Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission

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Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Florida Citrus Commission
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Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


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Report year ends June 30.

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University of Florida
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Full Text


1961- 1




citrus CommIIission




Commiss-ion Members Serving During
the 1961-1962 Fiscal Year

Key Scales, Jr. , Chairman Sam A. Banks, Vice Chairman J. R. Bynum Albert Carlton Frank Chase Vernon L. Conner
Herbert S. Massey Cope Newbern Paul Robertson Bruce W. Skinner Robert Snively Kingswood Sprott

Weirsdale Lakeland Titusville Wauchula Windermere Mount Dora Dade City Tampa Vero Beach
Clearwater Winter Haven Lake Wales



Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman Sam A. Banks Vernon L. Conner


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman J. R. B ynum Albert Carlton Paul Robertson Robert E. Snively


Sam A. Banks, Chairman Frank Chase Herbert S. Massey Bruce W. Skinner

Herbert S. Massey Cope Newbern Kingswood Sprott


Frank Chase, Chairman J. R. Bynum Cope Newbern Bruce W. Skinner
Robert E. Snively


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman Sam A. Banks Herbert S. Massey Kingswood Sprott


J. R. Bynum, Chairman Sam A. Banks Frank Chase
Cope Newbern

Herbert S. Massey, Chairman Vernon L. Conner Bruce W. Skinner
Robert E. Snively


Key Scales, Jr.

Sam A. Banks
Vc Char'a


Paul Robertson

Kingswood Sprott

". R. Bynum


C. D. Newbern

Robert E. Snively

Herbert S. Massey

Frank Chase

.\I 61


U A sharp increase in the size of the orange crop highlighted the 1961-62 Florida citrus season. The long -anticipated million-box production was finally realized, the final harvestbeing 113,400,000 boxes.
This compared with 86, 700, 000 boxes in the previ
ous season, or a 30 per cent increase.
The 1961 -62 grapefruit harvest was 35, 000, 000
ft boxes, and the tangerine crop was 4, 000, 000 boxes. Homer E. Hooks These combined to make this the largest citrus
GnrlManager production for any s ea son in Florida' s history and
easily maintained our position as the principal citrus producing area in the nation and the world. We produced83 per cent of the United States citrus crop in 1961 -62, and 33 per cent of the world produ ction.
De spite this j umrp in production, consumer de
mnand for citrus fruit and products continued steady, and growers received about $220, 000, 000 for their
The r ep o rt which follows describes thoroughly the many p ro g ram s of the Commission during the

year. Here are a few of the more significant matters of Commission business:

* ' ' The Commission heard presentations by seven consumer agencies, bidding for the citrus account. Ultimately, the account was divided, with oranges retained by Benton & Bowles, Inc. , and grapefruit and miscellaneous varieties going to Campbell-Ewald Company.
A resolution was sent to all shippers and processors urging that the word "FLORIDA" be put on all fruit and labels in order to identify our product to the consumer and take full advantage of the Commission's advertising and merchandising.
A regulation was adopted prescribing procedures for registration of producers and method of conducting referendums under the Florida Citrus Stabilization Act. Producers' names and addresses were compiled from various sources for use in any referendum under the Act.
. . . A statement of policy and procedure for conducting advertising and merchandising programs was adopted and issued.. . . A research conference on grapefruit product development recommendedand the Commission approved, a series of market and feasibility surveys on several new grapefruit products.
. . . Specific market testing was initiated on a new "double -strength" grapefruit juice drink.
. . A Space Food Technology Center was proposed to be established in Florida, taking advantage of the State's highly developed food processing technology and its space science industry.
A contract was entered into with the United States Department of Agriculture for cooperative research with the Florida Citrus Research Foundation on root-stock research and development.
. . . Again with the United States Department of Agriculture, a consumer taste-test on canned single strength orange and grapefruit juices was begun in Germany.

* * * The Commission continued to protest strongly to the Federal
Trade Commission the advertising of the synthetic product "Tang," which consumer surveys and grocery store advertisements demonstrated to be misleading both to consumers and the trade.

' * * Testimony was made before Congressional Committees on the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 to provide adequate protection for United States agricultural export industries in tariff and non-tariff negotiations with foreign countries.

* ' ' The Commission called on the concentrate industry to consider seriously a change to a higher density product, improving the product, utilizing more fruit, and providing a "new" advertising and merchandising appeal.

* * * Authority was given to the Chairman and General Manager to enter into contractual agreements with processors for special promotions to be paid for and approved by processors, and administered by the Commission.
. . . New research projects were approved to develop chemical
treatments to help remove fruit from the trees for improved harvesting,

and to screen chemicals that might be useful in reducing acidity in grapefruit.
*.A comprehensive report was issued on citrus opportunities in Eur ope, and especially Great Britain, with particular reference to Common Market and tariff considerations.

- . . These comprise a few highlights of Commission actions and
programs undertaken in 1961 -6Z. I urge you to read the following report for a much more detailed description of these operations, all designed with the single objective of promoting the prosperity and well-being of the Florida citrus industry.

* * * If you have any questions with respect to this report, or if you desire information not contained herein, please do not hesitate to contact us at our Lakeland headquarters.

omer .a k_,e
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration Dr. William E. Black, Director of Economic and Market Research Robert Stuart, Comptroller Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research Frank D. Amn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations '-Jack Matthews, Information Specialist
**LeRoy Mobley, Statistician D. B. Kibler III, Legal Counsel, Lakeland

*Employed August 6, 1962
--*Employed October 22, 1962

/o.Good Nw ,s F E

SAlmost twice the " " 0' '!&fresh juice
for your money!
vdam,n c y kosty1es1

All these oranges are picked
Cooling, refreshing orange juice and squeezed for every quart of
gives you the natural Vitami C Chilled Orange Juice from Florida
and energy you' body tHarsts forespecially in summer. " .



(. L '4. 1. GOLD MINE OF VITAMIN C .2. OTHER NEEDED Fresh Floia GrapeWnt


0 The advertising program for the crop year 1961 62, prepared and placed by Benton & Bowles, Inc. , was varied and extensive, covering consumer advertising in the United States, a specially a d a p t e d consumer campaign in Canada, trade advertising inthe Unit-ed States and Canada, institutional advertising, plus a gift fruit shippers campaign.
The program, which was approved by the Commission and the Staff, totaled $3,519,000. It was
budgeted into two distinct campaigns:
(a) A s u m me r campaign, July I through October 31, totaled approximately $350, 000, and
(b) A major campaign, November I through June 30, which utilized the I a r g e r share of funds, $3,i6qooo.
The authorized advertising fund was a 11 o c a t e d by product on a p e r c e n t a g e basis consistent with each product' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Florida Citrus
Commission total income.

The detailed breakdown is as follows:

Per Cent of Total
11.4 46. 1
5. 8 5. 1 17.0
4.4 5. 6
2.2 2.4 100.0

$ 401,154 1,621,657
204,198 179,912 598,550 156,088 196,311 77,601 83,529

Fresh Oranges/Temples Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Chilled Orange Juice Fresh Grapefruit Canned Grapefruit Juice Canned Grapefruit Sections Frozen Grapefruit Juice Tangerines

Florida Citrus Commission gross crop year in consumer media were as

advertising impressions during the follows:



412,430,000 138,640,000 236,662,800



Magazines Sunday Supplements Daily Newspapers


Network Programs Local Spot Commercials

Total Impressions

Total Impressions

Marketing Objectives
The primary marketing objectives were to generate greater consumer demand for all Florida citrus products and increase retail sales at price levels profitable to the grower and processor.
Considerations in the attainment of the marketing objectives were:
(a) Maintenance of the highest possible level of per capita consumption of all Florida citrus products.
(b) Increasing the consumer awareness and acceptance of all Florida
citrus products.
(c) Broadening the total market for all Florida citrus products.

Basic Advertising Objectives
The basic advertising objective continued to be the presentation of Florida citrus as a commodity, i. e. , selling the basic value of, and need for, citrus products.
Individual campaigns were created for each product, selling the advantages of its specific form while at the same time effecting a family relationship among all product campaigns.
Much of the processed advertising utilized the symbolic fresh product in the background, helping to establish the family similarity.

Television commercials emphasized the tropical atmosphere of Florida as a symbolic emblem of the origin of the product.

Orange Copy Strategy
The advertising of processed orange juice products featured the delicious taste and refreshing qualities of the product, specifically quick energy and Vitamin C. Additional consumption beyond breakfast was encouraged through promotion of an orange juice "break" for children.
Fresh orange advertising capitalized on the competitive advantages of the Florida orange using the theme "Get The Florida Bonus - almost twice the fresh juice for your money. " Additionally, the advertising served to announce the availability of fresh Florida oranges.
In both fresh and processed orange juice advertising, appetite appeal was achieved through illustration of a delicious glass of orange juice. In processed juice copy, continued emphasis was placed on the satisfaction found only with "the real thing - genuine orange juice.

Grapefruit Copy Strategy
Advertising of fresh grapefruit concentrated on establishing the special goodness of the available product through the "vintage crop" theme and "tropical delights for cold days" recipes. Secondary emphasis was given to the 1150 calorie" diet advantages of grapefruit. Additionally, the grapefruit spoon was featured in some ads.
Canned grapefruit juice was recommended to the consumer on the
basis of its strength as a cold preventative. Grapefruit juice concentrate advertising featured the taste qualities of this new product form, and grapefruit sections were promoted as a "best fruit buy" ingredient for delicious recipes.

Media Strategy
The objectives of the Florida citrus media plan were predicated upon
(a) the distribution and sales pattern of the products involved, and (b) the market profile of the products in terms of consumers, i. e. , who they are, where they live, age, income, etc.
The strategy during the 1961-6Z crop year called for:
(a) A degree of concentration in a media that provided the greatest imI pact for both orange and grapefruit advertising.

(b) Presenting the sales message primarily to a dual audience.
(c) Enabling a degree of flexibility to permit maximum exposure of
each product in keeping with its seasonal distribution and budget.

Magazines continued to be the primary medium for telling the Florida citrus story for a variety of reasons, including:
(a) Compatible Editorial Matter - The context of the magazines, in
giving information, entertainment, etc. , provides an excellent
background for telling the educational commodity story.
(b) Prestige - The degree to which readers regard the magazine
translates into the relative acceptance for the advertiser's products.

(c) Deep Impact - The opportunity for presenting the Florida citrus
sales message in appetite appealing full color provides strong impact and lasting impressions upon the reader.
(d) Audience Selectivity The nature of the magazine's editorial format attracts a definite and selective type of reader, enabling its
choice to fit the marketing profile of the product being advertised.
(e) Flexibility - Most of the magazines break up their circulation into
regional editions, i. e. , specific geographic areas, providing the
opportunity to custom build the circulation to fit the marketing
characteristics of each citrus product.
The breakdown of products and magazines during the crop year was as follows:

Issue Date August 4 September 8 October 6 November November 3 November 10 November 11 November 11 November 24 December L December 5 December 5 December 9 January 27 January 27 February 27 February Z7 March April 14 May 11 May 26 May Z6 June 19 June ZZ

Publication Lif e Life Lif e Seventeen Lif e Life Post Post Life Lif e Look Look Post Post Post Look Look Seventeen Post Life Post Post Look Life

Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Chilled Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice

Daily Newspapers
Florida citrus products were advertised in daily newspapers at the
peak of their seasonal drive periods. Marketing information such as unload data provided the means to choose the newspaper markets. The use of newspapers permitted deep local impact of the advertising message, enabling the retail trade to tie in with their own, advertising.
Two-color ads were used in major markets to enhance the sales message, with black and white ads appearing in lesser markets. The size of the two-color markets varied among products depending upon funds available.

Three major insertions were scheduled for fresh oranges, with the list extending as high as 97 papers in 87 markets. Later in the season, special insertions for Valencias ran only in key markets.
Frozen orange juice advertising had three insertions with the list including 51 newspapers in Z9 key markets.
Three insertions were scheduled for chilled orange juice with the list including 11 papers in 11 selected markets.
A tangerine advertisement appeared in a list of 105 newspapers in,94 markets.
Three insertions were scheduled for fresh grapefruit with the list extending as high as 92 newspapers in 79 markets. A special insertion also appeared in eight newspapers in seven west coast markets.
. One insertion appeared for frozen grapefruitjuice in seven newspapers in seven major markets.
Two insertions appeared for grapefruit sections in 42 newspapers in 35 selected markets.
A temple orange advertisement was scheduled in 18 newspapers in 13 selected markets.

