Front Cover
 Title Page

Title: Ndevo, Yenombe, Luvizho and other Lilima texts
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076190/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ndevo, Yenombe, Luvizho and other Lilima texts
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Fortune, G.
Publisher: University of Cape Town,
Copyright Date: 1940
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076190
Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: 28193017 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
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Full Text


of Cape



(New Series No. 21)
July, 1949


other Lilima


Edited with English translation and notes

Price 4/-

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S r UiM f r L~-
loi I Of FLORI

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and other Lilima texts.

Edited with English translation and notes



Cominnications from the School of African Studies
University of Cape Tolm

1949 <-

--r F." pr ~~9 rp 151P;\P13~~~



The original MSS upon which the following texts,
translations and notes are based, were written in 1943, at
Francistown, at the request of Professor Schapera. Texts I,
II and III, viz., Ndeuo .eqormbe luizho, Ualumbila and Ndeio
y_ al!uka kweludzi gwakaMosoiani, were written by Mr. Dintweng
Kousu, a cattle-guard in the Government Veterinary Department
at Franoistown. Text IV, Kulonda ludzi gweaTeti, was writ-
ten by Mr. Khudu Moloi, another Jovernment employee at Fran-
cistown. Both writers have employed the Lilima dialect of
the Kalarga dialect-group. Both used, in the MS versions,
an orthography similar to that found in the KalaOga publica-
tions of the London Missionary Society e.g. Ipelete mu
ndebo ye tjikalanga (Tiger Kloof, 1945).

In editing the texts, I have found it more satis-
factory to use a slightly adapted form of the orthography
now current in the Central bhona educational field, rather
than the Kalaaga orthography. My reasons for doing so were
two. Firstly, the comparison between KalaQga and Central
Shona was made clearer when both were written in a common
orthography. Secondly, the Central Shona orthography is
able to distinguish phonemes which are not distinguished in
the KalaOga orthography.

Thus, instead of using the symbol b for both the
voiced biabial fricative and the voiced bilabial explosive,
I use the two symbols k and b for these two sounds. I dis-
tinguish the labialized alveolar fricatives and from
the consonant-semivowel combinations, sw and zw. For tj, I
write c; for n, _; for ng, _qg; and for the voiceless velar
fricative, which has been represented in the Kalsoga dialect
of the Kalarga dialect-group by h, I write x. In the case
of the words indicating to eat and to fear, in which there
are so many dialectal variations in the Shona field, I have
followed the Central Shona convention of using the digraphs
ty, dy. Thus to eat s kudya; to fear = kuta,

In the text, the symbol h indicates two different
sounds, viz., h and E. After voiceless oonspnants and con-
sonant-combinations, it indicates the voiceless glottal
fricative. Thus ph, th, kh, tsh. After nasal consonants,
or when standing alone as the only consonant in a syllable,
the symbol h stands for the voiced glottal fricative. Thus,
mh, nh, h

As there are no implosive sounds in the KalaQga
dialect-group, the symbols 6 and d are not used; and since
the rolled consonant r does not as a rule occur in either
the Lilima or the Kalarga dialect, I use the symbol 1 for
the lateral which takes its place.

In regard to word-division, too, I have departed
from the current Kalaqga practice and have followed the
lines recommended in paragraph 414 of A Comparative Study
of Shona Phonetics by Professor C.M. Doke (University of
the Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, 1931). This system
of conjunctive writing is, in the main, that which obtains
in Central Shona. I have retained the original paragraph-
division of the texts, but must assume responsibility for
almost all the punctuation and sentence-grouping within
the paragraphs.


I have tried to accompany the Lilima text with a
translation which would render the original as literally as
possible, but which would also be clearly intelligible in its
own right. Thus, I have endeavoured to adopt a parallel system
of punctuation throughout, in both text and translation, and
as close a grammatical and syntactical correspondence as
possible, translating, e.g., impersonal constructions by im-
personal constructions, participials by participials, and so
on. In one or two cases, I have introduced words into the
translation which have no verbal equivalent in the text, but
which I judged necessary for intelligibility. I have placed
such words in brackets to indicate that their exact equivalent
should not be sought for in the text.


In writing the notes, I have taken for granted a
knowledge of Central Shona phonetics and grammar. From this
standpoint, then, I have mentioned, commented on, and sometimes
endeavoured to explain, the form in which the KalaOga and
Lilima dialects depart from the Central Shona.

The notes are divided into four sections by the roman
numerals I, II, III and IV, and each section is concerned, re-
spectively, with texts I, II, III and IV. Within each section,
the notes are numbered by arabic numerals, and correspond to a
word or phrase, similarly numbered, in text or translation,
which is the occasion for the note.


In the first place, I should thank the two authors,
more particularly Mr. Dintweng Kousu who came from Francistown
to visit me at Empandeni Mission, and who, for a day, gave me
his assistance in the editing and translation of his work.
The translation, in the main, had been done with the help of
four KalaOga and Lilima-speaking students of the Teacher
Training Course at Empandeni. I am very grateful to them for
their help, especially to Dominic Hunyane who was able to give
me exact and relevant information on many aspects of Kalaqga
grammar. But I should like to repeat that I was fortunate in
getting the services of Kousu himself in the elucidation of
several passages about which the younger men had been uncer-
tain, and that I, am grateful to the District Commissioner of
Francistown who granted him leave of absence. Professor
Lestrade has helped me considerably in the composition of the
notes, and those who read them will realize how widely he has
drawn on his knowledge of Sotho, Venda, Nguni and Teonga --
not to mention Portuguese and Afrikaans -- with results that
are highly illuminating for the understanding of KalaOga and
give some idea of the contacts which this group of dialects
has had with other languages. Finally, sincere thanks are
due to the Mariannhill Fathers of Empandeni Mission for their
hospitality during two periods of study, and to the School of
African Studies of the University of Cape Town for grants
covering the expenses incurred both in travelling and in en-
gaging informants.


When I have referred to other languages and dia-
lects in the notes, it has been according to the following

Sh. stands for Shona; C.Sh. for Central Shona; Ze. for
Zeruru; Ma, for Manyika; Ka.for Karanga; Kl0. d.g. for
Kalarga dialect-group; Li. for Lilima dtaleet; Kl.
for Kalaoga dialect,

Ng. for Nguni; Zu. for Zulu; Xh. for Xhosa; Nd. for

So. for Sqtho; S.So. for Southern Sotho; N.So. for
Northern Sotho; Tsw. for Tswana.

Ve. for Venda.

Tso. for Tsonga.

Afrik. for Afrikaans.

With regard to grammatical terms, I have used the
following abbreviations :

Pose. stands for possessive;
c. for concord or concords;
obj. for object;
subj. for subject;
qual. for qualificative;
01. for Noun class or classes.

An arabic numeral in brackets, e.g.(9), indicates
the noun class of that number, e.g. Noun class 9.

The sign / between two forms indicates that they
are alternative to one another.

Professor Doke's Comparative Study of Shona
Phonetics is once referred to as Sh. Ph.


1. Dombe iphuka4 yeludzi gwenyati5, ogono6 yakakovegwa7

oathu8 rgenDzimu9,10 kuti itacidze agemishirgoll, ioaamule
mitolo yemathudzil2 ieyemauokol3.

2. Akuna14 phuka hulu paoombel5 munshiago weoiKalaoga.
Kukayil16 : "Inolila, iti17, 'Mbuu'."18 Ogono uaKalanga %a-
kaituthal9, ueti :
Thukutidza zimilo21, hukutu zeme nenyarga;
Ikati mbumba unagaga22,

Thukutidza nzi, nthudze ukadzila oumba.

Gwendo gwedu23 tiyenda Xauta24,
Takayenda till uashayi25,
Tikawuya till majaxa2 anotakula Oombe.
Cilume cafila qombe conofila27 oanandogwana."

Ndiko.tuthiwa28 kweQombe qgeialumetate29 mbeli30 kwa~oshe31
neaasuggwasha uauo, dumba lilila :
"Nyika yakavakwa rge1iombe iti : 'Mbuu'.'"

3. DaKalazga canoda combe kene32? Ee, oathu oose,
oaoena nevatema. Dombe inodigwani33 kene? Phuka dzose
dzakathulwa dzoyi34 oombe celudzi35 Swadzo, qgono toleia
Igekwegombe36 luvizho.
"Eyi37 yakatiambudza gwlzi gulizhele38;

Ikarwa39 rkaka, udigwa mushupa, kunuougwa mafuta,
Anozhogwa40 igeaaloggo neuazele neagawana;
Okaka powe uowiwa Qgewana, qpwe udigwa mumakukhwa,


1. The head-of-cattle is an animal4 of the buffalo5 kind but it6

was distributed7 among men8 by God9,10 so that it might assist them by

its laboursll and carry for them the burdens of their shoulderse and

their arms.

2. There is not14 a greater animal than the beastl5 in the work of

the Kalaoga mode of life. It is said16 : "It cries out, saying17,

'Mbuut'"18 Then the Kalaega people praisel9 it, saying

"Listen to it'.20

(It) makes the noses glisten21, hard ears and horns;

It makes a heap and a half22,

(It) males the village satisfied, the dung anears the houses.

We go our journey23 to Johannesburg24

We went as needy men25

We came back as young bloods26 driving our cattle.

The little man who has worked hard for cattle,

Is going to wcrk hard27 for those who have breasts (i.e. women)."

That is the praising28 of the cattle by the fathers of families29 in the

presence30 of the chiefs31 and their heirs, ihiie the drum beats out :

"The country was established by the beast trying, tMbuult'

3. Do32 the Kalajga people love cattle? Yes, all men, white and

black (do). Why33 is the beast loved, I ask? All animals which are

domesticated are forthwith34 named livestock according to their kind55,

but we are now speaking of the real livestock36.

"This one37 helped us to ford the rivers in flood38;

It is milked39 for its milk, being poured into the calabash,

being churned into butter,

Which is smeared on40 by the young brides and nursing mothers

with infants;

Some milk is drunk by children, some poured into bags

Uoombekwa, ukavaoga Zodyiwa4l zi we nezinwe zakafani-

lana nawo seshadza42 kene thopi43,

Kudya oalumetate neuakadzi, uomayi neoana."

Igono ha44 nthu asina Qombe inokaqwa, unokumbila kugowe

kati :* "Mundisaidze45 phugwana46,. tate Euagu47, ndice48 ndi-

kamila uana canolila rkaka." Ogono hama iye49 ikampa pho-

lombe50, dzili mbili, kene 111 iaompela51; ikazala kakama

okaka, kanuuula, kazhadza ziteme zioili kene zinna52 egego-

le. Dgono kaseaga ziteme zose, kanoZipa nthu wakansaidza

qombe. Ogono qweni53 weqombe kazithuoukanya ogepakati, ka-

Qkoeela, kampamo ziQwe, lye kasala neziQwe kuendilila54

makole ose. Ha rombe dzaue njinji55, rweni weoombe kadusa

irwe oombe yepholombe, kapa nthu waakasaidza, katakula

oombe dzidze kayenda. Dombe ndume dzosunugwa, kukashagwa

irompela ikasala isakasunugwa. Inoyl okono, rgono edzi dza-

sunugwa dzoyi maboyi56, dzopuougwa zimilo dzili ronzana57,

dzitastwa qgeoalisana uedziidwisa58. Ha dzakula, dzotogwa

pgeaalumetate uakadzishiogisa millmolume59, dziseoga tsapi,

dzishuzha kumago. Ogono qkono ha utoQwa usirgakwille60,
unobomiwa mbaDashulo61 mubutu; kene upembela agemizi yose,

unolapiwa Qgeoaiga dziudzioisa pembela kwawo. Ha walambo-

teuama62, ukasunugwa, likaue !imbi. Dombe hadzi ha dzisi-

Qgazale zuuuyanan&63, dzoshakigwa64 oanga, ikadzilapa. Kene
dzisina qkaka, koshakiwa nti unoyi thulule. Ukabikigwanyi-

wa65 agepxe, agono kukaQwisiwa qombe dzikatulula Qkaka.

Ogono ha kull muzhizha, rombe dzopuQga dzibuda maqgwanana,

zhuva libuda. Ha zhuia laedza, dzokwarga; dzikacuya kuho-

kawwa66, ualisana Qakapiwa okaka, iakaowa.

And stored to thicken, and you mix foods1 of one kind and

another that go with it like mealie porridge or melon

cooked with real43

When there are eating men and women, mothers and children."

Now iA4_-a person is without a cow for milking, he applies to another

man and-says : "Please lend45 me a small beast46, my father, so that

I may be milking for my children who cry for milk." Then his49

kinsman gives hi-:, heifers50, t o in number, or only one51; it bears

young and he dra-s the mi-lk, shakes it, and fills two or four52 small

calabashes a year. IfTen he tales all the calabashes and Gives them to

the person who lent him the beast. Then the owier53 of the beast

divides them in half, makes him a distribution, and gives him also

some, while he remains with the rest this going on54 every year.

When the cattle have become numerous55, the owner of the cattle takes

out one heifer, gives it to the man to whom he made the loan, and

drives off his cattle and goes. Iiale cattle are castrated, and there

is chosen one and it remains uncastrated; it is called a bull, these

castrated ones are now called oxen56; they are then pierced through

the nose while calves57, being ridden by the herd-boys taming them58.

When they have groin, they are then taken by the adult men and they

put them to wo3k on agricultural work done by men59, carrying sacks and

going out to buy in distant parts. Now when the bull is seen not to be

serving60, it is rubbed on the scrotum with the herb mba1ashulo61; or

(if) wandering through all the villages, it is treated by doctors pre-

venting its wandering. If it has refusedJto submit62, it is castrated

and becomes a bullock. h,,en cows are not bearing satisfactorily63, a

doctor is sought64 for them and he treats then. Or (if) they are

without milk, there is :. search for a plant called thulule. It is

cooked up together with65 sweet-reed, then administered to the cows,

and they yield milk abundantly. Now ihen it is the rainy season, the

cattle graze briefly going out in the morning, at sunrise. When the

sun has risen, -Ley- a:: then swollen iith i.ilk; they return to be

milked"0, .:id ti boys a~ie ;,ivn the milL, uaf thej drink.


Dgwenu uakanolisa Qakaouya madekwana vehokotosa. Ha mbisa-

na anolisa eiuya abedza, unocuya emba lumbo gunoyi

"Maqgwana dzinaNtolido,

Kakhwa67 uukwilo,

Kai.ga katilika gurwe palukuta."

Dgono wabedzegwa unoryalalaze68; unohopela69 kambauo igogu

lumbo zhuma laanobedza. Nakale akutolisa70 Qalisana ooga;

mizi isinamalisana, kolisa banana; rgono banana acatomba

igogu lumbo.

4. Dendo ligwe lerombe yeli71. Ha unadarga leiombe,

unoziooti unamasimba ose; ha upiwa rkadzi, unolo3ola ndi-

dzo72; kene unauana ueualisana, unooalouolela ndidzo,

dziowe uteioesa, ushaka Qguuo dzerkadzi nethako. Ka-

kale, ha usinarombe, ogono unaoana ueoaanadi73, unooalouo-

dza, utema danga; dumba74 koholila, uzana lende seoaowe75,

uti :

"Dusukwana Gwenombo'

Usinaroombe kalila : 'Ee, aaha'.'

Usinagombe kalila : 'Ee, aaha.'"

Dathu uantolo76 uakati combe yakazha muuathu idwa kudziQwe
phuka, yatuowa gernDzimu kuti ihodzala fuQwa rgeQwise77.

Saikoku muuona ihoZala wall, ikati : "Fumani mufume neZi-

nyala78 zemakumbo." Ndiko79 uathu uetl :

"Imbaka-nyika, thukutidza zimilo, hukutu zeoe


5. Endani in.Ln.judzi80 dzose dzakathuwa rombe, oamuuu-
dze; agono, uuiullu, ubuZe uakaMarJwatu81 oanocila Qgeoombe

mumikoua yose yeuucilo gwauo82. Uanahwi83 linoti : "Motse

re heta wa balala, wa ba-rua-kgomo, re taena kaone."

Dgono matgheu-zeue84

Then they go out to herd and return in the evening coming to drive

them in. When a herd-boy who has been out to herd, comes back with his

turn over, he comes back singing a song which runs :

"Tomorrow they have Ntolido,

He stamped67 monkey-nut paste,

He placed, he hung some on the fence."

But the one to whom.the turn passes keeps silent on his part; he will
finish and also sing the same song the day on which he completes his

turn. Furthermore, there do not herd70 boys only; in villages without

boys, there herd cirls; but girls do not sing the same song.

4. Here is71 one ipiJortant point about cattle. When you have a

kiaal of cattle, you can say that you have all power; if you are given

a wife, you lobola vith them72; if you have sons, you lobola for them

with the same, selling some, and procuring blankets for your wife, and

dresses too. Furthermore, if you are without cattle, but have

daughters73, you then give them for lobola, cutting a cattle-kraal.

The drum74 will then be sounding, you dancing the marriage-dance like

the others75, saying :

"The little beer of the cattle

He who lacks cattle cries : e, aahalt

He who lacks cattle cries : 'Ee, aahat"

The people of olden times76 said that the beast came among men from the

other animals, having been sent by God so that it might sow wealth

broadcast with its tail77. In accordance with that you see it proceed-

to bring forth young indeed, and it says : "Get rich, enrich your-
selves from the toes78 of.the feet." Therefore the people are saying:

"It is the builder of the country, (it) makes the people

content, hard ears an. horns."

5. Go among all the tribes80 that keep cattle, and let them tell

you : but, above all, ask the Langwato people81 who live by means of

cattle in all the departments of theirG2 life, They have a saying;

which runs : ;e pass by a villa e of poor _)ople, but a village, of

those *jho o:jn.R cattle, wse nter in." Tho the aropaus4


aoo oakanyanya munshigo weiombe. QanoLshigilsa-J.li .phenyu,

neyakafa, kofanana. Kakale, mishiogo iowe yeqombe, takaidi-

yiwa ndiwo matsheu-zeve, inoQga xulexa85 nombe mujokwi,

tikweia koloyi necileyl nelima, mishigo yakaue islQgazibge

qgeiaKalaiga ntolo. Dgono kuoinazipwe86 ithu Zinoshiigwa
igeoombe zisathu87 Zikapetunugwa, rgo3 e njudzi inji dzino-

leua nshiogo weQombe luiizho, NemaPothoko akaoaka mu-

Rhodesia anoleoa kwazo agekwenombe; aatoimidzila88 mate,
akati :
"Dombe inotipa gadzika nyika,

Ikatiwetela zikulekule."

6. Fa kwegombe. Ha Qombe yabayiwa, nthu waibaya unopiwa

nyama inoyi ciuulayo89, Qgone ndiye waitulaya. Daviyi va-
nokooana mashuno90, Kudwa ipapo, qgwenu mitezho inokoviwa

qgemazina;.bandaiuko loyenda kuiokulu wenzi kuyi : "Banda-

Ouko lakula nzinda." Qgwenu mitezho yoyenda Qgemaizna.

CidZa coyenda kuntukunu waoo oose kuyi i "Luualilo gwe-

rkupa-vula." Phata inopiwa mme oerjweni wegombe, nemazhila ma-

kulu. Malulu nergudugudu kopiwa tate eriweni werombe. Va-

lisana Qanogoca lumende nemauula. Oweni wegombe unosala

neifuoa91. Nemamburumburu anote egocegwa iezi ianopindas92

Nsholo unobikwa ukadanigwa jalume oenzi; oose vakakuwuigana

madekwana neualisana. Dgono vathuntane uakadya mesho, oa-

lumetate oakadya lulumi95, 3 azhuzha oakadya ntsiba, oalisana

takadya zeve nethozo; ganda layo likaueqgwa micili, pagwe

likavambiwa thowo. Nyaoga dzlkaiezhiwa Zibako Zefodyo94

nezidudu zembanje neluueko95. Dkupa-vula ukasukwa Qwenda-

wula. Ikanda cephazha cikacekwa shaagu. Dwise ukathamiwa

phende inohuza thuzi ngeuathuntana.

they are outstanding in cattle-work. They make it work while it is

alive, and even when dead, it is the same. Then again, some of the

uses of cattle, we were taught them by those ones, the -Europeans, such

as to inspan85 the ox in a yoke, we pulling a waggon and a sledge and a

plough, tasks which were unknown to the Kalaoga folk in former times.

But there are still86 some things performed by oxen which have not yet

been related, because many tribes tell of the work of the livestock

proper. Even the MIatebele who live in Rhodesia speak a great deal

about the beast, they do not swallow their saliva over it88, they say:

"The beast enables us to settle the country,

And it brings us things which aru far away."

