3/d ANNUAL REPORT 1963-1964
FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA L I B R A R I E S
Florida Citrus VomiIssion
Commission Members Serving During
the 1963-64 Fiscal Year
Sam A. Banks, Chairman Herbert S. Massey, Vice Chairman F. Elgin Bayless George T. Cason Webb C. Clarke, Jr. Henry Cragg
0. D. Huff, Jr. C. D. Newbern Paul Robertson Key Scales, Jr'. Robert E. Snively Kingswood Sprott
Lakeland Dade City Sebring Orlando Dade City Orlando Mclntosh Tampa Vero Beach Weirsdale Winter Haven Lake Wales
Advertising and Merchandising
Paul Robertson, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
C. D. Newbern Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E. Snively Kingswood Sprott
Robert E. Snively, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Herbert S. Massey
C. D. Newbern, Chairman
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
0. D. Huff, Jr.
Economic and Market Research
Henry Cragg, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless George T. Cason
Herbert S. Massey
Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Herbert S. Massey
Paul Robertson Key Scales, Jr.
Herbert S. Massey,
F. Elgin Bayless George T. Cason
0. D. Huff, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
Key Scales, Jr. ,Chairman
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
0. D. Huff, Jr.
Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
C. D. Newbern Paul Robertson
Robert E. Snively
Sam A. Banks
Herbert S. Massey
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke
0. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert h nively
Homer E. Hooks
In the f ir st full harvesting season f ollIowing the disastrous freeze of December 1962, the full impact of the tree loss and damage was felt by Florida citrus in 1963-64. The total orange crop was 58, 300, 000 boxes -- the smalle st in 15 years. Only 26, 800, 000 boxes of grapefruitwere harvested, the smallest crop of this variety in 14 years. These major varieties, together with 3, 600, 000 boxes of tange r ine s and 1, 170, 000 boxes of tangelos and murcotts, made up a total Florida citrus crop of 89, 870, 000. This was the shortest total cr op since 1949-50, and a drop of 16 per cent from the previous year.
Despite the severe cut-back in the Florida crop, our state continued to dominate the United States and wo rl1d production of citrus fruit. We produced 71. 5 per cent of the United States citrus crop and 27 per cent of the world production. In a further breakdown, we produced 66 per cent of the orange crop and n ea rl1y 89 per cent of the grapefruit crop in the United States, and 17. 5 per cent of the o r a n g e crop and 66 per cent of the grapefruit crop in world production.
This Report covers in detail the programs and activities of the Florida Citrus Commission and its departments during 1963-64. Here are some of the m ore significant Commis sion actions during the year:
''*The Commission adopted and registered the "O.J."1 symbol for use in advertising, promotion, and packaging of oranges and orange products. This is the first time the Commission has promoted the use of an identifying symbol on Florida citrus fruits and products and in its advertising in o r d e r to make the advertising program more meaningful to consumers.
*''A special marketing r es ea r ch study was initiated to de termine basic c on su m er attitudes toward juices, drinks, ades, and beverages.
*''Strong opposition was r eg is te r ed with the United States Food and Drug Administration to proposed standards of identity for frozen concentrated orange juice, on the grounds that Florida produces more than 95 per cent of the product and that Commission regulations already require a higher quality product than that which would be al Io w ed under f e d e r a 1 standards. This action ultimately r e sulIt ed in Floridats being permitted to maintain its
own quality standards on frozen concentrated orange juice packed in the state, while other states will be required to meet uniform minimum standards established by the Food and Drug Administration.
. The Commission and other industry groups presented verbal and written evidence and argument before the United States Tariff Commission and the United States T r ad e Information Committee in f i r rn opposition to any reduction or elimination in the import duties on citrus and citrus products.
. After a seven-months' study, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. , a business consultant firm retained by the Commission upon the r e qu e s t of the industry to appraise Commission programs and o f f e r proposals for more efficient operations, presented its r e p o r t to the Commission and the industry. After consultation with a rowers, shippers and p r o c e s s o r s, the Commission adopted the basic objectives and organization plan as recommended by Booz, Al I e n & Hamilton and proceeded to implement the proposals for marketing research studies and the creation of a commercial development department.
. Advertising and merchandising staff functions were divided, with a director named to head each.
. Formal complaint was filed with the Federal Trade Commission on misleading advertising and labelling of the synthetic product, ''Awake." Objections were also f i I e d with the Food and D r u g Administration on the labelling of this product.
. Initial plans were laid for promoting the sale and distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice in England, following removal of import quotas on this project by the United Kingdom government.
. Upon recommendation of industry groups and the Industry Research Advisory Committee, contracts were let for business evaluation projects investigating the future prospects of selected citrus by-products, the market for dehydrated juice products, the snack bar or fountain market for citrus juices and drinks, the vending machine market for citrus juices and drinks, the salad, appetizer and dessert market, and the youth beverage consumption habits. These projects were assigned, respectively, to Battelle Memorial Research Institute, Arthur D. Little, Inc. , Stanford Research Institute, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. , and to Market Research Corporation of America.
' ' * Approval was given for expansion of the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred to handle enlarged research activities.
New alignment was approved for the field merchandising operation, with special emphasis on the central and eastern markets. Supervisory controls and reporting systems were streamlined for more efficient coverage of the markets.
* ' ' A special survey on identifying the nutritional components of citrus, to be conducted by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. , was approved at a cost of $56,000. The purpose of this project is to establish the advantages of citrus juices over synthetic products and reinforce advertising and promotional campaigns.
* * * A regulation was adopted requiring the registration of citrus fruit dealers' agents. This was a move designed to provide additional protection and safeguards for legitimate and honest operations within the state's important citrus business.
, , , The new Commercial Development Department was formally created, with Edward A. Taylor named as the Director.
These are a few of the many Commission actions and programs during the busy season of 1963-64. These and others are described more fully in the Report, which I urge you to examine. All these Commission programs are directed toward the single goal of serving the Florida citrus industry and establishing its continued prosperity through sound and business-like programs for progress.
Homer E. Hooks
Homer E. Hooks, General Manager +Marvin A. McNair, Administrative Assistant +Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising +Jarnes T. Hopkins, Assistant Director of Advertising and Merchandising +Dr. William E. Black, Director of Economic and Marketing Research +Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
*Robert Stuart, Comptroller
*-Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Consultant +Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager +Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions Leroy Mobley, Statistician +Budd T. Pohle, Division Manager Jack Matthews, Information Specialist A. Keith Sheldon, Photographer #Jackson L. Spears, Assistant Comptroller D. Burke Kibler III, Legal Counsel "Retired July 31, 1964; "'Retired March 30, 1964; #Employed May 6, 1964 (+Assumed new positions July 1, 1964: McNair, Administrative Director; Arn, Field Merchandising Director; Hopkins, Advertising and Publicity Director; Dr. Black, Economic Research Director; Dr. MacDowell, Scientific Research Director; Gardner, Point-of-Sale Materials Manager; Maclin, Merchandising Personnel Manager; Pohle, Merchandising Promotion Manager).
The Commission initiated a new approach to advertising with
the announcement of objectives for a long-range, three.-year program, to b e gin with the 1963-64 season. This plan was ba s ed upon the assumptionthat the three seasons would be similar to the extent of relatively short fruit supplies, which would provide opportunity for significant progress towa rd preparations for a return to normal crop years.
The purposes in such a program would be to protect the Florida citrus industry's franchise against the pressure brought to bear by c he a p e r competitive products, and to embark upon new appeals which would involve some changes in consumer attitudes toward Florida citrus fruit and products. The task of changing these attitudes in o r d e r to broaden the base of demand is expected to require time as represented by the three-year plan.
The Commission intends to merge advertising and merchandising in much c 1 o s e r relationship t h a n in the past and to work equally as close with the various industry advertising advisory
The objectives point out that the consumers will not wait three
years for the citrus industry to return to normal production, but will change consuming habits. For that reason, this three-year period is critical in s e t t i n g the pattern for the next d e c a d e or more, and it is imperative that every available resource be utilized in that time on a consistent and continuing b a s i s to assure the citrus industry a high position in the market p I a c e once high
production levels are resumed.
Withthese objectives as the basis forte entire advertising
program, the Commissionstaff bandits advertising agency, Campbell-Ewald Company, went to work to prepare specific advertisements and media programs tailored to the needs for each individual fresh and processed product. The consumer advertising
budget for the year was $4, 075, OW
In order to meet the a d ve r t i s i ng objectives for oranges, a
whole new c o n c e p t of Commission advertising was undertaken.
It was recognized that in order to build for the m a r k e t in years
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ahead, it is necessary to expand the consideration for oranges and orange juice. The concept of orange juice as a br eakfa st drink and as a health beverage must continue to be built and maintained, but, in addition, people must be made to think of o r an g e juice on the many other occasions it can be enjoyed, and they must be made to think of drinking orange juice in larger quantities than the small four-ounce breakfast glass. Only through this, can the Fl o rid a citrus industry hope to market the crops it can anticipate after complete recovery from the 1962 freeze.
One of the major steps taken to e x p and the market was adoption of the symbol "O.J. This symbol makes it possible for Florida orange juice to compete in the marketplace with an aggressiveness far beyond that normally associated with commodity advertising. Furthermore, and of the greatest importance, the 0. J. symbol provides a m e an s to identify Commission advertising and merchandising with the specific p r o du c t s in the stores. Heretofore, the advertising would tell the housewife to get Florida orange juice, but there was no way in the store for the housewife to identify Florida orange juice.
The symbol was registeredwith the copyright office and is the exclusive property of the Commission. No product can carry the O.J. symbol without the expressed permission of the Commission.
This whole 0. J. program was a dynamic and aggressive step ahead for the Florida citrus industry. R e c o g n i z in g that it would take a period of months before the letters 0. J. were on the lips of the Americanpublic and on the various packages and containers in the stores, the Commission
began this effort at a time when there was less emphasis on short-range objectives and greater emphasis on long-range objectives.
In the first year of advertising and promoting, 0. J. established itself
with fine significance, and a number of Florida citrus shippers and processors started putting the symbol on containers. There is every reason to believe that 0. J. will prove to be the biggest advertising -merchandising opportunity the Commission has ever had.
The fresh orange budget for the 11963-64 season was $343, 113. Approximately two-thirds of this was used in magazine advertising and onethird in television. The advertising was designed to place greater emphasis on the hand-eating qualities of the Florida orange. Most consumers recognize Florida oranges as fine for juice, but the thought of Florida oranges as good to eat has not been' suggested to the public for many years. Consequently, advertising placed g reater emphasis on this form of consumption, and the whole idea of buying and eating fresh Florida oranges was promoted as fun, enjoyable and refreshing, as well as healthful.
In the first week of December, fresh oranges were featured in a special announcement advertisement in the iSaturday Evening Post, Life and Ladies' Home Journal. This was a two-page, full color ad that also told the public that fresh Florida grapefruit, tangerines, tangelos, temples and murcotts were back. The ad was heavily merchandised to the chains and produce trade prior to public appearance.
The announcement ad was followed up with special fresh orange ads in Saturday Evening Post and Life, and with CBS daytime television on "I Love Lucy," and "The McCoys."
In 13 major cities, a special test program was run to introduce the
squeater, a special plastic device designed under direction of the Commission to be used to "squeeze-eat" the juice out of an orange. Squeaters were advertised on local children's television programs and offered at a selfliquidating price of four for 25 cents . This device met with immediate success--after only two week of advert ising, more than 1, 000, 000 squeaters were sold. A special survey showed Ithat as soon as the squeaters arrived in the homes, fresh oranges were purchased. Not only did this device remind of the enjoyment of hand-eating a Florida orange, but it specifically created fresh orange sales.
In addition to the announcement ad, magazine and television advertising and the squeater promotion, there also was a special two-coloi newspaper advertisement to announce the Valencia season.
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
The budget for frozen concentrated orange juice was $2, 116, 667. Forty per cent of this budget went into print Imedia and' 60 per cent into broadcast. In November, the 0. J. program began' and built continuity throughout the crop year. The advertising, in addition to pointing out the enjoyment of orange juice at breakfast and the vitamin C benefits, was directed toward suggesting other occasions for Florida orange juice. All the ads showed
large glasses of orange juice. The basic magazine schedule was run in Saturday Evening Post, Reader's Digest and Life magazines. On television, both daytime and nighttime programming were used. In the daytime, frozen concentrated orange juice was advertised on ABC in the "Price is Right, "Trailmaster, 11 "Father Knows Best, 11 and "Tennessee Ernie Ford Show. On ABC nighttime television, the product was advertised nationwide on "Hootenanny" and "Jimmie Dean Show. "
An eight-week schedule of radio commercials was used in the top concentrate markets.
Chilled Orange Juice
The budget for chilled orange juice was $361, 042, with about two-thirds of this amount used in print and one-third in broadcast. All the advertising was built around the 0. J. theme and highlighted the convenience of chilled orange juice, and its availability through both the supermarket and the milkman.
