Front Cover
 Committee members
 Back Cover

Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00011
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1960
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00011

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Committee members
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text







Commission Members Serving During
the 1960-1961 Fiscal Year

J. Dan Wright, Chairman
Tom B. Swann, Vice-Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Albert Carlton
Frank Chase
Vernon L. Conner
J. R. Graves
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman
Key Scales, Jr.
Bruce W. Skinner
Herschell N. Sorrells

Winter Haven
Mount Dora
Dade City
Lake Alfred



Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
A. V. Saurman
Tom B. Swann


Key Scales, Jr. Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Tom B. Swann
A. V. Saurman
Vernon L. Conner
J. R. Graves


A. V. Saurman, Chairman
Vernon L. Conner
Albert Carlton
Bruce W. Skinner
Frank Chase


Frank Chase, Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
J. R. Graves
Herschell N. Sorrells

Key Scales, Jr.
Herschell N. Sorrells
J. R. Graves


Tom B. Swann, Chairman
Bruce W. Skinner
Key Scales, Jr.
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
Albert Carlton
Frank Chase
J. Ross Bynum
Key Scales, Jr.


Herschell N. Sorrells, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Bruce W. Skinner
J. R. Graves










J. Dan Wright, Jr.

Frank Chase

Vernon L. Conner

Albert Carlton A

.. r ,..

J. R. Bynum




Hurricane "DONNA"II
slashed through Florida's
citrus b e t on September
10, 1960, and radically
4t changed the production and
marketing picture for the
A ERL MNER ."" 1960-61 season, then just
Tom B. Swann M gett i n g underway. What
VICE-CHAIRMAN ] S would have doubles s been all-time
peak crops were reduced 15% on
oranges and 25% on the heavier and
more vulnerable grapefruit.
Herbert S. Massey
Herbert S. Massy The Florida Citrus Co m i s s i on,
whose funds are based entirely on the
Sa marketable production, quickly ad-
Sjusted its expenditures downward by
12% to meet the new situation. Despite
A. V. Sawman this, a balanced advertising-merchan-
dising-research and service program
was continued in fore ce, maintaining
the promotion of Florida citrus around
the world for the Commission's 25th
Key Scales, Jr. year.
With the consumer demand for Flor-
ida citrus thus established and en-
larged, growers receivednearly
$300, 000,000 for their fruit in 1960-
1961. This, together with all other
Herschell Sorrells phases of citrus harvesting, packing,
Herschell Sorrells
processing, etc. maintained Florida
citrus as a billion-dollar industry.

Florida continued as the world's
principal citrus producing are a, ac-
counting for 75% of the U.S. citrus
crop and 30% of the world production.
Harvest of major varieties in Florida

during the season were: 86,700,000 boxes of oranges; 31,600,000
boxes of grapefruit; and 4,900,000 boxes of tangerines.

You will see in the Report which follows a detailed accounting of
Commission operations during the 1960-61 season. A few of the
highlights are these:

... although "Donna" sharply reduced Commission funds,
$3,059,679. 56 was spent on consumer advertising,
stressing "Get The Real Thing" from Florida citrus
(as opposed to synthetic drinks), the "Orange Juice
Break, and the low calorie content of Florida grape-

... advertising was tied in with such firms as Welch, Borden,
and Sealtest to expand citrus appeals with associated
products. Example: the "orange freeze" -- orange
juice, orange sherbet, and vanilla ice cream, with
Sealtest cooperating.

... the Commission held six receptions for the citrus-buying
trade in Europe, taking our story to important markets

S. with passage of legislation authorizing a 5% budget ex-
penditure, the Market and Economic Research pro-
gram was launched. Projects in the fields of Demand
and Market Development were authorized, in coopera-
tion with the University of Florida.

... a consumer survey on high-density frozen orange concen-
trate was concluded and indicated market success for
this product.

... the Youth and School program got underway with a series
of scholarship award luncheons and nutritional con-
ferences around the country, stressing citrus values
in the diet.

... on October 12, 1960, the Commission formally observed
its 25th Anniversary, with appropriate remarks by
Senator Spessard L. Holland, resolutions and letters
from industry groups and individuals, and a reception
and dinner given by the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce.

... the Commission joined the Florida Canners Association
in opposing Federal Standards of Identity for frozen
orange concentrate, on the grounds that Florida pro-
duces 98% of the product and the state standards are
entirely adequate.

. the Commission chairman led a delegation to the British
West Indies to confer with citrus and political leaders
there on our efforts to gain access to the British mar-
ket for grapefruit and frozen orange concentrate.

. a broad project on sampling and testing procedures for
measuring pound-solids at processing plants was
initiated in cooperation with the State and Federal De-
partments of Agriculture.

. .a comprehensive survey of our merchandising operation
was completed, and constructive recommendations
from it were adopted by the Commission.

... a study of consumer purchase habits of citrus for the past
10 years was completed and disseminated, together
with a "consumer profile" for the major citrus products,
showing their strengths and weaknesses in the market-
ing picture.

... the research department made significant progress in iso-
lating and identifying the flavor components of citrus,
removal of bitterness from grapefruit juices, drying of
citrus juices, influence of freezing temperatures on
fruit and trees, mechanical harvesting, and other pro-
jects outlined in the research section of this report.

. .field merchandising men made 104, 619 calls on the trade,
traveled 1,329, 196 miles, put on 850 product demon-
strations, 855 in-store promotions, and conducted 224
prize and premium contests, featuring Florida citrus.

... the Commission, again with the close cooperation of in-
dustry groups, supported and guided to unanimous
passage in both houses the industry's package of 20
citrus bills in the 1961 Legislature. Among these were
the "Citrus Stabilization Act, giving the industry more
authority for expanding its advertising, merchandising
and research; a basic revision in the Bond and License
Act to provide more protection to growers and dealers;

and an Act to provide that the Commission may spend
up to 5% of its budget on Economic and Marketing Re-

These are a few of the actions and programs of the Commission in
1960-61. We invite you to read the Report in its entirety, which
demonstrates the job the Florida Citrus Commission did in 1960-61
and is continuing to do to assure the progress and prosperity of this
great industry.

Homer E. Hooks
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Dr. William E. Black, Marketing Specialist
Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations
H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions
*W. J. Steed, Legal Counsel, Orlando

*Succeeded by D. B.Kibler III on June 1, 1961

,9) During the 1960-61 crop year, the Commission's advertising agency,
Benton & Bowles, Inc. developed and placed ten separate consumer adver-
tising campaigns on ten individual citrus products. In addition, there was
a special campaign on gift fruit packages and a complete campaign featur-
ing all citrus products in the important trade publications, as well as a
representative consumer campaign on several citrus products in the Do-
minion of Canada. These campaigns constituted the Commission's total

How long has it been since you've tasted
Fresh Floridas ?

Get more juice More flavor! More Vitamin C!
Buy freshorangesfrom Florida

After hard work or play, take an orange juice break
to restore the Vitamin C and enei gy you need

( 'l,R lE gI'tiI' S.... .. I )N [hoI(

After hard work or play, take an orange juice break
to restore the Vitamin C and energy you need
.. ... FLORIDA

V *< -
*^ -
^ *.. .

advertising program, which was approved by the Commission and the Staff,
representing an advertising investment of $3, 059, 679. 5 6 The advertising
budget initially authorized by the Commission was $4,027, 000; ho we ve r,
severe losses from Hurricane Donna necessitated subsequent revisions.

The b r o a d advertising planning
eral years, which divided the total

followed the successful experience of sev-
program into two parts:


to cool off

Greatest ix .r of them all!
.- Florida

and the sunny smile
dT~le fruit wit the""ipe si"'

Get your "carload" today-the season's short!



(a) A summer campaign, July 1 through October 31, during
which time approximately 23% of the total fund was in-
vested, and

(b) The fall and winter program, November 1 through June
30, utilizing the larger portion of the total fund.

Full color print represented the major media, with approxi-
mately 82. 6% being allocated to this category. National consumer
magazines received 44. 1%, with 20. 6% in Sunday newspapers and
17. 9% in daily newspapers. Television received approximately
5. 1% of the fund. The balance was devoted to Canadian advertis-
ing, trade journals, and preparation costs.

The total advertising fund was allocated by products, according
to crop utilization. The detailed breakdown was as follows:

Fresh Oranges (including Temples) 8. 3%
Frozen Orange Juice 48. 0%
Canned Orange Juice 7. 2%
Chilled Orange Juice 5. 4%
Orange Sub-Total 68. 9%
Fresh Grapefruit 12.9%
Canned Grapefruit Juice 9. 5%
Frozen Grapefruit Juice 1. 7%
Canned Grapefruit Sections 4. 4%
Grapefruit Sub-Total 28. 5%
Tangerines 2.5%
Gift Fruit Shippers .1%
Grand Total 100. 0%

Marketing Objectives

The basic marketing objectives continued to be disposal of the
total citrus crop at price levels profitable to both the grower and
the processor.

Considerations in the attainment of the marketing objectives

(a) Maintenance of the highest possible level of per
capital consumption of all Florida citrus products.

(b) Increasing the consumer awareness and acceptance
of all Florida citrus products.

(c) Broadening the total market for all Florida citrus

Basic Advertising Objectives

To create specific consumer buying influences, each of the sev-
eral Florida citrus products was advertised on its own merits
and promoted separately. This permitted emphasizing the unique
selling advantages of each product and, at the same time, effec-
tively stressing its basic benefits and quality characteristics.
This advertising strategy permitted the development of a distinc-
tive advertising campaign for each product line, while retaining a
definite family relationship among all campaigns.

In view of the availability in the market place of synthetic and
juice drinks, Florida citrus advertising was designed to educate
consumers on the essentiality of a daily intake of Vitamin C in its
natural form.

Full color print advertising presented an appetizing fresh pro-
duct image which was created through the employment of a back-
ground illustration of either fresh oranges or fresh grapefruit.
This highly interesting symbolic treatment contributed importantly
to the family similarity so desirable in a commodity campaign. This
advertising approach also permitted incorporating distinctive and
relatively competitive treatment to each individual citrus product.

Orange Copy Strategy

Orange advertising was developed with two objectives in mind:

(a) To promote the importance of the daily need for
Vitamin C.

(b) To present believable reasons so that the con-
sumer would demand natural Vitamin C.

The advertising of processed orange products placed major
emphasis on the need for a second glass of orange juice during
the day. The major theme was -- "The break that does more than
refresh. Copy reminded the reader of the essentiality of orange
juice for breakfast, while emphasizing the need for a second glass
of orange juice after hard work or play.

Advertising on fresh oranges was bold and competitive. The
principal objective was to present, in compelling terms, fresh
Florida oranges as the best tasting, the juiciest, and the best value.

An appetizing glass of orange juice was featured in most of the
main illustrations. A statement occupying a dominant place in the
advertising referred to the genuine or pure orange product as --
"the real thing. "

Grapefruit Copy Strategy

Advertising of all Florida grapefruit products stressed the im-
portant claim -- "Low in calories, high in Vitamin C. More
specifically, fresh grapefruit was presented under the reader-
compelling headline -- "50 calories, just 50." The serrated Flor-
ida grapefruit spoon was offered in practically all advertising on
fresh grapefruit. Canned single-strength grapefruit juice was
presented as -- "The greatest mixer of them all" -- and canned
grapefruit sections as -- "Today's best fruit buy. Frozen
grapefruit concentrate was featured as -- "Fabulous new fresh-
frozen grapefruit juice. "

Media Strategy

All data relating to markets and consumers' acceptance and
willingness to purchase Florida citrus products were thoroughly
analyzed in the development of the media plan. Strategy for the
1960-61 season therefore required:

(a) Telling the basic story of the need for natural
Vitamin C to a selective mass dual audience.

(b) Sufficient continuity to create a deep impact of
the value of citrus as a source of natural Vitamin C.

(c) Flexibility to permit maximum exposure of each
product in keeping with its seasonal distribution
and budget.

A carefully developed media plan provided -coverage and con-
tinuity among the right people in the right marketing areas. More-
over, the media plan continued to exploit sales opportunities
among potential customers in all markets.


Magazines were felt to be a prime medium for telling the edu-
cational story of Vitamin C for a variety of reasons, including:

(a) Compatible Editorial Context people read maga-
zines for information, entertainment, or both;

therefore, they provide an excellent background for tell-
ing the Vitamin C educational story.

(b) Prestige the esteem with which readers regard maga-
zines creates prestige, dignity and relative acceptance
for the advertiser's products.

(c) Deep Impact the high quality reproduction of full-
color, appetite-appealing ads provides strong impact
and depth of impression.

(d) Audience Selectivity a magazine's distinctive edi-
torial format attracts a specific and selective type
of reader. Using a combination of magazines permits
a broad, as well as deep, coverage.

(e) Flexibility several important national consumer
magazines offered regional editions, i. e. specific
geographic segments of their circulation. This gave
the opportunity to "custom-build" the magazine circu-
lation to fit the market patterns or characteristics of
each citrus product.

as follows:


of products and magazines during the crop year was



July 4
July 11
July 18
August 8
August 20
August 22
August 22
August 29
September 5
September 13
September 19

American Home
Good Housekeeping
Progressive Farmer
Farm Journal
Saturday Evening Post
Better Homes & Gardens
Progressive Farmer
Farm Journal


Grapefruit Sections
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Sections
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice


October 3
October 11
October 22
October 31
November 21
November 28
December 5
January 27
February 17
February 24
March 10
April 7
April 21
May 19
June 9

Good Housekeeping
Saturday Evening Post
Better Homes & Gardens
Good Housekeeping
Progressive Farmer
American Home
Farm Journal
Good Housekeeping
Progressive Farmer
Woman's Day
Farm Journal
Good Housekeeping
Progressive Farmer
Family Circle

Frozen Orange Juice


Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice

Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice

Daily Newspapers

Daily newspapers were used for several citrus products at their
peak seasonal drive periods. Unload data and other marketing in-
formation formed the criteria for choosing newspaper markets. This
medium enabled the citrus advertising message to have greater op-
portunity of local impact and provided the Commission's merchandis-
ing representatives with material for use in obtaining retail tie-in



Two-color ads were used in as many major markets as possible,
depending upon funds available, with black and white ads appearing
in minor markets.

Three insertions were scheduled for fresh oranges, the major
newspaper list including 110 newspapers in 96 markets.

Three insertions were scheduled for fresh grapefruit, the ma-
jor newspaper list including 92 newspapers in 79 markets. One in-
sertion also appeared in.a select list of western newspapers.

Two insertions were scheduled for frozen orange juice, the ma-
jor newspaper list including 42 newspapers in 38 markets.

