Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Grammatical introduction
 Additional Notes
 Indices to the notes

Group Title: Ilias
Title: Homåerou Ilias
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076206/00001
 Material Information
Title: Homåerou Ilias The Iliad of Homer;
Series Title: Classical series
Uniform Title: Ilias
Physical Description: 2 v. : fronts., illus., plates. ; 17 cm.
Language: Greek, Ancient (to 1453)
Creator: Homer
Leaf, Walter, 1852-1927 ( ed )
Bayfield, M. A ( Matthew Albert ), 1852-1922 ( ed )
Publisher: Macmillan and Co.,
Macmillan and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 190811
Copyright Date: 190811
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: edited with general and grammatical introductions, notes, and appendices by Walter Leaf ... and M.A. Bayfield ... In two volumes ...
General Note: Vol. 1: 2d ed., rev.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076206
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10058478

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Grammatical introduction
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
        Page xl
        Page xli
        Page xlii
        Page xliii
        Page xliv
        Page xlv
        Page xlvi
        Page xlvii
        Page xlviii
        Page xlix
        Page l
        Page li
        Page lii
        Page liii
        Page liv
        Page lv
        Page lvi
        Page lvii
        Page lviii
        Page lix
        Page lx
        Page lxi
        Page lxii
        Page lxiii
        Page lxiv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 272a
        Page 272b
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 518a
        Page 518b
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
        Page 544
    Additional Notes
        Page 545
        Page 545a
        Page 546
        Page 546a
        Page 547
        Page 548
        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
        Page 557
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 560a
        Page 560b
        Page 561
        Page 562
    Indices to the notes
        Page 563
        Page 564
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
        Page 568
Full Text

atlassiral rieu


PLATE I.-Homeric Warrior fully armed. (See also Plate V.)









1. 908

?\ i. ~


First Edition S95
Rejriitcd qgo8


THE notes to the present edition of the Iiad are
based upon those of Dr. Leaf's well-known edition
and his more recently published Companion to the
Iliad. For the additions and alterations made to
adapt the book to its purpose I am myself solely
responsible; but it is proper to state that Dr. Leaf
has read through the sheets and freely given me
assistance in the preparation. He is further to be
understood to assent to any divergences from his
previously published views which the book may
In the preparation of the Grammatical Introduction
I have made use of those three invaluble works,
Monro's Homeric Grammar, Kiihner's Greek Grammar
(an inexhaustible treasury of examples), and Good-
win's Moods and Tenses. It will be seen that I have
adopted Professor Goodwin's theory of the original
meanings of the Subjunctive and Optative ( 41,
42). The section on KE(N) and &N (44) gives a new
account of those particles, based on a careful ex-


amination of every example occurring in the Iliad
and Odyssey. The labour of collecting the examples
has been considerable, but it will have been well spent,
if the resulting theory, which covers almost all the
Attic uses of ti, should win general acceptance. The
length to which the section has grown is, I hope,
justified by the fact that the particles occur on every
page of the poems, while no convincing or even con-
sistent account of them has hitherto been offered.
A far more important matter is treated of in the
Appendix (A) on Homeric Armour, to which atten-
tion is specially directed. If the views there given
are correct, almost everything written on the subject
previously to the appearance of Dr. Reichel's revolu-
tionary work has ceased to be of any value.
M. A. B.

May, 1895.


The Second Edition has been revised with the
assistance of the second edition of Dr. Leaf's larger
work, 1900 and 1902.
M. A. B.
June 1908.



S 547
S 557
S 559
S 560
S 563


SIEGE OF A CITY To face page 1
IV. GOLD CUP ,, 518


BEFORE the beginnings of European history there
dwelt in Greece a people who called themselves
Achaians. They had probably come from the North,
through Thrace, and had settled in Thessaly and
Boeotia, in the Peloponnesos, in the islands of the
western coast, in Crete, and in a few of the neighbour-
ing islands which lie between Crete and the coast of
Asia Minor. They were a pure Greek race, and spoke
a pure Greek tongue, the parent of those dialects
which the Greeks themselves in after years dis-
tinguished as Aiolic.
The main seat of the Achaians was the inland
fortress of Mykenai, in the hills between Corinth and
the Gulf of Argos. But they were divided among
many petty princes, who dwelt in various strong towns,
chiefly along the eastern coasts and the islands, and
with few important settlements-perhaps only Pylos
and Kalydon-in the west. Sparta was probably their
main settlement next after Mykenai.
When they came into Greece we cannot even ap-
proximately tell. But we know that in the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries B.c. they had attained to great
wealth, and had produced a vigorous and beautiful


school of art. They were great builders, and much of
their work is still, after more than three thousand years,
a marvel for boldness of conception and solidity of con-
struction. Their rule must have lasted for several cen-
turies, but at length it fell, about 1000 B.C., before the
invading Dorians,' a rude tribe of Greek mountaineers,
who pressed southwards from the hills around Thessaly.
The period at which we become acquainted with the
Achaians is that of the height of their civilization.
Such knowledge as we have of them at this time, the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries B.C., we owe to the
discoveries of Dr. Schliemann at Mykenai, since sup-
plemented by excavations at other sites in Greece. It
is at a later period, probably less than a century before
their destruction by the Dorians, that we gain a more
intimate acquaintance with them through the two great
poems which they have left us as their intellectual
inheritance, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
These poems have often been spoken of as popular
poetry, Volkspoesie, and have even been compared to
the ballad poetry of our own and other nations. It is
now generally recognized that this conception is radi-
cally false. The Iliad and Odyssey are essentially and
above all court poems. They were composed to be
sung in the splendid palaces of a ruling aristocracy, and
the commonalty have no part or lot as actors in them.
Even the slave and swine-herd Eumaios, the only figure
of the lower class of heroic society who takes a leading
part in either poem, is described as of princely birth,
kidnapped when a child and sold as a slave by Phoenician
traders. When the common sort are mentioned in the
Iliad in contrast to the kings' it is in terms of supreme


disdain; only one of them, Thersites, is given an in-
dividuality, and then only that he may be held up to
ridicule and humiliation. This is the first point which
must be clearly grasped by those who would enter into
the spirit of Homer; that the poems are aristocratic
and courtly, not popular.
The next is, that they are not to be regarded as the
outcome of a young and primitive people. They are
the offspring of an advanced civilization, the growth of
centuries; and of a civilization which was approaching
its decline and fall. It was in some respects a civiliza-
tion even more advanced than that which grew out of
the ruin brought about by the invasion of the Dorians.
When we attempt to fix the birthplace of the poems,
we are confronted with a problem of great magnitude
and complexity. After the occupation of the Pelo-
ponnesos by the Dorians, as is well known, three
great streams of colonization began to flow from Greece
to the opposite coast of Asia Minor : the Achaians, lead-
ing the Aiolian migration, formed settlements in the
northern parts of the sea-board, the Ionians in the
centre, and the Dorians in the south. For two reasons
-first, because the traditional knowledge of the poems
came to classical Greece through the Asiatic Ionians; 2
1 The origin of the Ionians is still a moot point. According
to Herodotus they were the descendants of the Pelasgi, the
original inhabitants of the Peloponnesos, who had been reduced
to the condition of a subject population under the rule of their
Achaian conquerors, and had been Hellenized by them. There
are good grounds for believing that this is essentially the truth.
2 The student may be reminded that it is mainly from the
Ionians of Asia Minor that the literature of historical Greece
took its new birth.


and secondly, because the language in which they have
been handed down, though somewhat mixed, is in the
main Ionian,-it has been supposed that the Iliad and
Odyssey were originally composed in Asia Minor. This
was the unanimous belief of antiquity, and it is main-
tained by many scholars in the present day. There
are, however, almost overwhelming considerations which
point to Achaia as the birthplace of the poems.
There can be no doubt that, wherever and whenever
the poems were composed, they profess to be com-
positions of poets living in Greece proper among the
princes of Achaia. Ostensibly at least they are en-
tirely pre-Dorian. There is not one word of the great
catastrophe which changed the face of Greece, nor a
single hint at the new life which sprang up after the
great migration, and changed the eastern Mediter-
ranean into a Greek sea. The life depicted in the
poems is that of a wealthy aristocracy living on the
produce of their lands, confined to Greece proper and
Crete, with a few neighboring islands, governed by
hereditary kings, and with a geographical horizon only
extending to Egypt on the one side, and perhaps
vaguely to Sicily on the other. But the Ionian
emigrants were above all things expansive and
commercial; their centres were Miletos, Ephesos,
Kolophon, and the other great towns of the Asian
coasts; their ships and their colonies went freely over
all lands, from the recesses of the Black Sea on the
one hand to Marseilles and Spain on the other. To
suppose that people thus overflowing with living
energy should care or be able to remove themselves
entirely from their surroundings and throw themselves


into a description of the past without allowing a single
allusion, or, so far as we can detect, a single anachron-
ism to escape them, is to credit them first with a power
of historic imagination, and next with means of archaeo-
logical research, such as have been hardly equalled in
the history of the world,-not even in our own age, with
all the resources of documentary study to help. For
it must not be forgotten that the world of Homer is a
real world, not a world of fancy. This is evident in
every line of the Iliad, and all but the obviously mythical
parts of the Odyssey. The surroundings among, which
the characters move are as real and vivid as the char-
acters themselves; and they are as different as possible
from the surroundings of poets composing in Ionia.
It is not as if we were transported into a mere realm
of fairyland, where the poet could imagine and impose
upon us such scenery as he thought fit. Whenever we
can test the actualities of the poems we find that they
are at all events possible, and in many points they
coincide in a surprising way with the results which
recent discoveries have shewn us.
If in the face of reflections such as these it is
difficult to believe in an Asiatic origin for the poems,
the theory of an Achaian origin, while it presents no
equal difficulties of its own, offers the most satisfactory
explanation of the peculiar dialect in which the Iliad
and Odyssey are written. There is no difficulty in
supposing that when the sceptre of intellect passed
from the worn-out Achaian race to the fresh vigour of
Ionia, the latter people took over the poetical inherit-
ance which the old Achaian families, under their new
name of Aiolians, had lost the art of keeping up. And


when the poems were taken over by the new singers, it
followed of necessity that the dialect was changed.
But the change could not be complete. Many of the
words of the old Achaian dialect differed in metre
from the corresponding Ionian words. Where this
happened it was necessary for the new singers either
to change the old text and modify whole lines in order
to introduce new words of their own, or to keep the
old words as they were in spite of their unfamiliarity.
The latter course was that which they adopted, and the
result was the so-called Epic dialect, which, with its
prevailing Ionic colouring, contains many words which
the laws of speech as well as the traditions of antiquity
tell us are Aiolic. As there is no doubt that the
typical Aiolic dialect was that spoken in the northern
colonies of Asia Minor, which were peopled by men
who claimed to be the immediate descendants of the
Achaians, we have every reason to suppose that these
words so strangely surviving among others of different
stock are nothing but relics of the old Achaian dialect
If this view is correct, we may date the oldest part
of the Iliad' at least to some time before the Dorian
invasion, which, according to the traditional chronology,
took place about 1000 B.C. ; a date agreeing sufficiently
well with the time probably needed for the develop-
ment of the Asiatic colonies, which arose from the
pressure of that invasion, and had already reached a
great height of prosperity and power by 750 B.c. But
That is, the First and Second Stratum. The Third
Stratum, though probably post-Dorian, is as likely to have
been Aiolic as Ionic in its origin.


the poems can hardly be much earlier than the invasion;
for there are various signs which indicate that the
civilization which they depict had made some advance
beyond that of which we find the material remains in
the shaft tombs discovered by Dr. Schliemann in the
Acropolis of Mykenai. The date of these has now been
fixed by Mr. Petrie, from comparison with Egyptian
remains, at about 1150 B.c. We can therefore hardly
be far wrong, if the poems were composed in Achaian
Greece, in dating their origin at about 1050 B.C.

A careful examination of the structure of the Iliad
shews that it cannot be the work of a single poet com-
posing uno tenore on a preconceived plan, and that plan
the outline of the poem as it has come down to us. It
is on the contrary the expansion, by successive additions,
of an original poem of much smaller dimensions. This
original poem was the MANIC or Wrath of Achilles,1 to
whose great quarrel with Agamemnon the enlargements
are nevertheless so subordinated that it still remains
the dominant motif of the whole. The portions of the
Iliad which formed the original Story of the Wrath are
very nearly as follows:
1. The whole of A and B 1-52, 441-458, 786-810.
(Achilles wronged by Agamemnon withdraws himself
and his men from the fighting, by way of revenge for the
insult he has received. Zeus at the prayer of Thetis
sides with Achilles, and induces Agamemnon by a de-
lusive dream, which promises him victory, to lead out
1 Cp A 1 MANIN aEiac, ec6, flnHXHiac 'AxiXfoc.


his forces to battle.1 The Achaians are in fact to be
defeated for want of the help of their chief champion.
In the meantime Iris is sent to the Trojans to bid
them come out on the plain to battle with assurance of
2. A 61-end. (The Rout of the Greeks.)
3. O 592-end, and the whole of I.2 (The Achaians
are driven back to the ships, which the Trojans attempt
to set on fire. Patroklos persuades Achilles to let him
lead out the Myrmidons to battle. After doing great
deeds he is himself slain by Hektor.)
4. C 1-34 (Antilochos brings news of Patroklos'
death to Achilles), and scattered portions of C and
T leading up to the issuing of Achilles from the camp
as told at T 357-399.
5. T 381-end, 0 34-138. (Achilles slays Polydoros
and Lykaon.)
6. 0 5-40 end and X 1-404. (TheSlaying of Hektor.)
Such, or nearly such, is the great tale of the
"Wrath." Even though here and there in detail we
may have missed out some scene,3 or introduced an
episode which does not belong, we cannot fail to trace
in it the sublime conception of one mind, carried out
in flawless strength and impeccable vision. From

I In B 51 6ropAiNbe is an alteration ; the line occurs in its
original form with noxeudNae at 443.
2 Omitting 40-43, 64, 140-144, 248 (?), 796-800. These
lines are those which refer to the wearing by Patroklos of the
armour of Achilles. This had no place in the MRlNc, in which
Patroklos goes out in his own armour.
3 We might for instance add, but with less certainty, C 148-
180, 202-313, T 40-87, 137-153, 303-325, T 353-"80.


end to end we note the supreme mark of Greek genius,
the unerring relation of the parts to the whole.
Every scene is bright and clear before us as if it alone
were the creation of its author's mind; yet never for
an instant can we forget that each scene is but a
step in the development of a plan-a moment in the
accomplishment of the counsel of Zeus. It is what we
cannot but feel that the Iliad as a whole is not, a
unity and a creation.
One special mark of the story thus disentangled is
too significant to be passed over in silence. The
interest from beginning to end is almost purely human.
The gods form a background or underplot, but their
interference is such as becomes the rulers of the world,
not partisans in the battles. They nowhere take any
part in the fighting; indeed, they seldom appear at all
on the earthly stage. The intervention of Athene in
the first book is expressly confined to Achilles alone-
oTcp NpainNOJu.lNH- T&N 5A XX0oN OTIC 6pTO--,

as though to let us know that this is the way in which
the gods speak to the mind of man. Apollo invisible
stuns Patroklos, and Athene appears for a moment to
bring Hektor to a stand before Achilles. In other
words, the gods appear just so much as to let us
know what are the powers which control mankind from
heaven; but none the less it is purely human motive
and human action which guide the plot.
In this the MAfic is markedly differently from other
parts of the Iliad. It is in quite a different spirit that
we find Diomedes set to fight Ares and Aphrodite, or
Achilles with the River. Even the Odyssey is different,
VOL. I b

where Athene is always at hand, or Ino or Kirke, to
give supernatural aid to Odysseus. It is in this
absolute predominance of the human interest that the
MfAic finds the power of appealing to our hearts, not
to our fancy only. From beginning to end of it we
are in the world and not in fairyland.
Second Stratum.-The additions made to this great
story may be divided into two classes. The first of
these, which may be called the Second Stratum of the
Iliad, consists in the main of tales of the prowess of
individual heroes. The type of all of them is the
Aristeia of Diomedes in E and Z. The parts of the
Iliad to be attributed to this stratum are-
1. B (excepting the Catalogue of the Ships and those
portions stated above to belong to the MANmc), r, A. E,
Z, H 1-312.
2. N 136-672. (The Aristeia of Idomeneus.)
3. Perhaps the Aristeia of Menelaos over the body
of Patroklos in P.
The term Aristeia well characterizes the whole of
this stratum, in which individual heroes from time to
time come to the front and absorb our interest. Thus
in r and A Menelaos is the hero; in E and Z
Diomedes; in H Aias. The predominance of Ido-
meneus in N has been already remarked.1
This stratum serves a twofold purpose. Its im-
mediate occasion was no doubt to glorify the heroes

1 The whole stratum cannot however be regarded as con-
temporaneous; it is possible to trace within it various sub-
strata. For instance the duel between Menelaos and Paris in
r is no doubt subsequent to that between Aias and Hektor
in H.




of the great Achaian families who seemed to have
received too scanty notice in the MANIC. This of
itself seems enough to mark off this stratum as older
than the Dorian invasion; for the destruction of the old
families was the central fact of the new regime, and the
wrecks of them surviving as emigrants in Asia Minor
can hardly have been able to keep up the old family
state, with the family bard to sing the family deeds.
But the Second Stratum has another meaning, which
to us is the more important. The deeds of famous
ancestors concern us less than the structure of the
Iliad; and upon this the Second Stratum has exercised
a decisive influence. The first blow to the unity of
the plot was given when the Aristeia of Diomedes was
inserted. The feats of Achilles were over-shadowed
by those of Diomedes, and the perfect balance of
the old poem was grievously impaired. Yet what a
splendid compensation we get for such loss as this is !
We gain a superb panorama of the whole siege of Troy.
The Trojan heroes are introduced to us in the same
immortal touches which set Agamemnon and Achilles
before us in A,-Paris, Helen, Priam, Hektor and
Andromache, whom we know little or not at all from
the MANIC, are now in living presentment before our
eyes. The fighting, which was told in somewhat
formal fashion in A and n, now takes every variety
of incident. We hear of the great families of Greece
and of their noble enemies and kinsmen,-Glaukos
and Sarpedon of Lykia. As Grote rightly felt, it is
books B-H which turn the Achilleid, as he calls his
MAmIC, into an Iliad. The poem has become truly


It is difficult to suppose that the poet of the MANic
is the author of the Second Stratum; he would scarcely
be likely to alter so fundamentally, and (especially in
respect of the interference of the gods in the human
action) with so different a spirit, the character of his
own story. On the other hand it cannot be questioned
that the best parts of these books are entirely worthy
of the author of the MANIC : indeed the poet has never
lived of whom the scene between Hektor and Andro-
mache is not more than worthy.
Third Stratum.-We now pass into a quite different
region. As the Second Stratum consists entirely of
Aristeiai, the Third is composed of great individual
poems, led up to and connected by portions of nar-
rative which are in themselves treated as subordinate.
These new poems cannot be ascribed to a desire to
glorify particular heroes: they deal mostly with the
persons whom we already know, and introduce but
few fresh figures. They bear throughout the stamp of
creations composed solely for the sake of the delight
in beautiful poetry.
The most important of them are-
1. The Embassy to Achilles in I.
2. The Capture of the Wall in M.
3. The Deceiving of Zeus by Hera in E and 0.
4. The Making of the Arms of Achilles in C.
5. The Funeral of Patroklos and the Games in Y.
6. The Ransoming of the Body of Hektor in l.
To these must be added certain subordinate poems
which have not exercised so deep an influence on the
Iliad at large, such as-
7. The Doloneia or Story of Dolon in K.


8. The Fight of Achilles with the River in 0, with
its pendant The Battle of the Gods.
9. The Catalogue of the Ships in B,
and numerous shorter episodes which will be discussed
in their proper places. The whole of 0 is an instance
of connecting narrative, introduced only to lead up to
the Embassy in I.
The different work of different hands is here far
more clearly separable than in the Second Stratum.
Four books stand out as notably later than the
rest-I, K, ', (. The evidence for this is mainly
linguistic and cannot here be discussed; it must
suffice to say that the best scholars are agreed that
these four books shew numerous signs of change
in language, bringing it into close agreement with
that of the Odyssey, which is, as a whole, a good
deal later than that of the MANIC or of the Second
The story of the Making of the Arms of Achilles is
one which has had a marked effect on the construction
of the Iliad as a whole, for it brought with it the
necessity of first depriving Achilles of his armour,
and to this end was first invented the idea of making
Patroklos arm himself in the panoply of Achilles.
This new motive is very skilfully introduced into the
description of the starting of Patroklos from the camp
in n, but still we can see that there was in the
MANNc at first no notion of the exchange of armour.
The idea is no doubt a startling one at first sight, but
the notes on I and P will shew how small a space the
addition takes, and how little effect it has on the
narrative. It has, indeed, been introduced not only


with skill, but in the most conservative manner. And
here, again, we cannot but be grateful for the innova-
tion, even if we regret the effect it has had on
the older poem; we can, indeed, hardly imagine the
Iliad without the description of the shield and the
magnificent appearance of Achilles at the trench. The
same may be said of the Embassy in I. The speech
of Achilles is one of the sublimest instances of rhetoric
which literature has given us.
If we are to suppose part of the Iliad to date from
before, and part from after the great migration from
Greece proper to Asia Minor, the break must coincide
with the division between the Second and Third Strata.
It is here that we find the greatest change in the spirit
of the work,-the attitude of the poet towards the
poem seems to have been changed. The desire to
glorify the great families of Achaian Greece has passed
away. The first step seems to have been taken to-
wards the development of lyric and elegiac poetry
from epic. In the latest part of the Iliad, the end
of (, the lamentations over the body of Hektor begin
to wear a distinctly lyric garb. There is thus no
difficulty in setting the Iliad in its proper place in the
development of poetry which, as we know, took place
in the eighth and seventh centuries in the Aiolian
colonies of Asia Minor. Possibly the latest parts of
the Iliad may coincide in time with the earliest
growth of the great lyric school which blossomed into
There is no cogent reason for ascribing the Third
Stratum or any great portion of it to Ionian imitators.
The whole of it, with the exception of some minor


interpolations, may well be the work of Aiolian
successors of the Achaian bards, and have come into
being in the first two centuries of the period of
colonization, to speak roughly, between 1000 and
800 B.C.


ONE of the most striking features of the Epic Dialect is the
great variety of its stems and inflexions alike of verbs, nouns,
and pronouns. To a reader familiar only with the greater
simplicity of Attic, these forms, from their apparent arbitrari-
ness and irregularity, are apt at first to be nothing less than
bewildering; and the young student is accordingly recom-
mended to read carefully through the following Introduction
at least once or twice before attempting the text of the poem.
The dialect of the Homeric poems is Ionic; but a few Aiolic
and Doric forms occur. It is sometimes called the Old Ionic,
as opposed to the New Ionic of Herodotus.
As a rule only Epic peculiarities will be dealt with in this
Introduction; no notice being taken of forms and uses which
survived in Attic, and with which the student is presumed to
be familiar.
Attic forms are given in ordinary type, after the Homeric
forms in the heavy type.



