Front Cover
 Commission members
 The freeze
 Medical Advertising
 Youth and school service
 Economic and market research
 Back Cover

Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00013
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1962
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00013

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
        Front Cover 2
    Commission members
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    The freeze
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Medical Advertising
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Youth and school service
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Economic and market research
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text



Annual Report

'---^^^ ^^


* I


- -


The Florida Citrus Commission in January authorized the ext-,nii'.ire
of a maximum of .;111 000 for l,.-.r'l:itI'I--n in the New York Wo:rld s
F.,r scheduled f..r April tihri:.-,' October ..lKri:g 1'-"4 and 1965. The
Commission's principal project is the 11l'-f,:.: Citrus Tower which will
be a highlight .:' the Fair. Each of the sides the 'ri.Ir..,.1r structure
will measure 2' feet and the orange .:-.!p the tower is to be 15 feet in
diameter. Ti.- Commission also i!.in- a display in the big Exhibition
Hall which will feature live citrus trees and citrus motif will be featured
in other parts of the Florida Exhibit.

r I__ _1___ ; __I___

- I

Commission Members Serving During
the 1962-1963 Fiscal Year

Sam A. Banks, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey, Vice Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
Henry Cragg
*O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Paul Robertson
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
Kingswood Sprott
**W. D. Wilson

Dade City
Dade City
Vero Beach
Winter Haven
Lake Wales

*Appointed August 28, 1962 **Deceased July 27, 1962


Advertising and Merchandising
Paul Robertson, Chairman
Henry Cragg
Herbert S. Massey
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
King swood .Sprott

Robert E. Snively, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Henry Cragg
Herbert S. Massey

Fresh Fruit
C. D. Newbern, Chairman
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Kingswood Sprott

Economic and Market Research
Henry Cragg, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Herbert S. Massey

Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Herbert S. Massey
Paul Robertson
Key Scales, Jr.

Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Robert E. Snively

Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Kingswood Sprott

Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
Henry Cragg
C. D. Newbern
Paul Robertson
Robert E. Snively


35Za VL"314

Sam A. Banks

Herbert S. Massey
Vice Chairman

\9 6 2- 1

Paul Robertson

Key Scales, Jr.

Kingswood Sprott

Henry Cragg

F.Elgin Bayless

C. D. Newbern

Robert E Snively

George Cason

Webb Clarke

O.D. Huff, Jr.


0 On the night of December 13, 1962, the most
severe freeze to hit the Florida citrus industry in
the 20th Century destroyed many millions of boxes
of fruit and tree s. Before the free ze, the U.S.
Department of Agriculture had estimated that the
Florida orange crop would reach 120,000,000
boxes -- an all-time record.
Butbecause of freeze losses, the actual orange
Homer E. Hooks harvest for the season turned out to be 74,500,000
General Manager
boxes. Grapefruit o s s es were less severe, and
30,000,000 boxes were harvested. The se major
varieties, together with 2, 000, 000 boxes of tan-
gerines and 950, 000 boxes of tangelos and mur-
cotts, made up a total harvest of 107,450,000
boxes. This was 30 per cent le s s than the 1961-
62 harvest of 153,670,000.
Despite the sharp reduction infruit production,
growers' returns reached $195,600,000 for the
Florida again dominated world and U.S. citrus
production in 1962-63. We produced 79 per cent

of the nation's citrus crop and 28 per cent of the world's production. We
produced 75 per cent of the U. S. orange crop and 90 per cent of the
grapefruit crop; 22 per cpnt of the world orange crop and 77 per cent of
the grapefruit crop.
The report which follows describes the various programs and ser-
vices of the Commission in 1962-63 -- including a special report on the
freeze. Here are a few of the more significant actions by the Commis-
sion during the year:
Joined with State Commissioner of Agriculture in acquiring full
rights to the use of the trade name SunFLAvor for Florida fruits and
Adopted standard stock label design for fresh fruit shipments
in retail-size bags, including "Florida" on each bag.
Entered into contracts with 22 concentrators by which they
contributed $3,500, 000 for special promotional campaign on frozen con-
centrated orange juice, administered by the Commission, featuring
''cents-off" coupons.
Supported passage of laws at two Special Sessions of the Flor-
ida Legislature adding five cents to the orange advertising tax tempo-
rarily and creating Concentrate Quality Committee to facilitate intensi-
fied promotions for frozen concentrated orange juice.
Retained special agency to conduct "Sell Florida First" pro-
motional campaign within the state.
Agreed to participate in Florida Exhibit at New York World's
Fair by constructing a Citrus Tower and encouraging industry firms'
arrangements for lease space.
Took prompt and effective action following the freeze to ensure
that only good quality fruit and products would be shipped and that as
much of the growers' fruit as possible would be utilized.
Post-freeze actions included embargo on fresh fruit shipments;
strict regulation of gift fruit and shipments within Florida; requirement
that concentrate must be re-inspected within seven days of shipment.
Trade was advised by special letters and advertising messages
as to the facts about the freeze situation and what the Commission was
doing about it; special consumer advertising and publicity emphasized
availability of good citrus from Florida at competitively favorable
prices for natural Vitamin C content.
Several marketing research projects were completed, includ-
ing analyses of which can sizes for concentrate are most favorable by
the trade and the consumer, and how consumers reconstitute frozen
concentrated orange juice.
.Program was approved to exchange citrus industry scientists
with European scientists for reciprocal study and experimentation pro-
jects; plans were also launched to employ a European technical person
to work with foreign bottling firms using Florida concentrate.
S. Objectionable advertising by synthetics and Vitamin C substi-
tutes was discontinued following Commission protests.
Terminated arrangement with Benton & Bowles, Inc., on
orange advertising and after presentations by three agencies retained
Campbell-Ewald for all consumer advertising.

Retained Booz, Allen & Hamilton to study Commission pro-
grams and activities and advise the Commission on any improvements
which might be made in its services to the industry.
Adopted Advertising and Merchandising Objectives for 1963-64,
providing basic goals for the two seasons following.
Prepared and presented to the Legislature, in cooperation with
other industry groups, citrus legislature bills establishing the advertis-
ing tax, increasing research funds, providing for special campaigns, a
reserve advertising fund, and other important features, all of which
passed and became law.

These are but a few highlights of the Commission's business for
1962-63. They and other programs are described more fully in this
report, which I urge you to read in full. This is the 28th Annual Re-
port of the Commission on what it is doing to promote the prosperity
of Florida citrus growers, shippers, processors and to protect and en-
hance the prestige and good name of Florida citrus in the market places
of the world.

Homer E. Hooks
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
*Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
#Marvin A. McNair, Administrative Assistant
Dr. William E. Black, Director of Economic and Marketing Research
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
###James T. Hopkins, Asst. Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions
**Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations
Jack Matthews, Information Specialist
Leroy Mobley, Statistician
##A.- Keith Sheldon, Photographer
D. B. Kibler III, Legal Counsel

*Retired 12/31/62; **Resigned 6/1/63
#Employed 1/1/63; ##Employed 7/1/63; ###Employed 9/24/63


I --n -


~~F~ *~~,



rJ -
u;-*-C ~
EClr- iJL ~ _~h


SThe most severe freeze in this century struck
Florida's citrus industry during two nights in De-
cember and quickly trimmed the citrus crop from
a record level to the lowest production figure in
more than a decade.
The 1962-63 season opened with a government
estimate of 161,600,000 boxes of fruit, which was
raised to 163,600,000 on December 1, and closed
with an unofficial countof 107,000,000 boxes.
This loss of approximately 56, 000, 000 boxes of
fruit resulted in a short supply and increased
Cold of extreme proportions inva d e d Florida
on the nights of December 13 and 14 and dealt the
citrus industry a crippling blow. V e t e r an s who
could not recall similar weather conditions in the
67 years following the famed freeze of 1895, were
reluctant to estimate the amount of damage caused
by this cold wave. A true estimate could not be
made at once, and it may be several seasons be-
fore the real effects of the freeze are determined.


For the record, the cold destroyed about 56, 000, 000 boxes of the
1962-63 season's fruit crop and killed more than 4,500,000 commer-
cial citrus trees of all ages. Ln addition, approximately 15,000,000
young plants were killed in citrus nurseries which supply trees for com-
mercial plantings. Many citrus trees that did survive the record cold
lost excessive amounts of bearing wood, a factor that will seriously cur-
tail production capacities for several seasons.
Citrus growers resorted to all known methods of protection for fruit
and trees during the two nights of cold, gearing efforts the second night to
saving as many trees as possible. Heaters, fans and irrigation systems
were utilized with varying results. Growers encountered something un-
usual in the fact that temperatures were as cold at high ground locations
as in the low areas. The freeze emphasized the need of more weather
data and research on cold protection. Many growers found cold protec-
tion facilities inadequate.
The Florida Citrus Commission moved quickly to protect consumer
and grower, imposing a total embargo on the movement of fresh fruit
and tightening restrictions on processed products to assure continued
quality and to insure maximum utilization of the season's harvest. The
food trade, the consumer and the citrus industry were advised of this
and subsequent action through advertisements, memorandums and in-
numerable news releases.
The Commission scheduled an emergency meeting for December 14
to study the immediate effects of the freeze and to determine what action,
if any, would be needed. Upon recommendations of many industry
leaders, the Commission delayed a decision, but the following day,
Chairman Sam A. Banks asked for an extraordinary meeting on Sunday,
December 16. A total embargo was adopted by the Commission in the
Sunday meeting--effective at 6 P.M. on December 17 and for a period
of 10 days. At the same time, an additional 14-day period of restricted
shipments was approved, to begin December 27.
Another special session was held on December 19 to make changes in
regulations regarding frozen orange concentrate. One change raised the
minimum oil content for concentrate manufactured from freeze-damaged
fruit to .008 per cent by volume on a reconstituted basis as a means of
improving flavor. In another move, re-inspection and re-certification
for flavor was required within seven days preceding the date of shipment
of all finished concentrated orange juice products made from freeze-
damaged fruit. Although earlier research and experience had proven that
much of the fruit could be used for processing into top quality products,
these changes were made as added assurance to trade and consumers.
At the December 19 meeting it was announced that the Commission
would publish a full survey of the freeze -- that all industry groups, pub-
lic agencies, supply and financial groups were being asked to cooperate --
and such survey would take a year or more in its compilation.
In a meeting on December 26, the Commission determined that suf-
ficient safeguards on quality would be provided by the strict grade re-
quirements of the Federal Marketing Agreement and voted to rescind the
restrictions scheduled to become effective the next day on shipments of
fruit in fresh channels.


The final estimate by the United States Department of Agriculture
listed the season's harvest at 74,500,000 boxes of oranges, 30,000,000
boxes of grapefruit and 2,000,000 boxes of tangerines. This was con-
siderably below the estimate of December 1 of 120,500,000 boxes of
oranges, 38,000,000 boxes of grapefruit and 4,300,000 boxes of tange-
rines. It also was under any other season total since the harvesting of
105,500,000 boxes of fruit in 1950-51.
By way of further comparison, 116,400,000 boxes of fruit were
moved in the 1957-58 season when the citrus industry in Florida endured
a disastrous winter that included four separate periods of freezing cold.
At the start of the 1962-63 season, Florida processors of frozen
orange concentrate were concerned over the prospect of a record crop
and an all-time high inventory of 33,700,000 gallons of concentrate on
December 1. These processors entered into agreements with the Com-
mission under which they contributed $3, 500, 000 for a special campaign
which was conducted by the Commission to promote the movement of fro-
zen orange concentrate.
Eventually, the record inventory provided the cushion that enabled
the industry to keep price and movement at a realistic level.
On the following pages are reproductions of an advertisement di-
rected to the retail food trade; a copy -- mailed to food wholesalers and
retailers -- of the Commission resolution declaring an embargo on the
shipment of citrus fruit, and a letter to the frozen food trade explaining
the changes in regulations to safeguard the quality of Florida frozen
orange concentrate.

Florida Citrus reports on the most

damaging freeze of the Century

46,000,000 Boxes of

Florida Citrus Lost

Record low temperatures on December 12 and 13,
1962, resulted in the most severe freeze of the cen-
tury in the citrus-producing areas of Florida. The
morning of December 13 was one of the most damag-
ing in the history of Florida agriculture. Tempera-
tures in the teens and twenties, accompanied by 10
to 20 m.p.h. northwesterly winds, caused damage on
both high- and low-ground locations. Damaging
temperatures for extended periods resulted in a com-
plete loss of 46,000,000 boxes of Florida Citrus,
according to the United States Department of Agri-
culture. Many industry leaders feel there may be
additional loss in the months ahead. In addition to
total loss to young trees in certain areas, there was
substantial wood damage and loss of bearing surface
in many of the citrus-producing locations.
U.S. Department of Agriculture Estimates Dam-
age. The U.S.D.A. acted quickly and efficiently to
estimate total freeze damage. In just 17 days follow-
ing the devastating low temperatures in the state,
the first freeze damage report was issued on Janu-
ary 2, 1963, at 12 noon. This report revealed that the

minimum temperatures on December 13 averaged
about three degrees lower than those of December
13, 1957, in the citrus-producing belt.
The U.S.D.A. report also itemized in detail the
varied types of damage to the several varieties of
oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines.
On January 10, 1963, the U.S.D.A. crop estimate
announced that freezing temperatures in December
caused complete loss of 36,000,000 boxes of oranges,
8,000,000 boxes of grapefruit and 2,100,000 boxes
of tangerines.
This report continued with the advice that the total
orange crop following the freeze was estimated to
be 84,500,000 boxes. With the exception of the crop
for the 1957-58 season, this will be the lowest quan-
tity of Florida oranges available for the past ten
years. The 30,000,000 boxes of grapefruit, as esti-
mated on the trees, is even lower than the crop for
the 1948-49 season.
The extent of the Florida loss is dramatically re-
vealed when viewed in terms of its salable product.

Pounds of solids have come to be the computing
factor in estimating the dollar value of the Florida
orange crop. It is particularly pertinent to note that
before the freeze the total Florida orange crop was
estimated to represent 751,200,000 pounds of solids.
After the freeze, considering the reduction in abso-
lute number of boxes as well as the estimated lower
yield of the remaining crop, the pounds of solids will
probably not exceed 368,758,000. Viewed on this
basis, Florida lost approximately 51% of its salable
orange product.
This substantial loss of Florida Citrus has brought
into action expected price adjustments stemming
from the basic economic equation of supply and de-
mand. Since mother nature is unpredictable, evalu-
ation efforts continue. The next few months should
fully assess the net effect of the 1962 freeze on the
Florida Citrus industry.
Quality Safeguards. For you, your customers, and
for the Florida Citrus industry, it is not enough
merely to make a product available. Your reputation
as a merchandiser of quality products is of vital
importance and must be maintained.
Since the creation of the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion 28 years ago, Florida has diligently formulated
the strongest, tightest quality controls on fruit and
fruit products of any citrus or other fruit-producing
area in the world. In December, 1962, the Commis-
sion took immediate action to protect the interests of
everyone concerned with the marketing of Florida
The industry has pledged complete support to the
Commission's program for safeguarding the quality
and reputation of Florida Citrus that you and your
customers have come to expect.

Shipping Embargo. At 7 a.m. on December 15,1962,
the Florida Citrus Commission announced an extra-
ordinary meeting for 2 p.m., Sunday, December 16,
for the purpose of establishing an embargo on all
fresh Florida Citrus. This ten-day total embargo pro-
hibited the sale, shipment and transportation of all
fresh Florida Citrus. This action was deemed neces-
sary to safeguard the quality reputation of Florida
Citrus, and for the protection of all food stores and
their customers. Since the embargo, tight inspection
of all fresh-fruit shipments has been rigidly enforced.

What about Concentrate? The Florida Citrus Com-
mission's action has resulted in even tighter controls
on frozen orange concentrate to insure high quality.
All raw fruit used in processing must meet the
exacting standards of the Florida Citrus Commission
and the United States Department of Agriculture.
Despite the freeze, there has been no relaxation in
requirements for the finished product. Every ounce
of frozen orange concentrate must be Grade A. An
additional safeguard requires that frozen orange
concentrate be reinspected and recertified seven
days in advance of the product being shipped out of
the State of Florida.
Advertising and Promotional Service. The
Florida Citrus Commission's national advertising
program will continue to bring the good taste and
nutritional story of fresh and processed Florida
Citrus to your customers. In support of this program
and your store promotions, the Florida Citrus Com-
mission's merchandising representatives in your area
are actively engaged in helping you promote Florida
Citrus through your stores.
Your Cooperation is Appreciated. The entire
Florida Citrus industry is most appreciative of your
understanding and cooperation. Many of you are
veterans in handling problems like this one, having
weathered with us the freeze of 1957-58. For your
attention to the problem and your actions toward
solving it, we are most grateful.
Realizing what consistent business-builders
Florida Citrus promotions have always been, many
aggressive food stores across the nation are continu-
ing their long-range program of displaying and fea-
turing Florida Citrus products.
The period ahead is vitally important to you and
to Florida Citrus. Be assured that the Florida Citrus
Commission, together with all the many segments of
this industry, will continue to exert every effort to
be certain that all Florida Citrus products meet the
highest possible standards of quality.

