Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission

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Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Florida Citrus Commission
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Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
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Report year ends June 30.

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Full Text


Commission Members Serving During
the 1959-1960 Fiscal Year

J. R. Graves, Chairman Tom B. Swann, Vice-Chairman J. Ross Bynum Albert Carlton Frank Chase Nash LeGette Herbert S. Massey A. V. Saurman Key Scales, Jr. Bruce W. Skinner Herschell N. Sorrells J. Dan Wright, Jr.

Wabasso Winter Haven Titusville Wauchula Windermere Leesburg
Dade City Clearwater Weirsdale Clearwater Lake Alfred Sanford



J. Dan Wright, Jr. Chairman Tom B. Swann Key Scales, Jr.


Key Scales, Jr., Chairman Herschell Sorrells Tom B. Swann Herbert S. Massey Albert Carlton J. Ross Bynum A. V. Saurman


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman A. V. Saurman Frank Chase J. Ross Bynum Nash LeGette


Frank Chase, Chairman J. R. Bynum J. Dan Wright, Jr. Albert Carlton

A. V. Saurman Bruce W. Skinner Herschell Sorrells


Tom B. Swann, Chairman J. Dan Wright, Jr. Key Scales, Jr. Bruce W. Skinner Herbert S. Massey


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman Herbert S. Massey Albert Carlton Nash LeGette Frank Chase


Herschell Sorrells, Herbert S. Massey Bruce W. Skinner J. Dan Wright, Jr.



Nash Legette Frank Chase

J. R. Graves Tom B. Swann
Chair man I ict ir a ,rna"

Albert Carlton I.R. Bynum

*This is not only a report of Flo rida Citrus Co-nmissi; activities for the 1959-60 season, it is also a saluLe to all former rnem b s of the Commission in this, our 25th Anniversary Year.
It was in the Spring of 1935 th the S tate L i s Ia t , ossed the Act which created the Florida Citrus ( w -n ision. )n a no th ,, r ge of this report you will see a pic tur e of that , rbt Commission, and Iso the names of all the men who have ever s e rv ed ,n the Commission. 1h1<. i a(fustrv salutes them for 25 years of constructive t,. ice!
This past season, 1959-60, sav production of Florida oranges, grapefruit and tangerines total 124, 800, 000 boves -- down 900, 000 boxes from the previous season. Orange production increased by 5, 500, 000 LuoCe over 195859, but grapefruit production dropped by 4,700,000 boxe s, and the tangerine

1959- 1960



A. V. Saurman Herschell Sorrells

Herbert S. Massey Bruce W, Skinner

Key Scales, Jr. J. Dan Wright, Jr.

crop was 1,700, 000 boxes less. Oc,-tree value of all citrus to Florida growers was approximately $2 16, 000, 000.
Florida maintained its position as the principal citrus producing region
in the world in 1959-60. Florida citrus represented 73%o of the U.S. citrus
crop for the season, and 28% of the world's citrus production.
The Commission's many and varied programs of service to Florida citrus are detailed in this re por t. Adve rtising, merchandising, publicity, research, transportation, regulations -- each played its part in the overall objective, that of promoting the general welfaree of the industry.
Veterans of the fir s t full x i ar of l Conmission operations, in 1936-37,
will be interested to note that the e: penditures for consumer advertising, which were $544, 000 in that year, rose to _ ] !-time high of $3, 948,000 in 1959 -60.

And of further interest, the percentage of total expenditures for overhead salaries and expenses as 1. 27o of the budget in 1936-37; in 195960 it was 1. 9%!

To explain Commission functions in 1959 -60 in detail here
would only repeat what follows. But for a quick capsule summary of some of the highlights of the season, these would have to be included:

. the total expenditure of $6, 612, 852 was the highest
on record.

of this figure, 88. 6% went into advertising, merchandising and publicity.

. $273, 000 was spent on scientific research, by far the
most for this purpose to date and more than
$100,000 above 1958-59.

. new research projects included "foam mat drying" -- a
search for better production of a powdered orange
j uic e.

long-range planning to work toward future prosperity got
underway with employment of a marketing specialist.

. formation of the new Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association was the outgrowth of Commission action to
help shippers organize, begun in 1959.

. the nutritional film, "The Best Way To Eat," was completed and accepted by the American Medical Association -- now being shown nationally.

. new program directed toward youth and schools initiated.

Commission chairman headed delegation to Great Britain
to urge removal of British import restrictions against
grape ruit.

. consumer advertising stressed "Get The Real Thing" in
Florida citrus.

. surveys of consumers led to filing of complaint with Federal Trade Commission, with California joining, alleging deceptive advertising by the synthetic drink, "Tang.

. publicity program expanded to gain "third person endorse. ment" of citrus in various media.

. new medical advertising agency employed to put new and
greater emphasis in this field.

These are but a few of the Commission's activities in 195960. Several regulations were adopted to establish more orderly procedures in our complex industry, including tightening of prohibitions against fruit thefts and more strict investigation for bond and licensing approvals.

All the members of the Commission, past and present, its
staff and 125 employees -- in the Lakeland headquarters, in the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, and all over the United States and in Canada and Europe in our merchandising team -- are fully aware of the heavy responsibility of the Florida Citrus Commission in the challenging years ahead.

And for the year just concluded, we urge that you now read through this report, which we respectfully submit to you.

Homer E. Hooks
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration Robert Stuart, Comptroller Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations Frank D. Amn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising Ted L. Hodson, Manager, Youth and School Service Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager Dr. William E. Black, Marketing Specialist Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions W. J. Steed, Legal Counsel, Orlando



* The Florida Citrus Commission, with the issuance of this annual report, celebrates its silver anniversary -- 25 years of progress toward bettering the position of the citrus grower and building the industry into the gigantic and influential segment of the State's e co nom y that it is today. And it took the 82 citrus growers and processors, who have s e r v e d without pay on the 12-man appointive Commission, to establish order over the years and bring the Florida citrus industry into its rightful position in the world's citrus empire.
There were dark days I e a d i n g up to the formation of the Commission. Price levels were depressed and there were no grade inspection requirements or standardization of grades, packs, or container s. The dark depression year of 1934, which sparked the concept of the Commis sion, saw citrus in oversupply. Two years earlier, grapefruit had s o I d for as little as 32 cents per box, approximately the cost of growing it. Doom seemed widespread for even on the national front, things seemed to be going from bad to worse.


This is the first Commission, appointed byGovernor Dave Sholtz,which served from September, 1935, to Aug us t, 1936. Shown (left to right, first row) are L. L. Chandler of Goulds; L. P. Kirkland of Auburndale, first chairman; Tom B. Swann of Winter Haven, only original member still serving -on the Commission; W. L. Story of Winter Garden; B. E. Smith of Z eph yr h iIIs; and H. B. Davis. Back row includes John D. Clark of Orlando; Earl W. Hartt of Avon Park; Jesse Tapp; C. E. Stewart of DeLand; E. G. Grimes; A. S. Herlong, Sr. of Leesburg; W. E. Leigh; John M. Knight of Vero Beach; F. E. Brigham; and John S. Taylor of Largo. Davis, Tapp, Grimes, Leigh and Brigham were pres ent for the photo, but were not members of the Commission.


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That was the year when Dollfuss, chancellor of Austria, was shot to death by Nazi conspirators. President von Hindenburg of Germany died and Adolf Hitler became Fuehrer. Italy began making preparations for invasion of Ethiopia. Bread lines were long and the NRA was two years old.

But citrus industry leaders had their own problems. They
recognized the need for an industry-wide program for high standards of quality, a promotional program to stimulate demand, and research for developing new and better citrus products. Yet they were not sure how to go about it. Several previous tries by voluntary methods had failed miserably. To make matters worse, the 1934-35 Florida crop would hit almost 33 million boxes and growers were almost sure to face a merciless marketing problem in trying to get their share of the big 100 million U. S. citrus crop sold at a profit.

It was out of this situation that the idea for a Florida Citrus
Commission was born. Committees of growers, processors, lawyers and legislators put together a blueprint for the unique organization and in the Spring of 1935, a legislative act plus the approving pen of Governor Dave Sholtz, made the Commission a reality. At the same time, several other citrus laws were adopted and these have been amended during most of the sessions of the Legislature since. As the industry changed, so changed the laws.

The infant Commission, consisting of 11 members (later increased to 12), immediately took hold and set a planned course for improving conditions in the industry. It was authorized by law to levy an excise tax to carry on its activities of advertising and merchandising the Florida citrus crop, conducting research to discover new products and uses for citrus, and as watchdog of the citrus laws controlling methods of harvesting, grading, packing, canning, (and later concentrating), and coloring citrus fruit.

The Commission was regarded as a bold experiment at its
birth, yet it was created in the American political tradition of majority rule and taxation on the basis of representation. Each grower, shipper and processor has a voice in making industry decisions which are then enforced by the State's power to tax, license, inspect, regulate and embargo. At a time of lavish public aid to agriculture, the founders provided that the entire cost of the Commission program was to be borne by the industry itself. Not a penny has ever come from general State funds. Also, coming as it did at a time when it was fashionable to establish rigid controls on marketing and production of other crops, the Commission founding fathers left each grower and processor free to grow what he pleased and sell his crop wherever he wished at whatever price he could get.

The formula of industry forum and state enforcement proved far more successful than the founders hoped. The Commission contributed to orderly marketing procedures needed for the spectacular quarter-century of growth that followed. The blueprint has since been adopted by other large local crops, among them the Washington State Apple Commission and the Louisiana Yam Commission. It has been called a statesmanlike solution to the problem of securing cooperation among competing growers of a crop while protecting the public.

And the 25 intervening years, though having their ups and downs as a result of normal marketing conditions, have nonetheless proved profitable to the industry. The fastest growth of the industry occurred during these 25 years.

For instance, in 1960, Americans are expected to consume an average of 45 pounds of Florida citrus fruit compared with 11 pounds in 1935, the year the Commissio'i was created. Florida production since then has zoomed from 33 to 120 million boxes of fruit a year. And Florida has won top place as a citrus producer.

In 1960, Florida grew more than 73 per cent of the U. S. and nearly 30 per cent of the world citrus crop. Florida citrus acreage has trebled that of California. The on-tree value of the citrus crop has swelled from $19-1/2 million in 1934-35 to $216 million in 195960 - a hulking 1007 per cent increase to growers.

Through the years the Commission made many constructive contributions to the industry in addition to its hard-hitting advertising and strenuous merchandising of yearly crops. They are too numerous to enumerate here. However, mention should be made of the Commission's leading part in the development of frozen citrus concentrates, the Cinderella of the citrus industry. For it was Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Commission research director, working with his assistants, C. D. Atkins and Dr. Edwin L. Moore, who made the breakthrough and developed the process much as we know it today. They assigned patent interest in what was to prove a multi-million dollar idea to the Secretary of Agriculture, making it available to all American citrus growers and processors of every State. Because of the characteristics of Florida oranges, however, Florida quite properly reaped the biggest benefit.

Only on- of the original Commission members appointed in 1935 by Governor Dave Sholtz is still active on the Commission. He is Tom B. Swann of Winter Haven, one of the "Deans" of the industry and who has served as chairman, vice-chairman and headed just about every important committee on the State body.


Manager of Youth and
School Services


Stability of the organization seeped down from the Commission itself to staff members and employees. For instance, two veteran staff members this year round out 25 years of steady employment with the Commission. They are Robert Stuart, comptroller, and Ted L. Hodson, manager of the new youth and school service program. These are closely followed in length of service by Edward J. Laxie, regional manager in Boston with 23 years, and John E. O'Reilly, production manager with 21 years. There are 13 additional employees who have more than 14 years of service each with the Commission.