Television as well as the Saturday Evening Post and Life magazines were used for broad coverage. To pinpoint the best markets for chilled orange juice, Sunday newspaper supplements and radio provided a national advertising schedule as well as a local program in cities where chilled orange juice finds its greatest market opportunity.
Single Strength Orange Juice
The budget of $42Z, 346 for single strength orange juice was split about 45 per cent in print media and 55 per cent in broadcast media. Daytime television on CBS carried the single strength orange juice narrative to housewives throughout the country, and radio in certain strong markets amplified the story. Life, Reader's Digest and the Saturday Evening Post carried the message in print. The theme, "The Second Quickest Way to Quench Your Thirst, 11 was used in conjunction with copy and television commercials to highlight the ease of portability of this form of orange juice.
Approximately one-third of the $333, 680 allocated for fresh grapefruit was used in television and the rest in print. The magazine advertising for fresh grapefruit that followed the announcement ad, highlighted the opportunity to prepare grapefruit for many occasions. It suggested fixing the fruit the night before by broiling, chilling and a number of other methods. One ad told the housewife "How to Buy a Grapefruit. 11 These advertisements were run in McCall's and Ladies, Home Journal. The regular daytime television programming was used with particular emphasis on Jack Bailey's "Queen for a Day, " a show that achieved special interest when it appeared for one week during the Florida Citrus Exposition at Winter Haven. Bailey, host on this program, did a fine personal job of selling grapefruit, as well as other Florida citrus products. His editorial contributions featured the entire citrus industry and were a great plus for the Commission's advertising program.
Single Strength Crapefruit Juice
The budget for single strength grapefruit juice was $200,208, with 40 per cent of this amount earmarked for magazine and 60 per cent for television. The theme continued to feature the 'Wake All the Way Up" aspects of Florida grapefruit juice. Not only is the juice a fine awakener in the morning, but it is recommended as a good refreshment anytime of the day. McCall's and Ladies' Home Journal carried this advertising in -agazines and it appeared as a commercial on ABC television in t}h. daytime.
The budget of $66,736 for grapefruit sections s split about evenly between magazines and television. The main objective was to show thehousewife the many wonderful and different ways to utilize Florida grapefruit sections, as well as to show how quick anid easily the various dishes could be prepared.
Frozen Concentrated Grapefruit Juice
The budget for frozen concentrated grapefrui uice was $66, 736, and it, too, was split about evenly in magazines and tel ision. The theme for grapefruit concentrate featured the .Tust Like F esh' taste of grapefruit as well as its special type of enjoymer
The budget for tangerines was $74,108, most of this placed in CBS and ABC daytime television during the month of December to tell the housewife "they're here now" and to feature the wonderful holiday use of tangerines. Tangerines also appeared in the announcement ad that ran in the national magazines the first week of December.
The budget for temples was $69, 220. This fruit appeared in the announcement ad and then there was an advertisement in Life and Saturday Evening Post, as well as national daytime television during the height of the temple season. The temple television commercial, incidentally, won the runner-up award in the product category, of the American Television Commercial Festival's fifth annual competition.
There was a budget of $21, 144 for tangelos; but due to short supply and the merchandising needs for this fruit, the monies were used for merchandising and no specific advertising program was carried out.
All of the advertising for the Commission during the 1963-64 season was worked out to carefully create a strong public impression of the entire Florida citrus industry, as well as to support each individual product in its own market. All of the advertising and merchandising Were planned together so that each supported the other in the store in a way that has never before been possible. The 0. J. program got off to a fine start andachieved sound recognition by the public, the trade, and the industry.
All of the advertising in magazines was continually measured by Starch and in broadcast by Neilsen. The Starch ratings showed a cost efficiency that significantly exceeded the average for all food advertising in the magazines in which it ran. The Neilsen data showed that the number of television commercial home impressions made during the year exceeded those achieved by many advertisers with far greater budgets than the Commission. This was more than gratifying, because the success of the entire program is based upon people seeing and reading the Commission's advertising message and also upon the continuity and frequency with which people see these advertising presentations.
In print, the efficiency was possible, due to the fact that half-page, fourcolor advertisements were achieving Starch ratings in many cases equal to that which other food advertisers were getting with full page messages. In television, the cost efficiency and frequency of exposure came about through use of programs that properly complimented each other, as well as achieving good compatibility between daytime and nighttime use.
The Commission' s medical advertising program, handled for
the fourth year by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. , New York, continued to show physicians andmembers of the allied health professions how citrus products play an important p a r t in medical practice. To meet the demands of today' s hi ghl y competitive business conditions, any food product must necessarily command an attitude of informed good will on the part of the s e professional groups that
so strongly influence the nation's nutritional habits.
The professional advertising campaign recommended Florida
citrus fruits and juices as a wholesome and pleasurable part of a normal, natural food diet, giving a clear p i c tu r e of the characteristics that substantiate the value of citrus produc-ts in medical practice. These award-winning ads appeared regularly in national medical, dental, nursing and osteopathic journals. Specific medical advertisements, designed to p r o vi d e an a n s w e'r to particular problems in pediatrics, dermatology and internal medicine were carried by leading specialty journals in these fields.
The advertisements-were addressed to professional people
whose time is necessarily limited by the many other demands of Practice, indicating the e x c e 11I e n c e of Florida citrus products,
without overstressing the therapeutic value.
The general medical campaign of thr ee full-color advertisements, included two continued from the previous campaign in order to at t a infull impact. The first, "Here' s Why We F re e ze Orange Trees . . Deliberately! ,"clearly established the parallel between researchmethods used bythe Commissionand those used in medicine. The second, "These MenMake a Difference to You,"
pictured Commission members, emphasizing the value of Florida Citrus in medicalpractice and the rigid control exercised by the Commission to insure that Florida citrus meets the world's highest standards for quality. The third ad, "You Can't Get Oranges from a Cardboard Tree," provided a forceful reminder of the virtues of natural versus synthetic citrus products.
The advertisements carried by specialty medical journals concentrated on specific problems, showing how these problems
might be met by the use of citrus fruits and juices.
The pediatrics advertisement, "Too Big For His Beaker," "was
continued from last year and noted the inc re a se in numb er of
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cases of scurvy found among infants in this country, stressing the need for more vitamin C. The dermatology advertisement, ''In A c n e Therapy. It's Easy for You to Say IYes' ,"' stressed the excellence of citrus as a substitute for sweets which easily can be recommended to the young acne patient. The third ad, ''K . .For Your Patient on Diuretics, 11 stressed the value of c it r us in potassium replacement the rap y as well as valu e to patients who can benefit from the low sodium content.
The outstanding success of these advertisements, as measured by readership research studies, clIea rlIy demonstrated the effectiveness in conveying the Florida citrus industry's message.
The Readex Reader Interest Report I i s t e d special achievement awards for two ads. In its first a pp ea ra n ce, "'Here's Why We F r e eze Orange Trees . . Deliberately'' achieved a Readex r a t ing of 29 per cent - one of the highest ever attained by a f o od product advertisement. On its second appearance, this ad achieved a rating of 25 per cent.
Twelve leading national medical and specialty journals featured Commission ads. "'Today's Health," the American Medical Association magazine, was also selected to ca r ry a limited schedule of a special ad based on the use of citrus j u ic es as infant foods, a pp ea r ed once again in Dr. Spock' s "'Baby and Child Care Book."
A continuing professional relations program was directed toward keepingx medical leaders informed of Commission activities and programs pertinent to the medical profession, and to keeping the staff informed of current medical opinion in areas of interest to the Commission.
During the 1963-64 s e as on, the Commission's 63 -man me rchandi s ing field staff arranged 212 incentive promotions with different retail organizations throughout the United States and Canada. In addition, 722 in-store demonstrations were conducted,
and 355 give-away programs set up and completed.
The merchandising staff made more than 110, 000 calls on auction and terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, f r o z e n food distributors, hotel and restaurant organizations, drug and fountain groups, and institutions andmass feeding organizations to r e I a y information regarding advertising activities and to distribute d i s p 1 a y materials. These same Commission representatives also builtmore than 15, 500 in-store displays and traveled in e x c e s s of 1, 385, 000 m i I e s in making the many contacts. Three division meetings were conducted in order to keep f i e I d men informed on Commission activities and on the newest merchandising methods. Four meetings were staged with
The Commission purchased space and participated in 18 conventions r e I a t e d to the health, food and m e d i c a I fields. The breakdown showed that the Florida citrus s t o r y was exhibited at nine food conventions --two concerned with d i e t e t i c s, two hotel and restaurant, one school, and four medical. Orange juice- was served as a courtesy at 76 national conventions which held meetings in the state of Florida.
Grapefruit Fun Faces Promotion
This p r o g r am achieved an all-time high inCommission promotional efforts with more than 3, 000, 000 fun face kits being distributed to consumers of Florida grapefruit. T his brief promotion was declared one of the most successful ever.
Tangerine and Temple Promotions
The merchandising staff, working in cooperation with the
Florida Tangerine Cooperative, planned and initiated a hardhitting p r o m o t i o n that resulted in the utilization of most of the tangerine crop during the period preceding and including the
Christmas -New Year's holidays. Special merchandising pieces were dis tributed in support of Temple oranges, focusing attention at the point-ofsale in a successful tie-in with advertising media.
Special point-of-sale display material, in-store demonstrations and prize -and -premium incentive programs were employed in this highly successful campaign.
At the request of the Research Department, field representatives picked up samples of frozen concentrated orange juice at regular intervals for shipment to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States Department of Agriculture. Sixty frozen concentrated orange J .uice surveys were conducted in the course of the year. Much time and effort were devoted to discussions on the c are, handling, and storage of concentrate at the retail level, and thermometer tests are made in order to obtain a cross se ction of handling practices. In addition, leaflets and storage room posters were distributed to the frozen food trade regarding the better care and handling of this product.
The f ielId staff w or k ed in close cooperation with newspapers, mnagazines and television stations carrying Commission advertising schedules.
Many of these organizations maintain merchandising staffs that call on the retail trade, urging tie-in advertising with Commission programs.
At the end of each week, regional managers and merchandising representatives submit to the Florida office a ma ' rket analysis covering the movement and acceptance of Florida citrus products, retail prices for citrus and competitive products, and a general condition report of activities. These reports are edited, reproduced and mailed to some 500 packers, processors and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. Many news media utilize the reports in commenting on Florida citrus movement.
The response to the Institutional Program was evident in the requests for the special point-of-sale materials developed for this particular promotional effort. Plans were discussed during the year for further expanding the work of this promotional endeavor.
Each field representative reported daily activities to the Florida office by the use of tabulation cards on which are outlined each call for that day. These cards are processed by date, region, type of call, display material on hand or used, and the type of work done in the individual retail store. At the end of each month, a record of calls for each man is completed, including the number of miles traveled. An itinerary of each day's activities must be submitted every Monday to facilitate locating a field man at any time.
Ralph Henry, merchandising consultant for the Commission during the 1963-64 season, retired in May 1964 after 22 years of service. Prior to being named consultant, he had been merchandising manager. Members of the citrus industry and of the food trade fields in the United States and Canada remember the Commission official best for his untiring devotion to duty, his vast number of contacts, and for his supervision of merchandising field men.
The 1963-64 season marked the eighth year that the Commission has
conducted an advertising, merchandising and promotional program in Western Europe. The Commission spent approximately $200, 000 in consumer and trade advertising, along with supporting point-of-sale display materials, which were prepared and made available in the language of the countries where the programs appeared. To supplement this program, the USDA made available $Z50, 000 under provisions of Public Law 480.
Following the marketing pattern of citrus products, the major impact of advertising and merchandising was in France, Germany and Sweden. Principal emphasis was placed upon the promotion of fresh grapefruit and canned grapefruit products. With limited distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice, local promotional programs were conducted in Holland,
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Sweden, Germany and Switzerland San,, linq demonstrations in many retail stores indicated concentrate was well receive 1. Throug-h coordinated efforts with importers, the Conmmissioi's merchandising representative dispatched thousands of educational ieaticts to European consumers, presenting the Florida citrus story of fresh, I aned and frozen products.
The merchandising representative conducted many special trade luncheons, where important trade factors mid th< USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service attaches were invited for the purpos, of diz :atching information about Florida citrus products and to further explore marketing potentials. These luncheons were held in most of the major cities throughout Western Europe.
In cooperation with the Foreign Agricultutal Service, tne Commission
participated in food and trade fairs in Germany. Holland, Sovenen, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Italy, Luxecuibourg, and Tokyo.
In the field of research,work was cDtninued on the two pre-ious medical studies, 'Differences in serum levels and duration of saturation effect observed as a result of ingestion of synthetic ascorbic acid and natural vitamin C" and "Influence of ascorbic ac'id, bioflavonoids and citrus juices on blood lipid concentrations. Dr. Cortez F. Enloe, Jr. , medical consultant for the Commission, checked on the progress of both research programs and the findings will be made available early in 1965. The Commission is continuing to explore the possibilities of establishing facilities for a scientific laboratory that could disseminate information to the soft drink and beverage industry on how Floew Ja frozen orange concentrate may be used in the manufacture of bottled drinks.