6. The death of the beast. W1hon a boast has been slaughtered, the

person who slaughtered it is given the meat termed the slaughtered

piece89, because it was he who slaughtered it. The skinners share the

parts called mashuno90. Proceeding from there, now the pieces are

given out according to names. The front shoulder goes to the head of

the village the saying is : "The front shoulder has grown (for) the

heir." Now the pieces go henceforth by names. The thigh goes to the

youngest of then all the saying is : "The lowest rafter of the

eaves." The ramp is given to the mother of the owner of the beast,

also the large intestines. The small intestines and the rectum are

given to the father of the beast's owner. The boys roast the spleen

and the bowels... The owner of the ox keeps the breast91. Even the

remnants get roasted for the strangers who pass92. The head is

cooked and designated for the men of the village; they all gather in

the evening with the boys. Then the old men eat the eyes, the adult

men the tongue93, the young men the neck, and the boys the ears and

hoofs; its skin is slit into riems, sometimes stretched into a mat.

The horns are fashioned into snuff94 boxes and dagga pipes and a

nose cleaner95. The dewlap is softened into belts for spirit dances.

The patch of skin on the forehead is out into shoes. The tail is

fashioned into a whisk which drives away flies in the hands of the

old men.

7. Gala, qombe inozala kaggana96 Qgegole? Inozala ka-

Qompela, qgove inoseoga Qumethu Qwedzi ili zhanakadzi97,

ndiko ikazala. Dombe dzinacitaka98 cadzinokwiigwa, neoia-

ka cadzinozala. Dzokwiigwa ig9pwedzi weMikono,99 dzikaza-

la Qgeowedzi weNdyana neZhedzi. Dgono, ha Qombe dzlzala,

valisana uanoshatha kwazo, Deshiyila mvo, ogoie citaka oe-

Qombe dzizala, uathu iakulukulu auatoalakana qkaka cithu

ceaalisana Qekama, webikila kukhuta100 mvo. Ha kulunwal01,

kotanga kukapandiwa phulu mbeli, uathu oasathu 3akaluma;

uakaluma shule kwephulu. Dgwenu Qkaka ukayenda kumishal02,

ukashirgisiwa rgeuathu zakulukulu. Qgono rombe dzikamiwa

wall dzinamazina; phulu irwe neigwe inoziua zina lamme Qayo.

Ha mbisana ezhula qkota wephulu, elidza nludzi, eti 'Deme-

dzi', owana waDemedzi unobuda kasiya dzitwe phulu dzilimile

zadzo, dzakalinda mazina aDomayi Qadzo. Dgono nerkaka uno-

yenda kumisha wakakoiuwa agemazina eoombe. Dgono dzosimu-

lula103 pxa Qgerwedzi weKuogulu neShoce, dzikapela cose rge-

owedzi weMapembge, dzasala dzikalaluka, dziowisa uukondolo.

Ogono koyi dzakapinda, adzizokwiigwa. Nakale kunanombe,

dzisiqgana, dzinozala koga Qgeowedzi isakalirgiligwa.

8. Hama yeQombe nthu kupinda phuka dzose. Naidzo,

Qombe, dzoziva kuti hama yadzo nthu, Qgoue, ha uleoeleka

nadzo mumishiogo yawakashaoganyila nadzo, dzohwa. Pgono

oukulul04 dzoziza nludzil05 kupinda mahwi ose, ngoie, ha

umisa oombe Qgenludzi ukama, kene uleoesa, inoma cinyolo-

co. Kakale, bombe, ha dzili mushaggo dzikawigwa ogezi-

uandanal06 zinoQga shumba kene mashambo, dzotizhila ka-
nyi107 kwadzo; dzikagika, dziggina mudaqga ladzo dzikumbu-

lana dzomene108, inwe neiowe ikumbula Qwana wayo;


S7. .'Toll mic, how ofton96 in a year does the cow calve? It calves'

once, because' t Carries the foetus for nino97 months; it is then i t

gives birth. Cows have a period98 when they are served, and a period

when they calve. They are served in the month of January9 and calve

in the months of September and Octobor. Nou, when cows calve, the

boys are very glad, making much of the beestings, since at the time

when cows calve, the adult people do not consider the milk it is a

thing for the boys doing the mil1:1int, and cooking the beestings at the

men's plac 00. .'henthe first fruits are eate 01, first there are

doctored the calves beforehand, the people not yet having partaken of

the first fruits. They eat the:,:, after the calves. Then the milk goes

to the family courtyards02, and is used by the adult people. Now

cows being milked have their names indeed; each and every calf knows

the name of its mother. When the herd-boy opens the gate of the calves

and whistles a tune, calling 'Deiaedzi', Demedzi's calf comes out and

leaves the other calves standing by themselves, waiting for the names

of their mothers. Then even the milk goes to the family courtyards

dividedup according to the names of the cows. But they begin103 to

dry up in the months of May and June, and are quite exhausted in the

month of July, with the exception of those that are out of the normal

run, suckling their big calves. Then it is said that they passed by,

they were not served. Further, there are cows, not many in number,

which calve apart in unusual months..

8. The kinsman of the beast is man more than all the animals.

Even they, .the cattle,' know that their relative is man, because, if

you speak to their while engaged in jobs in which you are associated

with them, they' understand. But particularly4 they recognize a

whistlol05 better than any word, for, if you make a cow stand quiet'

with a whistle while milking, or by raising your voico, it docs so at

once. FArther, cattle, ivhon they are in the bush and are confronted

by wild beasts106 liko lions or wild dogs, flee off to their homo 107;

they reach it, entering into their kraal looking round for one an-

other of themselvesl0, each one looking for its own calf.


uwana, dzoma celudzi. Qgono, ha rweni ezha elidza nludzi

eleoeleka nadzo, dzohwa; dzikabuda mudanga dzikanofula.

Dzinamathuil dzakahwilila cinolebga QgeCweni wadzo,

9. Ini ciowe cinozibga Qgeiathu Qgekwerombe? Njudzi

dzose dzimushaQgo109 dzinaoombe dzigelebgell0 Qombe kwazo.

Dgoue akuna kusiQgadyiwe nyama yecombe naekaka neganda.

Ntolo, shaogo isathu ikagadizkanyiwa egemaKhuwalll, Qombe

dzakaue dzibudigwa Qgengwa kumago, kubayaniwa, kugwigwa oo-

mbe, Qakunda 3aQwe letapa Qombe. Kakale ualume uakaue Qe-

yenda kumago, Qenoshauall2 Qombe kule lule, Qeyenda mirwe-
dzill3 nemiQwedzi, uasakabuya kene makole Zawo, tetshindi-

lila kutuya negombe. Kunahwi linoti : "Zhilume lakatyosha-

ua, lakatya malalo maiu." Liwe likati : "Cilume pa cisa-
fila oombe, canofila oanandogwana," kudwiwall4 ualume iano-

fila kumago call kushaua pombe. Dgono, misi yadzaouya, mi-

pululu inosukana, kuloQgwa masukwa emauuyanill5, dumba li-

lila, kunyakisaniwa kuyi : t"Gwalana lerjombe, Swaoa uuyana-


10. Jenamiso-leoombe yell. Dombe aitoleueleka, koga inb-

zioa Qweni wayo ogemeya. Neoguea kull cusiku, ha usendela

kuilll6, uileza, inokuziua zuouyanana. Neoguua ukayenda

nayo kule kule, ha yocuya unayo, kene yalashika, inozica

agemeyall7 siku nesikati, inozita kogall8, halogalashike.

Kakale, oombeha iyenda kwalnozioa, haitobuzall9 zila; ino-

paulidza koga ikadzina120 ikanoSika kwainoyenda. Naiko

altozita enda itulamila mituthu, ogono inoshiogisa meya

koga. Ndigo oucilo gwenombe, kupinda mesho121 nezeie122.

Neinwa vula, inorwa ogemeya; nofula kwayo, inofula oge-

meya, inoshalula oushwa mugurwe ngemeya.


When it finds (its mother), they stand according to kind. Then, when

the cattle owner canes whistling a tune and talking to them, they

understand; they come out from the kraal and go to graze. When they

have a fit of trembling, they listen to what is said by their master.

9. What is another thing known by people about cattle? All tribes

which are in the countryl9 have cattle; they relyll0 on cattle very

much. For there is nothing that is not consumed in respect of the

beast's meat and milk and skin. Of old, before the country was

settled by the Europeans cattle were being gone out for by war in

distant places, there being fighting and warring for cattle, some, hav-

ing won, capturing the cattle, Furthermore, the men were going to

distant places, going to acquirell2 cattle far away, travelling for

monthsll3 and months, not returned even for years at a time, making

very endeavour to return with cattle. There is a saying : "Tho big

man feared to trade he feared poor sleeping quarters." Another runs:

"If a little man has not striven for cattle, he has striven for women,"

meaning4 the men who die in distant places while acquiring cattle.

Then, on the days when they are back, the shrill cries of rejoicing go

up together, boor for the greeting115 is prepared, the drum sounding

out and, mingled with it, being sung : "Theo little song of the cattle,

lheo gd6d song."

10. A wonderful thing about cattle is this. The boast does not

speak but it knows its owner by instinct. Even though it be night, if

you approach it116, and address it, it knows you well. Even though you

go far with it, if it then returns with you, or it be lost, it knows by

instinctll? by day and night, it simplyll8 knows, it cannot got lost.

Further, when a beast goes whither it knows, it does not askll9 the way;

it simply takes a direct route unti1120 it reaches whither it is going.

Even though it does not know to travel scaling high places, still it

just uses its instinct. That is the life of the beast, surpassing

eyesl21 and ears122. And when drinking .-ater, it drinks according to

instinct; and its grazing too, it grazes by instinct, it selects the

grass among the rest by instinct.

Kakale kunamiti Irwe inodowa kwazo ogecombe ntewa nentobge
nentaiqglzi nompanda -nendumila ndiyo miti inodyiwa qgeQombe.
Neoushwa gwakajaloo1l23, inogushala. Nakale124, ha zushwa

gucilutga, vula icatovudza, qombe adzltoshala kwazo oushwa

gucilukulakula. Dzotaogisa kushala cushwa guZala. Dgono

fula kwegombe ate kuli dya125, hushuzhal26. Dzokotil27 ou-

siku, dzaue lele128, ndiko kwadzinodza129, dzidusa muhomo

inoyi gulu, dzizeula. Dzoloiga muuula, dzimidza gull lu-

kwelele. Ha logati izeula, ikahwa ciowe cakasima, cisigga-

zeulike, inothwa, ikamidza lukwelele goga. Dgono rombe

dzakasimila nyota kupinda nthul30, ogoue, mucilimo, nombe
dzinovukuligwa; nedzinoowa mumatsime, dzorwa dzishwal31.

Dgono dzikacila koga, vula ikadzina ikatovudza. Nakale ku-

nadzigele munjizi dzinamadzica, nemushargo yematete nemaka-

khwa; ndidzo dzinorwa misi yose. Kakale nemuyenda gwendo,

munaQombe, kobargwa vula yezathu, dzoyenda dzikanolala dzi-

saqwa; dzikamuka dzinoQwa maQgwana.

11. Kunadziowe rombe poga, kuzhe132 kwegombe luAizho
kene? Ee, kunadziewe Qombe dzinoyi khwizi nembudzi.

Dgono adzitofanana neQombe luuizho. Nyama yadzo ishoma

neokaka nshoma nemishirgo yadzo mishoma. Kakale adzitodya

iushwa kwazo sepombe luiizho. Idzo igombe dzinocila age-

mazhani ematenjana, rgooe, ha li1 gole lebamba, kusina

oushwa, adzitofa senombe lutizho. Nezio1l33, adzinayo

kwazo. Dgono, ha kuli ousiku, unowana dzoti thuru-thuru

koga. Kunambizil34 nedooki. Edzo ioombe dzakazha nema-

Khuwa. OaKalaQga axatoziua nahiQgo wadzo, naileli zina,

linott mbizi, ate layo.


Then again there are some. trees which are especially liked by cattle -

the ntewa and ntobge and nte&igizi and mpanda and ndumila those are

the trees which are eaten by cattle. Grass also is like that15, it

chooses it. Then againl24, when.the grass is still new, whila the

first rains are falling, cattle do not choose over much the grass which

is still fresh. They begin to take the grass when it is blooming. But

the grazing of a beast, it is not125 its eating, it is its way of col-

lecting16. Later127 at night-time, when they have lain down128, it is

then that they belch129, bringing back from the bag called the stomach

and chewing. They then return it to the intestines, swallowing what is

soft. While it is still in a position to chew, and feels something

hard, which is not able to be chewed, it spits out, and swallows tho

soft stuff alone. Now cattle endure thirst to surpass a manl0, for,

in the dry season, they have holes dug for them; and those which drink

from wells, are then watered every other dayl31. But they survive on

their own, until the rain begins to fall. Further, there are those

which live in rivers with pools in them, and in country with vleis and

lakes; these are the ones which drink every day. And again, even when

you go a journey, and have cattle with you, then there is carried the

people's water, but.they go along, and proceed to lio down without hav-

ing drunk; they got up going to drink .on the morrow.

11. Are there other livestock apart, outside2 the livestock

proper? Yes, there are other livestock which are called sheep and

goats. But these are not like the real livestock. Their meat is

little and their milk is little and the work they do is little. Fur-

ther they do not oat grass a great deal like the real livestock.

These are livestock which live on the loavos of small bushes, since,

when it is a year of drought, without grass, they do not die like

the real cattle. And as for knowledge13,.they have not got much.

Then, when it is night, you find them simply afraid of anything.

There is the horse34 and donkey. Those are livestock which came

with the Europeans. The Kalarjga people do not know their use, and

the name itself, namely mbizi, it is not its own.


Huti135 yakawana kunambizi yeshaqgo. NdiAo ikoshanduligwa

zina layo. Dumbu loyl Tembedza-nlomo; doQki inoyi Lema-


12. Ludzi gwegombe luuizho gofanana kene? A, a, aguto-

fanana. DzeciKhuwa dzipoga, eno naidzo, dzeciKhuwa, inju-

dzi-njudzi seneni. NaQwil36, moziua ha maKhuwa ananjudzi

dzili nji semaAfirika. MaKhuwa anadziowe iombe dzinokarwa

dzisinaphulu, dzili zithumba sembudzi, dzikaita Qkaka. Dzi-

noti, ha wati uikama, ukatagga ukaipa phulu, unoue watapu-

dza Qkaka. Dgono dziqwe Qombe dzeciKhuwa inyolo kwazo,

kwadzisingake dzikacilal37 ha dzili muuaKalaqga. Dzinatu-

nyolo gunocenamisa, nebamba lodzikunda uusimbe. Dgono dze-

ciKalaQga iQombe dzakasima kwazo; dzoziuobagga vula neuu-

shwa kumituthu ikule-kule nenzi wadzo. Naiko ha Qushwa gu-

lizhele, adzitoziuoshwa pathu parompela; adziQgakole. Dzo-

wanana qgoendila uushwa thambo, kakale, dzileyanya mafulo

adzo neQguua cioo cill cioompela. Dgono mafulo akatala-

Qgana. Cithu cilompela cinosharganyal38 ludzi gweqombe

lulizho qkono. Ha wada guowe ludzi ukateoga Qkono wago;

unozha ukwilla rombe dzizala zuouyanana phulu inanyundal39.

Naiko, kutola Qkono usiweludzi gweQombe dzidzo, kuuuyanana

kwazo. Kozagwa phulu dzakasima ogocia140 tate namayi.

13. Mamo141 eQombe. Nthu ndiye unolioga-liogila oucilo

gwayo, ili zhala nenyota, kumumasimba enthu; neougwele gu-

muoombe gouoowa Qgenthu, iyo isambudza. Ogono ougwele gwe-

rombe, uathu auatoguzica kwazo. Uanogwisa koga ogoue aali

vamilili uadzo. Cithu caeanoziaa oiaobe yavunika kene ya-

sonyoka; qgoze uanoluka lupasu uakaipomba; lakapisa ntali-

10142 iakaitalila, cinyoloco ikapola Ikalulama.

The sayingl35 is it got it from the wild zebra. Thus it suffered a

change in respect of its name. Actually it is called Loose-lips; the

donkey is called Monster-ears.

12. Is the strain of real cattle one and the same? No, no, it is

not all the same. Those of the European culture are different, since

oven they, the European onos, are different in kind like their owners.

And you 6, you know how the Europeans have many tribes like the

Africans. .The Europeans have some cattle which are milked while with-

out calf, being milch-animals like goats, and they yield milk. They

are such that, when you milk a cow, and begin by giving it the calf,

you find you have lessened the milk. But some European cattle are very

delicate, to a degree that they would not be able to survive137 if they

were among the Kalarga people. They are surprisingly soft, and drought

hits them badly. But the Kalarga ones are cattle which are very hardy;

they know how to procure water and grass in districts which are -ery far

from their village. And even when grass is plentiful, they do not

think to stay in one place; they would not got fat. They are accus-

tomsd to going distances for grass, and again, altering their pastures

though the water-hole be but one. Then their grazing grounds are

spaced out. The one thing that mixes up138 the strain of real cattle

is the bull. If you want another strain, you buy its bull; he comes

mounting the cattle and they give birth satisfactorily to strong

calvesl3. Indeed, to get a bull not of the strain of your cattle is

a very good thing. There are born strong calves by taking after140

the father and mother.

13. The naturel41 of cattle. The man is the one who keeps looking

after their existence, while, hunger and thirst, it is in the man's

power; even sickness which is in the cattle is soon by the man without

it having told him. But as to cattle-sickness, the people do not know

very much about it, Still they encounter (it) since they are their

guardians. A matter which they do know is a beast broken or dis.

located in limb; for they weave a splint of soft twigs and tie it

round; then they heat a paste142 and qply it in the form of a cross,

and soon it gets better and becomes right.


Ciowe, ha Oombe yakuuala, uanotsha miti, uakaloqga muuaIga;

kene linahonye, kunanti unoyl mberga-honye. Ha uloogwa mu-

oanga, honye dzoshashamuka dzikapela, Qgono qombe ikapola.

Nti unogagwabge kwazo ageuaKalaqga. Ciowe kakale mesho.

Ha Qombe igwadziwa qgemesho, kunamiti inotothekwa. Parwe

uakapisa mbululo, ukati upisa, kukapisiwa phili dzemesho.

ShaQga dzemesho dzikasala pakati, rgono Dushuggu gwemoto

gukapaladza malopa nemishodzi. Ipapa kunanti unoyl nsoso

unogagwabge kwazo unogala mumatombb, unapkaka seokonde.

Dkaka iwoyo unotaligwa utshutshudziwa muphili dzemesho,

nthu ananjele kuti usidothele143 mushapga dzemeaho, aggafa,

qombe ikapofupalal44. Nti usirgabakhwel45 rgeuacecana. Ha

udothela nthu, unosuuuka sewatga qgemoto.

14. Nsi unolila kukalila Oombe, dumba likati : "Wasala

ndiani." Nsindol46,weqombe iwoyo147. Takati ticimumishi-

qgo yeQombe-KalaQga, kukazha maKhuwa. Iwo matgheu-zeue,

macena-ntumbu akati : "Mothuoulila nshiogo werombe, i1i ta-

kapiwa rombe qgenDzimu kuti itibatse." Uakazha neketani148

nemajokwi anazikeyi, nezitoropo nebadza. Dakati : "Xule-

xani, mulime." Uakati : "Cileyi mukweoese." Cileyi cika-

njinjil49. Kunakoloyi yemakumbo manna, inantolo Qkulu pa-

nawekara yemakumbo maiili. Kara inopinda cileyi agentolo,

ikoko nshirgo weoombe ndume. Hadzi dzikakaQwa Qkaka uka-

kariwa, ukadusiwa luuomba gunoseoa zodyiwa. Nshiogo weno-

mbe ukakula ukapaphidzilika. Tikauoka150 kwazo oathu vaka-

zha uehovumbunula mishigo yakace yakasumbikala. Nakale,

kwakajalo, zithu zokula ngemakole.


Another thing is, when a boast is injured, they dig up medicines, and

apply them to the wound; if this encloses worms, there is a herb

called worm-hater. When it is put into the wound, the worms fall down

and perish, and then the beast recovers. The herb is relied on a great

deal by the KalaQga people. Another matter again is the eyes. Whon a

beast is being caused pain with its eyes, there are medicines that are

dropped in. Sometimes they heat a borer, and when it is hot, there

are singed the lids of the eyes.

heat of the fire drives out blood

called nsoso which is much relied

has a milk like the gkonde plant.

rubbed into the lids of the eyes,

not drop143 into the balls of the

the beast be blinded144. It is a

ren. If it drops on a person, he

by the fire.