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It is fitting on this 25th anniversary of the Commission to salute those who, through the years, have given unstintingly of their time and energies on behalf of the industry through their service on the Commission. The roll of honor includes:

- L. P. Kirkland - Auburndale A. S. Herlong, Sr. - Leesburg
* B. E. Smith - Zephyrhills W. L. Story - Winter Garden
* Earl W. Hartt - Avon Park Tom B. Swann- Winter Haven John Maxcy - Frostproof Phil C. Peters - Winter Garden L. P. Thomas- Palmetto Stephen L. Griffin - Wauchula
- H. L. Henderson, Winter Haven E B. H. Williams - Crescent City
- John M. Criley - Terra Ceia E B. T. Lyle - Orlando
- G. R. Brock - Cocoa Fred W. Davis - Lake Wales C. Walton Rex - Orlando Judge W. L. Tilden, Orlando
- W. F. Glynn - Crescent City W. E. Bishop - Citra L. S. Andrews, Jr. - Cocoa
* James Taylor - Ocala Rollie Tillman - Lake Wales J. B. Prevatt - Tavares Clark Brown, Jr. - Arcadia Dan L. McKinnon - Orlando
* J. B. Stephens - Lakeland Tom Turnbull - Winter Haven W. F. Robinson - Leesburg Harry Tooke - Sanford Warren Zeuch - Vero Beach Nash LeGette - Leesburg W. Arthur Davis - Frostproof J. Frank Bennett - Clermont J. J. Parrish, Jr. - Titusville
* J. Paul Garber - Avon Park A. B. Michael - Wabasso Marvin H. Walker - Lake Wales J. R. Bynum - Titusville J. Dan Wright, Jr. - Sanford Albert Carlton - Wauchula

L. L. Chandler - Goulds
* John S. Taylor - Largo John M. Knight - Vero Beach
* C. E. Stewart - DeLand John D. Clark - Waverly Barnard Kilgore - Clearwater

*W. W.
* E. C.
* R.

Moseley - Fort Pierce Spivey - Floral City Wells - Arcadia Crawford - West Palm Beach Ulmer - Indian Rocks Clark - Eustis Hawthorne - Ocoee Todd - Avon Park Clewis, Sr. - Tampa

Jeff Flake - Wauchula Charles A. Stewart - Lakeland M. H. McNutt - Orlando John J. Schumann - Vero Beach H. L. Askew - Lakeland Latt Maxcy - Frostproof C. C. Commander, Tampa
* R. A. Fender - Maitland John A. Snively, Jr. -Winter Haven
0. C. Minton - Fort Pierce J. R. McDonald - Plant City , Dodge Taylor -Howey-in-the-Hills Lorin T. Bice - Haines City L. F. Roper - Winter Garden Robert C. Wooten - Dade City Frank Chase - Windermere C. V. McClurg- Lakeland Key Scales, Jr. - Weirsdale C. V. Griffin-Howey-in-the-Hills H. N. Sorrells - Auburndale Alfred A. McKethan - Brooksville J. R. Graves - Vero Beach Bruce W. Skinner Dunedin Herbert S. Massey - Dade City A. V. Saurman - Clearwater Vernon L. Conner - Mount Dora

-- Deceased



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*The consumer advertising program for the crop year 1959-60, prepared and presented by Benton & Bowles, Inc. , on September 16, 1959, and approved by the Commission and its staff, totaled approximately $4, 000, 000. It was the largest expenditure for citrus advertising in the history of the Commis sion.

The advertising was budgeted as a two-part p r ok gram: (a) the Summer Program - July 1 through October 31, with approximately 16% of the funds allocated during this period; and (b) the Major P r o g ram - November 1 through June 30, utilizing the larger portion of the funds available.

Print was used importantly with almo s t 80% of the funds expended in this media. The major share, 46%, went to consumer ma g a z i n e s with 18% in daily newspapers and 16% in Sunday newspaper supplements. Television received about 8. 5% of the funds during this crop year. The balance was devoted to Trade Journals and preparation costs.

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The advertising featured ten important and relatively high volume Florida citrus products. The products and the percent of advertising funds allocated to each were as follows:

Fresh Oranges - 8. 8
Frozen Orange Concentrate - 42. 9
Canned Orange Juic e - 8. 6
Chilled Orange Juice - 7. 0 Vo
Temple Oranges - 1. 170
Tangerines - 2. 6 V0
Fresh Grapefruit - 12.876
Canned Grapefruit Juice - 8. 376
Canned Grapefruit Sections - 4.076
Frozen Grapefruit Concentrate - 3.976
100. 0%

Separate programs were directed to Florida tourists, encouraging them to buy Florida citrus gift packages, while another was geared toward the retail trade.

Marketing ObjectivesThe basic marketing objective for the 1959-60 crop year was the disposition of available quantities of the various citrus products at price levels profitable to both the growers and the processors.

Considerations in attaining this marketing objective were:

(a) Maintenance of the highest possible level of per capita consumption of Florida citrus products.

(b) Increasing consumer awareness of Florida citrus product .

(c) Broadening the total market for all Florida citrus products.

Basic Advertising Objectives

The basic advertising objective for the 1959-60 crop year was
the presentation of Florida citrus as a commodity with the specific product attributes as an important feature. The advertising was designed to create maximum consumer usage by widening the base of current users and by attracting new users, appealing to them on the daily need for Vitamin C.

Recognizing the availability of synthetics and "juice drinks," it was felt that the advertising should educate the consumers on the essentiality of Vitamin C and stress the importance of getting this C vitamin

in its natural form. Strength was added by the inclusion of "nature" to the orange and grapefruit themes -- "nature's power-house of Vitamin C11 and "nature's goldmine of Vitamin C. 11

The print advertising presented an overall fresh-product image by use of a background illustration of fresh oranges or fresh grapefruit. This symbolic method was felt to be highly attributable to the family similarity so desirable in a commodity campaign, yet permitting distinctive and relatively competitive treatment to each individual citrus product featured.

Orange Copy Strategy

Orange advertising, both fresh and processed, was created with two objectives in mind: to project the importance of the daily need for Vitamin C and to stimulate the buying impulse of the consumer so that he would demand this vitamin the natural way.

The copy theme of the previous year's campaign was strengthened by the addition of "Nature's" to "Powerhouse of Vitamin C, 11 i. e. "Nature's Powerhouse of Vitamin C. 11 Copy research, which was conducted throughout the year, indicated high consumer response to the idea of getting Vitamin C in its natural form.

The heroic glass of orange juice was always featured in the main illustration. The symbolic fresh orange background was maintained in all of the advertising. A copy statement referring to the genuine or pure orange product extolled "Get the Real Thing."

In addition, the benefits of each orange product were stressed.

Grapefruit Copy Strategy

The grapefruit advertising capitalized on research findings and also exploited its natural source of Vitamin C. "Goldmine of Vitality Vitamin C11 of the previous year's campaign became "Nature's Goldmine of Vitamin C. 11 The theme stemmed directly from the product and its unique advantages, promising a strong and meaningful consumer benefit. A service campaign with menu suggestions, was conducted for canned grapefruit sections while the individual benefits of the other grapefruit products were featured.

The serrated grapefruit spoon offer was made in all fresh grapefruit advertising, as an attention- getting device and to induce readers to eat more grapefruit.

Media - Strategy

The media strategy for 1959-60 was designed to keep in sharp
focus the high franchise sales areas existing for Florida citrus products and those markets where good potential existed. Based on marketing information available and the copy strategy, the media strategy called for:

(a) Telling the basic story of the need for Vitamin G to a
selective mass dual audience.

(b) Sufficient continuity to create a deep impact on the value of
citrus as a natural source of Vitamin C.

(c) Flexibility of scheduling which permitted maximum exposure of each product in keeping with its seasonality,
distribution pattern and budget.

To implement this concept to the greatest extent possible, a custom-built media plan provided coverage and continuity among the right people in the market areas where consumption and sales by products was greatest. Moreover, the plan continued to exploit sales among potential customers in all natural citrus markets.

The Plan called for a combination of print (magazines, daily newspaper-s and newspaper supplements) and television.


Magazines were felt to be a prime medium for telling the educational story of Vitamin C for a variety of reasons, including:

(a) Compatible Editorial Context - people read magazines for information, entertainment or both and, therefore, they provide an excellent background for telling the Vitamin C educational story.

(b) Prestige - the esteem with which readers regard magazines
creates prestige, dignity and relative acceptance for the advertiser's products.

(c) Deep Impact - the high quality reproduction of full-color,
appetite -appealing ads provided strong impact and depth
of impression.

(d) Audience Selectivity - a magazine' s distinctive editorial format attracts a specific and selective type of reader. Using a
combination of magazines permits a broad, as well as deep,

(e) Flexibility - several of the important national consumer
magazines offered regional editions, i. e. , specific geographic segments of their circulation. This gave the opportunity to 11 custom -build" the magazine circulation to fit the market patterns or characteristics of each citrus product.

The breakdown of products and magazines during the crop year was as follows:

Issue Date



July 6 July 13 July 2 1 July 27 August 10 August 19 August 24 September 7 October 12 November 28 December 8 December 8 December 12 December 14 December 21 December 26 December 28 January 5
January 9 January 11
1/15 (Feb. January 16 January 18 January 23 1 /Z 1 (Feb.) 1/23 (Feb. January 25 February 2 February 2 February 6 February 8 February 13 February 20 2/20 (March) February 22

Lif e Lif e Better Homes & Gardens Life Lif e Better Homes & Gardens Life Lif e Lif e Po st Look Look Post Lif e Lif e Post Lif e Look Post Lif e Progressive Farmer Post Life Post Better Homes & Gardens Farm Journal Life Look Look Post Lif e Post Post Farm Journal Lif e

Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Sections Canned Grapefruit Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit Juice Canned Grapefruit Sections Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice Fresh Oranges Frozen Orange Juic e Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juic e Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Fresh Grapefruit Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Fresh Grapefruit Fresh Grapefruit Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Fresh Oranges
Fresh Grapefruit Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice

Issue Date

March 1 March I March 5 March 7 3/15 (April) March 19 March 21 March 29 April 2 April I I April 16 4/21 (May) 4/23 (May) April 25 April 26 April 26 April 30 May 9 5/15 (June) 5/21 (June) 5/19 (June) May Z3 May 24 May 28 June 11 June 2 1 June 2 5


Look Look Post Life Progressive Farmer Post Lif e Look Post Lif e Pos t Better Homes & Gardens Farm Journal Lif e Look Look Post Lif e Progressive Farmer Farm Journal Better Homes & Gardens Lif e Look Post Post Look Po st


Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Fresh Oranges
Fresh Grapefruit Canned Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Frozen Grapefruit Juice Canned Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Canned Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Sections Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice Canned Grapefruit Juice Frozen Orange Juice Frozen Orange Juice

Daily Newspapers

A strong daily newspaper list was used for several citrus products at their key seasonal drive periods. They were strategically chosen according to unload data and other marketing information. They enabled the advertising message to have deep local-impact along with providing high merchandisability with the trade.

Two colors were used in most newspapers, enhancing the sales message and generating greater impact.

For fresh oranges, five advertisements were scheduled. major newspaper list included 119 newspapers in 94 markets.


For fresh grapefruit, five advertisements were also scheduled. Three of the ads ran in major newspaper lists which included 141 newspapers in 102 markets.

Frozen orange concentrate advertisements ran three times in newspapers during the 1959-60 fiscal year. The lists varied but generally encompassed 53 newspapers in 42 markets.

One tangerine newspaper advertisement ran in 90 newspapers in 60 markets.

One Temple orange newspaper advertisement ran in 19 newspapers in 13 markets.

Sunday Newspaper Supplements

Sunday newspaper supplements were used in 1959-60 primarily because their circulation is in urban areas and because they were distributed in markets where sales patterns and unloads closely paralleled that of the products advertised.