1. Vowels
H replaces a: e.g. KdpH Kapa, &ppH ipa, xaXC eH XaXKda,
nujcl' riXhatot.
ou replaces o: e.g. noukXc rofci, =OfNoc ptbros.


ei replaces c: e.g. setNoc vos, CTreN6C aru-vb, eipwrwco
ipwrdw, eYNCKU tveKa.
* eu is a contraction of eo (Attic ov): e.g. Epxcu lpXov, ieu
/eov, edpceuc Oc ,paov, noIeduHN d*roLoti/y.
Diphthongs are found in a resolved form: e.g. n6dc vats, &d
e, 'ATpetbHC 'ArpelBis.
. Similarly vowels which would be contracted in Attic appear
uncontracted: e.g. tpxco tpxov, amen c rev.
Prepositions especially suffer apocope : e.g. ndp trapi, KT KarTi.
So ap, pa, &pa.
Many words are found with a smooth breathing which in
Attic are aspirated: e.g. AHIoc O XCos, SauI (Aiolic) tr.

2. Consonants

Consonants are doubled or written single according to the
requirements of the metre. Thus we have 'AxAm tc and 'Axk -
Aedc, 'Obucedc and 'Ouccedc, T6ccoc, uiccoc, 5ccoc, bnncoc,
Ineca breor, iAkMccro lmnrero. Similarly we find nTr6Kc rbXts
and nr6hauoc r6Xepos: this, in order to lengthen a preceding

3. The Digamma

The Digamma (F) is a letter which originally belonged to
the Greek alphabet, but afterwards disappeared. It is a labial
spirant, and had the sound of the English w. It was called
digamma from its form, which resembles one gamma (r) placed
on another. In Homer's time the letter was an essential part
of many words, in which its force must still be allowed for,
although the symbol is not printed in the texts.
When dying out, the letter was not infrequently replaced by
u: thus the u in Exeua replaces the F of the earlier form =-xeF-a.
Again the sound survived in many Latin words whose Greek
equivalents lost it: cp. Foreos and vicus, FeA8 and video, Flap
and ver, (F)gorepos (where the aspirate represents the lost
digamma) and vesper, Flow and viola (violet). From fo, eb,
o, o,, i two letters, af, have been lost; cp. Lat. sui, suus.


When using a word which began with F Homer usually
allows for the force of the consonant; e.g.
CO noT I Tic Fcpkl . .
KaI noTi TIC FEcyciN . .
aTclua I napFlncN . .
Frequently, however, the force of the F is neglected, as in
ninhoN, c I Foi BOKe . .
Some words which no doubt originally had the F had lost
the sound even in Homer's time; e.g. 6pdc6, 5poc, oOpaN6c,
betco. It was, in fact, lost in all words beginning with o,
excepting the diphthong oa.



4. First Declension

Nom. in -a (for -is) : e.g. InnTr-&, NcptAHrep-rr-, cp6on-a.
This is confined to titles of gods and heroes.
Gen. Sing. in -ao and -co: e.g. 'ATpet -ao, 'ATpelt-ic- .
This -eco is often scanned as one syllable; and after another
vowel it appears as -c: e.g. Bopd-co, vuzne-co.
Gen. Plur. in -6dcN, -4ON: e.g. KMICI-d N, nac-WaN.
Dat. Plur. in -tct and -jc: e.g. afO-ici adras, KKic(- Jc
KXitrias. The Attic -ac occurs only once in the Iliad and twice
in the Odyssey; see on M 284.

5. Second Declension

Gen. Sing. in -oto and -oo (ov) : e.g. b6u-oio 56ptov, 68ahpeA-6o,
'IkM-oo. For o0 (from 's) we should probably in several places
read Bo, though the form is only conjectural.
Gen. and Dat. Dual in -odr, both for Second and Third
Declension : e.g. Ynn-ofuN, nob-oTiN.



6. Third Declension
1. Ace. Sing. in -a after H representing HU and cu. Thus we
have from NHO-c, ship, Nf-a (for Pyv-a, vlFa); from Backed-c,
Baci~-a. So the other cases, BaciX-oc etc. Also cfplc gives
c6$p-a. NHOC besides NAa, NH6C, NmH, NEC, N)ac, NH&N, NeCCI,
gives less commonly Gen. NE6c, P1. N&dc, Ntac, NCON, NeccI.
2. Gen. Sing. Stems in -i retain the i, instead of dropping it
and inserting c: e.g. n6lX-oc voXe-ws, TI-i-oc. And so in the
other cases. n6Xic gives also n6dH-oc, n6XH-, nd6H-ec, and
n6Ak-oc, nT6dc-T.
AOc or 40-c, good, gives gen. IA-oc, perhaps by exchange of
quantity for hd-os.
Note that noii-c makes Gen. noXk-oc, Pl. noXd-cc, nokX-ac
etc., following the regular declension of nouns in -us, as iS6-s.
3. Dat. Sing. in -eT, -HY: e.g. Kp6T-iY, 'AxtX-fl.
Nouns in -Ic also give -i: NcuEcc, K6Ni, HJITi.
Stems in -u, Gen. -u-oc, give -ui (diphthong): e.g. nkHe-ut.
4. Ace. Plur. Stems in -i and -u which form Ace. Sing. in
-N often form Acc. P1. in -ic and -Oc (for -tvs, -vw) : e.g. Bic,
cOc, Bo0c, Ixe0c.
5. Dat. Plur. in -eca and -ca besides -a, as in Attic : e.g. 6Nup-
eca, 86-cca, n6a-cci, noXf-ccc (r6Xts), noXt-cci (roeXs), nocci.
Note the following : r&iu-cci, ina-ca.

7. The Ending -ypi(N)
Nouns of all declensions are found with a case-ending -qT(N),
which is both Sing. and Plur., with the following meanings :-
(a) Instrumental: e.g. BSH-pi by force.
(B) Locative: e.g. Spec-yiN on the mountains.
(r) Ablatival Gen. : e.g. 6n6 NECpfA-yiINfron the bowstring.

7a. Heteroclite Nouns
1. There are many Heteroclite Nouns, i.e. nouns shewing
different inflexions by employing distinct stems. Such are
ainruxo-c, Ace. inTrux-a: &X ., Dat. 6XK-i: OCuONH, Dat.



icuTN-I: IcOKR, Ace. l~Kc-a: 'ATaH-C, Gen. "AYB-oc, Dat. "ATa-i:
r6NU, Gen. rouN6c (for yovF-6s), Plur. roON-a etc.; also rouINUT-
oc etc. noKX6-c, much, is declined throughout from stem
noXko-, as well as from stem noku- (see 6. 2 ad fin.)
2. ui6-c, son, shews three stems:-
(1) (Stem ulo-) u16-c, ui, and very rarely uloO, ulk, uloTa.
(2) (St. ui-), Ace. uT-a, Gen. uT-oc, Dat. uT-i, Dual uT-e,
Plur. vT-ec, uT-ac, uld-ca.
(3) (St. ulc(F) for ulu-), Ace. l-a, Gen. utl-oc, Dat.
ui-'T, Plur. uti-ec, ui-ac.
3. x6pH, head, shews-
(1) Gen. KapiTrr-oc, KdpHT-oc, Dat. Kapicar-, KdpHT-1.
(2) Gen. KpdaT-oc, Dat. KpdaTr-, Plur. KpdaT-a.
(3) Ace. Sing. KpfT-a, Gen. KpaT-6c, Dat. KpaT-I, Plur.
KpTr-coN, Kpa-cd.

8. Contraction and Hyphaeresis
1. Gen. Sing. -eoc in a few nouns contracts into -euc: e.g.
e6pc-euc Ocpiouv, eip-uc O~povs.
2. When the combinations ee-a and eE-Y occur in the Ace.
and Dat. S. of Adjectives, the second E of the stem is dropped
by hyphaeresis : e.g. 2uCKMha ( uKicX -a), NH)t (viyX&e-a), NHXiY
(vXte-'). Similarly in Neut. Plur. K\ -a (KX\e-a), rip-d
(ydpa-a), KpO-6 (Kpa-a).
3. The following contracted forms kUKK1ci-(, AUK)LE-ac,
6rclKAr-oC, nrrpoKAA-oc, kuppe?-oc, cnel-ouc, cn-i are for
AuKXCe-4Ac, UKxXCe-aC, SraKXe-ocC, nlaToKXCe-oc, auppeC-oc,
cnke-oc, cn&-Y. The metre always admits the uncontracted
forms and these should probably be restored to the texts.

9. Personal Pronouns
First Person.
Sing. Nom. krds
Gen. &ueao, &uso, &, .&m e, &u, deeN


Plur. Nom. tjuuec
Acc. ftaus, A ,Uac, Anuc (once)
Gen. AuecoN, AuicoN
Dat. a U.u(N)
Dual Nom. Ace. NCO, Nd6
Gen. Dat. N&IN
Second Person.
Sing. Nom. T6NH
Gen. ceto, cdo, ceO, ceeN, T'o0o
Dat. TOl, TetN
Plur. Nom. fiuec
Ace. GiLue, wudac
Gen. OjieiWN, 6OAdON
Dat. Oiuui
Dual Nom. Acc. cy45i, cyc)
Gen. Dat. cpcQIN
Third Person.
Sing. Ace. &, 8, jIN adr6v
Gen. eTo, Zo, e6, eeN o0
Dat. &o?, of
Plur. Ace. cipe, ctac, cycac
Gen. cqeicoN, cycoCN
Dat. cq((N) a6rois
Dual Ace. cycai (enclitic)
Dat. cycotN (enclitic)
The last is both a Reflexive and a Personal Pronoun. In the
latter (commoner) use it is usually enclitic.

10. Demonstrative Pronouns
6, A, r6, gives-
Plur. Nom. rTo, rai
Gen. TdoN
Dat. Tolci, Trcl, Trc
Obs.-In Homer 6, A, r6 is not the Definite Article, but a
Demonstrative (Personal) or Relative Pronoun.
Mae gives-
Plur. Dat. rTocbecci(N) and 'ocTceci(N)




11. Relative, Indefinite, and Interrogative Pronouns

Sc, 1i, 5 gives-
Sing. Gen. So oB (Sou is a false form), and eHC Is
Tic, who ? gives-
Sing. Gen. T6O, TeO Tiros
Dat. rT&e rivt
Plur. Gen. T&cN rivw
TIC, any one, gives, besides the above forms unaccented-
Sing. Dat. TcQ
Scnc gives-
Sing. Ace. Neut. STTr
Gen. 'Trro, 5,rrcu, reu
Dat. 6T&y, &Tre
Plur. Gen. 6TrCON
Dat. 6Tnoiac
Obs.-6 of 6, ti, 76 also combines with TIC, as 5 *nc=8a&es.


It is important to seize the meaning of the following
adverbial suffixes.
-el place where : e.g. e89 where, atel here, there, n6ei where?
noel somewhere, arOT6ei in that very place, obI6eI in the house,
'IlX6et in Ilios.
-ea place : e.g. mNea there, where, bnaiea under.
-ec(N) place: e.g. np6cee(N), finepee(N). Distinguish this
suffix with N 40eXKUv~TELKV from
-een place whence : e.g. Seen, at ooeeN, AI6eeN.
This suffix is often used with prepositions: e.g. An' o6pa-
N6eeN,-'K Aldeen. It is found in cheeN ao0.
-TIC in aTnc (Att. abaLs) back, again. (Beware of confusing
this word with aoei here, there.)
-Be place whither : e.g. ohK6Nbc, noXehL 6Na E, abe to the sea.




13. Augment

1. The augment is frequently omitted; less frequently in
speeches than in narrative, where the context makes it clear
that past time is meant.
2. Many instances occur of verbs which begin with a vowel
taking the temporal augment A-. In most of these cases an
original initial consonant has been lost. Thus F has been lost
in -&rH (d-Fdyi), E-nme (1-Fe re), aToN (-48ov, 1-Fteop). c has
been lost in 1-&ccaro, and Yccrro sat (for -iea-a-, for d-ore-ca),
ecxoN (-aeXOP). In these cases the c became the rough breath-
ing (?-oe4 became I-e6), and then this was thrown back on the
augment (4-46 became 9-eS). This did not happen with eTxoN
because of the aspirate x following.
3. In the following the vowel of the stem has been
lengthened after 4-: &-ANZaIe (e-aFdiSave), 6N---cproN (dyv--
Foryov), and in Perfect stems, as &i-cnei (FeXs-), &i-cKEI(FiK-).

14. Stem-Variation

1. Many verbs shew their stem in two forms, a long and a
short: thus we have pH-/pl and dI-plv, YcTH-pt and Ycra-pev,
-H-an- and 86-ry~, TIeH-pt and Tiee-puat. As a rule the Longer
Stem goes with the Shorter Endings, and vice versa, on the
principle of compensation. The Person-endings have accord-
ingly been divided into Light Endings (chiefly those of the
Sing. Indic. Active) and Heavy Endings (all the others).
2. In the Perfects and Aorists in -Ka the longer stem has
gained an additional consonant: e.g. 1rsH-K-a, IeO-K-a.
3. Third Plurals of Perfects like nenoleac, icrAKiaa (rare in
Homer), andf Aorists like !eKcaN, awoKaN, are obvious excep-
tions to the rule, a Long Stem being combined with Heavy
4. paci, icraci, &cr8a, ieeTac, Blao0a, zeur0ci, are only
apparent exceptions, being for qpa-ri etc. Se, 16. 5.



15. Thematic Vowels. Thematic Forms
The tenses which are characteristic of Verbs in -co, i.e. the
Pres., Imperf., Future, 'Strong' Aor., shew before the ending
the vowel e or o: e.g. Ai-o-aUen, ad-e-TE, Xdc-o-jeN, niie-o-
NTO. The o is found before j and N, the e before other letters.
These two vowels are called the Thematic Vowels, because they
form out of a simpler stem or root a new 'theme' (Kuo-, nueo-,
etc.) for the purposes of tense-formation. In the Subjunctive
(only) they become H and co.
A form which shews no thematic vowel is called Non-
Thematic : e.g. (pH-Ie, eT-ml, ErNw-N, EBH-N.
The term 'Thematic' can be applied to a form or tense or
stem or, as in the case of the Subjunctive, to a mood; but
obviously not to a whole verb.

16. Person-Endings
1. 1 Sing. The ending -ui is found in the Subjunctive of
some Thematic Tenses: e.g. &eid-co-jl, Tlx-co-i.
2. 2 Sing. The ending -cea (found in Attic in the Indicatives
Jfoa and oTera) is used in the Subjunctive: e.g. &ede\-cea,
3. Note the c dropped in BEBAH-c (fIfX -aaL), U.uNH-ai
(-rat), u.pNa-o (dpva--ao Imper.) etc. Also the e dropped
(by hyphaeresis, see 8. 2) in tKNe-o (Kicee-o), j6ee-aC (pLvOU -al).
4. 3 Sing. The ending -ci is found in the Subjunctive,
chiefly when the First Pers. takes -ui; &et4h-ci, Tix-i-ci.
5. 3 Plur. In the Pres. Indic. Act. of verbs in -mu we have
(not, as in Attic, rTtO-da., &rt6-ags, tevyv'-acs, but) TiOeeci,
abao0ci, zeurNOci, where the process of formation is TrBe-Prs,
OrtBe-vL-, Tre-iol. Icra8c is found in Attic as well as in Epic.
6. Besides the ending -can, used in Attic (f#lr-aav, (-a-aav),
Non-Thematic Past Tenses take an ending -N (for -vP, cp. Lat.
era-nt): e.g. tipa-N, tcra-N Ar7y-arv, Eriee-N rTi0B--aav, EBa-N
ep~--aav. Note that the vowel before this N is always short.
7. In the Middle we have after consonants and a (including ei,


H, ai, oi) the endings -Tial, -aro: e.g. ipHptb-aTra, Terlex-aTali
Terplp-aTo, nueoi-aro. Sometimes also after u and H: e.g.
eIp6-arTa, Be8BXK-arai.
8. 2 and 3 Dual. These are for Past Tenses in Attic -TON,
-THN, Mid. -COON, -ceHN, and so usually in Homer. But a ten-
dency towards uniformity, which in Attic gives us frequently
-rVn, -rTp, acting the opposite way in Homer, gives us three
certain instances of -TON, -TON, i.e. of -TON for the 3rd Pers.


17. The Present and Imperfect

Certain formations, unfamiliar because of their rarity in
Attic, are common in Homer.
1. Thematic Forms:
In -io, -aio, -clo: e.g. Tica honour, Kepaica mix, eei run,
xcico pour. There is a tendency to shorten or drop the I before
a vowel: thus we have TICo honour, and ToO, uAINe be thou
wroth, udcrlc lash thou,; 6ralo-ual wonder, but 6rd-a-cee (by
assimilation for dyd-ce-as ); e&ON running, TtXG-O-N as well as
TrXa-o-N (impf.)
In -dxa: e.g. zcb-ei he lives; lipci-oNTac sweating; CnNch-
ONrac sleeping.
2. Non-Thematic Forms:
With the suffixes NH and no (before heavy endings Na and
NO) : e.g. 6du-NH-u I subdue, nkp-Na-c, pres. part. selling, xip-
NH mixed, Kip-Na-C mixing, nlX-N6-TaI comes near, TI-NU-NTal
they punish, Ki-NU-NTO were moving, bai-N0 he feasted, *-Kal-
NO-TO he surpassed. Notice the i for e in Kip-NH (cp. KEp-dvvvIu)
and nIX-NaTal (cp. r-Xas).
3. Some forms belonging to verbs in -6co, -co, -6co are Non
Thematic: e.g. CUXA-THN they two despoiled (not an "irregular
contraction of a Thematic avXad-T-v "), plXA-useal to love, Bfi-
Nm (fi w) to live. Similarly in Attic h^i, vErc L, afrj ,
are really non-thematic formations, for i-a-t, relvtr-as, etc. the
-ca having been dropped, and the. t subscript added.by.analogy.




4. Present Indicatives like ueesetc, AeeieT, reeiic, aaoTc,
and Imperfects like AbiSouN, (&)Tieei, &a6uNa, IKipNa are
irregular; being formed on the analogy of contracted verbs,
though they belong to verbs in -ui.
5. The two verbs eTl and ciud exhibit a great variety of
forms. These are for convenience all given here.
(a) cTlu go:
Pres. 2 Sing. eTcea et
Impf. 1 Sing. iia, i1oN 4eLv
3 Sing. fiIe(N), fel, je(N), Ye(N)
1 Plur. TiUeN, imoneN
3 Plur. AicaN, YcaN, A oN
Future clconal, eYcerai
Sigmatic Aor. eic6dHN, elcdauHN, EccdiceHN
Subj. 2 Sing. THcea, 3 Sing. Y jciN, 1 Plur. You.eN
Opt. 3 Sing. ieiN
Inf. YJeNac YAeN
(8) cEui be:
Pres. 2 Sing. Eca, eTc eT
I Plur. elui&
3 Plur. ac cia ei
Imperf. 1 Sing. Ha, Ea, &HN, EON (v and J)
2 Sing. Hcea orOa
3 Sing. iCN, EHN, AHN ?~, dCKC
3 Dual AcrHn
3 Plur. EcaN
Iterative ECKON
Future 1 Sing. Eccoaal
3 Sing. Ecceral, IcciTra
Subj. 1 Sing. &co and eYco(?)
2 Sing. Eye
3 Sing. Eci, Aci, El
Opt. 2 Sing. Eoic, 3 Sing. Eoi, 2 Plur. eTre
Imperf. Mid. Ecco, 2 Sing.
Inf. EjuuMeNa, ua lNa, LuueN (which is perhaps
AUEN' for usmcNaI)
Participle &~N etc.



18. The Non-Thematic Aorists
(a) With 1 Sing. Act. in -N : e.g. IEB-N, EcrH-N, erKT-N. The
stem-vowel is occasionally varied according to the principle
given in 14: e.g. BS-THN, Oinp-MB-caN. Middle forms: x6-ro
was poured, A.-ro was loosed, fh-To (C 615n.),nXf-To, nXA-NTO
he (they) came near, XTI-jCNOC built, KXTd-tCNoc killed, oT&6-
u.NQa to wound.
Note the exceptional forms Exra he slew, oOTa he wounded,
&n-inXco-c thou sailedst over, IrAp-a he grew old, Bicd-TCO let hin&
live. The last three are apparently derived from nouns (rXbo-s,
ylpa-s, plo-s).
(B) With 1 Sing. in -a, six in number: Ecceu-a I urged,
9KH-a I burned, Excu-a I poured, AXei-cTro he avoided, ein-a
and eTna I said, rNeIK-a I bore.
(r) With 1 Sing. in -K-a (see 14. 2), three in number: EeHKa,
l~OKa, IHKa and iAKa I sent forth.
(B) Aorists from verb-stems in X, iL, N, p.

19. The Sigmatic Aorist

1. This Aorist is also non-thematic, but is conveniently classed
alone. The c is often doubled : K&c6ucca, kpuccal (and pidcai)
to draw, sEINIccE entertained.
2. There are a few sigmatic aorists formed with a thematic
vowel: e.g. iBfice-To went, iTON came, nedccC-TON, dual imper.
bring ye me near, Mwre-o lay thee down, 5pce-o arise, oYTc-Te
bring ye, E-erre bring ye, -v-JLCNai to bring.

20. The Thematic Aorist

1. The stem is formed by adding the Thematic vowel c or o to
the short form of the verb-stem (14): e.g. i-Xdee--ro (X\0-w) he for-
got, 4-nie-o-NTo (relO-w) they obeyed, 9-cpur-o-N (6e"y-w) they fled.
2. This aorist is frequently reduplicated : e.g. ne-mnetN vrIt9ev,
h-hXaeoN .Xaoov, Ap-ape, 9-einoN (contracted etnoN), fir-aroN.
The last three, but no others, are found in Attic.



21. Iterative Tenses
These are formed with the iterative suffix CK and the thematic
vowels (CK-e, CK-o).
1. Presents : p6-cKCO, Bd-cKe go thou, npo-BXCO-CKc-uEN to go
before. In most Presents the iterative force is lost.
2. Past tenses, formed (a) from a Present Stem: as ECKC (for
EC-CKE) used to be, EXe-CKe used to hold, ncOX4-CKe-TO used to sell;
(8) from an Aorist Stem, as eMne-CKE used to say, bSca-cKi kept

22. The Perfect
1. In most Homeric Perfects the stem varies with the person-
ending (14), as in the Attic Perfects olSa and prT7xa (cp. oT&-a and
TC-.UEN, ECTH-KO and RCTr-IEN) : e.g. EolKa am like, Dual EYK-TON,
Part. oIKcbc, Fern. liYK-ua: ninolea, 1 Plur. Plupf. &-ndnle-UnN:
ipHpe, Part. Fern. 6pdp-uTa: nenoNea, Part. Fern. ncne-uTa.
2. When the short form of the stem ends in a vowel, the
longer stem follows the form of either (a) xs .ona or (8)
ThrXHKa. Thus we get-
-IJWONa JruiU-usC
JAU.ONa-C uI.ai-TON jA.u-Te
uAuONe JLuHu-TON jur6-aci
and TrXKHKa, TrXmHKa-C, TrXHK, T&rXa-JmN. Similarly we
have rtroNa and rdr-a-ne, T4eNHKa and TeeNaci (TEv8-RaEL),
nt xKa and neip-aci, 5b4oIKa and 6ei-Ael- N.