The eye-balls remain within, but the

and tears. Here there is a medicine

on it grows amid rocky kopjes, and

That milk is smeared on being

the man taking care so that it may

eyes, they might be destroyed and

plant _ot handled145 by young child-

is bli,:;terod as if he had been burnt

14. The pestle thuds and the cattle cry, the drum boats out : "Who

has stayed away?" That isl47 the importance148 of cattle. While we

were still occupied in work with KalaQga cattle, there came the Euro-

peans. Those white-eared, white-bellied ones said : "You are stinting

the work of cattle, we were given cattle by God to help us." They

came with chains148, and yokes with skeys, and straps and ploughs.

They said : "Inspan and plough." They said : "Pull the sledge." The

sledge is of mamy kinds149. There is a "aggon of four wheels, it

bears a burden greater than the cart witl two whools. The cart sur-

passes the sledge in load that is work for male cattle. Cows are

milked for their milk it is separated and made to yield cream which

gives relish to food. The work of cattle grows and increases. We

sincerely thank150 the people who came, proceeding to reveal uses

which had been hidden. Furthermore, in that way, things go on in-

creasing year by year.

15. DaQga dzeqombe-Kalarga adzinashanu kwazo sedzinolapa

uathu. Kunazithu zili zinjinji zinolaplwa qombe dzisiQga-

zale Zuuuya kene dzigwala mesho; nedzipaogamigwa, kene dzi-

bakhwa ggenshana nezixwe zigwele. Sephulu inoti parwe iza-

gwa, ikathuouka okombo, ikakoQwa milika, Qgono inofuligwa

meya ogelusharga, ipapo pathuuukila Qkombo kukasuogwa oge-

lutshi. Qgono phulu ikacila. Irwe ikazagwa isinameno ma-

cena, ikakushiwa ogesimbe dema yace ikoQwa owa. Dgono ika-

nwa ikacila. Kene phulu ilaqwa ndimayi, inobomiwa uuluui

gwakasha~ganyiwa nemunyu kuti mayi, ha ihwa uuluil gunhuhwa,

inaza, ihwe kuzipa, ndizo ikazica zipa kweQwana. Dgono

inji gwele dzinolapiwa igerargaKalaiga kusina-'uocitsha-

miti' na-'uomandihwa-ndiani' na-'3ocilala-pal.' 151

16. Oku ziia oombe, mamo ayo mutathu sekwaigele, cithu

cihuyacuya kwazo, Qgooe yakadumana shaoganya malopa ayo

neeiathu, neoucilo gweuathu goyenda Zuouyanana Qgegwayo.

Akunamfumi unogagwabge rgeoathu usinarombe. Ndiyo inotuku-

madza nthu sekwaunozital52, sekwainotsha mathunde ikatsha

marl; ikadyiwa qkaka nenyama ikalouola oakadzi. Kuphazha

kwazo kuti tizidiye iucilo gwerombe. Vula ina, tidzilinga-

liigile kwadzinofula mafulo mavuya, nemucilimo, tidzillga-

liOgile ziro. Ndiko tiziuoshuzha ndidzo mutateogi. Tidzi-

bate sekwatinobata uana Qedu. Dgoue, ha ubata owana zuou-

ya, unoti : "Ati akula andisharganidze." Kwakajalo nego-

mbe, ha uiyeoga, unoti ikushagganidze. Uantolo oakati :

"Inokula ikarwa muphulu yayakaqwisa. Dukuta lerombe lina-

mbailo gkulu."

15. The doctors of Kalarga cattle do not have fees much, like

those who treat people. There are things, they are many, which are

treated cattle not calving well or troubled with their eyes; and

those that give birth with difficulty, or are caught by the placenta,

and other ills. As when a calf sometimes is born and, its cord cut, is

unable to stand, then it is blown upon with air through a reed, there

where the cord has been cut and a suture is made with fibre. Then the

oalf gets better. One born without white teeth is rubbed on the gum

with black charcoal while unable to suck. Then it drinks and gets

better. Or a calf being refused by its mother is smeared with brain

mixed with salt so that the mother, on sensing the brain smelling, and

licking it, may taste the sweetness, and so know the sweetness of its

child. Then many sicknesses are treated by Kalarga doctors without the

fees called : 'Just dig the herbs', 'You hoard of me from whom?' and

'Lie down at an uncomfortable place.'151.

16. This knowing about cattle, its position among people as regards

the way it lives, is a very good thing because it agreed to mix its

blood with that of man, and the life of people goes well by means of

its. There is no rich man, who is counted on by people, without cattle.

It is this that raises up a person as you know152 just as it ploughs

crops,., it ploughs money; it is eaten as regards its milk and flesh and

it lobolas wives. It is great fortune that we should teach ourselves

the habits of cattle. When the rain falls, let us search diligently

for them where they graze, good pastures, and in the dry season, let us

look out for water-holes for them. It is thus we can go out to buy with

them among the dealers. Lot us treat them as we treat our children.

Because, when you treat a child well, you say : "When he has grown up,

lot him help me." In tho sano way with the head-of-cattle, if you treat

it with medicine, you say it must look after you. The old people said :

"It grows and drinks from the calf which it suckled. The sweat ox-

ponded on cattle has a groat reward."

17. PaQwe oaqwe uanoti qombe inodziidza153. Ee, Qano-
letesa154, qgoue inoshatiwa kunogwadza; ikaouya munzi ikar

dziidza qgollswa, qgoie, neqguua kuli midumbil55, mishiogo

iQwe ilimile, Qombe dzonolisiwa koga. Kene kunadope muda-

Oga, Qombe dzokaQwa koga. Neoguua kukafa nthu kene oweni

wadzo, idzo dzonolisiwa. Dgono ndiyo zila inoti Qarwe iaka-

ti : "Inodzildza." Kukayil56 uaKhwa jakati uehoshaya romrbe

takajalo Qombe dzikaualoua rgeQwisel57, dzikayenda zadzo

macilo ndiano, Lanoemula ndolo158. Akuna ciuuya cisiggadzi-

idze, unosimisila kukadzina kukate linil59 unocidziwa

(Matt. 24/13). Luuumbol60 gweuathu gwakathuoukana kwazo

rgemipaQga nemilenje nedzimbeu161 nezodyiwa, koga lshaoga-
no162 irombe, ndipo panoshaQganila Zicaal 63. Dombe ndlyo

inowandisa mawaka efuQwa, nethuzi dzowanda panaqombe, qgone

akutoshayiwa zodyiwa.

18. Romani Izina lerombe shaoalume Qgono qombe dzina-

maDala minjinji ogocixa. Dzakauambga dzili shaua. Kuka-

yi164 ntolo,rkololo washe wakaue eti eyenda kuminda, kaye-

nda akataga boyi, nombe dzicishaoa dzose. Ha esika kuminda,

unodeluka kaleca boyi lile likafula. Qgono madekwana, uno-

lidana Qgezina, eti :

"Buu. Shaua hulu kaDkwatalalal65;

TendeQuka tiliQge kanyl, oombe yatate;

Kumakumbo korga kwebuka lidwa munyika,

Kunsholo kooga kweshumbalume."

Dgono, ha ihwa zina layo, inocuya kazha etaga, eyenda kanyl.

Tagiwa gwakaue guli uuzale, kwakallgwa pasi qgozha kwema-

Khuwa azha nembizi, qgoxe uuzale gwembizi gopinda gwerombe.

Mbizi inotasiwa yakatauilidziwa rgemakanda akathurwa rgeou-

nyambi gunocenamisa.


17. Perhaps some say that the boast is troublesome.15 Yes, they -

spoak the truth154, because it is obtained with great difficulty; it

comes to the village and gives trouble in being hordod, because, oven

though there be a drizzle of rainl55, and some jobs waiting, the

cattle go and get herded nevertheless. Even though there be mid in the

kraal, the cattle are milked all the same. Even though there has died

a person or their owner, they go to be herded. So that is the way it

comes about that some sea : "It is troublesome." It is said156 that

the Bushmen came to be without cattle like that for the cattle gave
them the slip57 and went off on their own; to this day they are look-

ing far a wife58. There is nothing good which does not get irksome,

you force yourself on until the time comes when159 you are helped

(Mt. 24/13). The creation160 of men was very different in customs and
161 ,162
types and seeds61 and food, but the meeting-point is cattle, there

the tribes163 concur. The beast is what increases millions of wealth

and flies are plentiful where there are cattle, be csse there is no be-

ing without food.

18. Romani is the name of a brown bull for cattle have many

colours through likeness. They were begun as brown. It is said164

that of old, whenever the chief's son went to the fields, he went

mounted on an ox, all the oxen still being brown. On arrival at the

fields, he dismounts and releases his ox and it grazes. Then in the

evening, he calls it by its nane, saying :

"Buu, Big brown one of 1kwatalalal65

Turn round that we face homewards, ox of my father.

The leg part is like that of a great animal coming

out of the wild country;

And the head part is like that of a lion."

Then, on hearing its name, it goes back and he comes mounted, going

home. To be mounted-used to be a sign of royalty but it dropped to

the ground on the coming of the Europeans who brought their horses,

for the glory of a horse surpasses that of an ox. A horse is mounted

when covered over with harness sewn with wonderful skill.


Anoyi sale166 neitshambo zinoyl zitiili. Kakale aitopu-

Qugwa cimilo inolorgwa micili inoyi matomu munlomo.

19. SeQombe ibatsha wall, iyo ogekwayo inodwal67 ikaZi-

batsha kene? Ee, inofula yomene; inameno eciledu mashanu

analipompela, anopitsha kwazo. Dgono anokuiurganyigwa rge-

lulimi guwevela munlomo. Dgono nlomo weqombe aunameno ose.

Ndiwo iyawa eciledu nemazeu akasima kwazo asiqgashakale.

Koshakala eciledu ha Qombe ipedza makole all gumi, agooe

asiqgacapitshe. Kosala mazeu Qgome qombe inodzina ikakwegu-

la, iasiya; anofanana ogemakwapal68 elulimi, aatopela. Ne-

phulu yeqombe aitocelegwa ndimayi, inozicelela. Celegwa

kwayo huowislwa ndimayi. Dgono neoguoa kwakajalo, oombe,

isligacelele phulu, koga inollela ogekwakalulama. Inogala

iinaza, iiwagga qgemakwapa elulimi, livikila zita.

20. Cini cisiogadyiwe muntumbu weQombe? Indulu. rgoue

inocaoa kunocenamisa. Nakale, uagwe uedu Qanodwa oakaite-

uulila mucilopa, uenyasa chili ciisi, cikagociwa. Qombe

inodyiwa nyama nemavula akagi.wa kukalashiwa nganel69. Ma-

lopa akabikiwa nshlya akashaqganyiwa nemapapu. Mafupa aka-

pxanyiwa moqgo, kuuezhiwa Qgembezhwana ualumetate oedya

mase. Uuluui gwayo goloogwa mulunyaqga; gukauola gukaboma

makukuta anosukwa aguuo. Dwise wayo ukalorgwa mulukuni

gwakaeezhiwa, kukaetiwa phende inohuza thuzi. Ikanda ce-

phazha olkalobga, cathelegwa munthudze, cikaetiwa shaqgu.

LuziZi gukauumbiwa, gukaetiwa tshulo, inoboma makukuta ne-

micili nemaoa anopaluka mumakumbo. Malalu neSo neoula gwe-

ogudugudu zikapiwa Qathuntana.


It is called a saddle166 and the straps are called stirrups. Further,

it is not pierced through the nose strips of leather called the

bridlo-rcins are put into its mouth.

19. Just as the boast is a true help, does it, by itself, some-

times167 help itself? Yes, it grazes by itself; it has six tooth in

its lower jaw which are very sharp. Now they are grouped together with

the tongue which pulls into the mouth. But the beast's jaw has not got

all teeth. There are those of the lower ja- and the molars which are

very strong and which do not wear out. Those in the jaw wear out when

the beast has completed ten years, and they become no longer sharp.

There remain the molars because the beast retains them till it grows

old; they resemble168 the scales on the tongue they do not wear out.

The calf, too, is not brought up by its mother, it brings itself up.

Its being reared consists in the way it is suckled by the mother. But

oven so, the cow, while not roaring the calf, still looks after it in

the right way. It is always licking it, scratching it with the scales

of its tongue, and defending it against enemies.

20. What is not eaten of the belly of the head-of-cattle? It is

the bile because it is extraordinarily bitter. Furthermore, some of our

people sometimes pour it on the liver sprinkling it while it is still

raw, and it is roasted. The beast's flesh is eaten and its bowels

which are squeezed out and the contents169 thrown away. The blood.is

cooked to make cooked-blood and is mixed with the lungs. The bones

are crushed for marrow, being fashioned with adzos, the adult men cat-

ing the soft part of the bone. The brains are put into a horn; they

rot and are smeared on to hides which are softened into karosses.

The tail is inserted into a handle that has been shaped, and there is

a whisk which drives the flies away. The patch of skin on the fore-

head is beaten, after being buried in dung, and is fashioned into

shoes. The fat round the intestines is moulded, and shaped into

lumps, which are rubbed on to hides and riems and chaps which crack

open on the legs. The small bowels and kidneys and the bowel of the

rectum are given to the old people.


Dgono inolashiwa Qgayi170 rombe? Inodusiwa tsiQga dzino-

thuma qguao.

21. Unoziua ndeuo yeoombe luuizho inodwa kule kule.

Dgono kucinakuzldiya Qgekwayo. Iyo agekwayo aitodya nyama;

Qgono inodya mafupa akashuluka asicinanyama; inoatafuna

rgemazeu. Dgono aatoikodza, anoiloQga ougwele gwempalo,

rgoue, ha ikukuna wali, inohwa kushauoaa nzipo; Qgono nzipo

Iwoyo unoita dani likazhala munacamphutu. Dgwenu zodyiwa

zayo zikauocinyiwal71 qgedani. Dgono uathu uananjele uano-

dzaiisa rombe kumituthu inamafupa. Kakale uarwe uanokuuu-

Qganya mafupa zakapisa uetil72 asidyiwe qgerombe. Kunami-

dzi, altodyiwa Qgeqombe. Ha qombe ifula ikasimulilanya

uushwa nendzi, inoguthwa gose. Inoshema midzi semalopa.

Ha ubata Qombe unamalopa, inotizha ukawana yacenjela eno

ili rombe yakalulama. Ha Qombe dziQika pakafila irwe, dzo-

kuuurgana, dzikadanana, Jziuooola, dzilila sedzinoti:

"Nkwinya wedu wakafilani," seuathu uahomila mfi.

22. Vula inona ikashathisa qombe kwazo. Dombe dzoda

zhizha kupinda cilimo nembawa Ogoue, ha vula itovudza, ko-

mela kwose kunodiwa Qgeqombe. Ha 1111 gole linavula kwa-

zo, koti, shule kweowedzi mitatu, rombe dzikaue dzakola.

Dombe dzoda kuQwa mumadziua kwazo, nelukulakula. Sekuna-

dama linoti : "Sigwile ipepxe naoombe, cico cozha wanyala."

Kodwiwa rgoue nthu unolima kupinda Qwedzi mishanu, mathunde

acimauisi. Dgono Qombe, ha vula Lna, shule kweqwedzi uli

uQompela, rombe dzoue dzacila. Dombe dzoziua ambuka gwizi

gunavula guwuaga adzitotogwa rgevula. Kakale adzitonye-

lela173 kusi kwevula dzoaqgama dzikadusa zimilo dzikali-

Qga pezhugwi dziyenda dzifema zadzo dzisakaZimbilana meya.

Kakale muzhizha Qombe dzakwagga kwaZo qgoue ndico ciuaka

cadzinoti oombe dziuona oushwa.


Now in what partl70 is the beast thrown away? The veins are taken out

for sowing blankets.

21. You know the account of the real livestock which comes from far

away. But there still remains something to learn about it. It, of its

own accord, does not eat meat. But it eats dried bones no longer with

meat; it chews them with its molars. But they do not make it fat, they

put in it the sickness of leanness, because, while it is gnawing indeed,

it finds the sourness a pleasant morsel; but that morsel creates a

sticky juice and it fills the fourth stomach. Now its food becomes

spoilt1'7 by the sticky juice. So people with sense keep their cattle

from mounds of bones. Further, somo people collect their bones and

burn them so that172 they may not be eaten by the cattle. There are

roots, they are not eaten by cattle. If a beast, while grazing, pulls

up a root with the grass, it spits it all out. It dislikes roots like

blood. If you handle a beast with blood on you, it runs off you find

it takes care since it is a good beast. When cattle reach a spot where

one of them has died, they gather round, calling to one another, and

mooing, crying out as if they wore asking : "Why has our friend died?"

like people who have come to stand by a dead man.

22. Rain falls and makes the cattle vory glad. Cattle like the

rainy season better than the dry and the cold because, when the first

rains fall, everything liked by the cattle sprouts up. When it is a

year of nach rain, it happens that, after three months, the cattle have

become fat. Cattle are fond of drinking at pools, and fresh grass.

As there is a proverb which says : "Do not fight for plenty with tho

cattle; yours comes when you are tired." That happens because a man

cultivates for more than five months, but his corn is still unripe.

But the cattle after one month, when rain comes, the cattle have be-

come well. Cattle know how to cross the river with flowing water -

they are not carried off by the stream. Further they do not sink1l3

beneath the water they float on top and put their noses out, looking

up as they go along and breathing too, without being suffocated for

breath. Again, in the rainy season, cattle are much swollen with milk

because that is the time when the cattle see grass.

23. Wahozia ZiQwe zithu Qgekweoombe. Kunashaogo iwe

inamatuthu, Qombe dzayo dzofula dzikatatha pezhugwi-zhugwi.

Dgono, neraguua kwakajalo, adziogatathe matombo, eno idzo

dzoda kutatha matombo ogono dzinathozo. dzinosedzemuka, dzi-

nolamba kumana nebge. Ha thozo yeoombe itshamba bge, inowa.

Ha yaue yatatha dombo, ikotshamba bge, inokuQguluka ikafa.

Thozo dzeoombe dzowanana nemavu koga. Hadzipalama mashale,

dzopuouka Zitshitshino dzikashudza dzose. Iowe shaqgo ina-

misenya, inoti muzhizha ikaloca. Ogono qombe adzitofula pa-

noloca dzotizha. -Ukawana dzinyenyeledza, dzitizha ndole.

Dombe cithu cinoda fula mushaogo inamiti kuti iyende isha-

shamula matuwe mumiti. Ogono neaguia kwakajalo, aiqgasuphe

Qgedenje lemihwa; inotya mihwa kunocenamisa. Kunaciowe ci-

thu cinodziidza rombe, coyi hupa. Ngono hupa cithu cituku-

nunu kwazo, adzitoooowa Qgerombe. Ndiko dzisiogaziie sekwa-

dzirgadzitizha. Dgono iaKalarga Qanodzilapa rogoakila da-

Qga leQombe muhunde yenzi, kuti huku dzidzishale muoombe

kushayel74 nehupa inosala. Huku nti wakawaQgalala, nerombe

dzoziia kuti huku ioaQga yehupa; naiyo hupa inoziia ha huku

cili cital75 cayo. Oombe ha ishagwa hupa qgehuku, altothu-

lana; inoma zayo ikaeogemala huku ikadzina ikapedza.

24. Yeyi ndeuo inopetunula manwe magwele erombe. Ku-

naiugwele gunoyi nteremanil76 nekwatal necirot.sana nesu-

batere. AdzizotoQgoie177 yapo178 mushargo yeuuKalaQga

ntolo. Dzakatargisa maKhuwa all muno, dzidwa ntha yeuu-

Rwa179. Nakale kwakatoqgoti agegole la1896 kukazha Sguwe

ougwele gunoyi sakhuuama, gukapedza qombe kwaZo. Dgono

magwele iwawa manna alebga, kuzhe kwesakhuiama, QaKalaQga

aiatodzizila nolapa, auatozia sekwadzinolapiwa;

23. You have come to know some things about cattle. There is a

certain country which is hilly and its cattle graze on the high ground

they have climbed to. Now, although that is so, they cannot climb

rocky kopjos, since thoac who want to climb the kopjos, nevertheless

have hooves that slip, that refuse to grip on stone. When an ox's

hoof steps on a stone, it rolls down and is killed. The hooves of

cattle go well with soil only. When they go through pebbles, they then

get pierced (in) the heels and they all go lame. Another district has

bogs which are impassable in the rains. Now cattle do not graze in a

boggy place they avoid it. You find them stepping aside, keeping

away from the thick mud. The beast is a thing which likes to graze in

wooded country so that it can walk brushing off the horse-flies among

the trees. But, even so, it cannot go alongside a bush of thorns; it

fears thorns surprisingly. There is another thing which tries the

beast, it is called the tick, Now the tick is a very small thing in-

deed, they are not seen by the beast. Hence they do not know how to

avoid them. Now the KalaQga people trcat them by building a cattle

kraal within the precincts of the village, so that the fowls may pick

them off the cattle and there be lacking174 even one tick which remains.