The First Three Markets group (New York News, Chicago
Tribune and Philadelphia Inquirer) were used most extensively. The breakdown of insertions for products was as follows: frozen orange concentrate - 12; chilled orange juice - 6; Temple oranges - 3; tangerines - 2; fresh oranges - 1; and fresh grapefruit - 1. Eastern editions of American Weekly also were utilized to follow citrus product marketing patterns. Three chilled orange juice and one tangerine insertion ran in these eastern editions. One chilled orange juice ad also ran in the national edition of American Weekly. Two frozen orange concentrate insertions ran in summer issues of This Week.


With the high stakes and great risks of television, the following policy was adopted:

1. It had to be,, , program that had a favorable track record.

2. The availability of such a program had to provide the maximum audience and, therefore, the greatest efficiency.

3. It would have to be available for a short term and at a time
best for promoting citrus products.

As a result of this policy, nine one-minute telecasts were purchased on the CBS network "What's My Line" show, from February 14 through March 13. Seven commercials were devoted to frozen orange concentrate and two commercials to fresh grapefruit.

Canadian Advertising

All of the basic advertising and marketing concepts practiced in the U. S. were followed in the Canadian market. The U. S. advertisements were used in Canadian media, with revisions in copy made according to regulations set up by the Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare. Spill-in advertising occurred as a result of major U. S. consumer magazines distribution in Canada.

The Canadian magazine schedule included Chatelaine and MacLean' s. The supplement schedule included Weekend and Star Weekly. La Presse and La Patrie were used to give coverage to the large French-speaking group.

Three orange, three grapefruit and one tangerine insertion ran in daily newspapers in major markets.

Trade Paper Advertising

Trade publications were utilized to feature Florida citrus product promotions. Journals used to reach the retail and wholesale trade included Progressive Grocer, Chain Store Age, Super Market Merchandising and Supermarket News. Canned products were mostly featured.

Fresh frozen orange juice and grapefruit juice were promoted in some of the above mentioned tirade books and in Frozen Food Age, Frosted Food Field and in Quick Frozen Foods.

The Packer and The Produce News featured promotional. campaigns on fresh oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and Temples during the fresh fruit season.

Two Canadian trade journals, Canadian Grocer and-LIEpicier carried Commission advertising in the Dominion.

Gift Fruit Shippers

The Gift Fruit Shippers in Florida also received advertising support during the 1959-60 crop year. Small space ads ran twice a week for 17 weeks in the Miami Herald, to reach tourists often during their vacation-stay and telling them to remember their friends back home with gift packages of Florida citrus fruit.

Grapefruit Spoon Offer

The successful grapefruit spoon offer (four serrated-tip stainless steel spoons for one dollar) which had begun the previous fiscal

year, was continued in 1959-60. The promotional offer was usually used as a tag to the fresh grapefruit advertising. The coupon offer appeared in the Saturday Evening Post on December 26, January 9 and April 2; in Life on January 11 and in the First Three Markets group on December 6. It appeared in three of the daily newspaper ads during the weeks of December 3, March 17 and March 31 and was featured on the "What's My Line" television show on February 14 and March 13.

The offer was also made in Canada, appearing in Canadian news papers during the week of December 10 and in Star Weekly on January 16.

Over one million grapefruit spoons were ordered as a result of
tagging this promotion to the Commission's fresh grapefruit advertising.

Agency Service Operation

Two separate groups operate within Benton & Bowles, Inc. , the Florida Citrus Commission's consumer advertising agency. There is an Account Executive for processed citrus products and another for fresh fruit. The creative area also includes separate units - one for orange products and the other for grapefruit products. An agency vice president is in residence in Lakeland, with offices in the Commission's building, coordinating the activities of the New York organization with those of the Commission. The entire agency group reports to a top level management supervisor who is an officer -director of Benton & Bowles and who is actively engaged in the Account's daily activities.


The Commission, through its medical and ethical agency,
Noyes & Sproul, carried on an advertising program using full page, all color ads in ZI leading medical, public health and nutritional journals. The campaign amounted to 133 pages in these publications with 13 insertions going to the Journal of the American Medical Association and six insertions going to each of the 20 other publications.



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* Shortly after the Florida Citrus Commis sion came into being in 1935, plans were developed to car ry ourmessage to the handlers of our products in all part s of the United States and Canada through merchandising representatives. It was felt that our national advertising schedules would be much more e f f e c t i v e if the program were sold to -- and explained to -- food handlers. Two representatives were employed to do this job. Since that date, as the production of. Florida citrus has increased from year to year, this program has been expanded until today we have a staff of 55 representa-

tives stationed in the principalmarkets in the United S t a t e s and Canada. T h i s department is maintained in order to promote a good relationship between the Florida c i t r u s industry and the handlers of our products in the retail markets. The benefits of this type of p r o g ram have been recognized by all factors in the citrus industry, and it is felt that this staff of merchandising representatives has beenmosthelpful in increasing the usage of all citrus products in the areas in which they operate. In the earlydays of the operationof theme rchandising staff, our heaviest concentration of man pow e r


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was in the Eastern part of the United States; however, as our market has expanded and our products have been more widely distributed in all parts of the United States and Canada, our man power has been shifted in order to give good coverage to all principal markets.

In order that close supervision can be given to all field men, the country has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager is in charge of each division, and a Regional Manager is in charge of the operation in each principal market. Merchandising Representatives work under the supervision of Regional Managers. The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic Coast area and Eastern Canada. The Central Division covers the central part of the United States and Central Canada. The Western Division consists of the Midwestern area of the United States and Canada, and the Southern Division covers all the Southern states from Oklahoma and Texas eastward. The men in the Southern Division and those on the West Coast of the United States and Canada work under the direct supervision of the Lakeland office.

Many of the members of our merchandising staff are natives of the State of Florida. For the most part, they have graduated from an agricultural college, with a major in marketing. In many cases, men with a good merchandising background are employed from the area in which they will work.

The field staff must be well informed at all times regarding new and better merchandising methods, as well as the activities of the Florida citrus industry. In order to keep these men well informed, Division Meetings have been held three times during the past year, at which time all aspects of our advertising and merchandising program Nvere discussed. Statistical reports and bulletins are channeled to the field men during the year in order that they may be kept abreast of the activities of the industry and so that they may be better prepared to carry our story to the different trade factors with whom they are working.

The duties of our merchandising staff cover a wide scope of
operations. They keep retail organizations throughout the country informed regarding our advertising schedules and. attempt to have these organizations tie their own advertising and merchandising programs in with our campaigns to feature different citrus products when Florida Citrus Commission advertisements are being carried in their markets. They arrange promotions with various retail organizations, supply them with point-of-sale display material, and build many attractive displays of different citrus products in the retail stores. It is felt that if our products are well displayed and pinpointed with attractive point-ofsale display material, Mrs. Housewife will be attracted to these products when she enters the store to do her weekly shopping. Members

of our merchandising staff are doing everything within their limitations to see that the retail grocer is well supplied with all types of citrus products and that these products are properly displayed and merchandised.

In addition to the work with the retail stores, Commission
representatives contact the auction companies in the terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distributors, hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug and fountain groups in order to keep all factors properly informed regarding our advertising and merchandising schedules.

During the 1959-1960 season, representatives of the Florida
Citrus Commission made a total of 104, 061 calls. These same representatives traveled 1, 290, 116 miles in order to cover their respective territories. During their yearly operation, they conducted a total of 1, 515 live demonstrations in which a variety of citrus products were sampled to customers ivlthe',retailmstores. In addition to the live demonstrations, 1, 633 g1ve-away promotions were conducted in which the customers received awards"at the 'conclusion of a promotional period. Through demonstrations, both live and give-away, it has been proved that sales of productscan be increased by a very large percentage.

Another new type of promotional activity was added to our program during the 1959-1960 season. At the beginning of this season, the Commission set up a budget for prize and premium promotions. This is a program through which an incentive plan in the form of cash, bonds, and other premiums are offered to personnel of the different retail organizations for outstanding jobs of promoting, displaying, and selling our products. During this fiscal year, 275 such incentive plan promotions have been conducted, with outstanding results. We feel this plan is most effective in that it offers store personnel an incentive for special efforts in promoting our products, and that we can obtain a much wider coverage at a smaller cost. This program has been well received by the trade factors.

During the year's activities, many special events are planned and participated in by the merchandising staff. They are as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of the 1959-1960 season, five major promotions were arranged, and a promotional brochure outlining each one of these promotions was distributed to personnel of the retail organizations throughout the country. Attractive, colorful brochures were prepared and mailed to some 10, 000 retail personnel well in advance of each

planned promotion. Each brochure outlined the merchandising activities and the advertising support which would be supplied by the Commission in connection with this event. After the brochures were mailed, each retail organization was solicited by a Commission representative to tie in and cooperate with this program. Special point-of -sale display material kits were prepared and distributed in connection with each event. This type of planned promotional activity has proved to be most successful in that each retail organization could plan well in advance of the promotional period dates.

Trade Luncheons

During the past season, the Florida Citrus Commission entertained some 2, 000 leading trade factors during a series of trade luncheons. Major trade luncheons were held in the following cities:

Boston, Massachusetts
Buffalo, New York
Chicago, Illinois Cincinnati, Ohio Cleveland, Ohio
Detroit, Michigan
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
New York, New York
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Quebec City, Canada St. Louis, Missouri
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Washington, D. C.

In addition to the major trade luncheons, eight small trade
luncheons were held. At each of these meetings, a complete outline of our advertising and merchandising program for the individual market was presented. This type program has been most successful in helping to create a closer relationship between the handlers of Florida citrus products in the Northern markets and the Florida citrus industry.

Producers Of Frozen Orange Concentrate Advertising Campaign

The merchandising staff of the Flc-ida Citrus Commission worked in close cooperation with the producers of Florida frozen orange concentrate in connection with their special summer advertising program. Promotions were arranged through major retail organizations. Many displays were built in retail stores. A total of 869 live demonstrations were

conducted, at which time frozen orange concentrate was sampled to the customers in the retail stores. In addition to this retail store activity, a total of 141, 210 kits of special point-of-sale display material were distributed through the retail organizations. The sales of frozen orange concentrate were increased by a very large percentage as a result of this program.


The program of the Florida Citrus Commission is carried to
thousands of people throughout the United States and Canada by participation in large national conventions. During the past year the Commission has bought space and exhibited in 17 major conventions which are related to the food and health fields. The conventions are as follows:

Food - 10
Dietetic - I
Hotel and Restaurant - 4 School - I
Home Economics - 1

In addition to our participation in large national conventions, orange juice has been served at 88 national convention meetings held in Florida. A worthwhile public relations job was accomplished by participating in these events.

European Program

The European advertising assignment was awarded Lambe & Robinson-Benton & Bowles, Ltd. , of London, England, with affiliates established in Stockholm, Sweden, Brussels, Belgium, Paris, France, Frankfurt, Germany, and Geneva, Switzerland. The agencies will handle all trade and consumer advertising in Great Britain and Continental Europe.

The total Commission's European advertising budget for 1959 -1960 was $95, 800. This was supplemented with $65, 000 from USDA-P. L. 480 program funds.

The Commission maintains two European merchandising representatives, one in Stockholm who contacts all Scandinavian trade factors and the other in Frankfurt, Germany, who handles all Western European countries. The principal activity of our representatives is that of coordinating merchandising plans with scheduled advertising. Also, they represented the Florida citrus industry at six food trade fairs where our own unique display was used and samples of Florida citrus products were distributed to hundreds of thousands that visited the fair booths. Some

400 individual store demonstrations were conducted where more samples were distributed. These demonstration and sampling activities have been highly acclaimed by all retailers that participated in the program.

