Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00029
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

The For the

Ag. Student
College Farmer

Published by Agriculture Students at the University of Florida

In This Issue:

Progress Marked In
Florida Dairy
Horace M. McKinney

Beef Cattle Growing
Into Major Florida
Ottis L. Pippen

Swine Production
Shows Profit For
Florida Farmers
Joseph M. Crevassee, Jr.

Florida Dairy Industry
Shows Upward Trend
John Q. Tilghman


r.iYLk^.. '*.

1- -------


-- -


Something More Than

0 0 0 0

T ERE'S no way of "talking
into" fertilizers the elements
needed for successful crops.
And when we say that GULF
Brands of Fertilizer are "keyed o.
your soil," we mean that these
Friendly Fertilizers fit the varying
soil and crop needs in different sec-
tions of Florida--because more than
thirty-five years of service to Flor-
ida agriculture have given us the
"key" to the needs of growers.
That's why there's a whole cata-
log of GULF Brands--the result iU
constant experiments in field and
laboratory--all fertilizers that have
been proved before being offered for
sale, all made in Florida for Florida
There's a GULF Brand of Ferti-
lizer for everything that's grown in



THE GULF FERTILIZER CO., Tampa and Port Everglades, Fla.

25c and up

CA$ME10 a AS
$1.00 and up

Send $1.00 For Sample Collection of 5 Azaleas
Booklet On Where To Plant What $1.00



Pot Plants

5 POUNDS ... 45c



Tree Surgery

Nursery & Landscape Company




a "Slogan"

April, 1939


Pane 2




The Origin of
Florida Plant Crops

There is in agriculture no more in-
teresting subject than the origin of
our crop plants. Investigations in this
field have been going on for many
years; in spite of this, the original
wild plants from which the cultivated
forms were derived are still unknown.
They have been associated with man
so long that many of the original
species have not and may never oe
brought to light. Man has taken them
with him into every region to which
he has migrated. In many new areas
they have succeeded, in others they
have failed to grow.
The most momentous plant travels
are those which took place at the time
of and following the discovery of the
western hemisphere by Columbus. The
new world gave to the old such plants
as corn, tobacco, potato, tomato, bean.
pineapple and avocado, to mention
only a few of the most important;
while the old world gave to the new
world peach, apple, oriental persim-
mon, apricot, olive, orange, lemon,
mango, cabbage, celery, lettuce, wheat,
oats, barley, rye and many more. Both
lists may be greatly extended but the
old world list is greater than the new.
Many plants have been brought in-
to Florida and tested. Many have fail-
ed completely but worth while numbers
have succeeded. Where did these plants
that have become a part of our agri-
cultural wealth comn: from? To give
an idea of the wide sources from which
they have been derived, a few may be
mentioned. The potato came from the
-Andes of Peru and Chile; carrot, beat,


bbage, lettuce and turnip are deriv-
1 from plants native in Europe. Snap-
eans and lima beans are evidently
om the American tropics originally.
ornm, also, is an American plant. It
as cultivated by the Indians when
le Europeans came. Likewise, the
mato is a native from western South
Of fruits grown in Florida, peaches
re from China; Kaki (persimmon)
om China; pineapple from South
menr,ca; mango from India; citrus
uits from southeastern Asia; avocado
om the American tropics and ad-
cent Mexico. The pecan is a North
merican tree from Texas and the
:ississippi drainage area. Cotton in
3 different forms, is widely distri-
uted in the tropics. Peanuts came
om Brazil and cowpeas from Asia.
Ornamental plants, too, in great
variety have been added to Florida
gardens from many sources. Hence, it
ill be seen that Florida is indebted to
iany parts of the world and the
search still goes on for new things
ith which to enrich our agriculture.
he introduction of a single seed or a
ngle plant may have tremendous
alue in future development.

Farmers Grow Sheep

In Florida

The origin of the native sheep in
lorida is very obscure. There is little
formation available regarding this:
however, information that is available
shows very clearly that the settlers
rom Georgia, Alabama, and the Caro-
nas brought a few sheep with them
nd these sheep probably formed the
foundation stock for the sheep in-
ustry that exists in Florida today.
according to Dr. A. L. Shealy, head of
he Animal Husbandry department
he breeds represented in the native
heep cannot be definitely recognized,
ut it is highly probable that Merino,
corset, Hampshire and possibly a cer-
ain amount of Cheviot blood was used
a the early days of the sheep industry
a the state.
Dr. Shealy, in a report on sheep, re-
Ites that inbreeding was extensively
racticed. The native or scrub sheep
found in Florida today do not show
he characteristics of any one breed;
nevertheless, these sheep will serve as
he foundation stock for the sheep In-
ustry of the future in Florida. There
re several reasons why we should use
he native sheep for the foundation
stock. In the first place the native
heep are acclimated. They can with-
tand the range conditions in this
tate. Furthermore, they are available
n sufficient number to provide ample

foundation stock if the proper at-
tention is given them. Probably the
most important reason why they
should be used is that the native sheep
are capable of producing good off-
spring when they are bred to purebred
rams. It is often impossible to purchase
grade sheep for a foundation flock. If
the farmer desires to keep only a small
farm flock, it would be profitable to
purchase grade ewes.
Range sheep and the farm flock are
the two major types of sheep produc-
tion in Florida. The number of sheep
found on the ranges exceeds by far the
number found in farm flocks. There
are approximately 50,000 sheep in this
state, mostly in North and West Flor-
It is interesting to note that sheep
have been kept for several decades on
many of the ranges in the western
portion of the state. Flocks have been
(Continued on page 17)

Beauty Enhances Farm

By Thomas F. Hammett, '39
Floridians are blessed with c rich,
widely diversified group of plants with
which to enhance the monetary value
as well as the beauty of their homes
and public buildings. These plants are,
in themselves, less than worthless in
the hands of those who are unfamiliar
with their proper place in landscape
What do we mean when we mention
'landscaping'? Nurserymen use this
term to refer to the planning, the
construction and the maintenance of
not necessarily expensive gardens, but
landscape development that Is care-
fully and thoroughly planned by some-
one who, beyond any doubt, knows ex-
actly what he is doing. To the general
public, 'landscaping,' may mean any-
thing from the forest of Ligustrum and
Arborvitae blocking the passage to
Jones' front door, to a gaudy array of
fantastic plants surrounding the Miami
villa of a millionaire.
But let us be more accurate. Land-
scape gardening is concerned primarily
with the growing of fine plants and
their maintenance.
Landscape architecture or landscape
design is the term used in referring
not to an expensive dream beyond the
reach of the average farmer, but is
the only proper term to use in speak-
ing of the development of those
On the farm, a screen of Australian
pines or Cherry Laurel used as a wind-
break or to screen outbuildings, can
form an ideal background for a small
pool or a vivid flower border. A clump
of shrubs, a small group of trees can be
planted at a curve in the entrance
drive to screen the barnyard beyond.
A group of oaks, beneath which grass
will not grow, will make a perfect
home for some bright Azaleas to bring
added happiness to the farmer's family.

April, 1939


Page 3



The farmers of Florida who are en-
gaged in dairy production may be re-
minded that their growing industry Is
rapidly becoming more adequately re-
presented in the broad field of techni-
cal farm training available at the
University of Florida. A visitor can
now view with admiration the new
dairy products laboratory located on
the south side of the campus which is
a brick structure having red tile floors
and tan glazed tile walls in the manu-
facturing rooms. In addition to chemi-
cal and bacteriological control labor-
atories, the building has a classroom
and ample office space. It also contains
three large rooms for processing and
manufacturing dairy products. Several
other smaller rooms contain washing,
sterilizing, and cooking equipment.
The dairy manufacturing industry
of the United States represents many
and varied lines of production. Six
main branches of the dairy industry
may be listed as market milk, butter.
cheese, ice cream, condensed milk, and
dry milk. In addition a large number
of by-products are manufactured
which include casein, lactose, lactic
acid, commercial buttermilk, chocolate
milk, and semi-solid buttermilk. The
processing of milk into these products
and by-products in the most satis-
factory manner involves the applica-
tion of several pure sciences. Of these
sciences, chemistry probably is the
most important. Training for chemist-
ry, especially physical chemistry, re-
quires considerable mathematics.