The fowl is a very effective medicine, and the cattle know that the

fowl is the doctor for ticks; oven it, the tick, knous that the fowl is
its enemy 5. When an ox is being searched for ticks by fowls, it does

not kick; it halts for its part and stands still until the fowl is


24. Here is an account which describes certain cattle sicknesses.

There is a sickness called lung sickness16, also anthrax, and black-

leg and heartwater. These were not177 at all present178 in the

Kalaega country of old. They began when the Europeans were here, com-
ing from the side of the South19. Further it was only in the year

1896 that there came another sickness called rindorpost, and it do-

stroyed cattle wholosalo. Now those four sicknesses which have boon

mentioned, apart from rinderpest, the KalaQga people do not know with

treating, they do not know how they are cured.


dzizibga rgemaKhuwa anaraorga dzinobaya rgelunji gunaphako.

Nti uli munshuku, ku.inigwa murombe, qgono qombe dzikalula-


25. Zithu zinji zakalebga muNdeuo yeDombe Luuizho.

Kukayil80 :

"Ndiyo ishaqgano; ndiyo gaui likapomba nyika;

ndiyo mazalile.

Ndiyo gomo; ndiyo tanda cinoleyela them; ndiyo

deogu lovunila huZi;

Ndiyo uacibikebike; ndiyo gauo lenyuci; ndiyo

gomba lemoQga; ndiyo datho lelu.

Ndiyo shuuo lenzi; ndiyo ianyancaua; ndiyo

Zikomo zinji."

Kozigba sekwakazha ludo gwenDzimu ushagganya Qathu negombe;

ikazipila cathu ikashaya painolashiwa. Ndigo lukata gumu-


They are known by the Europeans who have doctors who inject with a

neodlo having a hole. The medicine is in a syringe, being pressed out

into the beast, and then it gets better.

25. Many things have been said in the Account of the livestock

Proper. It is saidl80 :

"It is the meeting place; it is the strip of bark that

encircles the country; it is the fertile producer.

It is the hill of refuge; it is the thick trunk that protects

from the rhinoceros; it is the reaping basket for Kaffir-


It is the clever wife that cooks so soon; it is the swarm of

bees; it is the earth-hive of the honey flies; it is the

lightsome ladder.

It is the desire of homo; it is the mother of all tribes; it

is the many hills-"

Now it is known how there caue the lovo of God associating men with

the head-of-cattle; it tastes so good to mon and has nothing that is

thrown away. It is the inheritance in tho land.



1. Ntupol ini ogeciKalaQga? Nakale toholea ndiwo, Qa-

Kalanga, uaNyayi zaligo2 dzauo. Kunadziowe njudzi dzisi-

igana3 dzinopetunugwa seuaSina neuaTalaunda neuaKhurutsi

Qgoue takagala oose ntolo.

2. Mumbuso wa Mambo she kwakaue kusina mitupo minjinji.

Kwakae' kutuniwa rgehazadzi, kuyi : "Oalumbila cose," a-

kadzi neuanana uetuna rgensuogwasha washe wenzi wauo. igo-

no Mambo lye etuna eti : "Dawe cose", edwa owanakadzi uwe.

Kukatola misi milefulefu kwakajalo. Shule kwemisi milefu,

Mambo katuna maiala enhulgu nemauala embizi yeshargo. Ka-

kale rumba yeuushe gwakaMambo5 yakaue ilouolana. Ndiko ma-

kombga akati : "Kuwana cako dzala cikukone chili cako6."

Ogwenu kukalouogwaniwa kogae sekunoeta oakaMambo. She Mambo

kagwadza moyo kwa.o kati asitoqgohwa kunanthu unolouola ha-

ma lye; kataOgisa kuuulaya uathu oanolouole hama. Ogono

uathu, uakati teuona lufu, oakapalala, oakaeta mizi kule

kule nenzi washe Mambo. Dakalasha7 zina linoti uaNyayi ua-

kadzodaQwa8 jgephuthexo9 uakaPalala sgoue uakaue uasina

oombe, uanambganana dzaeo futganana dzinovima mbila koga.

Dakataogisa kuzipa mitupo nemitupo. Ogwenu ludzi gukapala-

la; ndiko oepiwa zina linoti uaKalaqga qgoue uakakona uela-

igal0 she Mambo. Ogwenu she kati i"Muualecell, uadwa kule;

kakale iacenana, aeana caeanaco." Dgwenu mitupo ikaendila

mbell, uukwe gukaduma zina leuuKalaQga. 'Likamilika lika-

tshamba uuNyayi.



1. What is the toteml in Kalarga custom? Further, we will speak

about it, the Kalar3ga and the Nyayi, their genesis2. There are other

tribe not many which are described, like the Shona and the

Talaunda and the Hurutsi since they all lived long ago.

2. In tho dynasty of the chief, Manbo, thore uoro not many totems.

There was swearing by the sister, as saying : "Oalumbila4 indeed,"

women and girls swearing by the heir of the chief of their village.

But Mambo himself swore saying : "Dawe indeed," meaning his daughter.

This obtained for a very long time in this fashion. After a long time,

Mambo swore by the stripes of the porcupine and the stripes of the wild

zebra. Furthermore, the royal house of Mambo5 was endogamous. So the

new-comars said : "To get what is of a place, sow; it overcomes you be-

ing of that place6" Then intermarriage was practised elsewhere as

were doing Mambo's people. The chief Mambo was very wroth and said

that he must not hear there is a person who lobolas his relative; he be-

gan to kill people who lobola relatives. Then the people, when they

saw death, scattered, and built their kraals very far away from the

kraal of the chief Mambo. They dropped7 the name of Nyayi and were

called persistently8 the Dispersed by the court9 bocaiso they were

without cattle, with little dogs which only hunt rock-rabbits. They

began to give themselves totems and totems. Now the tribe was scat-

tered; it was then they were given the name Kalarga s-nce they had

overcome, getting the upper hand10 of Mambo the chief. Then the

chief said : "Let them alonell, they came from far off; furthermore

they are paupers, they have nothing at all." Then the totems ad-

vanced forward and marriage praised the name of the KalaQga kingdom.

It was outstanding and pressed down the Nyayi realm.

3. Mitupo yakataoga kushanduligwa. Tumbale Okadzasha

wakaue anathouolo katuna Moyol2, Bargale Phizha wakaue ana-

fulele13 katuna Tembo. Nigoworgwe-Phizha wakaue anaouka-

nu14 katuna Zhou. Ndito %athu Qekutaqga uakasimisa mitupo.

Dgono oakasala Qetuna .alumbila, ceuatsilanya nentupo.

Ndiko kukasimisiwa ntupo, kuti ume pathu parompela nehaza-

dzi. Dgono makombga ose anozha mushaQgo yeoaKalarga, ano-

Zishandula kuti aie jaKala3ga; akasimisa ntupo kwazo seueni

oeshargo, agehwi linoti : "Kuwana cako dzala cikukone cili


4. Mazina emitupo hawa :-

Nhuogu koduwa15 matala emisila neishaqganol6 cowaowa

mugulu lenhuggu. Kakale alitodyiwa Ogeorwe nep~we weciKala-

Qga, loga hazadzi. Nemalala embizi yeshargo.

Moo koduwa moyo yephuka dzose dzakathuiwa nedze-


Tembo koduwa nsholo wembizi yeshaQgo nethozo dzayo.

Zhou koduwa thoggoma yephofu nencili wayo.

Shoko koduwa hudo rgo1e ino~ga nthu aizofanila dyi-


Thuka koduwa Qgamal7 Quthuli.

Shaea koduwa mukati kwephofu nenshiya wayo.

Cibga koduwa shumba ogome inotyisa.

Khupe koduwa shulo ogoue inazimba dzisiQgapele.

Sola inyamakadzi qgooe inowudzwa1 oQkoma alaila.

Civelu iphupute inoyl lima.


3. The totems began to be changed. Tumbale the Stranger had a gun

and he swore by Moyol2. Baggale the Smith had a mist13 and he swore

by Tembo. Nigoorogwe the Smith had a ceremonial axe14 and he swore by

Zhou. These are the first people who made the totems strong. But

they still swore by their eldest sisters, using them together with the

totem. In that way the totem was made important, so that it should

stand at one place with the sister. Now all the new-comers who come

into the country of the KalaQga people, change themselves so as to be-

come Kalarga; they strengthen the totem very much as do the owners of

the land, according to the saying which runs : "To got what is of a

place, sow; it overcomes you being of that place."

4. Here are the names of the totems :-

Nhurgu there is meant15 the stripes on the quills and the join-

ing medicinel6 which is found in the porcupine's stomach. Further,

this (stomach) is not eaten by any of the Kalagga custom, it is like

the sister. Also the stripes of the wild zebra.

Moyo there is enant the heart of all animals, domesticated and


Tombo there is meant the head of the wild zebra and its hoofs.

Nzou there is nomt the join in the skull of the land and its


Shoko th re is rmant the baboon since it resreblos a man and

ought not to be oaten.

Thuka there is meant the hartebeest17 in the beginning.

Shasa there is meant the inside of the eland and its cooked


Cibga there is meant the lion since it frightens.

Khupe there is meant the hare since it has forms without


Sola it is the female parts since it is explained18 when an

elder has given the word.

Cioelu it is the phupute bird which is called lima.


Njia koduwa majindana ayo rgoue vaQwe 'athu vano-

gwala zifafa, Qgono koyi .injiiana19.
Seeele koduwa ndzi wehapa20.

.Dombe koduwa nyati.

Cuma koduwa nkaha.

Ndiyo mitupo yakazha ntolo. Ndiko kukarginilila miiwe mi-

tupo yakadwa QuRwa : Kwena, Kuluue, Phofu, Phembge21. Ku-

endilila mbeli kunainwe mitupo yeiPothoko; airgaogine zu-

%uyanana rgoxe aiogatoneseseke. Kakale guiwe ludzi poga

takashaogana nago rgwenu Zako,

5. Dgono ntupo luowayo22 rgoie, rgeciKalaxga, nerguua
rkadzi kazela nenrwe nlume uana, .ukwe gukafa; kadwa enolo-

Aogwa Qgeorwe nlume unantupo upoga kadusa, Qombe dzemaloio-

lo,..kQoulawa ntupo wekutarga, oana uakatuna ntupo nttha.

Kukalulama koga, kusina maroni23 eciowe, kodumana24 nembu-

so. Dgono ntupo bukhawo muoathu, ijila lakadumaniwa kwaga-

gwa pasi kukalarganiwa, sejila leoatoloki25 nele-

kampa neleuakumbudzi uerombe neleealimi. Akathuuukana mi-

iala koga agono mbuso uli r~ompela. Dgono.muAfrica yose

dzaie .aligo.' Ogooe cinoshathisa uathu muntupo ndipo pan6-

mazikud.zo. Uaowe oanoti : "Isi tiuakaNokhwe, totuna wedu."

"TiuaTeue panauakaNokhwe." Ndico cinoita kuti njudzi dzi'--.

siwanane Qgoeonga ntupo weiarwe.

6. Shango yeuuKalaoga yakati iciyeiaNyayi, mitupo ya-

kate ill mishoma, shargo yose icadarwa zina linoti : "Nge-

lakatuma nlanda zuvuya maggwana.unohokutumaze uusiku uka-

yenda." "Lakantshinya shadza, uusaui gukazhala loQgo."

Naiyo mitupo ishirgisiwa qgefanilo ,nehaZadzi natalumbila.

CiQwe mitupo inozadziwa Qgendimi njinji secathu uano-

tuna Mbizi,


Njiua there is meant its young ones because some people suffer

from fits; then it is said it is the little doves19.

Seoele there is meant the root of the hapa20 plant.

Qombe there is meant the buffalo.

Cuma there is meant the blood inside a castration wound.

These are the totems that came from olden times. Then there entered

in other totems which cane from the South : Kwena, Kuluoe, Phofu,

Phembge21. Going on further there are other, Ndebele totems; they

would not enter well here because they would not be clearly understood.

Further, it is quite another tribe we met with it recently.

5. Now. the totem is a distinguishing mark22 because, according to

Kalaiga custom, even though a woman boars children by a certain husband,

and the marriage bo terminated; if she comes to be lobolaod by another

man with a different ototm, and he gives out the lobola cattle, the

first totem is abolished, and the children swear by a now totem. That

is quite just, there being no difficulties23 on any other score, and

there is agreement24 with the Governmont. Now the totem is a token

among men; it is a badge consented to at the place where it was sat

down and agreed together, like the badge of the interpreters25 and of

the demonstrators. They are different in colour only but the govern-

ment is one. Now in all Africa there have arisen groupings. For what

attracts people in the totem is that there is pride in it. Some say :

"We are So-and-so's people, we respect ours." "We are Tao rather

than So-and-so's." This is it that causes that tribes should disagroo

by hating the totem of others.

6. When the KalaQga country was still that of the Nyayi, the

totems were few, the whole country called still by a name which runs

"On the day that sent the servant kindly, tomorrow he will send you at

night and you will go." "It stinted him porridge but the relish

filled the pot." Those totems, too, woro. used in the right way to-

gother with the sisters and Oalumbila. In another way, totems are

engendered by the numerous languages as people who respect Mbizi -


taowe Qauo Qanoti Nsholo, uarwe Qanoti Dube, uaQwe Qanoti

Tembo, uaiwe oanoti Mukgwanenerg, koga ntupo uli iyo'zawo.

Ntupo usinanjudAi njinji iSola, utoueledziwa ogeMoyo. Ko-

hwisisika kuti ualondi uemitupo aalonde. "Lembeleka kweda-

mba andiko wa." "Oizha kwendume ulalama." "Aitodya igoa-

tilila jgwena, cayo cozha rgelorga."

7. Ualumbila ate lil zina. Ihazadzi yekutaoga inotu-
niwa neuenzi waoo. Munzi Qiwe neqowe kene ntupo Qgwe ne-

iowe kunaUalumbila kukayi Dalumbila kwazo agotuniwa. Ogo-

Qe wamilika etuna eti : "Hazadzi Dewe, hazadzi Dewe," ndi-

ko kukoyi Oalumbila; kene gwaoa lalumbila.


some of them say Nsholo, others say Dubo, others say Tembo, others say

Mukgwaneneng,' but the totem is itself on its part. A totem without

many divisions is Sola, being followed by Moyo. It is clearly under-

stood that the followers of the totems have followed. "The hanging of

a Kaffir orange is not the fall." "The round curve of the horns of the

long-lived bull." "The crocodile does not eat by stretching out; its

food comes by flowing."

7. aalumbila, it is not a name. 'It is the eldest sister who is

sworn by by the people of her village. In each and every village or in

each and ovory totem, there is Ualunbila and there is said Ualumbila a

great deal when swearing. Because when a man has stood up swearing and

saying : "Sister Dewe, Sister Dewe," then there will be said

Oalumbila later; or the dance has grown big.

-' III


1. Till oakaMosojani, takadwa kuThauantshu till QaRo-

lo~g, tituna uitale'. Tikazha tikagala kunoshaqgana njizi

Shashe na RamakhweO:ana, ticinaoakaMakulukusa nevakaMpeQgo.

Ha tidwa ipapo, tikathuoukana neuakaMakulukusa neuakaMpeQgo,

tikanogala kuduthu linoyi Dithidza, tiousiwa ndiNimakwall,

qweni wenyika yose, all nNyayi.

S2. Nimakwali kazala Loieke kawaNizauuogwe1. Taoe QaHu-

mbe tituna lima phupute, ndlyo inoyl cilelu. Muiumo gwe-

Qutal6, toti tikudza cioeiu, tikati l

"Ii waHumbe, QakaBadza-bofu, vakaLimani;

Musiye denje, musiye panoigwa badza."

3. Kudwa ipapa tikafulukila kuNzende; tikadwa muNzende
tikafulukila kuMbgenda. Ndiko kwatakapaladZa2 0gemaPotho-

ko akaMuzilikazi. Kukafa Qkadzi washe Loveke wakaue eyi


4. Kudwa ipapo tikafulukila kuDokonote, tikadwa ku-

Dokonoue tikafulukila kuCilumbi, tikagala nzi neuaKhurutsi

iakaMalalule. Takateekana necakaCiizna wall kunomila zhu-

a 3, wedwa kuntha yeuuRwa; takateekana neoakaDalaunjani

oall kubezhuoa kwedu.

5. Kukati nst usinazina4 tikapaladza QgemaPothoko.

OaKhurutsi Qakayenda kuSeleig, oakaMosojani, tikayenda ku-

Maobge, uakaDalaunjani 'akayenda kuBawa. Muuumo gwaDalau-

njani kukasala kuousa Okhwa. Ndiko kulambiwa lumbo gunoyi:



1. We are Mosojani's people and we came from Thauantshu as Barolong

and swearing by iron. We came and dwelt at the junction of the Shashe

and Ramakhweiana rivers, while still with Makulukusa's and Mpeligo's

people. On leaving there, we separated from Makulukusa's and Mpergo's

people, and went to live at a hill called Dithidza, while being ruled

by Ntmakwali, the o;ner of the whole country, he being a Nyayi.

2, 'Nimakwali begot Loueke at Uanizauargwe's1. We became Uahumbe,

swearing by the lima phupute, it is what is called cioelu. Instead of

iron, we are now honouring the cioelu, and we say }

"We are dahumbe, people of Badza-bofu (Blind-hoo),

Limani's people;

Leave him fthe bush, leave him the place whoru the

hoo is put."

3. Coming from herc, wo migrated to Nzendo; we camo from Nzende

and we tigrated to Mbgenda. There it was that we..wor scattered2 by

the Matebele of Umzilikazi. There died the wife of chief Lomeke who

was called Mantizhila.

4. Leaving there, we migrated to Dokonoue, and we left Dokonoue

and migrated to Cilumbi and occupied- a village with the Bahurutsi of

Malamule.. We were near to Cizina's people who were on the west3, com-

ing from the southern side.. We were near totDalaunjani's people who

were to the east of us.

5. It happened one day, unexpectedly4, we were scattered by the

Matebele. The Bahurutsi went to Selepeng; we, Mosojani's people,

went to Maobge, Dalaunjani's people to Shoshong. Instead of Dalau-

njani, Okhwa romainod ruling. In that way, thcro was begun the song

that runs :

"Dalaunde 'we, kene utizha shaQgo yapalala;.

MaTebele awoo, kene utizha shaogo yapalala."

SDgono lumbo igogu gukawanda mushargo yose, nanhasi gucambi-

wa pakati kweoaKalaQga. NelakaDalaunjani takuBawa uanogu-


6. She wedu, igi QakaMosojani, kafila muMaobge aZala

Kuanri katanikuwana, kazala Catipedza kaUaciua, kazala

Munamati kaOamarisakwana, kazala Gumbu kaUacuuacu. Dgono

Kugani, riwana weuushe, kafa, akapitiwa Qgethuzi. Tatayi

Loueke kahwa zogwadza kwazo. Ndiko kanoloiola Uatacilisa5.

lye, nthuntana Loueke, kazala Tamapo ka0atacilisa. Ogwenu

Loeeke kafa. Kukaloogwa Catipedza kuti abatile Tamapo ou-

she; gukagala gwakajalo.

7. Kukati shule kweogwa yal893 yakapaladza maPothoko

akaLobengula, 3je1896, uaKhurutsi jakazha muno mushaogo ye-

Tati, kuuusa Rauwe. Igi, Qeni ueshaqgo, tikadumana, taka-

HauaQgana, QakaMosojani, QakaMasuQga, QakaCilina, titi :

"Oushe Qgagupiwe QKhurutsi Rauwe, ezI ndiye unoziuoleia

iKhuwa; kakale unaiadiyi, unohotidiya lukwalo." Dgono ti-

kamilika those tikayenda kunli all kuFurumaka. Tikagika ti-

kati : "She Rauwe, iushe agegugo6, OKhurutsi." Ogono lye

kati : "Manake, uana oatate uaagu." Kasendelela kutili ka-

zha kagala muSeleperg; kakoua uadiyi xgemizi yedu, all she

thuti; wakaiundumala, tiliga, ticilga maioko kunli nema-

Khuwa ewanana naye.

8. Kukati Qgegole 1908, uushe gweTati Concession guka-

manikanya shaxgo. Uakhurutsl uakafuluka kuSelepeog, oaka-

yenda kuKalakamate. Uathu those tikagala mucimanimani.