Working in cooperation with the Horticultural Crops Branch of the USDA, the Commission participated in additional research on the proper handling and care of fresh grapefruit for export. The study contained three phases:
(1) Pretransit and handling treatments; (Z) transit temperatures, humidities and other environmental conditions, and (3) overseas handling and shelf life. In this research program, comparisons were made of the marketing qualities between varieties, maturity and ripeness of fruit, different packinghouse treatments, and environmental conditions. All were aimed specifically at decay control, reduction of pitting and other forms of rind breakdown.
The major portion of both Commission and supplementary PL-480 funds was devoted to consumer and trade advertising. These campaigns were conducted in Belgium by Planning Publicitaire; Denmark and Sweden by Gumaelius Advertising Agency; France by Liger, Beaumont & Aljanvic; Germany by Hanns W. Brose; Holland by Bureau van Maanen, and Switzerland by Bureau d'Etudes Publicitaires BEP SA.
It is to the advantage of the Florida citrus industry to maintain the image of Florida citrus products in Western Europe, even though prices continue at higher levels since the 1962 freeze. With the trend toward greater liberalization and more free trading, the Commission's advertising and merchandising program has been helpful in the continuation of greater interest in marketing citrus fruits and juices throughout -all Western Europe countrie s.
The trade's interest in the use of Commission merchandising materials continued at a high peak throughout the 1963-64 season, despite comparatively light supplies and increased retail prices.
It was apparent that retailers in Canada and the United States found the materials not only attractive, but essential in moving fresh and processed citrus into the hands of consumers, as evidenced by the fact that 11, 149, 168 pieces of point-of -sale material were distributed by this department during the fiscal year for installation in retail food stores, fountains, lunch counters and restaurants. A total of 3, 292, 608 of these pieces were in the form of the well-known orange, grapefruit and tangerine clusters, which have become an established trade-mark for Florida citrus products. These popular pieces, used in ingenious ways by merchandising field men in combination with new and fresh designs, resulted in thousands of colorful and powerful selling displays in all marketing areas.
As prescribed by the State Purchasing Commission, and in accord with the Florida Printing and Purchasing regulations, each purchase of printed or manufactured point-of-sale materials, as well as educational material and literature, is offered and advertised for competitive bids. Following this procedure, 144 individual purchase orders were written, and Florida producers are employed in all instances, wherever possible.
Demand for promotional material assembled in kit form continued as in the past, with 115, 362 kits of store display material, totaling 1, 594, 786 pieces, being prepared in the Commission warehouse. All of this merchandising material was sent out in response to written requests prompted by the several colorful brochures mailed to the trade periodically, or ordered directly by the merchandising representatives. In addition to the massproduced kits, 135, 631 special tailor-made kits were prepared and dispatched through various mediums of transportation.
The Railway Express Agency was employed for most shipments, with Air Freight and truck shipments being utilized to a great extent because of more competitive rates than formerly and improved delivery service.
Close inventory control is maintained on the material on hand, and twice a month the merchandising representatives are provided with a sheet showing the balance of each design stored in the warehouse.
Educational literature is becoming an increasingly important phase of operation, and this department handles production of materials for the Youth and School Service program, as well as the production of recipe booklets and information pamphlets offered through consumer advertising and numerous other sources.
Railway Express, truck lines and airlines transported 686, 200 pounds of Florida citrus merchandising and educational materials in this season.
Another itern that received a great deal of attention from the consumer was the colorful recipe booklet, 11101 Ways to Enjoy Florida Grapefruit. 11 More than 16, 000 requests were received for this pamphlet and the department distributed 114, 603 of the items to individuals and organizations around the world.
Since 1960, the Commission has been developing a library of motion picture films designed to educate teen-agers to the health and nutritional values of citrus and to visually demonstrate how citrus fruits and juices can be prepared in a variety of appetizing recipes. In 1963, this library of 12 color films and more than 1, 000 prints in 16mm film were shown to an audience of more than 2 1, 000, 000 people.
These films range from "The Sun Goes North," which documents the historical background and growth of the citrus industry, to a series of threeminute cook books that tell how to select, prepare and serve citrus desserts.
The Commission released a new type of public service film in 1962 which dramatizes the importance of orange juice in specific physical fitness teenage activities. The film, "The Winning Formula," relates how orange juice is used by leading football coaches and trainers in the conditioning diets of athletes and features Roman Gabriel, quarterback for the Los Angeles Rams professional football team. Last year the film was shown to more than 500, 000 high school students and was viewed by an audience of more than 6, 500, 000 on free-sustaining television spots. As an important supplement to this film, approximately 1, 000, 000 copies of "Tips on Training, 11 a tie-in folder, were distributed to high school students.
A companion film, "Leading the Parade, 11 was produced in the spring of 1964 for release in September and deals with teen-age girls and the popular subject of baton twirling.
The Commission devoted a share of the foodpublicity program
this season to emphasizing the advantages of Florida citrus fruits and products over the many drinks and ades -that invaded the food markets. This was accomplished in p a r t by explaining the dif
ferences between citrus and synthetics.
This activity was directed by the Commission's food publicity
agency, Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy, and consisted of s e v e r a 1 special mailings to home demonstration agents, county agricultural agents, marketing specialists, utility demonstrators, and commentators on radio and television.
The Commission's publicity program, which forms a constant
backdrop to other advertising and merchandising e f f o r t s, provides visibility for fresh, canned, frozen and chilled products in many areas where it is e-th e r impossible or impractical to advertise. This is in such r e a 1 rn s as sectional magazines, company publications, utility magazines, cook books, special interest publications, shopping p a p e r s, government bulletins and in related periodicals.
The Dudley -Ande r s on-Yutzy test k i t ch e n, the first to be established in the consumer publicity field more than 30 years ago, is the hub of food publicity activities, the beginning s t a g e in the evolution of continuing food use ideas for all citrus products. The agency's close associations with other leaders in the food communications field over the y e a r s has resulted in a knowledge of editor preferences, of these editors' plans for the months ahead,
and of other promotions with which citrus can be combined.
Creativity in r e c i p e development, in pictorial t e c h n i q u e s,
and in copy applications have been responsible in g r e a t part for the high degree of acceptability accorded Commission contributions to the nation's news media. More than 500 daily and 3, 000 weekly newspapers utilize Commission recipe and photo materials e a c h month, and spot checks have i n d i c a t e d that 15, 000 readers were reached for every dollar expended in the food publicity program.
In addition, the agency was successful in Placing special material each month with the nationally syndicated editors, such as Cecily Brownstone of the A s s 0 c i a t e d Press, Gaynor Maddox of
the NEA, and Ida Bailey Allen of King Features.
Close contacts are maintained with food editors of all variety of magazines and Sunday supplements so that periodically c it ru s receives considerable editorial backing. This generally provides the added advantage of endorsement in the form of the food editor' s by-line.
Four-color photographs of citrus f rui t and products distributed by the agency were reproduced 85 times during the year by newspapers, in space that could total nearly $200, 000 at advertising rates.
Personal contact with national new spa p er food editors is maintained each year during a brunch conducted d u r i n g the editors' annual Fall conference. The 196 3 conf erence was in Ch ic a go and Commission General Manager Homer E. Hooks was in attendance to a n s w e r any questions involving citrus or the citrus industry. During the s a me period, the Commission was co-host at a breakfast for 700 h o me demonstration agents in annual convention at Salt Lake City.
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy personnel represented the Commission at the annual conventions of the American W o m e n in Radio a nd Television, the American Dietetic As sociation, the Home Economists in B u sin es s, the American Home E con o mi cs Association, the Institutional Food Editors Conference, and the Canadian Homne Economics Association.
Offers by syndicated columnists, r a d i o and television commentators, extension 1 e a d e r s and c 1 u b s resulted in the distribution of thousands of recipe leaflets, such as "Twenty-five Ways to Use Florida Frozen Orange Juice Concentrate" and ''Holiday Fancies. " Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy produced a set of six four-color quantity recipe ca r ds for use in the institutional and mass feeding fields.
ORANGE DESSERT CONTEST
The Commission's fifth annual All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest attained an all-time high in coverage with radio and television media being employed for the first time. This, added to the usually excellent newspaper coverage, ranked the event as one of the most successful in the short history of the contest.
Orlando television station WFTV taped a portion of the cooking competition and the Grand Championship Awards Banquet, with Betty Vance, food editor of the Tampa Times, and Andy Wilson, weather-caster for WFTV, handling the commentary. The half-hour tape covered the contestants at work, the judges in the process of making selections, and the banquet with the presentation of the winners.
Under the sponsorship of the Commission and Publix Super Markets, the taped program was shown within the next two days over television stations in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa and Miami.
A Winter Haven area radio station did direct broadcasts three times
during the contest and then taped the Grand Championship Awards Banquet for broadcast the following day.
Winners and winning recipes were featured in Florida newspaper food sections during the following weeks.
Mrs. Malcolm Pierson of Tampa was the Grand Champion, winning an all-electric kitchen, plus a weekend at the Grand Bahamas Hotel in the Grand Bahamas. First runner-up was Mrs. C. M. Walker of Temple Terrace (Tampa), whose award was a color television set and a weekend at the DeSoto Lake Resort near Bradenton.
A washer and dryer plus a weekend at the Royal Hawaiian Motel in Daytona Beach went to second runner-up, Mrs. Henry J. Hinson of Jensen Beach. Third runner-up, Mrs. F. M. Hendley of Ocala, won a roll-about dishwasher and a weekend at the Eden Roc Hotel in Miami Beach.
The other finalists in the Grand Finals were Mrs. A. J. Brumage of
Dunedin, Mr.s. Kenneth J. Curtis of LaBelle, Mrs. W. A. Erwin of Pensacola, Mrs. J. K. Kranzlin of North Miami Beach, Mrs. John D. Peoples of Fort Lauderdale, Mrs. Gerald C. Sauer of Orlando, Mrs. Causby L. Shirley of Jacksonville, and Mrs. Bruce Willingham of Hialeah.
Judges for the competition were Mrs. Dorothy B. Marsh, food editor for Good Housekeeping Magazine; Mrs. Jane Nickerson Steinberg, former food editor for the New York Times, Mxs. Bertha L. Hinshaw, owner of the Chalet Suzanne at Lake Wales, and Manuel Garcia, Jr. , president and general manager of the Las Novedades Restaurant in Tampa.
Preliminary and serni-final contests were conducted over the state of
Florida by the Home Service Departments of the privately- financed electric utilities which cooperated with the Commission in conducting the contest. The Grand Finals, under the direction of the Commission, again were held in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus Building in Winter Haven on April 23-24, 1964. Frances Langford of Jensen Beach, former singing and movie star, was honored guest at the Awards Banquet.
Cooperating with the Commission in staging the contest were Florida Power and Light Company of Miami; Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg; Tampa Electric Company of Tampa; Gulf Power Company of Pensacola, and the General Electric Company of Jacksonville.
The entry list reached a record 3, 208 contestants, as compared with 2, 301 who competed in the first contest in 1959. The event was not held during 1963 when competition had to be cancelled because funds for the contest were depleted by the severity of a record freeze during December 1962.
SELL FLORIDA FIRST
The Commission continued the promotion of citrus fruits and products within the state through the medium of the "Sell Florida First" program, which was handled for the second year by the Fry/Hammond /Barr & Rollinson agency.
In an effort to increase the use and popularity of citrus in daily menus, the Commission made its first annual Golden Orange Award to a restaurant that had done an outstanding job of promoting citrus. The big trophy was awarded to the Highlander Restaurant of Lake Wales and to Mrs. Dorothy W. Hunt, owner, during the annual meeting of the Florida Restaurant Association in St. Petersburg.
The Commission distributed promotional materials such as menu suggestions, cost comparisons, table tent cards, menu tabs and backbar posters to restaurants and fountains to support citrus promotions. The importance of citrus in menus also was stressed in contacts with schools, hospitals, business and industrial firms, and state -maintained facilities.
The importance of America' s youth market is a t t e s t e d to by
every sales study and by e v e r y governmental report. Within 10 years, th e s e surveys e s t i m a t e that one half the United States population will be under the age of 25. Today, 40-per cent of all marriages involve couples under 20 years of age. These figures point up the importance of reaching these young people as a market for any commodity and it is at t he s e young p e o p 1 e that the
Commission directs its Youth and School Service Program.
Reaching this potential market requires ingenuity in planning
and execution. Thus far it is obvious that the schools are among the best allies in these efforts and have offered overwhelming approval of Commission schoolroom teaching aids.
A study of the map, which gives the origin of requests by states
for Commission material, indicates the general acceptance of and the demand for teaching aids. The quantity distributed during the year amounted to mo re than 1,000,000 pieces of material, or slightly more than 300 per cent the total pieces distributed in 1960-61, the first year of the Youth and School Service Program.