One insertion on canned grapefruit sections appeared in 32 news-
papers in 28 markets.

For Temple oranges there were two insertions in 18 newspapers
in 13 markets, and one insertion appeared for tangerines in 105.
newspapers in 94 markets.

Sunday Newspaper Supplements

Sunday newspaper supplements were used for:

(a) Concentration of circulation in areas of the country
where sales and potential sales are greatest.

(b) Dual readership through a family editorial appeal.

(c) High readership of advertising.

(d) Efficient expenditure of advertising dollars.

Sunday comics were used for tangerines as a change of pace and
to take advantage of the high readership among children.

Breakdown of products and Sunday supplements used during the
crop year was as follows:

Issue Publication Product

July 17 American Weekly Chilled Orange Juice
August 7 1st Three Markets Chilled Orange Juice
August 21 American Weekly Chilled Orange Juice
December 4 1st Three Markets Frozen Orange Juice


December 4
December 1 ]
December 1
December 11
December 1I
December 1E
January 8
January 15
January 22
January 29
February 12
February 19
February 26
March 19
March 26
April 9
April 16
May 21
May 21
June 4
June 18

Metro Comics
1st Three Markets
This Week
This Week
1st Three Markets
Puck Comics
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets
This Week
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets
This Week
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets
1st Three Markets

Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Chilled Orange Juice
Fresh Oranges
Temple Oranges
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Chilled Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice


Television advertising featured fresh grapefruit. The highly in-
teresting "Today" Show on the NBC Network was selected to carry
this product. In most instances, the commercial featuring fresh
Florida grapefruit was live and was presented by the show's star
Dave Garroway. During the 13-week period, December 13 to March
10, which was the time most of the fresh grapefruit was marketed,
28 one-minute commercials were scheduled. Many of these com-
-mercials mentioned the popular Florida grapefruit spoon.


All basic advertising and marketing concepts practiced in the
United States were followed in Canada. The same advertisements
were used in both countries, those placed in Canadian publications
being revised slightly to conform to regulations of the Canadian
Department of National Health and Welfare. Many major U. S.
consumer publications enjoy large distribution in Canada, which
adds to the advertising impact in that market.

Two magazines were used -- Maclean's and Chatelaine. Sup-
plements were Weekend and Star Weekly, together with the French



language publications La Presse and La Patrie.

Daily newspapers in major markets were used for local im-
pact and merchandising tie-ins. One insertion was scheduled
for fresh oranges in 13 papers in nine markets; one for tange-
rines in four papers in two markets; one for canned grapefruit
sections in 13 papers in nine markets; and two for fresh grape-
fruit in 18 papers in 14 markets.


Florida Citrus Commission advertising and its merchandising
material and services were featured in trade publications. The
availability of fresh products also was an important advertising
point. Funds were allocated to product categories on the same
basis as consumer expenditures.

Canned products were featured primarily in Chain Store Age,
Progressive Grocer, Super Market Merchandising, Supermarket
News and Nargus Bulletin.

Frozen concentrates were featured in several of the above-
mentioned books and also in Frozen Food Age, Frosted Food Field
and Quick Frozen Foods.

Availability of the product and consumer campaigns on fresh
oranges, fresh grapefruit, Temple oranges and tangerines were
advertised primarily in The Packer and The Produce News.

Canadian Grocer and L'Epicier carried advertising on various
products to the Canadian Trade.

Gift Fruit Shippers

The 1960-61 program also supported Florida gift fruit shippers.
Visitors in the State were reminded by the use of small space ads
to "send a basket of Florida Sunshine back home. These appeared
during the height of the winter vacation season in the Miami Herald
twice a week and in This Week in Miami, a tourist publication dis-
tributed primarily in hotels and motels.

Florida Citrus Premium Offers

The Florida grapefruit spoon was featured in most of the fresh
grapefruit advertising during the past fiscal year. This item con-
tinued to be very popular with consumers and orders were received

for more than 600,000 spoons, bringing the total to well over
eight million spoons now in use.

An interesting and unique orange juice squeezer was introduced
and offered in several of the fresh orange advertisements. From
three insertions, more than 38,000 juicers were ordered.

Agency Service Operation

Benton & Bowles maintains two service groups assigned to the
Florida Citrus Commission account. One Account Executive is
responsible for all fresh citrus product advertising; another for
all processed product advertising. In the creative area, such as
art and copy, the responsibility also is divided, one group hand-
ling orange products, another grapefruit products. A Vice Presi-
dent, who is the Account Supervisor, resides in Lakeland with of-
fices in the Commission building and co-ordinates the daily activi-
ties of the agency's New York organization with those of the Com-
mission. The entire agency group assigned to the Florida Citrus
Commission account reports to a top-level management super-
visor who is an officer-director and who is actively engaged in all
phases of the Commission's advertising and merchandising activi-

. The Florida Citrus Commission this year appointed Cortez F. Enloe,
Inc., New York, a medical advertising agency, to handle advertising
directed to the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health professions.

The expanded professional advertising program was designed to en-
courage physicians and other members of the health profe ssions to

\I oe cO5 5d is tolpO "t to
NN h. 1omer Jncklo- -

r1= 20

urge -our patients to drink

orange jice

',' .FLO. RID ', '
.; ,"'. ,""" ,

,Mae mine Orange Puice!

1055' -,little Ii Me)

-..ZLVit --IRV

recommend Florida citrus products. The importance of citrus pro-

ducts as a source of Vitamin C was emphasized, but other important
medical uses for citrus products were also present d: orange juice
as a substitute for sweets in the treatment of acne patients; citrus pro-
ducts as a tasty and healthy snack; orange juice as a rich source of

potassium in potassium-deficiency conditions; and the use of orange

N 75,


i PWdiatrics

Medical Economics


-*DtCINB ^
** y
H.ftLLV .



the ourna

a 'A

.... .....-
.~ ......... .-
...... ..1......-

.__...~-. ..-.......... ..~
_~- .......I

THE-l JJ URNAi~L 01"`

7-I. C .H .P'9-

___Th __ I





juice in pediatric nutrition.

The professional program was divided into two parts: general
and specialty advertisements. The general advertisements were
placed in national, in regional or state, and in county journals;
the specialty advertisements were placed in journals going spe-
cifically to internists, pediatricians, or dermatologists.

In the one year from August, 1960, through July, 1961, the ad-
vertisements of the Commission were printed nine and a half mil-
lion times.

Included in the program were official journals of the national
medical, dental, nursing, and osteopathic organizations; outstand-
ing and authoritative mass circulation journals in medicine and
paramedical fields; journals received by all senior medical stu-
dents, interns, residents, dental students, and nursing students;
pediatric, internal medicine, and dermatology specialty journals;
and the official journals of 25 selected state medical associations
and 30 county medical societies.

In all, professional advertising appeared in 74 journals with a
combined circulation of 1, 170, 191. There were 438 insertions of
different advertisements, and the grand total of impressions was

One important yardstick of the quality of a medical advertise-
ment is the Readex Reader Interest Survey sponsored by the Jour-
nal Modern Medicine. A four-color advertisement of a young lady
sipping orange juice, headlined "What's She Doing That's of Medi-
cal Interest?" consistently earned the highest rating in its product
classification in this authoritative survey.

In recognition of the excellence of this advertisement, the
Florida Citrus Commission received the Modern Medicine Adver-
tising Achievement Award. The citation stated in part, "... the
advertisement has achieved outstanding reader interest in com-
parison with all others measured in READEX continuing reports

Another outstanding advertisement was one directed to pedia-
tricians. It shows a little boy in sailor suit, holding an orange,
and bears the headline: "Today's little 'limey' needs a half barrel
of orange juice his first two years." Besides receiving many ap-
proving comments from physicians on this advertisement, the
Commission got many requests for reprints from physicians,

consumers, and organizations. Because of the favorable recep-
tion given this advertisement, it is being adapted for use in the
1961-62 fiscal year program.

Immediately after its appointment as the new ethical agency, the
Cortez F. Enloe group prepared a new advertisement on the im-
portant subject of potassium replacement to appear in the "Nutri-
tion Symposium" issue of MODERN MEDICINE (circulation to
177,000 physicians). Its theme: that several valuable new drugs
unfortunately drain the body of potassium and patients receiving
these drugs run the risk of a deficiency which can lead to a dis-
turbance in renal function...that supplementary potassium is al-
ways indicated for these patients... that orange juice is one of the
richest natural sources of potassium. The advertisement, titled
"In Potassium Deficiency--Urge Your Patients to Drink Orange
Juice, appeared six times in the American Journal of Medicine
as well as in MODERN MEDICINE. Total impressions: 294,318.


The main efforts of our professional relations program were
directed toward keeping medical leaders informed of the activi-
ties and programs of the Commission and to keeping the Staff in-
formed of current medical opinion in areas of interest to the Com-

The members of our Medical Advertising Advisory Council pro-
vided the Commission with a "sounding board" on medical opinion
throughout the country, and these opinion molders will continue to
be available to aid the Commission and the Staff whenever needed.
The Agency Medical Department and Staff kept close watch on
medical developments in matters affecting the citrus industry.

A new brochure, "Is it Illegal to Eat an Orange in November?"
was prepared especially for distribution at medical and profes-
sional meetings. First distributed at the Clinical Session of the
American Medical Association, Washington, D.C. it was well
received and brought many requests for reprints.

Although designed primarily for use at professional meetings
and in conjunction with the Florida Citrus Commission exhibit,
this brochure is well suited for distribution to organizations and
individuals, both trade and consumer.


During the past year the Medical Director of Cortez F. Enloe,
Inc. has carefully reviewed all articles appearing in the medi-
cal literature having to do with citrus products, Vitamin C, or
ascorbic acid. As a result of this review, as well as from in-
formation obtained through correspondence and other contacts
with leaders in the field, both in this country and abroad, recom-
mendations have been made to the Commission that it consider the
advisability of supporting research in three areas:

1. Orange Juice in the Treatment of Acne Conditions
The purpose of this project is to establish through
clinical trial whether or not orange juice, when pre-
scribed as a snack or meal time beverage substitute,
will be of practical help alleviating acne conditions.

2. Vitamin C and Energy
The purpose of this study is to establish whether or
not there is a demonstrable relationship between Vita-
min C ingestion and increased endurance.

3. Vitamin C in Citrus Products and Improved Performance
The purpose of this project is to establish whether or
not increased intake of Vitamin C in citrus products im-
proves performance, particularly in athletes.

The first of these projects, under the direction of Dr. Herbert
Spoor of New York City, is well underway and is expected to be
completed on schedule.

The second of these projects is still under development, and it
is anticipated that a specific proposal including a detailed protocol
prepared by the principal investigator will be submitted to the
Commission for its review in the near future.

The third project has been developed into a specific protocol
which has been forwarded to the Commission for review. The
protocol was prepared by Professor Wayne D. Van Huss of Michi-
gan State University who proposes to carry out the project under
the direction of Dr. Henry Montoye of the School of Health and
Physical Education, Michigan State University.

The Medical Director of Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. has provided
information on a number of occasions during the year, either di-
rectly to the Commission or to those making inquiry to the

Commission, on various specific problems related to citrus fruits
or Vitamin C and their usefulness in various conditions. With the
assistance of the agency's Medical Advertising Advisory Council,
supplemented when necessary by consultation with highly qualified
specialists, it has been possible to provide the Commission with
up-to-date, authoritative information on these particular problems.


........:....... .........1......... .-..~.-.~.-.
::::::::::...' ~-~ ~'
'' '''''''''''''''~''
~''~'~"' ''"'''''''''''~''
::'::~:-::':::: ::::::':;';' ~:~;';';';~:~(';'
r '''' .''~' .~.~..-..~~. ~
~ ~ ''' ~~'''''
~ ~~~ ~~ ~;~''
'::'::''':: :':::::: :''''''~~''''
''"'~''''' ''' '' ~
"' '"'''' '

7)The Florida Citrus Commissi on
came into being in 1935. Shortly after
the organization of the Commission, it
became n e c e s s a r y to develop a plan
for merchandising our program to the
handlers of all citrus products in the
United States and Canada. It was felt
that our national advertising schedule
would be much more effective if the
program was explained to food hand-
lers. Two field representatives were
employed to do this job. Since that
date, as the production of Florida cit-
rus has increased from year to year,
this program has been expanded, and
at the present time we have staff of 55
representatives stationed in the prin-
cipal markets in the United States and
Canada. The Merchandising Depart-
ment is maintained in or d e r to pro-
mote a g o o d relationship between the

Florida citrus industry and the handlers of our products in the
retail markets. The benefits of such type of program have been
recognized by all factors in the citrus industry, and it is felt it
has been most helpful in increasing the sale and usage of citrus
products in the areas in which they operate. In the early days
of our merchandising program, our heaviest concentration of
man power was in the Eastern part of the United States; however,
as the distribution pattern of our products has widened, our man
power has been shifted in order to give good coverage to all the
principal markets selling Florida citrus products.

During the past year, in order that closer supervision can be
given to all field men, two Division Managers have been added to
our staff. This gives us a total of five divisions. A Division
Manager is in charge of each division, and a Regional Manager is
in charge of the operation in each principal market. Merchandis-
ing Representatives work under the supervision of Regional Mana-
gers. The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic Coast area
and Eastern Canada. The Central Division covers the central
part of the United States and Central Canada. The Western Divi-
sion consists of the Midwestern area of the United States and

Canada. The Southern Division covers all the Southern states
from Oklahoma and Texas Eastward, and the Pacific Division
consists of the area West of the Rocky Mountains. With the ad-
dition of two Division Managers, we are able to give field men
much closer supervision. Our 55-man merchandising staff is
broken down as follows: 5 Division Managers, 35 Regional
Managers, and 15 Merchandising Representatives.

Many of the members of our merchandising staff are natives
of the State of Florida. For the most part, they have graduated
from an agricultural college, with a major in Marketing. In
many cases, men with a good merchandising background are em-
ployed from the area in which they work. After being employed,
they are given a training course to make them familiar with the
production of citrus products, the merchandising pattern followed
by the Florida Citrus Commission, and the advertising schedule
of the Commission. It is felt that each man must be well informed
regarding all phases of the Florida citrus industry before he goes
into the market to do merchandising work.

The field staff must be well informed at all times regarding
new and better merchandising methods, as well as the activities
of the Florida citrus industry. In order to keep these men posted
regarding these different activities, two Division Meetings were
held during the past year. At these meetings, the advertising
and merchandising program for the year was discussed in detail.
The men were also brought up to date regarding new and improved
methods of in-store display work. Statistical reports and bulle-
tins are channeled to the field men during the year in order that
they may be kept abreast of the activities of the industry and so
that they may be better prepared to carry our story to the trade
factors with whom they are working.