23. The Pluperfect
1. The Singular Active is formed with the Suffix -ca and
the augment: e.g. 4-TeeHn-ea, inctr-ea, ia-ea, 2 Sing. AeibHC
(iEl-eas), 3 Sing. --nenoieei (lrevrolO-ee).
2. The Dual and Plural are formed by adding the Secondary
Person-endings to the Perfect Stem, with or without the aug-
ment: e.g. E-ninle-,ueN, gcra-caN, 84 8-caN. This method is
rare in the Singular: e.g. BeiieC, &NwNOae, -n-eNiNoec, forma-


tions parallel to that of an aorist like thvae. The Passives are
all formed in this manner: e.g. A-T&ruK-TO, A1KAia-To.

24. The Future

1. As in Attic, verb-stems ending in p, X, u, N drop the c
which is the characteristic of the Future, and insert e ; but
whereas the Attic forms are contracted, the Homeric forms as a
rule are not.
Thus we get-
Homeric Attic
&UEN-t-C I.LevW
6rrEx-,-- &ayyEXi
BaX--co PaX(S
ip-t-ca ep
Notice, however, aia-yetp-cco, 5p-couca, eep-c6ueNoc.
2. Many other verbs also drop the c, so that we find-
Homeric Attic
X6-co 1 gI
hXd-taN2 exa&
TChe-co reXAra
Kp~td-Co3 KpE(J

dNTr6-co 3 dvrntr
And so Ban6-co,3 bang, TaNd-co, nCpd-aN,3 4pd-co, KOp-eIc.
3. Notice &c-ccT-Tat will be, necCo-NTau will fall; cp. Attic
,eviojeat, rXevewo iaa. These are formations corresponding to
the Doric Future in -ace.
4. Futures are formed from the stem of the Perfect or Re-
duplicated Aorist: e.g. KExapri-ce-Ta will be glad (KeXaprl-6Ta,
KcXdpO-v70r), nenme-cCo (TreTrltOi ), necpi-cE-Tai (either from
ialvw, and meaning shall appear, or from *59vw and meaning
shall be slain; in either case notice the peculiar lengthening of
the stem vreoa-).
1 By assimilation (see 28) for ;hdo which is for Ad-tr--w.
2 By assimilation for eAder (lAd-o-erv).
3 By assimilation.



25. The Subjunctive
1. Tenses that are non-thematic in the Indicative regularly
form their Subjunctives by adding the thematic vowels to the
stem. Thus we have-
Non-thematic Indic. Subjunctive
Y-niEN Y-o-uEN teepev
Ehuca MXc-o-JuN X6 aW ve
4-ndnle-ueN nenole-o-juEN
AnelpHC-6-UHHN neipAc--Tai retp i~rrat
2. The Subjunctives corresponding to thematic Indicatives
were formed, as in Attic, by lengthening the e and o to H and M.
This method encroached on the former, so that we find non-
thematic forms also taking co and H-
(a) in the Sing. and 3rd Plur. Active,
(b) in the 2nd and 3rd Dual and Plural Middle.
Thus we get (e.g.) Non-Thematic Aor. Subj. Act. of T-crH-rl:
crAi-c crli-o-lJeN
CTr-ijc CTi-e-TON CTAi-E-TE
Sigmatic (non-thematic) Aor. Subj. Mid. of Xico:
Xic-o-"nal Auc-6-jeea
xic-E-ai XdC-H-ceoN Xuc-H-cec
Mic-e-Tal Xtc-H-ceoN xAc-co-Nlra
3. When the Verb-stem has a long and a short form, the Subj.
takes the long form, as cri-co, pi-i2, nenoie-ojeN, BI-oAecN.
The three aorists in -Ka, however, drop the K, as 6NA-i-, ei-ij,
4. Forms like crTw-jue, e&to-uie (rlT40iA) are by metathesis
of quantity for aero- Lev, Oieo-pev.
5. Note the First Singulars ei-co, KlxVi-o, Tpanei-olleN,
bajei-co etc. shewing El for H.
6. Thematic Subjunctives in the Middle occasionally shew
-eal for -Hal: e.g. jmicr-eal, KaTicx-eal. Note the scanning
6BXfhial (A 380).


7. The Attic Futures (so-called) 'bouai, xco are really
Subjunctives which have survived with their original meaning.
ni-6jueNa (cp. Att. rl-ouat) going to drink, KCKKii-ONTEC going to
lie down, apaiNeic thou art for doing, are apparently presents
containing a desiderative suffix -yco.

26. The Optative
The formations do not differ from Attic, save in emii and eTui
(for which see 17. 5) and some exceptional cases which will be
explained in the notes. As in Attic, Non-Thematic Tenses
insert m before Light Endings and I before Heavy Endings: e.g.
cpa-H-N, --N, 6 a---I N, -- rM, ii-ec-t-Tr.

27. The Infinitive
1. Non-Thematic tenses form their Infinitive byadding -aeueal
or (after short vowels only) -uwn to the stem : e.g.-
Homeric Attic
eO-Ju.CNa OCe(va
rceN6-JULNal reOvdvat
Y-MEN I-etae
b6-jUCN BoO-va (for 8o-4at)
Obs. luueN eeat, appears to transgress the rule given above,
that MEN follows short vowels only; but it may be for qgerat,
since, wherever it occurs, it may be written YIpoev'.
2. Non-Thematic Tensesalsotake the ending -evea, but(except
in I-kNai) this is only found in a contracted form, as in eedNa
(Oe-dba), aoONal (So-dvat), popHiNai (Oope-dvae).
3. Thematic Tenses take -4-uewa, and &-UcN as well as (as in
Attic) -IN: e.g. cint-ueNal, eint-.eN, ndXX-eN. The Thematic
Aor. shews -4-cIN as well as (as in Attic) the contracted form
-eN: e.g. BoC-eIN, BaXeTN, 1M-emN.

28. Assimilation

1. Verbs in -6to appear in an unfamiliar form by assimilation.


(i) a yields to o or to following; so that
deop&w becomes elcop6co
eeopdoTre ,, eicopd tre
elfopdov s ,, Idcop6coNTac
(ii) a prevails over an e or H following ; so that
elropdecs becomes cicopdqc
elropads ,, eicopdqc
2. When the a is originally long, it sometimes becomes co,
so that
iP'dovres becomes ABcboNrec
eEPOtidw ,, JULCNOIN&co
3. When the a is originally short, the second vowel is
usually lengthened ; so that from elsop&ovres we get, as shewn
above, etrop6CTres rather than edoopbovres.
4. Sometimes both vowels are long; as ABccoca, bpcbcoci (for
5. Sometimes Verbs in -6o lengthen the second o: e.g.
bHtY6IONTc, for 586viovYTs.



The use of the cases without propositions is much freer than
in Attic ; and the freedom frequently found in the Attic poets
(as compared with the prose uses) is largely a survival of the
earlier elasticity.

29. The Accusative
1. The Internal Accusative. -One great purpose served by the
Accusative is to define the mode or limit the extent of the action
of the Verb as an Adverb would. This use is much more
extensive in Homer than in Attic. Not only Neuter Pronouns


and Adjectives, but many Substantives are used adverbially.
Examples are-
(a) Pronouns and Adjectives: T6d~ UaiNerai acts with this
fury; T68' hKdNCIC COMest on this occasion ; T6b &JbN Kvp
xNu'rai for this or therefore my heart grieveth; 5, 8 TI, in that,
because, as Tr &t bN ooXIx6CKION Erxoc sueINaC inasmuch as
thou dost abide my spear ; 6zia KEKXmHrcc, uttering sharp cries.
(B) Substantives: firare CiboNHecN .. TkN TN 6bN AN 'EX-
NHN nep AINrare brought on the occasion of the voyage (adv. of
time), over which (ace. of space, i.e. adv. of extent) he brought
back Helen; 6rreXiHN &e6Nra going on a message; BamNiNTa
r6jON or Tdc6ON entertaining at a marriage or funeral, giving a
marriage or funeral feast; oi TI yriOBoc &aUbc fTac KaTr.tac
not with falsehood ; naN Epro 6nnizooual in every matter will I
yield ; Plfiya xapbc &XoN 6nb niprou hurpbN ShcepoN in mourn-
ful destruction (adv. of manner) ; 4ppkna Trpnero was delighted
in his heart; b uac nup6c after the form of, i.e. like, fire; oo
XAre iLNOC ceased not raging (the acc. limits Xflrc just as rdvv
would have done); ThN B6hX KNIALHN struck him on the shin;
TpAac bk Tp6Aoc aiNbC OnAXuee ruTa EKaCTON dread fear came
over the Trojans, each of then (ace. in appos. to Tpcac) in his
limbs (ruta limits like an adv.); noT6N ce mnoc IpreN EpKCoc
6b6NTcoN hath escaped thee over the barrier of thy teeth (EpK.
6b. is modal and equivalent to an adverbial expression indicat-
ing route taken); oY c' drrcedN I aT &6noAuwxIcoNrai shall lick
the blood from thy wound (cc and aTua are the two accusatives
common with verbs of depriving; dTChre N limits the action
adverbially as in the last example but one). With Adjectives :
BohN drae6c brave on the occasion of the war-shout, i.e. in war;
&uciNCON naNToiac 6perdc better in every kind of excellence.
Obs.-The Cognate Ace. is not the original type, but only a
particular form, of this adverbial use; so that the term "quasi-
cognate" should be discarded as misleading.
2. The External Accusative.-Verbs of speaking (especially
when compounded, as npocHnSa, npocietn) take an Ace. of
the person addressed: e.g. Enoc rTi aN iNTiON HOBa: epacirn
"Eirropa eTnc.


30. The Dative
1. The Locatival Dative is freely used without a preposition.
This is rare in Attic, even in poetry. Examples are: 'icp
in Ilios, "ApreT in Argos, o6pang in the sky, oipecl in the
mountains, x6pco at the dance, BNeeca hkiNHC in the depths of
the lake, Kapil., (ppeci, euwMI in the heart, etc.
2. The Dative is used after Verbs of Motion where we should
expect an Acc. with preposition (so occasionally in Attic, and
cp. Latin it clamor eaelo) : cKUNmi B6X threzo in the helmet,
nebifo nce fell on the plain.

31. The Genitive
1. The Objective Gen. is used very freely, especially with
words indicating emotion, as grief, anger, etc. : e.g. Tpc~cN
x6koc wrath at the Trojans ; x6XoN ul6c anger at the death of his
son ; Sxoc cee6N grief for thee ; 'EXNHC 6pUnAIuaI T TE croNax6c
TE efforts and groanings about Helen ; EpKOc noHXuoio a bulwark
in or against war; Tpac 6Nepc6nfN a sign to men; Bii
&KONrTOc with force used on one unwilling, in spite of.
2. Gen. of Time in course of which (cp. Attic WvKTOS in the
night) : AoOc in the morning ; 6ncbpHc in autumn ; NHNE nHC in
windless weather.
3. Gen. of Place within which: NLpoc B' oO paiNETOr ndcHC
I raiHc oti' 6p& N no cloud appeared on all the land; obK
"Apreoc AEN was not in Argos; ToIXOU ToO krdpolo against the
other wall; of iN bUCOJA NOU "TnepioNoc, of 6Ni6Nroc some
by the setting, some by the rising sun, in the East . the West;
KONIONTEC neioo hastening over the plain ; nupbc npfcau to
burn in fire.
No other Homeric uses call for notice here. Special diffi-
culties are treated in the notes.

32. Nominative and Vocative
Special uses of the Nominative are dealt with in the notes.
With regard to the Vocative, note that when two persons


are addressed, connected by TE, the second name is put in
the Nominative: e.g. ZeO ndrep . 'HiKt6c TE.

33. Adverbial use. Tmesis. Compounds
1. Adverbial Use. This is very common in Homer: e.g.
nepi round about, exceedingly; 6n6 underneath; np6 in
front ; rN there ; &upi on either hand ; &ni over, besides, behind ;
np6c in addition, moreover ; napd besides, close by ; aid apart.
So ndpa, Em, ENI when used with ellipse of elpl: e.g. n6pa
8' 6NAp the man is here.
2. Tmesis. Verbs compounded with prepositions are fre-
quently found with the preposition separated from the Verb
by one or more words: e.g. 6n6 acxero auced and promised
hire (ibraXero). The term r/yfots, severance, is so far mislead-
ing that it seems to imply that a compound verb has been
divided, whereas ''the usage represents a stage in the formation
of Compound Verbs at which the meaning of the Preposition
had blended into the meaning of the compound, but the place
of the Preposition was not yet fixed (Monro.)
3. The following Compound Prepositions are found: daypl
nepi, no-np6, aia-np6 a-, -K,nap-4s, nepi-np6, 6n-4K. In these
compounds the second part does little more than add emphasis;
the first governs both the meaning and the construction.

34. Prepositions with Nouns
The following are specially Homeric uses-
6Nd (1) with Dat. : duN CKtinTpcp on a staff; (2) with Gen.
(three times in Odyssey, but with nv6s only): bN NHbC &Bkcero.
bid is used in a local sense with Ace. (in Attic with Gen.
only): ait N6KTa ui.aINaN through the dark night.
xaKrd means not only do won from (Kar' oipavoe), but also
down on, down into: KaCT xeorNbC BaMuTa nAiac down on the
ground; Korr' 6 eaXuo.N KXUTr' & uc a m9ist was s8hed over
his eyes.


jer6d is used with Dat., meaning (1) between, in; as uer&
xepciN: (2) anmwg, as uierb NHUCIN.
nap6 and &ni (the latter also in Attic poetry) are used with
the Dat. with Verbs of Motion (see 30. 2).

35. Improper Prepositions
The following is a list of Improper Prepositions, i.e. Adverbs
used with a case. The beginner will find it worth while to
learn them once for all.
(a) With the Genitive.

grxi war, close to
aNeU, iNeuee(N) without, apart
8NTa, d~NTrN facing, before
&NTIKpi over against, straight
Arrdc, Arrdie near
EYNEKa mi account of
d6c far from
Kl6TCpes on either side
9KHTI by favour of
&Kr6c, sKTroe, EKTOOe(N), EKTOC-
ee(N) outside of, far from,
apart from
ENBON, ENBoee(N) within

gNepee beneath
oNTOC, ENTOCeC within
leUc straight for
AeccHr6c betwixt
u.cqpa until
N6cyp aloof from, apart from,
Snlcee(N) behind
n6ilN back from
nkpHN beyond, over against
np6ce(N), n6poleC(N) in front
TAFXE, THX6eh far from
Unalea out from under, side-
ways from under

(B) With the Dative.
nua at same time with 6u&c together with, equally
uirba together with with
6saoO together with
(r) With the Accusative.
cYcou within (and with Gen.) &ec to (once).

The Pronouns, when accented, are emphatic; when unac-
cented, they are enclitic and unemphatic. Note that go, ol, 1,


when accented is Reflexive ; when unaccented it is equivalent
to the unemphatic at-roD, aibr, abTrv.

37. 6, fi, T6
In Homer this Pronoun is not used (as in Attic) as the
Definite Article, though it sometimes comes very near to this.
It has three distinct uses.
1. Substantival: rThuN ari o0 Xi6co her I will not let go;
arrbc Kal TOO B&pa the man and his gifts; EToc 6 TbN ncbiolo
alchKCTO while he chased him over the plain ; aua rTotcl together
with them; AK TOTo from that time (cp. Attic 7rpb 7To before this
With an adversative particle it frequently marks a change
of Subject (an use surviving in the Attic 6 /v .. 6 6 ) ; but
it is also used to contrast two acts of the same person: e.g. TOO
ush tapee, 6 t ACOKON . BeBSiKci him he missed, but he
smote Leukos.
2. Relatival: 'An6dAcoN m Na~ln, TbN AdKxoOWC TCK ) AHT6
whom Leto bare.
Obs.-the Ace. Neut. T6 is frequently used adverbially with
the meaning on which account, wherefore, therefore, T6 Kai
KIaiouca TrhHKad wherefore I ine weeping.
3. Attributive. In this use the Pronoun is followed by a
Noun or Adjective which defines it: TOO Baciahoc 6nHNndc,
him, the king untoward, where the order shews that TOO couhl
not be the article ; oTc B' 6 ripcoN ucITCIN, among whomsoever
an old man (strictly he that is an old man) is present : here
rkpoa explains 6 (quasi 6 ylpwcv ~) which would not be clear
without it, and we have the origin of the generic use of the
Attic Article; f4 W' 6MKouc' &ua TOTci rUNh KxiN she, the woman,
went; seiccN B' 6 rdpcoN he, the old man; with adversative
particle marking a contrast : yohxKbc HN, xcoXbc B' repoN n6Ca,
Tcd a ofl &cIW, bandy-legged was he, and lame of one foot, and
then his shoulders, etc. ; oi ipicroi they, the bravest; with
numerals marking contrast: Tobc U~N T&capac aCTbC ExcoN
&TOrOa &ni p6rrmi, Td) a b 6' AiNefq b iken four he kept .
but the other two he gave to Aineias.


With this use, though precision in translation should be
aimed at as far as possible, it is sometimes necessary, in order
to avoid pedantry, to translate as though the Pronoun were
actually equivalent to the Definite Article of later Greek.

38. The Relative 8c, fi,
1. The Relative Pronoun is sometimes used as a Demon-
strative, an use which has survived in Attic, as in the phrase
A 8c, said he : e.g. iUH' 8c yiroi let not even him escape.
2. Note the following uses of the Neuters as conjunctions:
(a) 8, TC, 8nr (fr. OnrTS), for this, that ; in that ; because : e.g.
TapBlcac 8 ndri BSkoc dreading because (strictly for this, that)
the missile stuck; THXiuaxoN eaduazoN 8 eapcah&oc 6r6-
peueN they wondered at Telemachos for that he spake with
(B) 8, 8 Ts, 8Sn, meaning how that, that: e.g. eO Nd TOI oTSa
Kal aOTbc 8 uol a6poc bNed6' 6kXcea I know that it is my
doom; rw NCrCKCON 5 T' 8NaKic EHN knowing that she was no
3. The Relative Adverbs are used demonstratively with utn
and Ut: as 6r& iiN ... 6T& St at one time .., at another
time : Te E cc J.C N P' Zn"roNTo they twain meantime were


39. The Perfect and Pluperfect
The Perfect denotes a condition or state of things resulting
from an action. Accordingly, wherever possible, it should be
translated by an English Present ; and similarly the Pluperfect
by an English Imperfect. The following examples will furnish
hints for doing this. (Notice that the Perfect Active of
Transitive Verbs is very commonly intransitive.)
Baico kindle: SQbHe is ablaze
bpNumi stir: Spcope is astir
hKXuuw destroy : 5acoha I am undone


TAKCO melt : TtrHK 1I am pining away
8aKpifo weep: aeah Kpucal thou art bathed in tears
nTonaua fly : ncnoTIacraI are on the wing
BodhoXai wish: npoBfBouXa I prefer
8pKIO.al look : aaopxic is gazing
Te6xco make: TrTUKTOI is (by being made)
aucpouai divide: Lmuope has for his share
IK&Nco labour: KKMHKa I amn weary
Participles, KCKOTHc C in wrath ; TCnIHC vexed ; nepuXar-
JiNoc on the watch.
Verbs expressing sustained sounds are usually in the Perfect:
rtrrwN shouts; B6Bpuxe roars; aEruxKbc bellowing; KEKrHrcbc
crying out.

40. The Imperfect

The Imperfect is by Parataxis (see 46) constantly used in
Homer to describe a concurrent subordinate action, when
in later Greek a subordinate clause or participle would be em-
ployed: e.g. qiux&c "Ai'i npoiaIpcN ] ApcbcoN, afrrobc U bAc6pia
TeOxe KiNECcIN 'the plague sent forth the souls of heroes to
Hades, while it made themselves (i.e. their bodies) a prey' ;
&c 8pa cpcoNIcac aKCe sipoc 6prup6HhON, I A'ac &e zcocrapa
afiou 'he gave a sword while Aias gave (in exchange) a

41. The Subjunctive1

1. In Principal Clauses the Subjunctive has the meaning
of a Future. For emphatic statements, such as threats or
1 Prof. Goodwin (Moods and Tenses, Appendix I ed. 1889) has sbewn
that the old theory, by which will and wish were regarded as the original
meanings of the Subjunctive and Optative respectively, is probably in-
correct. In his view the original sense of J0BO is I shall go, that of JA0o6j,
I may go; the latter being a weaker form for expressing future time "
than the former. The meanings let me go (hA0w) and may I go (EAoyu)
he regards as secondary, not original. It cannot be shewn that the
Subjunctive carries an expression of the speaker's will in any degree in
which the same may not be said of the Future Indicative.




prophecies, it seems to be preferred to the Future Indicative.
Examples are-
bdcouai elc 'At'ao Kal AN NeK6eCCI qaCEINCO
I will go down to Hades and shine among the dead (a threat
uttered by Helios).
oO r6p nCo Troouc TboN 6Niipac, oOeb YbMcal
I never yet saw . nor ever shall see.
In this use the Mood may be "pure" (i.e. without a
particle), as in the examples just given, or it may take Ke(N) or
6N : e.g. ar& 5e KeN aiTrbC XCOiu in that case (KEN) I will take
her myself; OOK 8N TOI xpalcuHj shall surely not then (Sn) avail.
On the use of KE(N) and BN in Principal Clauses see 44 A.
2. Hortatory. The Hortatory use of the Subjunctive
(heco let me go, EecosieN let us go) is apparently a derivative
from the preceding. The use is so familiar that.examples are
3. In Subordinate Clauses Homer uses aT, el, Ter, 6nn6Te, 5c,
cc etc. with the "pure" Subjunctive ; especially where, as in
similes, the point is the expression of the verb-notion pure and
simple, apart from all circumstance. Examples are-
&c B X&coN AN Bouci eopoNb Av a0x(LNa 6zi.
As a lion breaks a neck.
El aC TIC ai[ya eOcON ANI oTNonl ndNTce, I TRCcoual
If some god again shall wreck me.
oTc 6 ripcoN jer1ecIN
Those whom an old man is among.
Contrast this with the Attic use, where 6N is required, as in
d6N (i SN), fiN, iTaN etc.
Ke(N) and SN when employed in Homer (no doubt by a later
use) add a meaning of their own, on which see 44 B.
4. In Final Clauses KE(N) or SN is usually added with cbc,
but rarely with the more indefinite Sncoc.
Obs.-5-ppa, gcoc, and ec 8 (Ke) are-
(a) Temporal, meaning so long as: e.g. )pp' e&edHroN so
long as ye wish ; eic 8 K' 6UTvW4h AN crTIOecCI JlNHj so long as
breath remains.
(B) Final, meaning until, to the end that : e.g. 6NIXNeCON
VOL. 1 d


eetl euncabo, Scpa KEN eOipi he runs on tracking until he find;
etc 8 Ke TK&JLCop I 'IXou eipcoueN until we find the goal of lios ;
6tqp' e6 rrNCaCKIJc to the end that thou mayest know. The
insertion of KE(N) and SN is governed by the meaning of those
particles, for which see 4 B.