Physics courses are also essential for
this type of training. Bacteriology is
another basic science necessary for
high efficiency in the manufacture of
dairy products.
Research Applied To Production.
In order to apply these basic sciences
to the production of dairy products in
the most efficient manner the use of
modern equipment is necessary. As one
enters the new dairy products labora-
tory and passes from the corridor a-
long which the offices, classroom,
chemical and bacteriological labora-
tories are situated, he enters the
butter, cheese and condensed milk lab-
oratory. This room is located under a
roof elevated above the remainder of
the building and is excellently lighted
by windows at one end and by glass
bricks in the portion of the wall that
supports the high pitched roof. The
receiving room is situated just beyond
one corner of the latter room which
makes it possible to convey cream for
butter-making to the pasteurizing vat
or milk fdr cheese-making to the
cheese vat through a conductor trough
extended from the receiving room. The
cream pasteurizer is a 50 gallon coil
vat connected. for brine circulation as
well as for water and steam. It has a
stainless steel lining, stainless steel out
side trim, and a tin-copper coil. The
cheese vat has a capacity of 100 gal-
lons. Its pan is of stainless steel sup-
ported on a wooden rail over a steel
tank. The vat has a tilting arrange-
ment to facilitate drainage of whey.
Adjacent to the cream pasteurizer is a

100 pound capacity churn. This room
also contains a 16 inch stainless steel
vacuum pan complete with a 50 gallon
stainless steel jacketed hot well. A
butter tub paraffiner and a cheese
paraffining tank also are located in
this room. A small cold room opening
from this laboratory serves for cold
storage of butter and cheese, and also
as a place for the culture incubator.
Passing on through the butter,
cheese, and condensed milk laboratory,
one enters the market milk laboratory.
This is located -directly beside the re-
ceiving room. It contains a 200 gallon
receiving tank, milk pump, 150 gallon
pasteurizer, cooler and a 30 gallon
buttermilk machine. There is also a
homogenizer of 75 gallons per hour
capacity which is the last word in
milk machinery. A cold storage room
for milk opens from one corner of the
market milk laboratory; the can and
bottle washing room from another
corner which is served by a dry stor-
age room.
An ice cream laboratory opens from
the market milk room. A 40 quart dir-
ect expansion ice cream freezer and
other ice cream manufacturing equip-
ment is to be added later. A small pass
door for ice cream containers leads to
the hardening room. One enters the
hardening room by way of the milk
storage room. The boiler room is situa-
ted at the back of the building and
is equipped with a 25 horse power high
pressure boiler using oil for fuel.
Two biology tables having gas and
(Continued on page 14)


Page 4

April 1939



Through Farm Leaders' Progress


Named "Man of the Year in Agricul-
ture" by the Progressive Farmer.

In relating the achievements of
Dr. Newell concerning his being select-
ed as the "Man of the Year" in Florida
agriculture, the Progressive Farmer
for February 1939 said: "Climaxing 23
years as head of the Florida State
Plant Board and 18 years as Dean of
the College of Agriculture and Director
of the Experiment Station and Ex-
tension Service, 1938 saw Dr. Wilmon
Newell become Provost for Agricul-
ture at the University of Florida.
"Native of the tall corn state and
1897 graduate of Iowa State College
where he specialized in entomology.
Dr. Newell saw early service in Iowa,
Ohio, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
While secretary of the Louisiana Crop
Pest Commission, he was first to prove
that the boll weevil could be success-
fully poisoned. Dr. Newell also was
first to recommend thick spacing of
cotton to set an early crop and get
ahead of the weevil.
"In 1915 when he came to Florida,
he was plunged immediately into a suc-
cessful fight against citrus canker. In
1929, he led an amazingly quick and
succesMful campaign to eradicate the
Meditterannean fruit fly. He develop-
ed the process of eradicating American
foul brood from apiaries by complete
destruction of all infected bees, hives,
and equipment.

"But eradication has not been his
only interest. He has taken personal
lead in the introduction of tung oil.
He has directed research and extension
activities which touch practically every
rural home in Florida."


Elected National President oi the
Association of Commissioners of Agri-

North Carolina is his native state.
He was born at Whitakers, Nash coun-
ty, December 1, 1876. His parent.
moved to Florida when he was 10 years
old, and it soon became his duty to
drive a milk wagon and deliver milk
m Ocala.
At the age of 12 he established a cold
drink and confectionery business in a
piano box next door to the Munroe &
Chambliss National Bank. Two years
later he worked between school hours
for the Anti-Monopoly Drug Store,
Keeping a connection wiuh this store
until the age of 23, when he became
part owner in this business.
The "back to the farm' urge was
strong in him and took him to Sum-
merfield, a few miles south of Ocala.
There, with a capital of less than $200
he started a small country store which
laLer became known as the Mvayo-
Lysles Store, which handled every-
thing from the "cradle to the grave."
in Summerfield and neighboring sect-
ions, he was interested in and operat-
ed a large farm, a citrus nursery,
citrus groves, a cotton gin, and a
turpentine business.
In 1899 he and Nora Newsome of
Ocala were marred. They have three
children, two sons and a daughter,
and one grandchild.

The people of Marion County elected
him to represent them in the legisla-
ture for the sessions of 1921 and 1923.

Governor Hardee, in November 1923.
appointed him Commissioner of Agri-
culture. The people of Florida return-
ed him to this office the next year, and
he has held it continuously ever since.
Mr. Mayo considers the building of
the farmers' market his outstanding
achievement as Commisssioner of
Agriculture. These will stand as a
testimony of his constructive work for
the farmer and prove the possibility of
taking a forward step in the great
unsolved problems of marketing farm
products in an economical and effici-
ent way. He has been voted a leader
in southern agriculture by agricultural

He succeeded in getting the national
convention of State Commissioners of
Agriculture to meet in Florida Novem-
ber 14-16, 1938. At this convention he
was elected president of the National
Association of Commissioners of Agri-


The oldest and most indispensable to
both civilized and primitive man is
the occupation of farming. Probably as
much governmental attention and leg-
islation has been directed toward farm-
ing and those allied fields connected
with farming as has been concerned
with any other occupation.
Florida, being primarily a farming
state, has much to offer to those who
choose farming as an occupation.
Many agencies, both in government
and education, are designed to render
service to the producers of crops and
livestock who feed the nation. Farm-
ers can well be proud of the able lead-
ers who represent them in the halls of
the legislature as well as those who
administer the vast sum of state and
federal funds set aside for their bene-
Florida leaders in agriculture are
prominent in the national field as
evidenced by the eminence of Honor-
able Nathan Mayo, State Commission-
er of Agriculture who was recently
elected to the Presidency of the Nat-
ional Association of Commissioners of
Agriculture; and Dr. Wilmon Newell,
Provost for Agriculture at the Univer-
sity of Florida who holds the honor of
being named "Man of the Year" in
agriculture by the Progressive Farmer.

Agriculture is indispensable to in
dustry. One is a part of the other and
both must work interdependently with
the other. The results of education in
agriculture suggest Ihope for future
generations of farmers to solve their
own problems as well as to cooperate
with industry.

April, 1939


Page 5

Beef Cattle Growing Into Major

Florida Industry


The raising of beef cattle fits ad-
mirably in the South. Especially is this
true of Florida because of its favorable
climate and large areas of land not
under cultivation. The whole state of
Florida represents nothing more close-
ly than a glorified cow pasture. For
many years after the iirst introduction
of cattle into 'lorida Dy the Spaniards,
the cattle industry did not make ad-
vancement commensurate with condi-
tions which seemed to favor it. even
75 years ago the raising of cattle as a
business in this state was practically
unknown. Although cattle were kept in
small numbers on the farms in the
older farming sections, cattle raising
was not considered a business within
itself. Florida failed to keep pace with
other areas.
The development of the cattle in-
dustry in Florida might be divided in-
to stages and our present category
classified. Let us use our imagination
for a moment and suppose that we
compare this industry to the metamor-
phosis of an insect's life, i. e., first,
the beginning of egg stage; second,
the larval stage; third, the pupa or
resting stage; fourth, the adult stage
or the acme of development to be ac-
The first period in the development
of the beef cattle industry might be
considered the period between the 16th
and 19th centuries. During the early
part of the 16th century cattle were
first brought over by the Spanish ex-
plorers. These cattle rustled over the
ranges, securing what food they could
get. Little or no attention was given
them. The native cow developed as the
survival of the fittest. She withstood
adverse conditions and became ac-
climated. As a result of being raised
on the ranges with little or no super-
vision in the handling of breeding
stock, native cattle became inbred.
This accounts in large measure for the
small size of the present day native
range cow. This same range cow must
today be counted upon to furnish the
foundation breeding stock for the
future beef cattle industry in this
The native cow, or the so-called
"scrub," retained its name until the
early part of the 19th century when
upon the importation of the Brahman
breeds and several of the British Isles
breeds, such as the Hereford, Aberdeen
Angus, Shorthorn, Red Polled, and the
Devon, a new period of development
in the cattle industry dawned in Flor-

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ida. These new breeds possessed the
desired beef type, good width, depth of
body, deep, thick loins, and large, full
hindquarters. But with the exception
of the Brahmans these cattle were not
the rustlers nor could they withstand
severe conditions as could the native
cattle. Since these native cattle were
available on Florida ranges it was
more economical and practical to use
the range cow as the foundation breed-
ing stock than it was to purchase pure
bred or grade cows and heifers from
other states.
During this time a few stockmen
fenced their ranges, some supervision
was given in the handling of breeding
stock, herd management was practical
to a certain extent, and it looked for
a time as though the cattle industry
would jump from our second period of
development to the adult stage with-
out ever having entered the resting
stage. But a number of factors at this
time forced the industry back into the
level of the resting period.
The Texas fever tick was one of the
barriers to the industry. This pest did
no little damage before it was finally
brought under control by dipping the
cattle at frequent intervals. The screw
worm also did thousands of dollars
worth of damage to the livestock and
is yet prevalent to a large extent in
some sections of the state. These pests,
especially the screw worm, have made
it necessary for the stockmen to check
their animals more closely. This has
brought about better herd manage-
ment practices and a great improve-
ment in cattle.
Research Plays Role.
The Agricultural Experiment Station
at the University of Florida has play-
ed its role in aiding the cattle industry.
On many ranges in the state cattle
became stiff, lame, and emaciated.