The duties of our merchandising staff cover a wide scope of ope-
rations. They keep retail organizations throughout the country in-
formed regarding our advertising schedules and attempt to have
these organizations tie their own advertising and merchandising
programs in with our campaigns to feature different citrus pro-
ducts when Florida Citrus Commission advertisements are being
carried in their markets. They arrange promotions with various
retail organizations, supply them with point-of-sale display ma-
terial, and build many attractive displays of different citrus pro-
ducts in the retail stores. Over 30,000 in-store displays were
built during the 1960-61 season. It is felt that if our products
are well displayed and pinpointed with attractive point-of-sale dis-
play material, Mrs. Housewife will be attracted to these products

when she enters the store to do her weekly shopping. Members
of our merchandising staff are doing everything within their limi-
tations to see that the retail grocer is well supplied with all types
of citrus products and that these products are properly displayed
and merchandised.

In addition to the work with the retail stores, Commission repre-
sentatives contact the auction companies in the terminal markets,
fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distribu-
tors, hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug and fountain
groups in order to keep all factors properly informed regarding
our advertising and merchandising schedules.

During the 1960-61 season, representatives of the Florida Citrus
Commission made a total of 104,619 calls. These same repre-
sentatives traveled 1,329, 196 miles in order to cover their respec-
tive territories. During the year they conducted a total of 850 in-
store demonstrations in which different citrus products were
sampled to the customers in retail stores. In addition to the live
demonstrations, 855 give-away promotions were conducted in which
the customer received an award at the conclusion of the promotional
period. This type of demonstration and give-away programs have
proved to be most successful and are well accepted by the different
trade factors.

In addition to our demonstration program, we have conducted 224
prize and premium promotions. This is a program which is an in-
centive plan through which cash, bonds, and other prizes and
premiums are offered to personnel of the different retail organiza-
tions for outstanding jobs of promoting, displaying, and selling our
products. This particular type of program has been well received
by trade factors, and has been most effective in moving larger
quantities of Florida citrus products through the retail organiza-

During the year many special events are planned and carried
through to completion by our merchandising staff. Our activities,
as originally planned, were curtailed to a certain extent, due to
budgetary cutbacks caused by the visit of Hurricane Donna to the
State of Florida. Although we did have a reduction in our budget,
we were able to continue with a planned program, as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of the 1960-61 season, four major promotions
were arranged in which Florida citrus products were featured. A

brochure outlining each promotion was distributed to personnel
of the retail organizations throughout the country. These bro-
chures were mailed to some 10,000 retail personnel well in ad-
vance of the promotion. The brochure outlined the details of the
promotion, such as merchandising activities and the advertising
support which would be supplied by the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion in connection with this event. It also illustrated the type of
point-of-sale display material to be used in the promotion and
pictures of model displays suitable for use in retail stores. Sup-
port from each retail organization was solicited by a Commis-
sion representative. Special point-of-sale display material kits
were prepared and distributed with each planned promotion.
This type of activity has proved to be most successful in that
each organization could plan their program well in advance.

Trade Luncheons

During the 1960-61 season, the Florida Citrus Commission en-
tertained some 1,500 leading trade factors during a series of
trade luncheons. Major trade luncheons were held in the follow-
ing cities:

New York, New York
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Buffalo, New York
Cleveland, Ohio
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Toronto, Canada

Smaller trade luncheons were held in:

Charlotte, North Carolina
Birmingham, Alabama
Nashville, Tennessee
Kansas City, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
Chicago, Illinois
Cincinnati, Ohio
Detroit, Michigan
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Washington, D. C.
Baltimore, Maryland
Norfolk, Virginia

At each of these meetings, a complete outline of our advertis-
ing and merchandising program for the individual market was

presented. This type of meeting has proved to be most success-
ful in that it creates a closer relationship between the handlers
of Florida citrus products in the Northern markets and the Florida
citrus industry.


During the 1960-61 season, the Florida Citrus Commission
bought space and participated in 16 major conventions related to
food, health, and medical fields. Our selling message was car-
ried to many people in the United States and Canada who attend
such conventions. Participation was as follows:

Food 10
Dietetic 1
Hotel and Restaurant 2
School 2
Medical 1

In addition, orange juice was served as a courtesy at 80 na-
tional conventions which held their meetings in the State of Florida.
It is felt that participation in these conventions builds much good
will for the Florida citrus industry.

European Program

The 1960-61 season started the fifth year of participating in an
advertising and merchandising program in Western Europe. Fol-
lowing Hurricane Donna, the Commission reduced the European
program budget by $49,000, from $250,850 to $201,850. The
European advertising and merchandising program was supplemen-
ted by the sum of $84,000 by the United States Department of Agri-
culture under the provisions of Public Law 480. The total allo-
cation for activities was used in the countries of Germany, France,
Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Switzerland.
Allocation of funds was also made in direct relation with marketing
of citrus products, fresh, canned, and frozen. Germany and Swe-
den continued to be our best customers; therefore, the major por-
tion of the budget was spent in these two countries. The European
advertising program has been carried out by Benton & Bowles, Ltd. ,
of London, with affiliates in Stockholm, Sweden; Brussels, Bel-
gium; Paris, France; Frankfurt, Germany; Geneva, Switzerland;
and Oslo, Norway. These agencies handled all trade and consumer
advertising in the respective countries. The Commission continued
to maintain its two European merchandising representatives, one
established in Stockholm, Sweden, and the other in Brussels,

Belgium. They handled all major merchandising activities and co-
ordinated advertising. They also represented the Florida citrus
industry in seven major trade and consumer fairs where unique
and attractive displays of products were made, with samples given
to approximately 220,000 potential customers. Too, they con-
ducted 310 individual store promotions, where more samples were
distributed. The demonstration program has proved to be highly
successful, and a very important part of the Commission's pro-
gram, highly acclaimed by European importers and retailers.
Each country with its own unique merchandising techniques made
it necessary to develop different types of appropriate display ma-
terials. These were produced through the coordinated efforts of
the United States Department of Agriculture, the advertising
agency, and retail trade. Some 500,000 pieces were produced
and distributed in Europe, supplemented by another 300,000
pieces from the Lakeland office.

During the latter part of October and early November, the Com-
mission conducted for the first time trade luncheons in Stockholm,
Hamburg, Rotterdam, Paris, Zurich, and London. Approximately
500 major trade representatives were present to hear and see the
operations of the Florida citrus industry, along with presentation
of current advertising and merchandising programs.

With the trend toward greater liberalization and more free
trading of commercial products between the United States and the
countries of Western Europe, the Commission's advertising and
merchandising program has been most helpful and will continue
to develop greater interest in the marketing of citrus crops
throughout all countries of Europe.

Tangelo Promotion

Merchandising activities were conducted in 22 major markets
to support the sale of Florida Tangelos. Special point-of-sale
display material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission
for this product. In-store demonstrations and prize and premium
incentive programs were used to create interest at the retail
level. Sales results were most satisfactory.

Tangerine Promotion

Our merchandising staff, working in cooperation with repre-
sentatives of the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, conducted an in-
tensive promotional campaign during the tangerine season. The
major portion of our efforts on tangerines was carried on during

the month of January. More than one-half of the tangerine crop
was sold in January and February. Special point-of-sale display
material was produced by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative. Ex-
cellent cooperation was received from the different trade factors
in connection with this program.

Temple Orange Promotion

Special promotional campaigns were arranged with many trade
factors on Temple oranges. Advertising was carried in 10 mar-
kets. Special point-of-sale display material was produced by the
Florida Citrus Commission. Attractive displays were built in
the retail stores, with unusually good results.

Concentrate Sampling

Our field representatives have picked up samples of frozen
orange concentrate on a regularly scheduled basis and shipped
them to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. Sixty frozen orange concentrate surveys
have been conducted in the course of this fiscal year. In coopera-
tion with this program, our field representatives spend a great
deal of time with different trade factors discussing the proper care
and handling of Florida frozen concentrates. Temperature tests
are also made in the retail stores in order to obtain a cross sec-
tion of handling practices. Thousands of cartoon leaflets regard-
ing better care and handling of frozen concentrate were distribu-
ted to the trade. Excellent cooperation has been received from
all factors in connection with this program, and it is felt that it
has been helpful in making the store personnel aware of the ne-
cessity for better care and handling of frozen concentrates.

Media Relations

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission works in close
cooperation with the different media organizations carrying the
Commission's advertising schedule. Many of the newspapers
maintain their own merchandising staffs, who spend a portion of
their time calling on the retail trade, urging them to use the
display material offered by the Commission and assisting them
in the coordinating of their own newspaper advertising with that
of the Florida Citrus Commission.

Weekly Reports

At the end of each week's work, each Regional Manager and
Merchandising Representative submits a market analysis covering

the movement and acceptance of Florida citrus products in the
area in which he has been working, a range of prices for each
particular product, and that of competitive products, in retail
stores, and a general condition report of the activities as far as
our products are concerned. These reports are received in the
Florida office, edited, reproduced, and mailed to some 400 or
500 packers and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. In-
formation contained in these reports is considered most benefi-
cial to the citrus industry.

Display Material

The Florida Citrus Commission has made available for distri-
bution through its merchandising staff a complete line of color-
ful point-of-sale display material. It is colorful and is designed
to attract the customer's attention to Florida citrus products in
the retail stores and to create in her mind a desire to buy our

In addition to our regular line of display material, special dis-
play spectaculars are provided from time to time for use on spe-
cial occasions, such as store openings, sales meetings, etc.


The merchandising representatives of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission are provided with up-to-date equipment with which to
carry on their promotional operations. During the past year,
they have been provided with special lighted "shadow boxes" and
large plastic "oranges" and "grapefruit" to be used in large
spectacular displays in retail stores. A complete inventory of
this equipment is kept in the Lakeland office. Every effort pos-
sible has been made to keep the equipment of the field staff up to
date and in step with the progress which is being made from a
merchandising standpoint at the retail level.

The work of each representative is reported by the use of a
daily tabulation card on which he reports each individual call.
These cards are mailed to the headquarters office each day, are
processed by date, region, type of call, display material left or
ordered, and the type of work done in the individual store. At
the end of each month's operation, a record of calls for each
man is tabulated. This tabulation is broken down by the type of
call which he has made, such as super market, independent,
wholesaler, broker, receiver, etc. The report also indicates
the number of miles each man has traveled in the course of his

A weekly itinerary is submitted by each man in order that they
may be located at any time.

The work of the Florida Citrus Commission's representatives
has been lauded by the different trade factors throughout the coun-
try. They look to our representatives for information regarding
crop conditions, crop quality, and details of our advertising and
merchandising program. All possible information regarding the
activities in Florida is channeled to the field staff in order that
they can supply information to the trade factors in an intelligent
manner. Each representative endeavors at all times to see that
the people with whom he is working are well informed regarding
our merchandising activities and that our products are attrac-
tively displayed in the many retail stores throughout the country.

In the early days of the merchandising staff's activities, it was
necessary to call on different retail organizations and solicit their
cooperation and support in promoting our products. This picture
has changed to a great extent during the last few years, and now
we find it is a matter of allocating the time of our field men so
that they can properly service and take care of all the requests
which come to us from the different trade factors in the principal
markets throughout the United States and Canada.

The comments received from the trade over the years indicate
that the merchandising program of the Florida Citrus Commission
has been well received and that this service has been helpful to
the retail organizations in moving larger quantities of Florida cit-
rus products.


The Production Department orders, prepares and distributes all
point-of-sale and retail store merchandising material required by
the operations of the Merchandising Department and its field men.
Warehousing of this material, packaging and shipping is handled
for the most part in our own building, and an inventory of ma-
terials for the information of our staff is prepared twice a month.
Prompt attention to requests from the trade is therefore possible,
since it is quite important in many instances that display material
arrive at its destination in the shortest possible time, due to the
nature of the marketing structure.

Material is sent out only on written order, either from our field
men or direct from the trade, to individual retailer, chain or

voluntary group headquarters for re-distribution, or to wholesale
distributors. Requests for material are received from all sec-
tions of the United States, Canada and many foreign countries.
This past season 5,471 orders for display material were handled,
with a grand total of 8, 391,584 pieces of store advertising being
used by the retail trade. Some 458, 838 pounds of printed matter
were packaged, addressed and wrapped by this department, and
picked up for delivery by the Post Office and the Railway Express
Company during the season of 1960-61.

All display material and educational literature in printed form
purchased by the Florida Citrus Commission is produced by
Florida printers, with the exception of a very few designs which
cannot be produced within the State. The rules and regulations
of the State Purchasing Commission are rigidly adhered to. All
printing jobs amounting to over $50. 00 must be advertised for
bids, and the lowest responsible bidder receives the contract. A
total of 108 printing jobs for display material and educational
literature were produced during the 1960-61 season, all from
written specifications.

It has been determined over a period of years that the most ef-
ficient use of our retail store material is realized when the ma-
terial is put up in sets or kits according to the retailers' desires.
This department assembled 252, 525 of these kits of display ma-
terial during the past season.

The Commission's mailing room is under the supervision of the
Production Department. The mailing room serves all depart-
ments and does all of the duplicating operations as well as hand-
ling the mailing activities. Nearly 2,000,000 impressions were
turned out on our duplicating equipment, for the most part in-
formation on regulations, crop conditions, and advertising in-
formation for the benefit of the citrus industry, the food trade
and our field men. In nearly all instances, this information must
be disseminated immediately or it is without value.

The mailing room maintains up-to-date mailing lists for shippers,
processors, publicity outlets, and over 13,000 plates for food out-
lets handling Florida citrus products who are interested in keeping
up with our merchandising and advertising activities. There were
249,776 pieces of mail stamped and delivered to the Lakeland Post
Office the past year.

Production of school and educational materials for the School
and Youth Department is handled by the Production Department,

and distribution of this material is supervised.

Our extensive film program is handled by this department through
our film distributor, Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. During
the past fiscal year, 26,078, 156 consumers of all age groups viewed
our many Florida Citrus Industry films, through church groups,
schools, civic clubs and television channels.