42. The Optative

The Optative shews kinship with the Subjunctive in that
it refers primarily to Future time; it differs from it in being
less forcible. Whereas ThYo means I shall see, lioliHN means
I may see. Thus primitively the Mood expresses Concession,
and in this use hovers between Concession of Possibility
(Potential use) and Concession in the sense of Permission.
Side by side with this primitive use by which boiumHN means
I may see, but apparently derived from it, we find the Mood
used to express a Wish: ISoIaHN means may I see. It is from
this latter use, regarded as the primitive one (but see p. xlviii,
footnote), that the Mood has taken its name.
The following are examples:-
1. Concessive or Potential.
ed a0 ncoc T6~c naci pihoN Kxa Abb rENOITO,
A Tro0l N oiKOITO n6Xic l[piduolo SNaITOC,
aCrnc 'AprefiN 'EXNHN MeNA~ OC aroiTO
And if, again, this should be welcome and pleasing to all,
King Priam's city may remain a home and Menelaos may take
Argive Helen back again.
of B' S Xoi pihdmHTa Kai SpKia nmcrh Tau6NTec
NCioITE TpoiHN &piBchXaKa, T01 U NECOC0ON
And the others pledging friendship with oaths sincere-ye may
dwell infertile Troy, and let them return.
Observe how the Optative is here balanced by the Imperative
NmcecoN and in the following example by NONTraI in its future
ol ;' SXXo qcpX6THTU Kal SpKia nicrb rad6NTec
Nalioim N TpoiHN mpIB a Kaxa, T01 U N40NTaC
We may dwell in Troy, and they will return.


AXfr' piaoc, Tp6aac as Kai aCOTiKa bioc 'AxiAeic
acreoc zeX6ceie
Cease from contention, and (for aught I care) Achilles may
drive forth the Trojans.
oi ui.N r6p TI KOKCTEpON iXAo ndeou
For surely naught worse can I suffer.
This use is generally marked by the insertion of KE(N) or 6N,
as in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences (see 44).
Obs.-The Potential Optative is found in Homer four times
in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences, and more frequently in
Potential Sentences without any protasis, referring to past time.
KGi N6 KEN Em an' dn6 1TO UiNa hNap&N AINciac,
ei J lip' b ii N6Hnc Albc euraT`p 'AppobiTH
Aineias would then have perished, had not Aphrodite per-
ceived. (Cp. E 388, P 70, a 236. Probably P 399.)
TuaetaHN B' 0K iN rNOiHC noTrpoICI ArcTiH
Thou wouldst not have known to which side the son of Tydeus
Homer also habitually uses the Optative (not the Impf. Indic.)
in the apodosis of Conditional Sentences referring to present
If any other had told that dream, we should (now) say, etc.
The Optative with KE in such cases expresses merely what
could happen, without any limitations of time except such as
are imposed by the context; and according to the limitations
thus imposed we translate such optatives (with more exactness
than they really possess) either as past or as future (Goodwin).
2. Hortatory.
JJHaB TIC aXXoc Eia TpcbcaN TTCo 6Nip-
KARp I TIC 0oi EnoTO repaiTcpoc
Let a herald accompany him.
In some cases it is difficult to decide between the Hortatory
and the Permissive sense.


3. Wish. Identical with the Attic use.
4. Request. This follows from the preceding.
TOUT' eYnoic 'AxiXfi
Say (I wish thou mayst say) this to Achilles.
Or the use may be concessive : Thou canst say.
5. In Subordinate Clauses the usages are those of Attic, but
the Optative frequently takes Ke(N) or aN where BN is inad-
missible in Attic (see 44 B), and it is used indifferently
with the Subjunctive after primary tenses in the principal

43. The Infinitive
The Infinitive is the Dative of a Verbal Noun. This is clearly
seen in the following examples, which will help to explain many
others: BSKc B' BraIN gave for leading away ; BA B' IkNal took a
step for going ; ni ne Nceceal sent for returning ; ineuIp iAHCaN
'Axaiol ala eceua shouted assent to reverencing; Ynnot [ arrbc
9caN npoyurc~N were near for escaping with; Eppir' 6NTiBoh fcai
shudders at meeting; &nel oUi ccpi eoc xpdac ob l ciBHpoc
I xXaK6N NacxtCOeal their flesh is not stone or iron for with-
standing (so as to withstand) bronze; eiemN Tcxdic swift for
44. KC(N) and N 1
The origin of Ke has not been certainly traced. From its
uses in Epic poetry, which are our only guide, it appears to
have been originally a demonstrative particle meaning there,
and may accordingly be identical with the ce in the Latin
hic-ce, illi-c, etc.
The etymology of u6 is equally obscure ; but in Homer its
meaning and use are practically identical with those of KE.
The fact that it is used much less frequently in Homer than Kx
1 Before reading this section the student should grasp clearly tlhe
original meanings of the independent Subjunctive and Optative, as given
in 41 and 42.


(the proportion being 1 to 4), but afterwards completely super-
seded that particle, points to its being of later origin. Exam-
ples of both words are given below indiscriminately.
A. Definite Use.-The meaning is there, in that ease, under
the circumstances, then, so, now,-all equivalents of the primi-
tive signification.
1. With Subjunctive in apodosis.
[Ci 8 KE J.L c&OOCIN,] &rd) ~i KeN aGIrT b oalC
'Then I will take her.'
2. With Future Indicative (KE not infrequently, BN once).
6W' Ye', irtn 8 Ki TOI XapIrcoN ilaN 6nhorsp6hcN

'Nay go, and then I will give thee one of the younger
&o bt i K T'ra0Ta uehAC E ra, 5cppa Te hccco
'My own care shall these things now be, that I may ac-
complish them.'
aTrbN W' aN n6mu 6N ue K6NEC npchTyCI euP)CIN
'And myself then last of all dogs shall tear.'
3. With Optative.
(a) In Potential Sentences (without protasis). Whereas
the 'pure' Optative yaiHN means I may (might, can, could,
would, should) say,' a vague general statement (see 42), (aiHN
KcN means 'I may there say,' the particle serving to limit the
statement to a particular act or particular circumstances of
saying; compare our use of there in 'there might be objections.'
It is unnecessary, and would generally be clumsy, to reproduce
the particle in translation.
nerrT6 KEN a1Tre (piyoN naTia KXaiolcoa
'Then thereafter thou couldst weep for thy son' (a par-
ticular weeping).
nXMcioN 6&XARhcoN Kia KeN aiolcTe6cciac
'The rocks are near each other; and thou mightest shoot an
arrow across.'

(B) In the apodosis of Conditional Sentences.
&A' e'Y ol TI nieolo, 76 KEN noAU KpblION ETH
'That would (then) be much better.'
4. With Imperfect and Aorist Indicative in Past Potentials
and apodoses of Conditional Sentences :-
on6 KEN TakacicppoNd nep 8boc eXeN
'Fear might have seized even the stout-hearted.'
KaI Nd Ke Tb TpiTON aeic &NCiTCIzNT' Ifn d ION,
el JrL K.T.k.
'And then they would have wrestled a third time, had not' etc.
Obs. 1.-With the Imperfect Indicative in such sentences, the
reference is in Homer always to past time ; never, as in Attic,
to present time. For reference to present time Homer uses the
Optative ; see 42.
Obs. 2.-As the Indicative cannot express potentiality, its
use in Past Potentials is, strictly speaking, incorrect, and was
no doubt a later development (that is, a substitution for the
Past Potential Optative of the earlier ]anguage,-see 42. 1.
Obs.), adopted for its convenience. Accordingly the account
of Ke given under 3 (a) above may be taken to apply here also.
B. Indefinite Use.--In subordinate clauses the particles
mark indefiniteness of time, occasion, circumstances, manner,
etc. This transition, at first sight surprising, finds an exact
parallel in the Latin olim and quondam, which originally mean-
ing at that, or a certain (former) time (olim, like KE, must first
of all have meant there), came to mean 'at a former time,'
'formerly'; 'some time' or 'some day' (future); 'at any
time,' 'at times,' 'often.' Cp. Verg. Aen. 4. 627 aunc, olim,
quocumque dabunt se tempore vires, 'now, some day, whenever,'
etc.; Lucr. 6. 109 carbasus ut quondam magnis intenta theatris I
dat crepitum, 'as at times,' etc.; Plaut. Asin. 3. 3. 128 quid olim
hominist salute melius ? 'what is at any time better than health ?'
Compare also the colloquial use of hodie=ever, at all, in Plautus
passimm), Her. S. 2. 7. 21, Verg. A. 2. 670 numquam omnes
hodie moricmur inulti; and the indefinite meaning of the
adverb so in who-so, whosoever, when-so, whensoever, etc.


1. The following example, where &N refers to a time at once
definite and indefinite, marks a half-way point in the transition
(ep. Verg. A. 4. 627 quoted above):-
kcral xtBN Br' nl afOTe (piHN r auKcmniba eYni
'Surely there will be a time when some day (5N) he shall
again call me his darling of the bright eyes.'
Cp. 0 111 where 6nn6re replaces r' iN :-
UcccraI Ai cc IC aeiXH A utcN tiuap
6nn6Ts TIC Kal E eTo "Ape iK euK.6N .HTral.
2. The particles mark indefiniteness of time or occasion with
5rh, 6n6Te, Anef, cre, pa,pa Ecoc (eYcac, etoc), eic 8, Relative
Pronouns, and ei. The meaning is upon occasion, at any time,
In this use the particle practically adheres to the adverb,
conjunction, or relative, changing when into whenever, when at
any time, who into whoever, etc. In some cases, especially with
ei, it is difficult to say whether the particle is temporal or
modal; see (3) below.
cbCc S' & N iNSp' &TH nUKINh AX6B0
As when at any time a grievous curse' etc.
Kcppa KEN "EcKTrc KAfTa
'So long as ever Hektor shall lie.'
'Until (sometime) I shall come.'
oba' iXlON Enoc icceral, TTIr KEN ETln
'Whatso-ever he shall say.'
eT nap rdp K' eX6CI 'OXArnmoc
'If ever the Olympian shall wish.'
Contrary to the Attic use, the particles are used also with
the Future Indicative and Optative in protasis-
TEC KAN TIN' nizd6peXoc x6koc YKOI
'Whenever fiercely swelling wrath seized any man.'
&acc rap aippoN reC Io i kpla6xeNac Ynnouc,
8cTrI Ke TrXaH
'I will give . to the man whosoever may dare.'


dtc 8 Ke uol u6ha n6NTa naTkp 6noa&cceai ENa
Until her father shall give back.'
cY K' ei C' 69ppaiNONTa KIXICOJ.aI
'If ever again I shall catch thee raving.'
3. The particles mark indefiniteness of manner, quality,
degree, with Modal Adverbs, Relative Pronouns, and el. The
meaning of eY KE (EiN) is if at all, if in any wise, if haply, and
so simply if. This appears to be the commonest use of dY KC.
For the transition to modal indefiniteness compare the modal
use of nod, n6c, noTr e.g. P 366 o08 KC qaiHc I oiTe aIOT'
AtAIoN c6oN E LENcaI OaTe CECXNHN, 'nor wouldst thou have
thought that there was still sun or moon at all (Trard).'
(a) With Subjunctive in protasis-
cbc aN LrCtN cYnco, neiecbaeea ndNTEC
'As (howsoever) I shall say, let us all agree.'
'Taking the form, of whatever kind it be, wherein ye shall
have seen him when asleep' (of Proteus).
'If in any wise they shall not give.'
(8) With Future Indicative and Optative in protasis-
eY K' 'AxitRoc LrauoO nmcrN raTpoN
'If haply dogs shall tear.'
EY KEN edNrT6N rE 6puroluEN
'If in any wise death should not be our fate.'
(r) Here belongs the use with ci in sentences like the
following where there is an ellipse of to try, to seek, to find out,
or the like :-
iceXbN rh'p All xeTpac aNacxiueN, aY K' cXEiCHI
'It is good to lift the hands to Zeus, (to try) if haply he
will have mercy.'
6Xa' afir', aY KEN ncoc ecopAEOIEN uTac 'AxaC&N
'But come, if haply we can arm' etc.


4. From the modal use after verbs of considering etc., as for
instance in
ypp6zcceal .. S nncoc KEN NfR6C TE C6qc
'To consider how in any wise thou shalt save the ships'
comes the
Final use of &c KE (aN) :-
6c KEN 'AxiXkAh c I b cpCON l rlpiduoIo Xdxy
'In order that Achilles may get gifts of Priam.'
4 a. 6c KC is many times used like nrrs in a generalising
sense, to mark that what is referred to is considered as belonging
to a class. The use is found with the Future Indicative, Sub.
junctive, Optative, and once (c 264) with a gnomic aorist.
oY K4 uc TIuAcouCI
'Men that will (such as will) honour me.'
qi6puax' 8 KEN nalCICI
'Drugs such as will allay.'
edS ean, ] 1 KEN . KOIt
'A storm such as may burn.'

5. In the statement of Alternatives (whether in independent
or subordinate clauses) Ke is found with fi in either or both
clauses. The meaning seems to be no more than to take a
case; it may be; possibly; haply ; perhaps. Indeed the force
of KE is so slight that the particle is sometimes scarcely
capable of translation.
ciAupoN A BoloicCN ined EEa 'InnacibcN . .
fi KEN AdAc 6nb Soupi TunEic 6nb euu6N 61kccIc
'Either thou wilt boast over the two sons of Hippasos, or,
it may be, wilt lose thy life.'
rT& K ad' fi KEN EINe, xal Acc6Q1 N6c nep 6boio,
H Ka ue TeeNHUTaN WNI merdpoiciN EXeineN
'In that case he would either have stayed or have left me
dead in the house.'
The Kc after T& goes with E MuNe and eMcneN.


'Consider whether thou wilt save Aineias or leave him.'
&6X' Apico A.N ArcON, YNa lb6Tcc fi KE eONCO.IEN
A KEN &XEud6uNOI ed6NTON KaI KApa (ydpromeN
'In order that knowing we may either die or . escape
death,' etc.
The same use is found in b 692
1 T' &crI IKH eeiCON BaclirCON
As is the wont of kings; one man haply he (the king) wil)
hate, another perhaps he may love.'
6. To this head belong the six instances of KE following 4
in the same clause-
(a) In independent sentences:-
8c o0ir' N KEN "ApHC 6N6CaITo ulerEX AeN
oUrTE K' 'AeHNaiH (N 127)
'Which (phalanxes) neither haply would Ares have de
spised, nor haply Athene' (supposing the case of their en
countering them).
col B' 8N &irc nounbc Kal K( KXUTbN "Aproc IKOiJUHN,
&~tUKi4C &N NHI eoA A nezbc 6smapT&ON (0 437).
As escort to thee I would go even haply (to take a conceivable
case involving great devotion) to Argos.'
of W' KXaxoN Trobc N KE Kal 4eeXoN caiTrbc kAOai,
r~icapec, alTap &a n6unToc Juert ToicIN aXruLHN (i 334)
And those drew the lot whom I should myself have haply
wished to choose' (K : in the case of my having decided to
choose assistants instead of drawing lots).
(B) In subordinate clauses :-
cpp' aN auN KEN 6pq 'AraALAJuNONa noumiNa \acaN
e0NONT' &N npoJSLXOICIN ANaipoNTa crixac 6Nipb2N,
T69p' 6NaxcopeiTCO . . ..
aflrdp ind K' K.T.A. (A 187)
'So long as in any wise he shall see.'


9pp' aN AJN KEN b~dpaT' N ApIIONilCIN 6pdpIH,
T6pp' auToO eoN'c Kai TXrrCOGua i irea n6CXO)N'
aOrTp nkN B K.T.L. (e 361)
'So long as in any wise the timbers shall abide in the
5~p' 8N "LN K' 6rpobc YOULN KaI Epr' 6Nep&inooN,
T6ppa ....
aJTbp &nkN nO6hoc K.T.X. (z 259)
'So long as in any wise we shall go by the fields.'

C. Exceptional uses (and others apparently so).
1. Once, X 110, KE occurs with the Infinitive. The passage
belongs to B. 5-
Auol a T6T' aN no~i KipbION eYH
&NTHN f 'Axtfla KaTaKTEINGNTa Ndeceal
Ai KEN CIT6N 6A&eai &UjKelic nop n6XHoc
'Or (on the other hand) myself to perish.'
Obs. In 1 684 we have a solitary instance of 6N with in-
finitive; it is the common Attic construction in oratio obliqua.
2. In r 138 (and 255, where the line is repeated) we have
Ke apparently with a Participle-
But as Tr is a pronoun, Ks can be separated from the
participle: translate, 'to one of them, when he has conquered,
thou shalt then (Ke) be called,' etc.
3. o 88,
04H MJN no X)mN T76(pC &nap&N &NTCB6dHCUC
Apc6ON, rTC KdN nOT' 6nopeu uANou BacAiXoc
'Whenso, after some king's death, the young men gird
themselves, and make them ready for the meed of victory.'
Here ZCbNNUNTat is probably a subjunctive (see on T 32),
and drevTrvovTra should be changed to -tomral.
In M 41, where the indic. O-TpieraL occurs after r7' dv, we
may read, as Monro suggests, TT' tNCoNT for 6T' &v tV re.


In E 484 Tr should be read (with a few Mss.) for Ke.
4. For 526 see note ad loc.
5. b 546,
A rdp .IN zco6N re KlXACeal, A KCN 'Op~cTHC
KTEINEN 5no Here we may either regard A KEN as corresponding to 4,
and class under B. 5; or KEN KTETNEN may be a past potential,
'Orestes may have slain him.' Cp. Goodwin, M. and T. 245.
6. Z 281, &c Kg of a0ei I raTa x6Noi. As KE has no place
with an opt. of wish, we must correct to U8.

45. Some other Particles

ipa (apocopated &p and 5a) means accordingly, so, then, it
seems. It introduces a natural sequel of something preceding,
or in alternatives gives a slight emphasis to one: e.g. eYT' apa
S.. clTe, whether, as may be, . or. It is frequently in-
capable of direct translation.
8 frequently marks the Apodosis; it is then called 8 in
8~ (the unemphasised form of fi-bH, Lat. iam) is a temporal
particle meaning now, now at length, by this time: e.g. And el
when now ; NON a~ now at last; BA T76T a strong then (lit. then,
at that time) ; otirco Ui thus now or then ; noXAol l many now ;
T6be 2i nlunlTON Troc this is now the fifth year; PHtrepoI . .
b84 eceC inaIpiuEN easier will ye now be to slay.
el (aT), an exclamatory particle : el 8' ire now, come; or come
now; go to. It occurs with wishes alone and in EYes, el r6p.
A (A4) means (1) either, or; (2) than; (3) A (Ai). .A (Ad)
have the meaning of EYre .. eTe, sive . .sie (seu).
A-iudN . A-b means both . and: A7d and 18o standing
alone mean and.
eAN gives a mocking emphasis (like 8irov, credo), I suppose,
I trow: e.g. ol eGN JLIN n6XIN aOTIC A6NCel euubc drkNcop not
again, I trow, will his bold spirit move him.
nad, 5 IN, eN are all forms of the same particle. They


give lively emphasis. Sometimes the translation must be yet,
howbeit, when a clause adversative in itself is introduced : e.g.
oii <(HCIN iBcIN' fi UkN TpSo& re KkONTal howbeit the Trojans
truly bid him.
N6 (the Attic vdv) gives a slight emphasis: Tic Nu who,
oON in Homer does not mean therefore or then (inferential).
It merely gives a slight emphasis and may frequently be
translated by withal: e.g. o5N when now. It is frequent (as in Attic) in the combinations
EIT' OGN .. ETT, OiT' OON . oiTe.
nip gives emphasis. Though frequently appearing in Con-
cessive clauses, it never of itself means although.
Te is used (1) like the Latin que as a copulative conjunction;
(2) it marks a statement as general, and is accordingly frequent
in maxims, proverbial sayings, general statements, similes.
In this use it is incapable of translation. For its generalizing
force compare the Latin que (with which it is identical) in
ubique, quicumque, namque.
ToI marks an assertion which is common knowledge with the
hearers or which they are expected to admit: surely, we know,
thou knowest, it will be admitted, the Latin profecto : e.g. AIuic
rTO ncaT6pcoN utr' &dEINONEC eOx6juee' eTNai we, thou knowest,
boast to be ; AriTri TOt apUT6nUoc ur' 6&eiNCON At BliHpN by skill .
we know, the wood-cutter is far better than by force.

46. Parataxis

We frequently find in Homer two co-ordinate clauses where
logically one is subordinate to the other. This is called napd-
TaSic, co-ordination. Examples are :-
rTHXe6coca qpdei, 'apoc B' nrlrIrNCTdI &pH
The leaves that be the wind scattereth on the ground, and the
forest buddeth and putteth forth more again, when (lit. and) the
spring cometh on.


ay Kx' aE~cH
lfcru Te Kal Tpc&oN 6K6xouc Kal NIin~a TdKNa,
aT KEN TuBtoc UfiN 6n6cxij 'Ihou ipfc
If so haply she may pity ., if she may keep the son of
Tydes from llios.
Here we should have had in later Greek drooxoDa, by keep-
ing away.
of BA NON EaTra carj, n6deuoc Bs ninaural,
They now are seated in silence, for the battle hath ceased
See also 40.



47. Hiatus

With regard to Hiatus, which is frequent in Homer, the
following facts may be noted.
1. A long vowel or diphthong in thesis preceding Hiatus is
generally shortened: e.g. KhXei eu I AprupdTos': xpucEc I 6Ni
ca~nTpcq (with synizesis of -4)) : but CIuNeOE- eI norT Troi.
2. A long vowel or diphthong in arsis remains long: e.g.
A uCTpjci 4NI oTYKc : i eC |I nOTE.
3. Hiatus is often accounted for by loss of the digamma:
e.g. AucrTpcp ANi oYxcp (FolKc() : 'ArauCu.NONI iHNaNe (aFas-)

Obs.-The principle of shortening a long vowel before a
vowel following works also inside a word. Thus we get YXaoc
and YTAoc, MiHN and XHN, BdBXiial (a dactyl) ; and many bye-
forms, as x6AKeoc (XdXKELOE), 6ho6c (dhot6s), dCKia (dKEna),
Dae&c (3a e(Es).