Kukati rgegole 1911 kukalta nlayO, unoti shaggo yeBechuana-

land Protectorate neshaggo yeSouthern Rhodesia ithuougwe

Qgathu Qgetarata.

"You, Dalaunde, if you flee, the country is divided;

The Matebele, see them, if you flee the country is


Now this same song spread over the whole country, even today being

still sung among the Uakalarga. Even Dalaunjani's people who aro at

Shoshong know it.

6. Our chief, wo, people of Mosojani, died at Maobgo after bogot-

ting Kusani at Uanikuwana's, Catipedza at daciuua's, Manamati at

Oamarisakwana's and Gumbu at Uacuoacu's. Now Kugani, the child of the

realm, died, choked by flies. His father, Loieke, felt the sorrow

bitterly. Then he proceeded to lobola Uatacilisa. He, the old man

Loueko, begot Tamapo at tatacilisa's5. Then Lovoke died. Catipodza

was installed to hold the kingdom for Tamapo; and it remained in that


7. Then, after the war of 1893 which routed the Matobole of Lobe-

ngula, in 1896, the Bahurutsi came in here into the country of Tati,

there ruling Rauwe\. We, the owners of the land, agreed, Halarigana's

people, Mosojani's people, Nasu3ga's people and CiZina's people, saying:

"Let the chieftainship be given to Rauwe, the BHrutsi, since he is the

one who knows how to speak English; further, he has teachers, he will

teach us book-learning." Then we all stood up and wont to him, he be-

ing at Vormaak. We got there and said : "Chief, Rauwo, the chieftain-

ship is yours6, 0 Hurutsi." Then he said : "Good, sons of my fathor."

He came closer to us, came and dwelt in Selepeng; he divided out

teachers according to our villages, being a chief in truth; he was

outstanding, we doing homage and clapping our hands to him and the

Europeans living at peace with him.

8. It happened in the year 1908, the chiefdom of Tati Concession

overcrowded the country. The Bahurutsi moved from Selepeng and went

to Kalakamate. All of us lived in a vory restricted space. It hap-

poned in the year 1911 they made a law, ordering the countries of

Bochuanaland Protectorato and Southern Rhodos a to be separated with

respect to a boundary by means of a wire fence.


She Rauwe katidana tikayenda kunli all kuKalakamate. Tikati

tisinokuuuogana7, kati : "Dalume, nlayo ukati atilakeni ta-

rata qgemapiko edu." Tose tikati : "Ee, oKhurutsi." Kwa-

gala 14i, uakaMosoJanl; katiziua tinaQkhethist Ramukate,

tinandiyl wedu Musarwa. Qgono she katikoia Qgemapiko sal-

koko katargisa eti : "15i uaKhurutsi tohodwila mugwizi gwe-

Shashe, tinoma rgegwizi gweVukwi; kutola oakaMasungwa, ue-

noma egegwizi gwoeItoja; kutola jakaMosojani, ienoma kuTa-

nsholo; kutola oakaHcuaqgana uenoma kuNtemani." Kapedza ma-

tama awe ejalo g3hur.,tsi, eti : "Vula, tgaine'." Tikati :

"JDgaine'. Dgaine'."

9. Kukati rgegole 1912, Tati Concession ikalonga mapu-

lasi. Shaqgo ikamarnikana oukulu. She Rauwe kadzina kale-

mogwa, kaamba. Kukati rgegole 1913, she Rauwe kaculukila

kuTonota mushaago yakaMaigwato nembatilili weoushe gwaka-

Mosojani, Catipedza, naTamapo naikaigwa naMunamati naCilice,

Qana watate Qace. Tikasala neowana washe Mpapho naMutsiwa

naTaerogwa, tate saNdzimumbi, all mbatilili, naGumbu.

10. Kukati mugole ilelo, cinyoloco iaKhurutsi Qathuuu-

kana na4i. She Haoangana kaiotiqginilila8 eti tishatganye

shaoigo Qgono tie uathu ioae. Ikoku kukatikona till uaka-

Mosoj:ani, tikaisa matama kunlauli Daniel kuFran.cistown.

Nlauli.kazhula hwalo dzelukhetho, kapedza matama eti : "Ua-

kaMosojani. uanoleoesa koga andltothuuula shargo imi; sharigo

yakathuiugwandQlwi nashe wenyu Rauwe. Ndoleua nditi Ramu-

kate unohousa uaKhurutsi kuma ndiVukwi naShashe; MasuQga

unocusa 'aPeri kuma ndiVukwi naNtoca; Mosojani unohouusa

uaHumbe kuma ndiNtou-: neMatombo. Dgono tikagala kusina

luwanano pakati kwaMc3ojani naHamargana.

Chief Rauwo called us and we wont to him, he boing at Kalakamato.

Whon we had gathorod7, he said : "Mon, tho ordor says that wo must

build the fonce according to our divisions." All of us said t "Yos,

0 Hurutsi." There wore seated wo, Mosojani's people; ho know us

along with our tax-collector, Ramukato, with our teacher Musarwa.

Then the chief divided us according to our subdivisions like that and

began to say : "We Bahurutsi will begin at the Shashe river and stop

with the Vukwi river; thence Masurgua's people, stopping at the Ntoa

river; thence Mosojani's people, stopping at Tansholo; thence Haoa-

rgana's people, stopping at Ntemani." He finished his words saying

that, the Hurutsi, saying : "Rain, may it fall'." And we said : '"ay it

fall May it fall'"

9. It happened in the year 1912, Tati Concession-put farm. The

country was very congested. Chief Rauwe at last felt the burden and

he complained. It happened in the year 1913, Chief Rauwe crossed over

to Tonota in the auntry of Mangwato with the regent of Mosojani's

chiefdom, Catipedza, and Tamapo and rkaigwa and Munamati and Cilice,

sons of his father. We remained with the chief's sun, Mpapho, and Mu-

tsiwa and TUaQgvwa, the father of Ndzimumbi, ho being the regont, and


10. It happened in that same year, suddenly the Bahurutsi broke

away from us. Chief BEar3agana then8 came in to us saying we should

join the countries and then be his people. That was impossible for us,

we being Mosojani's people, and we put the matter to the District Com-

missioner Daniel, at Francistown. The District Commissioner opened

the records of the tax-collection, and concluded the matter, saying :

"Mosojani's people are right but I do not divide up the country; the

country was divided by you and your chief, Rauwe. I now say that Ra-

nrkute will rule the Bahurutsi between the Vukwi and the Shashe; Ma-

suQga rules the Oaperi between the Vukwi and the Ntoea; Mbsojani will

rule the Oahumbe between the Ntoua and Matombo." But we lived without

there being an agreement between Mosojani and Halapgana.


Dgono kwakati. rogegpoo 1939' kukamuka ndeco hulu' kwazo pakati

kwaHaiDaggana naMosojani ogekweshargo. -Ogono Mosojani,

shango lye, uukulu. gwayo gwakasala kaHa.aggana, naiwo nzi

weMaobge, neMaSirgwa, yakasala kaHaarqgana.

11. Dgono clthu cinogwisanya oushe yeci, dukuta9 leuu-

she ifupa, igoue she rarwe negrrwe unoamucila dukuta nge-

cielo ceuunji gweathu iate. Dgono ndico cita pakati kwa-



" f., *,-,i".


Then it happened in the year 1939 there arose a very big dispute be-

tween Haiaagana and Mosojani about the land. But Mosojani, as regards

his land, the greater part of it remained Haiaggana's, and oven tho

very village of Maobgo with Magigwa romainod Ha1aggana's.

11. Now the thing which makes a chiefdom to be at strife is this,

the commission9 of chieftainship is jealousy, because each and every

chief receives a commission according to the measure of the number of

his people. Then this is an enemy among chiefs.


1. DaTeti ianantupo unodaowa kuyi Sola muzhuia lanhasi.

Uanowanika aalizhele mushargo yeBechuanaland nemuTati neuu-

Rhodesia kuuuRwa. Ogempaoga weuunji gwetathu iuaoa Qakati

Qedwa mushargo yato, uuTeti, uakaZithuuukanya Qakaziyeta

makutuogano mashanu makulu-kulu. Uatuogamili uemakuogano

iwawa kwakaie kuli Hukwi, Cuiacu, Ntand.aadza, Ndedzi na-

Nnisakhwe. Uathu uaiwawa makuuxngano nhasi oanozidana ne-

mazina eoatuQgamilli uao. KunaoouaHukwil, uouaCuuacu, uo-

QaNtandasadZa, oouaNdedzi nauouaNnisakhwe.

2. Ate kuli kulelu-lelu kulonda sekugele vathu i3aea

tose Wose Qgooe, uakati uezha mushaogo idzedzi dzandaleua,

QQwe neQgwe kagala kule kule neuaiwe. Mumazina iwawa masha-

nu andakwala, kuna kuti ndikwale ndilonda ludzi gweiaTeti

mandakadwa2. Kwakati Cuuacu edwa mutuTeti, kaue ntuqgamili

gkulu weuathu taue. Katar~isa kugala muNzende maakashaoga-

na neoaHurutsi naoiOgwadi nacoDzigwane nauoNsece. Mukudwa

ipapo Cuxacu kagala muMakutukutu maakafila; kasiya kuzhe

iana anna, Hanigukutu, Daya, Ndzimba, Nirgome.

3. Ndiko Hanigukutu aoe neikadzl uwe wekutaoga uamoge-

le3 muNitombge. Dkadzi wakajalo kafa asinaowana. Qaya wa-

kapiwa aaHurutsi kuyi unloyi, oasiogade kumbulaya Qgoue all

nthu wauakazagwa naye. Nirgome nnuouna waiuaua uathu uose

kacimbidza kazala owana unoyi Maceke. Hanigukutu naNdzimba

uakafila paMatandila pauakazioana neuakaMosojani; uakaouya

oakalouolelana uana, uakatargisa kuie uukamu. Kukati kwaci-

sala NiQgome yega, kaue ndiye Okulu. etoueledza neowana uwe

Maceke. Kukati Ningome asinofa muNdadza,



1. The Tetl people have a totem which is called Sola today. They

are found at full strength in the country of Bochuanaland Protectorate

and in Tati and in Southern Rhodesia. By reason of the number of

these people when they were coming out of their country, Teti, they

split themselves up and made themselves five very big companies. The

leaders of these companies were IhLkwi, Cuoaou, Ntandawadza, Ndedzi and

Nnisakhwo. The people of those companies today call themselves by the

names of their leaders. There are the Oahukwi peoplel, the Uacu~acu

people, the Uantandawadza people, the Oandedzi people and lannisakhwe


2.. It is not very easy to find out the way there lived all these

people became, whea they were coming intp these countfiana vwhic I have

mentioned, each and very one lived very far from the others. Among

these five names which I have written, it is necessary that I write

following the tribe of the Oateti people from within which2 I have come.

When Cuuacu was coming from the Teti country, he became a great leader

of his people. He first lived in Nzende where he met the Bahurutsi,

Dgwadi's people, Dzigwane's people and Nsece's people. While coming

from there, Cuuacu stayed in Makutukutu, vkero he died. He left be-

hind four sons, Hanigukutu, daya, Ndzimba and NiQgomo.

3. Then, Hanigukutu having married his first wife, they wore liv-

ing3 in Nitombgo. That-wife died without a child. Oaya was given to

the Bahurutsi, it being said he was a wizard, they',being unwilling to

kill him since he was a person with 'iom they had been born.

N23gomo, the junior brother of all these men, soon begot a son called

Maceko. Hanigukutu and Ndzimba died at Matandila whore they were

acquainted with Mosojani's people; they also lobolaod their children

to one another and initiated that there be relationship. Then, when

only Nirgome still romdinod, it was he who bocemo the loader, being

followed by his son, Macoko. When NlQgomo died in Ndadza,

Maceke Qwana uwe kasala egala thaka yokulela uana Qenkulu

watate Qaoe uaNdzimba, Mmoiwa (Phambuka) naNlumbile (Dgala-


4. Kuti oasinote Qakula, iaua, ndizo kuzhe4 owanana

ahomisa nsha Qkulu waHanigukutu. Owanana wakajalo agagwe

thaka ndiMmoqwa, ndizo kuaagwe Moloi (Ganda), Zikhali, Ma-

sendu naPidi munsha gkulu waHanlgukutu. Hule kwaikoko,

MmoQwa alooola Qaue uakadzi, ozala uaue Qana, Molele; Ma-

khuwa, Cogana, Sioute naMasauu; Buzani, Ncena. Oana uaHa-

nigukutu Qakate QakaliQga Mmorjwa state waeo qgoue ndiye

wakazalila Hanigukutu. Kauuya kaoalela.

5. Molele ka5 all iye nwana Gkulu waMmoqwa (Phambuka)

unoda kuti kadzene6 uana uaHanigukutu ueti ndiye Okulu pa-

1ali. Ogono iuo takati : "Cini?" Hanigukutu ndiye rkulu

wauo uose jakaCuuacu. Uana iaHanigukutu kwakafa Okulu wauo

yega, Moloi, uarwe wayapo uose. Uana uaMoloi uayapo. Ndi-

Oaamane, Khudu naFly, Fati, Cipele naTeati. Dgenlayo ne-

Qgefanilo Uaamane ndiye qkulu waoo Qose QakaCuuacu Qgoue

ndiye rwana wensha Qkulu waHanigukutu, Qwana waCuiacu.


Maceko his son remained, inheriting the charge of the children of the

elder brother of his father, Ndzimba, Mmor)wa (Phambuka) and Nlumbile


4. When they had already grown up, these ones, then there cane4 a

girl who then raised the big house of Hanigukutu. This girl was in-

herited by Mmor~a and thus there were born Moloi (Skin), Zikhali,

Masendu and Pidi in the big house of Hanigukutu. After that,- -IorTwa

lobolaed his wives and then begot his sons : Molelo; Makhuwa, Cogana,

Siouto and Masaou; Buzani and Neona. The sons of Hanigukutu had re-

garded Mmoriwa as their father because it was he who had begotten on

behalf of Hanigukutu. Also ho reared then.

5. Since5 Mololo is the eldest son of Mnorowa (Phanbuka). he wants

to say if possible6 the sons of Hanigukutu are calling him greater than

themselves. But they say : "How?": Hanigukutu is the senior of all

Cucaeu's people. Of the sons of Hanigukutu, there died the senior of

them only, Moloi, the others are all surviving. The sons of Moloi are

alive. They ara Uaamane, Khudu and Fly, Fati, Cipeio and TSaoi. By

laW and by right, Uaamane is the senior of all Cuuacu's people, since

he is the son of the big house of Hanigukutu, the son of Cuwaeu.


I .

1. A deverbative noun, (9), (account, saying); from kuloca (to
speak). Op. C.Sh. kureta (to speak). Where C.Sh. employs r, Li. and
K1. regularly employ 1. Cp. Li., Kl. lulimi (11) (tongue),
C.Sh. rurimi ( do.).

The Noun Classes in Li., K1. are as follows :-








(i ) [li
(i)Zi- .

(u) u-
(a)pa- ,
Li. (i)zhi-
Kl. (i)hi-

.m dar3ga

For the significance of N- iiithe noun pref
Note 10.

a man
a father
father rs
a tree
a year
a chair
a head-of-cattle
a book
to die, death
at the kraal
to the kraal
in the kraal
a small boy
a big man
a big man

ixes of Cl. 1, 3, cp.

Sounds in ( ) never appear as such, but exert phonological in-

Of the sounds in [ ], [li] does not appear as such, but its ori-
ginal presence can be deduced from its concords, from comparative
study, and from the nature of the initial sounds of nouns of this

eQ) is a variable nasal consonant which either appears as such or
disappears; in the former case it exercises, and in the latter case it
may exercise, phonological influence.

2. The vowel in the poss.c. ye- is not conditioned by the latent
initial vowel (i) in rombe, In Li. the- vowel -a- of the poss.c. is
regularly _-e when joined to nominal poss. stems other than nouns of
Cl. la and 2a. In this Li. agrees with Ma.

Op. Li.
Nlume waekadzi
Danga leoombe
Dmbe ye3alume
fUadzi washe
Lakadzi 3a3oshe


husband of the woman)
kraal of the cattle)
beast of the men)
wife of the chief)
wives of the chiefs)

Murume wemukadzi
CfaQga rejombe
!Jombe yeoaramo
Mukadzi washe
Dakadzi Datashe

This process has been termed substitution by Professor Doke. Cp. Sh.Ph.
p. 196.



Kl. follows Ze. + Ka., the poss.c. e.g. wa- becoming
we- before latent initial (i),
wo- (u), and remaining
a- t" () and nouns of Cl. 1 + 2a which
Shave no initial vowel latent.

3. Op. Kl. luliho (real, proper).
kuuizha 1. (to rear cattle).
e.g. Dathu wakafanila kucizha rombe Qgoue dzothusa.
(People should rear cattle because they help).

2. (to have horns of a certain, crescent, shape)
e.g. Dzose dzakaiizha, dzikati ...
(They have all curved horns, they do ... (Here a
gesture expressive of curved horns was given.)).

Luoizho, the deverbative, comes then to mean the roaring of cattle
and the shape of their horns. It also means the end-points of any
crescent e.g. of a hunting party strung out in a crescent-shaped line.
e.g. Dathu oanovima; waWili \akloupelo gweuathu oamuzila
(People hunt; the two at the end of men who are in the path
are at the tip).
Thence, perhaps, it has come to mean a starting point, the real thing,
the genuine thing.
e.g. Ndoda leWeleka iKalaqga luoizho.
(I want to speak proper Kalaoga).
Mbizi lu3izho kene?
(Is it really a horse?)
As such it functions as an invariable qual. For a So. example of a
noun functioning as an invariable qual., cp. So. mang (la) (who)
e.g. selo marg? (what Kind of thing?)

The following forms suggested a possibility that luoizho might
moan a name :
Cp. Nd. ukubiza (to call), i6izo (5. name)
So. ho bitsa( ), lbitso ( "
Ve. u vhidza( "
Howovor, in present-day Li. + Kl. this meaning is not present.

As will bc gathered from the text, the writer uses the wcrd gombo
to cover all livestock. Cattle arc called Qombc lutizho. In the trans-
lation I have employed the word cattle to translate rombe (10). The
singular word I have translated variously as livestock (especially when
cattle are contrasted with other livestock), as head-of-cattle, beast,
ox or cow (when the sex was indicated).

4. This is a case when Li. ph corresponds to Kl. nh
Op. Li. phuka (9,10); C.Sh. Kl. nrhuka (9.10) (an animal)
phepo ( ) nhepo ( ) (wind)

Ve. phuka (9) (an animal)
phukha/dziphukha (10) animalss).

5. The poss.c. of Cl. 11 may be presumed to have been lwa-. In
Li., as in C.Sh., the appearance of the semi-vowel after a non-velar
consonant is accompanied by the evolution of a velar consonant between
the consonant and the semi-vowel. In this case, 1 + velar + w, the
lateral consonant has disappeared. This is.the explanation of the
following changes :

Poss.C. of Cl. 11 is wja-;
Passive of verb stems ending in -la, e.g. of the applied
species; e.g. -kocegwa from -kopela (to distribute)'
Noun Prefix of Cl. 11 before vocalic noun stems; e.g.
gaizi (river) from lu + -izi,
Diminutive of nouns ending in -1o, -lur e.g. shugwana (Snall
hare). Cp. shulo (hare).

6. This conjunctive is not found in C.Sh. It is variously trans-
lated as but, then, and so.

7. The passive species of the applied species -koiola (ti dis-
tributo to).
Op. C.Sh. -gooora (distribute to)
-gomorwa (be distributed to) (I.P.A. -goOor'wa)
and Note 5.

8. This is a case when th in Li. corresponds to nh in Kl. + C.Sh.
Cp. Li. iathu (2) (people); Kl./C.Sh. Oanhu
ntuthu (3) (upland); C.Sh. mutunhu
Kl. ntunhu
Voi vhathu (2) (people);
So. batho (2) ( ).

9. In Li. the agentive formative used with nouns other than those
of Cl. la + 2a, is _ga, the vowel a being regularly substituted for a
as in the poss.c. Op. Note 2. The instrumental formative is similar-
ly rgoO, the conjunctive formative no-.

Agentive adverbials are forced from nouns of Cl. la + 2a by means
of the Impersonal copulative formative ndi-, conjunctive adverbials by
means of the conjunctive formative na-.

There is considerable variation over these adverbials in the Sh.