Sunday Newspaper Supplements
Florida citrus products were scheduled in Sunday supplements because their urban circulation fitted marketing profiles of several products. Their dual readership and higher readership of ad advertising were important factors, also.
The breakdown of products and Sunday supplements used during the crop year was as follows:

Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit JuiceFrozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice


Temple Oranges

Issue Date Publication
July 16 This Week
September 10 Parade November 12 This Week November 19 First 3 Markets December 3 First 3 Markets
December 10 Parade December 10 American Weekly*
First 3 Markets
*(Eastern including Texas) January 14 First 3 Markets
February 11 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section February 25 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section March 11 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
March 11 First 3 Markets
March 11 Independent Supplements
March Z5 N. Y. Times, Mag. Section
April 8 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
April ZZ N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
April 22 This Week
May 6 N. Y. Times, Mag. Section
May ZO This Week

Grapefruit Juice Grapefruit Juice Grapefruit Juice Orange Juice Orange Juice Grapefruit Juice Grapefruit Juice Grapefruit Juice

Frozen Frozen Frozen
Chilled Chilled Frozen Frozen Frozen

Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice

Issue Date Publication Product
May 20 K.-Y. Times, Mag. Section Frozen Grapefruit Juice
June 3 N. Y. Times, Mag. Section Frozen Grapefruit Juice
June 10 First 3 Markets Chilled Orange Juice
June 10 Independent Supplements Chilled Orange Juice
June 24 First 3 Markets Frozen Orange Juice

The Florida Citrus Commission also used television for selected products. Daytime network was used primarily to reach the housewife audience, whereas nighttime spots were used for wider audience coverage in markets east of the Mississippi.
There were five participations a week for 16 weeks on the CBS network, covering approximately 145 markets. Commercials were rotated in four shows, "Calendar," "I Love Lucy," "Video Village," and "Sur prise Package" (replaced by "Clear Horizons" later in the effort).
Five Florida citrus spots a week appeared on television in 37 major markets east of the Mississippi for 16 weeks. Each market received two 20-second and three one-minute commercials a week, primarily in early and late evening time spots.

Florida citrus advertising also appeared in Canada, following all of the basic advertising and marketing concepts practiced in the United States. Ads used in the United States were slightly revised by the Agency to conform to regulations of the Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare. Distribution of many United States publications in Canada added to the impact in that market.
Two Canadian magazines were used, Chatelaine (English and French
editions) and Maclean' s. Two French language newspaper supplements received specially translated citrus ads, La Patrie and La Presse.
Daily newspapers were used for several products, enabling local retail tie-ins. Nine insertions appeared in newspapers with lists ranging in circulation from 756, 500 to 3, z64, 6oo.
Two publications were also used to tell the Florida citrus story to the trade, LIEpicier and Canadian Grocer.

Extensive trade advertising, in total 70 pages, was used to encourage retailer, broker, and wholesaler support of Florida Citrus Commission field merchandising efforts and to keep the trade informed regarding the extensive consumer advertising support being given Florida citrus products.
The availability of merchandising material featuring fresh oranges,
fresh grapefruit, tangerines and temple oranges was advertised primarily in The Packer, Produce News and Nargus Bulletin.
Frozen orange juice was advertised primarily in Frosted Food Field, Frozen Food Age, Quick Frozen Foods and Supermarket News.
Other processed products were advertised in Chain Store Age, Progressive Grocer and'Supermarket Merchandising.

Volume Feeding Market
The advantages of frozen orange juice, fresh grapefruit, chilled orange and chilled grapefruit sections were promoted to restaurants, cafeterias, hospitals, schools and other volume feeding establishments through'pages of recipe and food idea advertising in the March, April, May and June issues of Fast Food, Restaurant Management and Volume Feeding Management magazines.

Gift Fruit Shippers
Winter tourists to the State were reminded to "remember the folks back home" by sending a gift basket of citrus fruit supplied by Florida gift fruit shippers.
Small space ads appeared for approximately 14 weeks in the Miami
Herald twice a week and in This Week in Miami, a publication distributed free to hotel and motel guests.

Florida Citrus Premium Offers
The Florida grapefruit spoon offer, included inmost of the fresh grapefruit print advertising, continued to be an extremely popular premium with consumers. Orders for the year were for more than 400,000 spoons, swelling the grand total to nearly nine million spoons in the hands of the consumers.
The Lazy Susan juicer was offered in fresh orange print ads, with over 67, 000 being ordered.



APRIL 1962

VOL. 30-NO. 8

MAN' 192 IWawcs 50- 712


11111 19621

Vol. 62. No. 7 April 1. 1962 AL Mfarch 196?.


kAY 5, 1962

)tj, APRIL 14,/ 1962

Slom er ac ksOn s w o k sim portant to y ou .-

April 1962

PAG ES 355- 8



e Medical Association Vol. 55, No. 5

MAY 10, 1962' PAGES 439-516

PAGES 375-502

PAGES 5"A-638

VOL. XXXI - NO. 5 Vol. 62, No. 10 / May 15, 1962

Today's little "limeY" needs a half barrel of orange juice

rr5 o r n')ejuc

May 1962





0 The ultimate obj ective of the Florida Citrus Commission' s profes sionala d ve rt is in g program, handled for the second year by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. , New York, is to encourage physicians and members of the allied health professions to recommend the increased use of Florida citrus products to their patients, to use citrus p r odu ct s themselves, and to lend support to claims made in the Commission' s consumer advertising program.
The m e d i c a 1 advertising campaigns during the
past fiscal year concentrated on two themes - a primary theme establishing a strong and favor able i m age of Florida citrus products in the physician' s mind, and a special theme stressing the use of Florida c it r u s products in specific medical conditions.
The image building theme used full-color advertisements with high-styled photography to create a vividimage of Florida citrus products andthe Florida Citrus Commission. The advertising miessages emphasized the quality of Florida citrus products, the work of the Commission, and that Florida

citrus fruits and juices are the preferred source for natural Vitamin C. Human interest themes, such as the "Today's Little Limey" advertisement shown on the title page, alternated with advertisements which featured quality control and other aspects of the Commission's work.
These general advertisements- appeared frequently in the official publications of the American Medical Association, the American Dental As sociation, the American Nurses Association and the American Dietetic Association; in three outstanding large circulation national medical journals; and in 54 selected State Medical journals and County Medical publications.
Three special advertisements individually highlighted the part that citrus products can play in certain specific medical conditions. Based on authoritative scientific opinion, these advertisements showed how citrus products could be used as a rich source of potassium in potassium deficiency conditions; how citrus products were the preferred way of providing natural Vitamin C and other valuable nutrients in infant feeding; and how orange juice could serve as a substitute for rich desserts and drinks in the diet of young acne patients. These advertisements appeared in leading medical journals received by specialists in the fields of pediatrics, dermatology and internal medicine.
Altogether, during the 1961-62 fiscal year, 450 insertions of the Commission's medical advertisements appeared in 75 professional journals with a combined circulation of over 1, 500, 000. This advertising schedule provided a potential exposure to the Florida citrus advertisements of over 9,500,000 impressions.
As in the previous fiscal year, these medical advertisements achieved an outstanding measure of success as measured by readership research studies. One important measure of the quality of medical advertising is the Readex Reader Interest Survey which is conducted for the large circulation national medical journal, "Modern Medicine. 11 During the past year, Fl'orida citrus advertisements, which appeared in eight issues of this journal, ranked first in the Food and Beverage Category five times, second two times, and third once. In comparing all advertisements appearing in the eight issues, the studies showed that the Florida citrus advertisements consistently received a higher average readership rating than the average for all other advertisements. This demonstrated that the physician is interested in citrus products and that the campaign has been successful in reaching the physician with information about Florida citrus products.

Professional Relations
As part of a continuing professional relations program, the agency's
Medical Department keeps close watch on medical matters affecting the citrus industry and informs the Commission and its staff on current medical opinion in areas of interest. The agency also keeps medical leaders informed of the activities and programs of the Commission which are of interest to the medical profession.
During the fiscal year the agency worked closely with. members of the Commission staff and with personnel of the Commission's consumer advertising and public relations agencies.

The agency's Medical Department reviewed for medical accuracy copy for consumer advertisements which included medical or related health claims. The members of the agency's Medical Advertising Advisory Council provided consultation and advice on a number of matters affecting the Commission's advertising and research programs. This group also continued to provide the Commission's staff with a "sounding board" of medical opinion throughout the country.
The agency's Medical Department consulted with Commission personnel concerning the medical exhibit program and the agency's Medical Director participated in the Commission's exhibit at the annual meeting of the American Academy of General Practice.
An eight-page booklet, "Skin Care For Teen-Agers, 11 was prepared in cooperation with an outstanding specialist in the field of dermatology who is a consultant to the agency. This brochure, designed primarily for distribution by physicians to patients, is written in a style which is easily understood by young people. It presents common-sense rules for good skin care and highlights the benefits which Florida citrus products can provide for the teen-age skin. The brochure was shown at medical meetings attended by the Commission's exhibit. The Commission received numerous requests from physicians for quantities of the booklet for office use.

Medical Research Projects
In cooperation with the Commission's Director of Research, the
agency's Medical Director continued supervision of the special medical research projects being carried out under Commission sponsorship. During the past fiscal year, three such studies have been underway. The major study, "Orange Juice in the Treatment of Acne Conditions," was completed, in January, 196Z. Clinical records have been compiled on over 100 patients involved in the study program. Statistical compilation and analysis of the results are now being completed. Preliminary analyses indicate that valuable data and information have been obtained which will be meaning ful and of great use in providing a basis for consumer advertising in this area.
Currently two studies are in progress at Michigan State University under the direction of Professor Van Huss. These studies, which are coordinated and interrelated, will determine the "Effects of Vitamin C on Physical Endurance."
At the completion of each of the research projects, the results will be included in scientific papers which will be published in professional journals. Reprints of thesd scientific articles will be available to the Commission for use in promotional programs.

: I "wk ,


ORA 461 &CE


U One of the prime purposes for the organization of the Florida Citrus Commission in 1935 was to advertise and merchandise Florida citrus products in all forms. After the first several national advertising programs had been launched, industry leaders felt that some plan should be devised forkeeping retail organizations informed of the Commission's advertising program and an effort be made to have retailers coordinate their advertising with that of the Commission. To accomplish this purpose, a merchandising department was set up by the Florida Citrus Commission and hasbeen maintained ever since. During the years that have intervened, this department has grown from a two-man staff to a large and effective merchandising staffof 66 men operating in allof the principal markets of the
United States and Canada.
The purpose of theprogram is tomaintain a good
working relationship with the different retail organizations that handle our products, k e e p them up

to date regarding Commission advertising schedules, and arrange for promotions in their retail stores, and assist in any other way possible to increase the sale of Florida citrus products in any form through these retail organizations.
The benefits of this type program have been recognized by all factors in the citrus industry. It has been determined through contacts with these retail organizations and through research surveys that the sale and usage of Florida citrus products have been increased by such a program.
During the early days of the operation of the merchandising program, heavy concentration of man power was in the eastern part of the United States; however, during recent years the distribution pattern of our products has changed, and at the present time Commission representatives cover practically every important retail market in the United Stafes and Canada.
In the early days of the operation, all of the supervision of the merchandising staff was handled through the Lakeland office. As the staff grew, two division managers were employed to supervise the activities of the men in the field. A year later, a third division manager was added, and during the 1960-61 season, two more division managers were added to the staff. In order to properly operate and supervise a staff of 66 men, the country has been divided into five divisions. A division manager is in charge of each division, and a regional manager is in charge of the operation in each principal market. Merchandising representatives work under the supervision of the regional managers. The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic Coast area and eastern Canada. The Central Division covers the central part of the United States and central Canada. The Western Division consists of the midwestern area of the'United States and Canada. The Southern Division covers all the southern states from Oklahoma and Texas eastward, and the Pacific Division consists of the area west of the Rocky -Mountains. At the present time, our staff consists of five division managers, 38 regional managers, and 23 merchandising representatives. The merchandising representatives are under the direct supervision of the regional managers, the regional managers report to the division managers, and the division managers report directly to the Lakeland office.
It has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Commission, whenever possible, to employ merchandising men from the State of Florida. Many of these men are graduates of Florida agricultural schools, with a major in citrus or marketing. If qualified representatives are not available from within the State of Florida, an effort is made to find men in the respective markets who have a good merchandising background and are capable of conducting the program in these respective markets. Each man is thoroughly trained before being assigned to his market.
During the course of each year much information is channeled to members of the merchandising staff in order to keep them informed of the activities within the citrus industry itself. Constant communications are maintained between field representatives and the Lakeland office. Division meetings are conducted from time to time, at which time the men are brought up to date on all advertising and promotional activities, and a definite plan of operation is outlined to them. It is felt that this is very necessary in