All Commission materials are submitted to educators before
being printed, to insure acceptance and actual use. In a time when all segments of the b u s i n e s s world are competing for the youth market, it is increasingly important to p r o v i d e materials which the teacher will approve and to which the youngster will respond.
A Commission film, "The Beauty Habit," produced under the
direction of the Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy publicity agency, achieved new levels of acceptance. In addition, an attractive leaflet accompanying the film was distributed to teen-age groups to the amount of 408, 000 c o p i e s. This versatile leaflet was in demand by teachers of physical education, nutrition and c h a r m schools.
The s u c c e s s of this particular film and requests for similar
filmed materials directed toward slightly older groups resulted in the production of three five-minute movies which are scheduled for release next Fall. These short subjects deal with girls about to become b r i d e s, very young m o th e r s (average age is now 19
years), and young career girls.
Nutrition has never proven a p 0 pu I a r subject, and the Commission has a tt e m p t e d to assist educators in the adoption of a more practical and acceptable approach. To t h i s end, the Commission four years ago i n i t i a t e d a series of projects aimed at
SCHOOL MATERIAL REQUESTS
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improving the tone of health education. Pu r e 1y public s e r vi Ce efforts, these projects nonetheless have g one far in establishing the Commission as a public-spirited, progressive body in nutritional and education circles, with a low-key, softsell approach that has earned added respect.
This year, the pr oj ect in Georgia was conducted as a two-day conference on "Improving the Teaching of Health in Junior High Schools. "Held at the Center of Continuing Study on the campus of the University of Georgia at Athens, the e ve nt attracted more than 100 state leaders, affording the people charged with he alt h instruction with an opportunity to he ar of new methods, needs for change in emphasis, and the importance of attention to this subject.
Maine and Massachusetts were chosen for grants, with the Commission contributing to the efforts to improve health education in these states. The grant madecpossible another three-week workshop for health education teacher s in Massachusetts;sthe product ion of television healtheducation films in Maine, where the grant was matched by a Ford Foundation grant; and control studies in New Jersey, under Rutgers University direction, on dietary habits of young teen-agers.
A worthwhile activity again was Commission cooperation with the Florida School Food Service Association, which acts as sponsor for the Florida Youthpower Project. Ten girls and boys were selected at a nutrition conference in Tallahassee as delegates to the fifth annual NationalYouthpower Congress in Chicago. The Commission assisted in securing funds for the Chicago trip and representatives of Dudley-Ander son-Yutzy dis seminated news releases concerning the event. One Florida del e gate was national winner with a project in nutrition.
The Congress is conducted by the National Food Conference, composed of 66 of the nation's leading food manufacturers and organizations.
During the past year, the Commission continued cooperative
research with the University of Florida's Citrus Experiment Station in the fields of p r o c e s s i n g and by-products, physiology of fruit and fruit p i g m e n t s, decay and rind-breakdown c o n t r o 1, mechanization of citrus fruit harvesting, prevention of freeze damage, and recovery of volatile flavoring materials; with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on the foam-mat drying of citrus juices; and with the Florida Department of Agriculture on the determination of pounds-solids.
Also supported were the industry-wide air pollution study, and
the expansion of the pilot-plant facility at the Citrus Experiment
Station. Total funds expended amounted to $629, 787. 41.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH
THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
I. Processing and By-Products
Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit
and Processed Products of Citrus
Evaluations were made for j e I I y grade, j e I I y units, y i e 1 d, purity, and methoxyl content of the pectins extracted from the component parts of Pineapple oranges and Silver Cluster grapefruit during the maturation c y c 1 e for two seasons. The membranes of both the orange and grapefruit were found to be excellent sources of high quality p e c t i n. However, the peel, membrane, and juice s a c s of grapefruit were greater in jelly units. than those found for similar components of orange. Peel, membrane, juice s a c s, and juice of Silver Cluster grapefruit were e x a m i n e d for polygalacturonase, but only. the peel was
found to contain a trace of the enzyme activity.
Volatile Flavor Components in Citrus Juices and Processed Citrus Products
Research I e a d i n g to the characterization of the f I a v o r and aroma of citrus juices was further facilitated by improvements in the pilot plant volatile component recovery system. Analyses of recovered orange essences using gas-liquid, thin layer and column chromatographic techniques provided evidence of
12 esters besides ethyl butyrate, previously identified. Positive identification was achieved for f o u r additional alcohols and six terpenes, as well as a juice related sesquiterpene confirmed by mass spectrometry. In addition to recovered orange essences, j ui c e emulsions and juice oils were employed in s tudi e s of their enhancement qualities in frozen concentrate and processed bottled juices. Preliminary studies us in g gas chromatography with electron capture detection have revealed some factors possibly associated with the f r e s h note in the flavor and a r o m a of orange juices.
A Survey of the Characteristics of Commercial
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
During the 1962 -63 season, 165 samples of c o m m e r c i a 1 frozen concentrated orangejuice were collected semi-monthly from 23 processing plants and examined for flavor, color, and stability. Taste panel evaluations indicated that 28 per cent of the sample s had "good" flavor; 64 per cent "fair" flavor and eight per cent ''poor" flavor. The flavor quality of these concentrates was not as good as those packed during seasons when freezes did not occur. These evaluations confirmed similar results obtained during the 1957-58 season when freezes also occurred in Florida.
Effect of Citrus Components on Chemical and Physical
Properties of Frozen Citrus Concentrate
Odor and flavor characteristics of citrus f ruits were found to be closely associated with both the peel and extracted juices containing varying amounts of insoluble solids. Separation of water from the total vapor obtained from juices, extracts of both peel and j u i c e s, and other mixtureB
of citrus juice components was employed to concentrate juice oils and essences. The fresh aroma constituents and some flavor-bearing mateIrials were not seriously affected by flash-temperatures varying from 80 to 195 degrees Fahrenheit. Removal of the odor and flavoring components from juices, containing fruit parts, and subsequent concentration has resulted in concentrates that were rather bland. Methods for removal of the desired volatile constituents from water extracts and juices containing fruit parts are being explored.
Use of Recovered Natural Orange
Flavor Enhancement Materials
Recovered orange juice essences; juice emulsions, juice oils, and cutback juices with added coldpressed oils were used in the production of frozen concentrates for later processing of bottled reconstituted juices. The reconstituted products prepared from Pineapple and Val'encia concentrates are being evaluated for quality and flavor relative to the method of cooling the hot-filled bottled juices, the amount of flavor enhancement material used, and the temperature of storage. A method developed to indicate volatile organic content of orange juices and orange essences was used to calculate essence strength and the amount of essence to add to concentrated juice to produce a reconstituted product with the same volatile content as fresh juice.
Oxidation -Reduction Enzymes in Citrus Fruitsand Effects on Processed Citrus Products
Sixty-four packs of Hamlin orange concentrates were prepared to study the effect of the following factors on the development of citrus oxidized offflavor (COF): Concentration, air, heat treatment, peroxidase and peel oil. If COF occurred, concentrates containing added partially purified peroxidase prepared from citrus leaves, developed COF much less rapidly than corresponding concentrates without added peroxidase. This was opposite to previous findings when a crude peroxidase extract prepared from citrus seeds was added to concentrates and COF was obtained.
Firming of Canned Grapefruit
Sections with Calcium Salts
Canned grapefruit sections, packed in December 1962 and January 1963, to which calcium salts had been added were examined after storage for eight months at 80 degrees Fahrenheit. The greatest percentage of firm sections was found when syrup and calcium lactate were used, and the next greater percentage with either juice, calcium cyclamate and lactate, or only syrup. Juice and calcium cyclamate was slightly better in improving firmness than was juice alone.
Measurement of the Color of Citrus
Juices and Processed Citrus Products
A low-cost, practical, single-reading instrument for the objective measurement of the color of citrus juices and processed citrus products is being developed for the Commission by Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc. This Hunter Citrus Colorimeter was used to measure the color of many reconstituted commercial frozen concentrated orange juices. Certain necessary modifications to this instrument have been suggested, and once made, evaluation of the colorimeter will be continued.
Off-Flavor in Canned Orange Juice
Development of an analytical metho for furfural in the aqueous phase of
distillate from canned orange juice was undertaken. After such a procedure has been finalized, it will be used to determine if the furfural
content of canned orange juice correlates with the deterioration of flavor
in this product during storage.
Utilization of Grapefruit
The development of individually frozen grapefruit sections bulk-packed in
polyethylene bags has been hindered by the development of an off-flavor during frozen storage. New packs have been put up using inert gas atmospheres and antioxidant materials in an attempt to eliminate the offflavor development.
Chemical Constituents of Citrus
Fruit as Related to Quality
Orange concentrate samples from various processing plants in Florida
were analyzed to determine the concentrations of different organic acids
present. The ratio of citric acid to malic acid of these samples was
calculated. Citric acid averaged about 79 per cent of the total organic acids in orange concentrate, while malic acid amounted to about 14 per cent. The remaining seven per cent consisted of I I other acids, each
occurring in trace amount. These acids were only detected on paper
chromatograms and were not identified except quinic acid. The malic
acid content of the orange concentrate ranged from 1. 8 to 3. 1 milliequivalent per 100 milliliters of reconstituted juice, and that of citric
acid varied from 13. 0 to 17. 7 m. e. per 100 ml. The citric acid to
malic acid ratio for these samples ranged from 4. 4 to 7. 6 with a mean of 5. 7 and a standard deviation of 0. 8. Over 75 per cent of the samples
examined have this ratio within the range of 4. 9 and 6. 0. Titratable acidity of these samples only comprised about 66 per cent of the total
Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel
Calcium carbide and moldy fruit were added to separate vented polyethylene bags containing young green lemons, expecting that either the ethylene production by Penicillium mold or acetylene produced by calcium carbide would stimulate the degreening of the lemons. The most important feature of this investigation appeared to be the polyethylene
bag. The fruit in a vented polyethylene bag, without additives, degreened as well as fruit in bags with moldy fruit and/or fruit in bags
with calcium carbide. Preliminary work with gas chromatography
failed to indicate any substantial amounts of ethylene present. Early tangerines were subjected to 100, 200 and 300 KR of radiation in the
cobalt irradiator at the University of Florida campus. The irradiation proved too harmful for any other analytical work. In one to twoweeks,
large brown necrotic areas developed which eventually covered the
Natural Antioxidant in Citrus Fruit
Antioxidant activity was found in the flavedo of citrus fruit. Of the different fruits studied, orange had the highest activity while lime
and lemon had nearly no active principle. Very little, if any, of the
activity was located in other component parts of citrus fruit, with the
exception of the juice vesicles of Valencia orange. The active material was extracted from the flavedo of 15 boxes of Valencia oranges, and its infrared spectrum was found to be identical with that of an authentic sample of d-cg-tocopherol.
Citrus Fruit Mitochondria
Mitochondria, metabolically active cytoplasmic particles, were isolated from orange fruits for the first time. This accomplishment
makes possible the laboratory study of the Krebs cycle in citrus fruits, and shoild greatly advance efforts to understand citric acid accumulation in certain of these fruits.
Peroxidase, a catalytic enzyme, was extracted from young orange
leaves, and was found to be present in both orange and grapefruit sections. Purification attempts indicated at least two peroxidase complexes that could be separated by molecular weight and/or size.
III. Decay Control
The average decay in all untreated experimental lots of oranges for
the 1963-64 season was 18. 8 per cent. Degreened Hamnlin and Valencia oranges had an average decay loss of 33. 1 per cent and 21. 2 per
cent, respectively, compared with 26. 9 per cent for natural color
Hamlin oranges and 11. 4 per cent for natural color Valencia oranges.
A comparison, replicated four times, was made between degreened
and natural color Valencia oranges from a commercial source and
from the Citrus Experiment Station groves. Degreened and natural
color commercial oranges had a decay loss of 9. 5 per cent and 6. 3 per cent, respectively. The same figures for oranges from the Citrus Experiment Station groves were 19. 5 per cent and 7. 7 per cent. The
higher decay loss in degreened Citrus Experiment Station grown fruit
may be due to the spray program. The commercial fruit received a
full spray schedule, while the Citrus Experiment Station trees had
not been sprayed since the freeze of December 1962.
The combination of 2-aminobutane, an experimental fungicide, and
Dowicide A-hexamine gave excellent decay control. This combination resulted in better decay control for a longer holding period than either
component material, and was more effective in reducing decay in mold-inoculated Valencia oranges than either component material.
Dowicide A-hexamine was more effective than 2-aminobutane in reducing mold decay under these conditions. Diphenyl pads combined with
Dowicide A-hexamine treated fruit resulted in excellent decay control.