Cp. Li. Ndalobga Qgenlume (I was beaten by the man) Agentive
Ndalobga rgeshamu (I was beaten with a stick) Instrumental
Ndalobga ncrjkulu (I was beaten along with my Conjunctive
older brother)
Ndalobga nditate (I was beaten by father) Agontivo
Ndayonda natate (I went with father) Conjunctive

The corresponding adverbials in Kl., Ze. and Ma., are as follows :-

K1. nonlume Ze. nomurume Ma. Qgemurume
ndexamu neshamu Qgeshama
noikulu (or ndo-) nomukoma nemukoma
ndatate na6a5a ndi6aba
natate na6a6a naab6a

10. The Noun Prefixes of C1. 1, 3.

In Li. + Kl. the Noun Prefixes of Cl. 1, 3 usually consist of syllabic
nasal consonants fully homorganic to any initial consonant of the stem.
This is clearly seen in the formation of deverbative nouns of these
classes. (Examples are given in I.P.A. and, unless otherwise indi-
cated, come from both Li. + Kl.)

Before bilabial consonants the profix
c.g. mpa uji (a spillor), cp. kupapula (to
mbaji (a holder), kubaja (to
mbo4i (a seer), ktoopa (to
nm~si (a rouser), kumusa (to

is m.

Before the semi-homorganic consonant combinations whose first
element is bilabial, the prefix is m.

These consonant combinations do not seem to occur in Li., pf in
K1. corresponding to th in Li. -- as elsewhere nh, cp. Notes 8 and
12; by in Kl. corresponding to dw in Li.
e.g. K1. mpfuli (a kicker), cp. kupfuja (to kick);
mbvuji (one who removes from water), cp. kubvula (to take
from water).

Before the heterorganic consonant combinations whose first
element is bilabial, the prefix is m.
e.g. mpxisi (a dryer), cp. -pxisa (to dry);
mb ilili (one who re- kubyibija (to return);
K1. mmjisi (one giving a kumrjisa (to give to drink)

e.g. nrfi

e.g. nemi
Li. ithuji

labio-dental consonants the
(a dead man),cp. kufa
(a hunter), kuvima


consonants, the prefix
cutter), cp. kuema
lover), kuda
kicker), kuuhula

prefix was heard as rM
(to die);
(to hunt).

is R.


.Before prepalatal consonants and consonant
which are fully homorganic, the prefix is 1 .
Li. since Kl. equivalents for Li. J and are
e.g. Li. /Ju 3i (a trader), cp. ku u7a (to
1 adzi (a filler), ku3 adza (to

combinations, all of
This occurs only in
usually x and A.

Before velar and glottal consonants and consonant-semivowel -com-

binations, a
e.g. ikami

Li. orjjisi

Kl. 'xm L

ill of which are only partly homorganic, the prefix is q.

(a milker),
(a stamper),
(one who stays),
(a hearer),
(one giving to
(a trader),
(one w.ho comes),

op. kukama

kuxua a
= -a

give to drink);

(to barter);
(to came).

Before the semi-vowsels j and
In Kl. no prefix 1;as heard, but a
within the deverbative stem..
e.g. Li. je;i (meaaLrer),
6Jed4i (traveller),
3wisi (one who make.
awa~uji (one who spree
a mat),
viuggisi (one who make

w, the prefix was heard as 9 in Li.
nasal was, where possible, inserted


(to measure);
(to travel);
(to make fall);

kuuaiuja (to spread a mat);

kuwu3gisa(to make flow);

Kl. jeA.eka4i (one who changes
jeji measureer,
wali (one who spreads
a mat),
wigsi (one who makes
wuigisi (one who makes

kujoeekana (to change clothes);




(to measure);
(to spread a mat);

(to make fall);

(to make fla ).

Before vowel stems.
In Li. the prefix was heard as e.
Semivowel j was inserted between the prefix and initial e; semivowel v
was inserted between the prefix and initial o; no semivowel was hoard
botwoon the prefix and initial a, while, in the case of verbs with ini-
tial i, the vowel was dropped, a syllabic nasal appearing as prefix and
homorganic to the initial phone of the truncated stem.
No examples were heard of deverbatives from vocalic stans with
initial u.

In K1. the prefix was heard as the semi-vowel J before vocalic
stem beginning in a, e; and as w before vocalic stems beginning in o.
No examples were heard of deverbative ste-ns with initial i or u. It
was optional either to use these; semivowels as prefixes .or to omit

Once again, wherever it was possible, a nasal
the devorbative stem. This was hoard as syllabic.

was inserted within

e.g. Li. jGazeli
ivo-io t




Kl. Jajankani


enze i



(one who dons
(one who doffs
(one who remem-

(one who remem-

(one who floats
on water),



(one who puts),



Op. kuezela
ku omisa





don clothes);

(to doff clothes);

(to remember);

(to do);
(to bring);

(to remember ;

kuar gama (to float);

kuezela (to sleep),



(to do);

(to put);

kuo-lota (to dream);

kuomisa (to dry);

N.B. (1) In the case of mboni (a seer), the initial consonant of the
verbal stem, from being a fr icativ 2, has been plosivized.
In the case of Kl. r3vi (a coiar), the initial consonant of
the verbal stem, from being a glottal 2, has been velarizod.

N.B. (2) The sane process of retrogressive assimilation as obtains in
the formation of the noun prefixes, obtains also in regard to
the obj.c. of Cl.1.
e.g. Li. gjakampa (I gave him);
danrvimisa (I made him hunt);
If __ (I liked him);
aIa,~i/ oSza nafuta (I anointed him with fat);
gaaicnisa (I aado him milk);

K1. had the vowel u before the syllabic nasal in each
e.g. Kl. Idakaumpa
44aurnvir.isa etc.

N.B. (3) Sono Kl. od-Tors completely omitted the prefix, saying,
0.g. patuli (one who spills)
kanisi (ono who m-kos milk) otc.

N.B. (4) In tho.orthography adopted for the text and notes, the noun
lpofixos of Cl. 1 and 3 are written
n before bilabial and donti-labial consonants;
r_ before velar and glottal consonants;.
n bcfor- cll other consonants.
The obj.c. of C1. 1 is similarly represontod.

11. Cp. Kl. mixirJgo; C.3h. kushiqga (to exert oneself)'.

12. This is a case where Li. th corresponds to Kl. + C.Sh. pf.
Cp. Li. mathudzi (6) Kl. mapfudzi (shoulLers)
nthudze (3) mpfudze (manure)
C.Sh. mupfudze (manure)

13. It is not necessary to postulate the influence of the latent
initial vowel (i) in yomauoko to explain the o in the conjunctive for-
mative ne-. This latter formative is no- in any case before all sub-
stantivos save those. of Cl. la, 2a. Op. Noteo 2, 9.
Luooko (11) moans the ~hole arm, including the hand. Gumbo
(5) moans the whole log, including the foot.

14. The Negative mrofixal formative in Li. + Kl. is a-.
Op. Nd. akukho (tharo is not); Vc. a hu na (there is not);
C.Sh. hakuna (there is not).

In the original version, written according to the current orthography,
the NDEUDOwas abocedarian in character, each paragraph starting with
successive letters of the alphabot. This version has retained the
original paragraph division but the orthography has, unfortunately,
had to obscure a feature which the author was evidently at some pains
to present.

15. Alternately muaombc. Cp. C.Sh. panomombo (than a hoad-of-

16. Kuyi is the passive of kuti in Li. + Kl. Cp. C.Sh. kunzi.
Ku is the indefinite concord in Li. + Kl. Cp. C.Sh. Zikanzi (it is
said). Thisa is the past subjunctive used in consecutive narration,
a use which corresponds to that oC the Past Subjunctive in Ng. + So.

The Positive Conjugation
-piwa (to be given)).

of the Past Subjunctive (with the verb stem


ukapi ra


(and I (was
(vill be

given) mukapiva
(2) akapina
(4) ikapiT-a
(6) akapiwa

(3) akapiwa
(4) ikapiwa
(6) akapiwa

(and. .'e are
given) etc.



The Negative Conjugation in Li.

asipipe (and I am not given)

u akasipiwo

(and we are
not given)


The Negative Conjugation in Kl.

asipiwe (and I am not given).


(and we are
not given)



o akasapiva

This form is used in Consecutive narration irrespective of the
tense in which the narration was begun and is being conducted. It
is thus used after all tenses of the Indicative Mood. It is also used
after the Potential Mood, and the Infinitive form.

e.g. Naayndkaynda kuavoykoloaiika atoroga rguuo asiJuye kanyi.
(I went to the store, got there, bought a blanket, but did
not return home.)

Ndohoyenda kuverkole agika atorJga Oguoo asi uyo kanyi.
(I will go to the store, got there, and buy a blanket, but
will not return homo.)

Li. Shulo yakagala pasi ikadusa uaki cayo ikasidyo.
Kl. Xulo yakagala pasi ikadusa uaki cayo isidyo.
(The hare sat down, took off its coat and did not oat.)

Ndirgagala pasi adusa oaki carjgu asidyo.
(I can sit down and take off my coat and not oat.)

Ndoshaka gala pasi adusa. iaki cargu asidyo.
(I want to sit down and take off my coat and not cat.)

Cp. C.Sh.
1st P.
2nd P.
3rd P.(1)

Ist P.
2nd P.
3rd P.(1)

1st P.
2nd P.
3rd P.(1)




17. The Participial Mood, present tense, positive conjugation, is
composed of Participial Subj.c. + verb stem.
Cp. Nd. ithi (it saying)
C.Sh. iciti ( )

The subj.c. for the participial mood, present and future tenses, is
also based on the Ng. model in that, except as regards intonation, it
differs from the subj.c. of the present indicative only in the follow-
ing classes : C1. 1, la, 2, 2a, 6.

Cp. C1. l,la eti; Nd. ethi; C.Sh. aciti
2,2a Qeti; G ethi; uoaciti
6 oti; ethi; aciti.

18. An ideophono, expressive of the cry made by cattle. A loud
cry will often evoke cattle-praises of the typo contained in this

19. Cp. Kl.akaitunha and Noto 8. Kutuna moans to swoar in both
Li. + Kl. The Li. people designate the style of such a passage as the
following, by the word kututha (to praise, praising).

20. Cp. Dzohwa Vathu (Listen to the people)
Dzohwani uathu (Listen ye to the people)
dzocihwa (cilisana) (listen to him (the little boy))
dzolihua (zhilumo) (listen to him (the huge follow)).

Dzohwa is from odza kuhwa (try to hear). It is, then, a compound pro-
dicato consisting of the imperative of the deficient verb + complomont.
The complement is an infinitive with contracted prefix -- a form common
in Sh.
Cp. Ualume uakadzondana kakonela pehugi konti.
(The man (kept on calling )hor, but she remained at the
(made every endeavour to call)
top of the tree.)

The riddle :
R : Adzoti, adzoti, ashaya.
(I tried to do, I tried to do, I failed).

A: Tiko (7)
(Te back of the head).

Cp. Va. -dza, a doficiant verb which forms polite imperatives.
e.g. dzou da (< dza + u da) (please come).

Further, the combination dzou + verb stem is incorporated into
larger phrases to forn polite hortativos.
e.g. ni dzou Qa ( < ni dzo u a)' (I wish you would come).

21. Lit. "(It) makes the noses sweat", an idiom moaning that it
gives satisfaction. "If the nose is dry, then life is hard." (Kousu)

Note the omission of the subj.c. owing to the praise style of

22. "A heap and a half" -- that is, in size.

When conjunctive adverbials, e.g. negasa (with a half), bocomo copu-
lative stans for personal copulatives, whother positive or negative,
the conjunctive formativc reverts to na-, as hear. In C.Sh. this
only takes place in thL negative. Cp. C.Sh. unega a (it is with a
half), haunagaga (it is not with a half) and Note 13.

23. Explosive d in Li. + Kl. corresponds to implosivc d of C.Sh.
Cp. C.Sh. rwondo rwiedu (our journey) and Note 5.

24. Xauta, as in Kl., although usually Kl. x is represented in Li.
by sh.
Cp. Tsw. Gautong (at Johannesburg).

Tsa., froin wYhich Li. has obviously borrowed Xauta, uses this
radical form, viz. gauta, in the sense of gold, and employs the loca-
tive form Gauteng for Johannesburg. Li., not forming the locative by
means of suffix, uses the radical form Xauta for Johannesburg.

25. Cp. Kl. uaxayi.
Xe (chief) Li. She (chief)
xulo (hare) shulo (haro).

26. Cp. Nd. amajaha I.P.A. ama 5axa (young man)
Tso. dyaha (young man).

27. Ndolo (9) moans a breast; ndogwana is the diminutive form.
Op. Note 5. The proverb moans that the two things men care about in
lifo arc cattle and womnn, and that cattle are a means towards acquir-
ing wives. For the accaning of kufila cp. this example :
Zhou yakafila moushwa
(The elephant was busily occupied in the grass, i.e. eating it).

In Li. + Kl., the prefix ci-, when substituted for another noun pre-
fix, or proprofixod to it, carries the idea of smallnoss.
e.g. mQanana (a girl)
canana (a little girl).
In C.Sh. the connotation would be of something small and fat.

The deficient verb -na, becoming -no with contracted infinite e
prefix of the complement, has here the moaning "is going to". -na is
a contracted form of -yonda (K1. -nda) (to go).
Op. C.Sh. whoro both forms no and ndo, are in use.
e.g. Li. Oakanolisa (Thoy wior going to herd)
tanonolisa (They arc going to herd)
Oanohonolisa (They will be going to herd)

Cp. Gakalisa (They herded) Remote Past Tense
Uanolisa (Thoy herd) Prosent Tense
I0anoholisa (They will herd) Future Tense.

28. The prefix of Cl. 15 nouns is frequently olidod. Out of
numerous examples the following might be quoted :-
e.g. Kl. Ndoda nda kukwolc qgono ndogwala.
(I want to go to school but I am sick).

Ndoxaka gala pasi adusa Laki cagu .
(I want to sit down and tkeo off imy coat).

Li. Dgono fula kwopombo ate kuli dye.
(Now the grazing of cattle is not eating).

29. The grades of rYlos centionod in the text are :- Nthuntana (1)
(old man); nlumotate (1) (father of family/married L:,n); nzhuzha (1)
(youth); mbisana (1) (boy up to about 17 years); qgwana (1) (small boy
or girl); pgawiana (9) (infant) -- either sex).

30. The poss.c. of Cl. 16 + 18 are only found, in Li. + K1., in
indirect relative clauses. In other cases, when a noun of one of these
classes is the possessoo in a possessive construction, the poss.c. is
either that of C1. 17 (this happens when the stcuo of the C1. 16 or 18
noun is not itself a noun), or that of the stem (this happens when the
stem of the C1. 16 or 18 noun is itself a noun).
o.g. pakati knodu (at our midst);
inkati kwoijumba (in the middle of the house);
padaega largu (at my cattlo-kraal);
mudagga lagu (in my cattlo-kraal).

Cp. Nd. phakathi k.cthu (at our midst).

When a C1. 17 noun is the possesses in a possessive construction,
the poss.c. is similarly either that of C1. 17 (when the stem of the
C1. 17 noun is not itself a noun), or that of the stem (when the stem
of the Cl. 17 noun is itself a noun).
e.g. kushule kwerumba (behind the house);
kudaraa langu (to my cattle-kraal).

In the parallel cases in C.Sh., when the stems of Cl. 16, 17 or 18
nouns are not themselves nouns, the poss.c. are those of C1. 16, 17 or
18 respectively; when the stems of these nouns are themselves nouns,
the C1. 16. 17 or 18 noun may either govern its own poss.c. or else the
poss.c. of the noun stem may be used.
e.g. pakati pedu (at our midst);
kushure kwecu (behind us);
mukati medu (in our midst);

padfarga pangu / langu
kucfartga kwarjggu / larjg
mU~a~a mar(Igu / lar~gu

(at my cattle-kraal);
(to my cattle-kraal);
(in my cattle-kraal).

31. The noun prefix of C1. 2a is oo- with high tone. The high tone
on the noun prefix is confirm d to this class. Kl. and Li. share this
feature with Ve. and So.
Op. Li. rotate (my fathers, our fathers);
So. bo-ntate ( do. );
Ve. vho-khotsi ( do. ).

Also op. Nd. Boo6a5a, the vocative of ooBaba (2a) (my fathers, our

C.Sh. lacks this form of the noun prefix but has instead tha three
forms oadzi-, madzi-, and -oa in which I can detect no difference of
e.g. ladzi6aSa iedu (our fathers);
madziba6a edu ( do. );
loa6aaa iedu ( do. ).

32. Here an interrogative interjective; alternatively kani? (oh?).
Op. Ve. kani? (oh?). The same word is a co-ordinating conjunctive
meaning ar. Examples of these two uses may be given -
e.g. Wauuva kene? (Have you returned?)
Unoda shadza keno nyama? (Do you want porridge or meat?).

Cp., for the latter use, Ve. + C.Sh. kana (or).

33. The enclitic interrogative noun ni (9) has no latent initial
vowel in Kl1 + Li. such as it has in C.Sh.
Cp. Zo. Inodirweyi (Tiy is it loved?);
Ma. Inofirwenyi ( do. ).
Is this the influence of Nd.? Cp. Nd. Ithandelwani? (Uhy is it loved?)

34. In Li. the forms for the present indicative, simple implication,
for the 1st and 2nd Persons, Singular and Plural, are :-
Ndoyenda (I go) toyonda
unoyenda moyenda

The forms for the 3rd Person, Singular and Plural, are of the type :-
unoyenda t anoyenda

The forms Ndinoyenda, tinoyenda and munoyenda, instead of Ndoyenda,
toyenda and moyenda, are allowed, but, seemingly, not in frequent use.
The corresponding forms for the exclusive implication, 1st and 2nd Per-
son, Cl. 1 and 2, are as in C.Sh., viz :-
Ndoyenda (Now I go) Toyenda
woyenda moyenda.
Woyenda 3oyenda
e.g. Mabge anowa koga nyunyi adzitowa.
(Stones fall but birds do not fall.)
Wvapedza dya, wodiya.
(He has finished eating, now he teaches.)

In Kl. the forms for the Simple Implication, Present Indicative, are as
in Li. save that the alternative longer forms, ndinoyenda etc., arc not

The Exclusive Implication is expressed in the following form, (kunda =
to go) :-
ndonda (Now I go) tnda
wonda monda
wenda uenda
e.g. Igwenu tweogina Ikkwele.
(Now we are entering school.)
Ndapedza dya, rqgwenu ndenda.
(I have finished eating, now I go.)

35. A poss.qual. pronoun functioning as an adverb -- ,"after the
fashion of their kind". For this connotation of C1. 7, 8 derivatos, cp.:
Li. the greeting : Washwa cini? (How did you spend the day?)
Ka. kusurgira cirumo (to tie correctly; lit. in man's fashion);
kusujgira cidyi (to tie correctly; lit. in right hand
kusurgira cikadzi (to tie wrongly; lit. in wnrian's fashion);
kusuagira cimhoshe (to tic wrongly; lit. in left hand fashion).

C.Sh. Zakanaka (well);
Zakaipa (badly);
Zakadayi (in this way);
Z akadaro (in that way).

36. OCp. Kl. ndol.k-orombe
Nd. ngoki.onkomo (I .A. gokwoorkqko)
Taw. kagakgomo
Ze. neZemombe and Note 16.

The Nd. and Tsw. pattern corresponds to the Li. But the Kl. pattern
differs in substituting the copulative formative for the instrumental,
while the Zo. substitutes Cl. 8 poss.c. for that of Cl. 17.

37. The Demonstrative qualificatives indicate two positions :-
(Cl,. 9) eyi (this); eyo (that). Also, within each position, a second
precision :- eyino (this one here) eyija (that one there) Li..
eyiya ( do. ) Kl.

Longer forms exist for each position and
iyei (this very one, iyevo
that same one)
iyeyino (this very one iyeyija

precision :-
(that very one,
that same one)
(that very one there)

38. Cp. Kl. gulihele. This is the participial form of guzhele.
Guzhele illustrates the present indicative, perfect aspect of -zhala
(to got full). The perfect aspect ends in -elo, a form found only in
the case of five verbs, and it is only in such cases that the forma-
tive li is used to form the participial.
Cp. Wandiwana ndiligolo (he found me seated);
alimilo (ho waiting);
alinoylole (he being silent);
alilolo (he lying down);
nzi uligogweo Qgwathu (a village inhabited by people).

Obviously the subj.c. of tho.participial complement has been .omittod
in all those casob. For a similar case op. Note 128.

39. Cp. Kl. ikamMa
mnana (1) (a child)
-mne (a certain,


40. Cp. KI. anoYogwa.
-i-'a (5) (the rainy season)

ryua(l) (a youth)

41. The digraph dy represents the sound

SZolkudya (zok ga) C.Sh.