Lea~tnC f

L *&ti Nest1 Aint,w, IA' .0 trow Jattatt ttroat tA.h

dic*r -u ta i a, u Fitaa tute woI. 0550 ita atal Aid. otwiaew

Pi T1a 3LI'

At FI IA SlNGE S Cfoalte IN A ELiCIrS3
t tn, eita rA

o rl d

,.. O si


A r



,.e -...r- ..r ing~,

."" "n to"'

ra l s

r`; or" "?"' re '

r run r **~ n Ivn

~'l'l'----ar Newc or m


-~ -


Itt, --

" C Ikin all outlets to see It t ihat sc I.- ,, a food column
gcts ii)io print 1\[ithout s o i; i i ] i s:lo( ,i I'Jl) r id;'i citrus is the
d ; -i, cda -..,o t jo. o the s p sp ILs s ,It 1l-ide iy-Anderson-
Yt.,y, tht > ew York l 'irin which h;is htindled this phase of work
-1 ics1 b1inc e the Coniinissi on' s inception. E evidence of the

nict t h at there's pi-obably not ian
e tly e eco in tI I d citrus, or
Pa t (oes not i\e it excellin e ,o\ k
tihe pe r 1 o dli c tlsplays atC ,1 i
i.ia .'ine; house ur an, couol(ool\

(-CCIs Itant conta cts anfCt a fjepuiail,
\ *'1\ ithii th le li Iome e c on i e

4. n C-

'fl(/DA vYS

editor w(ho doesn't very fre-
_ publication \within the field
'1ra,,c is LcoNdily apparent via
,sion Cmeictins of newspaper,
, raLto and television usae

Cn, for thl'oro) T responsible
- field are thie basis for the

la Tl I C& It- I

Ta a- *ao'-ob

1 -*-~- -- ~C-

v22 L6

success of Florida citrus food news. Daily kitchen testing, experts
in eye-catching photographic set-ups, regular meetings with the
editors of big magazines, syndicates and supplements, attendance
at important professional meetings, and close collaboration with
other food groups and companies are all required to round out the
picture and to give citrus prominence in all media of communica-

Evaluation of such publicity is a nebulous thing, but on the last
year-long clipping count, it proved that for every dollar spent in
the consumer food publicity program, over 15,000 readers were
reached. In the use of the publicity newspaper color food pictures
which have been made for the Commission, they occupied space
last year worth more than $300,000 had it been purchased at ad-
vertising rates, and in addition, these colorful pages bore the
authority of the local food editor's by-line.

In radio, scripts keep up with every facet of the changing sea-
sons -- during the past summer we have called attention to the
need for making every ounce of survival kits and storage foods
provide the most nutrition, and our citrus message on this item
alone was carried by more than 1,000 disc jockeys.

As for television, Peggy Ware travels the country, appearing
as a guest on live shows and doing recipes specially worked out
for the season. In addition, our 3-minute short films on fresh,
frozen, canned and chilled products carry news about citrus to
homemakers all over the country. Though produced more than
five years ago, they are still much in demand, and during the past
year were shown on 810 stations, to an estimated audience of

Active membership and participation in leading professional
meetings also helps keep Florida citrus in the fore. Among the
groups at which it is regularly represented by D-A-Y personnel
is the Newspaper Food Editors Conference, which is traditionally
opened by an affair hosted by the Commission; the American Wo-
men in Radio and Television; the American Home Economics As-
sociation (Miss Ware is the national chairman of the Nutrition
Committee); the American Dietetics Association; the Home Econ-
omists in Business.

Special attention has also been paid during the last year to the
institutional field, which now serves some 100,000,000 meals
daily to Americans. Recipes have been worked out for use of
our processed products in the mass-feeding field, to augment

distribution of the quantity recipes which were done for fresh fruits
a few days ago. These are promoted through the media which
serves the institutional field, together with articles and photos pro-
vided by the Commission's agency.

To back up the Commission's teenage program, several special
articles and recipes have been prepared for magazines serving
this field.

In addition to food copy, the program during the past year in-
cluded intensive publicity at the time of the hurricane, advising
editors and writers of the actual situation with regard to the out-
look and price of the supply of citrus. Special stories were also
written and placed in widely diverse publications on the 25th anni-
versary of the Commission.


The Commission, in cooperation with Florida Power & Light
Company, Miami; Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg;
Tampa Electric Company, Tampa; Gulf Power Company, Pensa-
cola; and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Mansfield, Ohio;
sponsored the Third Annual All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest
in which 3,496 contestants participated. The Contest, under the
direction of the Commission's public relations department, was
launched initially two years ago and attracted 2, 301 entries. Last
year's Contest swelled the entries to 2,836.

Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted all over the
State by the Home Service Departments of the cooperating privately-
owned electric utilities. The Grand Finals, under the direction of
the Commission, were held in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the
Florida Citrus Building in Winter Haven on April 13-14, 1961. The
Grand Championship Sweepstakes was won by Mrs. C. P. Compton
of Fort Pierce. Her prizes consisted of appliances for an all-
electric kitchen. Second prize winner was Mrs. Ruth Metzger of
Miami. She won an electric washer and dryer. Third prize winner
was Mrs. W. H. Kirkland of Weirsdale, a citrus grower. She won
a portable electric dishwasher. Mrs. J. A. Spanola of Tampa won
honorable mention.

Nationally-known judges for the Grand Finals were Myrna John-
ston, foods and equipment editor of Better Homes & Gardens

Magazine; Dorothy B. Marsh, director of foods and cookery for
Good Housekeeping Magazine; Jane Nickerson Steinberg, former
food editor of the New York Times; Josephine McCarthy, former
home economics director for WNBC-TV in New York; and Manuel
Garcia, Jr. co-owner and manager of the famous Las Novedades
Restaurant in Tampa's Ybor City.

Two famous food ex-
perts, judges in last year's
Finals, examine the work
of a contestant. They are
Dorothy B. Marsh, food
editor of Good Housekeep-
ing (left) and Myrna John-
ston, foods and equipment
editor of Better Homes &


SThis report is the first for the Commission's newest department,
headed by T. L. Hodson and activated in conjunction with Dudley-
Anderson-Yutzy, the Commission's Public Relations Agency. With
the number of young people in the country's schools reaching nearly 50
million this coming year, it is obvious that within this area is a huge
potential for increased consumption of Florida's citrus products.

Citrus is almost universally recommended by doctors and nutri-
tionists, and is kno w n commonly by all as one of the most healthful
foods available. Yet, good food habits, per se, have become unpopu-
lar among teenagers. The sorry state of the overall br eakfa st pic-
ture is indicative of the fact that their eating habits nowadays are largely
matters of chance, convenience, and example. In spot surveys in
widely separated parts of the country, the number of youngsters going
to school with no breakfast, regardless of economic status, ran as high
as 63 percent! The numbers who had just a doughnut, or who carried a
bag of potato chips on the school bus, swells the total of badly nourished

Hundreds of Hungry Teens Jam Auditorium for Breakfast

-a I0- "I"

,~ '-
.00 r- I

0.100 Ik- a.

Ol. II 0000 Il ,i.' Tf.l4.l '-r I I *0-l-

""'"" ..:_.. jg .-.

.. ... ...
g 7II3* Oi 0 ,0 13,I Ii.,Bn- (o4


,Slaol ,i" rt oa Et, Iami

Coortcu, P.....0 Wo 11. Ao.oott.ln. 0,. FIn. 3..4h'.nn4

tr.c,4 0 0. r.0 02'0 20 im 0)0

matwasm LI TA Im work latem, I

fo I -tjiu mil 0 -i m r0050* .

arl U

ft. u n-C w -or9-'-'
:,,h no 5*

F.,- -. .^s^
*y 0=. ^1000 no B LSS .5015

04.0 0w6 //. .04*-3 5.05^ .. 100no
I, 'F ~ ll~ I l0 0400.0.0 p00~5. 0 f
+' "+ +olmllllilYYs L lllll Ik Ul

40 04 P 4 II o W ol t -lm I
n i .
0) 5.t04 0. --. .
~l~rU.ni ICIO .. -0=0
rrC~u41 50W 0.
002-134u~sar rr 3...~ 0. ___Wn00-04.)0 0
0050)15.. 04 1 no
: ~a. a..o4 o'
Z. ooo4I

4.02 10. 196,.

to.~ 0...,1 5...s.
On0U1 -~rr
#1.1.4 410,. 4.Iol
..0..4004 P4404200 r Y~u~
40.200 2000049 n~~u p 11 i
00007 04.40 40lII 04.1 070000. 40..
.0020 I(N 53Lu .0.00.5000.0 00. 04l
3.03.o3=1 0000. LOTII 5.0I Oofoe oolo ft .1
0.0.0100 4000 40010.0 .oooU a 14 11 00000043
*ulaO, S..0S 040.40 000.0000.330 0000011 PL
4.0.0.~1. bo.0..Oo 10 000 .0 1 non 1

000 00030frl0,.0P .7 Fy 1000 .h Oltota
~C0~00r 00i 00, ISsa0 00opO" 400u 2.1004.0053
onII~f 01 iI 000 0S..00 .01 00.t L
0004 22l 0. 04 30704 07 0400. on 000400000
*020 4.0.0 050004...010.0000
c0.4.. .14 44.u 00, rr~ 0044 020400 .00320. 03 0
00 0au.1074. 06400 .400 I 40l Oa n~ syoSr
000004 0.j 04. 004 .4.4. :4200 40rc 0l 004*02000
0lou M 000 000.042rl 0220000 0.. ,~.0.~ 00010
1.00030 2010,~ 400 40 0020 2,a0020
10 I~loo 104', 4,*0)0.,rlrl 040.0

IriL X, OutaLs
t1.O 4..00440

>).i 0 t


400r 200 12. 3I 4

1l11i *rfr r-r.' a -a .n n tf1 l~
03 0 0 t 0T,3 0. 0.0003 U0-1 02. 34 030050. 0i i
*M U kd Utt T- Wl^'L terlU r 1-r-.
.0) 0 i0 r 111 -1l5 20 .0.444-0 0 -
0.1.0 04* 30 0)M02c 3 10r 30.0)>1 220000.012 00. .*0.01.
hru y-- fti h* ^1nt r tMlol >lr f Ijr al1
*U;i 4 thtIr 'ab *BnT rwtan t 'tLrU Wi~n~r
.00.010 04 )400=0T.

t). *U0r1l0. 00P 70,2 .00014l 00*I 00w d00wIMa 0002.

,540 0. 40... 0000000
50130, 03jil.ifj 40000

A BII y I '

1 1 Ali --i o qL,-i

05.0..... -,,

,- -




0.0.fla a,r #00210. l

I4*0 4.1 0 .01.040011 -~l 40l r
3000.0 0Il~ 0.00 00.0.00 Tnln 0001).~l0
rrlr~ InL(~n 1r11 0100.204 ,.r

iIII LII n nl~ln~N 2**04a*l~

:.Id no. 721 uTe. ..4.0

M0. 000 L0. .odm

0.... ftf. ao004.0
70 fl nwLrda 500l 7004 50200 0. altloo *t I0f 0.0081
0 l0) 1.011 0 o1 e 0 T 0pl1 29.30. t00 o 1200
--b2ri la0004000. 00)01.0x0. 04020 000u 201o oll0.1.,

a0 It rO.la ha0t 6.5 florid0 .cho0l Food
0C03=0o.Io0 r 702 r la001? In t10 School
t111ir Ual Salth MleodnlXton Luncheon
u P110 9an 00l1 1*t 20i 4 0L040.l 0 0 304Ui
loroi. 2.0.e0.u0 422. 9101.
Pl*. 00.. 0t4 t00 2o00 30 tool 0 Po0 3lcl 0 .c t.4Lo.
oIt 00 00q to asior Ur i1i04 Cit.-u CoalOntvc

*40 0.0 Foo t 0olooi A0l o

VM- = ---I 03

r~taiq r, Ua


taft" -l -C-Ift

.ll.n. 0

I~n. On* tld" u.6
Idn. nwE

ft 5.. .0 n t i. 0a1 04
{fT.i^ ** '*
I 00 011 5.00 011 fUl.).U 00I

10.ll~ 040 0O 541 03
3=550 II~~-Y 00 a 0 .03. 500 2
030 Wa 05..L
#0=5.. .000T0 W 3.
1010= 00. 50000.100= 0o

020.~~ hoft0

*l- P. cr a~ 4 .0. ~#N40lO **o..0: *1


C Ir ~T .





morning students to an even more alarming percentage.

Recognizing these facts, the Commission a year ago embarked
on a program designed to focus attention on the need for improved
health education in the schools and communities, and also to work
directly with teenagers in an effort to stimulate their interest in
better health. Even Washington officialdom has saluted the first
Commission efforts -- several projects were reported on at a
meeting held in July by Secretary of Health, Education and Wel-
fare Abraham Ribicoff, in answer to the President's plea for bet-
ter overall fitness programs.

Obviously, since the Commission controls no fruit, no product,
no price, no distribution, we cannot concentrate on school lunch
programs; rather, we must impress parents, teachers, young-
sters alike, of the daily need for citrus.

Within the available budget, five noteworthy new projects were
undertaken in as many states, which have already redounded to
the credit of the Commission, and which have created the desired
effect -- far more attention to good diet for young people, whether
in the school, the home, or on their own. The projects were de-
signed so that they naturally generated long-range newspaper,
magazine, radio and TV publicity; so that they could be picked up
and carried along by local service and voluntary agencies.

In all cases, the projects were determined with the advice of a
local advisory committee, which has given us entree into all
areas of educational, medical, nutritional, and other influential
groups of lay leaders. In two states, the projects revolved around
the selection of a health education teacher, nominated by his or
her own state peers, to receive an award for the job he or she was
performing in this field. The awards were made at impressive
gatherings of state leaders, and the Commission further contribu-
ted to over-all knowledge on the subject by staging health educa-
tion forums in both states featuring nationally known authorities.

In two other states, both in New England, the local advisory com-
mittees felt that there was such a dearth of good background for
comprehensive health education teaching, that it would be unfair to
honor anyone for a good job; rather, it was their suggestion that
the Commission help in sponsoring and setting up summer work-
shop courses in this subject. From personal observations, these
certainly seem to have been a splendid investment which will help
sustain for years to come lively interest in the subject.

In a Mid-Western state, a huge teenage nutrition meeting was
sponsored. In this case, the panel discussion, all the arrange-
ments, plans, and a good deal of the publicity, was arranged and
handled by the teenagers working with Commission and local nu-
trition authorities. It was the first such mass event attempted
on this subject, and as such, was widely publicized and received
much attention from other food industry groups and companies.
As a result of this one project, the idea has been picked up by the
National Food Conference which sponsors the annual Youthpower
Congress, and similar teenage panel affairs are presently being
planned in about 25 cities for the coming year, in most cases with
several local sponsors. Thus the Commission has sparked in-
terest in the idea, precisely what we started out to do, and in ad-
dition, has earned high respect for having instigated such pro-
grams. An outline of how to set up the teenage nutrition event it-
self has been sent to more than 300 communities.