The average total per cent decay for 14 experiments was: Check 22. 7
per cent, Dowicide A-hexamine 6. 5 per cent, Diphenyl 6. 8 per cent and
Dowicide A-hexamine treated fruit packed with two diphenyl pads 1. 4
per cent. All decay figures are for a two weeks holding period at 70 degrees Fahrenheit with the fruit packed in ventilated, telescope-type
''Blossom-end clearing,!?1 a water-soaked area on the blossom end of
thin-skinned grapefruit, was shown to be due to bruising caused by
grapefruit falling on the blossom end. Dropping of thin- skinned grapefruit increases decay. Grapefruit which lands on a side may be split or bruised internally. Thick-skinned grapefruit do not develop blossom end clearing after dropping but may show internal bruising.
IV.Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Harvesting
(In cooperation with Agricultural Engineering
Research Division, USDA)
The t"shake-arid-catch"i concept of harvesting citrus fruit was investigated, including the design and evaluation of a mechanical tree shaker
and an air-blast harvester, along with associated fruit- collecting
equipment. Fruit removal by both the mechanical tree shaker and the air-blast harvester ranged over the season from 77 to 91 per cent, 81
to 87 per cent, and 89 to 95 per cent, respectively, for Pineapple
oranges, Valencia oranges and Marsh grapefruit. It appears at this
time, that the "shake -and- catch" concept of harvesting may be limited
to grapefruit, early and mid-season oranges, and early Valencia
oranges destined for processing. Fruit removal by these methods appears too low to economically justify use under present conditions.
Abscission of Mature Orange Fruits
Tor Mechanical Harvesting
Twenty-seven chemicals were applied to single Pineapple orange trees
during December 1963. Of these chemicals, iodoacetic acid (Na salt)
appeared to have a direct influence on the promotion of fruit abscission. This is based on the fact that the pounds force required to remove the treated fruit was less and, using mechanical harvestifig equipment, the fruit was removed more quickly and had less fruit
with stems and buttons attached. From the group of chemicals applied, it appears that compounds which are inhibitors of sulphydryl
enzymes were more effective in inducing abscission layer formation than those which inhibit dehydrogenase systems or act as uncoupling
agents. The use of iodoacetic acid on Valencia orange trees has shown that Valencias are more resistant to the chemical, requiring approximately four times the concentration to induce the same effect on fruit
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Determination of Pounds-Solids
Sampling methods were exhaustively studied and it was determined that
sampling by multiples was the most practical method of obtaining a
representative sample. Field tests conducted on five single-head
Brown Model 2701 extractors determined that they were satisfactory
for fresh fruit maturity use. Brown and Food Machinery continue development work on extractors to meet processing plant test house requirements and two of the Brown Model 2900 extractors will be field
tested next season.
Work was continued to find out whether there is a significant relationship between specific gravity of oranges and their internal quality.
Considerable data was obtained on the Valencia variety and is being subjected to analysis. Methods to measure Brix and acid automatically are still being explored.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices
Investigations have continued on the application of the foam-mat process to orange and grapefruit juice concentrates. The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has worked in cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission in the utilization of
this process for the production of citrus powders. Improvement has been made in the ease and degree of moisture removal, and powders
of good initial quality have been produced with both orange and grapefruit juice. Storage stability has been improved as well. Pro,9pects
appear favorable for elimination of in-package dessicant . G r! ap
fruit powders have shown higher stability than orange powders. More
extensive storage tests have been started on orange and grapefruit
powders with very low moisture contents. ' These tests include evaluation of packaging materials, and storage atmosphere, as well as a
wide storage temperature range.
Further investigation has been carried out concerning the relationship of physical/ chemical characteristics of the concentrate to its
drying behavior. Increase of acidity had little effect on the drying of
orange juice. Increase in pulp or oil content has been shown to retard moisture release.
Improved supplemental methods for the evaluation of foam characteristics have been developed. Methods have been developed by which foams with characteristics more favorable for drying may be produced. The physical characteristics which define the suitability of a
foam for drying have been more completely established.
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Studies on reducing acidity in grapefruit were continued through a
grant-in-aid to Dr. Erston V. Miller at this University. Of themany
compounds tested in vitro one, malonic acid, appears promising enough
to warrant field testing.
SPRAY AND DUST SCHEDULE
Twenty-two thousand copies of the 111964 Better Fruit Program Spray
and Dust Schedule" were printed and distributed.
INDUSTRY-WIDE AIR POLLUTION STUDY
Financial assistance to the extent of one-third of the funds required
was rendered to this effort.
During 1963-64, the Comm is sion expended $313,837. 10 on
citrus economic and market research aimed at strengthening and improving the marketing of citrus by the industry and improving
the efficiency of operations by the Commission.
The functions of this department cover three major areas: (1)
The dissemination of crop and processing information; (2) the development and issuance of consumer pur cha s e data; and (3) the origination of research to aid the industry in solving various problems encountered in the marketing of fresh and processed
The departmental s t a f f consists of a director, a statistician,
a statistical clerk and a s e c r e t a r y in the Lakeland office and a Senior economist, three graduate students and a secretary located at the University of Florida in Gainesville.
During the year the department c o m p I e t e d 14 research projects, was working on 17 at the end of the year, and had five research projects pending. Most of the field work was done by professional research organizations, while the analysis and reporting was by the department.
DISSEMINATION OF CROP AND PROCESSING INFORMATION
The Commission, from October through July, issued monthly
reports of estimated citrus c r o p production in Florida and competing states, as presented by the United States Department of
Agriculture Crop Reporting Board.
Weekly reports were issued covering the operations of the
Florida c i t r u s processors, as compiled by the Florida Canners Association. The object of the Commis sion-is sued report was to make the summary of processors' operations available to a larger number of people than would otherwise receive the information.
ISSUANCE OF CONSUMER PURCHASE INFORMATION
For the 14th cons e, active y e a r, the Commission supplied the
industry with essential information in estimated consumer purchases of major citrus and competitive non-citrus products.
These data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of America, represent projections to national totals of reported purchases from a representative national sample of approximately 7, 500 household consumers.
Available to the industry are: (1) W e ekl y reports s showing consumer purchases and prices of frozen concentrated orange j ui c e, chilled orange juice, canned orange juice, and canned grapefruit juice, with one-year-ago comparisons; (2) weekly reports showing consumer purchases and prices of fresh o r ang e s and fresh grapefruit; (3) monthly reports showing consumer purchases, ave r ag e retail price, and per cent of families buying frozen concentrated o r ang e juice, chilled orange juice, c anne d orange juice, canned grapefruit juice, and canned grapefruit sections; (4) monthly reports showing consumer purchases, per cent of families buying, number of purchases, size of purchase and price of chilled citrus sections and salads; (5) monthly report s showing changes for the fruit juice and drink retail market from one year ago in consumer purchases, per cent of families buying and prices. The USDA also i s su ed monthly reports on citrus juices as well as competitive jui c e s and fruit flavored drinks, which are mailed upon r e que s t by the Commission to Florida shippers and processors; and, an annual report covering a selected six-month period of consumer purchases of canned, chill ed and frozen juices, ades, drinks and sections as related to geographic region, city size, age of children, occupation and education of family head, and age and work status of housewife.
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The cost of obtaining consumer purchase data in the 1963-64 season
was defrayed by the Commission, with some contributions from the California Prune Advisory Board. The data, purchased by the Commission from MRCA ii(l published by the USDA, is helpful to marketers of Florida fresh and processed citrus and provide a basis for evaluating and guiding the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs.
Consumer Purchase Patterns and Trends for Five Citrus Products
Based on six-month data (April -September), this study compared 1962 with similar six-month data of 1957 and 1950. Consumer purchases of five citrus products -- frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange juice, canned single strength orange juice, canned single strength grapefruitjuice and canned grapefruit sections -- were analyzed for volume per cent of families buying and quantity purchased per buying family by various demographic characteristics.
The comparison showed that most of the gains in consumption of frozen concentrated orange juice occurred prior to 1957. These gains were due primarily to increases in quantity purchased per buying family and secondarily to increases in the number of families buying. Since 1957, the modest gains in per cent of families buying were offset by reductions in the quantity purchased per buying family.
The analysis showed a continued decline in the market for canned single strength orange juice, canned single strength grapefruit juice, and chilled orange juice, with the market for canned grapefruit sections holding steady since 1957.
Information Related to the Export of Fresh and Processed Citrus
This report is issued annually by the Commission from data released by the United States Department of Commerce, covering the exports of all processed citrus products produced in the United States. Products are broken down by country of destination and volume received annually for a five-year period, plus a five-year average. Exports of fresh oranges, tangerines and grapefruit are also shown by country of destination. The trend in exports of frozen concentrated orange juice, frozen concentrated grapefruit juice and fresh grapefruit has been upward, in contrast with the downward trend for fresh oranges and grapefruit sections.
Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads
This annual report by the Commission shows the volume and source of fresh oranges, grapefruit and tangerines received each month in 41 United States cities and five Canadian cities. The information, including yearago quarterly comparisons, is primarily for use by fresh fruit shippers, with the Commission using the data as a basis for allocating domestic advertising funds between major markets.
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice Consumer Purchase Data
About one-half of all United States families purchased frozen concentrated orange juice one or more times during the six-month period of January through June 1960 and about one-fifth of the total families purchased approximately four-fifths of the entire volume, according to this study.
The heavy buyers of frozen concentrated orange juice served it 3. 2
times a week, with this product accounting for two-thirds of the servings of juices and drinks.
The buyers were chiefly among the upper socio-economic group, and usually were families under 45 years of age, and with children.
The study brought out that tomato and other non-citrus juices were the chief competitive threat to frozen concentrated orange juice.
Canned Single Strength Orange and Grapefruit Juice Data
The analysis showed that canned orange juice was purchased by 23 per cent and canned grapefruit by 17 per cent of the total United States families one or more times over the six-month period of January throughJune 1960. About one-third of the canned orange juice and canned grapefruit juice buyers purchased over 75 per cent of the total retail volume. The purchasers of these two products were good buyers of canned non-citrus juices, but below average buyers of frozen concentrated orange juice and chilled orange juice.
Chilled Orange Juice Consumer Purchase Data
This analysis brought out that heavy buyers of chilled orange juice
(January through June 1960) were above average consumers of canned noncitrus and single strength juices and drinks, but relatively poor consumers of canned orange and grapefruit juice, and powdered and canned drinks. Only 11 per cent of the United States families bought chilled orange juice during this six-month period.
The study revealed the fact that heavy buyers of chilled orange juice,
which represented about one-third of the total buyers, accounted for 86 per cent of the total volume. In addition, a need was indicated for further study of consumer attitudes towards chilled orange juice, because of some unusual socio-economic patterns among medium and heavy buyers.
Fresh Oranges and Grapefruit Consumer Purchase Data
A relatively large number of United States families purchased fresh
oranges and grapefruit in the six-month period from January throughJune 1960--two of three families purchased fresh oranges and one of two families purchased fresh grapefruit. Also, the heavy buyers of fresh oranges were good buyers of fresh grapefruit, and vice versa. Light buyers of fresh oranges served the fruit only 2. 5 times during the six months, while heavy buyers served the fruit one or two times per week. In the category of grapefruit, light buyers served once every two months and heavy buyers
1. 6 times per week.
In summation, fresh orange and grapefruit buyers were above-average
buyers of fruit juices and drinks, but relatively poor buyers of canned orange juice and powdered orange juice.
Redemption Cost and Purchase Analysis of Coupons
The purpose of this study was to determine which of six denominations of direct mail couRoyis produced consumer sales most efficiently. The
coupons were distributed to a population of known income characteristics in three selected markets and the rates of redemption tabulated.
The analysis revealed that if the objectives of coupon distribution were to obtain the least cost per unit and the greatest additional movement, then the offer should be 10 cents on six six-ounce or three 12-ounce cans. Since the two highest income groups made the most effective use of coupons in meeting both these objectives, emphasis should be. placed on inducing new users in the lower income groups.
Substitution Relationships StudyBecause an understanding of the degree of substitution between citrus products is an important element of information needed to allocate market expansion effort among products with maximum effectiveness, this study was conducted. The results obtained did. not reveal any close substitutional relationships between fresh oranges and the selected citrus and non-citrus products that were examined. However, only a limited number of fresh fruit items and canned and processed fruits and juices available in retail stores were included, making further investigation advisable.
Family Buying Practices for Citrus and Non-Citrus Products
The study was designed to provide an overall view of the consumption patterns of families in the Atlanta market area for citrus products and a number of other processed fruit, juice and beverage items. Consumer income had a pronounced effect on the use levels for frozen concentrated orange juice. The high income consumers generally bought about twice as much as middle income conourners, who purchased twice as much as low income consumers. Little difference existed in the level of use of fresh oranges and grapefruit among the three income groups.
Retail Freezer Space Allocated to Frozen Citrus
The Commission's staff conducted this study approximately one year after the December 1962 freeze, to ascertain the effect on retail freezer space allocation. This space allocated to frozen citrus juices declined 17. 3 per cent, while frozen concentrated orange juice space declined 17. 1 per cent. Other frozen concentrated fruit juices increased their allocation in frozen food cabinets by 4. 5 per cent and frozen drinks by 13. 3 per cent. However, the total for all frozen fruit juices and drinks declined 4. 5 per cent. All other frozen products increased IZ. 5 per cent.