SAM A. BANKS, Chairman
Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland, Florida


WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Commission was created in 1935
with one of its purposes to stabilize the Florida citrus industry and
to protect the public against fraud, deception and financial loss through
unscrupulous practices and haphazard methods in connection with the
marketing of citrus fruit and the canned or concentrated products
thereof, and

WHEREAS, the Florida Legislature, on the petition of the citrus
industry, has heretofore enacted strict laws and delegated full power
to the Commission controlling the marketing of Florida citrus and the
manufacture, sale and distribution of canned and concentrated pro-
ducts, and

WHEREAS, the Legislature, in its wisdom, delegated the
authority to the Florida Citrus Commission to declare an embargo
under certain circumstances when citrus fruit was damaged by freez-
ing weather, and

WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Commission has found and de-
termined that freezing temperatures occurred in Florida on Decem-
ber 13 and December 14, 1962, which caused serious damage to citrus
fruit in the State, and

WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Commission deemed it necessary
and expedient to declare the embargo in order to protect the public and
the growers and to protect the quality and reputation of Florida citrus
fruit in domestic and export markets, and

WHEREAS, there are many boxes of citrus fruit that were not
damaged by the freezing weather, and many gallons of frozen orange
concentrate that were processed and manufactured from citrus fruit
prior to the freeze, and

WHEREAS, once the embargo terminates, Florida will resume
the marketing of high quality citrus fruit free of freeze damage, and

WHEREAS, the manufacture of frozen orange concentrate has
continued under the strict regulations of the Florida Citrus Commis-

Page 2

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the Florida Citrus
Commission that we declare that the purposes of the embargo were
to protect the public against the purchase of frozen citrus fruit of in-
ferior quality, to protect the growers and shippers in the State who
have high quality fruit undamaged by the freeze, and to protect the
citrus industry in the future, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that we declare that the high quality
of Florida frozen orange concentrate has been maintained and will con-
tinue to be maintained in accordance with the standards of the Florida
Citrus Commission, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that a true copy of this resolution
be spread upon the minutes of the Florida Citrus Commission.

(Signed) n d _
Sam A. B nks

Robert C. Evans

December 16, 1962


December 27, 1962



Florida suffered what is believed to be one of the severest freezes
of this century when during the night of December 13 and early morning
of December 14, temperatures dropped to 20 degrees and lower for long
durations. It is too early to estimate damage, but we believe it to be
much worse than the 1957-58 losses.

Ever mindful of its policy to safeguard the quality of frozen orange
concentrate, the Florida Citrus Commission met in emergency session
and adopted the following rules to assure you of this protection:

1. The oil content of frozen concentrated orange juice shall be
not less than .008 per cent and not more than .030 per cent by volume,
on a reconstituted basis, until December 1, 1963. This makes for better
flavor in the juice.

2. Any concentrated orange juice product, including frozen con-
centrated orange juice, hot pack concentrate and any other kind of concen-
trated orange juice product, which is produced from oranges harvested
during the period beginning December 21, 1962, and ending August 31,
1963, shall be reinspected and recertified for flavor within 7 days pre-
ceding the date of shipment of the product from Florida or from the date
of shipment within the State of Florida pursuant to a sale of the product.
Thus, our concentrators are required to take a second look at the product
to be sure you are getting a top quality product.

Of course, there has been absolutely no relaxation in requirements
for the finished product. Despite the freeze, it must measure up to our
rigid standards of Grade A. Raw fruit for processing must pass rigid in-
spection by the Florida State Department of Agriculture.

Page 2

The concentrators, themselves, have pledged their complete sup-
port to the Commission's quality program.

The Florida Citrus Commission is doing everything humanly pos-
sible to protect the good name of Florida frozen orange concentrate. You
may rest assured that we will continue to provide you that protection, be-
cause we realize that this product is a very important part of your busi-
ness and a staple item in the consumer diet.

Homer E. Hooks
General Manager


December 12, 1962
Freezing weather entered the Florida citrus belt as readings below 32
degrees were reported in Marion County.

December 13, 1962
Lows of 12 and 14 degrees were registered in the extreme northern
citrus areas and 25 and 26 degrees in the south. Thermometer readings
rose above the freezing level during the morning and early investigations
indicated that fruit was frozen to some extent in all citrus-growing areas,
with the exception of the lower east and west coast regions. The Florida
Citrus Commission decided to meet in emergency session at 2 P.M. De-
cember 14, after preliminary surveys by industry leaders and fruit in-
spection officials confirmed the presence of extensive damage to citrus
fruit and trees.

December 14, 1962
Readings of 23 to 26 degrees in the north and 24 to 28 in the south were
reported at an early hour. Governor Farris Bryant and Agriculture Com-
missioner Doyle Conner flew into Lakeland to be briefed on freeze dam-
age by Commission Chairman Sam A. Banks and General Manager Homer
E. Hooks. The group made a quick inspection tour of damaged citrus
groves in the immediate area. Commissioner Conner presided at a

* t'~i -c

meeting of the Governor's task force to appraise freeze damage to Florida
agriculture, a committee composed of Dr. Marshall O. Watkins, direc-
tor of the University of Florida's Agricultural Extension Service; Joffre
C. David, general manager of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Associa-
tion; Worley Brown, Florida Industrial Commission director; Fred Sikes,
president of the United States Sugar Corporation, and Hooks. In the
Commission meeting that followed, members delayed action on an em-
bargo on fresh fruit at the request of the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers
Association and individual growers and packers. The Commission is per-
mitted 96 hours following a period of freezing temperatures in which to
declare an embargo. United States Senator Spessard L. Holland told the
Commission the federal government was ready to assist and that Secre-
tary of Agriculture Freeman had declared citrus growers in 34 counties
eligible for emergency loans from the Farmers' Home Administration.

December 15, 1962
An extraordinary meeting of the Commission was called by Chairman
Banks for 2 P.M., December 16, for the purpose of again considering
an embargo on fresh fruit. Banks declared that he had made personal
observations in representative grove areas during the night and that re-
ports from federal and state inspection agencies confirmed his specula-
tion that fruit was deteriorating rapidly.

December 16, 1962
Following an opening statement by Chairman Banks relating the rea-
sons for calling the special meeting, the Commission unanimously adopted
a total embargo on all fresh fruit sales and movements, the emergency
period to begin at 6 P.M., December 17, and to continue for 10 days.
Also approved was an additional 14-day period of restricted shipments,
scheduled to begin December 27. Notice of the Commission action was
sent immediately to all news media and to all food trade wholesalers and
retailers of Florida citrus fruit and products. Commission merchandis-
ing representatives were advised of the action and told to contact all trade
personnel with the information. The Commission reiterated the policy
adopted during the 1957-58 season emergency, permitting as much fruit
as possible to be utilized in fresh or processed forms, but at the same
time making absolutely certain that the high quality standards for Florida
citrus were not compromised in any way.

December 17, 1962
The total embargo began at 6 P. M. with restrictions on the sales and
movement of all fresh fruit.

December 19, 1962
The Commission met in another special session to consider the
recommendations of the Concentrate Quality Committee for changes in
regulations regarding concentrated orange juice manufactured from
freeze-damaged fruit. The regulations were amended to increase the
minimum oil content for frozen concentrated orange juice to .008 per
cent by volume on a reconstituted basis, and to provide that reinspection
and re-certification for flavor be required within seven days of the date
of shipment of the finished concentrated product. Effective date of these
changes was December 20, 1962. The Commission adopted a third
amendment -- raising the minimum brix ratio for concentrate from 12.5-
to-1 to 13-to-1 -- with an effective date of December 1, 1963. Action
was postponed on a recommendation by the Chilled Juice Quality Commit-
tee that the use of an approved nutritive sweetener be permitted tempo-
rarily in chilled juice.

December 20, 1962
Changes became effective in frozen orange concentrate regulations
allowing an increase in minimum oil content and limiting re-inspection
and re-certification to seven days prior to the date of shipment of the
finished product.

December 26, 1962
In another special meeting, the Commission rescinded the 14-day
period of restricted shipments after it was determined that adequate
safeguards of quality would be provided by the restrictions placed on
shipments by the Growers Administrative Committee under the terms of
the Federal Marketing Agreement. The restrictive period was to have
gone into effect December 27, 1962. The recommendation of the Chilled

Juice Quality Committee that nutritive sweeteners be permitted in chilled
orange juice was again postponed, this time to the regular meeting of the
Commission on January 9. The Commission voted to amend the regula-
tions to require that citrus fruit shipped by gift fruit shippers or moved
in intrastate shipments for use or consumption in Florida should meet the
same minimum grade standards for all citrus fruit as are approved from
time to time by the Growers Administrative Committee and issued by the
Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to the Federal Marketing Agreement.

January 9, 1963
The Chilled Juice Quality Committee requested the Commission to
place in abeyance the matter of the use of nutritive sweeteners in chilled
orange juice.

Pattern of Minimum Temperatures For Peninsular Florida
The night of December 12-13 was windy and temperatures on high
ground were equally as low as temperatures in low ground locations.
On the night of December 13-14, winds were mostly light with extended
periods of calm. Temperatures were slightly higher than those of the
previous night, particularly on high ground locations. Information cour-
tesy Federal-State Frost Warning Service, Lakeland, Florida.

~~---i, lairr^A ft

Why does he thirst for Orange Juice in the morning?

Why does he thirst for Orange juice in the morning?


The Commission entered the 1962-63 season
facing the 1 a r g e s t marketing challenge in history
with an anticipated record crop of 161,670,000
boxes of fruit. Recognizing that the profitable
movement of this huge production would need all
possible sales stimulation, the Commissionautho-
rized a consumer advertising budget of $6,711,000.
Also, for the first time, the advertising account
was divided between two agencies.
The responsibility of promoting fresh and pro-
cessed round oranges was assigned to Benton &
Bowles, Inc. of New York with a total budget of
$4,931,000 and advertising for fresh and pro-
cessed grapefruit, tangerines, murcotts, tan-
gelos and temple oranges, budgeted at $1,779,000,
was assigned to the Campbell-Ewald agency of
Detroit. Following the freeze, the over-all budget
was reduced to $3,059,000, with the breakdown
allocating $2,287,000 to Benton & Bowles and the
balance of $772, 000 to Campbell-Ewald.

July-To-October Campaign For Orange Products
The summer program for processed orange juice, entitled "Quench
Your Thirst with Health," was designed to increase the consumption of
orange juice as a between-meal refresher and as a source of nutrition
as well as refreshment. The major share of the summer budget was de-
voted to frozen concentrated orange juice advertisements during July and
August. Fall advertising for fresh oranges was directed to the mothers,
with emphasis upon fresh juice.
Ads for concentrate appeared on billboards, on subway car cards,
newspaper supplements and newspapers in key markets and on television.
In the category of supplements, the ads appeared in July 8 and August
12 and 26 issues of This Week; July 15 and August 5, 19 and 26 issues of
the New York News, Philadelphia Enquirer, and Chicago Tribune; and in
August 19 and 26 issues of the Boston Globe, Buffalo Courier Express,
Chicago American, Chicago Sun Times, Detroit Free Press, Los An-
geles Herald Examiner, New York Mirror, New York Times, Newark
News, St. Louis Post Dispatch and Washington Post.
Fifty showings on billboards were scheduled for Boston, Chicago, De-
troit, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and New York, while two-column ads
appeared in daily newspapers in these same cities. Car cards on sub-
ways in the New York area carried the frozen concentrated orange juice
A total of 125 ABC television stations presented viewers 95 one-
minute spots during July and August. During September and October, 87
one-minute spots promoted canned single strength juices and grapefruit
sections on the same network.

Orange Marketing Objectives
Basic marketing objectives as defined by Benton & Bowles continued
to be disposal of the total orange crop at price levels that would earn
both grower and processor a reasonable profit. The specific objectives:
(1) to maintain and increase the highest possible level of per capital con-
sumption of Florida oranges in both fresh and processed form; (2) to de-
velop an increased awareness on the part of the consumer for Florida
oranges and orange processed products, and (3) to broaden the total
market for all orange products.

Basic Advertising Objectives For Orange Products
In order to exploit the individual characteristics and features of both
fresh oranges and the various forms of processed orange juice, Benton
& Bowles developed separate ad campaigns for fresh oranges, frozen
concentrated orange juice, single strength orange juice and chilled
orange juice.

Orange Copy Strategy
Benton & Bowles directed copy appeals for both fresh oranges and
processed orange juice advertising to consumer motivation targets (1) to
induce those who do not drink orange juice at breakfast to do so; (2) to
make mothers of young children more conscious of the importance of the

Vitamin C nutrition available in a glass of orange juice, and (3) to make
consumers more discriminating in purchasing Florida frozen, canned and
chilled orange juice by emphasizing the importance of getting the "real
thing" rather than a synthetic substitute.

Concentrators Special $3,500,000 Coupon Promotion
Florida's citrus processors contributed $3,500,000 for a special fro-
zen concentrated orange juice promotion which the Commission conducted
during the months of September, October and November. This promotion
resulted in the redemption of almost 11,000,000 coupons. In addition to
the media budget of $1, 111,000, this program included a heavy schedule
of advertisements in leading magazines, newspaper supplements and daily
newspapers which reached a combined circulation of 191,000,000 readers.
During September and October, the Commission supported this cam-
paign with two-page ads in supplements appearing in New York, Chicago
and Philadelphia. The Commission also sponsored $275,000 of daytime
television spots on the ABC network during this period, delivering mes-
sages for single strength juices, chilled orange juice, canned sections
and frozen concentrated orange juice. The program was publicized to
the grocery industry through trade advertising costing $30,000.
The campaign was carried into Canadian markets through a program
of newspaper and supplement advertisements in the amount of $68, 000.

November-To-February Campaigns For Oranges
Advertisements promoting fresh, frozen and canned orange products
were displayed during December, January and February in 12 national
magazines boasting a combined circulation of 40,000,000. The maga-
zines were Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping, Parents, Ameri-
can Home, Woman's Day, Family Circle, Redbook, Seventeen, Pro-
gressive Farmer, Farm Journal, True Story and True Confessions.
In the two-month period of November and December, 332 one-minute
daytime spots were telecast over 162 NBC, ABC and CBS stations in the
top 77 metropolitan markets, advertising fresh, frozen and canned
orange products to an audience estimated at 60 per cent of all homes in
the United States. During this time, eight additional one-minute daytime
spots were telecast over 165 NBC stations advertising tangerines.
On December 13, the television advertising of orange products moved
from daytime on NBC stations to night shows on 176 ABC stations. Nine
of these spots were viewed on prime time programs which ran through
January 25, 1963 when the remainder of this contract was cancelled be-
cause of the freeze. The programs, which are viewed by an estimated
75,000,000 persons, were "Cheyenne" (December 31), "Hawaiian Eye"
(January 1 and 15), "Naked City" (January 9), "McHale's Navy" (Janu-
ary 10), "Father Knows Best" (January 11 and 25), "Sunday Night Movie"
(January 13), and "Leave It to Beaver" (January 24).

Grapefruit Marketing Objectives
Inasmuch as a preliminary consumer attitude study and research
data indicated that most consumers identified grapefruit more as a

medicinal than as an enjoyable food and that this was limiting the con-
sumption of the product to small amounts, Campbell-Ewald recommended
a change of advertising format. New grapefruit advertising was designed
to impress upon the public that grapefruit and grapefruit juice are enjoy-
able foods to be consumed in generous amounts. And since further re-
search information showed that two-thirds of present consumers were in
the over-49-year-old category, the new campaign should be designed to
appeal to the younger homemakers.