Bones were weak and easily broken.
Research work showed clearly that this
was due to a calcium and phosphorus
deficiency. It was found that the con-
dition could be prevented and the af-
fected animals cured if steamed bone
meal were fed to the animals. The
use of cobalt, copper, and iron has been
found to correct salt sickness. Two
pounds of bone meal added to 100
pounds of concentrate fed to the Uni-
versity dairy herd showed an increase
of approximately 50 percent in milk
production. Bone meal available at all
times to beef cattle probably would
result in a similar increase in milk
production for raising a good calf crop.
Experiment Station workers have
found that between 137-220 pounds of
beef per acre can be produced on im-
proved pasture consisting of carpet,
centipede, Bermuda, and a mixture of
Dallis, carpet, Bahia and Bermuda
grasses. This production might be
compared to 4.17-10 pounds of beef
produced on native grass ranges. Sel-
ected native cows bred with purebred
bulls produced first cross calves with
an improvement differential of be-
tween 25 to 33 percent over the native
stock. These workers have found also
that sugarcane. cut and shocked is the
most economical roughage for winter-
ing beef cattle. Many other valuable
experiments have been conducted and
are now being directed by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station to aid
the cattle situation.
Florida cattlemen deserve credit for
their accomplishments during these
last few years because they, themselv-
es, have played an important role in
bringing one of Florida's leading in-
dustries out of the dormant stage into
an active, productive, and growing en-

Pase 6


April 1939



Hogs were first brought into
this country on the second
voyage of Columbus by way of the
West Indies. Later, DeSoto brought
large numbers of hogs to Florida,
which later became distributed through
out the South. These animals of
Spanish origin were permitted to run
at large, and in the course of a few
generations this unrestricted mingling
of hogs resulted in a common type.
Meanwhile hogs of a better grade
which grow faster and mature earlier
were brought into mnis country from
angland and oiscributed along the At-
lantic Coast at various points from
lvew England to Virginia. As the pion-
eers moved westward, taking livestock
witn them, tne hogs of British origin
from the Atlantic coast and the des-
oendents of those from Spain were
merged m the eastern and southern
sections of what is now known as the
Corn Belt. In the general bulk of
swine there was considerable deteri-
oration m quality due to the manage-
ment practices followed under pioneer-
ing conditions. Real interest in an ef-
fort toward improving hogs did not
become of general concern to farmers
before 1800.
Today hogs are raised on approxi-
mately three-fourths of the farms in
the United States, and in Florida there
is less than one sow to every two
farms. This means that we produce a-
bout one-fourth of our pork supply and
some $11,000,000 worth of pork is Im-
ported into this state annually. Yet
Florida is more suited to the produc-
tion of swine than perhaps any other
state. This is true because of the mild
winters which afford the production of
year-round pastures. Where pastures
are provided, the amount of dry feeds
needed to supplement the crops grazed
is much smaller than that required in
colder sections where no pastures are
provided. Labor costs are greatly re-
duced in the South as the hogs are al-
lowed to harvest their own feed. Less
equipment is needed in Florida than
further north; thus, there is a saving
in the cost of equipment.
Selecting The Breed
Choosing a breed for Florida condi-
tions is more or less a matter of per-
sonal preference. However, white hogs
do not do so well in the South because
of "sunscald" during the summer
months. The breeds most common in
Florida are the Duroc-Jersey, Poland
China, and the Hampshire. The mos.
profitable breed for the Florida farm-
er is the one that will reach the re-
quired market weight in the shortest
time. This market weight is generally
from 175 to 225 pounds. Well bred and

properly fed animals will attain the
desired market weight at 6 to 10 mo-
nths of age.
The importance of using good blood in
swine production cannot be over
emphasized. In the first place, the law
of inheritance operates to a pronounc-
ed degree in swine breeding. Gilts and
boars chosen for breeding purposes
should be selected from prolific sows
and if careful selection is continued it
is possible to develop a highly prolific
herd of sows. The farmer will find hog
raising very unprofitable if he does
not begin with hogs of good type, pos-
sessing the desirable characteristics of
early maturity, high quality, prolific,
and the ability to convert feed econo-
mically into high grade pork. The
greatest advantage of good blood is
perhaps it helps to produce uniformity
among both young and finished ani-
mals. Greater profits are derived for
animals which are uniform in type,
quality, and finish.
The selection of the sow and the
herd boar is of great importance. The
sow should show refinement, should be
quiet in temperament, and should pos-
sess those qualities which indicate that
she will be a good mother. She should
also be prolific because her feed re-
qiurements will be but slightly great-
er with large litters than with small
ones. The final selection of the boar
should not be made until he is at least
6 months of age. He should be of good
type and quality, showing pronounced
masculinity and vigor, and possessing
a strong constitution.
Since practically all shoats are fat-
tened in Florida by "hogging off" such
fields as peanuts, corn, chufas, and
sweet potatoes, it is important to
correlate the time of breeding with the
time when grazing crops will be avail-
able for fattening. It is most impor-

tant, however, to have the hogs ready
to sell when the market price is high-
est, generally during July, August,
september, and early October. Prices
are also hign during February, March
and April.
The gestation period is from 112 to
115 days, which means the brood sow
must be bred the latter part of Octob-
er to furnish "feeders" for grazing
early crops as Spanish peanuts and
early corn. Shoats finished on early
crops can be marKeted during early
fal wnen market prices are high. If
me sow is ored again from April 15 to
Ivay 15, feeders" will be provided for
tne late grazing crops such as runner
peanuts, chulas, and sweet potatoes.
''nese crops will remain in the ground
during ne winner months without
sprouting, making it possible to defer
grazing until tne latter part of Decem-
ocr, and hogs turned on these crops
at that time should be finished for
market in March. The sow should pro-
cuce two litters each year, thus reduc-
ing the cost per pig and giving greater
returns on the investment.
The importance of cross-breeding
hogs in this state should not be over-
looked. Cross-breds are generally sup-
erior to purebreds. However, cross-bred
boar offspring should never be used for
breeding purposes; only purebred re-
gistered boars should be used. Some
of the advantages of cross-breeding
are larger litters, larger pigs at wean-
ing time, shorter time is required to
reach market weights, and lastly,
there is a decrease in feed necessary
for a pound of gain.
Of considerable importance to the
Florida farmer is the means of grad-
ing up hogs with purebred sires. The
use of purebred boars through three
generations resulted in marked im-
provement of pigs in type and quality.

April, 1939


Page 7


Recreation In Rural Communities

President, College 4-H Club, F.S.C.W.
In 1927 at the request of Dr. C. B.
Smith, former assistant director of
the Federal Extension Service, the
work in rural recreational leadership
training was begun. The purpose of
this work was to develop leaders a-
mong the people to carry on in rural
communities and through rural in-
stitutions their own activities in com-
munity singing, dramatics, active re-
creation, home play, camp recreation,
nature study, folk dancing, rhythmic
games, music appreciation and a wide
range of leisure time activities.
The object of the program was to
place the responsibility on the people
themselves, to teach facts, skills, and
principles, to create favorable attitu-
des, to obtain action, and to prepare
for adequate leadership. The people
were to provide recreation for them-
selves, rather than having someone do
it for them.
Under Dr. Smith's plan, groups call-
ed recreational councils were to meet
regularly on a county or regional basis
to receive leadership training which
they would use in their own communi-
ties. Where this has been done the re-
creational program has become a vital
part of the life of rural communities
and of programs found in all rural
organizations including homes, chur-
ches, schools, and regular existing farm
The recreational councils were com-
posed of members from 4-H clubs,
teachers, and community organizations
such as churches, civic organizations
and others interested in improved re-
creation for rural areas. These coun-
cils met regularly to receive instruct-
ion in conducting active and quiet re-
creation, parties, entertainments, dra-
matics and picnics for adults and
In Florida for the past 10 years the
National Recreation Association has
cooperated with the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service in conducting a re-
creational leadership program. As an
outgrowth of this work six Extension
Recreation Councils have been organi-
zed and plans for establishing councils
in other counties are underway. Twen-
ty-three counties report the develop-
ment of recreational programs in 141
communities. In 1935, 400 4-H girls
from neighboring counties met at the
Florida State College for Women in
Tallahasseee where they spent the day

in learning folk songs and games un-
der the leadership of the Physical
Education Department.
In addition to leadership training,
the recreational program deals with
classes in music appreciation, creative
arts and handicrafts, production of
plays, and appreciation for good books.
Throughout the country farm people
are participating more and more in
singing, learning to play instruments,
taking part in quartettes, choruses,
light operas and church choirs. Grow-
ing organizations of rural bands and
orchestras are found in an increasing
number of counties. During the Florida
4-H Short Course of 1938, Manatee
County appeared with a girls' orches-
tra and aroused so much interest that
other counties became desirous of
forming orchestras.
Every year at the 4-H Short Course
in Tallahassee, a music appreciation
class is conducted. The girls study
compositions of some of the great
masters and on the last day they sing
for the rest of the group one of the
songs they have learned.
County and home demonstration
agents all over the state are teaching
creative arts and handicrafts to young
and old. People are encouraged to sell
in community or county markets the
articles they make. In addition these
are used to make their homes more
The production of plays by rural
people has spread over the entire
United States. Little Theatre Guilds
all over the country are engaged in
producing some of the best dramas in
existence. Outstanding among these
groups is the Little Country Theatre
at North Dakota Agricultural College.
In addition, people are encouraged to
write plays depicting their own lives
and times. One hundred and one page-
ants and plays were produced in rural
communities of Florida last year ac-
cording to statistics from the State
Home Demonstration Office.
Appreciation for good books is being
encouraged by library service. Travel-
ing libraries carry all types of books
designed to meet the needs of every-
one. Pamphlets and bulletins which
will prove helpful to the farmer are
kept on the shelves and are so frequ-
ently read that in some instances they
have to be rebound or replaced two or
three times each year. In some states
(Continued on page 9)