order to maintain a coordinated program and hold the interest of the.representatives who are working'in remote areas from the headquarters office.
The duties of the merchandising staff cover a wide scope of operations. These duties change from year to year in order to keep abreast with the rapid change in marketing plans of the modern retail organizations. Through chain store headquarters they arrange for promotions on different citrus products, work out all phases of the promotion, order point-of-sale display material to be used in this connection, and then carry this through to the retail level. During the past season, Commission representatives built 28, 480 citrus displays in retail stores. It has been determined by surveys that a large percentage of retail buying is impulse buying. If Florida citrus products are well displayed and properly priced in the retail stores, Mrs. Housewife will be attracted to these products and spend a portion of her food dollars for citrus products.
In addition to the work with the retail stores, Commission representatives contact auction companies in the terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distributors, hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug and fountain groups in order to keep all factors properly informed regarding our advertising and merchandising schedules. In addition to the above contacts, efforts have been made, whenever possible, to contact and work with the institutional trade; however, this is a specialized field, and our activities, with the present staff, have been limited.
During the 1961-62 season, merchandising representatives of the Florida Citrus Commission made a total of 106, 577 calls on different types of organizations. In order to cover their respective territories they traveled a total of 1, 385, 720 miles. During this same year they conducted 868 live in-store demonstrations in which different types of citrus products were sampled to the retail store customers. Some 1, 624 give -away promotions were conducted at the retail level in which the consumer received an award at the close of a promotional period. Such demonstration and give-away programs have proved to be most successful and are well accepted by the retail food organizations throughout the country.
In addition to the demonstration program, 387 prize and premium promotions were conducted. This is an incentive plan through which cash, bonds, and other prizes and premiums are offered to personnel of the different retail organizations for outstanding jobs of promoting, displaying, and selling Florida citrus and citrus products. This is the third year that this type of promotional program has been used, and it has been proven that it is one of the most successful methods of increasing the sale of Flo-rida citrus products through retail organizations.
At the beginning of each fiscal year, a program of planned promotions is arranged by the Florida Citrus Commission. During the 1961-62 season four major promotional activities were conducted. A brochure outlining each of these is produced through the Lakeland office and distributed to some 10, 000 top level personnel of retail organizations throughout the United States and Canada well in advance of the promotional period. The brochure outlines the details of each promotion, indicating the advertising

and merchandising activities supplied by the Florida Citrus Commission to support each event. It also illustrates the type of point-of -sale display material to be used in the promotion and pictures of model displays suitable for retail stores. Support for each one of these promotional activities is solicited by the field representatives of the Florida Citrus Commission well in advance of the promotional date and arrangements made to supply them with point-of-sale display material kits for in-store use. This type of activity has been well received by the retail trade. The planned promotions are supplemented from time to time in different markets by special promotions on citrus products that are in plentiful supply. Many of these special promotions have proved to be most successful and are well accepted by the trade factors.
During the course of each year's activities, certain special events are planned and carried through to completion. Each of these programs is planned well in advance and conducted by the field representatives in the market to which it applies. The following is a list of those conducted during the 1961-62 season.

Tangelo Promotion
Merchandising activities were conducted in 25 major markets to support the sale of Florida tangelos. Special point-of-sale display material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission for this product. Instore demonstrations and prize and premium incentive programs were used to create interest at the retail level.

Tangerine Promotion
As in previous years, the Florida Citrus Commission worked in close cooperation with the staff of the Florida Tangetine Co-operative. Tangerine promotions were conducted in many ofthe principal markets throughout the United States and Canada with satisfactory results. Special pointof-sale display material was produced by the Florida Tangerine Go-operative to supplement the use of the material supplied by the Florida Citrus Commission. In addition to this material, the Florida Citrus Commission purchased 5, 000 glass tangerine bowls which were used as a give-away premium at the retail store level. This type of promotional activity proved to be most successful. It was hoped that by presenting this bowl to Mrs. Consumer that she would continue to purchase fresh fruit for her home and make the fresh fruit bowl a permanent fixture in her home. To tie in with this promotion, several of the packers in Florida purchased fruit bowls and supplied them to their handlers in the northern markets.

Temple Orange Promotion
Florida Temple oranges have become a popular fruit in many markets throughout the United States and Canada. Special promotions were arranged with many trade factors to promote this product. Advertising schedules were carried in major markets. Special point-of-sale display material was supplied, and many attractive displays were built in retail stores, with results reported to be unusually good.

Special Valencia Promotion
When the Florida Valencia orange crop was at the peak of its goodness, Florida Citrus Mutual provided the Commission with $25, 000 for special promotional activities on this product. This special promotion was conduced in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Hartford, and Boston. The money was spent for prize and premium promotions and an intensive demonstration program. Excellent cooperation was received from all retail organizations in these markets, and the movement of Valencia oranges was increased by a large percentage.

Special "Grapefruit Display" Contest
At the peak of the grapefruit season, the Florida Citrus Commission arranged for a special "Grapefruit Display" contest in which $10, 000 worth of prizes were offered to 153 winners. The first prize was the choice of a Ford or Chevrolet automobile. Second prize was a Falcon or Corvair, and third prize was a trip to Florida for two, plus 150 cash prizes. Some 4, Z50 display pictures were entered in the contest. A team of competent judges reviewed the pictures and awarded the prizes. Fine cooperation and support was received from retail organizations throughout the United States and Canada in connection with this program, and many of the contestants reported that their sales were increased by a large percentage during the promotional period.

The Florida Citrus Commission has for many years participated in major conventions relating to the food, health, and dietetic fields. Booth space is purchased and an attractive display is built depicting some phase of Florida citrus activity. Through participation in this type of convention we have been able to sample citrus products to many thousands of interested people in the United States and Canada. During the 1961-62 season we participated in the following conventions: Food, 8; Dietetic and Home Economics, 2; Hotel and Restaurant, 4; Medical, 4; School, 2; Florida Citrus Exposition, 1; and Florida Industrial Exposition, 1. In addition to participation in the above, it has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Commission to serve orange juice to all national conventions which hold their meetings in the State of Florida. Orange juice was served as a courtesy to 113 such conventions during the past year. It is felt that participation in this type of activity builds much good will for Florida citrus products.

European Program
The 1961-62 season started the sixth year of participation in an advertising and promotional program in Western Europe. The Commission's budget was $193, 000, of which $125, 000 was used for consumer and trade advertising. In support of the advertising program, specially prepared display materials were made available in the language of the countries in which the advertising ran. Again the Commission's program was supplemented by the sum of $105, 000 by the United States Department of Agriculture, under the provisions of Public Law 480. The activities for advertising and promoting fresh, canned and frozen Florida citrus products

were in the countries of Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland. Germany and Sweden continue to be the best customers. Therefore allocations of funds were heavier in these two countries. During the latter part of the harvesting season, we were able to promote fresh grapefruit in England and fresh oranges in Finland. Another great potential was the expansion and marketing of frozen orange concentrate from Florida. There has been an increase of frozen cabinets in retail food stores and shops, plus a substantial increase of refrigerators in many of the countries, especially Sweden.
The European advertising program was carried out by Benton & Bowles, Ltd. , of London, with affiliates in Stockholm, Sweden; Brussels, Belgium; Paris, France; Frankfurt, Germany; Geneva, Switzerland; and Oslo, Norway. The affiliates handle all trade and consumer advertising in their respective countries. The Commission continues to maintain a European merchandising representative who coordinates all promotional programs with the agencies and trade factors. Most all of the agencies handle the preparation of merchandising materials and coordinate them with the advertising program.
The Commission stepped up its sampling program at the retail level and conducted more than 500 individual store sampling promotions. The demonstration program was proven highly successful in increasing the demand for frozen orange concentrate. All demonstration programs are set up by the Florida Citrus Commission's European merchandising representative, along with additional support by the advertising agencies, personnel. Specially prepared educational leaflets were distributed by demonstrators where sampling activities were in progress. The Commission has received many thousands of requests for additional leaflets to be distributed among schools and other institutions.
Throughout the year the Commission conducted special luncheons for the important trade factors, including importers, whole ' sales, distributors and individual retailers. Approximately 300 trade people have had the opportunity of getting first-hand knowledge of the Florida citrus industry's operation, and saw the current advertising and merchandising programs.
Participation in major Food Fairs continues to be an important phase of the Commission's European activities. In three of the International Food Fairs, the Citrus Commission participated jointly with other United States agricultural products. This was done through coordination with the United States Department of Agriculture. In addition, the Commission had its own display and sampling of products in seven large local Food Fairs, including Munich, Germany; Paris, France; The Hague, Holland; Brussels, Belgium; Copenhagen, Denmark; Hamburg, Germany; and Stockholm, Sweden. It was at the Hamburg Fair that red and pink grapefruit from Florida was first introduced. From the excellent reception, an extended promotional program was developed for the Ruhr Valley in Germany. Because of the success of this promotion, the Commission will extend its advertising and merchandising activities on red and pink grapefruit into other countries. The format of the promotion followed the same pattern as used domestically in the United States, which included

sampling, demonstrations, and offering of special incentive rewards to retailers.
In view of the general trend toward greater liberalization and more
free trading of commercial products between the United States and Western Europe, the Commission's advertising and merchandising program will continue to develop greater interest in the marketing of citrus crops throughout all of the Western European countries. Merchandising activities will also continue to carry a paramount role in the over-all program.

Media Relations
It has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Commission for many
years to have representatives work in close cooperation with the different media organizations carrying the Commission's advertising schedule. Many publications maintain their own merchandising staffs and, in many instances, these have given valuable merchandising assistance at the retail level.

Concentrate Sampling
At the request of the Research Department of the Florida Citrus Commission, the Commission field representatives have picked up samples of frozen orange and grapefruit concentrates on a regularly scheduled basis and shipped them to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States Department of Agriculture. Sixty concentrate surveys have been conducted during the course of this fiscal year. In addition to the sampling program, the field representatives carry on a continuous program with the retail organizations throughout the United States and Canada in an attempt to promote better care and handling of frozen concentrates at the retail level. Temperature tests are made in the retail stores from time to time, and literature regarding better care and handling of frozen products is distributed at the retail level. Excellent cooperation has been received from all trade factors in connection with this program, and it is generally felt that such a program has been helpful in making the store personnel more aware of the necessity of proper handling for frozen citrus concentrates.

Weekly Reports
Each Florida Citrus Commission field representative is required to submit to the Lakeland office a weekly report. This report is in the form of a market analysis covering movement, quality, appearance, and acceptance of Florida citrus products in the area which he covered during the week. He also submits a range of retail prices for each particular product and that of competitive products, along with a general condition report of retail activities as far as our products are concerned. These reports are edited, reproduced, and mailed to some 400 to 500 packers and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. This market information is considered most beneficial to the industry.

Tools and Equipment
The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission is provided with upto-date equipment with which to carry on promotional activities. This

equipment consists of juice bars, juice dispensers, shadow boxes for display purposes, turntables, etc. From time to time spectacular display are produced, installed in retail stores, and moved from time to time by the field men. A complete. inventory is kept idthe Lakeland office of all equipment in the possession of each field man. Every effort possible has been made to keep the equipment of the field staff up to date and in step with the progress which is being made from a merchandising standpoint at a retail level.

In order to keep a complete record of the daily activities of each field man, a tabulation card is provided which is used to report each individual call. These cards are mailed to the headquarters office each day and.are processed by region, type of call, work done in the individual store, and each man's mileage for the day is reported on these cards and recorded in the Lakeland office. At the end of each month' s operation, a record of the calls for each man is tabulated. This tabulation is broken down by the type of call which he has made, such as super market, independent, wholesaler, broker, receiver, etc,. At the end of each year's operation, a summary of the complete operation of the field staff is compiled from the files of each individual man. By following this method of operation, it can be determined at all times whether or notdifferent segments of the trade are being covered and, if not, means can be taken to correct the situation.

The service of the Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus
Commission has been accepted with enthusiasm by the different trade factors throughout the country. These factors are continually contacting the Commission's representatives for information regarding crop conditions, crop quality, and details of our advertising and merchandising program. All possible information regarding activities of the Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida citrus industry is channeled to the merchandising representatives in order that they can pass this information on to the trade factors in an intelligent manner. The service which is offered to the retail trade by the merchandising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission is well received, and on many occasions it is necessary to allocate the time of these representatives in order that all trade factors may be satisfied and receive their rightful share of these services. It is the general consensus of opinion from all information which has been received that this service has been helpful to the retail organizations in moving larger quantities of Florida citrus products and, in turn, showing a greater profit from their. retail operation.


Preparation, ordering, distribution and handling of retail store merchandising and point-of-sale material are the principal activities of this De. partment, which enjoyed a record year as far as volume is concerned.
Most of the printed and manufactured items which comprise the material used by the Merchandising Department field men for their store

displays are delivered to the warehouse in the Lakeland headquarters and are distributed from that point to every part of the United States and Canada. All of the educational materials utilized by the Youth and School Se-rvice department are ordered through the Production Department.
No material is sent out unless it is requested in writing, either directly by the firm using it or by the merchandising representatives. The field men are kept posted on supplies of the various designs by an inventory sheet mailed out to them twice a month, and samples of newly developed materials are supplied to them upon delivery to the warehouse.
This past season, a total of 10, 753, 688 pieces of store display material and informational literature were sent out to the retail food trade and other allied industries. Packaging and preparation for shipping this amount of material was a mammoth undertaking, amounting to 544,196 pounds turned over to the United States Post Office, Railway Express, and in some cases Air Freight when time is an important factor.
The Commission's merchandising activities enable the food retailer to take full advantage of the consumer advertising program, and so the Production Department must work hand in hand with the merchandising field staff and the grocery trade. Frequent mailings are directed to a list of more than 10, 000 of the important food outlets, advising them of the Commission's advertising in their markets, and suggesting ways in which they can benefit by this advertising. The mailing pieces contain self-addressed order forms for the dealers to return and the display materials are then assembled in kits for distribution by chain headquarters. During the 1961 62 season, 247, 162 kits of material were prepared on request, each kit containing from 10 to 25 posters, pennants and price cards.
Florida printers produced practically all of the printed display material used by the Florida Citrus Commission, with the exception of a few pieces which required special equipment not to be found in Florida. A total of 165 individual printing jobs were ordered during the fiscal year, for educational and merchandising distribution.
Supervision of the Florida Citrus Commission's educational film program through a national film distributor is a major activity of this department, and thousands of civic clubs, church groups and schools availed themselves of these services. Television showings of Commission films continue to rise, with over 20, 000, 000 estimated viewers in the past year being exposed to the Florida citrus story.
The Production Department supervises the Commission's mailing room which disseminates industry and advertising information to shippers, processors, publications and food outlets throughout the United States and Canada. Some 273, 000 pieces of mail were turned over to the Post Office during the 1961-62 season. The mailing room also operates the duplicating equipment, turning out essential bulletins and statistics for the information of the industry and the trade. More than 2, 300, 000 impress sions were produced and mailed out in the course of the past year.