The Commission's field representatives work very closely with the respective USDA embassy attaches for an exchange of ideas and development of new programs. This is especially true in making up point-of -sale materials. More than 400, 000 pieces of display material were made up on the Continent in four languages. An additional 200, 000 pieces were forwarded from the Lakeland office. These are distributed by both retail and wholesale organizations. The Lakeland office also sent materials to Australia, India, Indonesia and Puerto Rico.

With the trend toward greater liberalization and more free trading of commercial products between the U. S. and the Western countries of Europe, the Commission's advertising and merchandising program has been most helpful and will continue to develop greater interest in marketing of citrus crops throughout all countries of Europe.

Tangelo Promotion

Merchandising activities were conducted in 26 major markets to support the sale of Florida Tangelos. Special point-of-sale display material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission for this comparatively new product. Many outstanding displays were built in connection with this program, and results were reported to be most satisfactory.

Tangerine Promotion

Our merchandising men, working in cooperation with the staff of the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, conducted an intensive promotional campaign during the tangerine season. Special point-of -sale display material was produced by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative to be used in conjunction with the Florida Citrus Commission's material. Many outstanding displays were built in the retail stores throughout the United States and Canada, and through the combined efforts of both organizations, the use of tangerines has been greatly expanded.

Temple Orange Promotion

Merchandising activities were conducted to tie in with and support the advertising campaign on Temple oranges. Special point-ofsale display material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission. The advertising and merchandising campaign on Temple oranges has been most effective in expanding the use of this fine product.

Florida Products Festival

- The Merchandising Department of the Commission during the current season worked in cooperation with the Florida Development Commission and the Florida State Chamber of Commerce on its annual "Festival of Florida Products. 11 Point-of -sale display material was supplied for use in the retail stores to tie in with this event.

Temperature Tests

The Florida citrus industry has, over the years, spent much time and effort to educate the different trade factors regarding the proper care and handling of Florida frozen concentrates. A series of colorful cartoons have been made available and distributed to the retail organizations depicting the need for better care and handling. Our field representatives have, from time to time, made a series of temperature tests in the retail stores in order to obtain a cross section of handling practices. They were also asked to pick up samples of frozen orange concentrate in their respective markets and ship them to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States Department of Agriculture. Sixty frozen orange concentrate surveys have been conducted during the course of this fiscal year. Excellent cooperation and support was received from practically all trade factors in connection with this program, and it is felt that it has been helpful in making store personnel aware of the neces sity for better care and handling of this product.

Media Relations

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission works in close cooperation with the different media organizations carrying the Commission's advertising schedule. Many of the newspapers maintain their own merchandising staff who spend a portion of their time calling on retail merchants, urging them to use the display material offered by the Commission and assisting them in the coordinating of their own newspaper advertising with that of the Florida Citrus Commission. This practice has been helpful in making the retail operator more aware of the advertising schedule of the Florida Citrus Commission.

Weekly Reports

At the end of each week's work, each Regional Manager and Merchandising Representative submits a market analysis covering the movement and acceptance of Florida citrus products in the area in which he has been working, a range of prices for each particular product and that of competitive products in retail stores, and a general condition report of the activities as far as our products are concerned. These reports are received in the Florida office, edited, reproduced, and mailed to

some 400 or 500 packers and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. It is felt that the information contained in these reports is most beneficial to the citrus industry.


The staff of merchandising men of the Florida Citrus Commission are provided with up-to-date equipment with which to carry on their promotional activities. During the past year, they have been provided with "Florida Sunshine Trees" and large plastic "Oranges" and "Grapefruit" to be used in connection with large, spectacular displays in the retail stores. Every effort possible has been made to keep the equipment of the field staff up to date and in step with the progress which is being made from a merchandising standpoint at the retail level. Films are provided these men to be used in connection with organizational meetings. A complete inventory of all equipment is kept up to date in the Lakeland office.

The work of each representative is reported by the use of a
daily tabulation card on which he reports each individual call. These cards are mailed to the headquarters office at the end of each day's operation, are processed by date, region, type of call, display material left or ordered, and the type of work done in the individual store. At the end of each month's operation, a record of calls for each man is tabulated. This tabulation is broken down by the type of call which he has made, such as super market, independent, wholesaler, broker, receiver, etc. This report also indicates the number of miles each man has traveled in the course of his operation.

The work of the Florida Citrus Commission's representatives has been well received by the different trade factors throughout the country. These trade factors look to our representatives for information regarding crop conditions, crop quality, and details of our advertising and merchandising program. All possible information regarding activities in Florida is channeled to the field staff in order that he can supply information to the trade factors in an intelligent manner. Each merchandising staff representative has many different trade fields to cover, and he endeavors at all times to see that the people with whom he is working are well informed regarding our merchandising activities and that our products are attractively displayed in the many retail stores throughout the country.

Many letters are received in the Lakeland office commenting on the activities of our merchandising staff, and it is the general consensus of opinion from all information received that this service has been helpful to the retail organizations in moving larger quantities of Florida citrus

products through their retail organizations. Much time and effort has been spent to develop new and modern methods of merchandising and to keep our entire program in step with the progress which is being made in the retail food field.


The Production Department is charged with the responsibility of preparing, ordering and distributing all display and point-of-sale material used by the Merchandising Department. Most of the material is warehoused, packaged and shipped from our own building, and it is essential that it be shipped to the proper place at the right time.

All display and educational material is sent out on written orders to retailers, distributors and schools throughout the United States, Canada and foreign countries. This season, 6,487 orders for point-of -sale material were processed, and a total of 7, 819, 120 pieces of display material were shipped to food distributors. Over 600, 000 pounds of our display material were addressed and wrapped in our office, and handled by the Railway Express Company and the Post Office.

All display and educational printing purchased by the Commission is bought in Florida by the Production Department, with the exception of any work which Florida printers are not equipped to produce. We are subject to the rules and regulations of the State Purchasing Commission, which means that all printing jobs amounting to more than $50. 00 must be advertised, and bids requested. The lowest bidder receives the contract. One hundred and thirty-nine printing jobs for point-of -sale and educational material were produced during the 1959-60 season. Written specifications are sent out to printers for each Printing job, and copies are sent to the State Purchasing Commission for their approval.

The food trade, for the most part, demands that display material be put up in sets, or kits, for their convenience, and our warehouse operation is equipped to make up kits according to the retailers, desires. During the course of the year, 260, 044 kits were assembled for the trade, both for national promotions and on special requests. In addition, the Commission's personnel cooperated with the Florida Processorsi promotion last fall by producing display material and assembling and shipping 141, 2 10 kits of display material.

The Production Department also has the Commission's maili-ag
room, which serves all departments, under its jurisdiction. The mailing

room, which does all of the duplicating work for the various departments, sent 1, 642, 2 05 sheets of paper through its duplicating equipment during the year, making 2, 434, 850 impressions.

The mailing room maintains mailing lists for shippers, processors, publicity, and a mailing list of over 12, 000 plates for food outlets who are handling Florida citrus products. Frequent mailings are handled for each of these classifications. A total of 419, 000 pieces of mail were handled, stamped and turned over to the Post Office this past year.

School and educational materials are produced and distributed by the Production Department. During the past year, 10, 870 requests for educational literature and posters were received from teachers and students from every state in the Union, and 514, 114 pieces of literature were sent out- in response to these requests.

The Florida Citrus Commission's extensive film program is handled in this department, as far as circulation and billing are concerned, and this past season our colorful industry films were viewed by 25, 448, 042 adults and students in group showings and on television stations.

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* Looking ahead to the "Golden Sixties" and all the changing trends which this next decade p r o m i s e s to hold, the public relations and food publicity services provided by Dudley-AndersonYutzy during the 1959 -60 season we re geared up to include several in no va t io ns aimed at reaching broad new segments of the consumer market.

To set an example, and e n c o ur a g e the "Orange Juice Break" habit, just such a welcome treat was arranged at two national conventions with wide i nflI u e n c e - - the American Women in Ra d io and Television, and the Home Economists in Business. Warm re c ept ion greeted this gesture, which carried the announced intent that the recipients should help us spread the popularity of the habit within their own active progflams.

Participation in a variety of nutrition meetings and health education projects acquainted many key people with the Commission' s interest in these fields and the importance of citrus to these subjects.

Special events aimed at c e m e n t in g the long support of f o od writers and w in n n g new cohorts studded the calendar - school lunch s up e rviso rs from across the country; newspaper food editors; the Society of Magazine Writers; the Science Writers Association; teen-age experts; disc jockeys.

The p ic tu r es on the opening page of this section illus trate the variety of activities contained within the publicity program during the last year. The Commission's traveling home e c o no m i s t is shown cutting a radio tape for the Armed Forces Network, which is be am ed to more than a million Americans at bases throughout the world; on a television p r o g r a m giving one of her demonstrations on clIe v er new uses of citrus p ro du c ts; another of our home economists is pictured as she took part in a

nutrition panel whose members included such outstanding personalities as Dr. Frederick Stare of Harvard University. Food editors from newspapers in the four corners of the country are shown enjoying Florida citrus dishes at a brunch given during their annual conference last fall. Four pictures, typical of those which go to newspapers every month of the year, show the wide gamut of subject material and the creative, intelligent presentation of new food ideas which gain impressive use of these pictures in newspapers of every size.

The food publicity, as always, reflected consistent work with magazines and newspapers, and the people who write their food pages. These media again gave Florida citrus strong support in their editorial pages -- women's magazines, Sunday supplements, sectional and farm publications, special interest magazines, the institutional food press. To newspapers went a steady stream of interesting new food pictures and recipes created by our home economics staff. Such materials covered more than 400 metropolitan and 3, 400 small dailies and weeklies. Special stories were prepared regularly for the house organs of some 200 companies, appearing on pages that attract high readership among employee families, and in media which can't be reached by advertising. Exclusive recipes and picture ideas are constantly being prepared and presented to the editors of the national women's magazines and the supplements, who do their own photography incorporating the materials we give them. Circulation figures for this print publicity are astronomical -- past a billion!

Our own color pictures rolled up impressive use records. With nearly 40 transparencies of seasonal subjects built around citrus now available, and the addition this year of color mats at very low cost to papers, these editorial illustrations occupied space which it would have cost more than a quarter of a million dollars to purchase for color advertising. In addition, they carry the always desirable third-person authority of the local food editor's by-line.

Television and radio appearances were scheduled for all parts of the country during the last year -- the west coast, Texas, the Rocky Mountain area, the southeast, with special attention to the populous mid-west and northeast. In addition to personal appearances, regular kits of seasonal interest were sent to television broadcasters, and a number of script services kept radio commentators well supplied with news about Florida citrus.

The 113-Minute Cookbook" technique film series showing the uses of the various fresh and processed citrus items, made about four years ago, are still receiving wide ' use on television as part of women's variety shows, and during the last year were revised, with teaching manuals added, for distribution through schools, where they have been solidly booked.

Working with the home economists and publicists for many of the other food companies and associations has resulted in an increasing appearance of citrus in their own publications, and has helped spread the knowledge of the importance of our products. Particularly rewarding inclusions in outstanding health columns and books have also resulted from our work with specialists in these fields.

D-A-Y also assisted in publicizing Commission events ' such as the trade luncheons, the Orange Dessert Contest, the presentation of grapefruit spoons to the White House, the serving of Florida orange juice at the Democratic convention in Los Angeles.

As usual, members of the D-A-Y staff covered almost all of the important media and professional conventions -- American Home Economics Association, American Dietetic Association, American Medical Association, Public School Food Service Association, National Restaurant Show, Newspaper Food Editors Conference, American Women in Radio and Television, National Farm Home Editors Association, National Youthpower Conference, and large symposia and meetings on nutrition, foods, and teen-age problems sponsored by many other groups.

Enlarged programs aimed particularly at youth groups has resulted from the work and planning done during the year, and will give added impetus to awareness and importafice of citrus in these areas during the next season.