Grapefruit Advertising Objectives
In order to broaden the appeal of fresh grapefruit, it was concluded
that advertising showing appealing ways to prepare the fruit should be
featured, particularly during the early months of the season. The new
fresh grapefruit advertising also was aimed at educating the consumer
to recognize that quality of Florida grapefruit should not be measured by
external appearance. A slogan, "Florida Grapefruit is Greatfruit, was
adopted as a standard theme line for all fresh and processed advertise-

November-To-February Campaigns For Grapefruit
The first of Campbell-Ewald's new half-page color advertisements
for grapefruit appeared in the November issues of McCall's and Better
Homes & Gardens magazines and continued through the February issues.
Readers Digest carried the grapefruit ads during December and January.
This meant exposure of the ads to a circulation in excess of 20, 000,000
An NBC network of 178 stations displayed 90 one-minute commer-
cials during daytime programs for an estimated 100,000,000 viewer im-
pressions per month through January. The February total impressions
amounted to 23,400,000. These spots promoted fresh and processed
grapefruit on five programs -- "The Price Is Right," "Make Room For
Daddy," "Play Your Hunch," "Your First Impression," and "The Merv
Griffin Show. "

Freeze Alters Consumer Advertising Plans
All consumer advertising schedules which were not committed were
cancelled following the December freeze. Through the terms of con-
tracts with the television networks, Benton & Bowles was able to cancel
all but $228, 000 of the ABC orange advertising program, while Campbell-
Ewald managed to cancel all but $142,000 of NBC daytime commercials
for grapefruit.
On January 21, the Commission authorized Benton & Bowles to spend
$15, 500 in trade media to advise the grocery industry of the freeze dam-
age and outlook.
An additional $80,000 was authorized on February 19 for a special
newspaper advertisement to acquaint consumers with the facts concern-
ing the effect of the freeze on the Florida citrus crop. At the same time,
Campbell-Ewald was authorized to reinstate cancelled half-page adver-
tisements in the May issues of McCall's and Better Homes & Gardens
magazines, an expenditure of $45,000.

On March 13, the Commission approved the expenditure of $45,000
for half-page grapefruit ads in the June issues of McCall's and Better
Homes & Gardens magazines.

Benton & Bowles Replaced As Agency For Orange Products Advertising
The Commission in the March 13 meeting voted to terminate the con-
tract with Benton & Bowles for the advertising of orange products, effec-
tive April 15, 1963. After hearing presentations by a number of agencies,
the Commission decided to forego the two-agency policy because of the
drastic reduction in the advertising budget and appointed Campbell-Ewald
to handle the entire consumer advertising account for the 1963-64 season.

Consumer Advertising Media
Television moved into the position as primary medium for Florida
citrus consumer advertising during the 1962-63 season. The emphasis
upon this medium could be traced to the effort to carry the citrus story
to the housewife, considered the biggest audience for daytime television
programs. Advertisements on the night programs were geared to a
wider audience coverage.
Magazines continued to deliver a large number of citrus messages be-
cause of the ability of full color advertisements to create strong impact
and lasting impressions upon the reader. Magazines also attract a se-
lective type of reader and provide a market for a particular product that
would appeal to that type of consumer.
Ads in newspapers permitted deep local impact for the citrus mes-
sage, enabling the retailer to tie in advertising. Most of this effort was
keyed to the peak of the seasonal drives for various citrus products.
This proved especially valuable in the concentrators special campaign
where coupons were offered the consumer through the advertisements ap-
pearing in newspapers and in newspaper supplements.


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U The Commission has long recognized the im-
portant part that physicians and other members of
the health profession play in influencing nutri-
tional practices in this country y. Today, almost
1, 000,000 pr of e s s io nal people are actively en-
gaged in caring for the nation's health -- over
200,000 physicians in practice; over 12, 000 osteo-
pathic physicians; more than 90,000 dentists; a
half-million nur s e s, and several thousand dieti-
tians and nutritionists.
For the past three years, the professional ad-
vertising programs of the Commission, handled
by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. New York, have been
designed to encourage physicians and members of
these allied health professions to recommend the
increased use of Florida citrus products to pa-
tients; to suggest that these groups will enjoy cit-
rus products; and to provide firm support in pro-
fessional journals to the claims made in the Com-
mission's consumer advertising program.

To accomplish these goals, the professional advertising program
shows how citrus fruits and juices can play a useful role in a physician's
practice by giving specific information on nutritional qualities so that the
physician knows why citrus fruits and juices are helpful, and by suggest-
ing what a pleasurable and good food citrus fruits and juices are for phy-
sicians as well as for patients.

Campaign Themes
Two main campaign themes have been carried out in the program:
(1) the establishment of a strong and favorable image of Florida citrus
products and of the work of the Commission in the physician's mind; (2)
an emphasis of the need of more frequent recommendation in citrus pro-
ducts in specific medical conditions. Four-color advertisements have
created a vivid image of the Commission and its work. The copy ap-
proach has been conversational, the text filled with information about
citrus products and high standards maintained by Florida citrus products.
Human interest scenes have alternated with advertisements which feature
quality control and other aspects of the Commission functions. The cam-
paign directed to medical specialists played an important role in estab-
lishing in the minds of physicians the desirability for the increased recom-
mendation of citrus products in the fields of pediatrics, dermatology and
internal medicine.

Reader Interest
The success of the advertisements in conveying the Florida citrus
industry's message has been demonstrated by the continuing outstanding
results received in readership research studies.
In the leading continuing medical readership survey, the "Readex
Reader Interest Report," Commission advertisements have earned out-
standing ratings. In the last 17 issues of the report in which these ad-
vertisements have appeared, the ads have ranked first in category seven
times, second six times, third twice, and fourth twice. The average
readership rating for the Commission's advertisements was 14.7 per cent
as compared with the average of 9. 1 per cent for all medical advertise-
ments and 10. 2 per cent for other food product advertisements. One ad
which featured the research activities of the Commission received a
readership rating of 29 per cent -- one of the highest ratings ever re-
ceived by a food product advertisement.

General Medical Advertisements
The general medical advertising program during 1962-63 featured
three full-color advertisements. The first, "Here Is Why We Freeze
Orange Trees... Deliberately!" showed two citrus research workers
dwarfed by the huge refrigerator unit used to freeze trees in research
projects. The copy of the ad established the parallel between the re-
search methods used by the Commission and those used in medicine it-
self. It was packed with information about the nutritional value of citrus
products and the Vitamin C content of processed citrus products.

The main theme of the next advertisement, "The Good Life Just
What The Doctor Ordered, emphasized the pleasure that can be had
from eating citrus fruits as well as the health benefits to be gained.
The third advertisement in the series shows the members of the
Commission in a citrus grove with a text filled with information about
the value of Florida citrus products in medical practice, and the rigid
and painstaking control exercised by the Commission to insure that Flor-
ida citrus products meet the world's highest standards for quality.

Specialty Medical Ads
The advertisements which appeared in specialty medical journals
were designed to suggest citrus fruits and juices as the answer to speci-
fic medical problems in three important areas: pediatrics, dermatology
and internal medicine.
The pediatrics advertisement, "Too Big For His Beaker," shows a
smiling youngster holding a cup in a demand for more orange juice. The
copy emphasized the fact that there has been a surprising increase in the
number of cases of scurvy found among infants in this country and that
today's bigger babies need more Vitamin C in their diets. Other adver-
tisements in the specialty campaign emphasized the importance of other
medical uses for citrus products as a substitute for sweets in the treat-
ment of acne patients as a rich source of potassium-deficiency conditions
and the value of citrus fruits for patients on sodium-restricted diets.

Professional Journals
Commission advertisements appeared in 12 leading national medical
and specialty journals which cover the medical, osteopathic, dental,
hospital, nursing and dietetic professions. A limited schedule was
placed in the American Medical Association's authoritative "Today's
Health" magazine which in addition to its regular subscribers is placed
in the reception room of every American Medical Association physician
member in the country. For the second time, a special Florida citrus
ad based on the use of citrus juices as infant foods appeared in Dr.
Spock's Baby and Child Care book.
Because of budgetary limitations following the freeze, it was neces-
sary to reduce the number of professional journals in which these adver-
tisements had been appearing. However, every effort was made to pro-
vide the greatest number of impressions in the most authoritative pro-
fessional journals at the lowest possible cost.
During the year, a total of 124 insertions of Florida citrus advertise-
ments appeared in 14 publications having a combined circulation of ap-
proximately 2,500,000 readers.
Requests continued heavy for "Skin Care for Teen-Agers," an eight-
page booklet prepared in cooperation with an outstanding specialist in
the field of dermatology. The brochure offers rules for good skin care
and explains how teen-age skin can benefit from the use of Florida citrus
products in the daily diet. Some requests were from physicians for use
in offices.




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U The Florida Citrus Commission was organized in
1935 for the purpose of advertising and merchandising
Florida citrus products to trade factors in the United
States and Canada in an e ffo r t to increase consump-
tion of these products. In the first years, the major
portion of the budget was spent for consumer adver-
tising. As the program progressed, however, it was
felt that.a Merchandising Department should be or-
ganized and maintained to p r o m o t e better relations
and goodwill between the trade factors in the Northern
markets and the Florida citrus industry.
In the early days of the merchandising program,
the hea vie st concentration of man power was in the
East, but as the distribution pattern of products wid-
ened, the man power was shifted and expanded to
other areas to cover all principal markets selling
Florida citrus products. The original merchandising
staff consisted of two men, one located in New York
and the other in Chicago. One of these was Edward J.
Lane, who was employed November 22, 1937, and

retired August 22, 1962, after 25 years of service. At the beginning of
the 1962-1963 season, authorization was given for the employment of 76
field men, an increase of 10 over the previous year.
In order that close supervision be given to these men, the country has
been divided into five divisions with a manager in charge of each, and re-
gional managers in charge of each principal market. Division managers
have over-all supervision of the operation in the division, while regional
managers are responsible for the general planning of promotional pro-
grams in the regional area. The merchandising representatives build
displays, install point-of-sale display material, and conduct demonstra-
tions and other in-store activities. The Eastern Division consists of the
Atlantic Coast area and Eastern Canada; the Central Division covers the
central United States and central Canada; the Western Division includes
the midwestern areas of the United States and Canada; the Southern Di-
vision covers all the Southern states from Oklahoma and Texas east-
ward, and the Pacific Division covers the area west of the Rocky Moun-
The Commission generally employs representatives from Florida
whenever possible, preferably graduates of agricultural schools. In
some instances, the Commission has employed experienced merchan-
dising men to fill vacancies. Before assignment, each man is trained
thoroughly in citrus merchandising procedures.
It is Commission policy to keep the field men informed on important
activities of the Florida citrus industry in order that this information may
be relayed to the trade.
Numbered among the duties of the merchandising staff is the respon-
sibility of keeping trade factors advised of advertising schedules so these
organizations can tie in advertising and merchandising programs with
Commission promotions. Field men arrange promotions for different cit-
rus products, supply point-of-sale display material, build displays and
then verify that all phases of the promotion are completed. During the
year, 33,910 citrus displays were constructed in retail stores by the mer-
chandising staff. The aim of the Merchandising Department is to encour-
age retail stores to stock all citrus products and to insure that these pro-
ducts are attractively displayed and merchandised.
Commission representatives also contact auction and terminal mar-
kets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distribu-
tors, hotel and restaurant organizations, drug and fountain groups, and in-
stitutions and mass feeding organizations in order to relay information re-
garding advertising and merchandising activities.
At the beginning of the 1962-1963 season, four planned programs were
outlined and tentative arrangements made for the production of material for
each. By December, when the severe freeze struck the State, eight new
merchandising men had been employed, bringing the total staff to 74.
Prior to the freeze, an intensive prize and premium program for re-
tail personnel had been conducted, with 326 incentive promotions arranged
with different retail organizations throughout the United States and Canada.
In addition, 2, 241 in-store demonstrations were conducted, and 283 give-
away programs set up and completed.

After the freeze, all demonstrations, planned promotions, and prize
and premium deals for the balance of the fiscal year were canceled.
Field representatives spent a great deal of time thereafter at the retail
level, making certain that the limited supplies of Florida citrus products
available were prominently displayed. By March 1, the merchandising
staff had been reduced to the previous level of 66 men.
During the year, the field men made 126, 980 calls on different types
of organizations, traveling a distance of 1,538,473 miles. In this period,
2, 241 in-store demonstrations were conducted, and 283 give-away pro-
grams set up and completed. Four Division meetings were held to keep
representatives informed on Commission activities and the newest mer-
chandising methods. In addition, six meetings were held with division
Each year special events are planned and conducted by the Merchan-
dising Department, and although many were affected by the freeze, sev-
eral were carried through to completion.

The Commission bought space and participated in 17 conventions re-
lated to the health, food, and medical fields. The breakdown showed
that the Florida citrus story was exhibited at nine food conventions, two
concerned with dietetics, two hotel and restaurant, one school, and
three medical. Orange juice was served as a courtesy at 94 national
conventions which held meetings in the State of Florida.

Tangelo Promotion
An intensive promotion was planned for 25 major markets to support
the sale of Florida Tangelos. Special point-of-sale display material, in-
store demonstrations and prize and premium incentive programs were
employed with most of the program being completed before the freeze.

Tangerine and Temple Promotions
The merchandising staff, working in cooperation with the Florida
Tangerine Cooperative, planned and initiated a hard-hitting tangerine pro-
motion, but most of the program was canceled as a result of the freeze.
The same thing was true with promotional work for Temple oranges.

Concentrate Sampling
At the request of the Research Department, field representatives
picked up samples of frozen orange concentrate at regular intervals for
shipment to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Sixty frozen orange concentrate surveys were con-
ducted in the course of the year. Much time and effort were devoted to
discussions on the care, handling, and storage of frozen orange concen-
trate at the retail level, and thermometer tests are made in order to ob-
tain a cross section of handling practices. In addition, leaflets and
storage room posters were distributed to the frozen food trade regarding
the better care and handling of this product. One additional sampling
survey was conducted by the field men after adequate distribution of the

1962-1963 pack of concentrate to determine if the season's pack was up
to standard.

With the beginning of the season, the Commission appropriated funds
for an Institutional Program. The original plan was to hire two men, but
after December, the budget was reduced and only one man was employed.
Some special point-of-sale display material has been produced and re-
search done regarding the material needs for an institutional program. It
is felt that sufficient groundwork has been completed to merit further ex-
pansion of this type program.

Media Relations
The field staff works in close cooperation with newspapers, maga-
zines and television stations carrying Commission advertising schedules.
Many of these organizations have merchandising staffs that call on the
retail trade, urging tie-ins with Commission programs.

Special Frozen Orange Concentrate Promotion
In order to accelerate the sale of frozen orange concentrate, a special
"Reach For Riches" promotion was conducted in six major markets --
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago and Los Angeles. The
hard-hitting program included an incentive prize plan for retail customers
who purchased concentrate.

Special Promotion Sponsored by Florida Concentrators
Florida's frozen orange concentrators sponsored a promotional pro-
gram during September and October, which was administered by the
Commission. To cooperate with this coupon-redemption program, the
Merchandising Department conducted many in-store demonstrations and
put up special point-of-sale display material.

Weekly Reports
At the end of each week, regional managers and merchandising repre-
sentatives submit to the Florida office a market analysis covering the
movement and acceptance of Florida citrus products, retail prices for
citrus and competitive products, and a general condition report of activi-
ties. These reports are edited, reproduced and mailed to some 500
packers, processors and shippers in the Florida citrus industry.

Each representative is required to report daily activities to the
Florida office by the use of a tabulation card on which is outlined each
call for that day. These cards are processed by date, region, type of
call, display material left or used, and the type of work done in the in-
dividual store. At the end of each month, a record of calls for each man
is compiled, including the number of miles traveled. An itinerary for
each day's activities must be submitted every Monday to facilitate loca-
ting a field man at any time.

During the course of each year, letters and comments of approval
are received from different trade factors regarding the activities of our
field staff. Merchandising has become a most important factor in the
modern retail store. New and better merchandising techniques are being
developed, and it is the intention of the Commission to keep field men
well informed on modern techniques and to make sure these techniques
are applied to the merchandising of Florida citrus products.

