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7 :F IFASI
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH A
EDUCATION CENTER, LEESBU
(GAINESVILLE LINE 392-7272)
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTIE-OF FOOD AND-AGR CULTURAL SCIENCES
ND LEESBURG, FLORIDA 3274
RG AUG _11987
University of Florida
FIELD DAY PROGRAM
Central Florida Research and Education Center-Leesburg
August 26, 1987
Dr. Mary C. Halbrooks, Moderator
Fruit Crops Department
9:30 Registration opens
9:45 Taste test panel of standard varieties and
10:15 Welcoming remarks
C. A. Conover, Center Director
10:25 Breeding Muscadine Grapes for Florida
J. A. Mortensen, Geneticist
10:35 Research on Processed Products of Muscadines
C. A. Sims, Enologist
10:45 Questions and Answers
11:00 Vineyard Tour
11:45 Conclusion of program i
Leesburg CFREC Research Report (LBG 87-3)
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
BREEDING MUSCADINE GRAPES FOR FLORIDA
J. A. Mortensen
It was 1959 when we began testing muscadine cultivars and
selections obtained from breeding programs in Mississippi,
Georgia, and North Carolina. We have continued testing and
evaluating available muscadine material to date for longevity,
fruit yields, disease resistance, and adaptability to mechanical
harvest. Since 1972 we have made crosses at Leesburg to increase
emphasis on resistance to PD, uniformity of ripening, high
percentage dry scar, and fruit quality for fresh use, wine, or
Increased berry size is demanded by pick-your-own and fresh
market outlets; thus, larger-berried parents such as Granny Val,
Summit, Dixieland, Jumbo, or Nesbitt have been used as sources of
size. Seedlessness is needed in muscadines, and at least one
seedless selection developed by the late Mr. B. O. Fry of
Griffin, Georgia is currently of interest. Use of fertile
hybrids between bunch and muscadine grapes to transfer
seedlessness from bunch grapes to muscadines is under
investigation. A North Carolina cultivar of interspecific hybrid
makeup is seedless -- N.C. 74C039-1. Crosses were made with
pollen of this cultivar with Nesbitt, CA9-37, and CA9-50
muscadines and with AA12-3 interspecific hybrid. Wine cultivars
with good color and quality retention through fermentation are
being developed in cooperation with Dr. Bates. Resistance to
berry rot during the period of ripening has received increased
selection pressure in recent years among our muscadine
Table 1 gives the 14 currently recommended muscadines for various
purposes and uses. Best for white wine are Welder, Doreen, and
Dixie; for red wine Noble and Regale. Best pick-your-own bronze-
fruited varieties are Triumph, Summit, Fry, Dixie, and Dixiered.
The best pick-your-own black-fruited varieties are Nesbitt and
Jumbo. Only two cultivars appear suitable for fresh market:
Nesbitt and Summit. Other varieties either lack size, ripen
unevenly, or have a wet stem scar when harvested mechanically.
Table 2 lists the 31 muscadine varieties not currently
recommended for Florida and the reasons why they are not. Carlos
is excellent for uniformity of ripening and dry stem scar but
several vines have died of PD at Leesburg and at other Florida
locations. PD susceptibility is the reason we do not recommend
Carlos. Magnolia makes good white wine but the fruit ripens so
unevenly in Florida, and its susceptibility to ripe rot is so
evident that we cannot recommend it. Higgins was a fine old
female variety but susceptible to ripe rot, so is no longer
recommended. Sugargate has excellent fruit quality but yields so
poorly it is not recommended (See Table 2).
Below are listed 12 newer muscadine selections from our breeding
program that are being tested around the state as possible new
varieties for Florida growers.
A cross of Southland with Dixie, black, with 4.6 g berries, 87%
dry scar, ripening uniformly about August 18 in Leesburg, with 36
g bunches averaging 8 berries per cluster that do not shell off
readily. Vine vigor medium, productive. Possible wine or juice
A cross of Summit with Florida P9-15; black, with 6.3 g oval
berries, dry scar, ripening uniformly about August 16, with good
flavor but slightly tough pulp. Leaf shape resembles bunch x
muscadine hybrids. Vine vigorous and productive, with
37 g clusters averaging 6 berries per cluster. Possible wine or
A cross of U.S.4, a uniform ripening black selection, with
Florida AD3-42, a highly productive bronze selection derived from
a Carlos x Welder combination. Fruit is black, with 6.4 g
berries and 49 g clusters averaging 8 berries per cluster. Scar
is relatively dry. Fruit ripens uniformly about August 17, with
high levels of productivity and vine vigor. Bloom is early and
probably should be harvested about August 10 or 12 for wine use.