These have been the large projects, which have required de-
tailed and even diplomatic planning and meeting stages leading up
to the actual events. Each of them has made wide use of, and
greatly accelerated the demand for the various posters, leaflets,
films and other teaching aids which the Commission has produced
over the years.

The half-hour film, "The Best Way to Eat, rounded out its first
year of bookings with 7, 385 showings to 322, 142 viewers, most of
them students. In addition, the film has won praise from educa-
tional and medical circles, and has been booked for hundreds of
showings at meetings of such groups.

As for educational material, we have no mailing list, yet for the
year we have received requests from every state and 50 foreign
countries for a total of 349,264 pieces, so it is obvious that we
have educators and health people all over the nation working for
us in teaching the youth the importance of citrus to good nutrition.

In developing new material, we have and will continue to seek the
advice of qualified educators and experts in the field of health and
nutrition, for the benefit of their professional knowledge.

Presently, new materials for elementary grades and new films
are being readied, to keep pace with the growing demand and the
importance of getting messages to children all through their school

A few of the testimonials on the past year's activities, shown at
the beginning of this section, attest to its sound approach and its
continuing effectiveness.


I" I

S rom
iLrriTL S. & DEVIL D
SN UTIL Raw. a DlviL-

^* 0..:-^* ,.


'ri ,~ ., +-
dK '


Cooperative research with the University of Florida's Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Lab-
oratory at Winter Haven again represented the Commission's major re-
search e ffor t during the past year. Also, a new human nutritional re-
search project was initiated. Funds expended totaled $248,000.

Major fields of research undertaken in past years were continued, and
included processing and by-products, basic studies of fruit physiology
and maturity, decay control, mechanical harvesting systems, the dry-
ing of citrus juices by the "foam-mat" process, and the influence of freez-
ing temperatures on citrus trees and fruit.

Problems in processing and by-products research i n c lud ed the isola-
tion and identification of volatile flavoring components; the removal of
bitterness from grapefruit juices; microbiological examination of fro-
zen and hurricane damaged fruit; the production of activated sludge; and
factors influencing the stability and flavor of concentrates.
Fruit physiology and maturity research included studies of lemon de-
greening, fruit respiration, the coloring of grapefruit and tangerines, and


the relationships of various color pigments in oranges .

Decay control research saw 91 experiments completed. These
included degreened and non-degreened fruit, 600F. and 700F.
holding temperatures, fungicidal waxes, and impregnated paper

Fruit harvesting studies were continued with the development of
a mobile picker's platform accommodating 10 pickers, and the
construction of an inertial tree shaker.

The effects of controlled low temperatures on citrus fruits and
trees were studied using the large freeze chamber.

The "foam-mat" process for producing dried orange juice was
extensively studied.

I. Processing and By-Products

This research area is largely concerned with problems inci-
dent to the frozen citrus concentrate industry.

A. Volatile Flavors in Citrus Juices

By means of programmed gas chromotography and paper
partition chromatography, additional components were iso-
lated from orange essence. The two isomers, neral and
geranial, which make up the citral mixture, were positively
identified, and two isomers of hexenal were noted. Methyl
alcohol was also found. Octenal and furfural were tentatively
identified, and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids indicated
in some essence samples.

B. Debittering Grapefruit Products

Studies on the debittering of concentrated grapefruit juices
by the enzyme, naringinase, were continued.

C. Microbiological Studies

Juice from grapefruit which had been on the ground for 14
days after hurricane Donna, as well as concentrate prepared
from it, was examined for microbiological contamination.
Counts were low, but coliforms were found in the raw juice.
Pineapple and Valencia oranges frozen on the tree with the
portable freeze chamber were examined microbiologically

over periods of 39 days and 66 days, respectively. Dropped fruit
was examined individually, and after composite juicing in a com-
mercial extractor.

D. Activated Sludge

The study of the activated sludge system using the Cavi-
tator as the aeration unit was continued with excellent re-
sults. The ratio of pounds of excess sludge recovered to
pounds of organic solids removed from the waste was approxi-
mately 1 to 3.

E. Utilization of Freeze-Damaged Oranges in Frozen
Orange Concentrate

Pineapple and Valencia oranges from the tree-freezing
project were processed into 420 Brix concentrates. In gen-
eral, the products had an acceptable flavor when processed
using current commercial techniques.

F. Factors Affecting Stability of Concentrated
Orange Juice

Thirty-six packs of 420 and 50. 70 Brix Valencia orange
concentrates were prepared using varying juice finisher head
pressures and controlled amounts of pectinesterase activity.
None of the packs containing 0. 5 PE units of activity lost
cloud during 70 days at 400F. storage. Packs of 420 Brix
with 2. 0 PE units began to clarify rapidly after 52 days at
400 F.; whereas, packs of 50.70 Brix with similar PE ac-
tivity remained stabilized during 90 days of storage at 400F.

G. Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in Citrus

Basic information was obtained on the distribution of
pectinesterase activity and pectin fractions in the component
parts of Pineapple and Valencia oranges at various stages of
maturity. Minimum PE activity was always found in imma-
ture fruit, and sodium hydroxide-soluble pectin decreased
sharply during ripening.

H. Rapid Method for Predicting Stability of
Commercial Concentrates

The rapid method for predicting potential clarification
was evaluated in 5 commercial plants, and it was determined

that the method could be used during continuous plant opera-
tion if certain precautions were observed.

I. Survey of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates

A total of 187 samples collected from 23 plants during the
1959-60 season were examined for flavor, color stability,
and color. Flavor grades of "good" and "fair" were given to
35% and 65%, respectively, of these samples.

Two hundred and fifty samples monthly were collected in
major markets and submitted to the U.S. Department of
Agriculture for re-grading.

II. Physiology of Fruit and Fruit Pigments

Experiments on the degreening of citrus fruits at cool
temperatures were continued using lemons and grapefruit. Dark
green grapefruit were found to degree satisfactorily in three weeks
at 600 F. and 700F. Storage at 500F., as well as waxing, retards
this degreening process. A possible use of this finding is to de-
green grapefruit enroute on long overseas shipments. Color grad-
ing and spot-picking of tangerines reduces the time they must
spend in coloring rooms and also increases pack-out.

The respiratory gases of citrus were studied using three
methods. It was found that fruit placed in sealed poly bags without
holes increased the carbon dioxide level within the bag to 10 12%
and decreased the oxygen level to practically nil within 24 hours
at 700F. Eight quarter-inch holes in packed 5-pound poly bags
were necessary to maintain the carbon dioxide at 1% or less.
Fruit subjected to cold while on the tree increased its respiration
rate but this physiological change did not affect decay or keeping

III. Decay Control

During the 1960-61 citrus season, 91 experiments were
completed. Of these, 32 comprised a series of standard tests per-
formed throughout the season in which four varieties of oranges
were used. For each variety, eight experiments were made, four
with degreened fruit and four with non-degreened fruit. Duplicate
lots were stored at 700F. and 600F. to determine the relative ef-
fect of storage temperature on decay and on decay control. Oranges
used in these tests were degreened at a high relative humidity or
processed and packed promptly when degreening was not necessary.

This was done to control stem-end rind breakdown and excessive
decay previously found when degreening at low humidities or for
delayed handling when not degreening. This latter effect was
checked in each experiment by including two extra lots subject to
low humidity degreening or delayed handling. One lot was un-
treated and the other given a standard Dowicide A-Hexamine
dipping treatment. Both were stored at 700F. only.

Other experiments included: (1) screening tests on four-
teen other chemicals or procedures, none of which were effec-
tive in controlling decay; (2) a series of tests to evaluate the ef-
fectiveness of commercial fungicidal non-buffing water waxes;
(3) the use of paper pads impregnated with Dowicide 1 (orthophenol-
phenol) and other Dowicide compounds with and without examine
and combined with a Dowicide A-Hexamine dip or with diphenyl pads;
(4) effect of shaking oranges from trees on the incidence of decay;
(5) eight experiments with tangerines, four with degreened fruit and
four with non-degreened fruit -- average decay control with Dowi-
cide A-Hexamine dip was 61% after holding two weeks at 600F.

IV. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

A mobile picker's platform designed to accommodate 10
pickers was developed to investigate its merits in groves where
the trees have been pruned to a fan shape. Field tests revealed
that all fruit on these trees could be reached from the platform.
Success of this machine depends to a large degree on whether tree
shaping becomes a commercial practice.

An inertia-type tree shaker was constructed to study the
tree shaking principle of harvesting fruit. This shaker differs
from conventional ones in that it gives a variable stroke as well
as a variable frequency. Tests with Valencia oranges showed that
fruit removal increased with time after maturity standards of the
fruit had been reached -- varying from 42% to 70% in a four-week
period. The tree shaking principle offers a system of harvesting
fruit which requires only a small amount of tree shaping. How-
ever, fruit removal must be increased and tree damage reduced
before the system will be practical.

V. Prevention of Freeze Damage to Citrus

A total of 12 mature Pineapple and 14 mature Valencia
orange trees were exposed to various low temperatures for time
intervals varying from 4 to 11 hours to determine what effect
these temperatures and durations of time would have on the foliage,

fruit and wood of the trees, and their subsequent behavior.

Tree Damage -Exposure of 200F. for 4 hours resulted in
little or no wood damage to mature Pineapple or Valencia trees
which had no visible new growth present at the time of freezing.
Damage to trees having buds just breaking was confined to the kill-
ing of the fine wood around the outside edge of the tree, but trees
with new growth 4 6 inches long had limbs 4 inches in diameter

Leaf Damage It appears from these tests that 200F. is
near the critical point for leaf freezing. After the box tempera-
ture reached 200F., leaves were frozen in approximately 1-1/2 -
2 hours. When the box temperature was maintained at 220F.,
very little damage to leaf tissue occurred, even after prolonged

The cooling rate of orange fruits appeared independent of
fruit size, large fruit cooling at the same rate as small fruit, but
was directly proportional to the temperature differential between
the fruit and the surrounding air. The freezing point of the juice,
as indicated by the maximum temperature obtained after freez-
ing, ranged from 27-1/2 290F. with the majority of the fruit be-
ing at 28 290F.

The external appearance of the fruit after thawing was
good and no hesperidin crystals were present. Hesperidin cry-
stals began appearing in section walls within 24 hours and were
usually abundant 48 hours after the fruit thawed. Water-soaked
cores and section walls were present in only a few fruits. The
only consistent indication that fruits had been frozen was the
presence of hesperidin crystals in section walls. Dryness did
not develop for a considerable time in Pineapple oranges which
were frozen in January. Three weeks after freezing, only the
top quarter inch of the stem end had a few dry vesicles. Dry
areas inside Valencia fruits frozen in February started to appear
in about 10 days to 2 weeks, being noticed first in the stem-end
and around the peel.

VI. Foam-mat Drying of Citrus Juices

In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
basic studies on the foam-mat process of drying orange juice were
continued. These studies included engineering improvements to
the hot-air tunnel drier, where several additions to the system
were made; comparisons of several additives for their ability to

produce stable foams; time-temperature -belt loading experiments
to determine optimum drying rates; storage studies of the product
at different temperatures and under different atmospheres; secon-
dary drying prior to packaging; and relative humidity versus mois-
ture content at equilibrium of the final powder. Grapefruit and
tangerine powders were also prepared from the respective concen-

VII. Human Nutritional Research

A project designed to test the influence of orange juice in-
gestion on various facial conditions was placed with Dr. Herbert
S. Spoor, New York Medical College.

VIII. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand copies of the 1961 Better Fruit Pro-
gram Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.

STransportation, in tune with the tempo of modern life,
has become more complex with each succeeding year.
And transportation oft e n is the difference between sea-
sonal success or profit losses to the Florida citrus
shipper and processor.

The Commission continued to retain the service of the
Growers and Shippers League of Florida to assist in
solving problems affecting transportation. As a repre-
sentative of the entire citrus industry, the League has
been most effective in carrying complex citrus trans-
portation problem m s to the Interstate Commerce Com-
mis sion and other federal and state ag e n c i e s with the
authority to regulate transportation.

The League, through this service, has been instru-
mental in effecting huge savings to the citrus industry.
Listed below are some of the more important citrus
problems encountered during the 1960-61 season by the
Growers and Shippers League, their disposition or

EX PARTE 223 INCREASED In September, 1960,
FREIGHT RATES, 1960: the rail lines of the
country filed a petition with the Interstate Commerce
Commission requesting authority to increase their rates


and charges and simultaneously filed their Tariff of Increased Rates
and Charges X-223, which provided that the proposed increases would
become effective on October 24, 1960. Among the increases requested
were increases of 1/21 per 100 pounds on line haul rates not exceeding
65 on all commodities and 1i per 100 pounds on rates higher than 65;
an increase of $2.00 per car on line haul rates published per car on
fresh fruits and vegetables; and an increase of $2.00 per diversion or
reconsignment. No increases were sought on charges for protective
services against heat or cold, nor on demurrage, nor on charges for
stopping in transit to complete loading or partially unload. On com-
bination rates, the proposed inc rea s e s were to apply on each factor
of the combination. As the result of petitions for suspension against
certain of the s e increases, the Interstate Commerce Commission or-
dered a maximum increase of $2. 00 per car to be applied on all ship-
ments of fr e sh fruits and vegetables, and also required that the in-
creases on combination rates should be no higher than those which
would apply on single factor rates. These amendments to the X-223
Tariff were made effective October 24, 1960. Following hearings,
the Commission ruled that the 1/2 and l~ per 100 pound increases
could be made on fresh fruits and vegetables moving at 100 pound rates,
and the maximum increase of $2.00 per car was removed effective
May 23, 1961. The $2.00 per car increase applicable on the per car
charges on fruits and vegetables remained in effect.

RAIL PER CAR CHARGES Following the publication of p e r car
ON FRESH CITRUS FRUIT: charges on citrus fruit to points in

Southern Territory, conferences were held with traffic officials
of the origin rail lines proposing to publish similar per car
charges to destinations in Official, Western Trunk Line, and
Southwestern Territories. This proposal was in line with the ac-
tion taken by the rail lines in publishing per car charges on vege-
tables to other parts of the country. While the origin line officials
agreed to take this proposal under consideration, so far the origin
lines have not been agreeable to the publication of per car charges
on citrus to the other territories. However, this subject is still
being actively pursued with the traffic officials of the rail lines
involved, with the hope that eventually such publication will be

REDUCTION IN RAIL RATES For some time the railroads
ON FRESH CITRUS FRUIT TO have been considering a pro-
NEW ENGLAND AND CANADA: posed adjustment in rates on
fresh citrus fruit to points in New England beyond Boston, Massa-
chusetts. This adjustment has been held up because of the question
of division of revenue and we have now been advised that this prob-
lem has been resolved and that an adjustment in these rates beyond
Boston will be made. The exact amount involved in this reduction
has not yet been determined, but it should be of assistance in mak-
ing rail shipments of citrus fruit to the upper New England States.

