Group Title: Watermelon field day.
Title: Watermelon field day. 1965.
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 Material Information
Title: Watermelon field day. 1965.
Series Title: Watermelon field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1965
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076045
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144617905

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Mimeo Report WGL 651- -.. June 2, 1965


1:30 P. M.

Welcome to Lake County and the Watermelon Field Day. W. M. Nixon,
Assistant County Agent, Lake County.

Introduction of Visitors. J. M. Montelaro, Associate Vegetable
Crops Specialist, Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville.

Grape Studies ac the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory.
J. A. Mortensen, Assistant Geneticist and L. H. Stover, Assistant
in Horticulture.

Watermelonr Diseases in Florida in 1965.
Epidemiology -o Watermelon- Diseases.
Chemical Control of Watermelon Foliar Diseases.
Compatibility of Pesticides.
N. C. Schenck, Asaociate Plant Pathologist

Insect Probleor cn Watermelon in Florida in 1965.
Control ,casures for Watermelon Insects.
Studies .in Honeybee Pollination of Watermelon.
Watermelon Mosaic Virus-Aphid Biology.
W. C. Adlerz, Assistant Entomologist.

Studies on Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon.
Watermelon Breeding and Variety Testing.
History of Occurrence of Watermelon Mosaic in Florida and
Current Outlook on its Importance and Control.
Studies on Watermelon Nutrition.
J. M, Crall, Plant Pathologist in Charge

Tour of Plcts, Members of Staff


JUL 24 1972

I,F,A,S Unlv, of Florida



1. Watermelon Replicated Trial (Crall)

Purpose: Comparison :f Charleston Gray, Charleston Gray 133,
Garrisonian, new varieties Crimson Sweet, Jubilee, and Rio Gray,
and 3 North Carolina small-seeded Gray lines (NC62-C2M, NC62-
C5M, NC62-C7M).

Date of planting: February 22

Replicates: 4 Entries: 9

2. Watermelon Observational Trial (Crall)

Purpose: Comparison of prom--in' breeding lines from our
program and those from other watermelon breeders.

Dates .f planting: February 19, March 9 Replicates: 2

Entries: Graybelle, WR Graybelle, Shipper, Verona, and 17
brscUdng lines.

3. Peac,'k Tria7 l (Crall)
PurposCe: Comparison of 3 best lines from last year's trial
iUr- additional wilt-resistant Peacock lines.

D.te cf pl- citing: February 19 Replicates: 3

Evaluatcin: Chief drsabacks to use of Peacock lines in Florida
ar -ti`n~ir susceptibility to anthracnose, extreme susceptibility
of many of them to Fusarium wilt, and uneveness of ripening
habit of all of them under our conditions. They are also later
maturing than our usual commercial varieties. On the other hand,
most wilt resistant Peacock lines grow vigorously and yield well

Entries: Best 1964 lines: 1965 lines:

WR Peacock 132 WR Peacock 24
Peacock WR60 WR Peacock 25
Peacock WR50GR WR Peacock 41
WR Peacock 66

4. Breeding Plots: (Crall)

A program was initiated in 1961 to combine the Summit-type
resistance to Fusarium wilt with anthracnose (Race 1) resistance
in a high quality shipping-type watermelon. Most promising
lines in this trial are from crosses between Charleston Gray and
Texas W-5. Other varieties used as parents in this program are
Summit, Peacock #132, Fairfax, Jubilee, Crimson Sweet, and NC62-
C7M. Testing of promising lines for resistance to anthracnose
and Fusarium wilt is carried out in the greenhouse from late fall

through late spring. Most advanced lines are in the third
selfed generation in this planting.

5. Search for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cantaloupe (Mortensen)
Crosses were made between cantaloupes and various cantaloupe
relatives from foreign countries in an effort to obtain plants
with sterile male but functional female flowers. This male
sterility, if cytrplasmically inherited, would then be incorpo-
rated into existing lines of cantaloupe. Such male-sterile
lines would be used in making hybrid seed without the expense
of hand pollination.