4-H Personalities
In Florida Union

By D. R. "Billy" MATHEWS
4-H club boys get such valuable ex-
perience in their 4-H club work that
they make valuable employees in many
different vocations.
Before I became director of Florida
Union I was an assistant of Mr. R. W.
Blacklock, State 4-H Agent, and spent
my summers for seven years in 4-H
club camps. In directing these camps
I came into contact with many of the
fine boys throughout the entire state.
When I came to the University it
was only natural for me to think of
these boys when I considered filling
the staff of Florida Union, the student
activity center on the campus.
When Florida Union was first open-
ed in 1936 there were three old 4-H
club boys who became some of my
most valuable assistants. They were
Ben McLaughlin, vice-president of the
student body, Wilmer Bassett and Ed-
win Weissinger. During this first year
of the Union's operation Wilmer Bas-
sett was my first student assistant, and
rendered valuable service, along with
the other assistants, in giving the
Florida Union a creative and whole-
some personality.
Since the opening of the Union in
1939 other 4-H club boys whom I iave
,employed have been Tom Leonard,
Editor of the Alligator, G. T. Huggins,
D. C. Hanks, Arthur McNeely, Editor
of the Florida College Farmer, and
perhaps one or two more whom I have
unintentionally overlooked.
(Continued on page 9)


Page 8

April, 1939


The 17th National 4-H
Congress Was a Vision

By Seth Plank, Zephyrhills, Fla.
Before telling about this trip, I wish
to extend my thanks to the Chain
Stores for their donation. Mr. R. W.
Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent, is
o10 be given credit for our supervision.
Norman Rasmussen and Jack Prator
were the other members of the poultry
judging team from Pasco County who
won the State Contest in February.
Other club boys making the trip with
us were Mark Winchester and Edward
Bradley of Tallahassee. They won their
trip for pig club work.
We, with five Florida girls and two
of their demonstration agents, com-
posed the delegation from this state.
We left on Friday, November 25,
1938. On the trip we saw many inter-
esting things. For most of us, it was
our first experience of seeing snow.
While passing through Alabama we
also saw coal mines and steel mills
which were new to most of us.
We arrived in Chicago Sunday morn-
ing November 27th and were taken to
the Congress Hotel which is Chicago's
second largest hotel
Each delegate was given a green cap
on which was a pennant with the
name of his home state. This was quite
interesting, as there were delegates
from 40 states, Canada, Hawaii, and
Puerto Rico. There were 1,300 delegates
in all.
Our first program was the Magic
Key Broadcast, Sunday noon. This was
followed by a sight-seeing tour of the
city which included all the important
The national poultry judging contest
was held Monday morning, As a team,
Florida placed seventh. Individually,
I placed tenth, Jack Prator nineteen-
th, and Norman Rasmussen twenty-
ninth. Fourteen teams competed in the
Following this we were given an
entertainment and a banquet by
Thomas E. Wilson, Chairman of Wil-
son and Company.
Tuesday morning Armour and
Company gave us a breakfast and en-
tertainment. This was followed by a
trip through their huge plant which
covers 118 acres in Chicago and em-
ploys 10,000 workers. It was interest-
ing to see their method of dressing
swine at the rate of 1,200 per hour,
taking 16 minutes to complete one.
At noon the National Livestock
Marketing Association entertained us.
Later in the day we visited the art
The annual 4-H club banquet was
held Tuesday night at Chicago's larg-
est hotel, the Stevens.
Wednesday we started the program
by visiting the International Harvester
Company tractor factory. This im-
pressed us as much as the meat pack-

ing plant. Its mai point of interest
was the forging of wrute hot steel In-
to engine pars with large steam
hammers. Tractors are finished at the
rate of 160 per day. Next, we went
through their twine factory, where we
saw binder twine made from sisal
fiber. Following their banquet at noon
was the program in which Fibber
McGee was presented m person.
During the afternoon we all attend-
ed the horse show when all horses were
judged m the arena.
Tne evening was occupied by the an-
nual areas review and party.
our return trip was made more en-
joyable by our coming to St. Louis on
a streamaned train, nus crossing the
iLissss5ippi liver.
Aimough we all thoroughly enjoyed
toe lrip, Florida looked better to us
man anything we had seen.

recreation In
kural Communitie

(Continued from page 8)
a set of books is mailed to any group
mnat is willing to pay the cost of trans-
portation. Tnere is a wide range in
books so that there is something to in-
1erest every person. When the group
is through with a set, the books are
returned and another set is sent
in their place. Last year in Florida
home demonstration clubs provided
library facilities for 36 communities.
Agencies which are sponsoring the
recreational program for rural groups
are local, state and national in char-
acter. P. T. A. organizations, 4-H clubs,
semor home demonstration clubs, sum-
mer camps, various church organiza-
tions plan and carry out programs
wnich are intended to stimulate new
interest m life, to develop initiative
and leadership, in short to recreate.
The recreational program as it is being
carried out by these organizations is
proving worthwhile. Unsuspected tal-
ent is being discovered and various
stills are being developed. As a result,
the lives of our rural people are richer
and fuller than ever before.

4-H Personalities
In Florida Union

(Continued from page 8)
At the present time Edwin Weissin-
ger is the first student assistant of the
Union and G. T. Huggins is the man-
ager of the Game Room. These posi-
tions are very responsible and reflect
credit on the students holding them.
Both the Florida Union and the 4-H
club try to develop character, and,
once again, the value of 4-H club
work has been proved to me as I have.
noticed at first hand the final pro-
ducts of that training evolve into larg-
er avenues of service here in Florida

Florida Farmers
Conserve Wildlife

Wildlife conservation in the broad
sense should mean the preservation of
wue naive wildlie of our area, both as
to the abundance and natural balance
between species, in as near its virgin
oncuuon as possible, in view of the
requirements of agrculture and other
neotssary human uses of tne land.
'nis may evolve preservation o0 tOe
present. abundance of some runos, the
resvoraton to normal number or oth-
ers, or te restocking ot former species
now locally extinct. The real problem
or conservation is one of ejmcient de-
velopment, wise utilization, preserva-
tion or natural balances and insuring
tnat no additional species are exter-
This problem is being recognized by
many auierent organizations and in-
stamtuons. Today nearly every state
has one or more private fish and game
protective associations, and their work
i ably supplementing that of the state
game and fish commissions and the
game wardens. The federal government
uas also undertaken to aid in con-
servation. Through the Bureau of
biological Survey, Forest Service,
Bureau of Fisheries, Sol Conservation
Service, National Parn ServAce, awn
other agencies, and by passage of the
Federal Migratory Bird Law, the Mig-
ratory Bird Treaty Act, and similar
measures, it has done valuable work
that was impossible for the state to
accomplish. The lamentable fact is
that this movement was not started
sooner. If it had been, our wildlife
would not be m the imminent danger
of extinction and would not be ex-
periencing the abuses that are Incurred
With state-and federal governments
continuing to establish game preserves,
and with the multitude of protective
laws that are in operation, which may
not be adequate, the next step in the
process of wildlife conservation lies in
the direction of the farmer. The farm-
er owns and controls the majority of
land that is the habitat of the game,
and recently many sportsmen have
reached the conclusion that the fate
of game birds lies in the hand of the
The chief destructive forces of wild-
life are overshooting and the destruc-
tion of wildlife habitats in connection
with the development of agriculture. It
is'easily seen, therefore, that any plan
for the development of wildlife re-
sources cannot be successful without
the full cooperation of all the farmers
and private landowners.
Wildlife conservation can be profi-
table to the farmer as well as benefi-
cal to mankind in general. This is
(Continued on page 18)


Page 9

April. 1939






Farm boys from all Florida who are
members of the Future Farmers of
America recently attended and parti-
cipated in the Florida State Fair and
DeSoto Exposition in Tampa on the
occasion of Future Farmer Day, Feb-
ruary 4. This band of vocational agri-
cultural high school students, over
4,000 in number, set aside milking the
cows and feeding the chickens for a
day to assemble en masse for this gala
Something comparable to spring was
in the air for youth from the country,
ambitious and aspirant, came to the
city to compete for judging awards
and to hear greetings from State
Superintendent of Public Instruction
Oolin English; State Commissioner of
Agriculture Nathan Mayo; State F. .
A. Adviser J. F. Williams, Jr,; State
F. F. A. President Billy Johnson, and
others. Participating in a full day of
fun and work, these Future Farmers
made the 1939 F. F. A. Day the larg-
est and best ever to be held at the

State Fair.
Various awards, prizes, and trips
were received by the boys as a result
of their persistent and intelligently
directed effort over the past year to
learn more about their profession of
farming. In recognition of farm pro-
gress made by the Future Farmers of
America, the Florida Fair and Gaspa-
rilla Association, Inc., made available
$500.00 to be given winners. Cash a-
wards were given to the highest 25
placings in each contest. In the fruit
and vegetable judging contest, Winter
Haven ranked first and received $15.00
in cash; Bunnell was second with
$12.50; Stuart, third with $10.00; St.
Cloud, fourth with $7.50. In judging
hay, grain, and meats, Greensboro
won first with cash prize of $15.00;
Mt. Pleasant, second with $12.50;
Alachua, third with $10.00; Allentown,
fourth with $7.50. In the beef cattle
judging contest the winners were
Kissimmee, first with $15.00 in cash
and silver loving cup; Pellsmere, se-

ond with $10.00; Newberry, third with
$5.00; and Allentown, fourth with
$5.00. Poultry judging contest winners
were Bushnell, first with $15.00; Haw-
thorne, second with $10.00; Tate, third
with $5.00; and Kissimmee, fourth with
$5.00. The high ranking individual
poultry judges were Billy Clark, Hav-
ana; Nlwtown Metzger, Hawthorne;
Norris Boney, Ft. Meade. These bays
will comprise the poultry juging team
which will represent the Florida As-
soclat on, Future Farmers of America,
at the Seventh World's Poultry Con-
gress which will be held in Cleveland,
Ohio, thls coming summer.
The Future Farmer Day at the State
Fair is one of the high spots in the
annual program of activities of the
Florida Association, F. F. A. It is sur-
passed only by the annual State Con-
vent on which is held on the campus
at the University of Florida each

State F. F. A. Officers

The spring meeting of the officers
of the Florida Association, Future
Farmers of America, was recently held
in Tampa in connection with the an-

Among the prominent persons in attendance at the Fla. State Fair on the occasion
of Future Farmer Day were, left to right, J. F. Williams, Jr., State Supervisor of
Agricultural Education and State F. F. A. Adviser; Billy Johnson, State F. P. A.
President; P. T. Strieder, Manager of the State Fair; Honorable Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture; Honorable Colin English, State Superintendent of
Public Instruction; and Carl D. Brorein, President of the Fair Association.

nual convention of the Florida Educa-
tion Association. Presided over by State
President Billy Johnson, all officers
attended the executive session and

made plans for the annual State
F. F. A. Convention to be held on the
campus of the University of Florida
early in June.