The railroads have also had under consideration a suggested re-
duction in rates, amounting to approximately 25 per 100 pounds,
on fresh citrus fruit moving to Eastern Canada. We have been ad-
vised that this adjustment was also tied in with the question of di-
visions in revenue and that the carriers are now in a position to
act on this reduction to Eastern Canada.

COMPLAINT AGAINST HIGHER Hearings in this proceeding,
RAIL RATES ON FRESH CITRUS which involved a complaint
FRUIT AND FRESH VEGETABLES against the level of rail rates
TO NEW YORK I. C. C. DOCKET on fresh citrus and fresh
33105: vegetables to points in Man-
hattan as compared with rates to points on the New Jersey side of
the Hudson River, were concluded in October, 1960. Briefs were
filed in this proceeding and the Examiner's proposed report found
that the higher rates to Manhattan were unreasonable and should
be reduced to the level of the New Jersey rates. The proceeding
will be set for oral argument at a later date.

RAIL PIGGYBACK RATES ON In July, 1960, the origin rail
FRESH CITRUS FRUIT TO lines filed a proposal to pub-
POINTS IN THE EAST: lish piggyback rates on fresh
citrus fruit from points in Florida to Baltimore, Maryland, Phila-

delphia, Pennsylvania, and to the New York, New York, area. The
rates proposed were to apply per trailerload, minimum two trailer-
loads per flat car, and would include pickup at origin and delivery
at destination with a lower rate to apply when the service rendered
included pickup at origin but only ramp delivery at destination.
This proposal was approved by the Southern rail lines and also by
the Eastern carriers and the rates were published effective Sep-
tember 14, 1960.

Since the inauguration of this piggyback service to destinations
in the East, the Southern lines have been interested in the publi-
cation of similar rates to destinations in the South and to other
points such as St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Louisville, Cincinnati,
and to New England. Studies are now being made as to the feasi-
bility of the publication of piggyback rates on fresh citrus fruit to
these destinations.

DEFICIT RULE ON TRANS- The Trans-Continental rail lines
CONTINENTAL RAIL SHIP- had filed a proposal to make cer-
MENTS OF FRESH FRUITS tain changes in the deficit rule
AND VEGETABLES: applying on the movement of
fresh fruits and vegetables between Trans-Continental Territory
and the other territories in the country. The changes proposed
would, in the opinion of our shippers, adversely affect them should
occasion arise when the provisions of the deficit rule would have
to be used, and objections to the proposal were filed with the Trans-
Continental rail lines. Hearing on this proposal was held before
Freight Traffic Managers Committee of the Trans-Continental lines
in Chicago in August, 1960, at which the League appeared in oppo-
sition to the proposal. Following this hearing, the Trans-Continen-
tal lines disapproved the proposed changes in this deficit rule.

RAIL AND BOAT RATES ON The publication of successive re-
FROZEN CITRUS PRODUCTS ductions in rates on frozen citrus
TO POINTS IN THE EAST: products by the rail lines and
boat line to destinations in the East resulted in an investigation be-
ing ordered by the Inter-state Commerce Commission into these
rates in I.C.C. Docket 33293. Hearings in this proceeding were
held in Washington, D. C. in June and in September, 1960. In
May, 1961, the examiner's proposed report was issued which con-
tained the recommendation that the rail rates, including refrigera-
tion charges based on carloading of 70,000 pounds, be raised to
an exact parity with the boat rates to the points involved in the
proceeding. Exceptions to the examiner's proposed report have
been filed by the League, and oral argument will be held before
the case is decided by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

PROPOSED RAIL PIGGYBACK In January and February,
RATES ON FROZEN CITRUS 1961, the origin rail lines
CONCENTRATE TO POINTS IN filed independent announce-
SOUTHERN, OFFICIAL AND ments to publish piggyback
WESTERN TRUNK LINE TERRI- rates on frozen and chilled
TORIES: citrus products to destina-
tions in Southern, Official and Western Trunk Line Territories.
The publication of these rates to points in Southern Territory has
been approved, although the rates themselves have not yet been
published. Concurrence is still being awaited from connecting car-
riers to destinations in Official and Western Trunk Line Territories,

REDUCTION IN RAIL RATES In August, 1960, a proposal
ON FROZEN CITRUS PRODUCTS: was filed with the Southern
Freight Association as SFA Submittal A43277, to publish reduced
rail rates on frozen citrus products, carload minimum weight
60,000 pounds, from points in Florida to certain specified states
in Southern, IFA, and CFA Territories. This proposal was con-
sidered by the General Freight Committee of the Southern lines in
September, 1960, but failed of approval by that Committee.

In May, 1961, a carrier proposal was filed with the Southwestern
Freight Bureau as Proposal A17863 to publish reduced rates on
frozen citrus products from Florida to destinations in Southwestern
Territory on carload minimum weight 60,000 pounds made 11 per
100 pounds less than the current rate on frozen citrus concentrate
at carload minimum weight 36,000 pounds. This proposal was ap-
proved by the Southwestern lines, but was turned down by the Sou-
thern rail lines.

A proposal to publish reduced rates on frozen food commodities
between Trans-Continental Territory and other parts of the coun-
try had been filed by interested frozen food shippers. Insofar as
frozen citrus products from Florida were concerned, the proposal
was to publish a rail rate of $2.00 per 100 pounds, subject to car-
load minimum weight of 70,000 pounds, from Florida to Trans-
Continental Territory. This proposal was submitted to the Sou-
thern lines as SFA FL Submittal A31241 and was approved by both
the Trans-Continental and the Southern lines. This reduction was
published and became effective on August 15, 1960.

THROUGH RAIL RATES ON The determination of the ap-
CANNED AND FROZEN CITRUS plicable rail rates on canned
PRODUCTS TO CANADA: and frozen citrus products
moving to destinations in Canada has been a problem for some
time because the lack of publication of through rates required the

use of two and sometimes three factor combination rates. Pro-
posals to consider the publication of through rates have been be-
fore the rail carriers for some time, but approval of these pro-
posals has been withheld for one reason or another. Effective
October 27, 1960, the publication of through rail rates on canned
citrus products to points in Eastern Canada became effective.
Through oversight, the commodity description in connection with
the rate published effective October 27 was confined to a limited
number of canned citrus products. The League handled with all
of the carrier jurisdictions involved to secure the publication of
a complete list of canned citrus items in the tariff, with the re-
sult that in December, 1960, the tariff was amended to include
all of the canned citrus products.

A proposal to publish through rail rates on frozen citrus pro-
ducts to points in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, was finally ap-
proved and the rates were published effective November 10, 1960.
Another proposal, SFA Submittal A44399, to publish truck com-
petitive rates on frozen citrus products to the Provinces of Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada, was
filed and approved by the Southern lines and was also approved
by the Eastern and Canadian lines. These reduced single factor
rates were published and became effective May 2, 1961.

$50. 00 ADDITIONAL MECHANICAL For several years the
REFRIGERATION CHARGE ON rail lines assessed sepa-
FROZEN COMMODITIES STORED rate mechanical refrig-
IN TRANSIT: eration charges from
origin to transit point and from transit point to final destination
on shipments of frozen commodities which were stored in transit.
The. application of these separate charges resulted in unreason-
ably high charges for mechanical refrigeration service on ship-
ments which were stored in transit, and the rail lines were finally
persuaded to apply on such shipments the through refrigeration
charge from origin to final destination. However, the carriers in-
sisted on some additional charge for the service performed at the
transit point and arbitrarily assessed a charge of $50. 00 in addition
to the through mechanical refrigeration charge from origin to des-
tination. In January, 1961, a proposal was filed with the National
Perishable Freight Committee under Subject 6481 proposing to elim-
inate this additional $50.00 charge. This subject was discussed in-
formally with members of the National Perishable Freight Commit-
tee at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Frozen
Food Packers at Dallas, Texas, in March of this year. Hearing on
this subject was held before the Perishable Committee in Chicago
in May of this year, at which time the League appeared in support

of the proposal. We have been advised that after further study,
the Committee approved a charge of $30.00 in lieu of the present
$50.00 charge.

ADDITIONAL FREE TIME During this past winter a number
FOR UNLOADING MECHANI- of receivers in the East exper-
CAL REFRIGERATOR CARS: ienced excessive detention on me-
chanical refrigerator cars due to heavy snow in the rail yards pre-
venting the unloading of the cars. In order to correct this situa-
tion, Subject 6508 was filed with the National Perishable Freight
Committee proposing to amend the detention rule in the tariff to
provide that when unloading was impossible because of inclement
weather, additional free time would be allowed which would be
equal to the period during which such unloading was not possible.
Hearing on this subject was held before the National Perishable
Freight Committee in Chicago in May, and the League appeared
in support of the proposal. The matter is now pending before the
Perishable Committee.

TRUCK RATES ON FROZEN In August, 1960, the truck lines
AND CHILLED CITRUS filed a proposal to increase the
PRODUCTS: rates on frozen and chilled citrus
products from Florida to all destinations East of the Rocky Moun-
tains by 10% with a maximum increase of 12 per 100 pounds. As
the result of opposition to this proposal registered before the Sou-
thern Motor Carriers Rate Conference, and also following a meet-
ing of shippers and truck line representatives, the increase was
amended to be 2' per 100 pounds with the exception that the in-
crease would not apply on rates to destinations in the East subject
to minimum weight of 31,000 pounds. As amended, this increase
was approved and was published to all territories except the South
effective February 21, 1961, and was published to Southern points
effective June 2, 1961. A proposal of the truck lines to increase
the stop-off charge for completion of loading or to partially un-
load concurrently with the publication of the 2' increase was ob-
jected to by the shippers and after consideration by the Southern
Motor Carriers Rate Conference was disapproved.

In November, 1960, the truck lines filed Docket 043-516 pro-
posing to publish rates on frozen and chilled citrus products to
Noyes, Minnesota. The rates proposed were entirely out of line
with rates to other points in that general area, and the League
filed objections to the basis of the rates proposed, requesting
that the rates to Noyes be published on the same level as other
rates. The proposal was revised to bring the rates into line
with the general level applying in that territory, and on this basis

the rates were approved and published.

Because of numerous complaints against the level of truck rates
on frozen and chilled citrus products, particularly to points in
New York and Pennsylvania, the truck lines filed a proposal to
publish reduced rates subject to truckload minimum weight of
31,000 pounds to all points in New York and Pennsylvania to
which reduced rates subject to the same minimum weight had not
already been published. The proposed rates were a reduction of
10 per 100 pounds under the existing 27,000 pound rates. This
proposal was approved by the carriers and became effective on
July 6, 1961.

Various discrepancies and errors have crept into the truck
tariff on frozen and chilled citrus products over a period of years,
and a special committee of the Transportation Advisory Council
was appointed to work with the League in trying to arrive at some
revision in the truck rates which would remove these discrepan-
cies. A detailed analysis of the rates has been made by the
League and several meetings of the special committee has been
held in an attempt to arrive at some basis for a revision of these
rates. In March of this year a joint meeting of the special ship-
pers' committee and a special committee of the truck lines was
held in Atlanta, Georgia, at which these problems were discussed
and certain suggestions made as to possible solutions of the tariff
confusion. Further analysis has been made and is now under con-
sideration by both the shippers and the carriers.

PROPER TRANSPORTATION Shippers and receivers of fro-
TEMPERATURES OF FROZEN zen commodities have been
AND CHILLED CITRUS concerned for some time over
PRODUCTS: the maintenance of proper tem-
peratures on these commodities from point of production to point
of consumption, and this concern has been increased because of
the action taken by certain states proposing the regulation of tem-
peratures of frozen commodities at all stages of distribution.
Certain standards for truck transportation of commodities re-
quiring low temperatures have been recommended and have been
analyzed by the Florida..frozen citrus concentrate shippers. A
conference of frozen and chilled citrus products shippers and
representatives of truck lines was held in Miami Beach, Florida,
in October, 1960, to discuss the proper procedure in handling
these commodities and the proper temperatures at which they
should be transported. Similar discussions were held with rail
and truck line representatives at the meeting of the National As-
sociation of Frozen Food Packers in March, 1961.

SPECIFYING OF TEMPERATURES Following approval by the
ON RAIL SHIPMENTS OF FROZEN National Perishable Freight
CITRUS PRODUCTS: Committee of a proposal
which would authorize frozen food shippers to specify that these
food products should be transported at zero degrees Fahrenheit or
lower, the Perishable Protective Tariff was changed accordingly,
and, effective July 18, 1960, shippers were permitted to specify
that these frozen food products should move at temperatures of
zero degrees Fahrenheit or lower.

REDUCED TRANS-CONTINENTAL A subject of concern for
RAIL RATES ON CANNED CITRUS many years to Florida
PRODUCTS: canned citrus products
shippers was the lower rail rates applicable on canned goods East-
bound from Trans-Continental Territory to Florida as compared
with the Westbound rail rates on canned citrus products from
Florida to Trans-Continental Territory. A differential of 10 in
these rates had been maintained by the Trans-Continental rail
lines for many years in spite of efforts to have the East and West-
bound rates equalized. At the request of the Florida shippers, the
Southern lines filed and approved a proposal to reduce the West-
bound rate on canned citrus products to the level of the Eastbound
rates on canned goods, but the reduction was disapproved by the
Standing Rate Committee, and after a hearing was also disapproved
by the Freight Traffic Managers Committee of the Trans-Contin-
ental lines. The proposal was appealed to the Executive Committee
of the Trans-Continental Freight Bureau and after a hearing in No-
vember, 1960, at which representatives of the Florida shippers
and the League appeared in support of the proposal, the reduction
was finally approved and was published effective February 15, 1961,
on both 60,000 and 75,000 pound minimum weights. Based on the
rail shipments of canned citrus products to Trans-Continental Ter-
ritory last season, the reduction secured would result in a savings
to the Florida canned citrus products shippers of around $64,000
per year.