48. Lengthening of Short Syllables
1. A short vowel is always lengthened before initial p, and
in certain words before X, jt, N, c, 8: e.g. &nli PHrjuiNoc:


noXXh XICCOuiNH: KaT&uL EPoTaN: INI Muerd6pcp: vrPKaGrT TE
cdpKlac TE : KaTb& eINjoC (for FCIeNO6C). These examples are
but a few out of a large number.
2. The group of words referred to above also produce a similar
lengthening by doubling the initial consonant in Compounds and
after the Augment: e.g. Ano-ppfrrrco: 4ii-uuM HC: 6rd-NNI-
aoc: Am-c cewo: Ipplupa: ~Mccero: iMbcN (also written
gaeceN, though scanned - .).
3. A short syllable in arsis is frequently lengthened,
especially at a pause in the verse: e.g. &Kntpcal npl nxolo
n60iN, es F' oYKaW' iKceai: xepciN On' 'ApreicoN ypelu N6c iN
naTpial ralf.
4. Besides the instances given above and in 1 and 2 the
following variations may be noticed. Homer has aNAp and
aNAp: *Apec "Apec together beginning a line: bNona and
oiUNOja: cpXe KaCIrNHTe beginning a line. There are many
others. Notice also the following words, where in Attic the
vowel is short, but long in Homer: Tcoc, KaX6c, 9e0NCO, ENCO.

49. Elision
1. The -at of the Verbal Endings -unai, -raT, -NTai, -ceai may
be elided: e.g. Bo)Xoju' trc: Anuiecer' c NdrKH :- npiN XGcace'
2. The oa of uoi, coi, Tol is occasionally elided: e.g. Kal a'

For further information on Homeric Versification see Prof.
Jebb's Introduction to Homer, Appendix 6.

PLATE II.-Fragment of a silver bowl found at Mykenai, and representing the
siege of a city.


Aompj. Mivts.

The poet ealleth upon the Muse to sing of Achilles' wrath.
Mivrv deiSe, Oed, II-XtOtdSew 'AXtXo?
ovXopievrv, pLvpl' 'AXaLoZ ? Xye' rOice7v,
S7oXXA,? 8' l 01jLov, *i(va', "A itvL 7rPpoia'rev
rIpwwv, avTov'~Ie 8E AXpa reDXxe Kvvecwat
ol~vol'i Te vracr, Ado 8' eTeXeLero /ovXTj,
o1A 8q' Ta "rpuira 8taae'TOT'r v dpiaoavre
'ArpetS'r8s e divat av8peOv ccal 8Go 'AX(X\es?.

How Chryses asking for his daughter receiveth a rough answer,
what followed thereon.

TI? T' dp a-owe BOe6v epSt& rvve77ie ad'effaaL
AnIoT Kcal AtZ~ vio'. o 'yp /3ao-oXyt XoXwOeB
voD-ov Ava a'TpaTOv wp-e Kaicajv, oXCcOVTO 8E Xa
ovvfxa TOP Xpaorr-v 'rip. Laev apriTrpa
'ATpei!'. o yap ?XOe 0oa ,? 6r v4a? 'Aratder
XVuo/Levoc; Te OvyaTpa dEpawv T' avrepeCia adrotvi
a-r-TLpar'T EXV ev XCpa'iv erc poov 'AroXXawvo
xpoa'-e Av' a-IcsTpy, Kal Xla'a6TO 'a dTa, 'AXatc

e'Trra Svwo, lcoo-7rTj ope Xaiv' 1,6
rpeOi8a re ical I al Xob eviCv'rtie 'AXatol,
v pJv O6eo' 80oev 'OXvpt7ra &/par' E'oZ)TeS
repoaat IIptdipOo 7rohtv, v 8' o'tca8' lic cOat
Sa S' eo Xvio-atTe dLXr'v Ta 8' cnrotva 8'Xec-at,,
;/aevot A(, viOv ic..PdXov 'A7roXXwva." 21
vOI' 'XOLt peV 7tna'es e'revO/'rjo-av 'Axatol
eta-Oal 9' lepfa ical iyXaa 8eX9a T Arotva
"' obi 'ArpeidS, 'AAyappevov& ~ijvSave Ov;a ,
KaKc aZo et, iparepov 8' E7ri p Oov 'TreXXev
e, a-e, 'Yov, IcolXy-cv eyO) 7rapa vravot ircyei' 26
'rv 8170voVT' vcr'Grepov ai~rV iovra,
vP roi o1 Xpaiao.y Oa-Kcr)rTpov icatl Te/pa 6eoTo.
8,' eyo ov Xto-o' 7rplv /ujV cal y4opa? ETretCwt
E-Ep, Mi o'ic e'v "ApyEL, r77X~'. 7rawTp1 30
-bv errotXoPleVv cal e'ov XE o aVTI7Or6oav.
L' tot, /frij L' epe9te, a-awrepo09 If vereat."
&T k'4ar', ~'Secorev 8' ydpcpv Kal deflre'Oo T BOMp,
8' aKe'iv rapa Ova '7roXvbXoiol3oto OaXdaro-aii.
XXc r' er' r arvaveve ic'p mv ipaO o yepato? 35
r6\XXovt AivacKTt, rbv jlVKico/po T~ce AR)77(
DI fuev, apyvporo', N Xpvio-pr A cpO/3ep ca
Xai re a9O']v Teve'8od re lot va'a dr- ,
v0ev, el roTE Tot XaIevr r' e v7ov 'pepfa,
8~ rorTe' ricaTa ~iriova ti7pL' etcya 40
vpwv Oj alyov, r-8e /ot i pi'rvov ffle'op
retav Aavaot etA Sdcpva aoiZat p/Xeo-rotv."
How Apollo dealeth pestilence amid the host.
oF -ar' eivXoievo;, r0o 8' C',cXve Go0o0 'ArdoX-

8e KcaT' ObXVl'Lroto Icapivov Xwopevo, xI~p,



TOw' )/Aoto eXwv er lp7ypefea re fap'Tpnv. 45
'chXay/av 8' ap' arTro J7r' uaPv XwopVoo,
abvrov icvilfevTo- 6o 8' e VVKT' eoucc. -
'ET' eC'rre arT' avveve vewv, PeoT S 8 v iCe' ,.
8e tv 6B i cXayyi ryver' apyvpeo 3 p3oio.
ovpa cLev P pToV e~o6X ocal tXva apryov, 50
avTrap treoT' abotoi- )/Xo? de ue\4c ,
PdaXX' alet 86 7rvpat veircVv x aovro Oape4al.

On the tenth day of the pestilence Achilles summonA h an assembly
of the host.
evvzjtiap pev ava a-rparbv (yXero otcXa 8eoo,
7r SecdaTr 8' dyop v8e xaX o-qTr6o Xabv 'AXtXXe?'"
T7 y "a4p enri, peo-1 Oiqie OBe I evicLevov Hpi1 55
Ktr6eTo yap AavaYw, ST& A, p/ ov 0YjicovTa paro.
ol 6' dreL ov 'yepOev 0 epeev Te yeVovTO,
Trot-i 8' avo'rcdvow 04 'aroa; a c~I 'AXeXXe't
"'Arpet8n, vvv a& rdXtv 'rhXayXe'vTra oGw
a* k7rovoo-T; LY,', ej ceev OBdvard ye fvyo/Jev, 60
el 87p 0!o 6Xef/6O ree Sapay eal Xot/ o 'AXatoi9.
d1X' aye vra IJaVTv epelo/EY 2 lep ja
SicaKl ove 'orwoXov, ical yp 7' T vap edc Av do- c-v,
8o Ic' efir rOT TOW-ov eXwo-aTo Ioiy8ov 'AnroXXwv,
et T' ap S 7' evXoXirj e'M'TTpEi/peTa et 0 eaTrOp,/38,
'I v o6
at icev or apvwv ,cvwrf9 aly5w v re oeteov 66
)o a6vraaa tivLL a dro X^ Loyov apdwat.

Kalehas heweth the cause of the god's anger, and declareth that the
plag will not cease until Chryseis be given up.
To e S y' w9 elir( v IcaT' iatp' fero, Trol't 8' av-

K"XY Eeoeaopt'l8y, oLvoW7rowv 86' ptsa'Tro,


oby 8 rTd T' 7dova T 7LT' eo-7-eva 'rpo T eovTa, 70
/cat vrijeao' +yjo-aT' 'AXativ "IXtov e~a'o
&iv Sah avToaTvv.yv, TviV o 7Trdpe 4oFipos 'ArOXXwov
Si0tv e'u dqpove'v 'dyopirj-aro Kal pjETEIrev
" 'AiLXei, IceXeal peL, SkcioLe, pv~o-aoa9at
Amvtv 'A7ronXXovov, KcaT le/3eeTao aivaIcTo 75
TOlyap eyov Epew, vb 8& a-v8Oo ical Iao(t aoora-ov
SePv LL Trp6jpaOv krea' ical Xepalv apjfetv.
7O/.otea pot7 rrpo
1dp odopat AvSpa Xvolaagev, 0o p/eya 7ravorwv
'Aptye v icparTeet ical ol wrel9ovTra 'AXatol.
cpelo-a-wv yap /3aaevx r STe XdaCeTat advp'l XEp r
et rep ydp Tre Xo ov ye cal avTfytp icaTw7rE'lp, 81
AXXla Te cal 1/eTro'iryev iveXt KOTOv, o5ppa TeXOaray,
ev T'reO-TLP e tOutZ. -b Si pao-aL, e fce oacao'ets."
rv 8' daraLpetpdO/ievo rpoa'e'4 aro8a ,cKq 'AXtX,-
" Oaproal-asq fdaXa el7r e Ae BaorInov, OT& oa'-0a- 85a
oF fia yap 'ArdXXnrwa SlditXo re KaXxav,
eiboevo, Aavaoao-t eoTrpowravr a aives,
o TL r 'tei5 iUVTO a ical drrl XOovl Sepxo evoto
a'o- ol Xy 'iraph vruv p/apelaqv Xetpa<' olroet
crviArdavTomv Aava&ov, ov' gv 'Aya/Apvro et7rrg, 90
8b viv oroXXov apItOTO9 'AXataiv egXe-at e vat."
ical TOTe 8 Odpoa-roe cKa' b'8Sa itavrt Ttq atiwv*
"0T a y) eXojS erLe a oa' 5 y T4 7 lS,1
" o 0r' dp' 5 Y' etymX iz? Oeras od0' t AXX' evec' Apr7Tlppo, 0 1v T'il 'Aeyap1,pvi
ovS' dTre'Xvre OvyaTpa Kal obvc AdreS4aT' a otva, 95
TrovveK' dip' aXye' e&'icev /cqPbLoo? '8' ITt 'reL.
ovS' 8 ye nrpitv Aavaocarcv deOcoa Xoy r< we ,
7rpl y 7'rO TraTpr l ipX, ojLEval eXtoirtSta ovplv
avrpta 7 dvadrotvov, dyewv 9' leprjv ecKaTop' i7 99
ed Xpvoa-'rv ore Kiv lC t r Xao-a-dtevot ireqrw tcer."

Agamemnon, albeit loth, will give up Chryscis, but threateneth to
take another's prize in her stead, though it be even that of

T ro7L 0 7' W el rv car' ap' ero, roOter 8' Av-
pwm 'Arpet8i; p e6Vpv KpeCwv 'Ayaievowv
ebvivevoY /e veoq 8' pfe'ya pivev a 'i t ,e'Xaivai
rTrrXavrT', 'oo-"-e 8 ol ruvpl Xa/pTreTowvTr eituC' v. 104
KcXXavTa 7rpCoroT-Ta Icdac' do-o/.ervo TrocrfEV7-e'
" p~ivT- ICaKeov, 0o1i 7rrT OTEr pLOt To Icpjyvov elrra'*
ale1 Tro Ta ieic do bIXa cpeoi /Lav~evEo-Oal,
ecA0bhv S' oVTe vT r7r A e 'ras; e'Tro oi;ve TeNo-'o'a?.
ical vvv ev Aavaoia-t Oorrpo'lrrev ayope es,
Cas 8 70TOW eKa a (Tev eKflc/p6Xo a'Xyea Tev'XeL, 110
o0vec' 6yo Ico "vpf Xpvro-i So?' Ayl' airoeva
06K WeOXov 84e aLOat,-- Ieel 7roX'b /poXopaL arvTv
o'icot e'Xtv. xea ya'p pa KXvratAvI'oTrpris rwpofe'-
KIovpLi8lv aX6oov, 6wel oiV 404v a&eT Xepelwv, 114
ov Uiea ob8e avrjv, or' ap Opevaq ore 7T e'pya.
axxa Kal 64 e'OE'Xo o80pevat 'raXw, el T r '' aipewov'
3ovXop' eyo" Xalov oa-ov eppevat I da7roXeo'at.
aT'rap o/po ye'paq arTLX' JotLdro-aT', oBpa pj otog
'Apyeitwv ay' pao'i-o 'vw, edreli o8& 'olice6v
XeVdo-ere 'yap T' 7 ye 'ravre, o' auo rypas e'pXerab
a\Xyh." 120
TOv 8' ~jeei3erT' 'reta To8dpK'rjF So 8o 'AXtXXeV'
"'ArpetS'1 KvicSSre, eXoicreavdwaTae rdvTov,
'r ov' yp Tro 8~ ovUct y'pa'v ,iefyd/aOvpo 'Axatol;
oUE8 7r roV 'i'8ev vvrn ia Kel/eva 'roXXd,
aEXXa Ta r ev ?roXiwv EferpdOo1eev, Trh 8e8acrae, 125
Xaobv 8' obK eirouce 'raXIXXoya TarT' e7rayelpetv.

aXXa o~-b jLev vvv Trv8e 6ew Trpoes, ardTp 'AXatol
TptTrXS TeTpaTrXy 7' A7roTwto'oev, at' KI Tro i Ze~u
s8 o-t 'irotv Tpoly vre yeov edaXa'rdat."
T7) 8' 7araIletj/3 0. ro 7Prpoaef7 ipelow 'AyaL/i.-
vov" 130
"'/ 8q 9O7T's, ayao'q 7rep 8ov, OeoetfiX' 'AXtXXeD,
KcXerTe vow, ewre ov 7rapeXeuo-eat o'8 pe 7rei-etev.
14 e'0XeX9, i6'p' av7o 6XyV yepa(, avTap e'C, a(vTw
gco-a b8evo ev ov, Kexeat 8i pe T'~Av' diro&oDval ;
XX' el pIv 8bo-ovoa-t ypa[' peyejOvpaot 'Axatol, 135
apo'avTre KaTa Ov1ov, o'w7- avivTa'rov Co-rat
el (8 ice /\ 8wo-crtv, dJyo 8 cerv avTO9 0Xuapat
) TebOv 2A Al1avTo iov ye'pa, 2 'O8voqo0
eo'wv 8 Icer KceXoXcdo-eTat, o'v Kceyv ic at.
dXV T r70o I.v rTav'ra fer-acfpaoojteo-Oa tcal abrtV, 140
viv 8' a'/e vra plXatvav dpv oacaoev e1 te Xa 8lav,
Ev 8' epeTaq e7rm8\e atyelpoliPev, de 8' dcaTOrp/3pv
OeIopep, av 8' albrv XpvU-7t8a KaXuirdppov
o3o!jev' el" 81 TV? aPXo? av p 3ovX?7l0pov o-'s w,
A A 'a 'I8opevebvy 8iZo 'OSvo-a-eov 145
Ie ao-, HIIeXEt'S 7rav7Twv eicrayXoraT' av8p ov,
ob'p' jpiv eicdepyov iXao-o-eas tepa pEa.

Achilles, in great wrath, chideth with Agamemnon, and threateneth
to leace the host and go back home.
rTO 8' ap' vLropa iSv 'irpoao-'0ir roSa? &;Kc;
" wtot, avat8el7v Y etre7fve, icep~8aeOfdpov,
7 ro1 Tot 7FO rorpOpov r reo-v w elit7Tat 'Axatuiv 150
1 d8v eXOelievas hav8pda'ov I71 d /ieOat ;
ogjyp eya Tpwdov 'velc' "Xvov altxprTawr
Se6po paX~c7ero6evoq, ETrel o02 T71 /io atiTto eb'otV*


ob ya'p TOW 7To' e aav 8/o0q 4ijao'av ovb'8 p6v
o8 7roT' ev (DOty 'i ptpwaKcL /3wraveipy 155
icap'rbv e'8?'ra'avT, e'relf j 'aXa 7roXXak' erav,
ovpea re a-KctoevTa OXao-aa' Te Xjeao-a-a
aXxa o-ol, w Ley' avaL&,e, atp' roropL6O, o'bpa ar
TtL/hv ApvVpevoi MerEXa) 0roi' re, KvvTra,
7rpob Tpwov" T&v oi T ieTraTpeiry- oS' aXe.yiert'
Kal 8r toL ye'pa av abrF9 ci~pi4atp e cr7a eibXEs, 161
to er7t roXXa' pLo'yi7a,;'8ocav Se .ot vte' Axasov.
ob /v I ol oi rOTe roov 'XOe yepa, o mr' AXatoo
Tpcov eirc'pocro-a' 6 vatopevov 'rroXieOpov"
iXXah Tb pUcv ~Xheov 7roXvdutcoq 7roXckobo 165
Xyepe? epal 8tirovo', '-ap 7v 'roTe 8ao~ o Zicrlrat,
o-o To yepaq -roXv pdelov,* c'o 8' 3Xlyov .Te flXov re
pXyo' lYmv E7r vifaw, eweli icE Ka/(O) Oi TroXe v.
vOv 8' e6t (i01i7v98', weTl 'oX r pov (epTov EorTv
o'ica8' 't-ev a-y Vwlvoir Kopovcrtv, o8e oa' oto 170
EvdS' aTL/foi eco& afevo KIcal 'TXOVTOV dcp;etv.

Agamemnon will take Achilles' maiden Briseis.
TOV 8' tiJtelper EiretTa ava av8pCov '~apeypvwv'
" fieye paX', e. 'TO Ovpo' dere o'r-vat, oiSe o e' yc ye
Xtcr'opat eJve/c' jeelo eveItv lrap eol ye cal
ot ice e T7fjo-ovcrt, LCdX;or'Ta & /rfTiera Zetv. 175
XBTOo- 8O ol o- crt 8torpee'rov /aactXjov'
alet 7yp To7t ptq T re irl 7roXe/pol Te /iXaL Tce.
el pdha icaprepodv e-cr, eO'i 7rov ooi 7r y' ESwev.
o'ica8' kI 0v v vrtVi ze ci tecal croZ? i7pototv 179
MvpyptS8ovearo- dvaarae, a'Oev 8' e'ye o~ic aXeyi)

8 IAIAAO A (i)
obi' HOo/pa KoT'ovTO"9 ,reiECXo'0 Se Trot wSe
n) (' dbatpeirat Xpvo~l'8a )oE#o, 'AlroXXwv,
T7V JLeV E-'y o-UyV V T Ey ical eIpolF eTapoLo-w
'rtTwI yco 8e .c' "lyw Bpto-yl8a KaXXcrcdpov
aTo'rS 10v KcKXtOarvSe, TO aov ye pay, o p' ev elf,6 185
ovaaov fepTepo e L aeO9e, O-rvyEr7 K cal aXXo
1cov eo't, a'orOat Kat o~Lotwo.iO7Levat avTi7Y.

Achilles is about to slay Agamemnon, but Athene stayeth him, and
counselleth him to yield.
6 C dbdro' HIIXXet~vr 8' a8 Xo,? yve', ev 86 ol ?rop
r 7eo-aErwv Xaoa~ oo-t B xdvS'xa jIepp/ptev,
7 O ye (d6Oa'-yavov fo epvo-adjevos? qrapa FtfmpoD 190
TOW70 /LV ApvaoT7j Ceev, o 8' 'ATpef( e'rv aplot,
fe Xhov )avaeterv eprf7TVeae TE Ovjioy.
eoV 6 TavW6 .wppaeve KaTa cpeva icatl caTa OvtIv,
9XKcTO 8' 6K Ico eofo yeeya l10os, 'X9e 8' 'A9Ojvl
ovpavo68ev 7rpob 7yp flce OEa \ XevKU vo' "Hp9i, 195
aJpw iAO&k) Ovliw Ofoe'ov-da re IKrc1780fI 7e e.
o-TF 8' 7retOev, !av09,; 86 icdKOp]7; eAe IltXeiwva,
otql cacvop.e'v, TLV 8 hXWv oi0 TVr dpaTo.
Od/tifo-ev 8' 'AxtXLe~, / ETr eTpaireT', aVLica
8' g'yvl
laXXca8' 'AOf]vavlrv Setv(i 8e ol 'oo-re g avOEv. 200
Kcal lu(V ovvo-aa errea 77Trepoeva ?rpoo-'iv8a'
" Trr'T abTr, alyoxotLo Atov TEico', ElirjXovaS ;
I 'va i/3ptv 2,S 'Ayap'o..vov o 'ATrpd'ao;
XX' e' TO 0 pec, TOb \ xaal reXeo-eOat l0
?y b7repo7rOXloyt rTa' ai' 7rOT OvIbOv oXeo-ry. 205
Tbo 8' a`Tre 7rpoo-eetre Oa 7ryXavt cirtt, 'AOrjv
XOov ey '7rav'covaoa TO oov IPvo', a'' ice 'rilat,
ovpavoOev -rp 0 8' /'' /ce ea XevxICXevoo; 'Hpfl,

atA ) O6,A/q OV/4w (OXehova-d7re. 1Co80/o1evr7 re.
AXX' laye Xjy' pS8os, f/i78' i`to, /Kiceo Xetpit 210
DaOX TOt e'7eo-Lt /E v Ovdeioov s E'-erat '7rep.
8E 'yap eCpEO TO' 8) Icat TETXeecJ'VOV co-rTat'
cal \ror ToT 7Tp' rp oo-aa 7rape-eraO -a dyXa' 8Spa
fI3pto; eiveic 278rcE Or 8' L'aOXeo, tredeo 8' qitv.
7-7v 8'A7ra1et/foLgevo Trpoo-'r7 r d8aas &6c', 'AylX-
iev' 215
1h V -Lev o-A'1repop v ye, Oea, e"Tro elpvo-o'ao-rOat,
caf/f dXa 'rep Ov)u KEceXOXwoVievov- cb yap Ailewovr
OS Ice e OLot ET'relfrOat, tuaXha T eVicXvov avrov.
ic al w7r apyvpey Kcrry o-Xcy BXepa paper av,
Lar 8' e" /covXebv do-e /Ieya ti4o0, o8' a7rl'r70ev
pOq) 'AOrvalry' q 8' OXv/Lr7dvove /3e)3 icewv 221
80oIaT' dT al~'yo'xoto AtO /Aa 8a acovav aAXXovw.