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0 As the Florida C it r us Commission activity has moved into high-gear with ever-increasing products and c rops to market and, with more avenue s and areas to be reached, p ubIi c relations thinking has accelerated to include more influential act ivi tie s than ever in the 26 y e a r s which Dudley-AndersonYutzy has represented the Commission.
The fact that the re has been consistency in the
publicity e ff o rt pays off more and more each year.
A I i b r a r y of well over 1 , 000 food pictures and approximately 5, 000 Florida c it r us recipes mne an s that year by year more publicity is a v a iIa ble and in use, so that now there is scarcely a food column, cookbook, textbook, or article on food that does not contain strong recommendation for FlI o r i d a citrus
Public r ela t io ns is made up of myriad things,
often hard to describe or visualize. It includes such vague aspects as reputation with teachers; contacts with gove rnment a ge n c ies and other pr of es sional associations; reliability in the eyes of the

press in general; prestige among writers and editors; availability to do work with other groups; know-how in staging events and affairs; and versatility in providing writing, research development programs.
It is this experience in these many areas which has made it possible for a broadened program into the larger area of public relations as the state Is industry has expanded.

As the country's oldest and best-known source of tested recipes,
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy has obtained outstanding use of materials in newspapers, magazines, company publications, radio and television, textbooks and cookbooks.
This has resulted in unprecedented coverage for Florida citrus pictures and recipes, which go to 471 top newspapers every month, to another 3,400 small-town dailies and weeklies, to more than 250 company publications, to over 300 radio stations, and to more than 150 television stations.
Special efforts are directed year-round to magazine editors who take their own pictures, but use Agency recipes and ideas; syndicated food writers such as Cecily Brownstone of Associated Press, Gaynor Maddox of National Education Association and Ida Bailey Allen of King Features; syndicated radio and television writers; free-lance food writers like James Beard, Poppy Cannon and Peggy Harvey; to the weekly magazine food editors -- Clementine Paddleford of This Week; Eleanor Crook who is the Amy Alden of the American Weekly; Demetria Taylor who is the Beth Merriam of Parade; Melanie DeProft of Family Weekly, Suburbia and AllFlorida Magazine.
Clippings sent in by food editors or accrued through other channels
show that for the year 1961-62, there were more than 20, 000 readers for every dollar expended in the food publicity program. This does not take into account the additional millions reached through radio and television, cookbooks, and the various other outlets for food publicity.
During 1961-62, citrus food color pictures occupied space in newspapers which would have cost more than $120, 000 to purchase. These pictures demonstrate the longevity of good, well-planned efforts. Right now, color pictures made in 1947 are still being printed as more and more papers put in color presses. The life of a good food picture is immeasurable.
The "Three-Minute Cookbook" films made some six years ago are still getting wide usage, both on television and in the schools. Through 8, 816 school showings and 4, 76Z telecasts, the films reached an audience of more than 150, 000, 000 last year.
Until this year, the institutional feeding field had been reached almost exclusively by the Commission's publicity program. In May, revisions were completed of the quantity recipes, and the third set of cards to be printed in the past 13 years are now in circulation. This is a field where much must be done intensively, and the citrus recipes are done to the specifications of a highly -profe s signal field which offers great sales potential.
Close contacts with such agencies as the United States Department of Agriculture result in extra effort for citrus products through bulletins and TV kits which include pictures and recipes supplied by the Agency.
A great deal of time is spent working with publicists and home economists of other food companies and associations, to insure inclusion of

Florida citrus recipes and ideas developed in Agency test kitchens.
The Agency has participated in many of the leading professional meetings involving food publicity. The Newspaper Food Editors Conference -where for 15 years the Commission has conducted the opening event; the American Home Economics Association- -for which the Commission cohosted a reception for new members; the American Women in Radio and Television--the Commission hosted a dinner for the national chairman and officers, who include Secretary-Treasurer Peggy Ware, agency home economist; the Home Economists in Business; the American Dietetic Association; the Institutional Food Editors Conference; the National Farm Home Editors Association; and the Public Relations Society of America.
To broaden the scope of activity and influence, considerable work was done with department stores in staging Florida citrus spectaculars in fashions and in foods, as conducted with B. Altman & Co. , of New York, where citrus was featured in eight departments as well as in the restaurant with special dishes each day - and through individually planned food demonstrations by authoritative specialists.


The Commission, in cooperation with Florida Power & Light Company, Miami; Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg; Tampa Electric Company, Tampa; Gulf Power Company, Pensacola; and the Hotpoint Division of General Electric Company, Jacksonville; sponsored the Fourth Annual All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest in which 3,072 contestants participated. The Contest, under the direction of the Commission's Public Relations Department, was launched initially three years ago and attracted 2, 301 entries the first year.
Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted all over the State by the Home Service Departments of the cooperating privately - financed electric utilities. The Grand Finals, under the direction of the Commission, were again held in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus Building in Winter Haven on April 12-13, 1962. Mrs. Farris Bryant, charming wife of the Governor, was honored guest.
The Grand Championship Sweepstakes was won by Mrs. Irvin Wander of Winter Haven. Her prizes consisted of appliances for an all-electric kitchen. Second prize winner was Mrs. Vernon Wetherington of Jasper. She won an electric washer and dryer. Third prize winner was Mrs. 0. C. Phelan of Miami Shores. She won a portable electric dishwasher. Mrs. Mary Tsolas of Pompano B each won honorable mention. First male finalist in the history of the contest, Mr. Alfred S. Arnstam of Miami, participated in the Grand Finals.
Nationally -known judges for the Grand Finals selected the winners.
They were Clementine Paddleford, food editor of This Week Magazine and New York Herald-Tribune; Dorothy B. Marsh, director of food and cookery for Good Housekeeping Institute; Glenna McGinnis, foods and equipment editor of Woman's Day Magazine; Elizabeth A. Wood, associate editor for foods and equipment, Better Homes & Gardens Magazine; and Richard B. Baumgardner, owner of the Kapok Tree Inn in Clearwater.

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0 Since the Youth and School Service program deals with the c o n s u m e r s of the next two or three decades, the efforts and activities in which the program participates are most important to the f u t u r e
of the citrus industry.
Many of the p r o j e c t s are executed by DudleyAnderson-Yutzy, food publicity agency, under the administration of the C o m m i s s i o n staff, and. have won the whole -hearted a p p r o v a 1 of the educational
community and social agencies.
Now two years old, the p r o g r a m is well known
around the country and several of the original Commission projects, such as the 1961 Teen-age Nutrition Breakfast in Grand Rapids, Michigan, have been widely copied by other communities. (More than 250 work outlines on staging such an event, prepared by Dudley -Ande r s on-Yutzy, have been distributed).
The award in May to an outstanding t e a c h e r of
health e d u c a t i o n was made for the second year in

Georgia, where this department has worked in conjunction with a committee representing the State Department of Education, the State Home Economics Association, Medical Society, Dental Society, Dietetics Associa.tion, Home Demonstration Agents, and Nutrition Council.
Health education workshops were staged in Maine and Massachusetts
under Florida Citrus Commission grants; many other states have requested similar assistance as news of Florida's interest in this field spreads.
The national officers and chairmen of the National Home Demonstration Agents Association were entertained during annual conventions in 1961 at Boston and in 196Z at Chicago. These agents, comparable in influence to the county agents, direct club activities from the 4-H level through PTA and Women's Clubs.
Florida's participation in the National Youthpower Congress, an outgrowth of the National Food Conference, has increased in stature. La-st year the Commission helped send the Florida delegation of teen-agers to Chicago for this important meeting, and one Florida representative was
as the outstanding teen-age girl at the Congress. As a result of local participation and interest, a Florida committee has been formed to activate participation in the 1963 Congress, under the auspices of the State Department of Education. Also, as a result of the Health- Education projects in Georgia, that state has, decided to engage actively in the Youthpower Congress for the first time, and has asked advice and counsel from Florida.
Last spring a half-hour movie entitled "The Beauty Habit" was produced, directed primarily to teen-age girls through the charm schools conducted by department stores, Girl Scouts, YWCA's and schools. The "glamour" angle is stressed in the film, since this seems to garner far more attention from teen-agers than strictly labeled nutrition information.
During the year, a great deal of time -and planning went into an event which actually occurred after the close of the fiscal year, but which, because of its importance, warrants reporting at this time. That was the International Girl Scout Roundup at Button Bay, Vermont, during two weeks of July, 1962.
Early in the year, the Girl Scout organization inquired about contributions of citrus juice and fruit. The possibility of selling orange juice in the areas reserved for soft drink sales was investigated and after several months, permission was granted. Through one of Florida's largest processors, a salesman was obtained, along with a refrigerated truck and specially packed eight-ounce containers of juice.
The response was immediate and reassuring, tangible from a sales angle and proof of the inherent sales potential of Florida citrus products.
Teachers, school nurses, health departments of towns, cities and counties and others in the field of influencing the youth of the nation are constantly looking for materials to make instruction easier and more interesting, insofar as teaching nutrition and good health is concerned. The The program has endeavored to prepare and make available materials that would encourage such use. Some new material has been developed, including a very popular booklet, "The Good Ship Vitamin C, 11 produced*, written and illustrated by noted cartoonist-ad specialist Don Herold.

Numerous workshops in the field of nutrition and health education have utilized the material and films as program supplements.

The map that follows shows sources of requests for the educational material. The quantity furnished increased 31 per cent over the previous year.



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During1961-62 the Commission continued its
cooperative r e s e a r ch with the University of Floridal s Citrus Experiment Station at L a k e Alfred and the United S t a t e s Department of Agriculture Fruit and Vegetable Products Laboratory at Winter Haven.
In addition, research in cooperation with the Florida State D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture was initiated and the United States Department of Agriculture Foundation Farm rootstock planting n e a r Leesburg was assisted financially. Also, a human nutritional research project was placed at Michigan State University. Total funds expended were $347, 000.
Research was continued the areas of processing and by-products, mechanization of c i t r u s fruit picking, the influence of freezing temperatures on trees and fruit, decay control, fruit physiology and maturity, and the production of dried citrus juices.
A study of the determination of "pounds -solids" in
citrus fruits was also undertaken.


I. Processing and By-Products

A. Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit
and Processed Products of Citrus
Evaluations were made of the pectins from the component parts of
Valencia and Pineapple oranges at various states of maturity. Distribution of pectinesterase activity was also followed.
B. Volatile Flavor Components in Citrus Juices
and Processed Citrus Products
The flavor of orange juice was studied objectively through gas chromatographic analyses of concentrated natural essences, obtained commercially, and specially recovered volatile components from juices
of established varieties of oranges.
Comparison of analyses of flavor and aroma components of Hamlin,
Pineapple, and Valencia orange juices revealed no significant qualitative differences, but some relative quantitative compositional differences between juice varieties were observed with advancing maturity.
C. Production of Activated Citrus Sludge
The activated sludge system was kept in operation treating citrus
waste water. The system did an excellent job of treating all concentrations of waste within certain limits.
D. A Survey of the Characteristics. of Commercial
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Flavor, stability and color weredetermined for 195 samples of commercial frozen orange concentrate collected from 23 plants, during the 1960-61 season. ' These sam leswere graded by a taste panel and flavor grades of ','good" and "fait" were given to 43 and 56 per cent, respectively; one per cent of the samples were graded "poor.
E. Effect of Citrus Components on Chemical and Physical
Properties of Frozen Citrus Concentrate
The effect of the use of different component parts of citrus fruit and
processing procedures on the characteristics and quality of frozen citrus concentrates was studied.
F. Utilization of Freeze-Damaged Oranges in
Frozen Orange Concentrate ,
Properties oforange juices were determined after extraction from fruit
frozen on trees using portable freezing chamber.
Changes the juices three days after freezing of the fruit
and became greater as the time between freezing and picking was increased. After freezing of the orange, the acid content of the juices decreased, Brix/acid ratio increased, relative serum viscosity increased,
pulp content increased, redness increased, and the lightness or "milky
appearance" increased.
G. Microbiology of Frozen Oranges
The microbiological examination of juice from oranges frozen on trees
by means of a portable freezing unit was continued, and only one orange with juice highly contaminated and one orange with moderate contamination were found after examination of 869 frozen oranges picked. Dropped
fruit which appeared sound were also examined, and 25 fruit out of 400
contained microorganisms.