A public and professional relations program was again carried on with the medical and dental professions by Noyes & Sproul on behalf of the Commission. Many personal contacts were made with editors of scientific journals, with officials of the American Medical Association and American Dental Association as well as with important practicing physicians. A close liaison was maintained with widely syndicated health columnists and many stories on the health aspects of citrus fruit were funneled to newspapers, columnists and television commentators.


The publicity and public relations firm of Brown & Rowland, Inc. , New York, was retained by the Commission for a six month period. Stories and feature material produced by Brown & Rowland were circulated to 59, 216, 431 newspaper readers and to 43, 168, 236 television viewers and radio listeners.


The Commission, in cooperation with Florida Power &Light Company, Miami; Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg; Tampa Electric Company, Tampa; Gulf Power Company, Pensacola; and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Mansfield, Ohio; sponsored the second All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest in which 2836 contestants participated. The Contest was launched two years ago and attracted 2301 entries that year.

Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted all over the State by the Home Service Departments of the cooperating privately-owned electric utilities. The Grand Finals were held in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus Building in Winter Haven on March 31-April 1, 1960. The Grand Championship was won by Mrs. Myrtle 1. Risdall of Fort Lauderdale. Her prize was appliances for an all-electric kitchen. Second prize winner was Mrs. Bob Younger of Fort Myers. She won an electric washer-dryer combination. Third prize winner was Mrs. C. B. Clayton of Eustis. She won a portable electric dishwasher. Mrs. Malcolm Pierson of Tampa won honorable mention.

Judges for the Grand Finals were Grace Hartley, food editor of the Atlanta Journal; Myrna Johnston, food and equipment editor of Better Homes & Gardens Magazine; Meta Given, noted author of recipe books; Jane Nickerson, former food editor of the New York Times; Charles H. Baker, Jr. , well-known author of articles on food for national publications; and Mrs. Barbara Clendinen, home editor of Florida Grower & Rancher Magazine.

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*The Commission's research program, carried out cooperatively with the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, expanded considerably d u r i n g the past year. In addition, new cooperative research was undertaken w i t h the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Funds expended rose to $273, 000.
Major fields of research included processing and by-products, decay control, fundamental studies of fruit physiology and fruit maturity, mechanical harvesting ,: aids, the influence of freezing temperatures on c i t r u s tree,-, and fruit, and the drying of citrus juices by the ''foam-mat'' process.
Processing and by-products research was largely concerned with problems relative to the production, s to r a g e and marketing of frozen concentrated citrus juices; the recovery and identification of volatile e s s e n c e s from citrus juices; the de-bittering of grapefruit juices; and the production of high density concentrates.
Decay control m e tho d s were further investigated, and the advantages of expeditious handling of fruit in the packinghouse again demonstrated. Detailed studies were made of the amino acid content of orangejuices as the fruit matured. The physiology of the development of rind color of citrus fruits was f u rthe r investigated.

A mobile picker's platform was redesigned to accommodate two pickers, and a spindle type picking device to pick fruit by mechanical spinning was developed.

A freeze chamber 25' x 25' x 251 was constructed to investigate the influence of low temperatures on citrus fruits and trees.

A study was initiated on the drying of citrus juices by the "1foammat" process.

I. Processing and By-Products

Problems relative to the production, storage and marketing of frozen concentrated citrus juices comprise the major portion of this research.

A. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

No significant clarification occurred in 42 0 Brix concentrates stored at -80 and 100F. for 412 days. These products had been prepared from heated evaporator feed juice or from concentrates heated at 2-, 3-, or 4-fold. No practical way was found to incorporate large amounts of water-insoluble solids in 42 0Brix Pineapple orange concentrates unless high heat treatment was used.

B. Pectin Studies

Basic research was initiated on the distribution of pectin fractions and pectinesterase in the component parts of citrus fruit during maturation. Highest pectinesterase activity was found in the juice sacs and the least in the juice. The peel contained the largest amount of pectins and the juice contained only a small amount.

C. Activated Sludge

Excellent results were obtained in the activated sludge treatment of citrus waste waters using a pilot plant model "Cavitator. 1 Loadings as high as 0. 29 pounds of organic solids per day per cubic foot of aeration tank were found feasible.

D. Volatile Flavors in Citrus Juices

The temperature programmed gas chromatographic technique
has indicated the presence of at least 40 volatile compounds in recovered orange essence. Partial or complete identification of acetaldehyde, hexanal, hexenal, octanal, linalool, citral, carvone and ethanol was made. In addition, beta-myrcene and d-limonene were identified in the oil separated from the essence by centrifugation.

E. Rapid Method for Predicting Stability of Commercial
(In cooperation with Continental Can Company)

A rapid test to predict potential clarification and gelation in commercial concentrates was further developed and correlated with actual plant practices. For best correlation, the optimum pH of the rapid test must be determined for each processing plant.

F. Pulp Washing

Aqueous extracts of orange pulp, as well as samples of orange juice, were collected from 9 commercial plants during January and February, and again in June. Comparison of characteristics indicated that the more acceptable extracts were collected from plants where the water extraction process was carried out rapidly and under good sanitary conditions, recycling was not part of the process, and centrifuges were used to reduce water-insoluble solids, pectinesterase activity, and oxalate soluble pectin in the extract.

G. High Density Concentrates

Previously packed high-density orange concentrates were examined after storage at -80 F. Only small differences in flavor stability were noted. However, the flavor of some of the 6-fold concentrates were markedly better than the 4-fold after a simulated abuse test of 24 hours at 800 F.

Semi-commercial packs of 4-fold and 5-fold orange concentrates were made for use in a consumer preference survey.

H. Survey of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates

Physical, chemical and organoleptic examinations of 197 samples of commercial orange concentrates collected from Florida plants in 1958-59 were completed. Additional samples were collected during the past season.

Two hundred and fifty samples monthly were collected in major markets and submitted to the U3. S. Department of Agriculture for regrading.

I. Debittering Grapefruit Products

An investigation to determine the effects of time, temperature and concentration on the debittering of 55 0Brix frozen grapefruit concentrate by the enzyme, naringinase, was initiated. As expected, enzyme concentration and temperature had marked effects on the reaction.

IL. Decay Control

Over 100 experiments were carried out on oranges and tangerines to evaluate various methods of decay control. Twenty-five exploratory tests using either new chemicals or new methods of treatment failed to yield any procedure superior to present methods using Dowicide A-Hexamine and/or diphenyl. Decay in untreated oranges throughout the season averaged 27. 2% after storage at 700 F. for two weeks; after storage at 600 F. , the figure was 14. 3%. In all these experiments, prompt handling of the fruit and high humidity in the degreening room was standard procedure, since the adverse effects of low humidity and delayed handling had been demonstrated previously. The better procedure showed up to 92% decay control after two weeks.

The adverse effects of delayed handling of oranges was again
demonstrated. Oranges handled promptly averaged 2. 0%6 rind breakdown for all varieties after two weeks; whereas oranges held on the packinghouse floor for 2 days prior to processing averaged 34. 0%o rindL breakdown. Delayed handling also more than doubled the losses from decay after storage for 2 weeks at 700 F.

III. Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruits

During the period January-May, 1960, 199 samples of chilled
orange juice and 163 samples of frozen concentrated orange juice were examined for their amino acid content by the ninhydrin colorometric procedure. The mean concentration of the ninhydrin positive amino acids was 0. 90 millimole per 100 ml. for this period, with over 92%6 of the samples falling in the range of 0. 71 to 1. 05 millimole per 100 ml. The amino acid content increased as the season progressed.

Data obtained from a survey of pink and red grapefruit and navel
oranges were compiled and analyzed. Contrary to observations on other varieties, pink and red grapefruit on rough lemon rootstock underwent a decrease in total fruit solids with maturation.

IV. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel

A. study was made of the relative effectiveness of curing and ethylene degreening on the disappearance of green color or the development of yellow color in lemons of the Sicilian variety. Curing at 600 F. was found to be slower than ethylene degreening, but overall appearance of the fruit was superior. It was also observed that ethylene degreening apparently limits the amount of ultimate rr - --r change.

V. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

When the mobile picker's platform was redesigned to include two picker's baskets, an increase in picker productivity was obtained. A spindle type picking device was developed to pick fruit by mechanical spinning, and an oscillating bar device which separates the fruit by applying a sudden blow to the stem is being studied.

VI. Freeze Damage to Citrus Trees

The 251 x 251 x 251 freeze chamber was completed and is being
tested, and detailed studies of the effects of freezing temperatures on the physiology of citrus trees and fruits will be made during the coming season.

Various types of grove heaters were tested for their ability to raise temperatures in cold pockets; plastic base materials were investigated for their effectiveness in maintaining soil banks around young trees; and the use of maleic hydrazine as a spray to induce dormancy was studied.

VII. "Foam-Mat" Drying of Citrus Juices

In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, a study of the "foam-mat" drying of citrus juices was initiated. A hot air tunnel drier enclosing an endless Teflon belt, and a low humidity "dry" room were constructed. The process involves whipping concentrated orange juice to a foam, spreading this foam in thin strips on the Teflon belt, and drying by a hot air blast. The resulting powder contains approximately 2% moisture.

VIII. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand copies of the 1960 Better Fruit Program Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.




*The complicated procedure of m o v ing pro ducts to m a r k e t has become extremely important to the Florida citrus industry. As production increases, so also increase the problems e nco unter ed in the transportation of our fresh and processed products to markets throughout the world.

New and more complex transportation problems have become almost a matter of r o u t i n e to the Florida citrus shipper and processor; problems that may spell the difference between seasonal success or profit losses.

The Commission continued to retain the service of the G r o w e r s and Shippers League of Florida to assist in solving these problems affecting trans po rta tio n. The L e g ue, as a representative of th e citrus i n -'us t ry at large, has been most effective in carrying -itrus transportation p robl1em s be-fore the

Interstate Commerce Commission and other federal and state agencies embodied with the authority to regulate transportation.

Through this service, the League has been instrumental in effecting huge savings to the citrus industry. Listed below are some of the more important citrus problems encountered during the 1959-60 season by the Growers and Shippers League, their disposition or status:

Complaint Against Higher Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit to New York - I. C. C. Docket 33105:

In the latter part of 1959, the City of New York and the New York Port Authority filed a complaint against the higher level of rates assessed by the rail lines on shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables from the South and Southwest when destined for delivery to the piers in New York City as compared with. the level of rates assessed on these shipments when delivered to adjacent points in New Jersey. In the case of shipments of fresh citrus fruit from Florida, this difference amounts to approximately 10 per 100 pounds.

The League and the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association intervened in this proceeding and at a hearing in January, 1960, presented testimony and exhibits showing tRe unreasonableness of the higher rate applicable at the Manhattan destinations and at the same time urged that the level of the rates to the New Jersey points not be raised to the level of the rates to the New York destinations. An adjourned hearing to receive railroad testimony and exhibits was held beginning June 6, 1960, in Washington, D. C. , and a further hearing will be held in October of this year.

Rail Per Car Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit:

In November, 1959, the origin rail lines filed a proposal to publish per car charges on fresh citrus fruit moving to destinations in Southern Territory on the same level as the per car charges which have been published on vegetables to the same destinations. This adjustment also provided for mixed shipments of vegetables and citrus in the same car, but restricted the per car charges to apply only in refrigerator cars not exceeding 33 feet 6 inches in length. This proposal was approved by the Southern lines and became effective on February 19, 1960.

We have requested the members of the Fruit Growers Express Special Committee dealing with rates on fresh fruits and vegetables from Florida to publish the present vegetable per car charges to apply on citrus fruit to Official and Western Trunk Line Territories.

As an example, if these charges are published, the per car charge on a carload of citrus fruit, without regard to the minimum weight, from Lake Wales to Jersey City would be $384. 00 as compared to the present charge, based on a 40, 000 pound minimum, of $436.00.