REDUCED RAIL RATES ON In January, 1961, the Southern
CANNED CITRUS PRODUCTS: rail lines filed a proposal to
establish a line of reduced rates, subject to carload minimum
weight of 45,000 pounds, on canned citrus products from Florida
to destinations in Southern, Official, Southwestern and Western
Trunk Line Territories, and simultaneously to reduce the rates
on canned citrus products from Florida to destinations in the
South, subject to carload minimum weight 60,000 pounds, and
also to remove the application of the 1i increase under Ex Parte
223 from the rates subject to 36,000 pound minimum. Because of

objections of shippers of other canned goods items, this proposal
was later broadened to include all items on the canned goods list
and also to apply from all points in Southern Territory rather
than just from Florida. As amended, the proposal was approved
for application within Southern Territory and the reduced rates
were published effective May 10, 1961, in spite of petitions for
suspension filed against them. Rail lines in the other territories
have not yet approved this adjustment and we are awaiting advice
as to their action.

As the result of action taken by the canned-goods shippers
throughout the country in requesting reduced rail rates on higher
minimum weights, SFA Submittal A45963 was filed with the Sou-
thern lines proposing to publish a reduction of 15% in the rate
subject to 60,000 pound minimum to be made applicable on car-
load minimum weight of 75,000 pounds within Southern Territory
and from Southern to Official, Western Trunk Line, and South-
western Territories. This proposal has been approved for ap-
plication within Southern Territory and has been sent to other
rate bureaus for their action.

RAIL AND WATER RATES In July, 1959, hearing in an in-
ON CANNED CITRUS PRO- vestigation of the rail and boat
DUCTS TO THE EAST: rates on canned citrus products
to points in the East, filed as I.C.C. Docket No. 32816, had
been held in Washington, D. C. The League had participated in
this proceeding to the extent of keeping abreast of the issues in-
volved in this investigation. In June, 1961, the examiner's pro-
posed report in this proceeding was released, in which the ex-
aminer recommended that both the rail and boat rates be found
not compensatory and ordered cancelled. Exceptions to this
proposed report have been filed by the League, and we are
awaiting the setting of a date for oral argument before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission.

REDUCED RAIL RATES Following the disapproval by the
ON CITRUS POMACE: Eastern Railroads of a proposal
to publish reduced rail rates on citrus pomace to destinations in
the East, conferences of citrus pomace shippers, representatives
of the League, and traffic officials of the origin and destination
rail lines were held in February, 1961, to discuss further action
which could be taken to secure a reduction in these rates. It was
concluded that a proposal suggesting the same rates which had
previously been considered by the rail lines be filed but subject to
an increase in the minimum weight to 70,000 pounds per car. This
proposal was filed and approved by the Southern lines and although

receiving a favorable report from the Research Group of Eastern
Railroads, was disapproved by the General Freight Traffic Com-
mittee of the Eastern Railroads. The matter was appealed to the
Traffic Executive Association of the Eastern Railroads and after
considerable educational work on the part of the shippers and the
League was heard by the Executive Association in Washington,
D.C. on June 27, 1961, at which members of the Citrus Pro-
cessors Association, the League, and representatives of the re-
ceivers and origin rail lines appeared in support of the reduction.
Following the hearing, the Eastern Railroads Executives con-
tinued on their docket the question of the reduction based on car-
load minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds pending a recommenda-
tion for a reduction in the rate subject to 60,000 pounds minimum.
The Eastern Railroads recommended a rate on 60,000 pounds
based 5 per 100 pounds higher than the proposed rates subject
to carload minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds, and both of these
reductions were subsequently approved by the Eastern Railroads,
and also by the Southern lines. This adjustment will result in
reductions of around 12 to 15 cents per 100 pounds in the railrates
(using Orlando as a representative origin), and based on the rail
shipments of citrus pomace last season, would save the citrus
pomace shippers more than $116,000 in transportation costs per

A proposal had been filed by the origin rail lines in Florida to
publish reduced rail rates on citrus pomace, subject to carload
minimum weight 60,000 pounds, to destinations in the states of
Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. However,
this proposal was amended to apply the feed rates on citrus pomace,
subject to carload minimum weight of 50, 000 pounds, to all of the
Southern states. As amended, the proposal was approved and the
reduced rates were published effective November 24, 1960.

At the request of the citrus pomace shippers and the League, the
Florida rail lines in 1957 filed a proposal to publish commodity
rates on citrus pomace to points in CFA and IFA Territories on
the basis of the former exceptions ratings which had been can-
celled. Although approved by the Southern lines, this proposal
met objections on the part of the Eastern Railroads and it was not
until 1960 that the proposal was approved, and the rates were
published and made effective on August 10, 1960.

REA EXPRESS RATES ON Following the request made
CITRUS FRUIT: by the Florida express fruit
shippers that a revision be made in the express rates applicable
on Florida citrus fruit shipments, officials of the Railway Express

Agency advised that this proposed revision would be given serious
consideration. In September, 1960, officials of the Express
Agency advised the shippers that a cost study would be made dur-
ing the season to determine the Agency's cost in handling these
shipments and also to be used as a basis for the proposed revi-
sion. However, in November, 1960, the REA Express announced
an increase of 20 per shipment, to apply on all of its traffic,
scheduled to become effective January 5, 1961. On behalf of the
express fruit shippers the League filed a petition for suspension
against the proposed increase, and as a result the application of
the 20 per shipment increase was postponed until June 1, 1961,
insofar as it would apply on Florida express fruit shipments. The
Express Agency estimated that the result of this postponement
would be a loss in revenue to the Express Agency (or a savings to
the Florida express fruit shippers) of $180,000.00 on the Florida
citrus traffic. In the Spring of this year, conferences with offi-
cials of the Express Agency were held which resulted in the work-
ing out and approval of an incentive basis of express fruit rates
for the coming season which should result in considerable savings
to the express fruit shippers.

APPLICATIONS OF During the past year there have
TRUCK LINES: been a number of applications
filed by truck lines seeking operating authority to transport citrus
products of various kinds to different parts of the country. Indivi-
dual shippers took action on several of these applications, but the
League was requested to support applications of Commercial
Carrier Corporation and Wilson Brothers Truck Lines seeking ex-
tension of their origin authority on canned citrus products to des-
tinations in the Midwest and also application of J. M. Blythe
Motor Lines for authority to transport chilled citrus products to
points in New York State, and of Service Trucking Company seek-
ing authority to transport chilled citrus products to destination
states in the East to which Service held authority on frozen citrus
products. Hearings before the Interstate Commerce Commission
on these applications were held in October and November, 1960,
at which the League appeared in support, and proposed reports
have been issued recommending that the applications of Commer-
cial Carrier, Wilson Brothers, and Blythe be approved, but that
the application of Service Trucking Company be denied.

COAST LINE AND SEABOARD AIR quested by the rail lines
LINE RAILROADS: involved in the proposed
merger of the Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard Air Line Railroad
Companies to take a position in support of or in opposition to the

merger. The League had also been requested by the Florida Cit-
rus Commission to advise the Commission of the League's posi-
tion on this merger to be used as a guide for possible action by
the Florida Citrus Commission on the proposed merger. The
first hearings on the proposed merger were held before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission in November, 1960, and the Execu-
tive Committee of the League felt that before a definite position
should be taken, more of the details of the proposed merger
should be known. In April, 1961, the Executive Committee re-
ceived the information it desired on the merger, and, after giv-
ing the matter serious consideration, adopted the position that
the League would not participate in any of the hearings before the
Interstate Commerce Commission; that the League approved the
merger in principle subject to the maintenance of service by
Southern Railway to and from Jacksonville, Florida, and subject
to such appropriate conditions as may be necessary for adequate
rail transportation and reasonable rates for citrus fruit on the
line of the Florida East Coast Railway Company; and that the
League did not favor the extension of the Southern Railway south
of Jacksonville, Florida.

FEDERAL LEGISLATION: Many bills have been introduced
in Congress proposing amendments to the Interstate Commerce
Act and we must follow these very closely. They propose regis-
tration of private and exempt motor vehicles with the Interstate
Commerce Commission, and would prohibit private carriers from
transporting exempt commodities on return trips and complete
elimination of the agricultural exemption as contained in Section
203(b)(6) of the Act.

Statements have been filed before the Senate Sub-Committee on
Surface Transportation opposing the enactment of such legislation.

In 1958 the Interstate Commerce Act was amended and added
Paragraph (3) Section 15-a, which was intended to lay to rest any
further contention or argument that rates might be made for one
carrier to protect traffic of another carrier. We have expressed
the view to the Committee that the added language of Senate Bill
1197 is wholly unnecessary, contrary to the long established basic
principles and is an effort to emasculate the intent, purpose and
effect of the 1959 amendment.

The Railway Express Agency is in the process of reorganization
and a new agreement was devised by the directors and officials of
the Express Agency after extensive negotiations so as to avoid
liquidation of the Agency. A major feature of the new 1959 contract

was that when put into operation the Agency would agree to pay to
the railroads agreed amounts for the actual transportation by each
railroad of express traffic. One of the obstacles to this reorgani-
zation was an obsolete provision of the Postal Laws regarding
furnishing of information to the Postmaster General on rates
charged the Express Agency by the railroads for the movement of
express matter. H. R. 1986 was introduced in the Congress to re-
peal this obsolete provision and our Attorney, Mr. M. W. Wells,
appeared before the Senate Commerce Committee in support of
this bill. The bill was passed by both the House and Senate and
signed into law with the result that one of the obstacles to the re-
organization of the Express Agency was removed.

A good part of the loss of traffic to the common carriers (rail-
roads and truck lines) can be laid at the doorstep of unauthorized
transportation. The National Industrial Traffic League appointed
a Special Committee to concern itself with such operations. We
are serving as a member of that Committee. The Committee
recognized that the laws and enforcement thereof need to be
strengthened in order to preserve and strengthen the transporta-
tion system and believe that this should be done by educational
programs conducted by industry. Another Committee known as the
Committee Against Unauthorized Transportation has also been or-
ganized and that group also felt that an educational program de-
signed to alert the public, state and federal legislators to the eco-
nomic danger involved was very important, and that there should
be stronger enforcement programs on both state and federal levels,
more stringent penalties for violators, including jail sentences for
responsible managerial personnel, increased cooperation among
state and federal regulatory agencies and authorized carriers.

7 .19,P

0~, ~ -




) It has been the p policy of the Commission to consider any
changes which are proposed in its regulations, and to make re-
visions, if necessary, to keep pace with changing conditions in
the industry. During the 1960-61 season the Commission con-
sidered and adopted a number of such changes, the more im-
portant of which were as follows:

Regulation No. 30, w hi c h covered the experimental coloring
of T emple oranges, was repealed. During the past six years,
-- ";:* the Commission issued permits to shippers to color Temples
on an experimental basis. On the basis of the experimental
coloring, it was concluded that the statute which permitted such
coloring should be amended to permit the coloring of this fruit
0 on the same basis as other orange s. The Legislature, at the
request of the industry, changed the statute accordingly and the
regulation covering the ex perimenta 1 coloring was repealed.

The 1961 Legislature, at the request of the industry, amended
the Code to permit unlimited packing of high density (4 plus 1)
frozen concentrated orange juice in institutional size cans. Fol-
lowing this amendment, the Commission adopted a new regulation

_*i .

/ ~'';"





.~ -
..... 'i'i
-~.. .-:)~I~
-C ~-.=~.

.. ~
-'' :
," "~
:~ s r:


Xarrooe i0



which establishes the Brix range in which such concentrate may
be packed and the size of the cans which may be used in packing
the product for institutional outlets.

The import of oranges from Cuba and other areas for pro-
cessing prompted the Commission to adopt a regulation to pro-
vide that citrus products produced in Florida which contain any
raw citrus imp o r t e d from areas beyond the continental limits
of the United States, shall be deemed to be m i s b r a n d e d if the
package or label fails to bear a statement clearly indicating that
it is a product containing raw citrus imported into Florida from
the named area from which the fruit is imported.

During the past two seasons, the regulations provided that all
citrus fruit received at packinghouses and processing plants be
tested to determine whether it failed to meet the ratio require-
ments by more thanone-half point. If the fruit failed, it was con-
demned and destroyed. At the request of the industry, the Com-
mission held a public hearing to reconsider this provision, and,
on the basis of this hearing, amend:'i the regulations to provide
that after November 15 for all citrus fruits except late types, and
after March 15 for all late type or.iies, the composite test for
ratio shall be optional with the Inspection Department.

Trade in
P"NUTS. V.Q54,


The Commission adopted a new regulation in which certain Brix
and Specific Gravity Tables, issued by the Bureau of Standards,
were approved as the basis for determining pounds solids in con-
centrated citrus juices.

The regulation covering grade standards for fresh citrus fruits
was amended to improve the standards for oranges, tangelos,
grapefruit and tangerines.

The Commission's regulation covering containers used for the
shipment of fresh citrus fruits was amended to include 5 and 8
pound polyethylene bags.


The Commission continued the employment of two experienced
inspectors to study inspection and enforcement procedures at
fresh citrus and processing plants. These men worked closely
with the State and Federal inspection departments in strengthening
the enforcement and effectiveness of the Commission's Regulations.
They prepared certain recommendations which were submitted to
the Florida Canners Association and the Florida Fresh Citrus Ship-
pers Association for their comments and recommendations.


During the 1960-61 season the Commission reviewed and ap-
proved 1,489 applications for citrus fruit dealer licenses and
denied 16 applications. More than one-half of these applicants
were express or gift fruit shippers, approximately 400 were
truckers or "bird dogs," and the balance were fresh fruit shippers,
processors, wholesalers and brokers. There were 240 dealers
who were licensed in the 1959-60 season who did not apply for a
license in the 1960-61 season. On the other hand, there were 230
new applicants for licenses in 1960-61.

The Commission continued to carefully check the surety bonds
posted by citrus fruit dealers for the purpose of determining
whether they were in line with the volume of fruit dealt with. Dur-
ing the season, based upon information the Commission supplied
the Commissioner of Agriculture, 30 dealers were required to in-
crease their bonds in the aggregate amount of $169,900.

During the past season the Commission issued a total of 3,552
special permits for gift fruit shipments by truck, interstate ship-
ments of fruit for processing, shipments for charity, experimen-
tal use of containers, experimental coloring of Temple oranges,
and the experimental production and sale of high density frozen
concentrated orange juice.