F. F. A. Adviser Attends Meet
Mr. J. F. Williams, Jr., State Advisor,
Future Farmers of America, and State
Supervisor of Agricultural Education,
recently attended the annual meeting
of the Southern Agricultural Workers
Association which was held in New
Orleans. Supervisors and F. F. A. Ad-
visers from all the southern states were
in attendance for the annual occasion.
Mr. Williams, Adviser of the near 4000
Florida F. F. A.'s, served as the secre-
tary of the Vocational Agricultural
section of the conference.
Applications for the degree of
"American Farmer" are due in the
national office on or before May 1,
1939. These reports should be complet-
ed and mailed to the state office in
plenty of time to be reviewed and if
acceptable, submitted to the national
adviser well in advance of the dead-
line. Forms for compiling applications
may be secured from the state F. F. A.
adviser. By delegate action at the re-
cent national convention, candidates
will know in advance if they are to
receive the degree. This will prevent
members from needlessly making the
trip to Kansas City expecting to re-
ceive the degree and then being re-

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We Will Solve Them

Editor's Note: "Our Problema-We
Will Solve Them" by the Honorable
A. Frank Lever, was delivered on
the program of the Second Annual
Rural Youth Conference, recently
held on the campus. Mr. Lever was
formerly United States Bepresen-
tive from South Carolina and was
co-author of the Smith-Lever Act
which founded the Agricultural
Extension Service.
Director, Public Relations Parm Credit
Administration of Columbia
Agriculture is the most jealous of all
sweethearts. She refuses any divided
devotion. You must be wholly hers or
not at all. She demands that you not
only love her, but that that you adore
her; that you are sure that you can
give to her all there is of you of body,
soul and mind; and she wants you to
be proud of her-proud of her beyond
any other possession you have.
To succeed in any vocation, it must
grip your imagination, your enthusiasm
and all of your energy. You must love
to do the thing you set out to do. Do
not undertake to farm unless you are
positive in your own mind that you are
going to love to farm above all other
Secretary Wallace has very succinct-
ly but clearly described present-day
farming when he says: "Farming is
ceasing to be a way of life and Is be-
coming a new kind of highly organis-
ed industry." Those who have known
farming only as a means of eking out
an existence have completely mis-
conceived what agriculture really
means and what it must mean if it is
to provide a field for profitable and
satisfying endeavor.
Too long have we looked upon
AGRICULTURE and the people who
engage in it as "hewers of wood and
drawers of water," to be buffeted a-
bout, discriminated against, and looked
upon with a kind of sympathetic pity.
We must begin to recognize the fact
that agriculture is a great business,
requiring as much of brain and en-
ergy to succeed in it, and more, than
any other occupation which engages
the time and thought of men and
Agriculture is a tripod, a three-
legged concern, a kind of eternal
trinity, the controlling factors of
which are production, finance and
distribution. The way in which each
of these is handled, the efficiency of
the methods employed in doing so,
will determine the degree of profit or
loss at the end of the season.
We must not exaggerate the influen-
ce of price upon ultimate profits. There
is of course, a very close relationship

between the two, but price is not the
absolute, sole determining equation in
the profit. If it were so, the problem
or agriculture would become much
simplified. Nor can it be said with ab-
solute verity that the influence of the
law of "supply and demand" upon
price is the sole determining factor in
Price can be so high as to destroy
demand, in that it puts the product at
a price beyond which the consuming
public can pay. The world cannot, and
will not, pay prices high enough to
make inefficiency, wastefulness, bad
management, profitable to those who
practice them. We, as farmers, have
no right to expect either the consum-
ing public or the taxpayers of the co-
untry to pay for our inefficiency.
Human laws, in the end, cannot
break down natural laws, nor reverse
the natural direction of them. Some
success may be temporarily had in
such undertakings, but in the final
heading up it will be found that those
legislative attempts have been most
successful which have followed most
closely certain well known, natural ec-
onomic laws that have existed and in-
fluenced the economics of the world
since time began.
You will note that I have chosen as
my subject, "Our Problems, We Will
Solve Them." I might add the further
thought that it is we who should and
must solve our problems; we, who
must take the initiative; we, who must
provide the efficiency of operation;
we, who must furnish the soundness of
management; we, who must work out
best methods of production; we, who
must work out best methods of financ-
ing; we, who must work out best me-
thods of marketing. The initiative Is
always ours.
Do not misunderstand my position.
The government has its duty toward
agriculture. In the last half century it
has done much for agriculture. It has
given us the Smith-Lever Act, the
Smith-Hughes Act, the Federal Ware-
house Act, the Bankhead-Jones Act,
our experiment stations, our agricul-
tural colleges, and later our Farm
Credit Administration, and many other
helpful measures.
I sometimes fear, however, that we
have been helped so much that we are
beginning to get the idea that we are
children of the government, that it is
up to the government to do the whole
job, and leave us to enjoy the benefits
thereof. I confess there is much that
the government can do, as for example
in the matter of freight rates to bring
about equality of opportunity between
the sections of the country. Something
( Continued on page 14)


April, 1939

Page 12

--r---, 1939

Florida Farmers
Conserve Wildlife

(Continued from page 9)
particularly true of game birds which
can be made a real asset to the farm.
Wich a reasonable amount of work,
the number of game birds on farm
lands can be increased to the point
that they provide good shooting year
after year. By granting shooting privi-
leges only to reputable sportsmen who
are willing to pay a reasonable price
for better shooting and who will co-
operate toward improving game condi-
tions, conservation work can be made
to yield a fair profit, and under
favorable conditions, a substantial an-
nual income.
it is no difficult task to care for
game birds in such a way that they
will increase in number rapidly. They
are very proinic and the requirements
lor existence are iew and easily pro-
vided. Briefly they are food, cover, and
proLection irom natural enemies. When
these esseniais are lacking, game
birds decrease. When proper food and
cover are available on any suitable area
of land and game birds are protected
from their natural enemies, the sup-
ply or game birds on the land will in-
crease rapidly, provided, of course
that they are not exterminated by
Most game birds play another role
in befriending the farmer. As many
l-'orida farmers have found out, the
larger part of the birds' diet is insects
of which many are harmful to crops.
Their vegetable diet consists chiefly
of wild berries and wild seeds. Very
seldom do game birds damage the
farmer's crops.
The cover requirement of birds
parallels their food, as both are sup-
plied in the same manner. Game birds
are found most often in underbrush
and it is here that they get a portion
of their food. A certain amount of
wooded area is needed, but also neces-
sary are underbrush places such as
fencerows and the like.
Protection from vermin will vary for
different localities but the farmer will
usually know how to rid his farm of
these pests. Many organizations of
rural youth have realized the part to
be played by the next generation of
farmers if there is to be sufficient
preservation and development of our
wildlife resources. Evidence of this is
extended in the following passage
from a United States Department of
Agriculture bulletin: "To create among
our future leaders a knowledge of wild-
life and a demand for its conservation
will mean much to the cause of pro-
tecting this important resource and
should contribute in large measure to
the enjoyment and appreciation of the
wholesome things that come from our
acquaintance with wildlife.