European Program
The December freeze cut $100,000 off the Commission's budget for
the seventh year of participation in an advertising and merchandising
program in Western Europe. This meant a reduction of $316,500 and
approximately $148,800 of this was spent in the early months for con-
sumer and trade advertising. Special point-of-sale display materials
were prepared and made available in the language of the countries in
which the advertisements appeared.
To supplement the Commission program, the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture made $203, 000 available under the provisions of
Public Law 480.
The heaviest impact of advertising and merchandising continued in
Germany, Sweden and France, considered the best marketing potentials
in West Europe. Prior to December, strong emphasis was placed upon
the promotion of fresh grapefruit and single strength juices. Frozen
orange concentrate moved into a prominent role with the increase in re-
The advertising program was conducted by Benton & Bowles Ltd.,
of London, with affiliates in France, Switzerland, Holland, Sweden, Ger-
many and Belgium. The affiliates developed all the advertising layout,
art and copy themes and dispatched the material to the Commission for
final approval. The Commission maintains a merchandising representa-
tive in Brussels, Belgium, to coordinate all programs between agencies
and the trade factors.
The Commission continued the important sampling program at the re-
tail level to keep the public familiar with taste and quality of citrus pro-
ducts. Through coordinated efforts of the trade factors, the merchan-
dising representative conducted more than 400 store sampling promo-
tions, at which specially prepared educational leaflets were distributed.
Similar educational material was distributed to schools, to the medical
profession and to other institutions. A sum of $15,000 was budgeted
during the year for special medical advertising in Western Germany.
The merchandising representative also conducted special luncheons
with trade factors and the U.S.D.A. 's Foreign Service Attaches for the
purpose of disseminating information on the Florida citrus industry and
the marketing positions.
In cooperation with the U. S. D. A. the Commission participated in
food and trade fairs in Munich, Hamburg, Paris, Bologna and Luxem-
In the realm of research, a special taste test was conducted with
PL-480 funds in Hamburg on single strength grapefruit juice and

grapefruit sections. Reports of the survey, conducted by a German re-
search organization, have been distributed to the citrus industry and to
U.S.D.A. officials. In October, 1962, a special test shipment of fresh
Florida grapefruit was sent to Germany in a trailer unit. Tests con-
cerned with temperatures and shipping conditions indicated a wide range
of quality in the fruit and the results are being catalogued for future ap-
Currently in progress are two special research studies -- Differ-
ences in serum levels and duration of saturation effect observed as a re-
sult of ingestion of synthetic ascorbic acid and natural Vitamin C, and the
influence of ascorbic acid, bioflavonoids and citrus juices on blood lipid


The Production Department had preliminary preparations underway
for a record merchandising season at the time of the December freeze,
ordering sufficient materials to carry through the early months of 1963.
Through the cooperation of Florida printers, all possible print orders
were held in abeyance the day after the freeze.
The early promotions had been carried out very successfully, and
plans for January and February drives had been completed with every
prospect for enthusiastic trade cooperation with the Commission adver-
tising campaigns. Immediately after the freeze, the situation was re-
evaluated and budget appropriations revised. It was then decided to re-
sume in part in some instances some of the display material produc-
tions which had advanced to the point where abandonment would be un-
economical or impractical. This material, incidentally, can be utilized
effectively in the 1963-64 season.
Merchandising operations were resumed on a curtailed basis after
it was determined that a considerable amount of fruit would be available
to consumers for the balance of the season. Every effort was made to
see that food dealers continued to use display material in retail outlets
so that consumers would be reminded that the Florida citrus industry
was still in business with quality fruit and products.
This fiscal year, 133 purchase orders were written for merchandis-
ing and educational materials. Each of these was contracted to the
lowest bidder on written specifications, after being duly advertised as
required by Florida state printing regulations.
Despite generally smaller displays in grocery stores, 8,636, 185
pieces of display material and literature were packaged and distributed
to every section of the United States and Canada. All of this material
was dispatched in response to written or telephoned requests received
directly from food handlers and from Commission merchandising repre-
Interest on the part of the dealer in store display kits did not di-
minish as the season progressed. Commission employees assembled
258, 256 sets of point-of-sale material in kits for the convenience of
store personnel, a total of more than 3,000,000 individual pieces.

The Railway Express Agency, Post Office and Air Freight handled
325,893 pounds of literature and display material through the year. This
total was considerably less than the previous year, since Commission
merchandising men and store managers tended to be more conservative
in regard to displays installed in stores.
A stockpile of standard display pieces featuring most Florida citrus
products is stored in the warehouse for use with the promotions leading
off the new fresh fruit season. Special posters, banners and price cards
have been readied to tie in the point-of-sale displays with consumer adver-
tising themes in the new season.
The numerous Florida citrus industry films, distributed by Modern
Talking Picture Service, Inc., continued popular with schools, church
groups, civic organizations and television stations. It is estimated that
18, 379, 170 people of all ages viewed the films through the fiscal year,
and bookings consistently exceeded the supply of prints on hand. Educa-
tors and program directors exhibited a keen interest in this phase of the
citrus industry publicity program.
One of the most popular items distributed by the department is the
new recipe booklet, "101 Ways to Enjoy Florida Grapefruit," the first
recipe publication prepared by the Commission in several years. Con-
tracted for before the freeze, the booklet was promoted through color ad-
vertisements in the December issues of McCall's, Better Homes & Gar-
dents and Readers Digest magazines; television announcements during
January, and mail-in cards placed in retail food stores by the Commis-
sion merchandising staff. Additional advertisements appeared in the
January, May and June issues of McCall's, Better Homes & Gardens and
Readers Digest. Response was exceptional with more than 103,000 copies
distributed through the month of June.

( (


r a


Like all other facets of the Commission's pro-
motional activities, the publicity program ad-
ministered by Dudley-And e r s o n-Y u t z y over a
periodof 27 year s did a quick about-face as the
result of the mid-December freeze.
At the start of the season, efforts were in-
tensified in seeking the as si stan c e of all media
and cooperating groups in moving the huge inven-
tory of frozen concentrated orange juice. At the
same time, every effort was made to attract cus-
tomers for what was anticipated as the largest
fresh fruit crop in the hi story of Florida citrus.
The initial promotion for the press was in the
form of a brunch conducted as the opening event
for the annual Newspaper Food Editors Conference
in New York City in September. This event was
highlighted by the sampling of many new re ci p e s
for frozen concentrated orange juice by a group of
150 food writers commanding a daily circulation of
70,000,000 readers. The following month, a

breakfast was staged in Chicago for the officers and advisory committee
of the Na tonal Home Demonstration Agents Association, key personnel in
an organi ation of 4,000 leaders of more than 60,000 women's clubs, 4-H
clubs, sc ut troops and similar community groups.
Plans for other such activities were disrupted by the freeze and atten-
tion was urned to attempts to keep Florida citrus virtues and values be-
fore the onsuming public. Numerous bulletins, with price and Vitamin
C content comparisons were circulated to newspaper and magazine food
editors, o syndicate writers, to home demonstration agents and exten-
sion wor ers, and to radio and television women's news commentators.
Thus, in a few days it was possible to disseminate the true story of the
damaging freeze and the fact that Florida citrus fruit and products were
still avai able in sufficient quantity and at sufficient savings to fulfill the
dietary r quirements of all consumers.
One f those relating the Florida story was Craig Claiborne, noted
food edit r for the New York Times, who visited the state during the
period th t strikes had closed the leading New York City daily newspapers.
One of C aiborne's first columns after the strike ended was dedicated to
Florida itrus.
Particular attention was given to radio and television and to the sub-
urban pr ss during the lengthy New York City newspaper strike. Citrus
cost co prisons and recipes were read regularly as part of health de-
partmen bulletins on radio and television news programs that were
greatly expanded during that period.
Mailings of photographs and recipes went each month to 485 leading
daily ne spapers in the United States and Canada. Two-column mat il-
lustratio s were sent to 3,000 small dailies and weeklies in the United
States ard to 65 in Canada. Virtually every piece of copy mailed to these
news me ia contained reassuring references to the future of Florida cit-
rus in the marketplace.
Mag zine, supplement and syndicate food writers were kept briefed
on the o tlook for Florida citrus and efforts were accelerated with nutri-
tion and home economics professional groups. A colorful poster was
produce for use in home economics classes in advocating the importance
of Vitamin C in the daily diet. Newspapers ran four-color citrus pic-
tures on 50 occasions during the year.
Reg lar mailings went to television and radio women's programs and
to more than 1,000 news and music programs. A special television kit on
the concentrate story drew excellent use during the season.
To s lidify relationships with the women in the food publicity field, the
Commission again entertained the national officers and area vice presi-
dents of Radio and Television Women of America at a breakfast during
that org nization's annual convention in Philadelphia. The Commission
also participated in the conventions of the Home Economists in Business,
the American Home Economics Association, the American Dietetic Asso-
ciation nd a number of other professional groups.
Clo e contacts with such agencies as the United States Department of
Agricul ure result in extra effort for citrus products through bulletins
which i clude pictures and recipes supplied by the Commission's agency.



The reduction in Commission funds caused by the December freeze re-
sulted in cancellation of the Fifth Annual Orange Dessert Contest which
is directed by the Commission's Public Relations Department. The bud-
get as approved for the 1963-64 season contains an item of $20,000 for
renewal of the contest which attracted more than 3, 000 contestants in the
1961-62 season.


The development of greater interest in and increased consumption of
Florida citrus fruit and products within the state are prime objectives of
the "Sell Florida First" program, a new activity for the Commission.
The program was adopted in October 1962 and the firm of Fry/Hammond/
Barr & Rollinson retained to handle the promotion.
An important phase of the program is the endeavor to have Florida
restaurants feature a greater variety of citrus on daily menus, not only
as fruit and juices but as dishes in combination with other foods. A pro-
motional kit, the "Profit Pack, is being prepared for distribution by
the Florida Hotel and Restaurant Commission through its field force.
This kit includes promotional ideas, menu suggestions, cost compari-
sons for orange juice servings and such merchandising materials as table
tent cards, menu tabs and backbar posters.
The Citrus Greeter plan, aimed at further acquainting the tourist with
Florida fresh fruit,has been endorsed by the Florida Motel Association.
The plan presents a paper place mat promoting express fruit shipments
and bearing samples of fresh fruit.
In cooperation with the Commission' s institutional program, contacts
were made with Florida schools, hospitals, business and industrial firms
and state-maintained facilities in regard to the use of citrus on daily menu
Citrus displays supporting the "Sell Florida First" program were pre-
pared for the Orange Blossom Trail Association, Festival of Culinary
Arts, and many Chamber of Commerce offices.


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N The Youth and School Service program activi-
ties wer e being directed toward an intensified ef-
fort with school lunch officials in a number of
states when the freeze invaded Florida in Decem-
ber and greatly altered these plans. Meetings had
been c o ndu c ted withofficials of the American
School Food Service Association and a program
initiated whereby states would urge sizeable pur-
chases of frozen concentrated orange juice for
distribution to the school lunch program. In addi-
tion, the f e d e r a government announced plans to
purchase approximately 4,000,000 gallons of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice as a surplus com-
modity for distribution to schools. The freeze
brought cancellation of this o r d e r since the pro-
duct no longer was considered in surplus.
Requests for visual aids and materials were
higher than ever before with a total of 564,000
pieces being furnished to schools, health depart-
ments, clubs and other groups. This was about 20

per cent greater than the amount of materials supplied the year before.
The number of individual requests totaled 18, 259, an increase of more
than 2,000. Most of the requests were the result of listings placed in
various publications at no cost to the Commission.
Several pieces of material were revised and updated during the year
and a number of new pieces developed. Every attempt is made to co-
ordinate the material with the needs of the school teacher and these
people are asked to submit ideas for educational material which would be
of benefit in the school room.
Of particular interest during the year was the fact that the Ohio State
Health Department requested that the Commission supply 30,000 copies
of the dental health leaflet and asked permission to overprint the De-
partment's name on the back of the leaflet. County health departments
and school districts in many states have asked for quantities of material
in varying degrees for distribution and use during special periods when
nutrition is being stressed, dental health week is being observed, etc.
This is considered an excellent use for the material and a fine invest-
ment in the future of the Florida citrus industry.
The Commission's home economist was a speaker at the Food and
Nutrition Council of Greater New York City's Teen-age Institute, attended
by 400 health and nutrition leaders. There were a great many requests
for Commission material as the result of this activity.
One of the outstanding activities of the year was the sponsorship of a
Florida Youthpower project in cooperation with the Florida School Food
Service Association. This project resulted in a delegation of 14 teen-
agers to the National Youthpower Congress in Chicago, with transporta-
tion provided by food industry organizations in the state interested in
promoting good nutrition and food industry careers. Florida delegates
won the top honors in projects and activities. A great deal of publicity
was generated within the state during the Florida project and a news-
paper wire service carried the Chicago meeting, principally through the
efforts of the Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy agency which handles food publi-
city for the Commission.
The National Youthpower Congress is a program conducted by the
National Food Conference with a membership of 65 of the nation's lead-
ing food manufacturers and organizations. T. L. Hodson, director of
the Commission's Youth and School Service program, has served for
two years on the Board of Directors of the National Youthpower Congress
and has assisted in planning this teen-age event which has been in exist-
ence for four years.
For the third year, the Commission sponsored the selection by a
group of Georgia educators and nutrition experts of a school teacher who
has accomplished an outstanding achievement in the field of health edu-
cation. The Commission presented the winner with an award during a
statewide nutrition luncheon in Atlanta in May.
Similarly, workshop grants again were made to the State Department
of Education in Massachusetts and Maine. All these activities resulted
in year-long publicity and have earned the Commission commendation
from the entire teaching field.

Acceptance of the half-hour film on health and diet for teen-age girls,
"The Beauty Habit, was enthusiastic and the 150 prints have been in
constant use, showing to an audience during the year of 187,000 persons.
Through June, a total of 59,471 copies of a leaflet with the same title has
been distributed to schools, teen-age charm schools, Girl Scouts, Camp-
fire Girl groups and other organizations.
Noteworthy in a record of the year's activities is the fact that the Los
Angeles School System is utilizing six copies of the Commission film,
"The Best Way to Eat, and reported that the film was viewed by more
than 68,000 persons during the year. Modern Talking Picture Service,
Inc. which handles distribution of 150 copies of this film, reported that
334, 000 persons saw the movie in the 1962-63 fiscal year. Several
state health departments have been furnished prints of this film upon re-
quest and report excellent response.
Many personal appearances and demonstrations were conducted at
metropolitan department store teen-age charm school clinics by mem-
bers of the Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy staff. Several projects in this area
also were conducted in conjunction with the action program of Seventeen
One of the most ambitious undertakings during the year was participa-
tion by the Commission in the International Girl Scout Roundup at Button
Bay, Vermont, during two weeks in July 1962. The Commission assisted
Scout food officials in planning menus and provided citrus for the 10,000
girls who attended the event. In addition, orange juice was sold for the
first time in competition with soft drinks and received the enthusiastic
approval of Roundup officials and the youngsters. A refrigerated truck
dispensed orange juice in eight-ounce containers and the innovation
proved an instant success. Besides providing the Commission and
Florida citrus with considerable amounts of publicity, this event pro-
vided a proving ground for the popularity of orange juice with today' s


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U The Commission continued cooperative re-
search in 1962-63 with the University of Florida's
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, the
United States Department of Agriculture' s Fruit and
Vegetable Products Laboratory at Wint e r Haven,
and the Florida Department of Agriculture. The
major projects conducted with the Citrus Experi-
ment Station were in regard to processing and by-
products, physiology of fruit and fruit pigments,
decay control, mechanization of citrus fruit pick-
ing, and prevention of freeze damage to citrus.
Financial assistance was also rendered to the
USDA rootstock planting plot, the industry-wide
air pollution study, the remodelling of laboratory
space and installation of an experimental feed mill
at the Citrus Experiment Statio n, and to cattle
feeding experiments at the University of Florida.
A study of citric acid m e tabolism in grapefruit
was placed at the University of Pittsburgh. Total
funds expended amounted to almost $452,000.