Also, during the year there was an increase in the average square footage of freezer cabinet space per store, with this new space devoted to items other than juices.
Business Evaluation of the Vending Market
Because of the refreshment market, particularly outside the home, appeared to offer major opportunities to expand the total consumption of citrus,
the management consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. recommended that a business evaluation be made of the market to determine the potential for present proposed citrus products, marketing prospects, and programs required to gain maximum sales results.
The evaluation, conducted by Booz, Allen & Hamilton during April and May 1964, revealed that presently there are practically no citrus products sold through vending machines. In 1962, some natural orange juices were used (approximately 500, 000 boxes), but in 1963 and 1964, rising prices of oranges caused vendors to switch almost entirely to lower priced synthetics.
The future for citrus through vending appears to be through cold-cup dispensing machines, which are usually found in industrial and school locations. The report also brought out that in order for citrus concentrates or syrup to be sold at 10 cents per eight-ounce serving in vending machines, the product cost delivered to the vendor should be in the range of
1. 50 to 1. 75 cents per eight-ounce serving.
Effect of Squeaters on Use and Consumption of Fresh Oranges
The purpose of this study in Philadelphia was to provide measurements of the effect of squeaker juicers on purchasing and consumption of fresh oranges. Four weeks after the squeaker had been received, someone in 83 per cent of the families was still using the squeaker. The squ.eaters were used primarily by children six to 12 years of age and secondarily by children under six; 80 per cent of the homemakers claimed that the squeaker was liked very much by those in the family who used it -- only four per cent claimed they didn't like it, and almost one-half of those receiving the squeaker mentioned some problem in using it. The most frequently mentioned problems: (1) Children could not squeeze hard enough, (2) oranges split, (3) very little juice came out.
Demand and Substitution Relationships for Fresh Oranges
This study examined the competitive relationship between Valencia
oranges produced in California, the Indian River section of Florida, and the interior section of Florida. The two Florida fruits substituted quite readily for each other, even with price changes, while no significant substitution was found between either Florida fruit and the California fruit. The effect of price changes was not significantly different among the three types of oranges and was elastic in nature (i. e. , a one per cent change in price resulted in approximately three per cent change in consumer purchases).
Changes in the supply of Florida fruit had no appreciable effect on California orange prices and, conversely, changes in California supplies had no appreciable effect on Florida orange prices. There was, however, a significant effect from supply changes in one Florida orange on the price of the other Florida orange.
This study was made as a doctorate thesis using data obtained by the
Commission. A printed report will be issued by the University of Florida.
Projects in Progress
Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads
This report is issued annually as an aid to fresh fruit shippers, and to the Commission as a basis for allocating domestic advertising funds between markets.
German Preferences for Canned Citrus Juices
This study was undertaken jointly with the USDA to better understand taste preferences for citrus juices, and the buying and consumption habits of citrus and competitive products among foreign consumers. The data are being analyzed.
Further Demand and Substitution Relationships
The Commission is cooperating with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA in this study in which the prices of frozen concentrated orange juice will be varied willfully to determine the effect of price changes on volume of consumer purchases. The data required for the demand and substitution relationship were generated in 18 retail supermarkets, with daily sales figures recorded in conjunction with a predetermined set of varying price situations. This information, which included sales of frozen concentrated orange juice and shelf disappearance of all other frozen concentrates and chilled juices in each store, is currently being prepared for computer analysis.
Business Evaluation of the Snack or Fountain Market
Stanford Research Institute is conducting this evaluation for the Commission to find what opportunities exist for selling citrus in the snack or fountain market. This comprehensive study should point out the potential for citrus sales in this xnarket, types of outlets where there are opportunities for increasing sales, the best forms of selling citrus in this market, and the technical and marketing research and development required to realize the potential.
Analysis of Dehydrated Juice Products Market
This analysis is being conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc. , to determine if a market (either retail or institutional -- or both) can be developed for dehydrated orange and/or dehydrated grapefruit juice that can now be produced by private or public agencies. If a market can be developed, then the study will point out the potential size of the market, characteristics of competing products, price, type of package needed, distribution system for product, etc. , as well as whether the new product will create a new market for citrus, or merely replace existing citrus products.
Salad, Appetizer and Dessert Market Evaluation
Market Research Corporation of America is conducting this study to determine the potential for expanding the usage of citrus sections as appetizers, desserts and salad ingredients in both the institutional area and the home.
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Such factors as expanding population, an increasing number of households, apparently increasing consciousness of diet, health and weight, as well as a continuing upward trend in "eating out," suggest increased potential. The evaluation will cover the use patterns, acceptance, as well as attitudes and opinions toward the use of citrus as sections (canned, chilled and frozen).
Business Evaluation of Citrus By-Products Market
This study is being conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute aimed at uncovering new market and profit opportunities for the Florida citrus byproducts by evaluating the market potential for seed oil, glucosides, peel oil including D-limonene, and dehydrated peel and pulp.
An Analysis of Youth Beverage Consumption Habits
This analysis is being conducted by Market Research Corporation of
America to provide information on this vital segment of the beverage market, which will permit the formulation of product development, marketing and merchandising programs designed to expand the consumption of citrus in the youth market.
Evaluation of the Market for "Awakell
During the early part of the year, a new frozen synthetic orange drink was introduced by a large food manufacturer who also is a processor of orange juice. Because of the industry's concern about synthetic inroads -due to the freeze -- into the frozen concentrated orange juice market, the Commission initiated research to measure the effects of this synthetic drink on the frozen juice and drink market.
The research was designed to give the Commission answers whichwould aid in understanding the total impact of the synthetic, "Awake," before introduction, during introduction and after introduction (at retail and consumer levels). The measurements were made in one midwestern market where "Awake" had been marketed for several months and in two Eastern markets in which "Awake" was being introduced. The data collection and treatment were exactly the same in the two Eastern markets, except that one carried the Commission's special advertising campaign designed to boost the sales of frozen concentrated orange juice against "Awake. 11 The advertising campaign also was run in the midwestern market.
Preliminary data suggests that "Awake" has been making a steady penetration into the frozen juice and drink market, and that synthetic food items are achieving an increasing consumer acceptance.
Alternative Methods of Levying the Citrus Excise Tax
The difficult tax rates (by the box, pounds solids and juice content) were computed, using the latest available data. The Commission, currently, is awaiting receipt of the 1963-64 data to bring the tax rates up to date.
Consumer Image Survey on Orange Beverages
At the request of the Florida Canners Association, research was initiated
to gather information pertaining to consumer understanding andattitudes toward certain aspects of labelling the composition of fruit drinks -beverages which contain fruit juice in amounts less than 100 per cent. This request resulted from a previous study made by the Commission which showed that confusion existed among consumers as to the identity of various fruit beverages.
The study is being conducted by Interview Research Institute, and will include a sample of Z, 000 respondents spread over 40 well-scattered metropolitan areas. The sample will be confined to housewives who have one or more children under 18 years of age.
Beverage Consumption and Attitude Study
The Commission, recognizing the need to continually revise short and long-range advertising and marketing objectives, and to measure the progress toward achieving these objectives, decided in 1963 to begin a continuing study that would provide more information on how consumers view and use citrus products and competing products. The benchmark phase of this continuing study is divided into two parts: (1) A survey of consumer knowledge and feelings about citrus products, and (2) a beverage diary in which respondents record all the beverages, except water, consumed in one week.
The data for this study were collected in the fall of 1963, and are now
being tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis showed that of thetotal orange juice consumption, 85 per cent was consumed at breakfast, four per cent at other meals, and 11 per cent at times other than meals.
Evaluation of the Fresh Market for Specialty Fruits
Increased plantings and production of specialty citrus varieties (Tangelos, Temples and Murcotts) emphasize the need for an evaluation of current status in the market and an assessment of demand projections in the total fresh citrus fruit market. Success in developing widespreadmarkets for specialty fruits will depend largely on trade acceptance of the fruits and on consumer preferences for the characteristics which distinguish these fruits from other available fresh citrus.
Evaluation of Foreign Markets for Florida Citrus
This study is being conducted in Europe by Agri-Research, Inc. , to determine the potential for Florida citrus in foreign markets. Results of the study will be used in assessing the value of spending research and marketings funds for the development of these markets.
Fresh Bagged and Bulk Grapefruit Purchase Comparisons
Since about one-half of the total grapefruit production and practically all of the production in some areas of Florida are marketed in fresh form, and since there has been research that indicates that selected other fruits are sold in greater quantity when offered pre-packaged to the consumer, the Commission, at the request of the Florida Citrus Exchange, initiated research to determine if advantages exist in pre-packaging grapefruit. This
study is being conducted by the Marketing Economic Division of the USDA' s Economic Research Services.
Evaluation of Special Coupon Campaign
Evaluation of the special couponing campaign of the fall of 1962 has been completed, but the research report has not been issued.
Seasonal Variation of Consumer Purchases
This study examines the extent to which the consumer demand for citrus and some competitive products vary from month-to-month.
Export of Fresh and Processed Citrus from the United States
This report is issued annually to cover the season's exports.
Consumer Purchases of Fresh and Processed Citrus
In February 1964, the Commission issued four reports covering six citrus items using six-month data (January-June 1960) and showing consumer buying patterns among fresh and processed citrus buyers and non-buyers of citrus and their purchases of related products. The January-June 1964 data will be analyzed in the 1964-65 season covering the same citrus items, and will show changes that have occurred in consumer purchase patterns since 1960.
Measurement of Changes in the Demand for Citrus
This study --s designed to identify and measure the aggregate effects of relevant economic forces on changing citrus consumption patterns during periods of short supplies of Florida citrus, and to determine the manner in which consumption patterns readjust when citrus supplies return to normal levels.
Production and Consumption for the Next Five Years
This forecast is made annually by the Commission staff to aid the Commission and the citrus industry in planning research, financial and promotional activities.
Alternative Methods for Achieving Price Stability
Because orderly and expanded marketing are difficult to achieve when prices fluctuate greatly, the Commission will study several methods which offer opportunities for maximizing the marketing of Florida citrus. These are: (1) Improve methods for securing on-tree or FOB crop price information; (2) develop a system for establishing an industry granary of concentrate; (3) establish a futures market for frozen concentrated orange juice; (4) develop a system of regulating production to demand growth, and
(5) develop a system of utilization which minimizes price variations.
(Copies of research reports prepared by the Commission are available upon request to director, Economic Research Department. )
Increases and proposals for increases in transportation rates
and charges continued to a tt r a c t the attention of the Commission and its agency in this field of endeavor, the Growers and Shippers League of Florida. One of the results of League activities was the decision by the Southern lines to reduce rail rates by 10 per cent, effective July 10, 1964, for destinations in Southern Territory. In addition, the League will review new tariff publishing rates which have been simplified and from whi ch obsolete sections have been
Rail Rates On Fresh Citrus Fruits
Competition for the fresh citrus fruit traffic has been of serious concern to Florida railroads for several years. Rate reductions to some areas have been published in an attempt to recover some of this t r a f f i c, but this has not resulted in any appreciable increase in rail movement. In a further effort tomeet the competitive situation, the Florida I in e s suggested a 10 per cent reduction in rates to all territories, but this proposal was not approved by other rate jurisdictions. However, the Southern 1 in e s did approve a 10 per cent reduction which was published to destinations
in Southern Territory effective July 10, 1964.
Subsequently, a proposal was submitted and approved in January 1964, to publish per-car charges on fresh citrus fruit to points in Western Trunk Line Territory, with related r ate s to points in Western Canada, on the b a s i s of 110 per cent of the present percar charges on vegetables. Publication has not been made, since a division of revenues has not been a g r e e d upon by the va r i o u s
TOFC Service and Rates
This is the so-called "Piggyback" service, and when the rates
were f i r s t published the railroad publishedweight restrictions in order to stay within state gross truck weight limitations. Several states wh e r e these rates apply have increased truck maximum gross weights, and the railroads, effe I ctive September 6, 1963, increased the maximum load allowed under Plan II Piggyback shipments of fresh citrus fruits to 41,000 pounds per trailer. The League for some time had urged rail lines to permit heavier loading in states which had higher maximum gross weight provisions.
Revision of Rail Citrus Fruit Tariff
The tariff publishing rates on fresh citrus fruit contain mn a ny obsolete rates, rules and regulations ,in the opinion of officials of the citrus industry, the railroads, and the Southern Freight Association. After several conferences, an agreement has been reached as to revisions that can and shoudI be n- a e in this t a r i f f wvhi ch will h r i n g about simnplification and elimination of obsolete s ec t ion s. The new tariff setup will be submitted to the League for review prior to publication.
Railroad Refrigerator Car Supply
The number of refrigerator cars in s e r v i c e for the transportation of perishable commodities has been declining for the past 16 years, particularly those owned or controlled by the Fruit Growers E xp r e s s Company. The League has been told that unless a greate r volume of fresh citrus fruits and vegetables is shipped by rail, the railroads and carlines can not afford to invest in new cars or in the maintenance of those now in service.