H. Factors Affecting Stability of Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice
The effects of pectinesterase (PE) activity, quantity of pectic substances, and degree of concentration on the stability of frozen concentra-,
ted orange juice at temperatues above OOF. were again examined.
It was determined that 420 and 50. 70 Brix concentrates in which
the pectinesterase activity was present during concentration were less
stable during 400F. storage than those products to which PE activity
was added only in cutback juices.

II. Physiology of Fruit and Fruit Pigments

A. Organic Acids in the Juice Vesicles of Hamlin Oranges
The organic acids in the juice vesicles of Hamlin oranges at different stages of fruit development were separated by ion exchange and paper
chromatography. Eight acids were observed, and five, of these,
namely, citric, malic, quinic, succinic, and an unknown acid occurred
in sufficiently high amounts in various stages of fruit development to
be measured quantitatively.
B. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel
Grapefruit:- Results of basic research on the natural degreening of citrus under different holding temperatures were applied to commercial shipments of grapefruit to overseas markets in cooperation with Apshawa Groves. A total of 1, 791 half -boxes of early green-colored
grapefruit was packed with minimum of packinghouse treatment and
no fungicidal treatment. The fruits were shipped to the ports of Hamburg, Rotterdam or Zurich under. ventilation and arrived in Europe
with a good yellow color; degreening had taken place enroute. Decay
rates were less than 2. 5 per cent, and the experimental, fruit were acceptable at auction as shown by the price received.
C. Fruit Physiology
Metabolic studies continued with the isolation of citrus mitochondria, and the discovery that the enzyme, ascorbic acid oxidase, is present
in young orange fruit tissue.

III. Decay Control

During the 1961-62 season, 103 experiments were completed. Experimental work included: (1) Testing 11I new methods of controlling de
cay, none of which were effective. (2) Evaluating self-polishing fungicidal water waxes,. (3) No significant difference in decay or rind
breakdown was found between oranges packed in wire-bound crates
and in ventilated cartons. (4) Curing Pineapple oranges two days reduced rind breakdown 71 per cent and decay 46 per cent over uncured
fruit allowed to stand two days before processing, while Valencia
orange fruits showed similar reductions of 94 per cent and 30 per cent.
(5) Comparison of decay control of oranges treated with Dowicide AHexamine as a dip at three different temperatures gave no significant
results. .(6) Rind breakdown increased in ungassed, color-added

oranges subjected to delayed handling before processing and packing, while color-added oranges packed without delay showed no significant increase in stem-end rind breakdown. (7) In oranges subjected to delayed handling before processing and packing, the longer the delay the
greater the amount of stem-end rind breakdown. (8) Oranges degreened at a high humidity or promptly handled were compared with those.degreened at a low humidity or subjected to delayed handling.
Average rind breakdown in the was 2. 7 per cent and in the
second 42. 7 per cent. Decay was again found to increase significantly
with rind breakdown.

IV. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

A machine toproduce an oscillating air blast was constructed to study the possibility of using this principle for harvesting citrus fruit. Tests performed in mature groves of different varieties gave fruit removal of
40 to 95. 6 per cent.
I Tests in Hamlin and Pineapple oranges of an inertia shaker resulted
in fruit removals of 60 to 85 per cent, and trials on Marsh Seedless and Duncan grapefruit resulted in 8,5 to 90 per cent removal. The performance of a cable shaker in Valencia oranges was inferior to that of the
inertia shaker on average size trees.
A search was begun for a chemical treatment that would be effective
in reducing the necessary force to remove the mature fruit from the

V. Prevention of Freeze Damage to Citrus

A total of 31 citrus trees were exposed to low temperatures. Little or no tree damage occurred on Marsh grapefruit, Dancy tangerine, Parson Brown, Pineapple and Valencia oranges exposed to 24 � 0. 50F. for.
periods of six to eight hours, except in the case of three trees of Parson Brown which were wet at this temperature and therefore killed back
to the large scaffold limbs. At this temperature and duration, there
was no damage to the fruit of Marsh grapefruit. Dancy tangerine fruit
was partially frozen resulting in a softening at the stem-end and the
fruit dropping from the tree. Orange fruits were all frozen resulting in aloss of flavor, lowering of acid and sugar, and a general insipid flavor
developing three to five days after freezing.


I. Determination of Pounds-Solids

The purpose of this project is to develop accurate and stable methods
for determining the pounds-solids particularly for oranges delivered to the processor. The program is divided into the selection of the sample, the extraction of the juice from this sample, and the analysis of the juice
for Brix and acid.

A bulk fruit handling system to study sampling methods was constructed. Existing extractors have been modified and new extractors were obtained for further study on improving machines for extraction.
Automatic methods to perform the manual functions now done by the
State inspectors are being considered and several are presently in the
process of development. Some sampling and extracting tests were run.
In addition, an attempt is being made to develop a satisfactory, reproducible laboratory method of determination of the pounds-solids content of citrus fruits.


I. Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices

Progress was made during the year in foam-mat drying of orange juice,
particularly in establishing maximum tolerable temperature and time relationships in drying, in relative humidity moisture relationships in dried powder, and in storage studies. Equipment modifications were
made to increase useful air temperatures and improve temperature control. Investigations also included foam stabilizers, flavor stability comparisons of products containing different foam stabilizers, inert gas
packaging, secondary drying, volatile components of orange powders and
preparation of exploratory grapefruit powders.

Human Nutritional Research

A. The project on the influence of the ingestion of orange juice on facial conditions, under Doctor Herbert S. Spoor, New York Medical College,
was completed and the manuscript is in preparation.
B. A new project, "The Effects of Vitamin C on Physical Performance"
was placed with Professor Wayne D. Van Huss, Michigan State University.

Spray and Dust Schedule

Twenty-two thousand copies of the 196Z Better Fruit Program Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.

United States Department of Agriculture Foundation Farm near Leesburg

Substantial financial assistance was rendered the establishment of the United States Department of Agriculture Foundation. Farm rootstock planting. Funds provided were utilized for land clearing and improvement, irrigation and the erection of a permanent greenhouse.








704 704

j~*\~. I~

64 77 85

22 28

46 55 57 34 25



N The Commission expanded itsoperations during the year by adding a department of e c o n o m i c and marketing research. The expected heavier production and the need for strengthening and expanding the market for F 1 o r i d a citrus w.ere given as reasons for this action. Expenditures amounted to
$119, 227. 91 during the year.
The work of this department falls into two major fields: -(I) the dissemination of crop, processing and consumer purchase information; and, (2) research on various specific problems encountered in marketing Florida's fresh and processed citrus.

Dissemination of Information

Crop Report - The Commission, from October through July, i s s u e d monthly reports of estimated citrus crop production in Florida and competing states, as reported by the U.S. D.A. Crop Reporting Board.

Processing Report - Weekly reports were issued covering the operations of the Florida citrus processors, as reported by the Florida Canners Association. The object of the Commis sion-is sued report was to make the summary of processors' operations available to a larger number of people than would otherwise receive the report.

Consumer Purchase Report - For the 12th consecutive year, the Commission supplied the industry with essential information on estimated consumer purchases of the major citrus and competitive non-citrus products. These data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of America, represent projections to national totals of reported purchases from a representative national sample of approximately 10, 000 household consumers.
Available to the industry are: (1) Weekly reports issued by the Commission each Monday, showing consumer purchases and prices of frozen orange concentrate, chilled orange juice,, canned orange juice, and canned grapefruit juice, with one-year-ago comparisons; (2) Monthly reports by the Commission, showing consumer purchases, average retail price, and per cent families buying frozen orange concentrate, chilled orange juice, canned orange juice, canned grapefruit juice, and canned grapefruit sections. The U. S. D. A. also issued monthly reports on these as well as competitive juices and fruit flavored drinks, which are mailed, upon request, by the Commission to, Florida shippers and processors; (3) Annual reports issued by the U.S. D.A.,, covering selected six-month periods-of consu mer purchases of canned, chilled and frozen juices, ades, drinks and sections as
relte togegraphic region ciysze, family income, family size, age of children, occupation and, education :of family'head, and age a Ind work status of housewife.
The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in! the 1960-61 season was defrayed by the Florida Citrus Commissiofi, with some contributions from the California Prune Advisory Boa.rd. The data published by the U. S. D. A. was purchased by the Commission from the Market Research Corporation of America, and represents part of the broad marketing research program directed toward strengthening and expanding markets for Florida citrus and products. These reports are helpful to the marketers of Florida fresh and processed citrus and provide a basis for evaluating and guiding the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs.


The Commission further expanded its marketing research program during the year on problems not handled by other Florida citrus organizations. These included:

Taste Preference Tests on Florida Grapefruit Drink Mix - This new product, developed by the Florida -Citrus Experiment Station, consists of single strength grapefruit juice, sugar and grapefruit flavoring. Six taste tests were conducted, involving 1, 081 individuals, and 76 per cent of the interviewees rated the product above average, 20 per cent average, and four per cent below average. The product scored slightly higher than

this on sweetness rating., Three out of four respondents indicated a willingness to buy this product based on taste tests. Because of the favorable reaction obtained in the taste tests, market testing was undertaken.

Market Testing of Florida Grapefruit~ Drink Mix -The purpose of this test was to determine the national sales potential for Grapefruit Drink Mix, as well as the best combinations of promotional efforts to generate sales most efficiently. The product was stocked in 50 stores in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and 25 stores in Columbus, Ohio. The Grand Rapids test included advertising support and in-store demonstration and special dis play-in selected stores. The Columbus test included demonstrations., free distribution of product to shoppers, special display, and shelf talkers. Sales of the test product, as well as other products containing grapefruit were audited continually during the 12-week test period, and extensive consumer survey was also conducted- to ascertain attitudes and opinions., substitutionality, carry-forward effects, etc.
Final results were not available at the time of this report.

Consumer Acceptance. of Florida Oranges With and Without Color AddedThe Florida Citrus Commission cooperated with the U. S. D.A. in this study, conducted in 1959, 1960 and 1961. The report issued by the U. S. D.A. shows that the sales of Florida oranges decreased significantly in Cleveland, which is characteristic of a mid-western market, when only naturalcolored Florida oranges were offered. On the other hand, in Philadelphia, which is representative of the eastern markets, sales remained about the same when separate offers were made of natural- colored or color added oranges.
The retail sales, in each market were increased when both types of fruit were, displayed side-by-side. .Such combination displays in Cleveland increased sales 36 per. cent,, and in Philadelphia 20 per cent over the separate displays of color-add or natural- colored oranges. The increased sales. of test oranges when displayed side-by-side had no measurable ef fect on sales of related, -commodity, such as, orange juice, fresh grapefruit and non-test fresh oranges.
The, sales of color-added Florida oranges exceeded the sales of naturalcolored oranges. in each of the three tests, whether displayed alone or in combinations. The average ratio of sales for the three periods was 5-to-4 in favor of the a rtificially colored fruit. During the test, 2,400 shoppers were interviewed at the point of purchase in each city and over 70 per cent said they knew color was sometimes added to the surface of oranges. Purchasers of natural-colored fruit in both cities tended to be more critical of the color-added fruit than of the natural-colored oranges. However, their attitude was tempered by the belief that the color is only on the skin and did not affect the eating quality of the fruit.

The Consum'er, (Household) Market for Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks During the Past Five Years - This study points up the changes in United States purchases of fruit Juices and fruit drinks from 1956,-57 through the 1960-61 season. The outstanding development in purchase trends is the

sharp growth in the fruit-flavored drinks and ades, while single strength fruit juices, especially orange, have decreased. Slight increases in chilled juices and frozen orange concentrate consumer purchases were observed in spite of a relatively stable Florida production following the 1957 freeze. Frozen orange concentrate, which had not importantly changed in consumption volume, did show substantial gains in dollar volume of purchases, due to a retail price advance of 30 per cent. While this study covers the post-freeze years in which the per capita supply was relatively limited, the fact remains that citrus juices in 1960-61 represented a smaller share of the total fruit juice and fruit drink market than five years earlier. The continuation of this trend could lead to more limited marketing opportunities.
An examination of the fruit juice and drink market is necessary because about 80 per cent of Florida oranges and about 35 per cent of Florida grapefruit are sold directly in that market.

Relative Importance of Fresh Citrus Among All Fresh Fruits in SelectedUnited States Markets - This study examined the city-by-city differences in fresh citrus fruit marketing and the importance of citrus, relative to all other fresh fruits in 23 United S tates markets. The cities in the Northeast and Midwestern states received a higher percentage of citrus fruit than cities in the South and West. Although there was a greater consistency of orange, grapefruit and tangerines in the total fresh fruit mix than many other fruits, citrus fruits were nearly: twice as important in some markets than in others. Fresh citrus (excluding lemons, and limes) accounted for 28 per cent of total fresh fruit unloads in Boston, while only 14.7 per cent in Birmingham.
Oranges accounted for 77 per cent of all citrus (excluding lemons and limes) received in New Orleans, while only 54 per cent in Denver. Of the other, grapefruit was most popular in Denver and least popular in New Orleans. Tangerines made up the highest per cent of all citrus received in Pittsburgh and the lowest in Ft. Worth and Minneapolis-St. Paul. The relative importance of individual citrus fruits could not be explained by geographical location of the market alone.
Bananas ranked number one in volume, followed by apples and oranges.
Grapefruit made its best sales showing against the cantaloupe-type
melons in the North Central and Eastern markets and weakest showing in the Western and Southern markets.