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Page 13

April 1939

Anri 1939


(Continued from page 12)
can be done, I am sure, to expand our
foreign markets and to encourage a
large domestic consumption of all the
Lmngs we produce.
But, after all, the problems of the in-
dividual farmer must be solved by the
individual farmer. It is he, and he
alone, who can bring about the high-
est efficiency in preparation, fertiliza-
tion, cultivation, and harvesting. The
problems of financing and distribution
must come about through community,
collective or cooperative effort among
the farmers themselves, and whether
they are willing to cooperate is a mat-
ter that they themselves must decide.
We cannot escape the individual res-
ponsibility resting upon the farmer
himself in the conduct of his business
of farming.
We shall have to combine the in-
dividual with the collective necessities
of the farmer, because farming is a
kind of double-barreled proposition,
involving both individual and collec-
tive effort, and unless this fact is re-
cognized, we cannot expect to see the
maximum success in the field of agri-
You see, therefore, my friends, after
all, when given all of the elements
necessary for successful agriculture
they would be useless except as the
man on the farm himself makes them
useful; that in the last analysis, man
is the most important factor in agri-
culture. It must be his vision, his en-
ergy, his application of common sense
to sound management that furnish the
bedrock upon which all these other
things are based. These are our pro-
blems, we must and will solve them..
The South is the garden spot of the
world, and I am inclined to think that
Florida is the garden spot of the South
and yet our farmers are the lowest in
income and the poorest fed and cloth-
ed people in the United States. I do
not look upon this as a terrible in-
dictment; I prefer to regard it as a
challenge to the rural youth, boys and
girls, you of the South. Let me put
alongside of this statement the other
challenging facts: You in Florida, es-
pecially, have a superabundance of
natural resources, an abundance of
population to the manor born, and a
diversity of resources and population,
greater than any other state in the
Union. You have a diversity of soil
than that of California, and a more
cosmopolitan population than that of
New York, and in addition to this,
you have an asset unapproached by
either of these states that comes to
you from 90 million miles away, your
glorious sunshine and the unmatched
climate it gives you.
If I were 20 years younger and did
not have so much frost around my
temples, I would move to Florida and
I would do it because I have been able
to put into a just position the above

two facts, that make a clarion call to
young men and women of courage and
energy. Opportunities lie in the lap of
Florida youth greater than those en-
joyed by the youth of any other state
m the Nation. You have everything in
the way of natural resources out of
which empires have been made, and
fortunate it is for your state, your
rural state, that you have the one
thing in superabundance which in the
past has builded nations and empires
and which must build empires and
nations in the future, a courage that
has never failed to measure up to the
highest standard in every crisis in the
history of your state and your Nation.
From the fateful day at Appomattox,
when the ragged and heroic troops of
Lee stacked arms for the last time, and
for 25 years thereafter, the energies
and thinking of the South were dir-
ected to regaining its lost political
freedom and in laying the foundation
for repairing the wastes, human and
economic, of those years of sectional
tragedy. And, it was not until 1900, if
even yet, that the processes of recov-
ery had been completed.
What is about us and ahead of us
is your problem and mine, mostly
yours. It seems to me, if I correctly
judge the trend of thought and visua-
lize the trends of effort, that we are
heading more and more in the direct-
ion of a system of more universal home
ownership and the full conservation of
our natural resources, soils, forests,
water powers, water transportation,
and a full utilization of these, as well
as a more concentrated effort to con-
serve and more fully use our human
resources, to the end that we shall
build for ourselves and for the genera-
tions to follow us, a better country,
rural and urban, in which to live.
May I admonish you, in all the earn-
estness of my being, and out of my
recognized love of the youth of this
country, that the task about us and
ahead of us is not for those who seek
beds of roses; it is for the strong,
aggressive, courageous. In the dying
words of the late Pope Pius XI, "We
have much to do."

Progress Marked In
Fla. Dairy Reserch

(Continued from page four)
electric service and a storage cabinet
are to be added to this laboratory.
Owing to the lack of funds, only
about two-thirds of the building as
originally planned has been built
Eventually it is planned that a large
class room, large testing laboratory
and meats laboratory will be added.
The meats laboratory and its cold
room will be isolated entirely from the
dairy products laboratories.
Even a casual survey of the dairy
situation in the State of Florida shows
that the utilization of surplus milk is

a paramount problem and indicates
that considerable increase in the pro-
duction of milk and the manufacture
of dairy products is about to occur in
part of the state. The work carried on
by members of the Animal Husbandry
Department at the University of Flor-
ida has pointed the way to controlling
such conditions which have retarded
dairy production. The production of
milk for the fluid milk trade seems to
be sufficient to supply the present
markets during the season of heaviest
demand but according to State Com-
missioner of Agriculture, Nathan
Mayo, $257,000.00 annually is spent by
Florida dairy plants for sweet cream
shipped to Florida for use in making
ice cream and considerable amounts
of butter, dry skimmilk and condens-
ed milk still are being imported from
other states for use in making ice
cream. Practically all of the butter,
cheese and evaporated milk consumed
in Florida is imported.
Milk For Home Use Can Be Produced
In Florida.
Dairy farmers in Florida cannot
compete with farmers of the north-
western United States in the product-
ion of milk for evaporated milk manu-
facture. Neither is it practical to pro-
duce milk for conversion into butter
and cheese in quantities sufficient to
supply the demands of this state.
However, it is to be expected that
Florida will be able in the near future
to produce milk to supply the needs
of her ice cream industry in addition
to the supply for fluid milk needs
which already are met.
At present, in many sections of the
state, milk production is about equal
to fluid milk consumption during the
winter season, but during the other
seasons there is a surplus over fluid
milk requirements which even exceeds
the amounts currently needed for ice
cream. One of the problems to
which attention probably should be
given concerns methods of holding the
solids from this surplus milk in such
condition that they may be satisfactory
ingredients for manufacturing ice
cream during the winter. Preliminary
studies have been made along this line.
However, extensive investigation will
be made as soon as adequate facilities
can be provided and additional work-
ers employed.
Another research problem which may
be worked out in the dairy products
laboratory concerns the possible utili-
zation of various Florida fruits as
flavoring for ice cream. The ice cream
manufacturer welcomes new and pleas-
ing flavors for ice cream that may
help build his business by offering oc-
casional changes from the old standby
flavors. It is possible that some of the
less known citrus fruits grown in the
state may fill such a need, and, if so,
additional satisfactory markets for

Page 14


April 1939

Fr- I
T-- E -F---R A--- COLG FARMER -

these fruits may be found.
Feed Influences Content of Milk.
It is known that the feeds given the
cow influences the composition and
properties of the milk. It is likely that
the feeding of pulp made from citrus
refuse may increase the citric acid
content of milk. It is known that cit-
lic acid is a desirable constituent of
milk because it is beneficial it its
chemical effects during the operations
of certain manufacturing processes
such as milk condensing. Certain salts
of citric acid are beneficial during the
ice cream freezing process, and the
flavor of citric acid is desirable in
commercial buttermilk. For Lhese
reasons the future investigation of
tiese problems may be mutually help-
ful to the dairy and citrus industry.
Technical Training Olfered Students.
research is only a part of the dairy
products program at the University. It
also includes teaching. The present
plan for training students in dairy
manufactures includes the offering of
two curricula, one in general dairy
manufactures which includes basic
courses, technical dairy manufactures
courses and accounting courses; the
other in technical dairy manufactures
which includes a greater number of
bas.c science courses than are included
in the general course. The general
course is designed to prepare the
student to handle the operations of a
dairy plant properly, whereas thb
technical course is designed for stud-
ents particularly interested in the
technical control work involved in
milk processing or in preparing for re-
search with milk and dairy products.
Dr. L. M. Thurston, head of the
Dairy Products Division of the Animal
Husoandry Department, says plant
management is a field in which there
is not a great number of openings
for employment. These positions as
plant managers are gained after con-
siderable experience in plant operation,
and it is unlikely that any student up-
on graduation may expect to obtain
such a position except after a number
of years of practical experience in al-
lied positions.
The laboratory technologist i-, often
referred to as the technical control
man or the plant chemist. However, he
must be both chemist and bacteriolo-
gist. The proper use of the laboratory
operated by a properly trained person
removes the guesswork from the
manufacturing operations in the plant
and makes it possible to maintain uni-
formity of product composition and
sanitation in an economical manner.
Milk and dairy inspection work is a
field in which many students find em-

"When you come to the end of your
rope, tie a knot and hang on."
-Agricultural Leaders' Digest

The Southern Shade Tree Confer-
ence was held on the University cam-
pus February 23-24. Arrangements for
this Conference were made by a com-
mittee composed of Mrs. L. T. Nielan:t
of Gainesville; Ross Farrens Tree Ag-
ency, Clearwater; Norman Armstrong,
arborist, of White Plains, New York;
and H. S. Newins, Director, School of
Forestry, University of Florida, as
The purpose of the conference is to
bring about a closer unity between the
professional so-called "tree expert' and
the layman and to inform the public
of the importance of shade trees, their
pr-servation and care.
The conference members were greet-
ed Thursday morning at the opening
of the sessions with an address of
welcome by Dr. Wilmon Newell,
Provost for Agriculture at the Univ-
ersity. Following Dr. Newell's talk the
history of the Nat.onal Shade Tree
Conference was outlined in a paper
prepared by President Karl Dressel.
C. N. Elliott, Director of the
Division of State Parks, Atlanta,
Georgia, cited the shade tree problems
in Georgia; and Gilmore Pugh, Land-
scape Engineer of the Birmingham
Beautification Board, discussed the
problems confronting Alabama shade
tree workers. The damage done to
shade trees in New England by the re-
cent hurricane there was outlined in a
paper by O. W. Spicer, President of the
Bartlett Tree Expert Company.
Dr. H. Harold Hume, Dean of the
College of Agriculture, spoke on the
University conservation reserve at
Welaka, Florida, recently acquired
from the Farm Security Administra-
tion. Dr. Fred H. Heath, Professor of
Chemistry, explained the process of
anesthetizing large trees for purposes
of moving. A paper by Dr. E. J. Miller,
Chemist of the Michigan State College
discussed the use of wax emulsion to
retard desiccation. Mrs. W. S. Jenn-
ings, Chairman of the Beautification
Committee of the State Chamber of
Commerce, Jacksonville, Florida, call-
ed the attention of the conference
members to the need for proper legi-
slation for the continuance of the
rverglades National Park project. D.
R. Matthews, member of the State
Lions Club Committee, outlined the
part the Lion's club has played in pro-
moting the Everglades National Park
development. Landscape work upon the
National Forests under the supervis-
ion of W. H. Reinsmith, Landscape
Architect of the United States Forest
Service, Atlanta, Georgia, was discus-
sed. John W. Wilson, Assistant Pro-
fessor of Electrical Engineering, and
F. E. Smith, Professor of Electrical
Engineering, gave a demonstration of
lightning protection. A talk entitled
"Notable Trees of Florida" was pre-