We have received advice from several members of the Special Committee that this matter will be given very careful study.

Cancellation Of Citrus Containers From The Tariff:

A railroad proposal was filed with the National Container Committee proposing to cancel nailed 4/5 bushel Containers Nos. 675 and 679 from the Container and Loading Rules Tariff, and another railroad proposal was filed to cancel the 1-3/5 bushel Wirebound Bruce Box No. 5004 from the Container Tariff. Objections against the cancellation of the 1-3/5 bushel container were filed with the Container Committee and this proposal was withdrawn. The National Container Committee was advised that Container No. 679 was used to a limited extent for the shipment of certain types of fruit and the Committee later announced that this proposal had also been withdrawn and cancelled.

Estimated Weights On Oranges In
4/5 Bushel Containers:

In August, 1959, the rail lines in Southern Territory filed a proposal to publish estimated weights on oranges of 46-1/2 pounds in wirebound 4/5 bushel Container No. 3670 and 45-1/2 pounds in fibreboard 4/5 bushel Containers Nos. 6482 and 6495. After considering this proposal, the citrus fruit shippers agreed to the publication of these estimated weights as a means of eliminating the confusion resulting from the various weights applying on these containers as the result of individual weight agreements signed with the Southern Weighing and Inspection Bureau by the various packing houses throughout the state, but at the same time the rail lines were requested to continue the test weighing program on oranges in these containers to insure that the published estimated weight reflected the true average of actual weights. The estimated weights on these containers were published effective January 26, 1960, in the Florida Citrus Fruit Tariff.

In connection with the provisions in the Citrus Fruit Tariff
governing the use of published estimated weights for containers moving under test permits or for containers on which no estimated weights have been published, the Southern railroads have filed Submittal No. A42474 proposing to amend these tariff provisions by requiring that the billing weight to be used must be that published for a container constructed of the same character material. This would mean that the

published weight to be used for a wooden container mu s t be one pro vided for a wooden container and the published weight for a fibreboard container must be one provided for a fibreboard container. Objection to this proposal has been filed with the Southern Freight Association, and the matter will be considered by the Southern lines the latter part of July, 1960.

Open-Top Returnable Containers For Rail Shipments Of Citrus Fruit:

Emergency Proposal A5401 was filed by the origin rail lines with the Southern Freight Association proposing to reduce by varying amounts the rail rates on oranges and grapefruit in open-top returnable containers to named destinations in Official Territory and also to reduce the carload minimum weight on these containers to 63, 000 pounds on oranges and 58, 000 pounds on grapefruit. This proposal was approved by the Southern lines and the reduced rates to Washington, D. C, , St. Louis, Missouri, and Cincinnati, Ohio, were published effective December 14, 1959. However, the Eastern railroads delayed approval of these proposed rates and reduced minima, and to other destinations in Official Territory the lower rates and minimum weights did not become effective until March 23, 1960, on short notice publication.

An Evaluation Of Competing Forms Of Transportation:

There has been considerable discussion within the fresh fruit and vegetable industry and with officials of refrigerator car lines as to the division of traffic between the various modes of transportation. The principal reason for this discussion has been the concern expressed as to the diminishing movement by rail and that if a greater movement, particularly from the Southeast, were not accomplished, the railroads and car lines could not be expected to maintain their present fleet of refrigerator cars or increase such fleet. This matter was discussed at the annual convention of the United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association in February of 1960, and a resolution was unanimously adopted urging that shippers and receivers should carefully evaluate the respective merits of each competing form and use that which best fills their requirements, bearing i-a mind that it is essential to an adequate distribution system that each competing form enjoy sufficient volume to enable it to maintain adequate facilities and develop and make available improved methods and equipment.

Reactivation Of Refrigerator Car Research Program:

For several years after the formation of the United Fresh and Vegetable Association's Refrigerator Car Committee, a very close

working arrangement was maintained with the Association of American Railroads in developing new innovations in the construction of refrigerator cars, but in recent years that program was more or less abandoned by the Association of American railroads, and in view of the fact that piggy-back operations and containerization seem to be developing rapidly, there is need for careful study of the formation of uniform programs by railroads and truck lines.

A resolution to this effect was approved at the United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Convention and discussions have been held with Mr. W. M. Keller, Vice President of the Association of American Railroads, in charge of their research program, and he has indicated a real interest in the suggestions made by this Committee.

Specifying Of Temperatures On Rail Shipments Of Frozen Citrus Products:

The rail lines' Perishable Protective Tariff has had no provision which would allow shippers of frozen products to specify the temperature at which they wished these products to be transported, a situation about which the frozen citrus products shippers have been concerned. A proposal was filed with the National Perishable Freight Committee which would authorize the frozen food shippers to specify that these products should be transported at a temperature of zero degrees Fahrenheit or lower. This proposal was approved by the Committee and was published in the Perishable Protective Tariff effective July 18, 1960.

Rates On Frozen Citrus Products
To Points In The East:

After the inauguration of Sea-Land Service and the publication of reduced rates by Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation, the rail lines became concerned with the loss of frozen citrus products tonnage moving to points in the East served by Pan-Atlantic. In an effort to recapture some of this tonnage, the rail lines, effective September 1, 1959, published reduced rates to competitive points in the East subject to carload minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds, the reduced rates to apply on a blanket origin basis from the producing points in Cf-,ntral Florida. Further reductions in these rates were published by the rail lines effective December 14, 1959, to points in the East and effective May 19, 1960, to New York City only. To counter these reductions in the rail rates, Pan-Atlantic, effective February 9, 1960, reduced its rates to New York, New York, subject to higher minimum weights, but then on May 22, 1960, cancelled its reduced rates subject to the higher minimum weights and published higher rates subject to minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds to its destination points in the East. Although petitions

for suspension against both the rail and boat reduced rates were filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Commission did not suspend these rates but did order an investigation into the reasonableness of both the rail and boat line rates. A hearing on these rates was held in Washington, D. C. , in June, 1960. The League attended this hearing in order to see that the interests of the Florida frozen citrus products shippers were protected in this proceeding.

In an attempt to participate in some of the frozen citrus products traffic to points to which the reduced rail and boat rates had been published, one of the truck lines published reduced rates to certain Eastern destinations, subject to the movement of these trailers in piggy-back service. Objections to these reduced truck rates were filed by some of the other truck lines and after several postponements of the effective date of the reductions, the rates were finally cancelled from the tariff effective July 1, 1960.

Revision Of Truck Rates On Frozen Citrus Products:

Over a period of years, the truck tariff containing rates on frozen and chilled citrus products from Florida has become more and more complex, and because of the various adjustments which have occurred in the rates, now contains many discrepancies and inequities in the rates from the various shipping points. The League was requested to make an analysis of these truck rates and a special committee of the Transportation Advisory Council was appointed to study this analysis and to try to arrive at a revision of the rates which could be recommended to the truck lines for their approval. A proposed revision of these rates has been prepared and has been approved by the Transportation Advisory Council and will be presented to the truck lines at a meeting in the near future.

Failure Of Mechanical Refrigeration Service On Shipments Of Frozen Citrus Concentrate:

Some of the frozen citrus concentrate shippers had been experiencing failures of mechanical refrigeration service on rail shipments of frozen citrus concentrate, with the subsequent danger that the concentrate might experience a rise in temperature while in transit. Instances of these failures were called to the attention of of ficials of the Fruit Growers Express Company and origin rail lines at Hollywood Beach, Florida, in October, 1959, and to representatives of other rail lines and other car lines involved throughout the country at a meeting in Chicago, Illinois, in November, 1959. The importance of maintaining low temperatures on frozen citrus concentrate was stressed at these meetings and the officials of the car lines and railroads involved

agreed that a closer inspection of cars containing shipments of frozen citrus concentrate would be made at points on their lines. Also involved in this problem was the question of disposition to be made on shipments of frozen citrus concentrate which had been subjected to possibly damaging temperatures in route. An agreement reached by one of the frozen concentrate shippers with one of the Trans -Continental rail lines on the procedure of returning damaged shipments to the shipper was approved by the frozen concentrate industry as the basis for industry-wide agreement. This agreement was also distributed to all rail carriers through the Freight Claims Division, Association of American Railroads, and the railroads generally have indicated that they are in accord with the procedure outlined in this agreement.

The problems involved and the procedures desired to be followed were also discussed with representatives of the origin truck lines and with the National Freight Claims Council of the American Trucking Association, representing all truck lines.

Ex Parte 137 - Charges For Contracts For Protective Service:

The Interstate Commerce Commission has reopened a proceeding known as Ex Parte 137, which is an investigation into the charges for contracts between the car lines and railroads for providing protective service, insofar as these contracts may include mechanical refrigeration service. The charges involved in this proceeding are those between the car lines and railroads, and not those paid by the shippers to the railroads for protective service, but since the provisions of the contract between the car lines and the railroads could ultimately affect the charges paid by the shippers, the League has participated in this proceeding. Briefs have been filed and the matter is now before the Interstate Commerce Commission for decision.

Detention Charges On Mechanical
Refrigerator Cars:

The provisions of the rule of the Perishable Protective Tariff governing detention on mechanical refrigerator cars were causing a great deal of confusion and dissatisfaction in the assessment of charges when detention accrued. A proposal was filed with the National Perishable Freight Committee to allow additional free time after placement of car at stop-off point or final destination, and also to provide for a change in the method of computing detention on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday. This proposal was approved by the Perishable Freight Committee with the amendment that the charge for each detention period was raised from $2. 88 to $5. 00 per 12 hours or fraction thereof and these changes were published effective July 22, 1959. Another amendment to this rule

allowing twenty-four hours free time at origin and at each point at which car was stopped to complete loading was later approved by the Perishable Freight Committee and was published effective October 15, 1959.

Rail And Boat Rates On Canned Citrus Products To Points In The East:

The publication of reduced rates by the rail lines and by PanAtlantic Steamship Corporation in an effort to control the tonnage of canned citrus products moving to competitive points in the East was the subject of an investigation by the Interstate Commerce Commission in July, 1959, in which the League participated. This matter is still pending before the Interstate Commerce Commission for a decision.

Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation, effective July 2, 1960, increased up to the rail level its rates on canned citrus products to points in the East to which its rates were lower than the rail rates subject to 60, 000 pound minimum. In June, 1960, the boat line announced a proposed revision of its rates on canned citrus products to a mileage basis, but following a meeting with the shippers, agreed to reconsider its decision in line with the objections expressed by the shippers to the proposed method of publishing rates.

Reduced Trans -Continental Rail Rates On Canned Citrus Products:

A proposal to publish reduced rail rates on canned goods, including canned citrus products, subject to an increase in minimum weight to 75, 000 pounds, between Southern and Trans -Continental Territory was approved by the Trans -Continental lines. The reduction proposed was 10 per 100 pounds under the existing rates applicable on 60, 000 pounds minimum but maintained the differential in the higher westbound rates over the same rates applicable eastbound to Florida. The Southern rail lines attempted to secure an equalization of the eastbound and westbound rates on bot ' h the 75, 000 pound minimum and also on the 60, 000 pound minimum, but the Trans -Continental lines refused to go along with this equalization. In order to secure some reduction in the rate, the Southern lines finally agreed to the proposal as originally approved by the Trans -Continental lines and the reduction of 10 per 100 pounds, subject to carload minimum weight 75, 000 pounds, was published effective April 15, 1960.

At the request of the canned citrus shippers in Florida, the origin rail lines filed a proposal to equalize the east and westbound rates on canned goods subject to 60, 000 pound and 75, 000 pound minimum. This proposal was approved by the Southern lines, but the TransContinental lines have again recommended that this equalization be declined. A public hearing on this proposal has been set before the Freight

Traffic Managers Committee of the Trans -Continental lines in Chicago in August, 1960, which will be attended by representatives of the canned citrus industry and the League.