Study of Citrus Marketing in Britain - Because of the greatly diminished sales of Florida citrus fruits in the British markets in the last quarter .century, the Florida Citrus Commission undertook to investigate the causes through Benton & Bowles Limited in London. Five reports emerged from this study as follows:
1 - The market for fresh and canned fruit and fruit juices.
2. Consumer usage and attitudes regarding'Florida citrus.
3. Grapefruit placement test.
Frozen orange concentrate test.
5. Actions indicated by the British market research studies.

These studies show that the marketing opportunity for frozen orange juice is less than for fresh citrus. Several attempts to introduce frozen orange concentrate failed. Also, Florida fruit and products have extensive competition from other production areas in the world. The British consumer was unaware of Florida as a citrus producing area. In 1, 300 households interviewed, Florida was not mentioned as a fruit producing area. On the other hand? California was mentioned by six per cent as growing oranges and by three per cent as growing grapefruit. The most frequently mentioned citrus countries were: Spain, South Africa and Israel.
Eighty-seven per cent of the consumers acted favorably to test samples of frozen orange concentrate, but two-thirds of the testers expected the product to be priced lower than quoted. Also, there was a little difference in the acceptance of canned grapefruit sections packed in light or heavy syrup.
Consumption of canned and fresh fruit products in the United Kingdom lag behind the United States, and there is little enthusiasm for canned and frozen 'citrus products.

Estimated Retail and. Institutional Sales of Frozen Orange Concentrate in 100 United States Cities in 1961-62 Marketing Season - This estimate was made as an aid to advertising and promotion placement. The 10 leading retail markets for frozen orange concentrate, in order of importance, were: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, Boston, San, Pittsburgh, Newark, and Washington., D. C. Each is expected to have in excess of 1, 000, 000 gallons'of retail sales during the 1961 -62 season, and will account for one-third of the total sales in the nation.
The 10 markets leading the institutional sales of frozen orange concentrate are: ' New York, Los Angeles, ' Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, Boston, Washington, D. C. , Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Each of these markets will sell in excess of 100, 000 gallons during the 1961-6Z marketing season, and account for 43 per cent of the national sales.

Evaluation of the' Florida.Citrus Commission's Special Multi-Pak Promotion of Frozen Orange Concentrate - This promotion, sponsored by the Florida Citrus Commission, was budgeted at $300, 000 -- $250t 000 for advertising-and $50, 000 for merchandising. The object was to increase the number of cans in each consumer purchase. The results show that the volume of frozen orange concentrate sold in four-can units remained unchanged from the pre-promotion period, while six-can purchases were up slightly, and seven-and-more can purchases declined. The conclusion reached in this evaluation was that the Commission's Multi-Pak promotion failed to prevail upon the consumer to purchase significantly more cans at' a time in the usual four- and six-can units of sale. Unavailability of MultiPak units in several markets was listed as a contributing factor in this conclusion.

Analysis of In-Store Demonstrations An analysis was made of 1,710 records of demonstrations received from the Commission's merchandising field staff during the 1959-60 season, including both fresh and processed Florida citrus promotions in the United States and Canadian markets. The

findings in this study were: (1) The markets in the heavily populated areas received the heaviest share of demonstrations. (2) Eighty-nine per cent were live demonstrations, and 11 per cent non-live. (3) Over one-half of the demonstrations were conducted in the months of September, October and November. (4) Fruit featured in demonstrations were: Orange, 88 per cent; Grapefruit, 11 per cent; and Tangerines, one per cent. (5) Fourteen per cent of the demonstrations were on fresh fruit and 86 per cent on processed products, of which 7Zper cent was concentrate.
The primary purpose was to achieve movement rather than placement.
Cost breakdown on live demonstrations was as follows: Demonstrator, 69 * 3%; Merchandise, 22. 416; Cups, 4. 5%; Transportation, Z. 51o; Napkins,
0. 15o; Other Costs, 1. 2%.
On the other hand, merchandising accounted for 54 per cent, of the cost of non-live demonstrations. The average cost per live demonstration was $49. 61, and non-live demonstration, $34. 33, while the per-day cost of live demonstration was $23. 03 and non-live, $4. 76. The cost of'selling each extra unit was 19 per cent of the retail price and varied from six per cent for fresh fruit to 102 per cent for frozen sections. Non-live demonstrations, although generating only one-third the sales boost of live demonstrations, stimulated per unit sales increases at less than one-half the cost of live demonstrations.
I Approximately 2, 100, 000 shoppers were served during the year, averaging 1, 234 per demonstration. The. average duration of each demonstration was 2. 72 days - live demonstrations, 2. 15 days; non-live, 7. 22 days. Friday and Saturday were the most common days for demonstrations.
. Recommendations were made in this study for improving the operations of the merchandising program.

Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads in 41 United States Cities'and Five Canadian Cities - The purpose of this report was to show, not only the volume, but also the source of fresh orange, grapefruit and tangerines received, each quarter, in 41 selected United States and five Canadian cities. The fruit received from Florida in thesemarkets during the 196162 season represented a higher per cent of the total than in the 1960-61 season for both orange and grapefruit. Florida supplied 50. Z per cent of the oranges in the United States cities in 1961-62 compared with 39. 2 per cent, and in the Canadian I cities , 21. 8 per cent compared with 14. 6 per cent. On the other hand, Florida, in 1961-62, supplied 77. 7 per cent (up from 66.1 per cent) of the grapefruit in the United States cities and 90. 6 per cent (up from 86. 3 per cent) in the Canadian cities. Florida's share of total market unloads of tangerines dropped from the -previous year in both the United States and Canadian cities. Heavier fresh fruit marketing from Florida last season were due primarily to increases in market share, (caused by lesser fruit from California and Texas) rather than increases in per capita consumption.


The following studies were undertaken prior to the, close of the fiscal
year 1961-62, and although not completed are outlined here for informational purposes.

The Economic Interrelationships Between Fresh Oranges and Other Fresh, and Processed Citrus Products - This is the first in a series of studies intended to explore the basic competitive relationship between the several forms in which the Florida citrus crop is marketed. In this test the retail prices of both Florida and California fresh oranges were varied over a comparatively wide range. Quantitative shifts in consumer purchases of fresh oranges were measured, as were the effects on such substitutional items as fresh grapefruit, frozen citrus products, canned single strength citrus juices, and non-citrus fruit juices, both frozen and canned.
The basic data was generated through store tests in Grand Rapids,
Michigan, during a six-week period in April and May, 1962. The data is being analyzed and a report on this phase of the study will be forthcoming.

The Competitive Relationship Between Florida and California Oranges The intent of this study was to examine the competitive relationship among Valencia oranges produced in California, the Indian River section of Florida and the interior section of Florida. The specific objectives were: (1) to determine the extent to which customers could be induced to shift their purchases between the three types of fruit in response to varying price differentials; and (2) to measure the quantitative response of customers to varying general levels of price, thereby obtaining an estimate of the nature of demand for each type of fruit.
The field work consisted of two phases: first, the consumers were
given a choice from three displays of Valencia oranges reflecting demand differences between the three types of fruit, then the prices of the oranges in the three displays were varied in a predetermined manner. Nine price levels, in four-cent intervals, were applied to the test from the basic price of 49 cents per dozen for each type Florida orange, and 59 cents per dozen for California oranges. Records were obtained on: (1) daily sales of oranges from each display lot; (2) daily records of spoilage or other losses of oranges; (3) daily sales records for each test store by departments; and
(4) daily customer count for.each store.
The first phase of the study was conducted in six supermarkets in
Grand Rapids, Michigan, in which consumers chose from size 200 Florida interior and size 200 Florida Indian River and size 138 California Valencia oranges. The second phase was conducted in three stores, same city, involving Florida size 162, California size 138 Valencia oranges.
The field work was completed May 19, 1962, and the data are being analyzed.

Consumption Patterns for Critrus and Related Products - This study involved the examination of consumer panel data for a southern market and a northern market to determine: (1) trends in consumption of citrus and competitive products; (2) basic shifts in purchaser, which consumers make to changes in supply and price; and (3) the effects of new competitive product introduction upon purchases and use of citrus food items. The sources of data are the consumer panel maintained by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and the Michigan State University.
To date, basic purchase data were obtained from the Georgia panel for
the following broad groups of products: fresh citrus fruit, frozen concentrates,

canned juice, processed citrus fruits and processed beverages. The family characteristics include: income, family size and race.
Analytical work has been underway since May 1, 1962, and is now partially completed.

Consumer Preferences for'Various Acidity Levels of Canned Single Strength Orange Juice and Canned Single Strength Grapefruit Juice inWest Germany - Sales expansion can be more efficiently achieved if the preferences of consumers are accurately gauged. This test was undertaken to better understand the taste preferences for citrus juices among foreign consumers.
Three acidity levels of single strength orange juice and three acidity levels of single strength grapefruit juice are being tested among 804 (40Z for each product) households in Hanover, Germany. Additionally, 2, 0.00 households in a national sample will be questioned regarding citrus and competitive products buying and consumption habits.
The overseas phase of this project was financed by PL480 funds. Results will be available in early 1963.

Pending Research

Additionally, the Florida citrus industry has requested the Florida Citrus Commission to undertake research on the following problems.

Consumer and Market Testing of 3-to- I Frozen Orange Concentrate in Eight-Ounce Cans - The industry is anxious to determine the economic feasibility of marketing orange concentrate in eight-ouftce cans. The product is now available to consumers in six-ounce and 12-ounce cans, with bulk of the trade in the smaller size.

Evaluation of the Special $3, 500, 000 Frozen Orange Concentrate Campaign of Fall, 1962 - Although the 1959 special campaign was evaluated, with good results, the marketing circumstances surrounding this campaign are so different as to justify its evaluation.
The purpose of the campaign is to increase the usage of concentrate
among existing users and to attract new users. The campaign's impact on these objectives will be measured in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, through data supplied, under contract, by the Market Research Corporation of America.

Consumer Preferences for Various Levels of Solids and Acids in Fresh Oranges - Because retail buyers are giving increasing attention to the internal qualities offresh oranges, the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association has requested the Commission to determine the consumer preferences for fruit of various levels of solids and acids. It is hoped that this study will assist the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers to formulate policies that will not only aid the industry, but also enhance consumer satisfaction and sales.

Market Testing Various Solids and Acids Levels in Fresh Oranges - Following the consumer pr-eference study, the industry believes it is necessary to measure the consumer's willingness to buy fruits of preferred internal qualities.

Effects of Change in F. 0. B. Prices on Distributors Margins for Fresh Z Ttrus Fruit Since the fresh frjAt shippers claim that retail prices do 'not always parallel shipping point prices, this study will examine the effect of changes in shipping point prices on retail prices.

Evaluation of Various Intensities and Combinations of Promotional Efforts on a Test Market Basis - It is presumed the different intensities and mixes of promotion have different marketing effects. The purpose of this test is to quantify this premise, and the results will serve as a guide to the Commission's overall promotional program.

Dr. Marshall R. Godwin was employed as a senior economist November 15, 1961, having taken one year's leave of absence from the University of Florida. The staff consists of two professional economists.



UAs production, processing and packaging become more comple x, so do the manner and means of getting Florida c i t r u s products 'to market. And many ti mes, the difference between p rof it and loss rests squarely with transportation- -the margin left after transporting the commodity to the marketplace.
The Commis sion c on t inu ed to retain the ser vices of the Growers and Shippers League of Florida to assist in solving p ro bl1em s affecting trans portation. The League, r epr e s entin g the entire citrus industry, has been most effective in seeking satisfactory s olu ti o ns to complex transportation problems f r o mn the Interstate Commerce Commis sion and other fe de ral1 and state agencies with au thority to regulate transportation.
The League, through this service, has been instrumental in effecting savings to the citrus industry. ,Listed in this s e c t i o n are some of the more important c it r us problems encountered during the 1961-62 season by the Growers andShippers League and their ultimate disposition or present status.

Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Several conferences have been held with the origin rail lines on the publication of per car charges on fresh citrus fruit from Florida. The origin rail lines are interested in this type of publication, and studies have been made seeking a possible basis for per car charges, but no conclusion has yet been reached on a basis for these charges.
A proposal to reduce the rail rates on fresh citrus fruit by approximately 25 cents per 100 pounds to destinations in upper New York State and in eastern Canada was filed and approved by the Southern rail lines, but was disapproved by the Eastern railroads. A proposal to publish reduced rates on citrus fruit to points in upper New England states beyond Boston, Massachusetts, has also been approved by the Southern railroads, but action on this proposal by the Eastern railroads has been delayed pending the settlement of a dispute on diiiisions between the Eastern railroads and the New England lines.