Achilles raileth at Agamemnnon. He declareth that the Achaians
shall some day long for his help and shall iwt have it.
IIlXet'S l 8' edavTO drapTrTpot dEr7ec-Orw
'A'ped87v 7rpoo'aetTre, Iai om Tro X?,jye XdXoLto 224
ovoo ape', icvvob ~fLpaTT 'xwv, Icpa8l'v 8' eAXaoto,
oCe WroT' 67 r70Xepov alt, a Xaw Owp7X4&v at
oi;be Xo'Xov' lelat eTv Aipt'rjeoa-T v 'AXasv
TreTXrcKaq O6v TOY 7TOv TOt icrfp elf87rat elvat.
7 7roXy hdv X Co-T(V a'a aorpa-rb evphy 'Axatuov (
0op' d'roatpcFiao'-0t, Tt9 re O-v avPriov e'77ry 230
8y/1po36pops /aor-taeXi dc're ov't tavroZo-tv advo-a'r
9 yap &v, 'ArpeitS, vvv ioaraa Xopijo-ao.
AU"X 6ic T70ot Ep IcaL t rl eyav opicov aO/ a/Oatc
val fia rd8e aTc7r'7Tpov' TO' /ev 06 o'wore IJXa KcaL
O-Et, 7dbEi 87'7 Vpfa To7'V bu iPeo-o-f hXEXoLev, 235

10 1AIAAOI A (i)
ob8' avaXOtfro-eL 7'replr ydp pa e XaXKo? 6eXceev
4vXXa re Kal 0Xot v'lvfv aTbr1 lLv vtle 'AXatcv
ev rraXdly, opeovoP' 8Icac ro oL o'f 're Ol'eo-ra,
* 7rp1 AtsO elpvara 6 T r pe',yas eao-oerai op/Co
S7~r' 'AX&XXo7, 7roOB ZieTrat vla, 'Axatcv 240
o-uTravera. T'Oe 8' T v r 8vv7jo-eat ayXVLEVov 'rep
xpata'peiv, CbT' av 7roXXol br "ECropos av8pod ovoto
Ovr-ixovref 7rITrrVo-* 0C 8' 'lv8o00 OVJLOV a/2pv$et
Xwo/kevoF, o T ape rov 'Axaiev o'e;v eTnoav.
The aged Nestor seeketh to make peace between the twain.
CB0? Ca'rT IIsiXe'8s9, ro0t b a8cK'erTpov &dXXe yal`y
Xypvo-e los XocrOt errapp/.evov, "eero 8 avT'T 246
'Arpe!'8r eTepwOev eF V rjve. TroZO-1 8 Nrorop
jSue2r'q avopovo-e, Xty'b IlIvXKlv ayop'rjT?,
TOO aal a7ro yXl7a o--,? pLeX TO yXVKLcov pev av 'j '
r6 8' 81i7 8Uo I/Ev yeveab /pepoTrwv avOp(drwv 250
e'0laO ', o [ ol rpoOev / Tpev a'a aev ye vouroT
v IlXA 7'yaley, p er rpe TrProeotv avao-oev.
a oriv wv dpoveov dyopija-aTo IcaU p/erTEe7rev
C" w'Ttos, /leya 7re'v0o 'Acatl8a yaav l'cKavert
7 /cev y70rjo-aa IUplaloq IIPpetoto Tre TraESeq, 255
aXXot 'e Tpfe pue'ya Icev iceXapolaTo Ov t6,
el o-OCOw rdE 7ravra 'n-v oiaro Iuapva/evoutv,
o? 7reppi pLv /3ovX?'v Aavaov, 7repb 8' Eo7T taXeoOat.*
aXXa wri0e'o-t' luc 8' vE we' arEpc eoTOV eJLo.
8s yap 7ror' ey) Kalb apeloro-v "E -7rep btv 260
dvSpdao-v w~lh 7o-a, Keal ov 7rorT t' o y' d8eptiov.
ob yadp 7r ow Toov 'i8ov avepa' o0&e t;8ow/at,
olov Tleeptloorv Te Apvavrc re Trot/zlva XaCiv
Kawe'a 7T 'E tov re Tca al avrTO1ov H oX;V~lNpov
[Oqyo-ea r' Alwet'y v, &r~-eiceXov MOavaroto-t]. 265

IIAIAAO A (i) 11

Kaprto-TO t ICE8vot rLXOoviui T7 pa fev av pwv'
ICdpTrto-Tot Fv _o-av ica'i KapTioTrot ekaiXovTo,
ynpalov Opeo-cwoK O,, Icatl elc'dwyX(9 d7roedo-apav.
Kical pv Toio-w YA ILeLo6pjlXeoV ic llvXov e'XOov,
rr7X6OEv E arrt ]y yair1v' KcaXEavro yatp abroil 270
ical upaxorV KeCa-' e' avtrov e'yg Iceivoo-' 8 v ov
'r-ov, o't vvv /poTrob eClawv ertXOoviOL, IpaleotTo.
ical eev pev f3ovX'ov i;vviv retlovr- re MpY6 .
aXa Vt rrIOerOe Kcal Vi//eLr, 7-e't rel'OcoOatl seiv.
/~Aje 6 o-) -&- a/ya06o, rep ewv 7rroalp E KoVv, 275
IXX' ea, ow ol 7rpwra 80o-av ye'paq vleq 'Axatwv'
,-re 0-6, IIelS'r, 6O)' ept"iefa ao-l X t
avTinrlq V,/e boei O0i TO' O/noLot e/l/.op6e Tt7L
o-clrTroYJXo? 3aao-tXev( 7T Zevy icv80 Aoicev. 279
el 8 o-,' KapTepOg eCoC-, Oea & sce iyeva7O /LrLj)7p,
dxx' o'6e (4prepo' ea-rv, ETrel TrXedveo-a-tv avao-o-et.
'ATrpetl, oai- 8 wave TreafV /Pvo; aLrap Eyo' ye
XlO-Oa-p' 'AXtXXij pefI pevev XOXov, o0 pe',a rato-tv
pico 'AXatoZo-v 7reXeTat 7roXe/'ao Kalcoo."

Agamemnon and Achilles make angry reply.
Tro 8' a7raLfetL3oJLevo 7Trpoao-' r Kpe ov 'AAyap -
vwv' 285
val 8' rTa ra ye 7ratvTa, ye'pov, Icara pozpav L'eTr6q.
aXX' 6o8' avqp eO E Epl 7wra'ep rd e/6j/Levat aXXoov,
7raVT7wv .PEV IpaTeetl e6eet, rvPTreO-aTL 8 avao-a-EtV,
7racrso S cr-iopalvew, a' ov' wreo-co-Oat ;lw.
el.86' ,w alxtzTrv teco-av Oeot alev f0ovreT, 290
TOvveICa oL 7rpoOeovo-wv elc. ea pvOr9oao-0a ;t
TOV 8' ap p' ropX/3j'v /LelpedTo 8Fo 'AXLXXei;
I" yap Kcev e61Xo' re tcal ovlr8av0' KaXeoGtirv,

12 IAIAAO A (i)

el 8 col irv eayov py rel'opLaL, o'77r Kcev e'lfryF
AXXOLLV 87 Tav7-' c'r-XXceo, r o yap 4pol ye 295
[a-rijawtv' ov yap eyc y' o-o cor 7eloro-e6OaL low].
X8_6 'rose T pew, 5-v 8' 'vi peo-i /3XXeo 0'aiv-
Xepo-a pL ov 0 ot 4y(C ye paXyao-opa etrvca icovpif
oTre col ov're TO) aXh,( e7rel d/ aXeo-0 ye 6ovTre
'-Vv 8' aXXov, a pot L6 o-t 0oy 7raph v?1i p7Xalvy,
TrOv oKi AVt e ppoLs; aveXo\v dcorT'os eeo. 301
el 8' aiye pv 'irejproas, 'va uyvcwo- ecal oia e'
aFd TOt alipa KceXawzov pco-aee' 'rep\ oovpl."

The assembly is broken up. Odysseus taketh Chryseis away to her
S ry 7' avr/loiocr taXqcr-ap iecvw e'o--Vaa
avar'Tijnv, ?Xi-av 8' ayoprv 7rapa vrfvo-v 'AXaeov.
HlXet"r)8si; .v e7ri KcXa'las icat vja cia-as 306
ile o-av Tr Mevoet'rtad cal e ? Tarpotra v,
'A7pei'rp; 8' apa vila 0orv &Xa8e rpo'pvo-a-ev,
ev 8' peTra~ e4cpvev ebeicoaw, eF 8' EiKarT/J38
gco-e 6e,, avad Xpvo'l 8a KcaxXd rdppovn 310
Oelaev iywv V adp')0 s'i) Tos6'r sT 'O8v-uo-e '.
4 ol kv h'rer'i' Ava vrcT Sdv re'reFrXov voypa Ke'Xev8a,
Xaobv 8' 'ArpetS27! d7roXvjaltveco-a d'voyev.
ol d7reXvpalvovTo ica els diXa Xvp.aT' E3aXXov,
'* pSov 8' 'Ar6BXXwv reT0,eo-'aa' KTcarTO ~~ aq 315
'ravpwv r8' aly&wv 7rapa Ov' aXo, aTpvye'roto
KPbv7 8' oUpavov Ltev eXao'o-op.E'Vl 7rp't Ka7rvp.

Agamemnon biddeth Talthybios and Eurybates go and fetch unto
him Briseis, which thing they do.
( ol pI E T7a 7rvovro lKara arparwv o8' 'Aya-

IIAIAOX A (i) 13
X17' pto8, v rp&wrov deriyW]e 'AXtXi(,
(tXX' r ye TaXO/3d v T e ical EIpvIPaTi1v WpoO-eelrev,
TW ol eo'av K ipvce cal doTpp) OepdarovTre 321
" pxeo-Oov cXtao-lyv XIIyitd8ewo 'AAXAjov
Xep qdVpo r' ayepiev Bp1o-pSla KcaXX7rdppov'-
el SB ce K L 8y wCatv, dryo e84 Ice adT'o gXo~tat
Olawv aw'v rrXeoveaorv TO' oil xKat pLOv e'o-Ta. 325
o0; el'rw 'rpotet, Icparepov 8' i r iDOov e6eXXev.
ow 8' ae/covTe p/3i d v 7rapa 9Ov' AoX" d-TpvU/oto,
Mvpt8o'yov 8' 47r re KholaF scal ia va, Ice-Orv.
T- S' eipov rapidd Te Ieckouly ical vijl /LeXalvy
evcov* ov8' 4apga ji- 18y 18v y9sorev 'AXALXei(.
TW pLeV TapjsaavTe law al8c/evaO ) /3acOtXia 331
T17ry7v, o0ve 71 lUkv 'rpocrefiveov oi8' pe6ov TO'
avbra'p o "ryvo b ei pec <6vac"re 'l v re
"X alpefe, icripvicef, ALo' da'yyeXoi 8s Ical divSpv'
ao--ov iT'' ov T'L pjot V'e de7ratlTto(, aXX' 'Aryaui-
vwv, 335
o ac-ci 7rpolte BpLtslov-8 efLveca Icovp4s. *
XX' a'ye, Stoyvc~ lIaTrpoIcX'et, efaye Kcovprv
Kcal o'rwtv 8o a',yev. Tr 8' avTw dc.prvpoC 'roWv
rpo 6e O eov iat1apov rrpd~ re Ovfrc ov AvOptarrwv
ical rpOs? 70Tio /3aotXO o 'r97v'oe, eil i7OT-e 8\j avi
ypeUo 4ejEo yyevir7Tat adeIca Xotybov awDvai 341
T70-o XXot?. l yap 3 ry o'X ojXort ,peCal OBeL,
o8e' T6 o18e voic-at laa trpo-a-Ac Kal oTro-aw,
orrors ol rTapa v7vca c oost pIaXeoLa' AXtol.

Achilles bewaileth himself to his mother, Thetis, who cometh to him
and asketh of his sorrow.
o~ cdTro, IIdapoKXo? 86 fl ,i, e7reei e9' eTalpq,
4K 8' dayaye KXtca-l Bpto-pl8a caXXtrdpa7ov, 346

14 IAIAAO A (i)
86e 8' dyelv. 8' a' wTA 'riv 7rapa vja? 'AXaewv,
S8' de'acovo-' tapa To~ao- yvv) KIcev. avrIp 'AXtX-

8atKpvo-at9 rdpov Id 'ap te'Tro vodr t Xtao-el9
0ev' c' ~Xo wroXe), opdov j'Tr' oivoTra OVTroV' 350
roXXah 8 p,77tpl iXt p7prja-aro Xepaq apeyvw'
"" 1rep, f7tE t' fret cC'~ y7E ,tivv9d8t'y 7rep eovra,
S-t/rept v 7rp tiot o'beXXev 'OX'T7rteo" deyyvaX-iat
Ze? vifrt3pepiersg' vVv 8' 0ov8 /Ie TvrT0ov &eto-ev.
I tydp p' 'ArpetSiy9 e6vpv Kcpetov 'AyapieMviv 355
rjl/a'o-ev' eXowv yap exeet yepa,, auTr? adrovpa."
W r/jev EV /evpleo-eaw aXo 7rapa 7rarpl '\ povr-.
IapTraXitw9 8' avt'v wrioX* 9 adX9 T o' i'XXyf,
icai pa 'rpotO' ab'roo ocaO'0ero Sdtcpv Xeo'rO, 360
XetpL re p e carTpekev, eTroSr 7 CarT C'/ T oo-
Ipa Ev"
re/cvov, r7 IcaXlee ; 71 7 ae 4phvae 'Kcero revOoqV;
!avS8a, p~L7 Icevfe vaod, 'va e'80/oIev a'/bo."

Achilles telleth what hath come to pass. He prayeth the goddess
to beg of Zeus that he will grant the Trojans some signal

Trv 8c /3apv orevad'Xv 7rpoo-a07 d roSa9 cKc;9
olorOa TI 7 o 70 rr Taa 18vty rdvr' dyopevo) ; 365
j;XO/oeL de Ori/3rv, ieprv 7rrw v 'HeTritovo,
r7v 8A 8te6rpdOof/Lv re Kat l jyoler dv 6d8e rdrvTa.
cal Ta pev e6 8d-raravro erTa ao'[otev vtev 'Axaiv,
ec 8' 0Xov 'ArpefI8 XpvoliSa scaXXnrdppov.
Xpvicr~a 8' ai9' [epevb ca7rdq/3lXov 'A'rorXXovov 370
fX0e Ooha E'dr viai 'AXaetwv XaXKoXTrivwv

IIAIAAO A (i) 15

Xvadroevo'~? e 76OyaTpa (Epwov 7a-repelrr' a7roLva,
o'relp.paT eXo'V ev Xepc'-v 4Kjc'PhXov 'A7roXXwvo
ypvewt dav' a-K cf rpw, cal Xloacro 7r'aTaa's AyaovF,
'Arpet'a 8E ydXw-ra 86;, Icoaty'rope Xa&ov. .- 375
'vO' AXXot 1fv ra'vreC e revdirp'io-av 'AXatol
al8eoOral 0' lep~a Ical IyXaa' 86x6a a7roLva
AdX\' o Aic p 'Arpee i 'Ayapie ovt iivave BOvlu,
dAXXa Kaica ac lei, KpaTepov 8 6'rL p.Lov e'reXXev.
Xyofevo 80 yEpCv 7raXiv eXTO' T70Z 8' 'AO7rX-
Xov 380
e64a/ievov covc-ev, ewe~ rr dXa o( ,IXol ev,
f ce 8' er' 'Apyeloto-t KaKohv P3eXoy ol 84 vv Xao'
Ov-o'Kov era-'o-;-rpot, Ta S' d8'7XwTO IcKXa Oeolo
iTavry ava crparov epvv 'Aatwv. t iocy u e a aicvr
e el 8 dydopeve f forpoTra v bhiroo. 385
aurt'ic' Eyc rp)7WroF iceXo/pAv feov dX c'eata'
'Arpe't'va S' '7retTa XOhoy XdP3ev, alt*a 8' Avacr-Ta'
rjrel'rlc-ev 100Dov, 8' TeTeXec-LLEoV eCariv.
r Ilv f~ev yp a-lb v~7 Oo00 iX/cw're; 'AXatoi
e Xpvto-?i 7retrovuotv, aiyovro-t Se 8pa avaTcrt- 390
T77V 8c ve'OV KXLc-ir76ev 4'/3av Icrpvice4 dyovTres
IcovprIv Bpto-1os', 7TIv /iotL 8o-av dveF 'AXaLtv.
XX? a crv, el Svaoal 'ye, 7repto'xo wratSo0 do2o"
4X0oi(-' OXvt7rodvB8e Aia XIo-at, eti' ore 84 Tt
Se'7Te vrla7-a KIcpa8lrv Ao ?7)e ical epy7. 395
7roXXa~Ic yap o-eo 7raTpko E'i e /,yapoto-w /covo-a
eblXO/PiV1, Tr' Ef0o-Oaa ifcXaL tE o' Kpoviov
o't dv tOavdrooa-Wv aeica 'Xotybv livvat,
rw1OTrde PfL !;vv c-aa 'OXVJ4,7rtoI ijOov cLXXot,
"Hp7 9"T (8 Iloo-t8iaov KcaL IIaXXa 'A O,Avi. 400
jXXa o-v ToV 7' e'XOoDua, Oed, bvreXtc-ao 8ea f v,
X' lcarToyyeXpov KaXecrao-' e? fLacpov "OXvLrrov,

16 IAIAAOI A (i)
Sv Bptdpeov KcaXeovo' Ocol, dv6peq 8' re wavTres
Al-awov y yap avlrE fly oi 7raTpov aLeljvwv
0o Aa rraph Kpovitvt KaOe'ero KdSel yaliov 405
Tv Kcati 7reeta-av pdicape? feol oSe T' Svaoav.
TC7 vbiv jLt p cvao-a-ra 7rapeCo ical Xap/3 yovonv,
at Ictv Twan 'X0o-lytv 47r Tpceao-a-v Apl at,
Trovq S icar-a rpi4vaq re Tca6 l Apt' a&a "eXaat
KcretvoL evovo, fva rav'rTe; eravpwvrat n ao-a-XLov, 410
ryv 8c &cat 'ATpe'8i'S ebpv c pelwv 'Aya/~ievwov
jv aTriv, 8 r' apta'rov 'AXat6&v obS\v 'Ttcrev.

Thetis promiseth to do Achilles' bidding.

-rv 8' pelftip 'ETretra OErT; ICKara 8dacpv xe'ovaa'
P io, T'riVOV EPOV, Ti vv 0-' ETpepov alvd Te-
Kovo-a ; 414
a 'eXeq 7raph vIPva-'V a8dicpVTro ical alrsptoa v
laOat, erel vv Troi alraa pi tvvvO8 -rep, ov 't piXa j84v
* vDv S' ,paa 7-' wKcopOq K aia tovpo r Trep 7ra'vriT
7rXeo- Tr o-re cKaKt a'aoy rticov v ey/apotaotv
Tov0r 8' To epe'ovo-a e'ro' Arti repirticepavv)
et/' advT? rpo "OXvp arov Ayyvvtoov, at ice K6rlOTrat.
dXXa2 ore1 cv vvv 7vo-1al 7rapr7leCvo;9 cvTvropoto-tv 421
jvt' 'AXatoEiatv, 'roh-pXov 8' tavroraeo rdp/rav
Zevs 'yap d 'lKCeavov t Er' A/.vcLovaq AlOtowTrja'v
Lt i ica' Krava &aira, 0eol 8' 4pea 7rav're-v rovro'
8fecart 8' rot aitrs e' ACFo'eTa ObXv/tw7roz, e, 425
Kcai TOT"r' .ret.r Tot er AtTO o d9 t aXIKcoa8r 8& ,
SKxa i u ow yovvafoopat, Ka ptvW 7reto-eoaat bhO."

IIAIAAO2 A (1) 17
How Odysseus bringeth Chryseis to herfather.

S c'ipa dovo'aoa' arefja-ero, Trv 8~ X7Tr' avTro
XOo/evov Kaa c vBL'v e'v voto y vacKoX ,
TrsV pa 13iy aeiKOro Atpov. arvpwv. aap 'O8vo c-evb
de Xpvro-v L'cavev aoywv teprv cKcarTOlfv. 431
o( 8' rTe 8~ 7Xivov 7roIUvevoeov evPi' LCOVTo,
loria pv ao-reaav'ro, Oe'rav 8' ev v7 pXalvy],
lO'TOav lo-Tro8eKcy I'~aaav 'orporwvoiav v rfevr
icap7raXl/mor, V. 8' el i;' ppov 7'poepeo--av cpeT'1r6oT.
6c S,' eva'V; /3aXov, xcart 8e 7rpvvynao-'' '8o-av' 436
I eK 8E Ial aTrol /3avov e7rl P~Tfyivt 0aXdo-a'ol,
ic 8' jlcar~~Ljp3v f/3o-av 0Kr7l~36 'A7rd'XXov e
Ic 8\ Xpvo-lS 17o\ pv, 'rovrowrpoWo.
7Trv IEV e'7reLT' e7rL p1wO v ay(wv 7roXvlprt, 'OSvo-aev'?
7arpi tXXq &v XepP-i Kcal pv l-rpoo-erw7ev* 441
" Xpdao-, rpo /j' e 'repJev lva dAv8pwpv 'A/yap i-
raiS- re o-01 o Ayel pv eDo4IP 0' lepayv eKarT7df3vV
piai v7rep Aava6ov, o8p' tXao-oeo- 0a avaKcra,
8; viv 'Apyeldotct 7roXv-'rova KIc8e' ef4icev." 445

Chryses prayeth Apollo to stay the pestileice.

( Geir&\v o)V e XpaOl -1'les, & 8 84larTo xalpov
7raFia 0IXipv. rol 8' ')ca 0ec lepSv ao'rdafpt v
el a'o-Two-av evSfi8yrov rept fplzov,
XepViIrava'o 8' rerTa calo ovlXoxyraF 'vlXovro.
-ToZow Se Xpdvs fieyaX eX/veo Xetpa9 avacov"xL 450
KXVI1 Iev p ro, pv bw Xpio-rv Aliot/3e/3,tpcaq
KItXXav re faleYjv TeveSo re e 7Z tavao-o-e r
rifev 81r Tro T' e'te P ?rapo 6t'cXuvev eva/t voto,
Tp/17cra v pev 4 /el'ya 8' i'fao Xabv 'AXaelv-

18 IAIAAO A (i)

K8a' 9e cal viov iot T68' 6riKcpIj vov ee'Awp' 455
7ir& vDv AavaoZowv iaecea'a Xoty'v aivvov."