The type of male rterility that occurred the past two years was
chromosomally inherited, and did not express itself until after
1 or 2 fruits wer:, set. This year, however, 3 individual plants
had flowers that shed no pollen from beginning
of bloom to the pr cent date. This male sterility should prove
useful if further testing reveals it to be cytoplasmically in-

6. Cantaloupe Variety Trials and Soil Fumigation (Crall)

Purpose: 1. To determine response of cantaloupe to soil
fumigation. 2. To compare promising breeding lines with
commonly used commercial varieties.


Applications of Dow:xe.i W-85 (EDB) at 6 gals/A and Fumizone
70-E (DBCP) at 3 gal/A were made on February 18. Plantings
were made on March 13.

Entries: Included in this trial are the standard varieties
Hale's Best Jumbo, Edisto, and Seminole; 2 commercially
available Fl hybrids (Samson Hybrid and Saticoy Hybrid); 5
Florida breedCing ll; .;, including Fl and F8 generations of
Florida 134 (also in 1964 Trials); and 6 USDA breeding lines,
including 58-8 and 63-4 (also in 1964 Trials); border plantings
are Danza lines frmn B. F. 'hitner.

Significant 1964 ERoults: USDA 58-8 and USDA 63-4 were the
best lines in this tst, the latter being one of the most out-
standing lines teGsed in recent years. Fumigation with Dow's
Trizone at 200 lbs./A increased yields by 60% under conditions
of severe root-knot nematode infestation.

7. Dolomite-Lime-Ca-,Mg Trial (Crall)

Purpose: To determine the effect of applications of dolomite,
hydrated lime, calcium nitrate (Pril-Cal) and magnesium sulfate
Emjeo) on watermelon culture under conditions of low pH
4.5-5.0) and limiting Ca and Mg.


Results of previous years' trials: In 1962 there was a signifi-
cant yield response to mixed applications of dolomite and
hydrated lime. In 1963 yield responses to dolomite or lime
were not significant, but both early and total yields of
Charleston Gray were higher after applications of calcium
nitrate plus magnesium sulfate. Concomitant with increased
yields, however, was a significant lowering of melon quality as
measured by color, flavor, and soluble solids (sugar) content.
In 1964 there was an apparent early yield response to applications
of Ca., but total yields were not affected by treatments.

Recommendation on living: Where soil tests indicate acidity
of pH 5.0 or less and low levels of Ca and Mg, applications of
dolomite or high calcium lime at least 6 months prior to plant-
ing are recommended. If lime application is not made, yield
response to Ca and Mg fertilizers may be expected under some

1965 Treatments (Split plot)

Main treatments (8 rows) (Dec. 11, 1964)

Dolomite at 1 ton/A
Hydrated lime at 1600 lbs./A
No dolomite or lime

Sub-treatments (2 rows)

Calcium nitrate
Ilagnesium sulfate

Date of planting: March 24

Varieties: Charleston Gray, Texas W-5

8. Pollination Study (Adlerz)

Purpose: This experiment continues a study of factors that
affect bee populations in the field. One of the factors is a
seasonal fluctuation that has been observed each year for
several years.

Date of Planting: February 22


Plot number Plant spacing in feet

3 3
4 6
7 6
8 3
11 6
12 3


Results: As in previous years, blossom and bee numbers
fluctuated but remained at a low level during the early season.
Both increased in number during one short period of 5-6 days
to seasonal peak numbers. It has been determined that this
characteristic seasonal increase to very high populations has
little effect on crop setting, since most of the crop is set
prior to this period.

Plants in the pollination area were slightly behind most other
plants in seasonal development. The main setting period for
the crop in this area was May 14-17. The setting of melons
began May 6.

9. Control of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission (Adlerz)

Purpose: This is an attempt to inhibit the transfer of water-
melon mosaic virus from aphids to watermelons through the use
of spray oils.

Date of planting: March 22, 1965

Variety: Charleston Gray

Treatment: Applications every 5 days (4-7) beginning at plant

Materials Amount/100 gals.

1. Sun Oil 7E 1 gallon
plus Sun Wax 60 1 gallon
2. No treatment
3. Florida Volk 1 gallon
4. No treatment
5. NP 90 2 quarts
6. No treatment
7. Sun Oil 7E 1 gallon
8. No treatment
9. Sun Oil 11E 1 gallon
10. No treatment
11. Sun Oil 7E 1 quart
plus Guthion 2E 1 quart
12. No treatment

Results: No virus transmission in these plots as of May 27.
Treatments 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 were applied at 0.5% concentration
for 5 applications and were increased to 1% on April 28. On
April 30 phytotoxicity symptoms were severe on NP 90 plots.
NP 90 applications were resumed at 0.5% without further serious
injury. Toxicity information is incomplete since yield data
have not been taken.