Rail Piggyback Rates and Services on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Following the success of the pilot operation of piggyback service on fresh citrus fruit to destinations in the East during the past season, the rail lines extended this piggyback service to points in the Midwest, such as Cincinnati, Ohio; Louisville, Kentucky; Evansville, Indiana; St. Louis, Missouri; and Chicago, Illinois, and also to numerous points in Southern Territory., Proposals 'are now pending before.'the rail lines to further extend this service to other 'destinations in the East and also to points in the South. A proposal to establish piggyback rates to points in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts was approved by the Southern lines but the Eastern railroads have not yet acted on this proposal.
Except to destinat ions in S * southern Territory, the piggyback rates as originally published on citrus fruit were subject to a restriction that two trailerloads must be loaded per flat car. This restriction has been eliminated to destinations in the East, and if eliminated to the Western destinations, would allow the rates to apply per trailerload with no reference to minimum per flat car.
When fresh citrus fruit piggyback rates were fir st published, there were no provisions in the tariff specifying the maximum weight which could be loaded in each trailer, and there were a number of instances of trailers being loaded too heavily and fines being 'assessed against the rail lines on those trailers which exceeded the maximum weight laws of the states involved. Effective November 6, 1961, a maximum, loading restriction was published in the tariff setting forth the nurn ber of containers for each type of fruit and the maximum weight which could be loaded on mixed shipments. While sympathizing with the carriers on this problem of maximum loading, it was felt that the provisions published in the tariff were unduly restrictive considering the, weight -of the various types of fruit and also the differences in the maximum weight laws in the various states. This matter has been discussed with the carriers on several occasions, and work is continuing with the rail lines to publish a more realistic provision covering the maximum loading of these trailers.

E stimated: Weights on Fresh Fruit ContainersA proposal was filed with the Southern rail lines by certain container manufacturers which would require that the estimated weights applicable on containers of fresh fruits moving under test permits, or on containers on which no estimated weight had been published, must be those published for containers constructed of the same character and material. This proposal would require the published weight of a wooden container to be used on another wooden container and the published weight of a fibreboard container to be used for another fibreboard container. Objections to this proposal were filed with the Southern lines and the proposal was withdrawn by the proponents prior to public hearing.
IEstimated weights were published in the tariff effective July 23, 1962, on all -master containers for which estimated weights had not already been published. The estimated weights published on these containers- were 45-1/2 pounds-on containers filled with not more than five eight-pound bags of oranges and grapefruit, 46-1/2 pounds on containers filled with not more than eight five-pound bags of oranges, and 43-1/2 pounds on containers filled with not more than eight five-pound bags of grapefruit.
Because of the large numbers of various types of 4/5 bushel containers being used by the citrus shippers and the consequent requirement for numerous test weighings -by the Southern Weighing and Inspection Bureau, the rail lines, effective August 20, 1962, published an estimated weight, of 45-1 /2 pounds on all authorized containers for oranges having capacities from 1700 to 1900 cubic inches, for which weights have not already been provided, and estimated weight of 40 pounds on similar containers for grapef ruit.

Express Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Negotiations* were continued with the Railway Express Agency for the publication of reduced rates on express shipments of citrus; fruits from Florida, with the result that effective September 1, 1961, an incentive basis of rates was published, applying on shipments of 25 or more packages consigned to one or more consignees at one or more destinations. Further conferences were held with officials of the Express Agency for the purpose of attempting to secure a reduction in the minimum charge now applicable on fresh citrus fruit express shipments, and also to secure an adjustment -in the charges when the shipper or the receiver performs pickup or delivery service. While officials of the Express Agency have not indicated willingness to make these adjustments at this time, they are giving the matter further, consideration.

Handling of Delay Claims by Eastern Railroads
In February, 1962, the principal- Eastern railroads handling perishable' commodities announced that effective March 1, 1962, they would no longer honor claims based on late placement of cars for any particular market. Conferences -with officials of the Eastern railroads -were held in New York in February, and the railroads announced that the effective date
-of this change- would be postponed to April- 1,P 1962, pending a meeting of representatives of the industry and-railroad officials.' Such a meeting was

held in Chicago, Illinois, on March 12, at which ' it - developed that the problem affected only certain railroads at certain terminals. After further conferences it was agreed that new cut-off times at certain markeis would be established for a trial period lasting antil October Z9, 1962, after which further negotiations would be carried on as to the permanent cut-off time, but in the meantime, claims for delayed placement would continue to be honored.

Rail Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Products
Considerable effort has been spent in trying to convince the origin rail lines that reduced rates on frozen citrus products should be published subject to an increase in minimu-m weight, generally to 60, 000 pounds. The rail lines, however, have consistently opposed such reductions, and have disapproved several proposals which have been filed seeking reduced rates based on higher minimum weights. The Southern rail lines, however, did approve a proposal to publish truck competitive rates on frozen citrus products, subject to minimum weight of,36, 000 pounds, to specified points in Southern Territory.
During the past year several proposals were filed to publish reduced rail, rates on chilled citrus products from specific origin points in Florida to specific destinations in Official Territory, subject to increased carload minimum weight, primarily to meet competition of common carrier or private trucks, or to meet the competition of existing rates from other producing points.

Rail Piggyback Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Products
In an effort to secure some of the frozen and chilled citrus products traffic moving by truck lines, the Southern rail lines during the past season published Plan 11 piggyback rates on frozen and chilled citrus products to specific points in Western Trursk Line, Illinois Freight Association . Official Ter I ritory, and to points in Southern Territory. These rates were on the same level as the truck rates and also were subject to the same minimum weights.
Plan III piggyback rates have also been published to specific points in the East and Midwest in order to meet truck competition on these commodities. Here again, the League has insisted that all of the producing points be included on adjustments of this kind in order that they may all be on a competitive basis insofar as transportation costs are concerned.

Truck Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Proddcts
Following an announcement by the rail lines tKat the rail Plan II piggyback rates on frozen and chilled citrus products would be reduced 10 cents per 100 pounds and made subject to minimum weight of 31, 000 pounds, the truck lines also reduced rates on frozen and chilled citrus products by 10 cents per 100 pounds, subject to 31,000 pounds minimum, to all destinations to which rates based on 31, ooo pounds minimum had not already been published. These reduced 'rates by truck lines were not subject to stop-off in transit for partial unloading. The truck lines have also published reduced rates to. specific points in order to meet reductions in rates, subject to varying minimum weights, made by the rail lines to these points.

I A proposal by the truck lines to increase all LTL rates on frozen and chilled citrus products by 20 per cent met with strenuous objections from the League and the shippers. Following a conference with the motorcar riers, the proposal was amended to provide-for an increase of approximately 17 per cent in th; rates on shipments weighing less than 5, 000 pounds, and an increase of approximately 6 per cent in the rates on shipments weighing between 5, 000 pounds and 10, 000 pounds, with no increase to apply on shipments weighing over 10, 000 pounds. The amended proposal, which also included an increase from $10 to $15 in the minimum charge per LTL shipment (except that there would be no increase on shipments of samples), was approved and became effective on June 29, 1962.
Although the rail Perishable Protective Tariff had been amended to provide for the specifying of temperatures at which perishable commodities should be transported, the truck tariffs have had no such provision for the specifying of temperatures required on these shipments. A proposal was filed with the National Classification Board to amend the National Motor Freight Classification by providing a rule that on commodities requiring protection from heat or cold the temperature at which the product should be transported must be shown on the bill of lading. This proposal was supported by the League and the matter is now pending before the National Classification Board.

Rail Rates on Canned Citrus Products
A proposal to publish a reduction of 15 per cent in the rail rates on
canned citrus products subject to 60, 000 pounds minimum, to be made applicable on carload minimum weight of 75, 000 pounds, within Southern Territory and from Southern to Official, Western Trunk Line, and Southwestern Territories, was approved by the Southern lines and was published within Southern Territory effective September 10, 1961. However, this reduction within Southern Territory was published on a lower basis than had been approved by the Southern lines, and when the error was discovered, the Southern rail lines insisted that the rates would have to be published on the basis as approved, and in spite of objections, the corrected rates were published effective June 10, 1962.
The 15 per cent reduction in rates on canned citrus shipments loaded to 75, 000 pounds minimum to points in Western Trunk Line Territory and Illinois Freight Association Territory was published effective February 10, 1962. The Southwestern lines disapproved this adjustment, and the Official Territory lines disapproved the 15 per cent reduction proposed but did approve a reduction of eight cents per 100 pounds, subject to 75, 000 pounds minimum loading, which became effective on August 1, 1962, to points in Official Territory.

Application of Rule 24 to 75,000 Pounds * Minimum Rail Rates on Canned Citrus Products to Southern Tprritory
The reduced rail rates on canned citrus products, subject to 75, 000 pounds minimum weight, published to points in Southern Territory, were made not subject to Rule 24 of the Uniform Freight Classification, which provides that shipments in.excess of the amount which can be loaded in a

single car may be loaded in two or more cars and the rate will be applied to the total weight of the shipment. Following the publication of these rates within Southern. Territory, the canned citrus products shippers began running into difficulty with shipments which exceeded the capacity of a single car and were not large enough to make two 75, 000 pounds car loads. In order to correct this situation, the origin rail lines were requested to file a proposal to make these rates subject to Rule 24. After a public hearing, the General Freight Committee of the Southern Freight Association approved this proposal, but this approval was appealed to the executive committee of the Southern Freight Association, and after public hearing at which representatives of the canned citrus products industry and the League appeared in support of the proposal, the proposal was finally disapproved by the executive committee.

Detention and Free Time on Mechanical Refrigerator Cars
The proposal to extend the free time when weather conditions made it impossible to load or unload mechanical refrigerator cars was approved by the National Perishable Freight Committee and the Perishable Tariff was amended effective October 15, 1961, to include this provision.
In order to discourage the use of mechanical refrigerator cars for
storage purposes, a practice which the rail lines discovered had developed in certain areas, the rail lines filed a proposal with the National Perishable Freight Committee to increase detention charges on mechanical refrigerator cars held over 48 hours beyond free time to $15 per 12-hour detention period in place of the existing $5 charge for such detention. While agreeing with the position of the rail lines that mechanical refrigerator cars should not be used for storage purposes, the League disagreed with the principle of publishing penalty detention charges in the Perishable Protective Tariff, believi ng that penalty of this kind should be published in the rail Demurrage Tariff. Opposition to the proposal on this basis was filed by the League with the Perishable Committee, but after considerable deliberation the Perishable Committee approved a proposal to increase the detention charge on mechanical refrigerator cars held more than four days beyond free time to $15 per detention period of 1Z hours, such detention to apply not only at origin point but also at stop-off, hold or reconsignment point and at final destination, and publication was made in the tariff effective January ZO, 196Z.
Proposals to change the provisions of this penalty detention were filed by various parties with the National Perishable Freight Committee, but the Committee disapproved these proposals. However, in August, 196Z, the Perishable Committee -did approve a proposal to increase the free time from Z4 hours to 48 hours and to offset this, reduce to three days 'the amount of time at which regular detention occurred before the increased penalty of $15 per detention period began. This proposal was approved by the Perishable Committee and is now awaiting action by some of the railroad jurisdictions.

Truck Charges on Stopping in Transit to Complete Load or to Partially Unload
During the past year there has been a number of proposals filed by the truck lines to cancel or amend the present rules and charges on truck

shipments stopped in transit to complete loading or to partially unload. Most of these proposals would affect canned citrus products shippers who prefer the present method of charging so much per stop for this privilege. The League has consistently opposed the proposed changes in these rules and charges, and many of the truck lines serving the Florida canned citrus industry have agreed with the position of the League. As the result of this effort, three proposals have been withdrawn or disapproved, and action on one proposal is being withheld.

Ocean Freight Rates to Europe
Last year there was considerable interest in developing a larger export movement of fresh citrus fruit and fresh vegetables as well as processed citrus products, particularly to European markets. In September, 1961, a conference of interested shippers, League officials, and officials of steamship lines and conferences was held to discuss the possibilities of securing more effective freight rates and improved service on these commodities.
Somewhat later in the year, the steamship lines operating from Gulf ports to European ports announced that effective January 1, 196Z, they planned to increase freight rates by 10 per cent. Objections to this proposed increase were registered with the steamship conference, and instead of increases, reductions were made in the ocean freight rates on canned and frozen citrus products moving to the various European ports.

Rail Rates on Citrus Pomace
Several proposals were filed with"the rail lines for the publication of reduced rail rates on citrus pomace, subject to minimum weight of 60, 000 pounds, from specific origin points in Florida to specific destinations in the various Southern states. In line with the policy of the industry that all plants should be on a competitive basis, the League handled with the Southern Freight Association and the rail lines for inclusion of all shipping points in these rate adjustments, with the result that rates have been published from all of the producing points to the destinations to which the reduced rates were proposed.

Ex Parte 137 Contracts for Protective Services
Oral argument in reopened Ex Parte 137, an investigation by the Interstate Commerce Commission of the contracts between the rail lines and the car lines and other parties furnishing protective service on behalf of the rail lines, was held September Z1, 1961, before Division 2 of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Division Z released its decision in this proceeding on September 18, 1962, and the decision is now being analyzed to determine its possible effect on the charges which the shippers pay for refrigeration service.