I. Processing and By-Products

Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit and
Processed Products of Citrus
Basic information was obtained on the distribution of pectinesterase
(PE) activity and pectic fractions in the component parts of Silver
Cluster grapefruit during a 10-month maturation cycle for two seasons.
During subsequent months after the December, 1962 freeze, there were
definite increases in the amount of ammonium oxalate-soluble pectin
found in the membrane and juice sacs. Effect of the freeze on PE ac-
tivity and pectin was determined on component parts of Pineapple
oranges. Oranges were picked prior to the freeze and each week after-
wards for a period of eight weeks. PE activity increased in all com-
ponents after the freeze except in the seeds, which generally decreased
in activity. Bitterness was detected in the juice three weeks after the
Volatile Flavor Components in Citrus Juices and
Processed Citrus Products
The alcohols in organic extracts of commercially recovered essences
were separated by column chromatography and analyzed byprogrammed
temperature gas chromatography with chromatographic analyses made
of their urethan derivatives.
A Survey of the Characteristics of Commercial
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
The color, flavor and stability were determined for 198 samples of
commercially produced frozen concentrated orange juice processed dur-
ing the 1961-62 season and collected semi-monthly from 23 processing
plants. Flavor grades, as given by the taste panel showed 12 per cent
of the samples to have "very good" flavor; 66 per cent "good" flavor;
19 per cent "fair"; and 3 per cent "poor. "
Effect of Citrus Components on Chemical and Physical
Properties of Frozen Citrus Concentrates
The effect of the water-insoluble solids from peel, rag, juice sacs, and
seeds of citrus fruits showed increased viscosities, cloud, and cloud
stability when these components were incorporated into the juice under
certain conditions.
Utilization of Freeze-Damaged Oranges in
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
The freeze made the use of the portable chamber unnecessary for
freezing fruit on trees. Fruit damaged by the freeze was picked im-
mediately and throughout the remainder of the season from Parson
Brown, pineapple, and Valencia orange trees. Six trees of each va-
riety were used and the damaged fruit was allowed to stay on the trees
until it fell normally. Over 1,000 oranges were examined and tasted,
revealing that the first major indication of freeze injury was the ap-
pearance of hesperidin on the membrane walls. Although there was a
loss of both flavor and acidity in the juice of the Parson Brown and

pineapple oranges one week after the fruit was frozen, no off-flavor or
fermentation was detectable, even in fruit that had remained on the
trees for three months. The oil content of juice extracted from frozen
fruit was considerably greater than that usually found in juice from un-
frozen fruit. Bitterness and astringency were detectable in orange con-
centrates produced from very seriously damaged oranges, especially
if high juice yields were obtained. "Oxidized" or COF off-flavors, such
as cardboard or castor oil, occurred during storage at -8 degrees F.
in 55 degrees Brix evaporator pump-out orange concentrate that was
processed from frozen fruit. However, such off-flavor was not detec-
table in 42 degrees Brix concentrate made by the addition of cutback
juice and coldpressed orange oil to the 55 degree Brix concentrate.
Microbiology of Frozen Oranges
Hamlin oranges which had developed "wet peel" 1/2 to 2 inches in dia-
meter, generally at the stylar area, were examined. The juices
from 40 of these severely frozen oranges were individually plated, 20
shortly after picking and 20 after six days storage at 80 degrees F. All
were found to be free of yeast or bacteria. Also, 140 pineapple and
180 Valencia oranges which had been frozen naturally and remained on
trees were examined periodically throughout the season. The juices
from all but two pineapple and three Valencia oranges were free of
microbial infestation. In three seasons the juices from 1249 oranges
which were artificially or naturally frozen and allowed to remain on
trees were examined. Only one orange had juice with a plate count of
over 1,000,000 and only two juices had counts over 50,000. From
these data the conclusion reached was that frozen oranges were safe to
use, from a microbiological standpoint.
Factors Affecting Stability of Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice
A two-season study was completed on the effect of processing proce-
dures and storage on the stability of frozen concentrated orange juice.
Valencia orange juice that was "cut" by passing through a centrifugal
turbine pump had higher values for pectinesterase, pectin, relative
viscosity, and alcohol-insoluble solids than "uncut" juice and lower
values for degree Brix, total acid, water-insoluble solids, and per-
centage light transmittance (better cloud).
Firming of Canned Grapefruit Sections with Calcium Salts
Due to the freeze, it was possible only to process two series of packs
of canned grapefruit sections, one packed in December and the other
in January. Examination of the December packs after four months at
80 degrees F. storage showed that the juice and sections had 35.6 per
cent firm sections; juice and calcium cyclamate 53. 1 per cent; juice,
calcium cyclamate, and calcium lactate 61.2 per cent; syrup 66.8 per
cent; and syrup and calcium lactate 85. 3 per cent.
Measurement of the Color Citrus Juices
and Processed Citrus Products
A statistical analysis,made of color data obtained from the examina-
tion of 215 commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected
from Florida plants, will be used in an attempt to develop a low-cost,

practical instrument for the objective measurement of the color of cit-
rus juices and concentrates.
Off-Flavor in Canned Orange Juice
Previous studies by the American Can Company indicating that the de-
delopment of off-flavors in canned orange juice during storage could
be due to the formation of furfural and thiofurfural were confirmed.

II. Physiology of Fruit and Fruit Pigments

Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruit as Related to
Quality and Maturity
The organic acids in the juice vesicles of Marsh grapefruit at different
stages of development were separated by the use of ion exchanged
chromatography. Besides citric acid, quinic and malic acids were
also found in sufficient amount in fruit of all stages of development to
be measured quantitatively.
Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel
Two shipments of early green-colored grapefruit were made during the
1962-63 season using commercial facilities for packing and shipping.
Both shipments, when observed in Europe, were in good marketable
condition with low incidence of decay even though one lot took over 30
days to arrive in Hamburg.
Fruit Physiology
A study of peroxidase in Valencia oranges was made. On a fresh weight
basis the extractable peroxidase was found in greatest concentration in
ovaries and small leaves and decreased as the fruit and leaf size in-
Storage Study of Freeze-Damaged Oranges
A study made on the effect of storage on the specific gravity and the in-
ternal quality of freeze-damaged oranges waxed after picking showed
that after two weeks in 60 degrees F. storage, little difference in in-
ternal quality or specific gravity of the stored fruit was noted as com-
pared to the fruit left on the tree. Unwaxed fruit in storage for two
weeks was lower in specific gravity, juice content, and titratable
acidity than either the waxed fruit or those remaining on the tree.

III. Decay Control

The amount of experimental work completed during the 1962-63 sea-
son was reduced because of the freeze. Of 25 completed experiments
with Hamlin and pineapple oranges, 18 were started before the freeze.
The average decay loss in the check lots of non-frozen fruit held at
70 degrees F. was 13. 3 per cent two weeks after picking. This is
well below the 10-year average decay loss of 20. 8 for check lots held
under the same conditions. Data were developed indicating that rain-
fall during March and April was related to the percentage of stem-end
rot in mature citrus fruit. No correlation of rainfall with mold loss
was found. Starting on July 2, a different lot of immature Hamlin
oranges was treated every four weeks with a mixture of copper sulfate

and sodium thiosulfate to determine if this treatment could be used
as a test to forecast stem-end rot loss. These materials greatly
stimulated the stem-end rot development, but the results were in-
conclusive regarding their use as a testing method. Hamlin and
pineapple oranges picked four days after the freeze showed a large
increase in decay due to mold. The value of degreening oranges at
a relative humidity of 85 per cent or higher was again shown. Com-
parable fruit degreened at a lower humidity showed increased decay
and stem-end rind breakdown.

IV. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking
(In Cooperation with the Agricultural Engineering Research Division
of the USDA)

Because the freeze limited fruit removal studies, most of the year
was spent in designing and constructing experimental equipment for
testing next season. Hamlin orange trees harvested with an inertia
tree shaker before and following the freeze released 71, 82 and 98
per cent fruit when harvested five days before, five days after, and
13 days after the freeze, respectively. Tests with a mobile picker's
platform designed to place three pickers in the tree showed the rate
to be below that for conventional picking. Tests were conducted on
both the air blast and the inertia tree shaker fruit removal concepts
in cooperation with a private manufacturer.

V. Prevention of Freeze Damage to Citrus

A frost protection system employing overhead irrigation was initiated
but data collected on the night of December 12-13 under conditions of
15-20 miles-per-hour winds and temperatures of 17-18 degrees F.
could not be interpreted readily since the system froze and adequate
coverage was not obtained. Severe damage resulted from inadequate
wetting of trees during the low temperature period. The system was
operated on January 21-22, 25-26, and February 13-14, 1963; however,
the temperature did not go low enough on any of these nights to prove
beneficial in testing the results of irrigation for frost protection.

As a result of the freeze and the warm temperatures which prevailed
thereafter, the tree freezer was put into operation on February 6-9
to determine the temperature required to kill young tender growth. A
temperature of 26 degrees F. for 30 minutes killed 95 per cent of all
new growth; 27 degrees F. for 30 minutes, 50 per cent killed; 28 de-
grees F. for two hours, 50 per cent killed; and 28 degrees F. for
three hours, 90 per cent killed. Temperature of 29 degrees F. for
three hours resulted in no damage. Freezing on young leaves and
twigs occurred many times at the base of the leaf or twig and pro-
gressed upward. This indicated damage could result under field con-
ditions without the appearance of water-soaked spots on the leaves

MH-30 at concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm was applied to a set
of four different 25-year-old Valencia trees each week for a period
of four weeks after the freeze and proved beneficial in retarding the
appearance of new growth in three out of four applications. This er-
ratic behavior continues to be the major reason why this material
cannot be generally recommended as an aid to freeze protection.


I. Determination of Pounds-Solids

The bulk fruit handling system constructed last year was improved in
an effort to find the best method of selecting a random sample. Due
to the freeze, sampling was restricted to East Coast Valencias but the
results were good as determined by sizing and counting of the sample
as well as the lot of fruit from which the sample was taken. A new
single head extractor was developed by commercial interests and after
considerable testing during the season, will be given comprehensive
field testing next season. The existing testroom extractors have
been modified to improve the consistency of extraction yield results
on all varieties and sizes of fruit.

Many different types of equipment are being tested and considered for
measuring the internal quality of juice. In addition to the present
spindle hydrometer, two different automatic refractometers that
measure the refraction electronically and one balance that measures
the amount of sugar by specific gravity and has an optical scale cali-
brated in degree Brix are under test. The testing of a semi-automa-
tic titrator for acid is just about completed and the results are very
satisfactory; a completely automated machine is being considered.
An electronic device to measure pounds-solids by a non-destructive
method was tested but the results obtained do not appear favorable
to the application of such a device for State test purposes at this time.
A laboratory reference method for determining the juice content of
oranges was developed and will be field-tested during the coming


I. Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices

Powders of good initial quality have been prepared from orange con-
centrate by the foam-mat process and investigation of the applica-
bility of the process to grapefruit concentrate has been undertaken.
Generally, it has been found possible to prepare grapefruit powders
of good initial quality using slightly higher temperatures and faster
drying rates than were practical with orange concentrate. Experiments

have been performed to determine the relationship of drying charac-
teristics to the nature of the concentrate. In this respect, it has been
found that concentrates of high pulp content do not dry as efficiently
by the foam-mat process. A low peel oil is desirable, as the effi-
ciency of drying was found to decrease when the concentration of peel
oil was increased. Orange powders produced by the process have
not shown quite the high degree of storage stability that is desired.

Citric Acid Metabolism in Grapefruit

A project was placed at the University of Pittsburgh to study chemi-
cals that might be used to inhibit the enzyme system producing cit-
ric acid in grapefruit.

Spray and Dust Schedule

Twenty-five thousand copies of the "1963 Better Fruit Program Spray
and Dust Schedule" were printed and distributed.

United States Department of Agriculture Foundation Farm

Additional financial assistance for the improvement of facilities was
rendered to the program for improving citrus varieties and root-

University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

Funds were made available to remodel existing space to provide
three additional laboratories, and to equip these laboratories for
the use of Commission personnel. Funds were also provided to fa-
cilitate the installation of a pilot-plant cattle feed dryer.

Industry-wide Air Pollution Study

This effort was assisted to the extent of one-third of the funds re-

Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville

A grant of $3,000 was made to this facility to assist in the study of
the effect of feeding certain dried citrus pulps to dairy cattle.

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During 1962-63, the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion expended $222,137.44 oncitrus economic and
marketing research. This research was intended
not only to as si st the operations of the Commis-
sion, but also to strengthen and improve the mar-
keting of citrus by the industry.
The work of this department falls into three
major areas: (1) the dissemination of crop and
p r o c e s sing information; (2) the development and
issuance of consumer purchase data; and (3) re-
search on various specific problems encountered
in marketing Florida's fresh and processed citrus.
The departmental staff consists of a director,
an economist and a secretary in the Lakeland of-
fice and a technical staff of five at the University
of Florida in Gainesville.
A breakdown of departmental activity during
the year shows that 12 projects were completed,
10 were in varied stages of progress s, and eight
were pending. Data for most of the reports were

gathered by professional research organizations for analysis and compila-
tion by the department. The Commission's merchandising field staff as-
sisted in obtaining data for some of the projects.


Crop Report
The Commission, from October through July, issued monthly reports
of estimated citrus crop production in Florida and competing states, as
reported by the United States Department of Agriculture Crop Reporting

Processing Report
Weekly reports were issued covering the operations of the Florida cit-
rus processors, as reported by the Florida Canners Association. The
object of the Commission-issued report was to make the summary of pro-
cessors' operations available to a larger number of people than would
otherwise receive the report.


Consumer Purchase Reports
For the 13th consecutive year, the Commission supplied the industry
with essential information on estimated consumer purchases of the major
citrus and competitive non-citrus products. These data, purchased from
the Market Research Corporation of America, represent projections to
national totals of reported purchases from a representative national
sample of approximately 10,000 household consumers.
Available to the industry are: (1) weekly reports showing consumer
purchases and prices of frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange
juice, canned orange juice, and canned grapefruit juice, with one-year-
ago comparisons; (2) weekly reports showing consumer purchases and
prices of fresh oranges and fresh grapefruit; (3) monthly reports showing
consumer purchases, average retail price, and per cent of families buy-
ing frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange juice, canned
orange juice, canned grapefruit juice, and canned grapefruit sections; (4)
monthly reports showing consumer purchases, per cent of families buy-
ing, number of purchases, size of purchase and price of chilled citrus
sections and salads; (5) monthly report showing changes for the fruit juice
and drink retail market from one-year-ago in consumer purchases, per
cent of families buying and prices. USDA also issued monthly reports on
citrus juices as well as competitive juices and fruit flavored drinks,
which are mailed, upon request, by the Commission to Florida shippers
and processors; and, an annual report issued by the USDA, covering a
selected six-month period of consumer purchases of canned, chilled and
frozen juices, ades, drinks and sections as related to geographic region,
city size, age of children, occupation and education of family head, and
age and work status of housewife.
The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in the 1962-63 sea-
son was defrayed by the Commission, with some contributions from the

California Prune Advisory Board. The data, published by the USDA, was
purchased by the Commission from the MRCA and represents part of the
broad marketing research program directed toward strengthening and
expanding markets for Florida citrus and products. These reports arie
helpful to the marketers of Florida fresh and processed citrus and provide
a basis for evaluating and guiding the Commission's advertising and mer-
chandising programs.


Projects Completed

Eight-Ounce Can Comparison
At the request of the Florida Canners Association, research was
initiated to determine consumer reaction toward two sizes of eight-ounce
cans of frozen concentrated orange juice. Research was conducted by
the A. C. Nielsen Company in 40 high-volume A & P supermarkets in
Philadelphia, St. Louis, Dallas and Los Angeles.
Results of the survey clearly demonstrated that the majority of the
consumers favored the "short" eight-ounce can (211 x 306) over the
"tall" eight-ounce can (202 x 500).

Ability of Consumers to Discriminate Between
Various Brix Levels in Orange Juice
At the request of the Florida Canners Association, research was in-
itiated to establish the ability of consumers to discriminate between
various Brix levels in reconstituted frozen concentrated orange juice.
The test was conducted by the Continental Can Company's Research and
Development Department, Chicago.
It was found that a difference of between 2. 0 to 2. 5 degrees Brix in
the range of 10.5 and 13.0 degrees Brix was required for a significant
number of tasters to distinguish differences in orange juice.
Testers who showed correct discrimination indicated the higher con-
centrations were generally sweeter, stronger in orange flavor and
thicker. The lower concentrations were generally considered to be less
sweet, more sour, weaker in orange flavor and thinner.

Consumers' Ability to Discriminate, and Preferences
for Various Brix of Orange Juice
Due to the need for minimizing the risks in marketing of frozen con-
centrated orange juice, and the industry's desire to change product
structure by raising the Brix level, the Florida Canners Association re-
quested research to determine the ability of consumers to discriminate
between, and obtain expressions of preferences for various Brix levels
of orange juice.
As a result of this request, a study was conducted by Dr. Amihud
Kramer, Professor of Horticulture, University of Maryland, during the
month of November 1962.