10. Fungicide Trial (Schenck)

Purpose: To compare fungicides for their effectiveness in
controlling foliar disease.


Procedures: 4 applications at 6-8 day intervals, plots consist
of 10 hills of variety Charleston Gray.


Dithane M-45
TC 90
Difolatan 80W (alternate applications)
Manzate D 80W
Difolatan 80W
Polyram 80W
Maneb + Zineb
Difolatan 80W
Dithane M-22 special + zineb
Dithane M-22 special
Daconil 2787 75W
Miller 658
Daconil 2787 75W
Daconil 2787 75W
Dupont 4472 50W
Difolatan + AC 2269

Rate per 100 gals.

1.5 lb.
2 qts.
2 lbs.
1.5 lb.
1.5 lb.
2 Ibs.
1 lb. + 1 lb.
2 lbs.
1 lb. + 1 lb.
1.5 lb.
1.5 lb.
2. Ib.
2 Ibs.
1 Ibs.
2 lb.
1 lb. + 150 ppm

Results: 1964 Daconil 2787 and Difolatan were the most promising
new materials in control of gummy stem blight and downy mildew;
Manzate D, Dithane M-22 special, and Dithane M-45 were con-
sistently more effective than maneb plus zineb; Miller 658,
zineb, and phaltan were consistently less effective than maneb
plus zineb.

Recommendations: Maneb (1 lb.) plus zineb (1 lb.), Manzate D
(1.5 lb.), Dithane M-22 special (1.5 lb.), and Dithane M-45
1.5 lb.).

11. Insecticide Trial (Adlerz)

Purpose: To evaluate various materials for control of rindworm
on watermelon.

Date of Planting:

February 22

Variety: Charleston Gray

Treatments: Eight applications at 7-10 day intervals beginning
prior to fruit set. Field numbers on yellow markers.




Amount/100 gal.




Guthion 25W
Guthion 2E
Parathion 8E
GC 6506 4EM
Thiodan 50W
Phosdrin 2E
Phosdrin 2E
plus Thuricide 90TS
Parathion 8E
plus Thuricide 90TS
Thuricide 90TS
cP 43858
Metacil 80W
SD 8447
Nia 10242 50W
GS 13005 40W
Guthion 2E
plus Sun Oil 7E
GS 13005 40E
(White) Kepone 4% bait

Results: 1965 data incomplete.

1964. Best results were obtained with Guth-ion 25W,
2 pounds; G.S. 13005 25W, 2 pounds; Kepone 4% bait, 40 pounds
per acre broadcast; parathion 8E, 0.5 pint; Phosdrin 2E, 1
pint plus Thuricide 90T, 1 pint.

12. Compatibility Trial (Schenck, Adlerz)

Purpose: To compare various fungicide-insecticide spray
mixtures for their effect on disease and insect control and on
yield of watermelon.

Treatments: 16 treatments consisting of promising fungicides
and insecticides combined with the presently recommended
materials; 4 applications at 5-8 day intervals to date; 10
hill plots of variety Charleston Gray.


Niagara 10242 50W (1 lb.)
Metacil 80W (1.25 lb.)


+ Maneb (1 lb.) plus zineb (1 lb.)
+ Dithane M-22 special (1.5 lb.)
+ Manzate D (1.5 lb.)
+ Maneb (1 lb.) plus zineb (1 lb.)
+ Dithane M-22 special (1.5 lb.)
+ Manzate D (1.5 lb.)

2.0 lb.
1.0 qt.
0.5 pt.
1.0 pt.
1.0 lb.
1.0 qt.
1.0 pt.
1.0 pt.
0.25 pt.
1.0 pt.
1.0 qt.
1.0 qt.
1.25 lb.
2.0 qt.
1.0 lb.
20.0 oz.
1.0 qt.
1.0 qt.
1.5 pt.
40 lbs./A


7 Daconil 2787 75W (1.5 lb.)
12 Difolatan 80W (1.5 lb.)
13 "


+ Guthion 2E (1 qt.)
+ Cygon 267E (1 pt.)
+ Phosdrin 2E (1 qt.)
+ Thiodan 50W (1 lb.)
+ Parathion 8E (0.5 pt.)
+ Guthion 2E (1 qt.)
+ Cygon 267E (1 pt.)
+ Phosdrin 2E (1 qt.)
+ Thiodan 50W (1 lb.)
+ Parathion 8E (0.5 pt.).