Truck Line Applications
During the past year there have been 35 applications filed by truck lines for new authority or for extension of present authority which have been considered by the Transportation Advisory Council of the Florida Canners Association and by the Citrus Processors Association. Of these

applications, support by the League has been authorized on I I applications and the League has not been authorized to take any action on Z4 of the applications. The League has appeared at hearings, or has been authorized to appear at future hearings, in support of the following applications: Application of Alterman Transport Lines to purchase the authority of McDowall Transport to transport canned citrus fruits and juices to points in the Midwest; application of Alterman Transport Lines for authority to transport frozen foods to the states of Montana and Wyoming; application of Alterman Transport Lines to transport frozen citrus products to Baltimore, Maryland, Washington, D. C. , Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia; application of Belford Trucking Company to transport frozen and chilled citrus products to the states of Illinois and Missouri; application of J. M. Blythe Motor Lines to transport canned goods to the states in the Northeast; application of Clay Hyder Trucking Lines to transport frozen and chilled citrus products to points in North and South Carolina, and chilled citrus products in tank trucks to states in the South; application of Food Transport, Inc. , for authority to transport canned goods to West Virginia and the Eastern portion of Ohio; application of Watkins Motor Lines to transport frozen and chilled citrus products to states in the Pacific Northwest; application of Florida Refrigerated Service to transport frozen citrus products to the Pacific Northwest; application of Clay Hyder Trucking Lines to transport liquid food products in tank trucks within the state of Florida; and application of Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company for authority to perform piggyback service on general commodities between Wildwood and Winter Haven and between Wildwood and Oviedo, Florida.

Transportation Legislation
During the past year a great deal of time has been required to analyze, and to take appropriate action on bills affecting transportation . on which have been introduced in the Congress. The following is a brief outline of some of this transportation legislation.
Senate Bill 1197 would eliminate much of the freedom of rate making provisions enacted in the Transportation Act of 1958. A statement was filed with the Senate Committee on Commerce in opposition to this bill, which has not yet been reported by the Senate Committee.
Senate Bill 2560, introduced by Senator Smathers, was designed to curb illegal truck operations in interstate commerce, but in addition to which would have required the registration with the Interstate Commerce Commission of all motor trucks transporting agricultural commodities. The League presented testimony in opposition to this registration provision of the bill before the Senate Committee, and the bill, as reported by the Senate Committee and passed by the Senate, contained no reference to this registration provision.
Senate Bills 3243 and 3Z4Z, with similar bills in the House of Representatives, were introduced to implement the recommendations of the President as outlined in his Message on Transportation to the Congress. Of Particular interest to our industry was Senate Bill 3243 which would remove the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission over minimum rates published on agricultural commodities and on bulk commodities,

The League supported the principle of Senate Bill 3243 at a hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce, and hearings on both of these bills are continuing in both the House and the Senate.
A special committee on unregulated and unauthorized transportation has been appointed by the National Industrial Traffic League to study and make recommendations to the NIT League on the problems of this type of transportation. The Growers and Shippers League belongs to this Committee and to the Committee Against Unlawful Transportation, whose pur-, pose is, through an educational program, to acquaint the general public, the shipping public, and state and federal legislators with the economical dangers involved in illegal transportation.

f Orl.'a.

. .


0 During thel961-62 season the Commission adopted 14 amendments to its regulations and adopted one new regulation to meet c h a n g i n g conditions in the i n d u s t r y. Most of the amendments were of a minor n a t u r e but several w e r e fairly significant.
A new regulation was adopted to govern the procedure for registration of producers and establish a method of conducting referendums under the Florida Citrus S t ab i li z ati o n Act adopted by the 1961 Legislature. The Act provides that, after a public hearing and a referendum of growers, the Commission mayissue a marketing o r d e r-for one or more types of citrus f r u i t s if the proposed order is approved by 51 per cent of all growers affected by such order and the g r o w e r s voting for such order produce at I e a s t 51 per cent of the total volume of fruit covered by the o r d e r. The Act provides that the Commission shall adopt rules and regulations governing the registration of producers and the
method of conducting referendums.

In order to conduct a referendum under the Act, it is necessary for the Commission to have a list of the names and mailing addresses of all growers who would be affected by marketing orders. There was no such list available from any source in Florida at the time the Act was passed and the Commission immediately began compiling such a list. During the past year much time and some funds have been expended for this information. We feel that it is now fairly complete and the Commission is in a position to conduct referendums if marketing orders are requested by industry groups.
The Commission adopted a standard stock label design to be used by all shippers who pack fresh citrus fruit in polyethylene bags. The purpose of this regulation is to bring about uniformity and attractiveness in the display of fruit at the store level. In addition to the other factors, the design makes prominent use of the word "FLORIDA" in order to tie in with the consumer advertising program. Subsequent to the end of the 1961-6Z season, the Commission also adopted a standard design for mesh bags.
Under the regulation covering containers, the Commission has for several years prescribed the bagmasters or outer containers which may be used for shipping fruit in five and eight-pound bags. During the past year this regulation was amended to provide that any corrugated bagmaster could be used which does not contain more than five eight-pound bags or eight five-pound bags. The amendment does not apply to wooden containers.
During the past year a number of complaints were received about fruit being sold at roadside stands in bags which were improperly labeled as to content. Representatives of the Commission met with officials of the Division of Standards, State Department of Agriculture, the Florida ExpressFruit Shippers Association and representatives of bag manufacturers and an agreement was reached to bring about uniformity in the size and content of the bags. The Commission adopted an amendment to Regulation No. 3 to further tighten the restrictions against the mislabeling of fruit containers.


During the year the Commission issued 340 permits for the movement of fruit out of Florida for processing, 20 permits for the movement of fruit for charitable purposes, 71 permits for the use of fresh fruit containers on an experimental basis, 900 permits for the movement of gift fruit shipments out of Florida by truck, and four permits for the production of high density frozen concentrated orange juice. Three of the permits for high density concentrate covered institutional size containers and one covered retail sizes. The law permits the packing of high density concentrate without permits if it is within the Brix range and packed in containers pre scribed by the Commission's regulations. Permits are required in all cases where high density frozen concentrated orange juice is packed for sale in retail size cans. While only one permit was issued last season, other concentrators have indicated interest in packing 4-plus-l concentrate in retail size cans and plans are under way by the Commission, in cooperation with the processors, to conduct extensive market tests for this product.


During the 1961-62 season the Commission approved 1, 54Z applications for citrus fruit dealer's licenses. Of this number, 1,250 were renewals and 292 were applicants who obtained a license for the first time. The total of 1, 542 applicants included 161 fresh fruit shippers, 52 processors, 4Z9 truckers and brokers, 221 bonded express fruit shippers and 679 non-bonded express fruit shippers. Eight applications were denied during the season.
The Commission continued to carefully check the surety bonds posted by citrus fruit dealers for the purpose of determining whether they were in line with the volume of fruit dJalt with. Because of the increased amount of bond required under an amendment to the Code by the 1961 Legislature, and the higher cost of the bonds last year, many dealers were required to increase their bonds after they began operations. A total of 147 bonds were increased by over $1, 000, 000. In some cases the dealers were required to increase their bonds as many as three times. This was the result of the dealer posting a small bond at the beginning of the season and dealing with more fruit than the bond covered. As soon as he exceeded the volume covered by the bond, he was requested by the Commissioner of Agriculture to increase the bond. The Commission worked very closely with the Commissioner's office in checking these bonds.
The Commissioner's records show that the licensed dealers posted
bonds in an aggregate amount of more than $11, 000, 000 during the 1961 -62 season.


JULY 1, 1961 TO JUNE 30, 196Z

Cash Balance July 1, 1961

$ 1, 637, 856. 74 7,240,154.60

$ 8, 878, 011. 34

$ 7, Z65, 154. 60
Z5, 000. 00

RECEIPTS: From All Sources, Less Advance toStabilization Fund


General Administrative Furniture and Equipment General Revenue Fund Transportation Problems Market Research and Development Special Field Inspection Research

Merchandising and Promotions:
Includes Salaries and Expenses,
of Advertising and Merchandising Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.

Point-of -Sale Material

Public Relations and Publicity

Youth and School Program

Consumer Advertising:

$ 144,693.83
48 361.87 141: 369. 34 66,192.44 119,227.91
5, 323. Z5
347,631. 15





3, 515,880. 75 IZ8, 359. 74 31,211.78 16Z, 741. 39

Newspapers, Magazines, Television and Trade Papers, Radio
Professional Journals By-Products Journals
European Program


$ 6, 549, 576. go $ 2, 328, 434. 44

Cash Balance June 30, 1962.



1950-51 1951-52
1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56
1956-57 1957-58 1958-59
1959-6o 196o-61 1961-62 _/


1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55
1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60
196o-61 1961-62 /


3,396 3,811 4,332
5,244 4,759 4,518 4,179 4,572 4,oo4
4,325 4,664


30,758 44,031 46,554 65,531 64,686
70,224 72,012 57,151 79,911 78,149 84,298 116,082


12,742 8,735 10,854 14,882
10,784 12,805 12,464 9,484 10,093 9,323
9,130 8,907


2,530 1,898
537,I 1,339
1,086 1,801 1,149 547 378 154 278


20,021 19,321 16,907 17,790
16,518 15,500
16,828 17,846 13,259
15,128 10,797 15,423


188 1,098 1,226 1,656 1,155 2,512 2,949 3,330 4,952 1,613 3,841 3,163

JUICE JUICE 1,000 Cases, 2--2/'s

8,711 6,402 5,707 6,402 4,994
5,188 4,885 4,217 4,382 3,100 3,248

, 1000.

349 551
443 877 . 619
793 147
1,152 320 1,406 1,370

48ox 749x

715x 303x 766x 229x
553x 215x


612xx 689xx 875xx 81oxx 719xx 59Lxx 476xx
590xx 523xx .355xx 468xx


245. 536
48o 965 561 954 '597 507 690 284 255

16 51
32 31
108 188
41 120

TOTAL PACK (Other than Concentrate)

48,243 38,946 38,717 45,o82 38,779 39,604
4o,304 37,173 33,497 33,589 28,260 32,925

33,869 47,928 49,399 69,989
68,842 75,426 78,211 62,392 87,417 80,771 89,995


1950-51 1951-52 1952-53
1953-54 1954-55 1955-56
1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60
1960-61 1961-62 i_/


218,065 223,311 287,832 262,474 297,254 296,575 291,537 320,588 284,105 320,481 419,745

54,035 39,112 52,690 48,934 41,621 59,850 36,161 43,823 29, 454 33,082

Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends Includes Orange SectLons Includes Processed Tangerine Concentrate 68 Includes meal, pulp and pellets

Source: Florida Canners' Association

x xx


(o00 Bxs)

(Millions Dollars)

1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54
1954-55 1955-56
1956-57 1957-58 1958-59
1959-60 196o-61 1961-62 (b)

1950-51 1951-52
1956-57 1957-58 1958-59
1960-61 1961-62

1950-51 1951-52 1952-53
1954-55 1955-56
1956-57 1957-58
1958-59 1959-6o
196o-61 1961-62

67,300 78,600 72,200 91,300 88,400
91,000 93,000 82,500 86,000 91,500 86,700 113,400

(a) 36,000
32,500 42,000 34,800 38,300 37,4oo 31,100 35,200 30,500
( 31,600




4,800 4,500 4,900 5,000 5,100 4,700 4,8oo 2,100 4,500 2,800 4,900

24,935 30,643
25,849 27,846
27,157 25,566
24,116 18,107 16,837 20,765 16,770 20,915

15,197 19,172 17,3o5 20,451 18,996
19,482 18,187 14,544 16,479
16,032 15,726

3,175 3,373 3,766
3,392 3,725 3,449 3,271
1,729 2,635 2,089 3,242 2,695

1486 1.69
2.00 2.78 2.02 3.15

1.22 .81
1.08 .86 .95
1.36 1.37 1.36 1.31 1.24


1.56 1.76
2.10 1.78
2.31 2.86 2.42 3.26
2.18 2.72

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary.

Source for Data: Statistical Reporting Service, U.S.D.A.


(000 Bxs)

(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)



1.57 .76 1.27
1.20 1.35 1.85 1.31 2.18
2.89 1.94
2.89 1.56

41, 915 47,507
45,901 62,904 60,693
64,884 68,234 63,843 68,513 70,070 69,240

13,678 15,035
20,089 15, 644
18,648 19,053 16,396 18,561 14,308 15.,714 16,809

1,355 657
1,o64 1,038 1,105 981
1,259 351
1,588 1,235

45o 45o 45o
550 550 550
665 69o 775

150 150
160 16o 160
16o 16o 160 160 160 160

62.6 92.1 114.2
120.4 167.7 129.9 175.9 244.8 177.9
252.9 185.9

17.2 24.7 19.8 21.8
21.7 33.1
30.3 36.3 31.9 29.9

.12 .4o .11
.24 .20
.44 .63 .75 .76 .66 .26

.16 .03
- .02
- .05
.06 .15
.22 .10
.30 .00 .15

6.5 5.3 6.6 7.1 6.8 7.8 7.8
5.0 6.9
6.8 7.3