The results of this test showed that the average consumer can dis-
criminate between samples of orange juice with statistical certainty only
when the degrees of Brix are about 3.0 degrees apart.
The panel of tasters demonstrated a preference for the higher juice
concentrations, with improvement in preference rising sharply from 10
to 12. 5 degrees Brix; and more gradually from 12. 5 to 14. 5 degrees Brix.
(14. 5 degrees Brix was the highest concentration tested.)

Production Utilization, Marketing
Summary on Chilled Orange Juice
This survey, generated in order to evaluate a request from the chilled
juice industry, brought out that the total U.S. supply of chilled orange
juice in the 1961-62 season was at least 70,000,000 gallons. About half
this total was packed outside Florida, and about half was utilized by the
institutional trade. Approximately 80 per cent of the fruit solids
utilized for this chilled juice came from Florida oranges. The volume of
chilled orange juice in the U.S. represented from 20 to 25 per cent of
the volume of frozen concentrated orange juice sold in the U.S.
The survey also brought out that fruit flavored drinks -- including
orange drink -- has had an increasing share of the total juice and drink
market, and that increased market penetration was likely.

Retail Freezer Space Allocated to Frozen Citrus
Products in the U.S. and Canada
Because the Commission was concerned with retail space problems,
a study was undertaken to find out how much space was devoted to frozen
citrus products.
At the time the survey was taken (November-December 1962), fruit
juices and drinks in 521 stores in the U.S., occupied 12.5 per cent of the
freezer cabinet space. Frozen concentrated orange juice occupied an
average of 14 square feet, or 5. 82 per cent of this space.
The survey also pointed out that the percentage of space occupied by
frozen food cabinets declined as store size increased. The best exposure
of citrus products was given in the Mountain and Southwest states, while
the poorest exposure was in the Southern states.
In addition, the survey disclosed that frozen concentrated orange
juice was handled by a higher percentage of stores than any other citrus
product. The least available citrus product was frozen grapefruit sections.

What Shape Eight-Ounce Can Does the Trade Prefer?
Because of interest in selling frozen concentrated orange juice in
eight-ounce cans as a means of increasing consumer purchases, the Com-
mission was requested by the Florida Canners Association to determine
consumer and trade reaction toward the two newly designed eight-ounce
This survey was conducted among the trade by the Commission's
merchandising field staff, obtaining a total of 582 interviews -- 559 in
the U.S. and 23 in Canada.

Overall, the retailers preferred to handle the short can. However,
among the U.S. retailers considerable difference of opinion existed be-
tween store and headquarters personnel. Store personnel definitely pre-
ferred the short can, while the preference between the short and tall can
among headquarters personnel was about equal.

What Shape Eight-Ounce Can Does the Consumer Prefer?
This survey was conducted in conjunction with another entitled: "Con-
sumer Practices in Reconstituting 1 + 3 Frozen Concentrated Orange
Juice," which was requested by the Florida Canners Association.
The findings of the survey were based on 492 personal interviews con-
ducted by the A. J. Wood Research Corporation among representative
families who used frozen concentrated orange juice.
The total number of interviews was about equally divided between the
Philadelphia, Milwaukee, Knoxville and Los Angeles markets. In addi-
tion to housewife preferences for the short or tall can, data were also
obtained on the personal characteristics of the respondent and her family,
including age, education, occupation of the family head, presence of
children, and family income. Results showed 57 per cent preferred the
tall can, 42 per cent the short can, and one per cent had no preference.

Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads in 41 U.S.
Cities and Five Canadian Cities
This is an annual report issued by the Commission showing volume
source of fresh grapefruit, oranges and tangerines received each quarter
in 41 selected cities in the U.S. and five cities in Canada. The report
is issued primarily for use by the fresh fruit shippers. It is also used
by the Commission as a basis for allocating domestic advertising funds
between markets.

Information Related to the Export of Fresh
and Processed Citrus From the U.S.
This is issued annually by the Commission from data released by the
United States Department of Commerce, covering the export of all pro-
cessed citrus products produced in the U.S. Products are broken down
by country of destination and the volume received from the U.S. annu-
ally for a five-year period, with a five-year average. Also, the fresh
fruit equivalent is given for processed products by country of destina-
tion and for fresh oranges, grapefruit and tangerines exported from the
U.S. by country of destination.

Consumer Practices in Reconstituting 1 + 3
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
This study was conducted, at the request of the Florida Canners As-
sociation, to find how consumers prepare and how much orange juice
from 1 + 3 frozen concentrate and thereby assist the Florida orange con-
centrators in evaluating the economic feasibility of increasing the Brix
value of the product currently being distributed in the retail market.

Results indicated that three out of four housewives generally followed
the instructions on the can when reconstituting the juice. This, coupled
with previous results on higher taste performance for a higher Brix
product -- plus the added efficiencies in packaging and handling -- sug-
gested that increasing the minimum allowable Brix value for frozen con-
centrated orange juice should prove feasible.
The study also suggested the need for clarifying the instructions on
the can, with an accompanying fill mark in order to add the correct
amount of water to achieve the proper reconstitution.
In addition, the study brought out that 93 per cent of the orange juice
from concentrate was prepared by the housewife and before breakfast.
In the preparation process, 88 per cent used a manual opener to open the
concentrate can; 32 per cent prepared the orange juice while it was hard-
frozen; over one-half used a knife, fork or spoon to remove the concen-
trate from the can; 96 per cent used the same container for mixing and
storing the orange juice; less than 30 per cent used calibrated containers
for mixing; almost all added water from the tap to the concentrate, and
over one-half simply stirred the concentrate and water together in pre-
paring orange juice.

Store Sales Test and Consumer Study for Florida
Dense-Sweet Grapefruit Drink Mix
The purpose of this test was to determine the national sales potential
for Grapefruit Drink Mix, as well as the best combinations of promo-
tional efforts to generate sales most efficiently. The product was stocked
in 50 stores in Grand Rapids and 25 stores in Columbus, Ohio. The
Grand Rapids test included advertising support, in-store demonstration
and special display in selected stores. The Columbus test included
demonstrations, free distribution of product to shoppers, special display,
and shelf talkers. Sales of the test product, as well as other products
containing grapefruit, were audited continually during the 12-week test
period, and an extensive consumer survey conducted to ascertain attitudes
and opinions, substitutionality, carry-forward effects, etc.
Results indicated that the product was acceptable as a grapefruit-type
drink. However, this product achieved very small sales when not pro-
moted with merchandising activity, and the cost of introducing this pro-
duct nationally would be considerable.
Also, the marketing of this product could be expected to make inroads
into frozen and hot-pack grapefruit juice sales. In addition, results sug-
gested that the key to successful marketing of this product lies in remov-
ing it, as much as possible, from the grapefruit juice classification and
establishing it as a separate product entity.

Orange Products Composition Consumer Tests
This study was conducted by the Interview Research Institute, di-
vision of MRCA, for the Commission as a result of a request from the
Florida Canners Association concerning the confusion that exists in the
market place between products labeled orange juice and orange juice
drink. Interviews were conducted in five shopping centers two in

Chicago, two in New York, and one in Lansing, Michigan -- with 100
women shoppers in each center.
According to this study, only three to 12 per cent (depending on loca-
tion) of the women interviewed said that they had not served their family
any kind of orange product to drink. From 90 to 97 per cent answered
"yes" when asked: "Do you think there is a difference between a product
labeled 'orange drink' and a product labeled 'orange juice'." In contrast,
from 72 to 86 per cent (again depending on location) of the women an-
swered "yes" when asked: "Do you think there is a difference between a
product labeled 'orange juice drink' and a product labeled 'orange juice'."
Only 47 to 57 per cent had any opinion at all about the per cent of
orange juice contained in a product labeled "orange drink, and only 46
to 61 per cent had any opinion about the per cent of orange juice contained
in a product labeled "orange juice drink. However, of the women who
had an opinion, 33 to 45 per cent thought that "orange drink" contained
over 25 per cent orange juice. In contrast, 62 to 75 per cent thought that
"orange juice drink" contained over 25 per cent of orange juice.

Projects in Progress

Report of Unloads of Orange, Grapefruit and Tangerines
in 41 U.S. Cities and Five Canadian Cities
This report is issued annually as an aid to the fresh fruit shippers,
and to the Commission as a basis for allocating domestic advertising
funds between markets.

Consumer Buying Patterns Among Fresh and Processed Citrus Buyers
and Non-Citrus Buyers and Their Purchase of Related Products
The data for this report were received from MRCA and are being
analyzed. Reports will be issued for frozen concentrated orange juice,
other processed citrus products and fresh oranges and grapefruit.

The Economic Interrelationships Between Fresh Oranges and
Other Fresh and Processed Citrus Products
This is the first in a series of studies intended to explore the basic
competitive relationship between the several forms in which the Florida
citrus crop is marketed. The basic data, generated through store tests
in Grand Rapids during a six-week period in April and May, 1962, is
being analyzed.

The Competitive Relationship Between Florida and California Oranges
The intent of this study is to examine the competitive relationship be-
tween Valencia oranges produced in California, the Indian River section
of Florida and the interior section of Florida. The specific objectives
are: (1) to determine the extent to which customers could be induced to
shift purchases between the three types of fruit in response to varying
price differentials; and (2) to measure the quantitative response of cus-
tomers to varying general levels of price.

Consumption Patterns for Citrus and Related Products
This study involved the examination of consumer panel data for a sou-
thern market and a northern market to determine: (1) trends in consump-
tion of citrus and competitive products; (2) basic shifts in purchases
which consumers make to changes in supply and price; and (3) the effects
of new competitive product introduction upon purchases and use of citrus
food items. The sources of data are the consumer panel maintained by
the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and by Michigan State Uni-
versity. Analytical work, underway since May 1962, is now ready for

Evaluation of the Special $3,500,000 Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice Campaign
Although the 1959 special campaign was evaluated, with good re-
sults, the marketing circumstances surrounding the campaign of the
Fall of 1962 are so different as to justify evaluation. This is being done
through cooperation with the USDA with data supplied under contract by

Consumer Purchase Patterns and Trends for Citrus Products
This study, to be based on six-month (April-September) marketing
data issued in 1950, 1957 and 1962, will be issued during the Fall of 1963.

German Preferences for Canned Citrus Juices Varying in Brix-acid Ratio
This test was undertaken to better understand taste preferences for
citrus juices among foreign consumers. The overseas phase of the pro-
ject, financed by PL480 funds, tested 804 households in Hanover, Ger-
many, with an additional 2,000 households queried regarding citrus and
competitive products buying and consumption habits. The data are now
being analyzed by the USDA and this staff.

Evaluation of Six Denominations of Direct Mail Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice Coupons
This test is being made using six denominations of direct mailing of
coupons to note consumer reaction in order to find the most popular and
economical denomination. The test is being conducted among four in-
come classifications of families in Chattanooga, Trenton and the tri-
cities of Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois.

Measure the Progress Made in Fulfilling Commission
Advertising Objectives Through Advertising
The study consists of (1) a diary of fluid consumption ( excluding water)
among a national sample of families, and (2) the sample family attitudes
toward and understanding of the consumption of fresh and processed cit-
rus. The initial study will be undertaken during September and October,
1963 and repeated each year as needed, thereafter. The study will per-
mit an evaluation of the changes created through advertising in the con-
sumption of fresh and processed citrus and the state of mind of the
American consuming public toward citrus and citrus products.

Projects Pending

Product Test of Powdered Grapefruit Crystals in
West Germany and the United Kingdom
This project, to be financed by PL480 funds and the Commission, will
be a test to measure the consumer acceptability of this new product.

Impact of Intensified Promotional Support on the Market Potential
for Canned Grapefruit Sections and Single Strength Grapefruit Juice
In addition, consumer attitudes will be measured toward frozen con-
centrated grapefruit juice and the inconvenience aspects of fresh grape-
fruit and the attitudes of blue-collar families toward grapefruit will be

How Does the Consumer Relate to Products Like Juice Drinks,
Drinks, Ades, Punches, Nectars and Other Beverages?
The results of this study, to be conducted through personal inter-
views with housewives, should assist Florida citrus processors and pub-
lic officials to develop product standards for all diluted fruit drinks.

Evaluation of the Institutional Market for Citrus Fruit and Products
Because citrus appears to fare less well than the average food in the
institutional market, this project should provide guidance and develop op-
portunities for market expansion in the institutional channels through the
Commission advertising and merchandising programs.

Demand for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice Produced in Florida
The Commission will cooperate with the Agricultural ExperimentSta-
tion and the USDA in this study in which prices will be willfully varied to
determine the effect of price changes on volume of consumer purchases.

Market Testing of Various Solids of Fresh Florida Oranges
Research will be initiated to find out if the market for Florida oranges
could be increased by selling oranges higher in solids at the retail level.

Information Related to U.S. Exports of Fresh and Processed Citrus
This report will be issued annually to cover the season's exports.

Alternative Methods of Levying the Excise Tax on Florida Citrus
The present per box basis of levying the excise tax on citrus fruit
was questioned following the December freeze which lowered juice and
solids content of citrus fruits in some production districts more so than
in others. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the
alternative methods of levying the tax (by the box, pounds solids, or
juice content) and the equity of the tax upon growers with fruit varying
in solids and juice content. Another aspect to be examined will be the
year-to-year variations in gross revenue derived from each method of
taxation. This research will be completed by early 1965.




r ri




* a


0 The Commission continued the investigation of
transportation problems affecting the Florida
citrus industry, again employing the services
of the Growers and Shipper s League of Florida
in solving these problems. The League pre-
sented opposition to a number of increases in
rates and lent support to proposals for reduced
Among accomplishments during the year was
the approval by the Southern lines of a 10 per cent
reduction in the present 100-pound rates on citrus
fruit from Florida to destinations covered by the
citrus fruit tariff. Concessions were gained in
the way of reduced rail and truck rates on frozen
and chilled citrus products for certain destina-
tions. An effort also was made during the year
to obtain the support of major chain stores and
supermarket official s in encouraging the use of
bunker-type refrigerator cars for the shipment
of fresh fruit. The car lines have advised that

unless greater use is made of the refrigerated units, it would be impos-
sible to maintain present car fleets.
The League managed to secure the support of the Southern Freight As-
sociation in opposing proposals by the Eastern railroads to restrict the
application of the deficit rule on rail shipments of fresh fruit. The pro-
posal was disapproved by the Association insofar as changes would apply
from points in Florida.
The ultimate disposition or the present status of some of the more im-
portant citrus problems during the 1962-63 season follow:

Rail Rates On Fresh Citrus Fruits
In June, 1962, conferences were held with traffic officials of the ori-
gin rails seeking an adjustment in the rail rates on fresh citrus fruits,
particularly the possibility of publishing per car rates on citrus fruits
similar to those which had been published on fresh vegetables from Flor-
ida. Following an analysis of the present rates, the rail lines suggested
that it might be possible to publish per car charges based on the present
revenue per car on oranges from Lake Wales to Jersey City, subject to a
maximum loading of one additional layer over the present average load-
ing. Many citrus fruit shippers felt that it would be undesirable to en-
courage heavier loading than the existing average loading, and the per car
charge basis suggested was not recommended.
In April, 1963, the origin rail lines filed a proposal suggesting a 10
per cent reduction in the present 100-pound rates on citrus fruit from
Florida to destinations covered by the citrus fruit tariff. This proposal
has been approved by the Southern lines and has been submitted to the
other rate jurisdictions for their consideration. The Southwestern rail
lines have disapproved the proposed reduction.
The use of piggyback service for shipments of fresh citrus fruit con-
tinued to increase during the past season, and Plan II piggyback service
was extended to additional destinations in the Southern states and also to
points in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, as well as to De-
Plan III piggyback rates on fresh citrus fruits were published to points
in Southern Territory, and additional Plan III rates subject to loading of
five or more flat cars were published to Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis
and St. Louis.

Utilization Of Ice Bunker Refrigerator Cars
The use of bunker-type refrigerator cars for the shipment of fresh cit-
rus fruits has continued to decline and the car lines have advised that un-
less greater use is made of these cars, it will be impossible to maintain
present fleets. In view of the seriousness of this situation, letters were
sent to presidents of major chain stores and supermarkets, pointing out
the importance of maintaining an adequate refrigerator car fleet, and ask-
ing for comments on the possibility of increasing the use of refrigerator
cars. Suggestions have been received from these officials, and have been
turned over to the officials of the involved rail lines for consideration.

Complaint Against Higher Rail Rates
On Fresh Citrus Fruit To New York
In November, 1962, Division 1 of the Interstate-Commerce Commis-
sion issued its decision in this complaint involving the higher level of
rail rates to points in Manhattan as compared with rates to points in New
Jersey in which the Division approved the higher rates to New York.
A petition for reconsideration of this decision and a request for oral ar-
gument before the entire Commission was filed and-the proceeding has
been re-opened on the present record, although the request for oral
argument has been denied.