Congenial, eloquent, Wm. F. Jacobs,
Assistant State Forester, presided as
toastmaster at the concluding banquet
of the Shade Tree Conference. Mr.
Jacob's address to the Conference was
repeated by request.

sented with lantern slides by W. F.
Jacobs, Assistant State Forester, Flor-
ida Forest and Park Service.
Dr. W. A. Murrill, of the University
of Florida, explained "How Our Trees
Happen To Be Here." Other interest-
ing talks were: "Business Ethics of
Shade Tree Work" by Norman, Arm-
strong; "Arboriculture, A Phase of
Forestry" by A. Robert Thompson, of
the National Park Service, U. S.
Department of the Interior, Washing-
ton, D. C.,; "City Park Planning" by
H. L. Flint, a Fellow in the American
Society of Landscape Architects. A
radio address was given by J. O. Kirby
of the United States Forest Service.
Director Newins talked about the
Austin Cary Memorial Forest of the
University, its purposes and value. A
discussion prepared by Dr. J. C. Gif-
ford, Professor of Tropical Forestry at
ihe University of Miami, was given on
the shade trees of southern Florida,
by A. D. Barnes, superintendent of
Parks of Dade County, Miami, Florida.
Ernest 0. Buhler, in charge of Com-
munity Forests of the United States
Forest Service, Washington, D. C..
discussed the value of such a project
to a forest community. Dr. J. T. Cret-
ghton, Professor of Entomology and
Plant Pathology, explained the control
of shade tree insects.'

Southern Shade Tree Conference Held
On Campus


Page 15

A il 1939

Anril 1939



Fifteen or 20 years ago Florida rank-
ed low as a dairy producing state.
people had the idea well founded at
that time that conditions were not con-
ductive to the development of the in-
dustry. The Texas fever tick was pre-
valent and the presence of the tick
made it impossible to bring in good
cows or bulls from above the quaran-
tine line. This resulted in very little
breeding stock being available, thus
making it practically impossible to
improve the dairy stock by proper
breeding. The lack of feed and forage
crops suitable for feeding was also a
problem. However, in recent years the
rapid development of the dairy in-
dustry has to a large degree changed
this old attitude to one that is more
optimistic. The progress made in tick
eradication, the growing of more and
better feed and forage crops, improved
pastures, and the increased knowledge
gained in handling dairy cows in
Florida, have all made conditions much
more favorable for a dairy state.
Florida offers some distinct advan-
tages to the dairy industry that are
not found in many other states. The
chief one is the long grazing season
that lasts at least nine months on the
better types of pastures. In the south-
ern part of the state the grazing sea-
son may last the entire year. The
climate offers still another important
advantage in reducing cost of milk pro-
duction, as expensive barns found in

many other states are not needed in
Florida. All that is needed for a dairy
barn in the State of Florida is a roof
to keep out the rain and a floor that
can be kept clean and sanitary. Care-
ful planning for construction of the
dairy barn adds greatly to the aesth-
etic value of the farm. Another ad-
vantage is the fact that the cows and
the barn are much easier to keep clean
on the sandy soils of Florida than on
the clay and heavy soils found in
many Northern states.
In the past the cost of feed has
bezn the main factor to overcome in
Florida but m recent years dairymen
have realized the importance of home-
grown feeds in reducing costs. Corn
and velvet beans are two of the chiet
concentrate feeds raised, while there
is a large amount of silage and forage
crops produced. Each year has also
seen an increase in the acreage of
soiling crops grown for dairy cows. On
some dairy farms it is practical to
grow and feed soiling crops to supple-
ment the pasture in furnishing suc-
culent green feed. Sudan and napier
grass, Pearl millet, cowpeas, soybeans,
and Japanese cane are used as sum-
mer and fall soiling crops to supple-
ment pastures. Oats and vetch are
used in the early spring.
With the advent of the trench silo
more and more dairymen are able to
feed silage profitably. The trench silo
is inexpensive but is a satisfactory
storage for silage. A good quality of

silage may be made from corn, sor-
ghum, or sugar cane.
It has been found that a permanent
pasture is practically necessary for
economical dairying. In the spring of
1924 the Agricultural Extension Service
of the Un.versity of Florida establish-
ed a number of demonstration pastures
in different parts of the state. The
results from these indicate very
strongly the possibility of improved
pastures in all sections of Florida on
good land. The grasses that have giv-
en best results and have shown very
superior grazing qualities over the na-
the grasses are carpet grass, Dallis
grass, and lespedeza. The demonstra-
tion pastures have shown hat it is
possible to increase the grazing value
of thousands of acres of the cutover
p.ne lands of the state. They have al-
so shown that one acre of land can be
made to produce as much grazing as
10 acres have been producing in the
It has been shown that dairy cows
would eat grapefruit ever since the
fruit has been grown in the state, but
they seldom had the chance to eat
them except when cull grapefruit from
a packinghouse was hauled out and
dumped as waste material. The advent
of the grapefruit canning factories
caused a large amount of grapefruit
refuse to be available and at present
this refuse is being made into citrus
pulp and citrus meal. Experiments
have shown that these two products
of the citrus industry are very good
feeds for dairy cattle and are economi-
cal to use.
One of the problems that has con-
fronted every dairyman, and still does
to some extent, is that of culling out
the unprofitable cows. The chief reason
why such a condition is found today
when the principles of successful
selection, feeding, and care of dairy
cattle are known, is that the owners
do not know which of their cows fail
to yield enough milk to pay for their
feed and care. They do not realize
that though the gross income from
their herd would be reduced by weed-
ing out the "boarders," their profits
would be decidedly increased. A
"boarder" is here spoken of as a cow
that does not pay for her keep. Even
experts are often unable to tell from
'the appearance of a cow whether or
not she will be a profitable producer.
The only reliable way of finding this
out is from records of the actual am-
ount of milk and butterfat that she
yields. Such records may be easily se-
cured by the use of the milk scales
and the Babcock fat tester. The most
accurate way of finding the value of
each cow is to weigh and record each
(Continued on page 18)

Consumers Lumber

and Veneer Company

Established 1896 Incorporated 1903


Manufacturers of Citrus and

Vegetable Crates.


Apopka, Florida

HENRY W. LAND, BSA '33 Pres. & Gen'l Mgr.

April 1939

Page 16


A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -- -. -1--A_ TH FL R ACLEEFR E



"You can get the farmer boy out of
the country but you can't get the coun-
try out of the farmer boy," is a bit of
old philosophy. It is often asked if
this applies to the opposite sex. This
probably applies to the girls as well
as the boys. The
truth of the matter
is that the true co-
untry boy and girl
do not want to lose
their country ways.
However, they may
want to add some
of the better accom-
pl.shments of the city to their abun-
dant storehouse of knowledge and this
they certainly do when time warrants.
Proof of what is said above was
demonstrated in a big way here in the
Rural Youth Conference February 25.
The way the 4-H club girls of FSCW
and the Ag. Club boys of the U. of F.
discussed the rural problems of today
as well as the benefits obtained from
rural life was indeed interesting and
educational. And to go further Into
this week-end of fun and watch these
boys and girls go through the reception
and dance in a dignified manner one
would never have suspected that this
jolly group of boys and girls was from
the country. So it is the average
country boy and girl of today is learn-
ing the ways of the city as well as
the ways of the country.
It is hardly necessary to say more
about the Rural Youth Conference
than has been said by the other writ-
ers. However, opinions of different
people often add a bit. The conference
was a big success and results of several
outstanding accomplishments will be
seen in the future. Rural problems of
today were the basic consideration but
many other things of probably more
importance have come from this week-
end, such as social development and
making worthwhile acquaintances.
Some boy may have met his future
wife-who knows?

A poultry professor had recently
completed a book-length dissertation
on a technical phase of the poultry in-
dustry and was discussing certain
aspects of this work with an English
professor. At last the poultry profes-
sor said, "No, you can't appreciate it
for you never wrote a book yourself."
"No," rebounded the English professor,
"and I never laid an egg, but I'm a
better judge of an omelet than any hen
in the state."
If this same English professor had
been told that a white hen laid a
white egg and a Rhode Island Red
hen laid a reddish egg, he would have
no doubt then said that the Black
Minorca hen would lay a black egg.
One judges things he doesn't know a-

bout in terms of what he knows about.
Scientific facts concerning the techni-
cal phases of the poultry industry
probably are not interesting to an
English professor. The English of the
dissertation was, however, interesting
from the standpoint of improvement or
correct.on. A professor of poultry no
doubt would have appreciated this
scientific masterpiece concerning
poultry but how can a man appreciate
a wagon to ride on if he has always
ridden in a fine automobile.
Why isn't a student friendly and
even intimate with his professor? The
reason for this not being so may not be
due to the attitude of one professor
but it certainly is due to the attitudes
taKen by many prouissors. Some prof-
essors will not even speaK to students
with whom they are well acquainted
outside of the classroom or office. If
this is not the professor's idea of the
way to keep the respect of students, it
must be conceit. If you, professor, are
acting this way to keep the respect of
your students, see if you can't find a
better way to keep their respect and
still be friendly. And too, college
students generally respect their pro-
lessors, regardless of how friendly or
intimate the professors are with the
students. If you are conceited and
think you are better than the students
you teach, you don't deserve a position
as a college professor.