Complaint Against Higher Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit to New York
I. C.C. Docket 33105 was a complaint filed against the higher level of rail rates on fresh f r u its and vegetables to points in Manhattan as com pared with ra t es to points in New Jersey. In November 1962, Division 1 of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) approved the higher r a te s to New York. Petitions for reconsideration were filed and in February 1964, the ICC reversed its decision and ruled that the increased rates to
the Manhattan points were unlawful and ordered the increase removed. The Pennsylvania Railroad filed a suit in the Federal Court in Philadelphia against the ICC ruling and secured an injunction against the order going into effect. Opening briefs in this case have been filed, with additional briefs to be filed in June and July 1964, and a hearing to be held at a later date. The League is participating in this suit in the Federal Court.
Proposed Rule Changes Covering Rail Test Shipments
In August 1963, the rail lines in Southern Territory proposed to amend the rule covering rail test shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables from points in Southern Territory to restrict carrier liability on damage claims on such shipments. Similar provisions had been proposed and approved on shipments from and to Southwestern Territory, but the effective date was postponed. After determining that the rule was to be published in Southwestern Territory, the Southern lines proceeded with the publication of the same rule, effective October 23, 1963, but only on piggyback shipments from points in the South. After further handling with the origin rail lines by the League, the new rule was withdrawn shortly after the Southwest rule was withdrawn.
Rail Increases For Exports Through North Atlantic Ports
Eastern railroads announced late in 1963 an additional charge of 50 cents per 100 pounds on rail shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables requiring lighterage, when exported through North Atlantic Ports. The League investigated and found there was little export movement by rail through these ports. As a result, the League took no action in this proceeding. The rates later were suspended by the ICC then withdrawn and cancelled.
Rail Rates On Frozen And ChIlled Citrus Products
A 10 per cent reduction in rail rates on frozen and chilled citrus products, carload minimum weight 36, 000 pounds, had been proposed and approved by the Southern lines. Hearing on this proposed reduction was held before the General Traffic Committee, of the Southwestern lines in June 1963, at which League and industry representatives appeared in support of the proposal. The Southwestern lines denied the proposal. The Freight Traffic Managers Committee of the Western Trunk Line railroads heard the proposal in August 1963, at which League and industry representatives again appeared. After the hearing the Western Trunk Line carriers disapproved the proposal, with the exception of an adjustment in rates to certainpoints in North Dakota. Because of the non-concurrence of the railroads in other rate jurisdictions, the proposed 10 per cent reduction has been withdrawn, except to points in Southern Territory.
The rail lines proposed that Plan II piggyback rates on frozen and chilled citrus products to numerous destinations, subject to minimum weight of 31, 000 pounds, be cancelled. After checking with shippers, the League advised there was little prospect of any future movement on these rates and, accordingly, the rates were cancelled, except to Birmingham, Alabama. Since 1960, there has been pending before the ICC an investigation into rail
and boat rates on frozen citrus products - minimum weight 70, 000 pounds to destinations in the East. In September 1963, the ICC ordered that existing rail rates be cancelled effective October 15, 1963, but provided that rail rates, considering refrigeration charge at 70, 000 pounds loading, could be published no lower than boat rates.
The rail lines filed a supplement, but because of a technical error, the ICC rejected the supplement and the rates were re-filed. Sea-Land Service, Inc. , filed a petition for reconsideration of the ICC decision, but the petition was denied and the revised rail rates became effective November 29, 1963. In order to meet the competition of the railroads, Sea-Land Service published the same rates on minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds.
As directed by the Florida Canners Association, the League filed a proposal with the rail lines to publish blanket origin rail rates on frozen and chilled citrus products from all producing points in Florida - except from Fort Lauderdale and south thereof - using Leesburg as the base point. A hearing was held before the General Freight Committee of the Southern Freight Association in June 1964, and the Committee recommended disapproval of the proposal. The disapproval has been appealed to the Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association and is set for hearing in September 1964.
Express Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit
In April 1964, a conference was held between officials of REA Express, the League, and the Florida Gift Fruit Shippers Association to discuss service and charges on express shipments of citrus fruit from Florida. REA officials advised that it might be necessary to increase express charges on citrus fruit during the coming year. As the result of this conference, and the prospects that there would be an increase in express shipments, REA agreed to keep the present charges in effect next season.
According to an estimate by W. A. Stubbs, secretary of the Florida
Gift Fruit Shippers Association, the increase REA was considering would have resulted in additional charges of approximately $200, 000 per season.
REA also agreed to reduce the number of packages required on volume rate shipments from 25 to 15, on a year-round basis rather than a partialyear basis. In problems of service failures, REA is working with the U.S. Department of Agriculture to improve the handling of citrus fruit shipments during cold weather in order to reduce the amount of damage resulting from freezing.
Frozen And Chilled Citrus Products Truck Rates
In September 1963, the truck lines proposed to increase the LTL rates on frozen and chilled citrus products by amounts varying from approximately six to 14 per cent on the various minimum weights. Objections were filed, and following a conference between the truck lines and shippers, the truck lines announced the proposal would be withdrawn, subject to filing at a later date.
A provision in the truck tariffs requires that on shipments weighing less than 6, 000 pounds, each case in a shipment must be marked with the
consignee's and consignor's name and address. Because of the problems this would cause on shipments of citrus products from Florida, particularly on stop-off shipments, a proposal was filed with the Southern Motor Carriers Rate Conference (SMCRC) to provide an exception to the provision. This proposal was supported by the League, and effective September Z5, 1963, the exception became effective, whereby under certain conditions it is not necessary to mark each case with the consignee's name and address.
During the past year, proposals have been filed with the truck lines for the establishment of rates from one or a limited number of origin points on frozen and chilled citrus products. The League has handled with the truck line committees for the inclusion of all origin points in the publication of new or reduced rates, in some cases, filing a separate shippers, proposal to include all of the origin points.
The Florida Canners Association instructed the League to file a proposal with the truck lines to publish blanket origin truck rates on frozen and chilled citrus products from producing points in Florida, using Ocala as the base point, Proposals were filed with the truck Conferences and a hearing before the Standing Rate Committees was held in April 1964. The Committees recommended disapproval and the League appealed this action to the General Rate Committee of the SMCRC for hearing in August 1964.
Rail Rates On Canned Citrus Products
A proposal had been filed and approved by the Southern rail lines to
publish a Plan II piggyback charge of $625 per flat car, maximum weight 80, 000 pounds per car, on canned goods from Florida points to the Eastern destinations of New York City and intermediate points. Following independent announcement by the Pennsylvania Railroad, the charge was published to become effective December 13, 1963. To meet this action, SeaLand Service published a rate of 75 cents per 100 pounds on canned goods to New York, minimum weight 80, 000 pounds, to become effective December 19, 1963, and at the same time asked for suspension of the rail charge. The ICC suspended both the rail per-car charge and the Sea-Land rate, and subsequently both were withdrawn and cancelled. In March 1964, the rail lines re-filed a similar proposal, and Sea-Land Service again filed a rate and requested suspension of the rail line rate. The ICC once more suspended both rates, and set the matter for modified procedure, with the initial verified statements to be filed by June 15, 1964.
Canned Citrus Products Truck Rates
In September 1963, the truck lines proposed an increase of 10 per cent in rates on canned goods from points in Florida to points in the South and East. Objections were filed and at a conference of truck line officials and shippers it was announced that the proposal had been withdrawn. However, in May 1964, another proposal to increase rates by 15 per cent was filed by a truck line. Objections were filed, and the proposal has been disapproved.
For some time there had been considerable difference of opinion between truck lines and shippers as to the proper classification of citrus juice packed
in glass containers, whether such juice should be considered chilled or canned. A carrier proposal was filed and approved to include citrus juice in glass in the commodity description of the truck canned goods tariff, and the tariff publication was made effective March 27, 1964.
Stop-Off Charges On Truck Shipments
For some time, the truck charge for stopping in transit to completeloading in Florida on shipments of canned citrus products moving to the Southwest had been 13 cents per 100 pounds, or a minimum $11 per stop. Interested truck lines filed proposals to establish a charge of $11. 13 for this service, the same charge generally applicable on shipments stopped to complete loading or to partially unload at points 'in the South and East. The League and interested shippers supported these proposals, but as filed, the proposals were not recommended by the truck line committees. However, the committees did approve a charge of $1-5 per stop on such shipments, the same'level as the charge for stopping to partially unload at points in the Southwest. This revision was published and became effective January 8, 1964.
The tariff publishing truck rules, regulations, and charges on shipments stopped off to complete loading or to partially unload has become very confusing, and the Committees of the SMCRC, at the insistence of the ICC, had approved proposals to establish uniform rules and charges. These proposals would establish a maximum of three stops in transit to complete loading or to partially unload (but not both) on the same- shipments and would set the charges for stopping intransit at 15 cents per 100 pounds, subject to a minimum charge of $15 per stop. Many of the truck lines parties to the tariff filed exceptions to the proposal, with the result that the SMCRC asked the ICC to investigate the present confused situation and to prescribe just and reasonable rules and charges._ The League is participating in this investigation.
Truck Poster Advertising
The League has been assisting the Florida Citrus Commission's citrus truck poster advertising program by contacting truck and railroad officials. Most truck lines transporting citrus products from the statehave been cooperative in permitting use of the posters on sides of trailers. While many rail line officials have been interested, the subject has not been considered by the Board of Directors of the Fruit Growers Express Company.
In May 1963, the Florida Public Utilities Commission issued an order proposing to prohibit the placement of signs of shippers on truck lines, equipment. After the League asked for clarification of this proposedrule, the order was released in June 1964, permitting industry advertising on trucks, but not individual shipper advertising.
Rail Demurrage Charges
In August 1963, the rail lines proposed to drastically change the demurrage rules and charges by reducing free time to 24 hours; excluding holidays,
Saturdays and Sundays from free time; cancelling the average agreement; and increasing the charges for demurrage. The League and other associations filed joint opposition to the proposed changes, and as a result, only some increases in demurrage charges were approved. The charges, scheduled to become effective July 1, 1964, will be $5 per day for the first four chargeable days; $10 per day for the next four days and $15 per day thereafter.
Detention On Mechanical Refrigerator Cars
Filed with the National Perishable Freight Committee were Subjects 6711 and 6815, similar proposals to allow 48 hours free time on shipments of frozen commodities held at origin, storage point, or at destination, when weight of lading was 50, 000 pounds or over; and Subject 6817, a proposal to provide 36 hours free time, instead of the existing 24 hours at origin, stopoff point, or destination. These proposals were disapproved.
Investigation Into Charges And Practices Of Piggyback Services
In August 1963, the Examiner's proposed report in this proceeding was released, recommending that certain rules be established by the ICC in the regulation of piggyback services. While the report was generally in line with the position taken by the League, exceptions were filed to certain portions. In April 1964, the ICC released its decision incorporating most of the League views, but some parties have filed petitions for reconsideration and the matter is still pending.
Guaranteed Cut-Off Time On Rail Schedules
In April 1964, the Eastern railroads announced that effective June 1, 1964, placement of cars at destinations by a specified time no longer would be guaranteed. This action affected primarily guaranteed schedules which have been in effect for many years from Western origins to destinations in the East and will make it more difficult in the filing of market decline claims on shipments which have been delayed. Conferences have failed to persuade the Eastern railroads to change action on these schedules.
The question of railroad common law liability in claims involving the deterioration of fresh fruits and vegetables in transit was decided by the U.S. Supr eme Court in a recent decision in Elmore & Stahl vs. the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, involving shipments of honey-dew melons moving from Texas to Chicago. In its decision, the Supreme Court held that under Federal Law the shipper establishes his prima facie case when he shows delivery (to the carrier) in good condition, arrival in damaged condition, and the amount of damages. Thereupon the burden of proof is upon the carrier to show freedom from negligence and that damage to the cargo was due to one of the excepted causes which relieve the carrier from liability. Because of the importance of this case in determining the liability of the carriers in claims, the League joined with other associations in filing a brief as amicus curiae in support of -the shipper.
The rail lines have consistently refused to admit any liability in claims involving delayed arrival of piggyback shipments or on refrigeration failures on Plan III piggyback shipments, and have also been reluctant to admit liability on refrigeration failure on Plan II piggyback shipments. Because of the importance to the citrus and vegetable industries of the establishment of railroad liability on failures in piggyback shipments, several meetings have been held with rail lines officials in an attempt to clarify the railroad position on claims. A conference of officials of the origin rail lines and shippers was held in Orlando in January 1964, to discuss these various questions and to attempt to arrive at some solution. So far, however, the rail lines have been adamant in refusal to admit liability for delay or for refrigeration failure under Plan III piggyback service. It may be necessary to file court suits in order to establish liability on such claims, and the League has been authorized to file such a suit on behalf of the industry.