42. Cp. Kl.

gna (1) (a child);
3we (a certain, some).

Li. zhizha (the rainy
nzhuzha (a youth)


in Li.
in Kl.

sadza and Note 11.

45. Cp. Kl., C.Sh. nhopi and Note 8.

ha, fa,
e.g. ha

This conjunctive is peculiar to Kl. d.g. in Shona. Cp. Tsw.
ga, g6 (if, when) similarly governing the participial mood.
motho a se na kgomo (if a man is without cattle).

45. The two parties to this contract are called nsaidzi and

46. Cl. 12, 13 are not found in K1. d.g. which forms diminutives
after the Ng. and So. model. C1. 20 (pl. Cl. 8) is used in a few cases
to indicate small size.
e.g. kulisana (small boy) cp. mbisana (boy)
kwanana (small girl) qwanana (girl)
kukukwana (small fowl) huku (9) (fowl).

But these cases are not numerous, and, even,in them, the diminutive
suffix is used.

47. Cp. Ka. Bambo oaggu.
Ze. Saba wangu.


48. -ca is the deficient verb most frequently used in compound.
tenses. It corresponds to the C.Sh.. deficient verb -gM in the Recent
and Remote Past Tense-Time sequences It is frequently elided.
Cp. Remote Pas.t + Present Tense-Time Seuence.
Kl.d.g. Ndaka(ee) ndiouya (I was coming),
YWka (e) 'euuya (he was coming).

Ndakeag ndiciuya
ga aciuya

(I was coming),
(he was coming).

Recent Past + Present Tense-Time Sequece,
Kl.d.g. Nda(co) ndiouya (I ias coming),
lWa Oo) eouya- (he was coming).

Zo. NdarQga ndiciuya
Warga aciuya

Near Future + Present
Kl.d.g. Ndo3e ndituya
Unooe eiuya

Ze. Ndinerge ndiciuya
Aner3ge aciuya

Cp. Kl.d.g. ndandiuuya (Recent
Nd. ngangifuya (I.P.A.

(I was coming),
.(he was coming).

Tense-Time Sequence
(I iill be coming),
{he will be comingg.

(I will be coming),
(he will bb coming).

Past + Present Sequence),
3agiouya) (Remote Past + Present Sequence).

49. Kl.d.g. has a peculiar construction for the poss.qual. in the

two instances vhon
Person 01. 1, la.
Possossoo C1.

the poss.stem refers
L qkadzi uwvo
qkadzi uno
2 Oakadzi tago/ aBeo
3 nzi uwoJ/uwe.
4 mizi igoiiye
5 ht liloEli-le
6 mahwi avoQ/awe
7 cithu cico/cice
8 Zithu ZiZo ZipZ
9 rorabe iyo/i
03 rorbe dzidzo7dzidze
1 gizi gugo/gugve
3 iucilo gugopugute
5 cLuyenda kuko'/akwe

to the 2nd Person Sing. or 3rd

(your wife)
(his wife)
(your/his wives)
(your/his village)
(your/his illagos)
(your/his voice)
(your/his words)
(your/his thing)
(your/his things)
(your/his ox)
(your/his oxon)
(your/his river)
(your/his life)
(your/his going).

Formula :

1) Poss.Qual. with 2nd Person Singular Poss. Stom.

Subj.c. of pososssQo + Subj.c. of possossoo + o.

In the second syllable of this qual., whore the pubj.c. contains a
consonant, the vowel o is substituted for the vowel of the subj .c.
Where the subj.c. consists of a vowel only, this vowel becomes a semi-
vowel + o, a booming w
i y*

2) Poss.Qual. with 3rd person C1. l,la poss. stem.

Subj.c. of possesses + subj.c. of possesses + e.

In the second syllable of this qual., where the subj.c. contains a
consonant, the vowel e is substituted for vowel a or i, but:causes
vowel u to became w; where the subj.c. consists of a vowel, this vowel

becomes a semi-vowel to which e is then added,
a becoming w
u .

Cp. Ve. the 2nd Person Singular poss. stem -u,
3rd Person 01. l,la poss. stem -we;
e.g. yau (your) Poss. qual. Pronoun C1. 9 possussoo,
hawe (his) 17 "

Cp. So. the irregular 2nd Person Singular Poss. stom -o,
3rd Person C1. l,la Poss. stem -e.
e.g. S.So. motho oa hao (your person),
motho oa hae (his person).

50. Is Li. pholombe possibly a cross between Tsw. pholo (ox) and
C.Sh. mombe (head-of-cattle)?

51. -rompela as now used in Kl.d.g. is an enumerative stem taking
weak concords like the stem -pi. The enumerative stem -Qwe (K1. -mQe)
takes strong concords in Li., weak in Kl.; means a certain, some.
-raompela is probably derived from -raue kupela.
Cp. Tsw. -ngwo fila (one).

52. Li. + Kl. share the lengthened n: in this adjectival stem with

53. Cp. C.Sh.

Mrnen i

Kl. mtreni

(1) (owner)
(1) (stranger)

(1) (owner)
(1) (stranger)

So. among (1) (owner)
moeng (1) (stranger)

Pl. 'Dene



Ve. iune (1)
muini (1)


54. Cp. C.Sh. kuenderera. This is an exception to the general
Shona rule, followed by Kl.d.g., that the vowel in tha suffix of the
applied and perfective species is i after penultimate a, i, u of the
verb stem, and o after penultimate e, o of the verb stem.
e.g. Kl. kupembela (to wander through),
kuoonela (to see for).

55. The stem is -nji in Kl.d.g. -- here reduplicated.
Cp.'Li. Dathu oanji (many people),
Ze. lanrhu 1azhinji ( do. )

56. My informant states that this is an importation from English.
Cp. Portuguese boi (bull).

57. In Li. the occurrence of labialization was noted in many
cases where Kl. substituted the diminutive suffix for the final vowel
-- particularly when the final consonant of the noun atom was a


(a small bone)

Cp. K1.


(The digraph, consisting of consonant with i joined to it by a seni-
circle, indicates the labialized fornu of the consonant.)

In Kl. the substitution of -ana for final 3, u is usually accor.-
paniod by the evolution of a velar sound -- consonant or scri-vov~l --
betw-eon the final consonant of the noun stoul and the diminutive suffix.
Hero also it -;as found that Li. preferred labializod sounds.


(a small boast)

(a small wind)

(a small mouth)

(a small passage)

(small dagga pipes)

cp. ironbo (9)
mhepo (9)
nlomo (3)
rkoto (3)
Zidudu (8)

In the Li. examples, the final consonants are seen to undergo various
phonological changes, in addition to labialization, in five out of
eight cases.

There are four cases of change from a non-labialized, non-
alveolar non-affricate to a labialized, alveolar affricate, viz.:
d_> Z, P >t, mb > nZ, P >- t5.

There is one case of change from a non-labialized, non-palatal
nasal to a labialized, palatal nasal, viz. : m_> L w.

The three remaining cases of phonological change are from non-
labializod consonants to labialized, viz. : t > ti;, d_ > d (two

58. Cp. Li. -tidwa
cidwi (7)

(be mature)
(come from)

Kl. -ibva
cibvi (7)

Zo. -ibva
ibvi (5)

59. Cp. nshirtgolume (3), work done by men.

60. -ktiila has this specialized meaning in Li. + Kl. To climb
is kutatha (Li.), kutanha (1K.).

61. This plant causes irritation to the skin upon being touched.

62. An example of a deficient verb with contracted infinitive
complement. From walamba kuteoama.

63. Or Ziuuyanana. The vowel in the prefix is changed to u by re-
trogressive assimilation. Adj. stem -ouya means good.
Cp. Ve. -vhuya (good in respect of character).

(a small oar)

(a small melon stew)

(a small chin)

cp. fupa



64. Cp. K1. .-akigwa. C.Sh. -teagirwa.

65. -bikila

Applied species
Passive species of above
Associative species of above
Causative species of above
Passive species of above.

66. Cp. Ze. kuzokamra (to come to be milked,
to be then milked).

67. Ntolido, who stamped monkey-nut paste at the commencement of
his holiday as a sign that he was free, must now resume herding.

68. The poss.qual. pronoun ziZe has become a stress-influencing
enclitic adverb and its first syllable has been elided.
Op. uJgafaZo / upgafa ZiZo (You can die as far as you are concerned),
galazo / gala Zizo (Sit down on your part).

C.Sh. gara zako and Note 49.

69. The Future Indicative form.
Cp. C.Sh. anozopera (Ze.).

70. This is the usual form for the Present Indicative, Negative
anditolisa (I do not hard)
autolisa (you do not herd)
aatolisa (he does not herd), etc.
The forms andilise, auliso, etc., are recognized but not much used.

This -form is compound with contracted infinitive complement.

Op. the forms for the
ate she
ato nyunyi
ate zina layo
Cp. the forms for the
andito nlisi
autc nlili
aate nlisi
andite kulisa

Impersonal Copulatives, Negative Conjugation*
(it is not a chief)
(it is not a bird)
(it is not its name)
Personal Copulativus, Negative Conjugation :
(I am not a herd-boy)
(you are not a herd-boy)
(he is not a herd-boy)
(I am not at the herding).

71. The locative demonstrative copulative, 1st Position, C1. 5.
Gp. oyu] (here it (1) is),
yeli (here it (5) is),
haya (here they (6) are).

72. Instrumental
ficative Pronouns by
ndi-, as in la. e.g.

Adverbials are formed from Demonstrative Quali-
means of the Impersonal Copulative formative
ndidzo (with them); as against Zo. nadzo (with

73. Sing. Qwanadi marriageableo girl)
PI. uaanadi (the two vowels aa are juxtaposed)
Cp. Tsw. feminine suffix -gadi,
S.So. feminine suffix -hali.
The usual Sh. feminine suffix is -kadzi.

74. Cp. C.Sh.


(5) (drum)
(3) (drum)
(3) (drum).

75. Op. Ze., Ka. satamne (like the others) and Note 2.

76. Ntolo is probably a stem like mbeli (in front); it assumes
C1. 17 concords.
e.g. ntolo kevagu (my olden daya),
cp. mbeli Ikwargu (in front of me).
Cp. Zu. mandulo (formerly), Xh. iminyaka yanandulo (ancient years).

77. "Because the cow twitches its tail from side to side as a man
will sou seed broadcast from side to side." (Kousu)

78. This means "Bo rich from the toes of your foot to the top of
your head". (Kousu)

79. Cp. C.Sh. ndiZo (and so, therefore), lit. it is they.
Cp. N.So. ke xona (it is then),
e.g. ke xona ba re-(xo (It is then they said)..

80. Cp. Li. njudzi

C.Sh. ndudzi





rudmi )



81. Nouns of Cl. la may take the compound poss.c., i.e. formative
ka preceded by the simple poss.c.
e.g. 3akaKwena (Kwena's people, the BaKwona)
aombo dzakatato (the cattle of my father's placo, of which he
is trustee)
iombo dzatato (my father's personal cattle)
zina lakatato (ry father's lineago namo)
zina latato (my father's namio).

Op. Tsa. ba ga Lolapo
dikgono tsa ga rro

dikgomo tsoorre

Tao. nkata kamina
or nkata vamina

(those of Molapo's place)
(the cattle of Ely father,
(the cattle of my father'
cattle over which he i:

viz. personal

s place, family
s trustee)

(my spouse)
(my spouse)

In Tsw., when the possessor belongs to C1. La, the compound poss.c.
only is used in possessive constructions. When the Possessor is of
01. 2a, the simple poss.c. is used.
e.g. dikgomo tsa boorro (unabbreviated form of tsooro)
(the cattle of my father's place, my father's cattle).

Kl.d.g. applies to the form with the compound poss.c., the moaning
which is attached in Tsw. to the construction involving a possessor
of Cl. 2a.


82. Cl. 14 has taken over the concords of Cl. 11 in every respect
save that of the.Adjectival equal viz;.:
Subj .c. ... ... - ,
Sbj.c. -g-
Enumerative qual.c. gu-
Quantitative qual.c. go-
Posq.qual.c. gwa-
The Demonstrative qual. are : ogu, o, guno, guja.

83. The word is hwi in both Kl. + Li. (5)
Cp. Ze. izwi (5) (word)
Ka. nzvi (5) (word)
Nd. + Xh. ilizwi (5) (lord); Zu. iz.i (do)
Li., Kl. kuh__a (to hear).

84. A praise nazre for the Europeans in the kututha style.
other is macena-ntumbu (,;hite-bellied ones).
Op. Tsvr. -tshveu (vhite).


85. For xulexa cp. Tsv. golega (to inspan), and for jokwi,
koloyi, cileyi, cp. Tsv. jokeG (yoke), koloi waggonn), soloi (slodgo).
Noto the omission of the Cl. 15 prefix in xuloxa. (Cp. Noto 28.)

86. The formative for the Progressive
e.g. ndicadya (I am still eating)
ucakafa (ho is still dead)
ndicakanyala (I an still tired).
I have noted the use of ci as a formative
cation in three cases :-

Implication is usually ca.

for the Progrossive Inpli-

1) with -na ndicina koloyi (I still have a waggon),
andicina koloyi (I have not still got a waggon);

2) in Personal Copulatives


nominal stens :
an still a farmer),
an no longer a farnor);

in the Perfect Aspect.of the five verbs forcing the Perfect Aspect
olo, ileo etc. :
ucilolc (ho is still asleep).

87. Thc participial forn of
The Indicative forn would be :
aZathu zlkapotunugu;a (they

Cp. those forms :

Li. andathu alaoa. (I
Kl. andanhu alcoa (
Vo. athi athu u amba
Tsu. ga ko otsho ka bua (
ga ko otsho go bua (
ga ko oso ko buo (

Li. ndisathu aleua
Kl. ndisanhu aleoa
Vc. ndi sa athu u anba
Tsv;. ke sa otbho ka bua.
ko sa otsho go bua
kc sa oso ko buo

the Negative Exclusive Implication.

have not yet boon explained).


(I not
( f,
( ",
( "t
( "f
( f


" (



f" )
f )

yet having spoken)
it t ft )
ft t ft )
ft ft t )
t" f tt )
t ti t )

In Li. + Kl. the complement after the deficient verb (which on tho ovi-
dence of Ve. and So. I take to.be -athu, not -thu) is in the Past Subj.

Ve. the complement after athu is in the infinitive.

Tsw. the complements after etsho are in the Past Subj. and Infini-
tive Moods, these being alternatives; the complement after ese is in
the Indicative.


"While a man has still meat to cat, his saliva remains in his
Whilo the thought of good things to eat remains, he does not
his saliva." (Kousu)

89. This piece comes from the neck.

90. These pieces may come from any part of the
large as the ciulayo.

91. A noun of C1. 7. The noun prefix of 01. 7
omitted or reduced to i-.
Op. ifuoa (7) (breast, chest)
iKalaiga (7) (the Kalariga language)
ikanda (7) (piece of skin)
aaki ca1gu (7) (my jacket)
tiko (7) (the back of the head).

body but are not as

is frequently either

92. My informants insisted that kupinda meant to pass on. A
stranger wishing to enter a village i ll say : "Ndapinda" (I have
passed); the inmates answer him, saying "Pindani". This is really an
invitation to enter, though the words mean "Pass on".
Op. C.Sh. kupinda (to enter, to surpass).

93. Li. will allow the forms lulimi, lulumi or lilimi (tongue) (11).
Op. Western Tsa. loleme wla me (my tongue) (11)
Eastern Tsu. lolome Iwa me ( ) (11)
Some E. Tsa. lolcmo la mo ( ) (5).

94. Op. C.Sh. fodya (9).

95. Op. Tsv. lebeko (5) (snuff-spoon, nose-cleaner, swoat-scrapor).

96. In positive sentences, the adjectival qualificativo
means how many?; in negative sentences it means not many.
e.g. oasil a ngana (they are not many).
Op. C.Sh. -Ogani? / -Qgana? (how many?),
Ve. -ngana (so nany),
Tsh. -ngani (few) viz. not being so nany;
e.g. vanhu va nga ri vangani (a few people),
So. -kana (so many, So big).

97. Things from 1 10 are numbered as follows :-
cithu ciompela (one thing)
Zithu ZiZili (two things)
Zitatu (three things)
Zinna (four things)
zishanu (five things)

storm -Jgana

Zitathatu (six things)
zecitendoka (seven things)
Zili zhanalume (eight things)
zili zhanakadzi (nine things)
-gu~ leZithu (ten things).

Citendeka (the index finger of the left hand).

98. Of. So. sebaka (7) (a tine, a space).

99. The Li. round of months is as follows :- Mikono (January),
Beta, Ndabatani, Calehomba; Kubgulu, Shoce Mapembge, Ndya, Ndyana,
Zhedzi, Mbudzi, Zita.

100. Op. Tsw. Kgotla (9).
The Li. word is luoazhe (11).

101. Cp. Tsw. go lona th6ts8
go loma (to eat the first fruits),
leritse (5) (pumpkin), th6ts8 (9) (pumpkin-seed).

The ceremony takes place in April. The old women of the village go to
the fields in the daytime and gather fresh crops. These are cooked in
the evening and no one may partake of them that day. On the next day,
the first-born son of the village-head is the first to tasto then. Ho
first sharpens an axe, licks it, and spits out; then he tastes the food
cooked the previous evening, chews it, and spits out the juice. Others
then partake. It is a serious offence to anticipate the kraal-heir in
tasting the first fruits; if a younger man were to taste them before
him, the heir would go deaf. If the heir is already married, his
eldest son should perform the ceremony.

102. Cp. C.Sh. musha (3) (village).

In the Li. household, each wife has her own nsha whore she lives with
her young children. The nsha consists of a living hut with walled en-
closures, a cooking hut and, perhaps, a hut for strangers. The misha
are built in a line with their doorways facing west. Usually the
husband's own hut will be built between the nsha of the Qahosi (first
wifo) and those of the oalorguvana (junior wives). Upon marriage, a
husband allots a certain number of cattle to each i;ifo for the use and
maintenance of her nsha. The Li. village (nzi) consists of a number
of households of men related in the male line. The senior male is the
head of the village. Unrelated men with their families may join a
village, but they will not enjoy much authority in the affair of the

Cp. and contrast :
Li. nzi (village) nsha (courtyard)
Ve. mudi ( do. ) ,muta ( do.
So. motse ( do. ) -
Nd. umuzi ( do. ) -
C.Sh. musha (village)

In C.Sh. musha has come to moan village, So. and Ng.. have words
from other etymological stems for courtyard.

103. Cp. Tsu. -simolola (start).

104. 1u-, like
Cp. Li. ousimbe
C.Sh. Zikuru

Zi, is an adverbial formative of manner.
(very lmch).

105. Cp. So. molodi (3) (whistle).

106. Cioanda means any carnivorous animal, for which cp.
Ve. tshivhanda (7) (a wild beast),
So. sebata (7) ( do. ).

Ci3andana neans a large carnivorous animal, for which cp.
So, sebatana (7) (a Iargo wild beast).

107. Cp. Tsu. gae
gae ga gagwC
Cl. 17 noun.

(his hone), similarly regarded as a

108. -mono in Li. + Kl., as in Ka, is a quantitativo stem.

109. A Relative qual. formed from the Copulative predicative
dzimushaego(thoy are in the country).

110. The perfect stcrm from -galabgo (to rely on), whore -gala =
C.Sh. -gara, and ljhoro -bgo may possibly bc connected ;;ith bgo (5)
(stonoTegiving the idea to stay firm as a stone.

111. Cp. Ve. maKhuwa (6) (a white man, more particularly English-
Taw. maKgoa (6) ( do. ).

112. Cp. Tso. -shava (acquire by exchange).

113. The normal plural of Qwedzi (3) (month) is rvwedzi.
prefix mi- is here used to indicate a great number. Cp. Ve.
(4) (nonths).

The pre-

114. The Passive species of kudua (to cone front ;
cp. Tsw. -duva (be come from), the Passive species of -tsva / -tsva
(come front .
e.g. Go duwa kao? (Thore is there come front) .

115. The Li. + Kl. greeting for the morning runs as follows :-

A (Junior) : Maquyani?
(You have returned -- what?)

B (Senior) : Taiuya; vuamka cini?
(We have come back; how have you got up'.)

A (Junior) : Ta.ulka, tirjgati naQ'3iiuo (Kl. namrico),
( hIo havu got up, wo nay say 'Also yourselves').