The Commission continued its active role of working with other
industry groups in developing important changes in the citrus
laws. As conditions change in the rapidly growing Florida citrus
industry, it is necessary to amend the laws to keep pace with this
progress. The Commission's Legislative Committee held many
meetings with the other groups in studying the proposed changes
and this resulted in the development of a legislative "package, "
consisting of 20 bills which was presented to and passed by the
Legislature. The Representatives and Senators from the citrus
producing areas were most helpful in obtaining passage of this
legislation. Some of the more important bills are summarized

1. A "Citrus Stabilization Act" was passed, which sets up
the machinery by which growers may petition the Com-
mission to issue marketing orders providing for addi-
tional advertising, merchandising, promotional and re-
search programs. The Commis sion would hold public
hearings on the proposed orders, after which a referen-
dum would be conducted among citrus growers. If 51%
of the growers affected by the order, who produced at
least 51% of the total volume of fruit produced in a
period determined by the Commission, approve the pro-
posed order, the Commission would issue the order
which would be applicable to all growers. The Act pro-
vides that an assessment of up to 5 cents per box may be
made. This Act was supported by the entire indus try
with the thought that the potential increase in the produc-
tion of citrus in future years might require additional
efforts to expand the market for Florida citrus fruits.

2. A marketing agreement act for citrus handled in fresh
form was passed. This is an enabling act whereby ship-
pers of fresh citrus may petition the Commissioner of
Agriculture to put into effect voluntary marketing agree-
ments which would be binding only upon those shippers

who sign such agreements. This act, too, is intended as
a tool which might be used to help dispose of potentially
larger crops in the future.

3. The law relating to the coloring of citrus fruit was changed
to permit the unrestricted coloring of Temple oranges. In
the past, Temples have been colored only on an experi-
mental basis, the volume being limited by permits issued
by the Commission. The experiments showed that it was
feasible to color Temples without restriction on volume
and the law was changed accordingly.

4. In order to provide stronger enforcement machinery for
the citrus laws and regulations the Code was amended
to provide that the Commissioner of Agriculture may im-
pose fines up to $50,000 on dealers who violate the laws
and regulations. The Commissioner has not had author-
ity to impose fines in the past.

5. The industry has been giving serious consideration to
changing the present sizes for grapefruit. In view of
this, the Legislature adopted the industry's request to
change the Code to provide that in the event the sizes are
changed, the Commission may, by regulation, change the
minimum juice requirements so that they will be in line
with the juice requirements for the present sizes.

6. The Code was changed to provide that the Commission may
spend up to 5% of its revenue for economic and marketing
research programs. The purpose of this is to permit the
expenditure of funds to make broad marketing studies de-
signed to expand the market for Florida citrus fruits so
that the larger crops expected in the future might be pro-
fitably disposed of.

7. The maturity standards for red and pink seedless grape-
fruit were changed to advance by 30 days the time when
this type of fruit must meet the minimum Brix require-
ments provided by law. This change was based upon
studies of the maturity of these varieties over a four-
year period.

8. A new law was adopted which authorizes the Commiss ion
to issue permits for the export of oranges from Florida
ports with a tolerance of 5% below the regular maturity
requirements for Brix and ratio, provided that the

maturity requirements shall not be below the require-
ments of any other country which exports citrus to the
same markets.

9. The Code was amended to permit unlimited production of
high density concentrate (4 plus 1) for sale in institutional
size containers. This change was proposed after several
years of experimental work on high density concentrate.

10. The licensing and bonding provisions of the Code were
amended to substantially increase the amount of surety
bond required by citrus dealers. In addition, the amend-
ment provides that the bond is liable for dealer claims if
grower claims are less than the amount of the bond.
Fruit produced by a dealer on groves he owns, as well as
fruit handled by cooperative marketing associations for
its members, is not required to be covered by surety

11. The laws relating to larceny of citrus fruit and trespas-
sing on citrus fruit groves were strengthened in an ef-
fort to curb the theft of citrus fruit.

12. A new law was passed which authorizes the Commission
to determine the method by which citrus juice is tested
at processing plants. Since the method of purchasing
citrus fruit for processing is largely on a pounds solids
basis, the industry is making every effort to standardize
the procedures and methods for testing fruit and this
amendment to the Code will be very helpful in accelera-
ting this work.

13. The Florida statutes were amended to provide that only
2% of the Commission's funds going into the State
Treasury shall be diverted to the General Revenue Fund.
In the past, 3% of the funds have gone into the General
Revenue Fund. The law provides that the 1% difference
shall be used by the Commission for research.


The purpose of the marketing staff is to develop and disseminate
marketing information to assist the Commission and the industry
to improve and expand the market for Florida citrus. Major
fields of activity include, (1) the dissemination of consumer purchase

data, (2) issuance of crop and process sing reports and (3) research
on various problems encountered in marketing Florida's fresh and
processed citrus.

(1). The Commission continued its policy of supplying the in-
dustry with essential information of estimated total household
consumer purchases of frozen concentrated juices, chilled orange
juice, canned juices, canned fruit drinks and canned grapefruit
sections. These data, purchased from the Market Research Cor-
poration of America, represent projections to national totals
based on reported purchases from a representative national sample
of approximately 10,000 household consumers.

Available to the industry are: (a) Weekly reports of consumer
purchases of orange concentrate, chilled orange juice, canned
orange juice and canned grapefruit juice; (these reports are
issued Monday of eas. k and in addition to purchases, show
average retail price wit! rear ago comparisons); (b) Monthly re-
ports on consumer purchases of selected fruits and juices ; (c)
One report annually covering selected 6 month period of con-
sumer purchases of canned and frozen juices, ades, and sections
as related to geographic region, city size, family income, family
size, age of children, occupation and education of family head,
age and work status of housewife.

The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in the 1959-
60 season was defrayed by the Florida Citrus Commission, with
some contribution from the California Prune Advisory Board.
In past years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture defrayed part
of the cost. The Department of Agriculture, in the 1960-61 sea-
son continued to analyze the data and publish all reports, except
the weekly which was issued directly from the Commission office.
All consumer purchase information was obtained by the Commis-
sion as part of its broad marketing research program directed
toward improving and expanding markets for Florida citrus and

Each of these reports is helpful to sales managers of Florida
fresh and processed citrus fruits in preparing their sales cam-
paigns and also provides general guidance to the Commission
advertising and merchandising programs.

(2). The Commission also issued weekly reports covering
operations of Florida citrus processors, as reported by the
Florida Canners Association. The objective of the Commis-
sion's issued report was to make the summary of processors'

operations available to a large number of people who would not
otherwise receive the report. Likewise, the Commission from
October through July issued monthly reports of estimated citrus
crop production in Florida and competing states as reported by
the U.S.D.A. crop reporting board.

(3). Most importantly, the Commission has expanded its mar-
keting research program. Several marketing problems received
research attention during the year, including:

a. Appraisal of the Commission's prize and premium program
as a tool for better merchandising. The Commission uses prizes
and premiums to accelerate merchandising effectiveness and an
analysis was made of all such programs for the 1959-60 market-
ing season. This study led to administrative steps to strengthen
the effectiveness of this merchandising medium and to more com-
pleteness of records.

b. Evaluation of the in-store demonstrations conducted by the
Commission merchandising field force in the 1959-60 marketing
season was completed.

c. A study of the consumer purchases of citrus and some com-
peting products in 1950 and 1960. This study highlighted the
changes in consumer purchases for citrus and competing juices
and drinks in the past 10 years. Growth was recorded by frozen
orange concentrate (+229%) and chilled orange juice (an innova-
tion of the 50's). Fresh grapefruit purchases per U.S. family
remained steady (+3%) while consumer purchases for all other
citrus offerings declined: canned single strength orange juice
(-57%), fresh oranges (-54%) and canned single strength grape-
fruit juice (-49%). On the other hand, fruit flavored drinks and
ades made significant market penetration during the last decade.
However, frozen orange concentrate and chilled orange juice
had a greater effect to date on the decline in fresh oranges,
canned single strength orange juice and canned single strength
grapefruit juice consumer purchases than the non-citrus fruit
juices or the fruit flavored drinks or ades. However, the pur-
chase pattern suggests still further growth can be expected for
fruit flavored drink and ade purchases.

Concentrated and chilled juices have carried the orange indus-
try, but, unfortunately, no single new grapefruit product has been
able to carry the grapefruit industry. The strengths and weak-
nesses in the purchase pattern for orange offerings tend to com-
pliment each other (i.e. each type of family made heavypurchases

of one or more orange offerings) while the strengths and weaknesses
in the purchase pattern for grapefruit offerings occurred among
similar type families.

d. A study of consumer purchase trends and patterns for citrus
products. The 1960 consumer profile for each citrus product was
charted to show the extent to which the purchases of particular
family groups were above or below the U.S. average. The report
shows great variation in both purchase patterns and trends for cit-
rus offerings and suggests that assorted advertising media, care-
fully selected would be more effective than any one medium to pro-
mote Florida citrus. The study also points up the urgency for de-
veloping new or improved citrus products and the need for test
marketing promotional innovations.

e. An examination of the citrus industry in the sixties. Ac-
cording to this study, Florida grapefruit and tangerine production
capacity has leveled off and will be relatively stable in the sixties.
Florida orange production capacity, on the other hand, barring
weather adversities, could climb to 135 million boxes during the
decade. With this anticipated growth, the outlook for oranges is
still bright because of the continued growth in demand for frozen
orange concentrate and chilled orange juice and because of light
California production. Grapefruit, without significant new pro-
duct breakthrough, will continue to be in a less favorable position
because Texas production growth will out-run population growth.

f. Further investigations were made of the consumers' prefer-
ences for color-added and natural colored oranges in Cleveland
and Philadelphia. This study was continued by the U.S.D.A. at
the request of the Commission to determine probable effects on
retail sales of oranges not colored prior to shipment. In addi-
tion to the 1959-60 test, another test was conducted using Ham-
lin oranges in the Fall of 1960 and another in the Spring of 1961,
using regreened Valencias. Besides measuring the quantities
sold at retail, data was also obtained from follow-up interviews
of orange purchasers.

The field work on this study has been completed and a report
will be forthcoming in the 1961-62 season.

Several reports of earlier studies were distributed to the in-
dustry during the 1960-61 season.

a. Analysis of the special orange concentrate advertising
campaign during September, October and November, 1959, by

22 Florida processors. According to this analysis, the $3. 5 million
expended by the processors generated $18 million of increased sales.
Sales increases were obtained from more families buying, as well
as larger average size of family purchase. Approximately 10 per
cent of the families buying frozen orange concentrate during the
promotion period took advantage of the coupon feature of the pro-
motion, but coupons accounted for only 4.4 percent of the total quan-
tity purchased.

b. Consumer preference for high-brix (51-1/2 degrees) and
standard brix (42 degrees) frozen orange concentrate. This study,
handled under contract with Benton & Bowles, Inc. involved 496
housewives in the metropolitan areas of New York City and Phila-
delphia in June and July, 1960. The preference votes of the total
sample was about equally divided between the two products. How-
ever, the 42 degrees brix concentrate was preferred by higher in-
come and small size families. The 51-1/2 degrees brix concen-
trate was preferred by lower income, large size families. The
lower density product was generally credited with some quality
superiority, while the higher density product was favored for
greater yield.

c. Appraisal of the field merchandising program of the Florida
Citrus Commission. According to this report:

1. The trade expects merchandising assistance from the
Commission and considers it helpful.

2. Point-of-sale material, displays, demonstrations and
prize and premium programs were the most popular kinds
of merchandising assistance.

3. Eighty-eight percent of the Commission's point-of-sale
material was used, compared to 81 percent of all material.

4. All trade factors preferred personal calls to mail ser-

5. All trade factors obtained point-of-sale material from
suppliers, though not from all suppliers.

6. Average interval between contacts was 6 weeks.

7. Only one-fourth of the trade factors said the Commis-
sion had adequate manpower in the market.

8. Most were familiar with the Commis'sion's advertising
schedule, but few used it.

9. One-fifth of the trade factors tied their in-store citrus
promotion to our merchandising schedule.

10. The trade prefers to select the display pieces to be used
in stores.

11. The Commission's display program was highly satisfac-
tory, as were demonstrations and prize and premium pro-

12. Most rated the Commission's merchandising efforts
"superior. "

13. Most trade cooperation was obtained through the personal
efforts of the Commission's field force, other than schedules,
calendar of events, etc.

From this study, a number of recommendations were advanced
for Commission consideration and many adopted.

In the Spring of 1961, the Legislature amended the State Citrus
Code to make available up to 5 percent of the Commission monies
for purposes of conducting economic and marketing research on
Florida citrus. The 1961-62 research budget, therefore, permits
research to be undertaken in two major areas (1) demand and (2)
market development and potential. Analysis of demand is needed
to give the industry information on the relationship of price to the
amount of each citrus product consumers will buy. This will be
especially significant as Florida and U.S. citrus supplies increase.
Additionally, work is needed on the competitive relationship among
citrus products and between citrus and non-citrus (including synthe-
tic) products. Of special concern in market development is the fu-
ture market for citrus, especially grapefruit which has weak con-
sumer purchase patterns and trends. Also analysis of advertising
and merchandising programs, evaluation of market potentials for
new and improved products, and consumer and trade attitudes and
preferences are also needed.

The employment of two professional research economists is
planned to initiate this expanded research program.

JULY 1, 1960 TO JUNE 30, 1961

Cash Balance July 1, 1960

RECEIPTS From All Sources


$ 1,343,636.32


$ 7, 302,275.90


General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Research and Development
Special Field Inspection

Merchandising and Promotions:
Includes Salaries and Expenses
of Advertising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.

Point-of-Sale Material

Public Relations and Publicity

Consumer Advertising:
Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision, Radio and Trade Papers
Professional Journals
By-Products Journals
European Program

$ 142,133.05
93, 311.39






Cash Balance June 30, 1961

$ 5,664,419.16

$ 1,637,856.74














- 1,000 Gallons -



,000 Cases,





1960-61 1


163,397 1/
187,543 3/
218,065 J/
223,311 3/
287,832 3/
262,474 2/
297,254 3/
296,575 /
291,537 3
320,588 /
284,243 3/
320,481 2

Tons - -

I/ Preliminary, as of August 18, 1961
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
2/ Includes Processed Tangerine Concentrate
2/ Includes meal, pulp and pellets
Source: Florida Canners' Association



1960-61 I_



(Other than






1960-61 (b)

1951-52 (a)
1953-54 (a)
1960-61 (b)

1950-51 (a)
1951-52 (a)
1953-54 (a)
1954-55 (a)
1955-56 (a)
1958-59 (a)
1959-60 (a)
1960-61 (a)

(000 Bxs)



I, *,



(000 Bxs)






(000 Bxs)











- .02
- .05

(000 Bxs)







(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary.

Source for Data Prior to 1959-60 Season: Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A.




L-akelan. d,