A cross of Magoon with Dixie, pink fruited, with 8.4 g berries on
65 g clusters averaging 8 berries per cluster. Relatively dry
scar and less rot than the usual bronze-fruited variety. The
selection has excellent vigor and productivity, with
good-flavored fruit, but pulp is too tough for fresh market use.
Ripens about August 25, possibly useful for wine.
A cross of Carlos with Welder, bronze, with 5.3 g berries on 40 g
clusters averaging 7.6 berries per cluster. Scar is occasionally
wet when harvested mechanically but ripening is uniform about
August 16, with highly productive, vigorous vines at several
locations across Florida. Quality of fruit is juicy and very
good, but berries probably are smaller than desired for fresh
market. Very resistant to diseases. Possible use for wine,
juice, or dooryard.
A cross of Fla. H13-11 (a Vitis munsoniana x Magoon combination)
with Dixie. Fruit is black, with 4.4 g berries on 72 g clusters
averaging 17 berries per cluster. Flavor is good and clusters
are well-filled with juicy berries that are highly pigmented.
Vines have excellent vigor and production, ripening uniformly
about August 27 with pH 3.3, titratable acidity of .42, and
soluble solids of 16.6%. A natural for red wine production.
A cross of Fry with Southland. Bronze fruit with 11.3 g berries
on 75 g clusters averaging 6.5 berries per cluster. This
selection is a female and will require a self-fertile pollinator
nearby. Fruit quality resembles Fry but picks with a relatively
dry scar. Vine vigor and productivity are medium. Possible use
for pick-our-own or fresh market.
Another cross of Fry with Southland. Fruit is black, with 7.7 g
berries on 51 g clusters averaging 7 berries per cluster. Vines
are vigorous and productive, ripening uniformly about August 27.
Fruit is good flavored with chewable skin and tender pulp. Scar
is about 50% dry. It is a natural for pick-your-own, dooryard,
and possibly wine.
Still another Fry by Southland cross with bronze fruit, 6.6 g
berries on 38 g clusters averaging 6 berries per cluster. Both
the texture and flavor of the fruit is good to excellent. Vine
vigor and productivity are very good, ripening fruit uniformly
about August 27 at Leesburg. Usually 70% of the fruit have dry
stem scar when harvested mechanically. Potential is for fresh
market, wines (ph 3.4, titratable acidity .37, soluble solids
18.3%), and dooryard use.
A cross of Southland with Carlos. Fruit is black, with 5.6 g
berries on 44 g clusters averaging 7.6 berries per cluster. This
selection ripens uniformly, with 93% dry scar, good texture, and
very good flavor. Vines have medium vigor and productivity,
ripening about August 27 at Leesburg. Possible wine use.
A cross of Southland with Dixie, black fruited, with 6.0 g
berries on 41 g clusters averaging 6.6 berries per cluster.
Fruit ripens uniformly with 95% dry scar, 18.8% soluble solids,
pH 3.3, and titratable acidity of .46. Pulp too tough for fresh
fruit. Possible wine or juice grape.
Table 1. Fourteen muscadine grape varieties recommended to Florida
White Red U-pick Fresh Juice, Home gardens
wine wine Bronze Black mkt. jelly Bronze Black
Female variety: requires a self-fertile muscadine nearby for good
fruit set (25 ft or less). Self-fertile varieties bear fruit well
without a different variety nearby.
YBlend juice with Noble or Regale for color.
Table 2. Muscadine grape varieties not recommended for new
plantings in Florida.
Bronze muscadine grapes
Reason not recommended
susceptible to PD
low fruit yield
low fruit yield
lacks vine vigor
fruit rots, uneven ripening
susceptible to PD
uneven ripen, fruit rots
low yield, lacks quality
lacks quality, tight bunch
low yield, susceptible to PD
lacks vine vigor
low to medium yield
Black muscadine grapes
fruit shells off on ground
small size, low yield
lacks sugar, low yield
low yield, tenacious
lacks quality and yield
low yield,dry calyptra
small size, weak vigor
susceptible to PD
small size, female
susceptible to PD, low yield
D The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
0 A statewide organization dedicated to teaching, research and
D Faculty located in Gainesville and at 23 Research and Education
Centers and 67 County Extension offices throughout the state.
0 A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural and renew-
able resource research and education, funded by state, federal
and local government, and by gifts and grants from individuals,
foundations, government and industry.
O An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural, and related
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and agricultural industry
and its environments through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application of research and
knowledge to improve the quality of life statewide through
IFAS Extension Programs.
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