During the past year, the League has continued to watch for and analyze legislation introduced into the Congress which would affect the transportation of our industry. In July 1963, because of the prospects of a nationwide rail strike, House Joint Resolution 565 and Senate Joint Resolution 102 were introduced in the respective houses as a means of settling the dis pute between railroad management and labor. After considering the need for such legislation, the League handled with the Chairman of the respective Senate and House Committees and with the Florida Congressional delegation in support of such legislation. These resolutions were approved and provided for compulsory arbitration of certain issues, principally the questions of re-moval of firemen from certain diesel train operations and the consist of train crews. Other matters in issue were to be settled between the parties involved.
The House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee continued to hold hearings on HR 4700, proposing minimum rate deregulation, and on HR 4701, proposing to implement the President's recommendations on transportation. Because of the many divergent views on this proposed legislation, the House Committee in January 1964, introduced HR 9903, which combined many features of HR 4700 and HR 4701. Although the League had supported in principle much of the proposed legislation under HR 4700 and 4701, there were many objectionable features which had been incorporated in HR 9903, and these objections were registered with the Florida Congressional delegation, and efforts made to have the HouseRules Committee not grant a rule on this bill. After considering the bill on several occasions, the House Rules Committee did not send the bill to the House', and to all intents and purposes the bill is killed, at least for this session of the Congress.
In an effort to pass some kind of transportation legislation in this Congress, Senate Bill 2796 was introduced in May 1964, containing some of the less controversial features of HR 4700 and HR 4701. This bill does contain several objectionable features insofar as fruit and vegetable industries are concerned, and the League is watching for future action.,
Although there were no freezes or othe r crop disaster situations to c ont end with during the 1963-64 season, the Commission found it n e c e s s a r y to enact 24 amendments to its regulations and to promulgate one other in o r d e r to'keep pace with the ever - changing conditions which exist within the citrus i n d u s t r y
Several modifications inthe regulations were required as a result of changes enacted in the Florida Citrus Code by the 1963 Legislature. Among these were an increase in minimum Brixacid ratio requirements for canned grapefruit juice, a requirement that copies of seller's invoices of citric acid shipments be filed with the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture, and an expansion of the grapefruit advertising rebate p ro g ram to include processors. The grapefruit advertising rebate program for fresh fruit has been successfully operated for several seasons and it is anticipated that the advertising and merchandising effort for processed grapefruit will be increased to a substantial degree by this
The Commission continued its program of requiring that all
fruit sold at roadsi 'de stands and shipped as gift fruit meet minimum grade and size requirements similar to those established for out-of-state shipments. While there is still much to be desired in the policing of this program, considerable progress has
Regulation 105- 1. 38 was am end ed in its entiretyto establish
definitions and p r o c e du r e s relative to conducting special campaigns to a d v e r t i s e and promote citrus fruit or to do market or product development research. Under this regulation, handlers of a specific variety or product of citrus fruit may assess themselves for the purpose of providingfunds to conduct special advertising, promotion or research campaigns for that particular variety or product. The collection of fu n ds and the management of the campaign would be under the di re c ti on and control of the
Among new containers approved for use in shipping citrus fruit
were 4-pound bags and two containers of 1-3/5 bushel capacity to be used in making bulk shipments. Action was also taken to establish minimum b oa r d weight requirements for 4/5 bushel corrugated boxes.
Maturity regulations were amended to prevent unnecessary destruction of good, mature fruit by permitting the - r a d i n g out of immature fruit in certain lots under the d i r e c t supervision of Florida Department of Agriculture inspectors. C h a n g e s also were made relative to the destruction of immature fruit which failed to rneet minimum maturity requirements by more than 1/2 point, makin(_ the application of this provision uniform for both fresh and cannery fruit.
To provide further opportunities for broadening the overall market for Florida oranges, permit requirements were established to provide for experimental packs and shipments - in r e t a i I size containers - of concentrated orange juice which does not fall within the definition of either ''frozen" or ''canned. " P e r m i t s were i s s u e d to two companies for experimental shipments of 72-degree Brix concentrate.
To i rn p I e m e n t a new law enacted by the 1963 legislature, an amendment was adopted which e s t a b I i s h e d guide lines as to specific areas of responsibility of c i t r u s fruit dealers r e a r d i n o the registration of all agents authorized to represent them in negotiating the consignment, purchase or sale of citrus fruit. This amendment also established procedures for p r o c e s s i n g by the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture of applications for the registration of agents and included provisions under which such applications may be disapproved.
An additional restriction was placed on the blending of imported citrus with Florida c it r us products. The re regulations were amended to provide that a product which contained any imported citrus could not be labeled or represented in any way as being a Florida product.
OFFICIAL ADOPTION OF 0619@
On October 16, 1963, the Commission adopted a new regulation which for the first time established a standard identification symbol for Florida oranges and orange juice. Officially registered with the United States copyright office, 110. J. 11 was prominently featured in orange advertising and merchandising programs. By regulation, safeguards were established to protect the integrity of the symbol and to promote its use within the industry in an orderly manner. Now used on labels of fresh and processed products, the symbol should greatly increase the impact and effectiveness of consumer advertising and merchandising programs.
LICENSES AND BONDS
During the 1963-64 season, 1, 644 applications for citrus fruit dealer, s licenses were received and processed. Of these, 1, 635 were approved and recommended to the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture for issuance of license, and 13 were disapproved. Later, four of these disapproved applications were reconsidered and approved. A policy was established to require that bond sufficiently large to cover the volume of fruit handled the previous season be posted prior to approval of a renewal license application. This served to set a standardized basis for determining the minimum size of bonds.
A total of 1, 998 special permits were issued, with 1, 825 of these for truck shipments of gift fruit. New forms and handling procedures for these permits resulted in much tighter control over the shipments. Issued were 139 permits for interstate movement of fruit for processing, seven for charitable shipments, and two for experimental packs of concentrated orange juice. Only 25 experimental container permits were issued as result of action the previous year tightening restrictions on use of other than approved containers. Special authorization was granted 23 shippers to permit use of inventories of discontinued containers.
Mail totalled 362, 000 packages and letters in addition to merchandising display pieces sent directly to food stores and Commission field men. More efficient handling procedures and a bulk mailing permit resulted in postage savings of about $4, 800. Total postage dropped $8, 000 below the 1962-63 figures, despite a 30 per cent increase in rates. The assembling, packaging and mailing of school material increased by over a half million pieces to 1, 065, 000. Total reproductions made and assembled, including regulations, bulletins, notices of meetings, etc. , were 2, 792, 270 copies.
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES
FOR FISCAL PERIOD
JULY 1, 1963 TO JUNE 30, 1964
Cash Balance July 1, 1963
$ 4, 876, 2 64. 13
5, 2ZZ, 927. 46 $ 10, 099, 191. 59
RECEIPTS: From All Sources
$ 165, 300. 96
6, 305.74 105,349.87 59,552.86 313,837.10 629,787.41 125,543.82
$ 1, 405, 677. 76
General Administrative Furniture and Equipment General Revenue Fund Transportation Problems Market Research Scientific Research Management Survey
Merchandising and Promotions:
Salaries and Expenses of Advertising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.
Point -of-Sale Materials
1,001,245.26 355,394.70 Z9,921.97
Public Relations and Publicity
New York World's Fair
Newspapers, Magazines, Television, Radio, Outdoor and
4, 388, 3 58. 98
$ 7, 890, 739. 6Z $ 2, 208, 451. 97
TOTAL EXPENDITURES CASH BALANCE JUNE 30, 1964
ORANGE EMERGENCY RESERVE FUND JUNE 30, 1964
$ 861, 1 3Z. 18
20% of Orange Tax collected in 1963-64 Season
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
Single Strength Juices, Sections and Salads (1,000 cases, 24/s's)
Grft. Grft. Orange Blended Tang. Citrus Total
Sections Juice Juice Juice Juice Salad Pack
1953-54 4,332 14,882 17,790 6,402 801x 875xx 45,082
1954-55 5,244 lO,784 16,518 4,994 429x 81oxx 38,779
1955-56 4,759 12,805 15,500 5,265 556x 719xx 39,604
1956-57 4,518 12,464 16,828 5,188 715x 591xx 40,304
1957-58 4,179 9,484 17,846 4,885 303x 476xx 37,173
1958-59 4,572 10,093 13,259 4,217 766x 590xx 33,497
1959-60 4,004 9,323 15,128 4,382 229x 523xx 33,589
1960-61 4,325 9,130 10,797 3,100 553x 355xx 28,260
1961-62 4,664 8,907 15,423 3,248 215x 468xx 32,925
1962-63 2,613 8,864 11,212 3,117 317x 88xx 26,211
1963-64 i] 3,062 5,143 7,682 2,416 221x 456xx 18,980
Frozen Processed Frozen Frozen Frozen Processed Processed Total Orange Orange Grft. Tang. Blend Grft. Bld. & Tang Pack
1953-54 65,531 1,339 1,656 443 965 55 - 69,989
1954-55 64,686 1,531 1,155 877 561 32 - 68,842
1955-56 70,224 1,086 2,512 619 954 31 25 75,426
1956-57 72,012 1,801 2,949 793 597 59 32 78,211
1957-58 57,151 1,149 3,330 147 507 108 - 62,392
1958-59 79,911 547 4,952 1,152 690 165 188 87,417
1959-60 78,149 378 1,613 320 284 27 - 80,771
1960-61 84,298 154 3,841 1406 255 20 21 89,995
1961-62 116,082 278 3,163 1,370 267 116 4 121,280
1962-63 51,648 54 2,323 204 53 36 21 54,339
1963-64 i/ 53,674 41 2,573 1,145 130 21 - 57,584
Citrus Feed 2/ Citrus Molasses
Season (tons) (tons)
1953-54 287,832 52,690
1954-55 262,474 48,934
1955-56 297,254 41,621
1956-57 296,575 59,850
1957-58 291,537 36,161
1958-59 320,588 43,823
1959-60 284,105 29,454
1960-61 320,481 33,082
1961-62 419,745 33,75
1962-63 311,104 30,833
1963-64 l/ 195,168 25,535
j Includes meal, pulp and pellets Source: Florida Canners' Association
x Includes tangerine juice and blends xx Includes orange sections
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROP
On-Tree Processed Price
000 bxs. 000 bxs. dollars 000 bxs. dollars 000 bxs. mil. dollars
1953-54 91,300 27,846 1.39 62,904 1.20 550 114.2
1954-55 88,400 27,157 1.42 60,693 1.35 550 120.4
1955-56 91,000 25,566 1.86 64,884 1.85 550 167.4
1956-57 93,000 24,116 1.69 68,234 1.31 650 129.5
1957-58 82,500 18,107 2.00 63,843 2.18 550 175.7
1958-59 86,000 16,837 2.78 68,513 2.89 650 244.8
1959-60 91,500 20,765 2.02 70,070 1.94 665 178.1
1960-61 86,700 16,770 3.15 69,240 2.89 690 256.0
1961-62 113,400 20,915 2.05 91,710 1.84 775 211.6
1962-63 74,500 11,680 3.41 62,245 2.58 575 200.4
1963-64 (b) 58,300 12,825 4.61 44,835 4.51 64o 261.0
1953-54 (a) 42,000 20,451 .86 20,089 .11 160 19.8
1954-55 34,800 18,996 .95 15,644 .24 160 21.8
1955-56 38,300 19,482 .92 18,648 .20 160 21.6
1956-57 37,400 18,187 1.36 19,053 .44 160 33.1
1957-58 31,100 14,544 1.37 16,396 .63 160 30.3
1958-59 35,200 16,479 1.36 18,561 .75 160 36.4
1959-60 30,500 16,032 1.31 14,308 .76 160 31.9
1960-61 31,600 15,726 1.24 15,714 .66 160 30.0
1961-62 (a) 35,000 17,811 1.06 16,809 .26 180 23.2
1962-63 30,000 13,913 2W02 15,962 .55 125 36.9
1963-64 (b) 26,300 14,539 2.66 11,581 1.81 180 59.6
1953-54 (a) 5,000 3,392 2.10 1,038 .05 70 7.1
1954-55 (a) 5,100 3,725 1.78 1,105 .06 70 6.7
1955-56 (a) 4,700 3,449 2.23 981 .15 70 7.8
1956-57 4,800 3,271 2.31 1,259 .22 70 7.8
1957-58 2,100 1,729 2.86 351 .10 20 5.0
1958-59 (a) 4,500 2,635 2.42 1,595 .30 70 6.9
1959-60 (a) 2,800 2,089 3.26 541 .00 70 6.8
1960-61 (a) 4,900 3,242 2.18 1,588 .15 70 7.3
1961-62 4,000 2,695 2.72 1,235 .55 70 8.0
1962-63 2,000 1,580 3.63 400 .61 20 6.0
1963-64 (b) 3,600 2,397 4.20 1,133 1.85 70 12.2
(a) Difference between "total production" and actual utilization represented by economic
Source: Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
On-Tree Price Per Box
Value of All Sales On-Tree
F TO-R IIDA