Apollo stayeth the pestilenwe. The company do sacrifice adu feast,
and Odysseus cometh back to the camp.
T4 fa7T' 6XeVXo/voc, Tro 8' cXuve GoESpo? 'ArOX-
avrap p drEl edfavro ical obXoxVTra 7rpo3dXovTo,4
avepveav plv w-prTa Ical Coafav xal eSetpav,
p17pot; 7' Teerapov cara 'e ,cviway iecdXv av 460
8 ir7vXa 7rotra-avTe, e d' arTiev 8' "/ o"iera-av.
icale e' ri Xffyt ydrpov, '7r 8' awOora olvov
Xe/3e' ve'o 86 7rap' arbTov o r tTrep/L. oXa Xepo-v.
avrdp cee icaa j.t }pa Icctr alb o-rXa'E va 7rao-avro,
tlo-TvXXov T' apa rdXXa Kal ailp "' /3eXoZo-v 'retpav,
wroTTlTadv re vrepieopa&cos, epvzaavTo re wrdva. 466
Cavap 2e raeoavro I-ov 7'O TrTKOVTO re aSaFTa,
SalvvovT, ov'86 T' OvfbU eSev'eTo 8atvo~ eC'17.
avbrap arel oro-to? ical e'8rv7;o 4 'pov CVTO,
KoOpoL p iv ICprfl7paq da7reoT4'ravTo rroiTO, 470
vSli'r-av 8' a~pa riraa-tv eapdugevot Sewrdeo- av,
ol 8 7rave'pctot /.LoX'r, Oeov Xdo-tcovro,
icaXbv AdeSovmre 'rat'ova, iKoipol 'AXativ,
pcXITrovTe eaep'yov' o & peva r'epir' aKovav.
o 8to S' ~7eXLo Kare8v Kal 7rti Icvea a6XOev, 475
'o Toe cKOUioa-avTo rapa '7rpvvijrao-a vao5,
j.toq 8' ripLYfeveia aydivj joSodcIKTvXo- 'Ho',
Kcal 7TO' 'retT' avdayovro /C-eTa o-'pa'ro evpivv
Toditv 8' 'ifiervov ovpov LS6 eacOepyo, 'AroLXXwv.
01 l' arTov oaT-avT' ivad 0' o-rt a XevKa 're'rao-aav
v 8' aveuoi r'p?-ev 1ua6ov l a-rWO, Apo 8' KV/ca 481

IIAIAAO A (i) 19
a-'epy 7ropf vpeov /EeyaX 'laxe vbo' lov7a-'
S8' eO'eev carTa tcI/a StaTrprTjaovaoa ICXevsov.
SavTap rwel p corTo Kara crTpaTov evpvv 'AXatcov,
vija pev o 'ye pXaevav e7r' 7repoeo 'pvo-iav 485
6i4roD eaL *prakdloes, iV'rr o 8' ep/jaTra aaicpa Tirvvora-av,
aTO\ 8' eroicLvavTO Ka-a, /cXo-ia? Te vea' Te.

4 Achilles bideth in his place.
avTap 60 7rvie vrfvao1 7rap27'jevo w0icuropo1rtv
8So ev4~, HlyXiov vid, ro8a kv.ici. '.A' XXe V5"..
obie 7roT el a!yopl\v 7rwXo-G-ceTO KvtcSivetpav 490
ovTe 7rOT' xe 7rrdepov, aXX\a wtv'Oea-lce fIXov icip
aV8Ot i' va, 7roOe'ace 8' avT jv Tre TToXe1h' Te.

Thetis maketh her prayer to Zeus, the which he granteth.
aXx' 5re 8 p' EIC 7ToO 8v8e/ctaTr7 yver7 cET ,
Kal TOTe 82 7po\ "OXvprov 'i'cav 0eol aiev ~eovTe
VaeyTCip aa, Zeb 8' )pxe. ErTe, 8' o X1~Oer' 4fTer-
fenwv 495
7raStol e'ov, aNXX' J 1' AveSV'aeTO ,cDypa BaXldao-ap,
4eplr 8' avei'77 e'yav ovpavov OibXvrrov e.
evpev 8' ebpvonra KpoviSrv adrep ?"pfevov aXXwv
IcpoTcTry KOPVop roXv8Sepda8o ObXv'roeo.
ial pa IrdpotO' avrTOO K/aOf ETO ial Xd)3e yovwov
acacj, 84 trepf 8' dip' br' avOepewovo0 eXo0-ra 501
Xto-oopev'r rpoeetTre Ala Kpoviwva avacTra
"ZeD 7ra'Tep, et' wore 84 e 0 e-r a' 9ava'rowtwv Ovlo-a
Eq A're i epycp, 7T8e .ot ICKpjvov eeX8wp"
TbiJoav ptot Mov 0S cicviopTwraTo9 XX(eOv 505
* hrX e'r" rTap irtv vvv ye ava av8pwv 'Arya1i.eLvtv
27riL7a-ev' e X v yap e',xet 'ypa, avTor arovpa'.
XXa\ TV' 7rep UCrv To-OV, 'OX'UTre /p'TrieeTa Zev'

20 IAIAAOZ A (i)
'Obpa 8' eri Tpoc-o-t r- l'et icpiroq, Ob'p' av 'AXatol
vlov e/pv Toiwoc-eL X wv re L T7 p.g" 510
o- Tro' Tv 8' oi' Tt rpooef'r ve ye eXlyepea
KXX dceOv 8'v O-ro. 6Tv 8' 6, ('*aTo Yov'vov,
on 6e T er' frefvvla, Kcai et'pero SeVTrpov ai3're'
vlpepT're9 I. v Sri pot biro-Xeo ical icaTavevo-ov,
'0 ddero~e ', 'e" ob ro TOI 8E'lo, ; p' elt, 515
oao-0ov 6y7e) pe6Ta 'rao-v A rTTdtu r 0eo< el0pt/.
7r7v 8\ fly 6xyOoa, 'wpoao-Cr veefeXryeppeTa Zev'q
"j 8 I Xolyca e'py, o e' t' dYxoSor8oircate f'ic-els
"Hp?, 0r' av e' eipe6yo-av goveieios en-e'ea-ov.
S8 icat ai v'ro", T al~i vv v aava'rotc feolro-w 520
veticel, icati Te /e dro', pid~y Tpdeoo-tv apri yew.
*' XXa o-a p)uv P v a'Tr? de6dorTe, Up7 Tt vori a
"Hpi" elpo~ ice 8 rafTa'a A/eXIo-eTrat, b'4pa TreXo--ow.
8' 1ye T70t iceaXsj Kcaaveto-opkat, S'4pa reirol'OyrF"
TODTO yap e d depev ye / jET' aOavd'rotoa- ie'yI-rTO 525
EKrdicLop ob yAPp edov iraXzvdype'ov oS8' daIrarirX
oMi' dATEXeVTSTOV, TI, KceV Ice aXl Kicaravevro."
7r ical cvave' a-v er' -opa-e ve v Ke Kpoavw'o
Ai/3pppa-ca 8' apa XaF'trat e'reppwo-av'ro avaecroq
KpaT'ro air' dava'roto, pyav 8' e'Xeev "fOXv/Trov.

Hera upbraideth Zeus and meeteth with sharp rebuke.
T 7r' os /ovXevaoavTe 8ierayev- 7f pE'v 'eirenea 531
e &Xa aX'TO 3aOde'av arr' aiyX'jevTro 'OX/v.7rov,
Ze,; 86 gov ry wpo 8 a-Tav
Te 6Swvo, crooD rraTrpo e'vavrlovr oiS rTeV &'r
tLeivat &repXoIfevov, dXX' dvTiLOt 'a-Trav &7ravTes. 535
ws 0 fPv e'vOa KaOe'&er'T ri Opivov ov86 p1uv "e pri

IIAIAAO A (1) 21

yyvolrcrev 18o0o' ot ol a-v kjpda'aarTo PovXda
apyvpo'Tea OE'Tt, OvydaT7rp AcXloo ylpovTov.
atlica cepTo1Lioo-t Ala Kpovl'va rpoajvoa'
" '71 8' a Tot, 8oXo/fJTa, 9sev crvfp do-a-aTo
/ovXds ; 540
alel Trot tl ov eo-rTv pev awrovoa'rv cra
Icpv7rTaSa ppovpovTa 8ticalgeev" ob84 TI7 i7w, Io
'rpoi4pov .r.t.icaf eirev '.ro-, 6'TTt voo-;9."
Trv 8' lfpeI;reT' reira 'raTp avSpo Te Ov Te'
""Hpi?, lItf S i -dv7ra9 4i; fovk 'wte'X7reo ljktOovs 545
elr87a-ew' XaXe7roI TO "'ovT' aXoyp 7rep ovo-ry.
aXX' 6V pie'v K' EWTLEtcev i.coveIiev, ov Tt7r Ceera
oive Oe9rV epoo C O9 7' eLoepraI o'U av-pwraov
ov 86' K ey'v Av7vevOe Oewv e6erAo.l vo cat,
TT( av' TaDra eicaorra Stelpeo ti "erd AXXa." 550
TOv y 8 i'ejlpe erZTr8a /oir o rorvia Hp'
"alvo'rae KpovlGrt, 7roov TOlv fOov e'eter.
rcat rlv o6a ro po V o' epo o we t fierTaXXo,
adXXa PX' efict7Xoy Tra Opdrceai, aoo' M0eX70poa-
vpv 8' alv&ws elSo6ica KcaTra pe'va, p/r e wrapeitry
adpvpoprela O6TdL, Ovya'rt)p aXtoto y7povTov- 556
replr yap col ye rapEerOfcal XKda/e yovvov
Ty o-' olo Kacaaveor-aTs VT?7TUOVy, c, 'AXtXija
Tt/Luo-reLt, bX0ee6t 8e roXLa,; 6L 7rI VlV 'AIarv."
Tj-v 8' a'raje.,P/36olCevoq 7rpoo-E467) vec eX'yepeTa Ze&;'
SatIovit, alelt Pev, oeat, o861 a-e X100)o, 561
wrprf)at 8' '/tr-ti ov TtS Svrfo-ea6,,AX ad7rov BUvoi
pLaxXov e/o't waear TO' 84 TOt ical pkylov ea'Ta.
el 8' oiT(0 TOT' ea-riv, E/ot /LeXX\e dIXov elvat.
AXX' d lcova-a icaO'.-o, um- 8' eirelOeo flO6(, 565
i7 vv Tot oL yXpairayLoLat, -ot 0Leo ecla' OXuO're,
ao-a-iovt ', lov re cev TOr awa7rov' xetpav ee#w."

Hephaistos counselleth submission to the will of Zeus. He telleth
how he himself was once punished.
4 e'aT', tSecto-e 8e /3ois 7iroTvta "Hp),
tKal 'p aiKovo-a ica8Ja-To, 4rwyvpfl aaa OiXov kip.
coXqo-Pav 8' ava 'oija AtOv Oeot Ovpavtwver 570
Toat-v 8 "H aCo-ro ICXvroTXTewr'v PX' a 'yopevetv,
fI)pl iXy etr f'pa 0fepov, xevcWe'vY "Hpy.
e8 o W eE l v*oJ /
I" 68~ Xoiyea 'pya Ta8' "o-o-era ob' r' avetrC,
e7l 6 r ao eIca eOvrTov ept8al'erov e,
8v 8 BeoFai KcoX6 ov fBXavve-ovr o686e Tt 8aei-T 575
O-X," o-eTt '8a o ;0, wcl a TO"epelova vixc.
/]Tpi, 8 ErO 7rapae/yqte$, Ical a'vry 7rep voeovo-y,
warpil 4Xi'p mrlt fpa 0bpete At, A btpa aDre
veeicelpa-, raT'rp, o-v 8' ]iv 6ai'a rapd7y.
STrep 'ydp tc E 70ayoIv OXV uTrcov ao-repo7rr7Tq4- 580
ed 686Cov a'vO6eXtlat. a yap 7roX pepTaTr eo-Ttw.
aXXa o- Tv 7r' eTreero-aot.ica derT.e~ at /.aXaKcoZoa-w
avTtK retO' I'Xao? 'OXVIrtto? e-rETat 2r t tV.
S9 ~p p" ', Kal' dvatias SiCrav a iKVtreXXov
/j17Trp LXt kqy Xep' 7ie T Kal Crutv poc E'eE V" 585
" TTXa0s, f/tJT p e ari, teal avao'eo K7cySoft7 7rTp,
/pj o-e lX7lv rrep Doi-oav ev o40aXtoiFo-tv '6toIat
BetvoPiE'vrvV TOe 8' oi Tr 8ovvj-ofuat adyxvviv rep
Xpatapeiv' Apyaoae'o yahp 'OXV/rom djvT(tepea-Oat.
'87 ye'p pe Ical a'XXoT' alXe!efevaa pjepfaiTa 590
lfe Tro86 TeraayOlv a7rob /3rXofv eo-reaeioto.
irav Jtfap OepOd1Llv, alpa 8' eXtIhc KaTra86vr
Icdarrea-o v ev A7Ptvcp, odXlo7 8' 9~'t Ovbjoe 62eve
va pe 1vrTteI v68pe' d1ap icopliaoavro 7reao-'ra."

IIAIAAO A (i) 23
Hera submitteth herself and the feast gocth forward, thereafter the
gods retire to rest.
I? aTdro, pei lo'-ev 8 e Xevx evHevo, "HpR, 595
pe8 7'ao-aa a 8raSoP dEfa To Xyepl K;V'eXXov.
aniT-ap o- ToZ A XXocO- eoi;6 dv84a 7ractv
olvoXoet yhviv v eTcap, a7ro cpl7Tf)pog ad4Zaw'v.
op'-eo-roi 8' ap' vrOprTo ry4Xow pamicdpeo-a-t oeocoarv,
W< 's8ov "Hlorr ov 8th 8iuara 'a7rotrvvovTra. 600
I TOTe6 jev -rp'owrav iJtap e i'Xtov icaTaSvvTa
Salvvvr', ovS TI Ov/.poe Seveo 8arT? Eo F,
ov Iev 4xopl./yyo, Trep/caXXeo?, qv eX' 'AroXXOw,
Movo-r(v 0', adl aLetov dtetI3 peva6 wri icaXp.
a rTap wretl caTev Xva'Xrpwv cfdo; ieXioto, 605
o01 1Ev scaK icloev T /3av ol/covSe, &cao-TO,
t Kaaicdo-TY SwiLa 7repi/cKXvT7o aL ~tyUP-et,
"H atoro'r T 'olroi-ev 18vlyo'- rpa~rSe-a-av,
Zebe 8& 7rpo v XdvXO j' 'OXVAL7rtov ao-TepoTrw] g,
'vOa rwdpo IcOtLtaO', r Ve tVi yy vicq i7wrvo, 'cavost 610
'Yva cKaOfeS)' va/3cd, 7raph 8 Xpvcro6povov "Hpq.


ovetpov. 8taTreipa. Botwrla A Icara- oyo[ vecuv.

Zeus sendeth a dream to Agamemnon, bidding him arm the host, for
he shall now take Troy.

aXXot Ev p/a Oeoi re cKal 1vepev tir7roicopvoara'
BSov IravvvyXIO, Ala 8' OVK eev ijvfosV virrvo(,
AXX' 6 ye pep iMpte Kyara peva, 'APv XA a
7rtprjy, oXEoa-y 8 'KroXeas e r vqvo-rv 'AXaLuov.
jSe 84 ol0 KIar BOvpv iapla-Tq calveTro /ovXi, 5
'irEpat e ~7r' 'Arped y, 'Ayap/e'p.ove ovXov 8ovepov*
Ial pltv Owyraas e'-rea 7rrepoevra 'rpoo-rv8a*
" faoc' WiL, obXe oveype, 0oa e'A&O(v e ~cXtkiorl 'Aya 'povovo, 'Arpeidao
?ravTa pcdX' arpeKicwo ayopeveupev, & de7rTXXwA. 10
ropfijal ic KEeve Icap, IcodiovraV 'Axasou'
rravo-v8ly' viv 'yp Iev Aeot rrdXtv evpvdyvtav
Tpcowv ov yap er' adpi's 'OXVjreia M4'par' e'Xores
'acva'rot bpdS'ovrav ci re'yvapfrev yap airavara;
"Hp11 Xeooeovq7, Tpoe-a-cr Se Kicj8e' ca0rTat." 15
4? CdaTro, /3f 8' ap' vetepo?, d7rel Tr v piov

IIAIAAO B (n) 25

Icap7raXl~,' ? 8' icave Oohds dr'l va~ 'AXatcov.
8pj a' ap' dTr' 'ATpeti8vA 'AyaxtL/vova- Tv 8e$
eoVr' d, c KoTIly1, wrep't d1fJl3p6roto,; K/c iv'vov.
a--r 8' ap' v rep KefaXq Ni7Xt vIu dotucs 20o
Ne'o-opt, r7v pa CiXo-ra yepovrwv Tr' 'AyaiEfvwv
7r) p~v eetcradjvoF P rpoo-e4xOveev oSXo, ovetpor"
" eviSe;E, 'A'rpeo vi'e 8aipovo? laro8dpoto
o, Xp 'rravvvxtov cievSew ovX 6 8 pov v8 pa,
Xaoi r' eT 7reTrTpadaTat i a" To-o-a telpiqnev. 25
vfv 8' "le/eev vve dtica- Aoa? 8e Tot ay7yeX~o elpt,
o- rev avev ev i.v LErya IC Berat 8' Xealpet.
Owp7lal o-a' eIceXevre Icaiply KJoowvra,; 'AXatovr
Iravo-v8t y viv 'yp icev Xo" ? vrrotv edp~v'yvav
Tpowv" o5 7yp r'T' & O4 \, 'OXt.7rta 8aOIaT' XovTe'
abfdvaTo& padovrat erGvape' v yAp alravTa'i 31
"Hpi Xtrao'olev', Tpdeo-rat 8e IC ?8' Edlr rrat
edc AodK dXXa o-b o--yw KXe alpeiTrw, e9' Av cre I.eXeipwv vTvov avry." 34

Aganmemnon awakening straightway goeth to the ships and biddeth
the heralds summon an assembly of the host.
an apa ivxovo-ac d're/3icroeTo, TOYV & 1vr' abTro)
Ta OpoveoVT' Ova 9BVIov, a p' ob TreXeo-COa eCpeXXev.
4j '\p 0 ' alprjetvw IIpta~ov -roXtv ',riaTt iceLv?,
v7srtor, ov r8 Ta T a Ze. V /P.8.eTo 'epa'
"77etw 'yp T e/.LXXev dE7r aX76ye TE ovaTorVaxa T
Tpwao-1 e Ical Aavaoio-t &8 KpaTephau' bcaiva?. 40
eypeTO 8' E 7PVOV, V eOV 8e p0.v afexvT' of E j.
IeTro 8' 8pOfwOel, taXatcbv 8' IWvvve X -ova
KcaXov v17dreLov, 7rept 8e 16j'ya P3AXXeo a&pov-
roo-at v8ro X7rapo-criv e'a-'aro KcaXa rreStXa,

26 IAIAAO B (ii)
ippi ~' p' JApoto-vw /3aXero fo apyvpyUodXov* 45
e'XAero 8' al-cKTrpov rrarTp6ov, ad&0Trov ale'
a by 7r 7 1 Kara viav 'AXatiwv XaXKcoXtrwvcv.
'Hi; 1tcv pa Oeah rpoo-e/p -eTo paicpbv "OXvp7rov
Zivl 0oa dpeovo-a ical 'CXots? davioroww"v
avTap KlcpvKiceo-a XcyvOdyoyyotOt KCXevoevv 50
K'rpvoa-eOtv aoprjvSe Kapq c Kopo6wvra< 'AXatov;
ot jv c V pvco-ovY, o701 yetpovro dLaX' wca.

Agamemnon calleth a council of the chiefs, and telleth them of the

/3ovriv S' 7rpoTov peya0vlowv lZe yepo'vTv
NeCaropEy 7rapa vr?'t IvXotyeve'o IaoartXov.
Tov 76- ovycaXEvo-as 7rvictvr'v rpTipVero 3ovX17'v 55
" ICXre, IXtor" 9elO? pot eiVfUrVOV Xverv v ev OEpo'
apitpooa-'v 8ta vvIcKa, pytXco-'ara B No-rTop 8&q)
e18. re 7p-ye re f ~vrv T7 aryXtor -a eicw.
oar 8S' ap' v'rip Ker/aXMi, Knai [Ie 7rpob pI00ov etTrev"
' e6 8e, 'A'rpEo vie 8a'ipovo9 i n-ro8apoto 60
ov yypj ravv~Xvo ei8etv 3ovXi~fopov iav8pa,
7aol 7' immerpd a a vcal xto-a evl eV.
p Xaol T' 67rbT6Tpac)arat KCa'b '-Ooa-a juePL7,xev.
viv 8' "eeOev V've? mica" AtO? 8 'r0 aTlyyieX"o e i/t,
? aev alvevOev eov pIya tc'Seras 78' eXealpet
Owplfal t' i"eXkeva'e icp'7 KOILOWVTra 'AXatou 65
7ravovSl',. vvv yap Kea v EAom, '7-XlV evpvayvLav
Tpdwv- ow ; yap &'7' acl 'OXt/mrta 8e&par' eXov-re
dOdvaro7 (pdfovwrat 6rCe'yva/pz'ev yap ariavTrav
"Hp7 Xtao-a-opevr7, Tpdeo-ot Se xci8e' ei'fTrat
ec Aos,.. axxa 0av -uatv Xw pe itpev..' dw U Giv ciotv
iyeT' a0roTrr7evoaoV9 e e 8e 7XVKvi~rov dv ce. 71
IaX' .ye7', at' cev 7rwa p0a opev vlav 'Axauwv.
ann, xv "rrw ;


-'p&Tra 8' deyao v e rpeo-tv 7Etplo-o/ac, ) 0o/e' e'o-7iv,
cal feyetv o-by vlv7oi 'roXv/cXto-rt iceXcvo-ao
ieieS lXoOev X o; EPo Lt epnrTve e'eo-o-rv." 75
Sto i 7J0' 9o elr E v KaT' l"p' a'ero, Toa.t, 8' av-

Ne'o*Top, o'; pa IIhvXoo wava ( paOoerTO
'6 o-fv v (fpoveowv byopj'a-aTo Ical jLereietWev
" & fN'ot, 'Apryetlov sylj?'rope; q86 pueI'Sovre6,
e /ev T t TTOv ~'vetpov 'AXaicov aXXo0 'veorev, 80
rfE8d0? Ce a ( aaifv KC oa' a Jt'oLl.LOa ub1XXov
vfv 8' 'Sev, S? te'y' Laptorov 'AXatwv eXeTrat dtvat.
4XX' 1yerT, at cev va Ocwp ofopev vtla 'AgXaawv."