116. Op. kundili

In this strange construction, viz.
sons to have assumncd an obj.c.
Cp. C.Sh. kIandiri (to am),
kv-auri (to you),
ko.aari (to hin), i.hich

Ku + obj.c. + li, the vorb -li

arc Rolative qual. of Indiroct

117. Cp. C.Sh. roca (3),
S.So. meea (4); nooa (3') (spirit).

118. Horc koga is an adverbial (simply, just);
functions as a conjunctive (but).
Cp. the similar use of fela in N.So. and Tsw,
and of fhedzi in Ve.

119. Cp. Tsv. -botsa
Nd. -6uza

elsewhere it


120. Cp. C.Sh. ikadzimara and allied forms, similarly governing a
complement in the past subjunctive, but only ,.hen referring to past
e.g. Ze. ikadzimara ikanosika (until it got to arrive),
iMombe inofamba idzimare isike (The ox walks until it arrives).

121. Li. zhisho
Kl. hixo
Ze. ziso


mesho (6)
mexo (6)
meso, maziso (6)

122. Cp. C.Sh.



123. Cp. Kl. kujali (Passive: kuyaawi)
kujalo (Passive: kuyagwo)
kujer o (Passive: kuyerDio)
kujeya (Passive: kuyegwa)

Li. zila

(to do
(to do
(to do
(to do



this here),
that there).

C.Sh. kudayi (Passive: kunzayi)(to do like this),
kadaro (Passive: kunzarwo) (to do like that).

124. Cp. Tsw. 'le gale (furthermore).

125. For ate kuli kudya (not it is eating).

126.. The prefix hu with high tone is used as a copulative forma-
tive with verb stems. If these are qualified, the qual.c. are of
01. 15.
e.g. hufala (it is sitting),
hugala kwaQgu (it is my way of sitting),
hugala kuko (it is your way of sitting).

(to ne),
(to you),
(to hin).


cp. anditoda kudya kuko (I do not like your :way of eating).

e.g. hudya kuwuya (this is the right tiay of eating),
huzana ini? (is this dancing?).

127.* The deficient verb -ko- introduces an idea of postponement
into the meaning of the verb.
e.g. ndokomika (I get up later).

128. For dzaoe dzilele. For the omission of the'subj.c. in the
complementary verb, cp. Note 38.

129. Cp. Ve. -zwa (belch).

130. Cp. Tsw. go feta motho (to surpass a person).

131. Cp. Kl. -xuva (pass the day),
C.Sh. -swera (pass the day),
the Li. + Kl. greeting : Mashwa? (Have you spent the day?)
Maxva ?
the C..Sh. greeting : Iasvora hero? (Havo you passed the

132. Cp.. Kl. kuho k~a- (apart from)
Zc. kunzo kra- ( do. ).

133. Not comnnon in C.Sh.
Cp. Tsv. tsebo (9) (knovlodgc).

134. Cp. C.Sh. biza (5)(horse); mbizi (9) (zebra),
Tsw. pitse (9) ; pitse e tilodi ( ).

135. Cp. Note 126.
e.g. huti kuko, ate kwargu (it is your saying, not mine).

136. There is no coalescence between na- and the Absolute Pro-
nouns of the 1st and 2nd Persons, Singular and Plural.
Cp. Ze. nemi (vith you, and you ),
Ma. nemqi .( do. ).

137. This Relative qual. qualifies the Poss. qual. pronoun
kwaZo which functions regularly as an adverb of degree. For the
phrase -dzisijgake dzikacila, functioning here as a Relative stem,
cp. the Tsw. di sa ka ke tsa tshela, which, however, does not
function in the same way.

138. C.Sh. does not employ this form for the Causative of the
Reciprocal or Associative Species.
Cp. C.Sh. -saQganisa (mix),
Tsw. -tlhakanya (mix); cp. -tlhakana (meet).

139. lit. "calves with humps"; nyunda (9) (hump).
Cp. Kwiazagwa phulu inanyunda.
(Something north vhile has been done).

DQana unanyunda.
(A headstrong child).

140. -cioa (to desire; to have affinity with, be co-natural to).
Hence the verb means to like as well as to be like.
e.g. 3vana unociia tate namayi
(The child takes after his father and mother).

141. Cp. So. maemo (6) (nature, state, position).

142. This is a paste of ashes and fat applied in the form of a
cross to a dislocated limb.
Cp. -talila (to make a cross).

143. -dothela (to drop in),
-dotheka (to drop in),


144. Cp. C.Sh. -pofumara (be blinded);
So. -foufala ( do. ).

145. Cp. Ze. usit3ga6atwe
Ka. usirggaakhwi /
Verbs ending in -ta usually form
e.g. kuolotvra (to be dreamed).

their Passive Species

146. "All the sounds of the village depend
and they all unite to praise it." (Kousu)


in -twa.

on the cattle

This bears a copulative sense. Alternatively :

148. Cp. Afrik.


(strap), .

149. lit. "it is many timest".
The following parts of speech function as copulative stems in
K1. + Li., to which the subj.c. may be prefixed in the formal
tion of personal copulatives, Present Indicative, Positive
Conjugation :-
Nouns e.g. ndinlume (I am a man),
Pronouns e.g. ndiuwoja (I am that one there),
Adverbs e.g. ndipano (I am here);

Cp. Tsw. ke monna
ke yole
ke fano

Ve. ndi mnnna
ndi ula
ndi fhano

a man),
that one


am a man),
am that one there),
am hcro).

Cp. C.Sh. ndiri murume (I am a man),
ndiri uye (I am that one there),
ndiri pane (I am here),

150. Cp. Nd. -Songa (I.P.A. -o_1ra_) (Originally, to praise;
now, to thank);
So. -boka ( do.

151. These are three of the titles under which the gag~ga may de-
mand payment. A quotation is often given a Cl. 2a prefix and treated
as a noun of that class.

152. Cp. C.Sh. seZaunozioa. Kwa-, poss.c. of Cl. 15, correspond-
ing to C.Sh. Za:, poss.c. of Cl. 8, occurs several times in this para-

153. Cp. Tsu. -tsietsa (be troublesome).

154. In N.So., the corresponding ending -esa, and in Ve., the cor-
responding ending -esa, has similar force.
Op. N. So. -reresa (speak truth), thereso (9) (truth),
Ve. -ambesa (speak truth); cp. -amba (to speak)..

155. Cp. Tsw. medupe (4) (soaking rain).

156. Kukayi introduces the kututha style again.

157. lit. "hit them with the tail". "This means they said goodbye
to them" (Kousu), or showed them a clean pair of heels.

158. lit. "they are looking for a breast", "Lacking cattle, they
are still looking for a decent wife." (Kousu)

159. Lini is here, probably, a noun of Cl. 5.
Cp. Tsw. leng which is both an interrogative adverb of time, e.g.
0 tsile leng? (Ihen did you came?), as well as an interrogative noun
of Cl. 5, e.g. 0 leng? (To which circumcision regiment do you belong?).

Lini is here used in a way similar to the Temporal Conjunctives
of Ng. These are antecedents of relative clauses, but having no ini-
tiaf vowol, they take the shcrt form of the relative clause.
o,g. Nd. xa ngiSonayo (I.P.A. rjiioonayo) (the time whon I see),
mhla uzayo (the day ;hon you come).

In the Sh. under review, one would expect a poss.C., viz.
lini launocidziwa. The short form uhich appears, viz. lini unocidzi-
v;a (the whon you holpod), corresponds to the Nd., short form of the
relative clause.

160. Cp. Tsw. lobop3 (11) (creation, moulding).

161. The rreprefix is used to indicate different kinds of seed.

162. This is a noun of C1. 7. Cp. Note 91.

163. Cp. Tsw. setshaba (7) (tribe).

164. Again the kututha style is introduced.

165. Half of the compound poss.c., yaka-,is omitted. This is
permissible in the kututha style and may be due to Ng. influence.
Cp. Nd. inkomo kaNkwatalala (Nkwatalala's ox) and Note 89.

166. Cp. Afrik.


Tsw, dithap6



167. -dwa is used deficiently in Li. with the complement in the
Past Subjunctive to mean "to do sometimes". The corresponding verb
in Kl. is -bva.
e.g. ndodv.a atizha (sonotimes I run aw;ay).

168. Alternatively nLmake;apa. After the associative or reciprocal
species, the formative of conjunctive adverbs is either Qge- or no-.
C.Sh. uses only na-.

169. Op. So.

s YlL i

( do.
( do.

170. Lit. "at 'ihat place?" Cp. So. kae? (uh.ere?)
Cp. Li. Washwa poni? (TWhere did you spend the day?)
Washwa Qgayi? ( do. )

171. This is evidently the contracted form of tikala
kucinyiwa, but the latter is not recognized as an alternative.
Cp, Ve. -tshinya (spoil),
So. -senya (spoil).

172. A personal participial functioning as a conjunctive
governing the subjunctive.

173. Cp. Tsw. -nyelela (sink).

174. The ,Present Subjunctive consecutive upon the earlier pre-
sent subjunctive dzidzishale.

175. Cp. So. sera (5) (enermy).

176. Cp. Tsw. ntcrcnanc / ntoramano (lung-sickness),
kTatsi (anthrax),
serotsana (black-quarter).


177. The normal, unemphatic, form of the Past Indicative is
adzizooe yapo,
e.g. Andizogwala (I was not sick),
uAdizotorgogwala (I vas not sick at all).

178. y represents an inserted semi-vowel,
Op. ndiyapo (I am there, I exist).

179. Op. Tsw. "BoR_ a (South, Bushmanland); moRwa (a Bushnan);
Ve. VhuRia ( ); muRWa ( ).
The Kl.dg. name for Bushmen is, however, uaKhrja, not uaBRa. The con-
sonant combination ris in BoRwa (south) is pronounced rw, not r -, as
in C.Sh.

180. The NDEUO

ends v.ith a final litany in praise of cattle.


1. The writer of this text indicates a connection between a man's
totem and his sister without showing what this is. The totem is in-
herited by all the members of a clan, in the male line. One of the
names by which these people are known is the toten-name. Often
politeness obliges one to address them by it, for instance, when one
is thanking them. e.g. Ndauoka, Khupe (I thank you, Khupe). (Here
one of the Khupe clan is being addressed.)

Members of the clan swear by their totem to testify that they
are speaking the truth. e.g. Khupo cosoa (Khupo indood.)

In addition, a man m:ay swear by his haZadzi classificatoryy sister).
While she is still small, he uses her own name, e.g. Lu3a cose (Flower
indeed). After she has grown up, those junior to her address her by a
praise-name. This praise-name is often proper to the clan and is in-
herited with the totem-name. In the Khupe clan it is aaCilalu, a name
deriving from the titular name of the clan headman, Cilagwane. (Seem-
ingly this titular name was once a Tswana name, Selolwane. Cp. Maka-
laka, by A.M. Sebina, African Studies, June 1947, vol. VI No. 3, p.93.)

Her elder brothers may continue to use her personal name. VWhen
she is married, and before she has had a child, the same observances
continue. Her praise-namo is obligatory for those junior to her in
her own clan and those junior to her in her husband's clan. Whon she
has become a mother, she is called after the name of her child, e.g.
YMaKufa (Mother of Kufa). Her brothers will now swear by this name,
though her elder brothers are not bound to do so. They may still use
her personal or praise-name. Cp. the So. custom whereby a woman is
called by a name derived from the name of her oldest child.

2. Cp. Tsw. tlholeg8 (9) (genesis).

3. Cp. Note I, 96.

4. Ualumbila seems to be a praise-name shared by many clans. It
is applied to a girl when grown up and is an alternative to the praise-
name which she inherits as peculiar to her clan. It may be continued
after marriage and, if she has no children, it will never be dropped.

5. Op. Note I, 80.
Cp. Sobina op. cit. for another account of Mambo. He also mentions
two of the totems listed in this text.

6. This proverb corresponds to the English one, hen in Romo, do
as the Romans do".

7. Cp. Tsw. -latlha (to throw away),
C.Sh. -rasa ( do.

8. Cp. Note I, 20.

9. Cp. Tsw. phuthog8 (gathering, church), from
-phuthiga (be gathered).

10. Cp. oV. -langa (have control of).

11. Cp. Vo. -litsha (1o leave alonu, loave off),
Tswa. -osa ( do.

12. Legend says that he was able to kill with it without using
Cp. Tsw. tlh6bel8 (gun).

I do not attempt to translate the Li. totem names. In some
cases the meaning of the words qua totem-names is different from the
prima facie meaning. Compare the meaning of the follovineg with their
totem connotations given in the translation : Zhou (elephant); nhurgu
(porcupine); shoko (monkey); njioa (dove); nombc (-hoad-of-cattleo)
moyo (heart); somolo aroundd monkey-nuts); ciDolu (a \.hito and black
crusted bird).

In the case of the following words, I have not boon able
cover any moaning but that of the toton : Tonbo, thuka, sha~a,
khupe, sola, cuia; but Cp. Laraba : itembo (wasp).

to dis-

13. He used this mist whenever he wanted to hide from the Mambo.

14. Blood came out from any rock or tree which was struck by this

15. -duwa is the Tsw. irregular passive species of -tswa (come
from). The Li. form is -dwiwa, passive of -dva (come from). Cp. Note
I, 114.

16. tWhen a man has been away from home for some time, on his re-
turn he takes this medicine and eats it with his family so that there
-may be no estrangement.

17. Cp. Tsw. kgama (hartebeest).

18. "If lightly divulged, the people are annoyed." (Kousu)

19. The belief is that fits are caused by eating young doves.


20. Cp. Li. hapa

C.Sh. hapa

21. Cp. Tsw. kuona
C.Sh. mhembge-
latter term is probably

but a Shona term.

22. Cp. Tsw.

(a plant like beetroot with a deep taproot
which is eaten while soft),

not from the South, as the author states,

lotswa8 (mark).

23. Cp. Tsw. idoophone ng8 (of experiencing difficulty).

24. Cp. Tsvi.
C.Sh -1K.


(roar, give assent),
(give assent),
(agree mutually).

25. Cp. Afrik. tolk (an interpreter).


1. DaNiZaDurgwe was the praise-name of Lo3eke's wife.
Zawuggwe is a locative form meaning at oaNiZauuigwe's.

corresponding formatives : Tsw.

ga Molapo
kata to

KM 'aNi-


(at Molapo's);
(at Sipho's),
(at father's).

2. Cp. C.Sh. -paradzua (to be scattered).
In Li., the substitution of the verbal suffix -va for the final -a of
the verb stoe, in the forzntion of the passive species, causes the
following phonological changes :-

(a) Verb stems with final bilabial consonants or consonant combina-
Bilabial + wa '> bilabial v velar fricative + a. (This frica-
tive is voiceless after voiceless consonants and voiced after voiced
consonants or consonant combinations.)
e.g. lapxa (to be cured), cp. -lapa (to cure);
-kwib ya (to be stolen), -kviba (to steal);
-lamba (to be refused), -lamba (to refuse);
-zibya (to be known), -zioa (to know).

N.B. Finale in -ziua is plosivisod, i > b.

B u t final m is velarised and follo-cd by w.
-kau-a (to be milked), cp. -kama (to milk).

Cp. So. final m is volarised and labialized.
e.g. Tsw. -gangwa (to be milked), cp. -gama (to milk).

(b) Verb stons *ith dental or propalatal consonants or consonant
Dental + wa.. Labializea dental + a.
Propalatal + .a > Labializod propalatal + a.

e.g. -olotvta

-kdl za
B u t'final n

(to be
(to b,
(to be
(to be
(to be
(to be
(to be
(to be
, 1 are
(to be
(to be

-go cva

gone out),
taken out),
brought back),
velarised and

throl.n auay),

cp. -olota
followed by
cp. -oona

cp. -nyanya

(to drear);
(to praise);
(to go out);
(to pass);
(to take jut);
(to bring back);
(to iupr've);
(to praise).
(to see);
(to stay).

thro- avay);

Propalatal srni-vo:ol y is labializod.
bayia (to be stabbed) cp. -baya

(to stab).

Cp. So. v.tore labialization is one of the outstanding phonological
phonomena in the formation of the passive.

Cp. these

e.g. Tsw.

(o) Verb stems with final velar consonant.

Velar + wa > velar + wa.
-colcka (to be thanked), cp. -ooka (to thank);
-Uigwa (to be placed), -Oigga (to place).

3. The cardinal points in Li. are designated as f-ollows :
North : uuNanZa (lit. NanZaland; three iaNanZa speak a separate dialect
of the Kl.d.g. They nov; live near Wankie.)
South : uuRwa (cp. Ts-i. BoRwa : South, Bushrianland, and Note I, 179)
East : Kubezhuta.
West : Kunomila zhuia.

The NanZa are to the North of the Lilima; hence the cardinal
point is designated vith reference to their country. In this respect,
as in the others of designating the South with reference to the Bush-
men, and the East and West with reference to the rising and setting
sun, the Li. terminology agrees with the So.

4. Lit. "a day without a naame".

5. KuSani, the hoir of Louoko, died boforu rarriago. His father,
therefore, lobolaed a wife for him and, in his place, begot an heir for
for him, namely Tarapo.

6. Cp. Kl. ndigugo (it :.s yours),
C.Sh. ndohwako ( do.

7. This is a connon form of the past participial, positive in
meaning, though negative in form. tisinokIourgana (lit, we not hav-
ing to assenrble; we having assembled).
Cp. Tsw. re se na go kgobokana (we not having to assemble; we having

8. Thy deficient verb uo is rondcrcd by thon, and so.
Cp. Takala-ba yenda kuvula, tate takaiootiloca.
(We refused to go to the water and so father beat us).
Cp. Note 1, 171.

9. Lit. the sweat of the chieftainship, i.e. the corraission
given to the chief.


1. Hakwi is the name of the man believed to have been the founder
of this segment. taHukwi is nov a praise-name given to the women of
the segment. toouaEIukwi means the people of that segment which employs
this praise-name for its women.

2. The poss.c. of C1. 16 and 18 are found only in indirect rela-
tive clauses where they function as relative c. Op. Note I, 30.

3. Is this aiDegele ? Cp. Note I, 128.

4. Kuzhe, with agagve and kuzagvje in the following sentence, are
short perfects constructed on the Ng. modol.

5. Op. Tsw. Molele ka e le yena ngwana yo mogolo ...

6. Kadzene is a conjunctive meaning if possible and is followed by
participial clauses.
Cp. Li. Ndinoda kuti kadzene ndipasa, ndiende kuBulawayo.
(If I manage to pass, I want to go to Bulawayo).


The following numbers are still obtainable from the School of African
Studies, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa :


9. A comparative study of Kgalagadi, Kwena and other Sotho
dialects, by D.F. v.d. Mervde and I. Schapera. (1943,
119p.) 5s.

12. A preliminary study of the lexicological influence of the
Nguni languages on Southern Sotho, by G.L. Letele.
(1945; 67p.) 48.

13. Notes on the tribal groupings, history and customs of the
baKgalagadi, by I. Schapora and D.F. v.d. Merwe. (1945;
190l.) 10s.

16. The use of indigenous authorities in tribal administration:
Studios of the ioru in Konya Colony, by H.E. Lambert.
(1947; 44p.) 3s.6d.

17. Marriage in Langa Native Location, by R. Levin. (1947;
123p.) 5s.

18. The political annals of a Tswana tribe : Minutes of
Ngwakotse Public Assemblies, 1910-1918. Translated and
edited, with an introduction and notes, by I. Schapora.
(1947; 151p., index, map.) 10s.

19. The morphology of residential associations as found among
the hwaxakhwa of Basutoland, by V.G.J. Shoddick. (1948;
57p., figs.) 7s.6d.

20. The fcoding and health of African school-children : Report
on the Kanye Nutrition Experiment, CDF Scheme D.318, by
B.T. Squires. (1949; 126p., figs.) 10s.

21. Ndeuo yeqombe Iunizho and other Lilima texts. Edited with
English translation and notes by G. Fortune, S.J. (1949;
86p.) 4s.

An enlarged edition of Nos. 1, 5, 7 and 8, entitled "The bored
stones of South Africa" by A.J.H. Goodwin, appeared in the Annals of the
South African _useum, Vol. 37 pt. 1, 1947.

A revised and enlarged edition of No. 4, entitled Method in Prehistory
by A.J.H. Goodwin, is obtainable from the S.A. Archaeological Society,
P,O. Box 31, Claremont, Cape.

No. 6, Some Venda folk tales, and No. 11, Some Kgatla animal stories,
both edited with English translation and notes by G.P. Lestrade, have been
reprinted and are .obtainable from the Lovedale Press, P.O. Lovedale, Cape.

A further supply of No. 10, Medicino, Magc_, and Sorcery among the
Southern Sotho, by E.H. Ashton, will shortly be available.

Nos. 2, 3, 14, and 15 are out of print.

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