Block And BridleClub
Visits State Fair

The Block and Bridle Club, formerly
the Toreador Club, of the College of
Agriculture, made their annual visit
to the Tampa State Fair, February 16
and 17. The club, composed of boys in-
terested in animal husbandry, devoted
most of their time examining the
livestock brought in from all parts of
this state and country as well. In
showing of their interest in the de-
velopment of Florida livestock these
boys sponsor a Little International
Livestock show and Rodeo each year.
Last year this exhibition brought more
than than 8,000 people to witness the
Members making the tr'p this year
w2re Gilbert Tucker, president; Elliot
Whitehurst, Bruce Blount, Ralph
Dawkins, Jack Kinzer, Bill Whitehurst,
Eugene Boyles, Floyd Eubanks, Pat
Moore, vice-president; John Faustini,
Dave Tyner, Mahue Rowan, Paul Sch-
ail, O. C. Wilkerson, Charles Wincey,
Robert Nihoul, O. C. Syfrett, Carl
Peyton Deal, Eustas Bellamy, D. J.
Smnth, Frank Fernandez, C. A. Platt,
Dw.ght Lucas, Edwin Peacock, W. N.
Robinson, Joe Crevasse, Jack Tilgh-

man, Otis Bell, Randall Fulford, and
Jack Coleman. Accompanied by Dr. A.
L. Shealy, head of Animal Husbandry
department; Dr. W. G. Kirk, professor
in Animal Husbandry; Professor C. H.
Willoughby, of the same department;
and Mr. A. W. LeLand, farm manager,
all of the boys had a very enjoyable
trip both to and from Tampa.

farmers Grow Sheep In Florida
(Continued from page three)
handed down from generation to
generation and inbreeding has been
continuous, resulting in decreased size
of animals. There is no reason for
such practice to continue now that we
have so many convenient ways of
transportation. An ideal situation
would be for a farmer who needs a
ram for breeding purposes to take his
trucK and drive over to a neighbor's
farm who has a pure-bred ram and
rent the ram for a few weeks. By so
domg, a farmer need not own a ram
to improve his flock. By spending a
relatively small amount for rent, the
same services can be secured which
eliminates inbreeding.
Work is going on at the North Flor-
ida Experiment Station, Quincy, with
purebred and grade Columbia sheep.
according to reports by Dr. Shealy, it
appears that the Columbia breed is
adapted to this state. When puue-bred
rams of this breed are bred to native
ewes, the resulting grade of offspring
is far better than the. native sheep.
During 1935 the pure-bred Columbia
ewes yielded a wool clip of approxi-
mately 14 pounds; the grade Columbia
yearlings gave a clip of 10 pounds;
wlhle the native sheep produced a clip
of 3 pounds each. The Columbia grades
are very good for mutton purposes;
they show deeper fleshing throughout,
having a wider and straighter back,
more depth of body and a greater full-
ness in the fore and hind quarters.
Up to the present there has been
viry little research work done with
other breeds, but the Hampshire and
Dorset br-eds have a similar character
to the Columbia breed. With all the
surplus land in the state, there is no
reason why farmers should not have
a small flock of sheep to graze over
the idle land. It has been a practice
during the last few decades for the
farmer to graze his flock on the same
land year after year. This is an un-
wise practice because of the hazard of
spreading diseases and parasites.



National Honorary

Agricultural Fraternity


Page 17

A ril 1939

S -- ---------- ^ H, I

Florida Dairy Industry
(Continued from page 16)

milking from every animal, but this
requires extra labor and the average
.dairyman does not feel able to do this.
Those who feel that they cannot spend
the time necessary to weigh each
milking can obtain reasonably accurate
records by weighing and sampling the
milk regularly for one day each month.
Knowing the production of each cow
and the approximate amount of feed
she has consumed in a given period,
the dairyman can discard the unprofi-
table cows and gradually build up a
herd of high producers at small ex-
pense by using a bred-for-production
sire and saving the heifer calves from
the best cows. This practice is gradual-
ly gaining a foothold in the State and
is showing very favorable results.

Game Fowl and Baby Chicks
Fine Game Cocks and Pullets and
ALL BREEDS Baby Chicks.
Write for price list.
Rockmart, Georgia

Phone 257
Dry Cleaning
614 W. University Ave.
Gainesville, Florida

For Good Food Try

Treat Yourself to the Best
Hugh Edge

Visit Us
University Ave.
R. W. MUMSON, Mgr.

Compliments of
Florida Theatre Block

O stons
ewrelers dSil-ersmiths Opticians
'"ainesLrille. Flrida.

Southern Hatcheries
Jacksonville, Florida
-write for prices-

Jacksonvilaj!.. crlorida



Motion Pictures are your best


attend the

Sparks Theatres of

Florida In Gainesville Lyric



Dairy and.Poultry Supplies




Our Plant Is a Moth Grave Yard. MOITE MOTHPROOFING
Gainesville, Florida

Page 18


A-^.I ir n


Florida Farm Hour
Has Served Farmers
For Over 10 Years

Each week day of the year rural
homes and those interested in the argi-
cultural industry of the state are serv-
ed during the noon hour by the Flor-
ida Farm Hour over radio station
WRUF located on the campus of the
University of Florida. For over 10 years
valuable iniormacion has been given
to the listners of this program.
The staff of the Florida Farm Hour
is composed of Clyce Beale, Dir-
ector of the Farm and Home Hour,
J. Francis Cooper and Jefferson
Thomas, all editors with the State
Agricultural Extension Service. The
program is over 10 years of age and
is believed to be the second oldest
continuous broadcast of its type in ex-
Dispersing up-to-date information
to farmers and farm owners is the
main purpose of this program and
from the type of material presented
this program has well served its public.
During the past year over 350 dif-
ferent persons have appeared on the
313 one hour programs. Among those
presented during these programs have
been such notables as Robert French,

shark fisherman from Hollywood, la.,
Dr. O. E. Reed, Chief of the U. S.
bureau of Dairy Industry; Dr. E
unuerwood ox tne Australian Depart-
ment of Agriculture; and ross Allen,
a prominent herpetologist,
oUhers who have taKen par. in these
broadcasts are members or the Experi-
ment, talaon at (_ainesvile, members
or tne lacuity of toe Cogege of Agri-
cuiture as unmv. of r'la., aLuuenls, larm
women, state leaders m agriculture,
represenuatives o oner scate agencies,
1-rx cIUD members, Future Farmers or
auiitrica and many others.
teguiar features of tne program are
uauy marKet reports on uvestocK,
vtcetaoes anC. fruit crops ana aaily
news nignignts uesuay programs
icuature tne rarm Question iox with
larm questions anti answers other
uays being radios weekly farm news-
paper, editorial snapsnous and farm
trashes from Umted States Department
o0 Agriculture.
special broadcasts, some during the
Florida Farm and Home Hour and
others at different times, are prepared
by the staff and broadcast from places
outside of Gainesville. Such remote
broadcasts came from Cherry Lake
4-H Camp near Madison, from a Sea
Island cotton gin in Ocala, from a
citrus packing house in Waverly, and
from a strawberry warehouse in Starke

Besides the regular features present-
ed over the air at Gainesville are
dramatizations of the history of vari-
ous phases of Agriculture in Florida
and in the nation. Among such drama-
tizations which have been presented
was the history of the development of
the Agricultural Experiment Stations.

Chesnut Office Equipment
Gainesville, Florida

300 W. University Avenue



The Florida College Farmer

Published four times during the school year in the
months of November, January, March, and May by
representatives of student organizations, College of
Agriculture University of Florida.
The Board
J. Lester Poucher ................................. Editor
Thomas F. Hammett .................... Managing Editor
Douglas Burce ......................... Associate Editor
Margaret Alford .................. Home-Making Editor
Betty Reed ....................... Home-Making Editor
A Lee French, Jr ..................... Business Manager
W. Keith Ulmer ..................... Advertising Manager
Harold Garrett ..................... Circulation Manager

Departmental Assistants
Walter Badger, Eugene A. Boyles, Kenneth A. Clark, Arthur
P. Ellis, W. Earl Faircloth, Leroy Fortner, J. G. Hickman,
Charles Jamison, Sturgeon Rothe, Horace McKinney,
Russell C. Peeples, Charles W. Wincey.

Faculty Advisory Committee
C. H. Willoughby ............................. Chairman
Charles E. Abbott ..................... J. Francis Cooper
Application filed for entrance to second class mailing matter
at the Post Office at University Station, Gainesville, Florida, Decem-
ber 8, 1938, under act of Congress of 1879.
Subscription Price, Fifty Cents

Southern Dairies

Ice Cream


University Book Store


Page 19

April. 1939

pr 1, 1939




More Than
35 Million Tons
of Experience
Behind Every Bag.

Your Farm Will Be
a Better Farm
When You Use V.C. Fertilizers.

Virginia-Carolina Chemical


P. O. Box 2311


423 S. Orange St.


Should be interested in reliable standard insecticides and
spray materials.
Fico 60 Oil Emulsion
Fico Lime Sulphur Solution
Fico Wettable Sulphur
Fico Dusting Sulphur
Fico Brands Have Been On The Market
For Over 22 Years.

Florida Insecticide Co.
Apopka, Florida

Ae Demand for
NOTHING contributes to
increased yield and quality
of crops as much as the right
kind of plant food. NACO
Brand Fertilizers in formulas
balanced to the needs of your
crops should produce increased
yield and better quality.


I _

Page 20


A i--I 1AQO

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