Reduced Rail Rates On Citrus Pomace:

For some time the citrus pomace shippers in Florida have
been concerned with the increasing rail rates on citrus pomace moving to points in the East, particularly in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania. A proposed reduction in these rates was presented to the origin rail lines, and after conferences with the shippers in Florida, the Florida lines filed a proposal to reduce the citrus pomace rates to the East approximately 20 per cent. This proposal was approved by the Southern rail lines and was submitted to the Eastern railroads for their concurrence. The Eastern lines have approved the proposal, subject to a slight increase in the rate proposed, but this approval has been appealed to their Traffic Executive Association who now have the adjustment under consideration.

The origin lines have also been concerned with the small
amount of citrus pomace tonnage they have been transporting to points in Southern Territory. A proposal to reduce the rates on citrus pomace to destinations in the states of Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, was filed, and after amendment, approved by the Southern lines and this adjustment is now in the process of being published.

Rail Beet Pulp Rate To Florida:

A proposal to publish greatly reduced rates on beet pulp from points in Western Trunk Line Territory to destinations in Florida was filed by the rail lines in Western Trunk Line Territory. Objections to this proposal were filed with the Western Trunk Line carriers and also with the Southern rail lines when the proposal was submitted to the Southern Freight Association. After a public hearing before the Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association, at which representatives of the citrus pomace industry and the League appeared in opposition to the proposed reduced rates, the Executive Committee recommended disapproval of the proposal in November, 1959. However, in March, 1960, the Southern Freight Association Executive Committee reconsidered this proposal and recommended that it be approved subject to an increase in the rates proposed. This proposal has been sent back to the Western Trunk Line rail carriers for their action on this increased rate and is still pending before the Western rail lines.

Increased Railway Express Charges On Citrus Fruit Shipments:

As part of its reorganization plan to continue in operation, the Railway Express Agency in July, 1959, announced the filing of increased rates and charges throughout the country. On express citrus fruit shipments out of Florida, this increase amounted to 25 per shipment, or 25 per 100 pounds. After considering the effect of this increase on the Florida fruit shipments and also the efforts being made by the Express Agency to continue in operation, the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association and the League concluded not to protest these increases, but instead to ask that a revision be made in the express rates applicable on Florida citrus fruit shipments. Conferences have been held with officials of the Express Agency on the proposed revision of these express charges and we have been assured by the President of the Railway Express Agency that these revisions are being given serious consideration. It has not been possible to complete a study of the proposed revision in the basis of the express charges from Florida and we have been advised the present level of rates will be applicable during the coming season.

I. C. C. Docket Ex Parte MC-40
Accident Records:

The Interstate Commerce Commission in a reopened proceeding, Docket Ex Parte MC-40, proposed to amend its regulations regarding the reporting of accidents involving motor vehicles by enlarging the scope of the application of these regulations and by extending the regulations to include private operators of motor vehicles. The proposed rule making would greatly increase the reco-rds required to be kept by the common and contract carrier truck lines and would also require that operators of private trucks prepare and maintain detailed reports of accidents. Objections to the proposed rule were filed by the League and the matter is now before the Interstate Commerce Commission for decision.

Truck Applications For Operating Authorities:

During the past year, the League has supported on behalf of the Florida canned and frozen citrus products shippers application of Belford Trucking Company under its Sub. 40 for authority to transport frozen and chilled citrus products to all points in Illinois and Missouri, application Sub. 3 of Florida Frozen Foods Express Limited for authority to transport frozen foods and chilled citrus products to points in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and application of Commercial Carrier Corporation, Sub. 17, for authority to transport canned citrus products to the State of South Dakota and to points in Wisconsin and the upper

peninsula of Michigan. Proposed reports have been issued by the hearing examiners of the Interstate Commerce Commission recommending that the Belford application be denied, that the Florida Frozen Foods Express application be granted to points in Ontario but not Quebec, Canada, and that the application of Commercial Carrier Corporation be approved to LaCrosse, Wisconsin, and to points in South Dakota.

Change In Operation Of Sea-Land Service:

When Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation changed its method of operation from a breakbulk service to the use of trailer bodies in containership service in October, 1957, it designated the new operation as 11 Sea-Land Service." The name of the corporation has now been officially changed to Sea-Land Service, Inc. , effective April 1, 1960.

With the inauguration of Sea-Land Service, Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation began transporting its own trailers between the interior points in Florida and Tampa and Miami for water movement beyond the ports. A complaint was filed by the common carrier truck lines in Florida against the over-the-road operation of Pan-Atlantic, and after hearings, the Interstate Commerce Commission finally ruled that Pan-Atlantic did not have authority to operate beyond the port areas and ordered the boat line to stop its own trucking operations within Florida.

' In March, 1960, Sea-Land Service suspended its operations through Tampa and Miami and consolidated all of its Florida service in a weekly sailing between Jacksonville, Florida, and Port Newark, New Jersey. At the sometime Sea-Land Service filed with the I. C. C. an application seeking temporary authority to transport in its own trucks general commodities between Jacksonville and Tampa, Florida, and citrus products from the producing areas in Florida to Tampa and Jacksonville, restricted to movements beyond the port by Sea-Land Service. The League supported this request of Sea-Land Service and emergency temporary authority was granted Sea-Land for the above operation until the latter part of May, 1960, when the emergency authority expired. The application for temporary authority is still pending before the Interstate Commerce Commission for its decision. Since the expiration of Sea-Land's temporary emergency authority, Sea-Land's trailers have been transported between the shipping points and Jacksonville by the common carrier truck lines in Florida having the requisite authority.






*The Comm i s s i o n continued its policy of changing its regulations from time to time in order to meet c h an g i n g conditions in the industry and to im prove the standards of quality for citrus fruits and products supplied to American consumers. Some of the more important changes are as follows:


Earlyin the season the Commission took steps to tighten the maturity requirements by providing that a c ompo site test shall be made on each lot of fruit received at packinghouses and processing plants. If the test fails to meet the minimum ratio requirement by T11o r e thai one-half point, two additional tests must be made and if the av erage of the three tests f a i I by more than one-half point, the lot of fruit must be condemned and destroyed. Prior to the adoption of this amendment, such fruit could be re-graded by the owner and re-offered for inspection. At the time this amendment was adopted, the regulations were also amended to provide that packinghouses must provide at least one testing place at or near the point where fruit is r ec eived. In some cases the testing fa c i lit i e s were located in a remote

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section of the packinghiouse w~xhich g" 1,-l ]indicapped inspectors in performing their duties efficiently.

Grade Standards And Quality,

The 1959 Legislature, at the r e q u e s t of the industryA en ac t ed l egis la tio n autho riz ing the Commis sion to r egulate the grade of fruit shipped for consumption or use in Florida and for gift f ruit shipments. This authority was sought by the industry because of numerous complaints about the poor quality of f r u i t offered for s alIe in Florida. The first regulation under this authorization was adopted in Nov ember, 1-1959. It provided a minimum grade of U. S. No. 2 Russet and higher for grapefruit and U. S. No. 2 and higher for all other citrus fruits. Shortly after the regulation was issued, a Florida shipper obtained a court order enjoining the Commissinier of Agriculture from enforcing the regulation against it. The Commission took the position that although the injunction order applied only to this one shipper, the regulation should not be enforced against any shippers until its legality was resolve ed. It therefore requested the Commissioner of Agriculture to discontinue all enforcement. The co u rt later held that the I e gi s I a t i v e act and the regulation were legal and valid and it dissolve ed the injunction. The enforcement of the


regulation was resumed for the balance of the season. The minimum grade for all citrus other than grapefruit was changed in December to U. S. No. 2 and higher, except that fruit in excess of the discoloration limitations for U. S. No. 2 grade must meet all the requirements of U. S. No. 1 Russet. The regulation was terminated on June 16th but was re-adopted to become effective September 1, 1960.

In February, 1960, the Commission adopted a FLORIDA SPECIAL grade for grapefruit. The purpose of this grade was to permit the utilization of more grapefruit for shipment in fresh form. The new grade was basically U. S. No. 2 except that tolerances for misshapen fruit and thickness of skin were tightened.

At the request of the Commission, the U. S. Department of Agriculture agreed to make certain changes in the grade standards for fresh oranges, tangelos, grapefruit and tangerines, to be effective at the beginning of the 1960-61 season. All of the changes were for the purpose of improving the grades.

The grade standards for Grade 1101 sweetened canned orange juice were amended by reducing the minimum acid requirement from .65 to .55. This had the effect of making the acid requirements for Grade C sweetened juice the same as for Grade C unsweetened. While this had little effect on the quality of the product, it was the unanimous opinion of the processors that it would permit more practical operations at the processing plants. The standards for canned orange juice were also amended to permit the use of concentrated orange juice, other than "hot pack" concentrate, in the production of canned juice. This made it possible to build up the solids and improve the color of the juice by the addition of concentrate.

Changes In Fruit Sizes

The new orange sizes which became effective in August, 1959,were used by the industry throughout the 1959-60 season and many favorable comments were received. The purpose of the change was to reduce the number of sizes for oranges. Prior to adoption of these new sizes, a number of shippers expressed concern about making such a major change in an industry practice of long standing. The Inspection Service contributed a great deal to the smooth transition by making its inspectors available to all shippers who requested assistance in changing to the new packs.

In October, 1959, the Commission changed the sizes of Temple oranges and tangelos packed in the 4/5 bushel flat wirebound box. The

new sizes were limited to 54s, 66s, 80s, 100s, 120s and 156s. This had the effect of eliminating sizes 90s, 108s and 130s. This amendment of the regulations eliminated a great deal of confusion in the industry and the trade by providing more uniformity in the sizes packed and offered for sale.

Other Changes

The regulations relating to processing procedures were amended to provide that no citrus fruit may be processed except in the presence of an inspector or with his consent previously given. This eliminated the possibility of fruit being processed without the knowledge of the inspector who subsequently would be requested to issue inspection certificates on the packed products.

A regulation was adopted to improve sanitary conditions in the processing plants. While most plants maintain good sanitary conditions, the purpose of the regulation was to specifically define the sanitation conditions which are required. This regulation will become ef fective at the beginning of the 1960-61 season.

The regulations were amended to provide that inspectors shall have free access tc. records of processors having to do with additives such as sugar, citric acid, etc. Inspectors were also given the right of access to all areas where these ingredients are stored for the purpose of taking physical inventory of them. The purpose of this regulation was to insure strict enforcement of the regulations which prohibit the use of such ingredients in certain processed citrus products.


The Commission continued to employ two experienced men in the 19.59-60 season to check rumors of violations of the Citrus Code and regulations and to refer any evidence of violations to the proper enforcing authority for action. In addition, these men made regular calls at packinghouses and processing plants to Fitudy inspection procedures and plant operations. Many of the changes in the Commission's regulations were the direct result of recom-nendations made by these men. At the end of the season, the Commission, upon the basis of recommendations received from industry advisory committees, agreed to continue this activity through the 1960-61 season. The close cooperation of these field men with the Federal and State Inspection Departments and other agencies resulted in generally better enforcement of the Citrus Code and regulations.


During the 1959-60 season, the Commission reviewed and approved 1, 519 citrus fruit dealer license applications. This compares with 1, 436 applications approved in the previous season. During this season, twelve applications were denied.

A total of 2, 861 Special Permits were issued during the season. This included 2,419 permits to move gift fruit by truck, 274 for the interstate movement of fruit for processing, 72 for the coloring of Temple oranges, 75 for the experimental use of containers, 16 for the movement of fruit for charitable purposes, and 5 for the experimental pack of high density concentrated orange juice.