How the host gather to the assembly, and Rumour, sent forth by
Zeus, stirreth them to sail back home.
I apa wvioa'a; fSoVX? 4e 'pye veeorat,
o r 8' Trav6~erltrav rre'oo Vrd e roqtpevt Xav 85
UtKcr5'TOVXO pao-tXem. ereao-a'-eovTO & ao a.
rv'Te Ovea ela~i peXeoc-a'v AStvcdwv,
verpfjl ec yXa poTpv8ov 8e 'TreTOVTa ,r' iv9aeo- eiaptvoo-tvw
al JU.V T' 6VOa aiXt wre7TOTiaTat, al 8e re 7 eac 90
wo T7W aV vea wroXhX vewv a7ro ial xXtotcisov
hltOvov 7rpoTrapotOe /3aOe4lrI EoTtXyoe)To
iXaSv el /yoprv' teLTA B' f0ta mv "Oo-o-a SeSrietv
oTpvvovo lIvat, Ato,? a''yeXoa ol S' a1dpovTo.
TerprieX6 8' CYOpaop, vtro S crTvaXte7aTo yala 95
Xacv i0v6rwv,i5pLaSo 8' fv. evvea U8 C a0ea
IcKpwece P3oow')VTe9 Apj7vov, et 7roT' avu'rT
0-XoaIr', alcovcxaeav 8c 8 'opecfimv /pao-tXja v.
aorov3i, 8' r670o Xado', eprjv7ev o8 /ca9' E'pa, 99
7ravo-dacevot KcXayyi. ava 8 e Kpeleov 'Ayapic'tvjov

28 IAIAAOZ B (ii)

C O aOTCfTTp ov nv TO pine "HcatarTO KatIfie Te6-
"HCatorofiTO pev 8~e Ad Kpovlwvt avacrts,
avTap tlpa Zebv 86ice 8saicrdpO tp'yelicv'r.
'Epttela e8 Ava 8&ocev HIEXomrt 7rrXi,7rrw,
avTap d abTr IIfXo* SUoc' 'Arpe' r 'otke'vt XLacjv 105
'Arpecv, S 8 Ova-cowv 'Xtrrev '7rovapvt Ovea-Ty,
avTap 6 aZre )vucrT' 'Aya1perove Xhedre coprjvat,
7roXXorw vraoi-our Kcal "Apyei 7ravqr/ avdZaoerv.
T 5 epeto-d/.Levo; re' 'Apyetoto-t ieTrjSa

Agamemnon in guile counselleth to return.
" i lO Xoit fpwOc Aavaol, 0ep'7rovTeor "Apqov, 110
Zeq / e pEy/a KpovlSrl; aTy? ever8ro-e papeli,
O-XTXtoq, 0, 'rpit /ev /ot v7ro-XerTo cat IcaTevevo-e
"IXtov EK7rpo avT' 'vreiTeoV t'oveeoOal,
vv b cav & K ra'rTv /3ovXe)vo-aro, Ical 1e iceXebet
8vo-cXe'a Apyoq ltccro0at, -rel roXyv wXeo-a Xaov.
oV'row vno Adt /XXe vt i7rep1pev~r tXov elvat, 116
8o 8' 7roXXacorv 7roXo'v icarevO'X e capva
8 TI Ical Xudo'a-e 70 ya/p cpadro eoTT telyto -Tv.
alo-ypOv yp Tire y' o-71 KcaL eoTa OLevaoT wrvOea-Oat,
I~*Jt ov;r TotOvSe ToP-dve re Xabv 'AXat6iv 120
a'rp'IKTOrv 7rdXetov 'roXeftlietv 8' IdXXea-Oat
Av8pdco-t 7ravporepooa-t, TrXo? 8' oi 7rd T' 7 reavTat.
el' rep ydp a c' e0'eotfXev 'Aaatol Te Tpce' 7re,
op/cca rto-rTa Trapovre, aptsprw7j0'vevat alow,
Tp&ese F'e' Xe'aaoa0ab, eJoa-Toat '0a-oa e'aa-w, 125
fLFI ? 8"' Se acd8as? tacooa'O7-lOepev 'AXatol,
TpWcv S' advpa e'caTrot eoloiie9a olvoxoevetv,
wroXXal Key 8eKc&ceV Sevoiaro olvodooto.
rTOO-Oov d oyo cy ) wrXeaF; ~ttevat viaqs 'AXat&v

IAIAAO B (11) 29
Tpowo, ot valovuta KcaTa 7rToX' aXX' e'riKovpot 130
7roXXe'wv dc roXlLoev eyXeo-TraXoi alvSpes e'etow,
o0 lkE /Ie'ya '7TX ovc-T ICal o1 O e0 e e Xovra
'IXlov eicrpo-al, e vatlevov '7rroxle0pov.
evvea 8 /3e/3Pdaac Aeo pq/eyAiov EeLavrol,
a al 8 8oipa aEo-pre veOv ical o-rdpTa XXvovraC' 135
al 8~ rov tiLE'pal hoXos ica7 vrdra 'rlcva
e'CT' is' p eydpo&' 'foTte'yp/eval ap plL Se f'pyov
av'rwa acpaavrov, oS etivweca Sep' lito/eT-Oa.
dXX' dyef', av e'yt et'rco, 7re0'lpe0a ?ravTre-
eytO/Lpev abv vrv"ar )V llo- v d9 Trarplta yaoavr 140
ob 'yap gTt Tpocrlv alprio.o .ev evpvayviav.

The host rush to the ships and make haste to put to sea.
04 Tdro, rodo-L 8 OUvpov 'i o'Tr'eOo-rv o'ptev
7ri-e peTea rX7Ivv,"v, o0-ot ov 3ovXr] e'rrdaovaoav.
Kcvrjrl S' Ayopl 0'fi K apaTa acpat Oa daraoi,
'TvTov 'Icaplo"o :'a pAv T' ETpv re NO-TOv 'r 145
opop e'ra d a' ra p-poe At dic vppedXav.
d 8' &'re KPw~v oy' Ze pvpo, pa9aO XijLov XO4v,
Xdi3po deras7ylwov, eri 7' pl..e. ao-raXvcO-O-v,
cs TOWv 7Trro alyops ictvj07,, TO7 8' A aX7 jTq
v4a? r e' o--eov'roV, Vro8v S' vrevep'Oe Kovi~ 150
t'rar' aetpopLevi. Tro 8' AX4Xioose i, evov
a7rreo-Oab v7)iv i8' E 'Xci'ev elq aXa 8Fav,
ovpoiv 7 eeicafcapov av1r 8' oipavov iKev
oticaSe ieevcove b'rb S' Ijpeov ppfara v7wv.

Hera sendeth Athene to stay the flight of the Achaians.
e'va Icev 'Apyeloa-tvw vrepopa vT0o eTXOli,
el AO'vaOltv Hp7 rpfl pfiOov e6rrevW 156
o" rorot, alytoXoto Atbq reKco, aTrpvTOv,

30 AIAIAAO B (u)
oiVmc 82j olicOv6e, pIXirv e? Tarp[Ba 8 yaaav,
'Apyeot fe;vfovrat 6r' evpea vwa BaXda-cr ;
S., 8 8' Ke6V eXWXglv IIpt 'q) Kai Tpw, l Xl7rotev 160
'Tpyeiv 'EXevv, F ew'veKca roXXol 'Axatwv
ev Tpo[ airdhXovTO, 0' 7,f lrv 'raTpli0o air].
aXX' 0Wt viv Kara' Xaov 'AXathov XaXKoxtrrdTwv,
a-ort ctyavot 'Crearo-a-wv Cep'47ve oTa "cao-Tov,
fi78E ca vaq a'iXa8' EXcKe/rv a teXlo-a~." 165
Athene biddeth Odysseus stay the host from flight.
oqs ear' o8' aT ril7Oo-e OeA yXavU crrLa 'A9Ojv'7
8p3 S8 ca-r' OXvpewroto iaprvwv adaao-a.
[Kap7raXlwv' 8' i'cave Ooa'r; via 'AXatiov.]
e'pev 're T' '08vca-a Asd Lrtv 4j rdaXavrov
e-TaoT o0 8' 1o 7 vrrb; E'va 0a-toOo fJeXalv's 170
a7rT7ET', '7W tbv a0o, K pat5vv IKa Ov/ltbv ICavev.
ayXGov 8' lTrale'vry rpoo-'0~] yXaavtcrtc 'A0~jvr'
" Stowyevm Aaepretad87, 'roXv/L7L'XaV 08vo-re,
oiVTW 8\ olKtv8e, Ai'X7rv e 7ra-rplSa yaFav,
fdev;ecr0' v reo--L roXvUcXrtrt 7re-'oeVTe ; 175
a8 8 ICE v e3XoWXAv Ipt p ICea Tpwo-b X1TrorTe
'Apyelrv 'EXbv5v, 9f e'veica rroXXo 'AXatL&v
iv Tpol' a7roXovTo, 4tX'rq ro\ irarpip8o; ad'7.
cXX' 'i0 viv KcaTr Xaabv 'AXasov, 1Ly78 7' dpdet,
o-oKq 8' dyavotE Q'cTeao-a- epr'rve frTa eAcaa-ro, 180
at8 Be'a vsja aXa8' A/c' ev afselleXto-a;a."
Odysseus by taunts and threats stayeth the flight.
Scfid O', o 8 a vvoe'sce 6ea,; O65ra cxovt-aicrs,
e8\ Oe eew, A7ro 86 yXavav /3dXe' rsv 86 Kcora-ev
icjpv EvpvU/3Pd7 'IWac'crjo-, ',o ol 6Or'OSet.
av;Tr 8' 'Arpe'Sew 'Ayaxeaie'ovov Adv'rIoc \Ov 185

IIAIAAO B (i) 31
Searo' ol o-Kcirrpov 7raTrprsov, altOTov ale'
abv TI g/3r Karah vaq 'AXateiv XalXcoXtTrvvwv.
o'v rIva uev paorcija ical eoXov avSpa lcebXld ,
7TO 8' ayavolE e'reerea tv epr]r-rao-/ce wrapao-Trd
" 8a/Ovt', ov ee eoo/ce caicov & Sew8LO-a-e-at, 190
aXX' a'rof re icf'iao-o ica'O aXXov Z8'pve Xaov.
ob yap srow a-da ol-0', olo vodov 'Arpetdwvoa'
viv ulcv retpaTra, Tria 8' 't6frat vla, 'AXatcov.
ev 3ovXjq 8' o6 rav7Tes aKovao-ajfev, oov eEtrT E ;
fJr Tr XoXWLarD/ero4? Aiy KcaKcov vlas 'AXatov. 195
OvBo, 8se pLeyav? a''T Sto-pefeowv paro-atXr v,
T/. S' e' Ato9 e'a to, tXeie Se 86 UrVTea Zev."
ov 8' af 8Sijuov avSpa t'8ot 8o'ov'rd 4 eDpoI,
arv aKi'jrrcpt) edXcao-rcev toicak oao'lc e 0 tw"
" 8atovt', aTrpe aT Jo-o KaLt aXXov fDivov alcove, 200
oa tro epaepoI el'ut, aV 8' ta7rrdXe/Lo eal avaXKFc,
ovTe 7To7- v TroXe/.wk evapiPtlow; ov-r' evi povXj).
o puev 7 rw 7rdv7re 3ao-hiXev'(-oev edvd8' 'AXatoi.
ob c dyaOov 7roXvKotpavlr" elcf KOpavoF 0~r"-,
ew /aaotXev;, 0 83ace Kpdvov 'dri dyIKVXloapjTea 20
[o-icrr7Tpo T' 86 Oepioa-Taq, wa -ILo-Ct )ao-tXe;]."

The host assemble again. 1Tersites revileth Agamemnon.
09 o ye Kcotpavecv tere a-rpari- ol 8' dyop'vSe
avrt eTe6rea-vovro veov airo Kcalb KcXt-ertov
(X W, <5 Tre tc/ja 'rovovdolao-/foo OaXcdoao-arl
alytaXw pe[ydaXp SpepeTra, atapay/e 8' Tre rrowTO?.
aIXhot /Lev p' efovro, eprjTV0ev 8E KcaB' e8pas, 211
Oepo-lT79 8' eT )eoivo e ar oeTrp s icoX a,
0 r76a Opea! PXoC we e ,
o,? Toxa, T

32 IAIAAOX B (ir)
jppevat. aitorxt-T'ov 8e av'p vTro "IXtov X96ev'
OoXKo eH, v, WXo- S' prepov rdo8a' Ti 84 0ol fco
KUpTwo, e7r TT'70o, avvoXoKicTe avrap i57repOev
00o 6'v7 KcofaXjv, *fe8v 8' E'7revujvoOe XdXv?7.
4XO-CCTO 8' 'AXiXj, 'Xtd-crT' v 778' 'O8vorft 220
T) 'yap veLKeLeoice. TOT a' 'Ayai.vovt 81.
Zoea KeicXrl') X' ovelea- T. 8' ap' 'AXatol
eK7rdcy7lX Kcorovro vet/plo-a-0oev t eOv tv,.
avrap d puaKcph po(ov 'Ayap vova vel~cee pv9-
"'Arpei'Sd reo 87 air j'tlepI eat 86' xarTTevt ; 225
rrXefa 0 ro XhaXXKo KcXtrlat, troXXalt Se yvva0ic
elat-v vi KtXtao-l'y? ealperot, h To 'AXatol
7rpwrrTW 818o0~ev, ef3' av rToleOpov tXwfLEv.
1 t Kial Xpv'o-oD ed7rt8eat, ov Ked T~ oio-et
-Tp(omv i'troSdf/ov de 'IXlov vlo? a7rotva, 230
o v ev eyco 8 a 0-as dAyd/yw qj aXXo" 'AXatov,
rle yvvaica ve7'v, 'va placyeat ev bXoT7rTt,
qv T7 avbo' a7rovoo-t icaTtaoeat; ob pev 'oucev
apXyv govTra Kica tv E'7rtaaro-Eev vlaa 'AXatwv.
wdr '7reoveo KCaIc' eXe' y 'AxadSeq, oi;cEr' 'AXatol,
oiKa8e 7rep o-rv vrfvo- vecwea, rovWe 8' e4~jev 236
YoO ebl TpoC lye]pa rreoa-'epev, oL pa i'8r7at,
r I pa 7L ol X' 7/peL 7rpoo-auvvo/zev rFe tcal obvL'
'9 cai viv AXtXia, Co pL' acetlvova ipora,
IjTluWIo'ev' Xw yp 'l yet pay, avT'rs aJrovpa'y. 240
AXha u/adX' obc 'AXtXct Xo'XO dbpeaotv, a'a 'erj owv'
Syap av, 'ATpeftS", viv Lo-rara Xowr,8iato."

Odysseus rebuketh Thersites, and striketh him iith his staff.
JB fadr7o vI2eCE 7-- rotlleva Xaiv
Epa-IT~f / 1^^^^^^^^^^^1

IAIAAOE B (n) 33
epoirr' &Kpt7r-ov'/le, Xtyi!? Wrep e.wv ayopr77f,
toxeo, 117)' e'eX' olo eptielevaL 3aaLXeSao-v.
ob yap el7o C eo frl/t e XepeLtOTP pov f v iXXov
'LCeavat, o-oaot a'/' 'ArpedSip vrro "IXtov iXOov.
7T ovic av 3aaoagavt a v o odp' 'eXwv ayopevov 250
Kca ucftvw breed 'e 'rpoo epot v'a-TOV e v-do'ra-o.
obSe r7 C) aacda 'iS1Lev, 07rrw e'orat rd78Te 'pa,
SeV Ie Kcatc) vo0T17'rjTopeV vte? AXamwv.
T7o vvv 'ATpe!'r 'Ay ae'l/vov, rrotfievt Xawov,
lor-at ovest8(wv, STb ol udXa 7roXhX SMSoGaov 255
ptpweq Aavaol" a-6 8 icepTOIejV a yopev'et.
"x 'l a-' I Iat
aX\' e'ic ro ep6(, TO 84 Kcal Tere7eaevov e'o-as*
et c' hcr 0' apalvovTa IKtc jaoat, (;A vv rep 7 se,
Lwc7r ETreLT 'O8Vao-7 iccapi7 aLotaJow t erevi,
It78' 6'rT TrlXepadow 7raTr7p iceicKX.E'vo efiy7, 260
el dEyc o-e hXap3v &wrro iv pihXa ea ara Sc w,
XXatvadv 7 jSe X tyr&va, TL 7T' al8S)o dputcaXlv'res,
avroyv Se Xalovra 0oa4 drl v4aq d'-a
v7rerXflyw< dyopj 8ev decIco'a--6 7rX1I7?rya-v." 264
&) lip C'4, acr-Kijrp 8e pSerdipevov ST8 tcal w1 o
rX~v"er v 8' 18v0r17 OaXepbv 8E ol c&recre Sacpv.
o-L&8tf& 8' alardo-a-a pJeTrappevov ev'r7avea'Trl
oa-K~Iirrpov V ro pvUo-ov 8' S ap keo rdp/iyo-Ev re,
aXEyD7-a0 8', axpeZov iSwv, d'avo'opparo 8dicpv.
ol Ical aXvvevoL 7rep 7e' avTo 8 .v ey'aa--av*
0)86e 86 T9 e'weloa-cev 1'8v e? rXr-rlov dXXov' 271
" rrorrot, 8\/I Ovpt' 'O8vcro-a-ev; co-\ oplev
,3ovd9 7T' jfdpw'v ayaOea 7"roXelXov re Kopvoa-wv"
vvv 86 rdTe /.e' aiptaroLv ev 'ApyeToo-~tv peiev,
S7eOv aXw/3l77rpa edre'fadoXov e'o-' dyopdiv. 275
o Oiv pr rdXw a (rTv Avjf -e Ovpb ayrjvwp
veLiel.ew 3ao-Xaq ov e oelos rf'ec-a-wv."

34 IAIAA0O B (n)
Odysseus urgeth the host to stay till they have taken Troy, which
shall be in the tenth year of the siege.
s (Odfcav 7 ijrXv'qY"' tva 8' 6 nrToXlrop0o0 'O8va-

o1-7 aOcrlrrpov cwv* 7raph 8E yXavi /)7rt 'AO Srl
elt80oev7 KIjpvcK, C'tYL riv Xabv avcryew, 280
(s apa 8' ot vpoTol Erp IcaL va'raTot v te 'AXai&v
1 0o0v O aco0oetav ial e7rtepaa-caa'laro 8ovXrv.
o o-bwev b (pove'v byopojaaTo cal p/ete7Tev'
"'ATpetSr], viv 8' oae dva, e0'Xova-w 'AXatol
'raatv e'YXyx-'rTov OeL~V val /Leporer'ot 3pOT'Oiatv, 285
ov8e TO EKTeXeovoa-w vro o-eo-'e Fv rep v7reoa-av
evs~' ' a-'eLXOvre air' "Ap'yeov i7hro83P oto,
'IXLOv E'icrpcr'avr' e'vrelteov arvovee-Oat.
r; Te ryPp q TraFSe? veapoi X'fpal re yvvaticeK
aXXxota-v 68vpovrat oxIcovWe vweo-Oat. 290
j krv ical 7rodvos e'rtz Avtile'vTdra ve'eo-Oat.
ceal 7yp Tr1 0' 9va /tLva tevwv )rb t v aX6Xoto
aoXaXkda v vv' vroXvr ,y, 8v 7rep adeXXat
Xet.pePta elXe'o-w ptvopcevn re 0dXaoraa'
fiuv 8' ewa'ro ea-'rt rrreptrpovreov evtavTO's 295
evda8e pttvovPreo-t. Tro o vefipelfo'i 'AXatov'
ao-aXa'av 7rapa vruval icopcwvrt' aTXXa al "a K '7r
alio-pov Trot rpo v re Ei'VEtV Kcveov Tr veea-Oat.
TX7-)e, tLXot, ,cal ~fevar' e'LITr Xpovov, Sopa Sa&euev,
4 dreoy Ka'dXxa /IavTreevat 'e ica' ovclc. 300
ef 7ry 8a 4 To'de '8pev eit peolv, eo-~~r' 8Trdv'req
ItdpTvpoL, ov; p ic Kpe< '3av Oav'droto depovrat"
XOtria re Kal '7rpwbl'"r' o e' e AzX[a vleq' 'AXato&v
iyepeOovro iKaca' IIptailp /al Tpawot e'povcrat
/e6 8' ad/ptl '7rep't icpsrvrv IepoV icara /ob.vO' 305
pSopLer Maavrot-t eX reai'ao-a- eKca-To /3aa ,

IAIAAO B (11) 35
icaXj vrb rXaaravla'ryoWa,ofev per vyXabv i8owp
0v0' ecdvr e'ya aicfLa' 8pdicnv cdrl vvira Safotv&y,
oyLep8aXl'o, TOv a "Tos '0XVOILMo 'Kie (doc-8e.
/3oipoD vraiav "rpo'd pa 'hXa'rdvwroTv opovo-ev. 310
vOa S' crp-wrpovOoto veoa-ol, v rjrca Te'va,
5 60 E'ap' caKpOTr, wer7aXo'? 7TO7T7rer76WTe9,
OKTO~ arap /i7T7lp EvaTfi v, IE TKe reicva.
'v0' ye roye e1 Xeea icaT7rj e TerpLV'wraq
p4rrp 8' ad/feTroaTro oSvpopj6'v7 hixa r6'/va* 315
T7v 8' 8ee fE idevoi rrTept/yoC Xcd/ev Apitaxvyav.
avTap ajrel cara T eKcva dCye orTpov9Ooo ical arv,
7TV ILnEv a&t7XOV Orjice e06, 9 rep '/Ynvev-
xaav 7yp prv eB'jte Kpovov wardc da~ yXo/jrTew
1pef 8' eo-Tao'Tre avd6op.Lev, olov ervXi' 1.. 320
rC obv 8ewtv T7reXpa OBecv el(aXO' icarTo/paT,
K6Xxa? 8' adric' E'7reta Georpo7er'wv aoyopevevr
T7rT7 avew 6yeve-rO, icapt KcotO'ovTre 'AXaol ;
p7Lv /Jv T78' '07ve 7rpa oe'ya rtiera Zeos,
'fLtpIov 6fLEXEtTt 'Tov, 0o cXe'o oi 7TO7T' 3XeZTac. 325
o oVro5 Icara recva dye orTpov oIo Kal aTrjv,
OICKT, aTap /ip 'rip eva'rT fv, 'Tce TE/cva,
& rvefs 7ocaa(T' eraT ea WrTOXe/jo/ev alO,
7T6 Se/caTQ) 8e rdXtv alpro-opev ebpvdyvoav.'
iefvwoI TFV drypeve"' r. 8r vvv rrdvra reXef at,. 330
aXX' laye JlIvere 7rr'yeVT, 6EICVijLt8e?' 'Avatol,
avTro, el Kev aa-ce pe'l~a Iipdl oLo eAXwpev."
Nestor encourageth the host to stay.
c e'4ar'7', 'Apyedot S /iey' tiaov, 4Apo 8' vpes
a-jep8aX6v ov /ovd/3ro-av advodvTrv v r' 'AXatc&v,
tfpOov edratvio-avTre '08vUcrgo Od eoto. 335
Tol7o- 84 ical tereTECre 'teprjv o' Icq rdra Ne'o-oTp'

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs