' ovpavo'v iMe. 60
,?eF, 8S Opab. LE0', o7rw,; ea'oTrat e a'pya,
e t v ooV pet- IroXIlepov 8' Ov al/.le KeXeuo
8tvpeva" o3 yap rrwos /3e/3pXhlvov 'o-rT pdX9ecra."

Agamemnon adviseth light, whereat Odysseus is indignant.

T'v 8' a're Trpooa-erev evav AvSpiov 'Ayapje'-
vov 64
" Ner'Top, ETrel 8\ vi'jva'v o Tbr rpvp li VXoova, d ,
Te6yo0 8' oiC e patCase TeTvyllfevov ov ae 7T TaCpo;,
o C 'I't rrO\X' "nraOov Aavaot, k'X7rov'o 86 Ov.,V
app Tycrov Vl17V Te ,cal av'orv elXap E'o-ao-Oat,
o0T0 7ov A pJLeL'Xi e b7repfevpe' L'Xov elvas,
[vwvvpivouv droXeo0as d!ir' "Apyeov evv98' 'Axatwov].
'8ea p6 y1p, 'e p rpo pwv Aavaoo'v a~apvvev, 71
o08a 86 viv, TrE TObv piev d6,Lo paicdpeoa-b' Beooart
KvsdveL, jfiTepov e p8 ACIvov iRca Xepav SI7aeyov.

IIAAOA2 (xIv) 35

aXX' aiye', 64 a'v &yio e1c0, 7retfapreOa 7ravTre.
ve b'or-ats rpCoTat elpvaraT a",yaXt 6ado-otF, 75
gXtCO)l E, 7rdav'as 8 epvrc-opev" e l aika S~av,
vfl 8' dr7' evvawo v opP/o-ia-oop0 els 0 KePv AO\'1
vb /3po'Tr, edl cev Trj a7Troa'ovTaLt 7TroXoL
Tpoer" 'Tretra 8' Kev Epvo-altela vPas aTradO-aa.
ob aydp r1tv vE'Leoa-tq pUvye've Kacov, o0S' ava'
VVKTa. 80
3Se7Xepov, 9 cOev7yov 7rpoiv'nyy IcaKcov ife awy."
Tov S' dlp' rrdpa IS vow po ro-67 7roXjL'r7fl't
'ArpetSr, 7rotv o'- e' ro'o cnye v 'pcKO' O 8'vTv.
obX lev', aW8' & trTi/Lalvetv, fl ]98' a/JuiLv avaao-e/.LV, oloatv pa Zev 85
dK v 'eorro '8OnKe Kcal yI 7pag TroXvTreIe'v
apyaXeovu; 7roXe/Lov?, 8'fpa tf6Co'leo-Oa g'cao-roi.
ov7TW 8 pteLovaq Tpco v 7ro 'X evpva'yvta
KcaXXelt'IFe, V, e'lvec' o0 opvev icaKa 7roXd ;
or/ya, L Tri 7T' aXXXos 'AXaCiwv TOVTov dKcoOCy 90
/ ioov, by ov KceZv avp 'ye Sta rTo/da ,radTrav
oq rt e 6rio-ratTo .tr peC-v L-apT a r a" etv
o1icrTroFyXo 1' e'ti Kal otl recOolaTo Xaoi
Too-a-o18, '--oo-ty oi er' 'Apyetoo-tsv avda'oe
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