The Commission continued a close check on the surety bonds posted by citrus fruit dealers in relation to the volume of fruit dealt with. Forty-two dealers who exceeded the volume covered by the bonds they had posted increased their bonds by an aggregate amount of $195, 140.


During the 1959-60 season, the Commission expanded its services to the industry by establishing a Marketing Section. The purpose of the marketing staff is to develop and disseminate marketing information to assist the Commission and the industry to improve and expand the market for Florida citrus. Major fields of activity include,
(1) the purchase and dissemination of consumer purchase data, (2) is suance of crop and processing reports and (3) research on various problems encountered in marketing Florida's fresh and processed citrus.

(1). The Commission continued its policy of supplying the industry with essential information of estimated total household consumer purchase of fresh oranges and grapefruit, frozen concentrated juices, chilled orange juice, canned juices, and canned fruit drinks. These data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of America, represent projections to national totals based on reported purchases from a representative national sample of approximately 6, 000 household consumers.

Available to the industry are (a) Weekly reports of consumer purchases of canned orange juice, canned grapefruit juice and frozen

orange concentrate; (these reports are issued Friday of each week and in addition to purchases, show average retail price with year ago comparisons); (b) Monthly reports on consumer purchases of selected fruits and juices; (c) Quarterly reports on purchases by householders of selected fresh citrus fruits, canned juices, frozen concentrated juices, and ades by geographic region and by types of retail outlets;
(d) One report annually covering selected 6 month period of consumer purchases of fresh citrus fruits, canned and frozen juices and ades concerning buying practices of families as related to geographic region and size of city in which they live, family income, family size, age of children, occupation and education of family head, age and work status of housewife; and (e) Two reports each year summarizing information on availability of fresh items and certain canned and frozen juices and ades in retail food stores in the United States.

The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in the 1959-60 season was defrayed by the Florida Citrus Commission, with some contribution from the California Prune Advisory Board. In past years, the Department of Agriculture defrayed part of the cost. The Department of Agriculture in the 1959-60 season continued to analyze the data and publish all reports, except the weekly which was issued directly from the Commission office. All consumer purchase information was obtained by the Commission as part of its broad marketing research program directed toward improving and expanding markets for Florida citrus and products.

Each of these reports is helpful to sales managers of Florida fresh and processed citrus fruits in preparing their sales campaigns and also provides general guidance to the Commission advertising and merchandising programs.

(2). The Commission also issued weekly reports covering operations of Florida citrus processors, as reported by the Florida Canners Association. The objective of the Commission's issued report was to make the summary of processors' operations available to a large number of people who would not otherwise receive the report. Likewise, the Commission from October through July issued monthly reports of estimated citrus crop production in Florida and competing states.

(3). Most importantly, the Commission has expanded its marketing research program. Several marketing problems received research attention during the year, including:

a. Analysis of the special frozen orange concentrate advertising campaign during September, October and November, 1959, by 22 Florida processors. Although this campaign was
not directed or financed by the Commission, it contained a

feature unique to the marketing of agricultural products, namely, that of couponing. The Florida citrus industry, as well as other agricultural groups, inquired as to the effectiveness of coupons as sales stimulators. The Marketing Development Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture, was requested to undertake this study.

The stated objectives of this special campaign were (i) to attract new users to Florida concentrated frozen orange juice; and (ii) to increase the level of consumption of present users. To evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign, therefore, it was necessary to procure data of consumer purchases from the Market Research Corporation of America, and the cost of this was shared equally by the Commission and the USDA. By the end of the crop season, the USDA had evaluated the effectiveness of the campaign during the promotional period but had not had a chance to examine its effects during the post-promotional period. A complete report will be forthcoming early in the 1960-61 season.

b. Consumer preferences for color-added and natural
color oranges. This study was also undertaken by the Market Development Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture, at the request of the Commission, to-determine probable effects on retail sales if fresh oranges were not colored prior to shipment. One test was conducted using Hamlins in the Fall of 1959 at a time when there was great similarity in color of the colored and natural color fruit, and a report of USDA findings was made to the Commission. Plans are to repeat the experiments during the Fall of 1960 and the Spring of 1961 at a time when there will be a greater contrast in color between color-added and natural color oranges.

c. Determine the average net weight of grapefruit in field boxes. The Florida Citrus Mutual requested the Commission to undertake this study when it found the industry divided as to the acceptance of 85 pounds as the legal weight of a field box of fruit. One field man weighed 14, 900 boxes of fruit from October, 1959, through mid-May, 1960, and this showed the average net weight of grapefruit per field box to be 82 pounds 6 ounces. This figure varied slightly by type of handler, production, district, and time of year. A full report on this study is available at the Commission office.

d. Consumer preferences for high-Brix (51-'1/2 degrees) and standard Brix (42 degrees) frozen orange concentrate.

Several Florida marketing firms had developed or had available for market test purposes high Brix concentrate and requested the Commission to determine the consumer preferences for the new product. This study, handled under contract by Benton and Bowles, New York City, involves 250 test families in New York City and 250 test families in Philadelphia.
Field work was under way at the close of the 1959-60 season,
and report of findings is expected early in the 1960-61 season.

e. Determine the movement of fresh Florida oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines to 100 largest U. S. markets and of frozen orange concentrate to 200 largest U. S. markets. The
purpose of this study was to determine magnitude of U. S. markets for Florida citrus, extent of competition and rates of purchases based on unloads and other market information. This
information provides helpful guidance in the geographical placement of advertising and merchandising and is planned to be a
continuous service to the industry.

f. Appraisal of the field merchandising program of the
Florida Citrus Commission. The purpose of this study was to examine the services rendered by the Commission's merchandising staff to the trade with the view of improving its effectiveness. A report will be made early in the 1960-61 season.

A meeting of some industry and professional representatives was also held during the season to review the current program of research and to examine the problems needing future marketing research.

The major fields of prospective research include (1) demand and price (with emphasis on anticipated price responses to given changes in supply and competition); (2) market structure and marketing practices;
(3) domestic market development and potential; (4) development of foreign markets; and (5) long range planning. Plans are to define each of these problem areas in detail and present them to the Commission and industry before developing the 1960-61 program of marketing research.

JULY 1, 1959 TO JUNE 30, 1960

Cash Balance July 1, 1959 RECEIPTS - From All Sources

$ 1, 792, 03 1. 66 6,164,458.23

$ 7, 9 56, 489. 89



General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Surveys
Special Field Inspection

Promotions and Publicity
Includes Salaries and Expenses
of Advertising and Merchandising Force, In-Store Promotions and
Related Publicity
Point-of -Sale Material

Consumer Advertising
Newspapers, Magazines, Television and Trade Papers
Professional Journals By-Products Journals
European Program


$ 126,011.46
11,624.95 184,889.78 57,705.03
80,734.46 18,501. 08

1,202,300.57 430,266.51

3, 948, 097. 61 80,538.96 37,297.84 161,896A5

$ 6, 612, 853. 57 $ 1, 343, 636. 32

Cash Balance June 30, 1960



194 8-4 9 1949-50 1950- 51 1951-52 1952-53 1953- 54 1954-55 1955- 56
1956-57 1957-58
1958-59 1959-60 1/


1948-49 1949- 50 1950-51
1951-52 1952-53 19 53-54 1954-55 19 55-56 1956-57 1957- 58 1958-59 1959-60 1/


4,238 3, 379
4,628 3,396 3,811
5,244 4,759
4,518 4,179 4,572


8,843 7,894 12,706 8,735
10,784 12,805
12,464 9,484 10,096 9,310


21,647 30,758
44,031 46,554 65$531
70,224 72,012 57,151
79,911 78,164

1,897 1,529 2,530 1,898
537 1,339 1,531
1,086 1,801
547 379



16, 757
17,419 20,013 19,321 16,907 17,790 16,518 15,500
16,828 17,846
13,264 15,117


116 1, 585
188 1, 098R
1,226 1,656
2,949 3,330
4,952 1,611

1,000 Cases,

6,768 8,706
4,994 5,265
4,212 4,380


1, 259x
1,788x 1, 186x
480x 749x 801lx
42 9x
71 5x 30 3x 76 6x

- 1,000 Gallons
- 112
- 1,303


433xx 955xx
612xx 689xx 87 Sxx 8lOxx
7 l9xx 59lxx
47 6xx 59Oxx


443 8977 6.19
147 1,152

TOTAL PACK (Other than Concentrate)

42,447 37,681
48,194 38,946 38,717
45,082 38,779
39, 604 40,304 37,173 33,500 333,562


12, 376 26,092 33,869 47,928
49,399 69,989 68,842 75,426 78,211 62,392 87,417 80,772

- ---Tons---- -- --

1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953- 54 1954- 55 1955- 56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 l/

134, 263 163,397 21 .187,543 2/ 218,065 2/ 223,31.172/ 287,832 2/ 262,474 2/ 297,254 2/ 296,575 2/ 291,537 2/ 320,'588 2/ 284,000 2/

1/ Preliminary, as of August 18, 1960 x Includes Tangerine juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections 2/ Includes meal, pulp and pellets SOURCE: Florida Canners' Association

41,493 41,388 70,356 54,035
39,112 52,690
48,934 41,621 59,850 36,161
43,823 29,000


(000 Bxs)

(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)

(Millions Dollars)


1948-49 1949-50 1950- 51
1951-52 195 2-53 1953-54 1954- 55
19 55-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959- 60(b)

58,300 58,500
67,300 78, 600 72,200 91,300 88,400 91,000 93,000 82,500 86,000 91,500

31,048 23,393
24,935 30,643 25,849 27,846 27,157 25,566
24,116 18,107 16,837 20,750

1.47 2.19 1.76 .86 1.31 1.39
1.42 1.86 1.69
2.00 2.78

26,852 34,707
41,915 47,507
45,901 62,904 60,693
64,884 68,234 63,843 68,513 70,100

1.29 2.12 1.57 .76 1.27
1.20 1.35
1.82 1.31
2.18 2.91 1.80

400 400 450
450 450 550 550 550
650 550
650 650

124.8 109.9 59.6 92.1
114.2 120.4 165.6 130.1
175.4 246.2 167.7


1948-49 1949-50 1950- 51
1951-52(a) 1952-53
1953-54(a) 1954- 55 1955-56 1956-57 1957- 58 1958-59 1959-60(b)

24,200 33,200
36,000 32,500
42,000 34,800 38,300
37,400 31,100
35,200 30,500

13,754 10,571 15,197 19,172 17,305
20,451 18,996
19,482 18,187
14,544 16,479 16,040

1. 99
1.22 .81 1.08 .86 .95 .92 1.36 1.37 1.37 1.30

16,306 13,489 17,853 13, 678 15,035
15,644 18,658 19,053 16,396 18,561

.43 1.63 .70
. 12 .40
.24 .20 .44 .63 .79 .72

20.1 43.0 31.0 17.3
24.7 19.8 21.8 20.7 33.1 30.3 37.2 31.1


1948-49 1949- 50 1950-51(a) 1951-52(a) 1952- 53
1953-54(a) 1954-55(a) 1955-56(a) 1956-57 1957-58
1958-59(a) 1959-60(a) (b)

4,400 5,000
4,800 4,500
5,000 5?7100
4,700 4,800 2,100
4,500 2,8 00

3,351 3,355 3,175 3,373 3,76,6 3,392 3.725
3,449 3,271 1,729 2,635 2,090

1.92 1.99
1.56 1.76
2.10 1.78 2.23 2.31 2.86&
2.42 3.20

999 1,595 1,355
1,064 1,038 1,105
351 1,595

.16 .03
- .02
- .05
.06 .15
.22 .10
.20 .15

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary. 1959-60 season data estimated by Marketing Specialist, Florida
Citrus Commission.

SOURCE FOR DATA PRIOR TO 1959-60 SEASON: Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A.