Proposed Change In Deficit Rule On
Rail Shipments Of Fresh Fruits
Proposals were filed by the Eastern railroads to restrict the appli-
cation of the deficit rule on rail shipments of fresh fruits. Opposition
to the proposal was filed by the League with the Southern lines and in
September, 1962, the League appeared at a public hearing before the
Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association. As a result
of this opposition, the proposal was disapproved insofar as the changes
would apply from points in Florida. The same proposal was filed with
the Trans-Continental rail lines, and in October, 1962, the League ap-
peared before the Freight Traffic Managers Committee of the Trans-
Continental lines. Following this public hearing the Trans-Continental
lines also disapproved the proposal.

Freeze Damage And Delay Claims
For some time there had been discussion between the National
Fruit and Vegetable Claims Committee and railroad claim officials on
the proper settlement of claims filed for freezing damage or delay due
to weather conditions in the East during the 1960-61 season, or due to
the tug boat strike in New York Harbor. At a further meeting held in
New York in April, 1963, an agreement was reached whereby all East-
ern railroads agreed to pay a share of freezing claims for the period
December 11, 1960, to March 1, 1961, on damage wherein claims were
filed with the originating carriers when the latter requested the destina-
tion line to accept a prorate charge. Under this agreement, market de-
cline claims due to weather conditions or the maritime strike will not
be paid; however, claims for market decline caused by carrier negli-
gence not due to weather or the strike will be honored.
The question of delayed placement of piggyback shipments and claims
resulting from this delay has been discussed with the carriers, with the
rail lines generally taking the position that they do not guarantee arrival
time on these shipments. However, this subject is still being handled
with the rail lines to reach a more satisfactory conclusion.

Express Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit Shipments
Negotiations have continued with officials of REA Express on charges
on citrus fruit shipments moving from Florida. At a conference with
officials of the Agency held in the first part of April, 1963, the Agency

advised that because of increased cost of operation it would be necessary
to increase the express charges on citrus fruit during the coming year.
The proposed increases were later submitted to, and were considered by
the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association. A revision of the in-
creases was suggested by the Association, and at a conference with the
Agency in New York on April 25, 1963, this revision was accepted by the
Agency. Consequently, effective June 1, 1963, increases in the incen-
tive basis of express charges ranging from 10 to 30 cents per package
and in the Section 1 charges ranging from 12 to 50 cents per shipment
were published to be applied during the coming season.

Ex Parte 230 Investigation Into Charges
And Practices Of Piggyback Services
In July, 1962, the Interstate Commerce Commission instituted an in-
vestigation of the various plans of piggyback services offered by the rail
lines throughout the country. This investigation was started for the pur-
pose of considering different aspects of the present services and, if
necessary, the promulgation of appropriate rules, regulations, state-
ments of policy and precedents. A prehearing conference was held in
Washington, D.C. on October 9, 1962, at which the proposed pro-
cedure was discussed and also at which changes proposed by the Com-
mission were distributed to the parties. The views of the League on the
changes were submitted to the Commission on November 16 and verified
statements outlining the League's views were filed on December 10,
1962. Statements containing many divergent views have been filed in
this proceeding, and the matter is still before the Commission for fur-
ther action.

Reduced Rail Rates On Frozen
And Chilled Citrus Products
In an effort to secure a reduction in the rail rates on frozen and
chilled citrus products, a meeting was held with traffic officials of the
origin rail lines in November, 1962, at which certain adjustments in
the rates were suggested by the shippers. Following this meeting the
rail lines advised that they were not agreeable to publishing the reduc-
tions requested, but instead would file proposals for a 10 per cent re-
duction in rates on frozen citrus products to Southwestern, Western
Trunk Line, and Southern Territories, and on frozen and chilled citrus
products to destinations in Illinois and Central Freight Association Ter-
ritories. These proposals have been approved by the Southern lines
and have been cleared for publication within Southern Territory, although
disapproved by the Southwestern lines, and set for public hearing before
the Western Trunk Line Association in August, 1963. The Eastern rail-
roads disapproved the 10 per cent across-the-board reduction but did
approve a 10 per cent reduction based on minimum weight of 70, 000
pounds, and this matter is being handled further with the Eastern rail-
In December, 1962, the question of publication of blanket rail rates
on frozen and chilled citrus products from all origins in the central

Florida citrus-producing area,, together with the 10 per cent reduction
proposed by the rail lines, was considered by the Board of Directors of
the Florida Canners Association. By a majority vote, the Board ac-
cepted the reduction and recommended that the rail rates be published
on a blanket origin basis. A conference of traffic officials of the origin
rail lines and shippers was held, but the rail lines were not agreeable
to filing a carrier proposal on blanket rates, and a shippers' proposal
is being prepared for filing with the rail lines.
The rail lines had previously published Plan II piggyback rates on
frozen and chilled citrus products from Florida producing points to nu-
merous destinations throughout the country. Effective October 10, 1962,
reduced rates on Plan II service on these commodities were published,
subject to split pickup at origin and split delivery at destination, but
not subject to stopping in transit enroute to complete loading or to par-
tially unload.
The rail lines have also published Plan III rates on frozen citrus
products, beginning with rates to Chicago and Minneapolis, and later
extending this service to such points as Alexandria, Baltimore, Boston,
Buffalo, Hartford, Jersey City, Kearny, Philadelphia, and more re-
cently to Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Grand Rapids, and Milwaukee.
Proposals have also been filed for the publication of Plan III rates on
frozen citrus products to the Southwest and Western Trunk Line Terri-
tories, but these proposals have not yet been approved for publication.

Temperature Failures In Mechanical Refrigerator Cars
A number of frozen citrus concentrate shippers reported experien-
cing high temperatures on rail shipments of frozen concentrate due to
the failure of mechanical equipment in mechanical refrigerator cars.
This problem was handled with officials of the Fruit Growers Express
Company and was also discussed with the Mechanical Refrigerator Car
Committee of the National Perishable Freight Committee at its meeting
in Orlando in November, 1962. Details of the shipments involved were
secured from the shippers, and a conference was held with officials of
car lines and rail lines in Chicago on December 6, 1962, at which the
seriousness of the situation was called to the attention of the transporta-
tion officials. Assurances were given by the officials that steps would
be taken to correct the type of failures which had been experienced.

Truck Rates On Frozen And Chilled Citrus Products
The truck lines published reduced rates subject to truckload mini-
mum weight of 31,000 pounds on frozen and chilled citrus products to
all destinations to which such rates had not already been published, but
ruled the rates not applicable on shipments stopped in transit to par-
tially unload. There were continuing complaints against the stop-off
restrictions, and following a conference between the shippers and truck
line representatives, the truck lines filed a proposal to cancel the re-
strictions against stopping in transit to partially unload, but at the same
time proposed to increase the charge for all stop-offs from $12. 72 per
stop to $15. 00 per stop. Objections to the increase in the stop-off charge

were filed with the truck lines and at a hearing before the General Rate
Committee of the Southern Motor Carriers Rate Conference. The car-
riers, however, approved the removal of the stop-off restrictions and
an increase in the stop-off charge to $17. 00 per stop. A petition for sus-
pension of the increase in stop-off charge was filed with the Interstate
Commerce Commission, but the Commission did not grant the petition
for suspension and the increased charge, together with the removal of
the stop-off restrictions, became effective on May 10, 1963. Indepen-
dent action has been taken by some truck lines to re-publish for their
accounts the charge of $12.72 for stop-off shipments.
In February, 1963, the Board of Directors of the Florida Canners
Association considered the question of requesting that truck rates on
frozen and chilled citrus products be established from three origin
groups, namely the Jacksonville area, the central citrus-producing
area, and the Miami area. By majority vote, the Board approved the
principle of blanket origin rates and instructed a Special Committee of
the Transportation Advisory Council to work out the specific rates to
be recommended to the truck lines. The Board later approved the
recommendations of the Committee. A conference of truck line repre-
sentatives and shippers was held to discuss the publication of blanket
origin rates on frozen and chilled citrus products. The truck lines ad-
vised an unwillingness to file a carrier proposal on this basis, but a
shippers' proposal is being prepared for filing with the truck lines.
A proposal to increase all LTL truck rates to the South and East
by five per cent was filed by the carriers in May, 1963. Since there
had been an increase in the LTL rates on frozen and chilled citrus pro-
ducts in June, 1962, vigorous objections were filed and the League was
advised that the LTL rates on frozen and chilled citrus products had
been eliminated from the proposal.

Reduced Rail Rates On Canned Citrus Products
A proposal to publish reduced rail rates on canned goods, includ-
ing canned citrus products carload minimum weight 75,000 pounds -
between Official and Southern Territories was approved by the Southern
and the Official Territory railroad and the rates became effective on
July 6, 1962. However, as the result of petition for suspension filed
against these rates, the effective date was postponed to August 1, 1962.
Replies to the suspension petitions were filed by the League and others,
with the result that the Interstate Commerce Commission refused to
grant the petition and the reduced rates became effective on August 1,
1962, as scheduled.
The Southwestern railroads proposed a different basis for a reduc-
tion in rates on canned goods carload minimum weight 75,000 pounds -
moving between Southern and Southwestern Territories, which was con-
curred in by the Southern lines, and the adjustment was published and
became effective on March 11, 1963.

Proposals to publish reduced rail rates on canned goods carload
minimum weight 100,000 pounds between Trans-Continental Territory

and other territories, were filed with the Trans-Continental Freight Bu-
reau. Some of these proposals included lower rates applying Eastbound
than Westbound between Florida and Trans-Continental Territory, and
the League filed objections. The proposals were amended to provide for
equal rates applying East and Westbound and approved, but due to peti-
tions for suspension filed on similar rates between Trans-Continental
and Official Territory points, the proposals between Trans-Continental
and Southern Territories were withdrawn. The question of publishing
reduced rates at carload minimum weight of 100, 000 pounds is still being
considered by the rail carriers.

Increase In Rail Stop-Off Charges
In November, 1962, a joint proposal was filed by the Eastern, West-
ern and Southern railroads to establish a charge of $25. 00 per car per
stop to complete loading or to partially unload. Hearing on this pro-
posal was held in Chicago on December 4, 1962, with the League ap-
pearing in opposition. Following the hearing, the railroads announced
that the Eastern railroads had approved the $25. 00 charge for applica-
tion within Official Territory; the Western railroads had approved a
charge of $20. 00 per stop; and the Southern railroads had not approved
any change in the existing $17.00 per stop. The increases in these
charges became effective June 15, 1963, despite petitions for suspension.

Stop-Off Charges On Truck Shipments
Proposals were filed with the Southern Motor Carriers Rate Confer-
ence in April, 1963, to revise the rules and charges on truck ship-
ments stopped to complete loading or to partially unload by establishing
a uniform charge of 15 cents per 100 pounds minimum $15.00 per ship-
ment on all commodities other than frozen and chilled citrus products.
Objections were filed by the League on behalf of the canned citrus pro-
ducts shippers, and after consideration the truck lines approved the pro-
posal as amended to provide for a flat charge of $15.00 per stop. This
matter is pending before the motor carriers for final determination.

Transportation Cooperatives
Many frozen citrus concentrate shippers continued to receive re-
quests from receivers to use the services of Agricultural Transporta-
tion Association of Texas, a transportation cooperative which claimed
that it was exempt from economic regulation under Section 203(b)(5) of
the Interstate Commerce Act. The League's attorney stated that in his
opinion the use of the Association's facilities by agricultural coopera-
tives would be legal under the method of operation outlined in the By-
Laws of the Association. The Interstate Commerce Commission in
February, 1963, ordered an investigation into the Association's opera-
tions, and this proceeding is still pending before the Commission.

Rail Rates On Citrus Pomace
During the past season a number of proposals supported by the
League were filed with the Southern rail lines to establish reduced rail

rates on citrus pomace carload minimum weight 60,000 pounds from
Florida producing points to numerous destinations in Southern Territory.
In November, 1962, a proposal was filed with the Southwestern lines to
publish reduced rates on citrus pomace from Florida to destinations in
Southwestern Territory. Despite League support, the proposal was dis-
approved in April, .1963.

Reduced Rail Rates On Citrus Molasses
In the Fall of 1962, the League was requested by citrus molasses
shippers to assist in securing reduced rail rates to points in Ohio and
Tennessee. The League handled this matter with the origin rail lines,
requesting that the same rates be established on citrus molasses as had
been published on blackstrap molasses to the same destination points.
The rail lines approved the reduction, which also was published to other
destinations in Southern Territory.

Truck Applications
During the past season there were numerous applications filed by
truck lines seeking authority to transport canned, frozen or chilled cit-
rus products, or mixtures thereof. These applications were considered
by the members of the Transportation Advisory Council, Florida Canners
Association, and the League was authorized to appear at hearings before
the Interstate Commerce Commission in support of the following appli-
cations: Clay Hyder Trucking Lines, frozen and chilled citrus products
to specified states in the South; Belford Trucking Company, frozen and
chilled citrus products to the Pacific Northwest; Florida Refrigerated
Service, frozen and chilled citrus products to Trans-Continental Terri-
tory, and frozen foods to the Western portion of Texas on stop-off ship-
ments only; Food Transport, Inc., canned citrus products to upper New
York State; Florida Frozen Food Express, frozen and chilled citrus pro-
ducts to destinations in Canada; and Alterman Transport Lines, chilled
citrus products to points in North Dakota.

Transportation Legislation
During the last session of Congress hearings were held before the
House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee on H.R. 11583, a
bill proposing to remove from the jurisdiction of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission the establishment of minimum rates on commodi-
ties exempt from economic regulation of the Commission when trans-
ported by motor vehicles or by water carriers, and on H.R. 11584, the
so-called Transportation Act of 1962, which implemented the recom-
mendations of the President on transportation matters. The League's
attorney appeared before the House Committee in support of the mini-
mum rate provisions of H.R. 11583 but in opposition to the provisions
which would eliminate the conference method of rate making in the es-
tablishment of rates on the commodities which would be affected by this
bill. No final action was taken on these bills prior to the adjournment
of Congress.

Similar bills were introduced in the present Congress as S-1061 and
H.R. 4700 on minimum rate deregulation and S-1062 and H.R.4701 im-
plementing the President's recommendations on transportation. The
League's views on these bills were presented before House and Senate
During the last session of Congress, Senate Bill S-2560, seeking to
curb illegal truck operations, was approved by the Senate Commerce
Committee after being amended to eliminate a provision which the League
protested would have required the registration of motor vehicles trans-
porting exempt commodities. There was no final action on this bill prior
to the adjournment of Congress, but bills seeking the same general ob-
jective have been introduced in the present Congress.
There are numerous other legislative amendments that have been in-
troduced but have not been set for hearing by either the Senate or House
Commerce Committee. Among these is the bill recommended by the
Interstate Commerce Commission which would limit the exemption of
Section 203(b)(6) to vehicles of three or less axles, which is wholly im-
There is also a very strong move, not only on the part of carriers
but endorsed by many shippers throughout the country to amend the agri-
cultural cooperative exemption. These suggestions extend to re-writing
Section 203(b)(5) of the Interstate Commerce Act and the Agricultural
Marketing Act and would limit farm cooperatives from hauling goods for
other than members of such cooperatives.