Results: 1962-1964, no mixtures were visibly phytotoxic; 4
mixtures incompatible each year, 10 mixtures never incompatible;
several mixtures were incompatible one year only.

Recommendation: Avoid indiscriminate mixing of materials in
the spray t"ank. If possible, use only the material necessary
to control the most serious pest.

13. Screening for Resistance to Watermelon Mosaic (Crall)

In the summer of 1964 a program of screening for resistance to
waternclcn mosaic was initiated. Over 600 accessions of
Citrullus species (watermelon and relatives) from all over the
world were obtained from the Plant Introduction Station at
Experiment, Georgia and planted in the field in July. Water-
melon mosaic development was general and most of the plants
developed definite symptoms of mosaic. However, 23 plants
either developed no symptoms or appeared tolerant of the re-
stricted infection that occurred. Crosses with Summit or
Charleston Gray were obtained from 16 of them. An additional
218 Plant Introduction accessions and 70 others (1964 resistant
entries or cr-- ses with them) were planted in the field on
April 30. This collection includes all the currently available
accession from the Plant Introduction Station. Any mosaic
resistance found in these materials will be utilized in our
watermelon breeding program and made available to other breeders.

14. Encap--Herbicide Test (Crall)

Purpose: To determine the effects of various herbicides in
combination writh Encan mulch on watermelon maturity and yield.

Main treatments (Planting dates)

February 17
February 24
March 3

Sub-treatments (Encap-herbicides)
1. No Encap, no herbicide
2. No Encap, Betasan, 8 Ibs./A
3. No Encap, Dacthal, 12 Ibs./A
4. No Encap, Trifluralin, 4 Ibs./A
5. Encap, no herbicide
6. Encap, Betasan

Encap, Dacthal
Encap, Trifluralin


15. Soil Fumigation (Schenck)

Purpose: To determine the effect of soil fungicides and
fumigants on soil fungi, nematodes, and weeds affecting water-
melon production on old land.

Procedure: Materials applied in January 20 and 26 on land crop-
ped b successive seasons in watermelon; wilt resistant
Charleston Gray and wilt susceptible Florida Giant varieties
planted in each plot 20 days after treatment.


Difolatan 80W
Dupont 1893
E. P. 297
UC 22919
Lanstan 4 EC

Broadcast rate/acre

40 gals.
125 Ibs.
53 lbs.
20 lbs.
35 gals.
35 gals.
20 Ibs.
20 gals.

Application method



Results: 1964, Vorlex, Difolatan and EP 201 looked most
promising, however no Florida Giant plants survived to harvest.
No significant differences in yield among treatments with
variety Charleston Gray.

1965, no Florida Giant plants surviving to date; Vorlex
EP 297, and TCNA, and Lanstan appear better than ether treat-

16. Leafminer Control (Adlerz)

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of some standard and
experimental insecticides in controlling leafminer.

Date of planting: December 11, 1964, at Immokalee, Florida.
This work was done with the cooperation of Dr. Paul Everett at
the South Florida Field Laboratory.

Variety: Charleston Gray

Treatment: Applications were made beginning January 8.
Control was evaluated by samples taken between February 19 and
March 17.

UC 20047 2E
UC 20047 2E
GS 13005 40E
GS 13005 40E
Cygon 4E
Cygon 267E
Nia 10242 50W
Nia 10242 50W
Guthion 2E
Bidrin 7.3 E

Amount/100 gals.
2 qts.
1 qt.
1.5 pt.
3.0 pts.
0.5 pt.
354 cc
1 lb.
2 Ibs.
1 qt.
0.5 Pb.


Results: Results were based on development of pupae in leaf
samples. Best results were obtained with Cygon, Bidrin, and
Guthion. Control was good with other materials used except
Nia 10242. Aphids developed heavy populations in untreated
plots, but none developed in treated plots.

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