ON IN" il oC
* 05 's -

Ino"'1. %
o, C

AN ACT relating to citrus; amending the last unnumbered pare
graph of Section 601.50, Florida Statutes, by deleting a port'
of the existing provisions thereof for the purpose of cl"
the meaning thereof, and providing an effective date
Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the Si-
Section 1. The last unni,'
Florida Statutes, is am-


to food; repealing Secti
statutes; and providing fort
he Legislature of the State
ions 500.34, 500.35, ar'

Act shall tala
C Gove,

*'us; amending subsection (3) of Section
'v dividing subsection (3) into para-
for expenses for the administra-
"ed eleven percent of excise
SJune 30, 1964, June 30,
-e taxes in any fiscal

o citrus; amendi
new section design
ements for th,
lit dealers -
thoritv '


to citrus; amending Secti-
ing Secti n 601.732, F'
ting reptitiuous -
trucks, tace
citrus fr'

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jane hbM\

CHAPTER 63-108
us; amending Section 601.28 (1). sub-
Florkda Statutes, 1961, relating to
fee- le.,ed upo.r, cnru irjn
a Department ul Agrsal-
Endmg JuneO.16, the

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0 Robert C. Evans, who served the Florida Cit-
rus Commission and the citrus industry long and
well, retired as Director of Administration on De-
cember 31, 1962. He served in various capacities
in private, state and federal positions over a span
of 33 years, 19 with the Commission. It was gen-
erally recognized that his greatest contribution
to the industry was in the re vi s i on, composition
and interpretation of the regulations of the Com-
mission and that he lent dignity and authority to
the organization and to the industry.
The Commi s sion met its responsibilities in
regulatory matters during the 1962-63 sea s on by
promulgating one emergency regulation and adopt-
ing 18 amendments to existing regulations.
The Commission acted quickly after the dis-
astrous freeze of December 13 and 14, 1962. To
assure consumers of continued high quality stan-
dards for Florida citrus and to p r o t e ct the fran-
chise of Florida citrus produce er s in the market

place, an emergency regulation was promulgated which placed a 10-day
embargo on the shipment of fresh fruit and provided for an additional 14-
day period of restricted shipments. The 14-day proviso was rescinded
only after it was determined that adequate safeguards would be provided
by the restrictions placed on shipments by the Growers Administrative
Committee under the terms of the Federal Marketing Agreement.
One regulation was repealed and sections of another revoked which
restricted the use of freeze-damaged fruit by processors. Experience
in the 1957-58 freeze had shown that these regulations were too restric-
tive and resulted in unnecessary waste of usable fruit. As a counter
measure, to assure a quality product, amendments were adopted which
increased the minimum oil content allowable for frozen concentrated
orange juice and required the reinspection for flavor of all concentrated
orange juice products within seven days preceding the date of shipment.
The Commission adopted a standard stock label design for open
mesh bags similar to one previously adopted for polyethylene bags,
prominently displaying the word "FLORIDA".
Also adopted was a special Florida No. 1 grade for oranges, the
same as the U.S. No. 1 grade, except that general appearance was con-
siderably improved by imposing stricter limitations on the amount of
discoloration, green or oil spots and scale allowed on the individual fruit.
While not mandatory, use of this grade would upgrade the overall quality
of future shipments of Florida oranges.
Following the freeze, the Commission amended the requirements for
the grade of fruit in Florida to be sold at roadside stands and shipped by
express and gift fruit shippers to provide that all such fruit must meet the
same minimum grade and size requirements as are established from
time to time by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to the Federal
Marketing Agreement on Citrus.
To assure that the grading of processed citrus products would be done
uniformly at all plants, the Commission adopted an amendment which re-
quired that a standard light source should be used when checking color.
Label requirements for Florida citrus products which contained any
imported citrus were eased to allow for the addition of up to 25% im-
ported citrus before the country of origin had to be shown on the label.
Previously, Florida citrus products which contained any imported raw
citrus had to declare the country of origin on the label. The use of small
quantities of high ratio imported citrus for blending with low ratio Florida
fruit harvested during the emergency immediately following the freeze re-
sulted in a very satisfactory product.
At the request of the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association, the
Commission placed tighter restrictions on the issuance of experimental
container permits. The regulations now limit the use of experimental
containers to one season, after which the container must be formally ap-
proved prior to further use. In addition, unless special permission is
obtained, each shipper is allowed only a 45-day period to use an experi-
mental container and written reports must be filed with the Commission
detailing each shipper's experience with the container. This will result
in lowering the container inventory cost of most shippers and eliminate

the continued use, year after year, of generally undesirable containers
under the guise of-being an experimental container.


The 1963 Legislature liberalized the restrictions on bond-exampt fruit
by adding two new categories. In an effort to safeguard the interests of
Florida producers, the Commission, by regulation, established minimum
requirements to be met for each category of bond-exempt fruit. A care-
ful check of each application for license is made to assure that these
standards are met before approving any fruit for exemption from bond
During the 1962-63 season, the Commission reviewed and approved
1,566 applications for citrus fruit dealer licenses. In addition, 14 appli-
cations were denied because of unfavorable information received concern-
ing the applicants.


For the period of August 1, 1962, to August 1, 1963, the Commis-
sion issued a total of 2, 184 special permits for various purposes. Of
these, 1,790 were to permit shipment of gift fruit by truck, 224 for in-
terstate movement of fruit for processing, nine for movement of fruit
for charitable purposes, one for an experimental shipment of hi-density
concentrate, 41 for special export shipments of oranges, and 119 for use
of experimental containers for fresh fruit.


The Commission sent out 525,000 pieces of mail during the past year,
an increase of approximately 50% over the previous year. This tremen-
dous increase was due, primarily, to the special canners' concentrate
promotion and the numerous informational mailings to trade factors fol-
lowing the December freeze. Several changes were made in mailing pro-
cedures, which resulted in improved service and considerable savings in
mailing costs. The assembly and mailing of 564, 280 pieces of advertis-
ing materials, such as posters, brochures and pamphlets filled 18, 259
orders from schools.


The Commission joined with other industry groups in developing a
comprehensive package of citrus legislation. The Commission's Legis-
lative Committee met often with the other industry committees to study
proposed changes in the laws and was responsible for preparing final
drafts of the bills for presentation to the State Legislature. Represen-
tatives and senators from the citrus-producing areas provided necessary
leadership in obtaining passage of the legislation which is listed briefly
on the following pages.

1. Section 601.15 of the Florida Citrus Code was amended to set the
citrus excise taxes effective July 1, 1963, for common round oranges
(including Navels) at 9, (effective June 30, 1967, excise tax on
oranges becomes 6S), for grapefruit at 6, and all other varieties at
5 per equivalent standard 1-3/5 bushel box.
Changes in this section of the Code now provide that certain por-
tions of the funds derived from advertising excise taxes shall be
spent as follows:

During the period July 1, 1963, to June 30, 1967, 20% of
the aggregate amount of the taxes levied upon oranges shall
be set aside in an Emergency Reserve Fund to be used only in
the event of serious economic emergency affecting the market
value of oranges or orange products. The Commission, after
a public hearing and upon the affirmative vote of nine of its
members, has the authority to determine the existence of such
an emergency, and to conduct a commodity advertising cam-
paign and sales promotion of oranges or orange products. This
is a new provision in the law.
An amount of $200, 000 shall be set aside from the taxes
levied on grapefruit for a grapefruit brand advertising rebate
fund. This adds $100, 000 for refunds on brand advertising of
fresh grapefruit products produced in Florida, since $100,000
was set aside previously for rebates on fresh grapefruit adver-
The Code already provides for 2% of all citrus tax funds to
be deposited in the General Revenue Fund, 1% to a trust fund
to be used exclusively for citrus research and the balance for
defraying expenses of the Commission in the administration and
enforcement of duties under the Code and for the advertisement
of citrus fruits in fresh or processed form.

2. A new Section was added to the Code, Section 601. 111, which
grants to the Commission authority to lower minimum maturity stan-
dards by not more than 10% under emergency conditions created by
unusual climatic conditions which affect a substantial part of the citrus
industry. This authority covers minimum maturity standards fixed by
law for citrus fruit of any variety, except oranges. However, for
oranges, authority is provided to reduce the minimum juice content re-
quirement by 10%.

3. Section 601. 152 of the Code (known as the Stabilization Act), was
amended by deleting the existing provisions of the old Act and provid-
ing that the Commission shall have authority to conduct special cam-
paigns of commodity advertising and sales promotion and to conduct
market or product research and development for any variety of citrus
fruit or processed citrus product. Upon the affirmative vote of nine
of its members, the Commission may determine the need for a special
campaign, and may, after a public hearing, call for a referendum of

the handlers covered by such special campaign. Upon the affirmative
vote of 67% of these handlers who handle 51% of the total volume of
fruit covered, the special campaign shall be put into effect and the
handlers of fruit covered by such a special campaign shall be assessed
to pay the expenses. (Previously, the bill provided that the Commis-
sion might issue a marketing order for special advertising campaigns
or research only after it had been assented to in writing by 51% of the
producers who produced 51% of the volume of citrus fruit covered by
the Order, and the expenses of such a campaign would be paid by the

4. Section 601. 28 of the Code was amended to give the Commissioner
of Agriculture authority to assess an additional inspection fee when
necessary, after the release of the USDA crop estimate in October of
each year. This authority extends from July 1, 1963, to June 30, 1965.

5. Section 601. 0105 of the Code was amended to improve quality by
raising the minimum ratio of canned grapefruit juice from 7. 0-to-i
to 7.50-to-1.

6. Section 601.13 of the Code was amended to provide for expenses
for citrus research not to exceed 11% of the total excise taxes for
each of the fiscal years ending June 30, 1964, and June 30, 1965, and
not to exceed 10% in any fiscal year thereafter. A carryover of re-
search funds not to exceed $100,000 is also included in this bill.
(Previously, a maximum of 5% was set on the amount of total excise
taxes to be used for research expenses and the carryover was limited
to $30,000).

7. Section 601.61 of the Code was amended to provide for the follow-
ing two additional categories of bond-exempt fruit handled by citrus
fruit dealers:

a. Fruit which has been prepared and/or processed and
packaged by a registered packing house and/or canning
or concentrating plant, other than the applicant.

b. Fruit from citrus groves for which the applicant provides
complete grove management services under direct contract
with the owner or producer.

8. Section 601.15 of the Code was amended to add Murcotts to the
types of oranges for which 90 pounds is given as the equivalent of a
standard packed 1-3/5 bushel box, for use when fruit is purchased on
a weight basis.

9. Section 601. 15 of the Code was amended to authorize the Commis-
sion to spend whatever amount it deems advisable, not to exceed
$25,000 a season, for trade luncheons.

10. A new Section, designated as Section 601. 291, was added to the Code
to provide that any person who sells more than 100 pounds of citric
acid, or any substance containing 10% or more citric acid, to one cus-
tomer shall file a copy of the invoice with the Commissioner of Agri-
culture. (This had not been required previously).
11. Section 601. 601 was added to the Code to provide that every li-
censed citrus fruit dealer should register every agent authorized to
represent him in transactions involving the consignment, purchase
or sale of citrus fruit with the Commissioner of Agriculture. It also
provides that each agent must carry an identification card. (In the
past, fruit dealers were not required to register their agents with the

12. A new sub-section was added to Section 601.88 of the Code to pro-
vide that tractor boxes or special type field boxes should be stamped
on both ends with the actual content expressed in terms of standard
field box equivalent.

JULY 1, 1962 TO JUNE 30, 1963

Cash Balance July 1, 1962

RECEIPTS: From All Sources


$ 2,328,434.44

9,368, 313.41

$ 11,696,747.85


General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Research & Development

Merchandising and Promotions:

$ 150,022.08

$ 1,081,759.20

Salaries and Expenses of
Advertising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.

Point-of-Sale Materials

Public Relations and Publicity

New York World's Fair

Consumer Advertising:

Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision, Outdoor, Car Cards
and Trade Papers
Professional Journals
By-Products Journals
European Program









$ 6,820,483.72

$ 4,876,264.13


Single Strength Juices, Sections and Salads
(1,000 cases, 24/2's)
Grft. Grft. Orange Blended Tang. Citrus Total
Sections Juice Juice Juice Juice Salad Pack

1952-53 3,811 10,854 16,907 5,707 749x 689xx 38,717
1953-54 4,332 14,882 17,790 6,402 801x .875xx 45,082
1954-55 5,244 10,784 16,518 4,994 429x 810xx 38,779
1955-56 4,759 12,805 15,500 5,265 556x 719xx 39,604
1956-57 4,518 12,464 16,828 5,188 715x 591xx 40,304
1957-58 4,179 9,484 17,846 4,885 303x 476xx 37,173
1958-59 4,572 10,093 13,259 4,217 766x 590xx 33,497
1959-60 4,004 9,323 15,128 4,382 229x 523xx 33,589
1960-61 4,325 9,130 10,797 3,100 553x 355xx 28,260
1961-62 4,664 8,907 15,423 3,248 215x 468xx 32,925
1962-63 J 2,613 8,864 11,212 3,117 317x 88xx 26,211

(1,000 gallons)
Frozen Processed Frozen Frozen Frozen Processed Processed Total
Orange Orange Grft. Tang. Blend Grft. Bld.& &Tang. Pack

1952-53 46,554 537 1,226 551 480 51 49,399
1953-54 65,531 1,339 1,656 443 965 55 69,989
1954-55 64,686 1,531 1,155 877 561 32 68,842
1955-56 70,224 1,086 2,512 619 954 31 25 75,426
1956-57 72,012 1,801 2,949 793 597 59 32 78,211
1957-58 57,151 1,149 3,330 147 507 108 62,392
1958-59 79,911 547 4,952 1,152 690 165 188 87,417
1959-60 78,149 378 1,613 320 284 27 80,771
1960-61 84,298 154 3,841 1,406 255 20 21 89,995
1961-62 116,082 278 3,163 1,370 267 116 4 121,280
1962-63 1 51,648 54 2,323 204 53 36 21 54,339

Citrus Feed 2/ Citrus Molasses
Season (tons) (tons)

1952-53 223,311 39,112
1953-54 287,832 52,690
1954-55 262,474 48,934
1955-56 297,254 41,621
1956-57 296,575 59,850
1957-58 291,537 36,161
1958-59 320,588 43,823
1959-60 284,105 29,454
1960-61 320,481 33,082
1961-62 419,745 54,751
1962-63 311,104 30,833

Includes processed tangerine concentrate
Includes meal, pulp and pellets
Source: Florida Cannerst Association

x Includes tangerine juice and blends
xx Includes orange sections


Total Fresh On-Tree On-Tree Home Value of
Trot Fsh Price Processed Price o All Sales
Production Sales Per Box Per Box Consumption On-Tree
SeasonPer Box Per BoxOn-Tree

000 bxs, 000 bxs, dollars 000 bxs. dollars 000 bxs, mil. dollars

1952-53 72,200 25,849 1.31 45,901 1.27 450 92.1
1953-54 91,300 27,846 1.39 62,904 1.20 550 114.2
1954-55 88,400 27,157 1.42 60,693 1.35 550 120.4
1955-56 91,000 25,566 1.86 64,884 1.85 550 167.4
1956-57 93,000 24,116 1.69 68,234 1.31 650 129.5
1957-58 82,500 18,107 2.00 63,843 2.18 550 175.7
1958-59 86,000 16,837 2.78 68,51-3 2.89 650 244.8
1959-60 91,500 20,765 2.02 70,070 1.94 665 178.1
1960-61 86,700 16,770 3.15 69,240 2.89 690 256.0
1961-62 ( 113,400 20,915 2.05 91,710 1,84 775 211,6
1962-63 (b) 74,500 11,680 3*41 62,245 1.80 575 15149

1952-53 32,500 17,305 1,08 15,035 ,40 160 24.7
1953-54 (a) 42,000 20,451 .86 20,089 .11 160 19.8
1954-55 34,800 18,996 .95 15,644 .24 160 21.8
1955-56 38,300 19,482 .92 18,648 .20 160 21.6
1956-57 37,400 18,187 1.36 19,053 .44 160 33.1
1957-58 31,100 14,544 1.37 16,396 .63 160 30.3
1958-59 35,200 16,479 1.36 18,561 .75 160 36.4
1959-60 30,500 16,032 1.31 14,308 .76 160 31.9
1960-61 31,600 15,726 1.24 15,714 .66 160 30.0
1961-62 (a) 35,000 17,811 1.06 16,809 .26 180 23.2
1962-63 (b) 30,000 13,913 2.02 15,962 .44 125 35.1

1952-53 4,900 3,766 1.76 1,064 .02 70 6.6
1953-54 (a) 5,000 3,392 2.10 1,038 .05 70 7.1
1954-55 (a) 5,100 3,725 1.78 1,105 .06 70 6.7
1955-56 (a) 4,700 3,449 2.23 981 .15 70 7.8
1956-57 4,800 3,271 2.31 1,259 .22 70 7.8
1957-58 2,100 1,729 2.86 351 .10 20 5.0
1958-59 (a) 4,500 2,635 2.42 1,595 .30 70 6.9
1959-60 (a) 2,800 2,089 3.26 541 .00 70 6.8
1960-61 (a) 4,900 3,242 2.18 1,588 .15 70 7.3
1961-62 4,000 2,695 2.72 1,235 .55 70 8.0
1962-63 (b) 2,000 1,580 3.63 400 .33 20 5.6

(a) Difference between

"total production" and actual utilization represented by economic

(b) Preliminary
Source: Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture


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