Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00028
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text


College Farmer

:Pu Ulis d by A c lu--iir Sj uit -n at \ i]iLl\ rslv
\ 'NE (J':LLE I: 1,lllA

1'1" 1 1 11i1, A I- 9Fl

ICIENCE POINTS THE WAY ....... ............ Horace M. McKinney
)RNAMENTALS FOR BEAUTY ............ Joseph M. Crevasse, Jr.

4-H COUNCIL ACTIVE .......... ... ... ....

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... M. W, Carothers
.. Eugene H. Royles

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Motion Pictures are your best

attend the

Sparks Theatres of

Florida In Gainesville Lyric

Tires, Batteries, Radios, Bicycles
Easy Payment Plan
414 W. University Ave. Phone 792


Most Plant-Food
per bag
Lowest Cost in
handling or apply-
Most Crop for each
unit of plant-food
Lowest Fertilizer
Cost for each unit
of crop
Send for our booklet




All breeding flocks have been approved by an official agent of the
Florida State Livestock Sanitary Board for egg production-Standard
Breed Qualities-Health and Vitality. Also blood tested for pullorum
All popular breeds handled, shipments made by parcel post special
handling, assuring safe delivery.

Amco Feed Stores
3701 E. Broadway
H. T. DIXON, Mgr.

Page 2


February 1939


The Florida College Farmer

Published four times during the school year by representa-
tives of student organizations, College of Agriculture
University of Florida.
The Board
J. Lester Poucher .............................. Editor
Thomas F. Hammett .. .......... Managing Editor
Douglas Burce ....................... Associate Editor
Margaret Alford ................... IHome-Making Editor
Betty Reed ....................... Home-Making Editor
A Lee French, Jr. ..................... Business Manager
W. Keith Ulmer ..................... Advertising Manager
Harold Garrett ...................... Circulation Manager

Departmental Assistants
Walter Badger, Eugene A. Boyles, Kenneth A. Clark, Arthur
P. Ellis, W. Earl Faircloth, Leroy Fortner, J. G. Hickman,
Charles Jamison, Sturgeon Rothe, Horace McKinney,
Russell C. Peeples, Ottis Pippin.
Faculty Advisory Committee
C. H. Willoughby ........................... Chairman
Charles E. Abbott ..................... J. Francis Cooper

Application filed for entrance to second class mailing matter
at the Post Office at University Station, Gainesville, Florida, Decem-
ber 8, 1938, under act of Congress of 1879.
Subscription Price, Fifty Cents


Agricultural Club
Agricultural Discussion Society
Pres.: Pat Moore
Collegiate Chapter, Future Farmers of America
Agricultural Education Society
Pres.: Keith Ulmer
Forestry Club
Professional Club for Forestry Students
Pres.: Leslie A. Jacobsen
Newell Entomological Society
Discussions of Applied and Economic Entomology
Pres.: James Toffaleti
Block and Bridle Club
Animal Nusbandry
Fires : Gilbert Tucker
Alpha Zeta
Honorary Agricultural Fraternity
Pres.: Thomas F. Hammett
Alpha Tau Alpha
Honorary Agricultural Education Fraternity
Pres.: Otis Bell
Honorary Horticultural Fraternity
Pres.: Joseph M. Crevassee, Jr.

College News Round-up ....

FISH-FRYING was in vogue on an
evening early in December when stud-
ents and faculty of the College of
Agriculture gathered in Magnolia grove
for the annual occasion made possible
by ingenious Prof. C. A. Abbott and
Mr. J. Francis Cooper. Ingenious at
what? Catching fish of course. Yep,
because the copious number of this
finny tribe consumed during the even-
mg were caught in the snares of these
two talented anglers. Thanks to Mr.
Cooper and Prof. Abbott.
But speaking of ingenuity, you should
have seen the temporary furnace for
trying the fish devised by Dr. P. H.
Senn. Constructed of brick without
mortar, this masterpiece was tempered
with Michelangeloic harmony. It fried
the fish and it graciously provided a
plenteous emission of smudgy smoke
which over-awed every mosquito for
miles around.
A class of students in bacteriology
recently went on a field trip to Jack-
sonville for the purpose of studying
the process of fermentation. Upon
visiting a large commercial brewery,
these students undoubtedly learned a
great deal about the subject, but after
everybody learned everything about;
fermentation, did someone say that
somebody else was heard to bLssfully
sing, "Show Me The Way To Go

Field trips have been very much in
fashion since The FARMER'S last
printing. Prof. N. R. Mehrhof chaper-
oned his class of poultry management
students on a visit to the Pinebreeze
Farm near Callahan which is among
Lhe outstanding commercial farms in
the state. Those participating in the
trip report a highly enjoyable and
instructive visit. It seems that one of
the negro workers on the farm was
much interested in what was going on
when this horde of white-collared, in-
experienced students descended on the
place. During a discussion of egg pro-
duction judging, the old darkie inter-
rupted by saying, "Boss, I kin look et a
chicken an' guarantee wether its mammy
laid at least one egg or not." Some in-
quistive students immediately pro-
pounded the basis for such detection.
Think it over .
Thyrsus, honorary horticultural so-
ciety, has initiated plans to hold a
spring fair on the campus which pro-
bably will be an annual occasion. The
fair is to be under the sponsorship of
the society and the exhibits are to be
made by members and cooperating
students and faculty.
The fair will be the first attempt at
any type of exhibit at the University
depicting horticultural advancement.
Exhibits wll be representative of all
agricultural sections of the State. Many
sources of materials have been contac-

ted and the success of the affair seems
assumed. Dr. H. S. Wolfe, faculty ad-
viser for Thyrsus, stated that the goal
of the venture would be to exhibit the
vast variety of horticultural activities
of the State in a brief but complete
The date of the fair has not been
definitely set but it will be early In
the spring. Much interest has been
shown by persons engaged in this type
of work and it should prove to be a
very worthwhile activity in the College
of Agriculture.

Our Cover

The photograph on our cover
page this month is a scene in front
of the College of Agriculture. The
photographer snapped the picture
on the last day before the Christ-
mas holiday recess began. There-
fore, each student recognizable
deserves special credit for not
"fudging" on the holiday season.
The likeness of Dean H. H. Hume
is discernible in the foreground as
he converses with his loyal students.




Frequently the question is asked,
'why is such and such a plant or crop
not grown in Florida'?
Florida's agriculture, from the stand-
point of the diversity of crops grown,
presents an interesting picture. Here
are found cultivated plants from many
different parts of the world. In an
area where relatively little change in
climatic variation due to elevation is
found, it is remarkable that their
number is so great.
Theoretically any crop requiring a
short period of growth and coming to
maturity can be produced, if a period
in the year cycle suited in temperature
and light to its cultural needs is found.
It is for this reason that many short
time vegetable crops may be grown.
These fall into two more or less dis-
tinct groups, those grown in winter,
as celery, cabbage and carrots, and
those produced in summer as okra,
sweet potatoes and cowpea. In north-
ern areas of the state these groups are
clearly defined, while in the southern
section the two groups may merge in
some measure. But the fact remains
that the distinctly winter crops cannot
be carried over into summer.
With long time plants, those requir-
ing more than one season for coming
to maturity or into production, the
requirements are different. Definitely
they must fit naturally into the clim-
atic routine of the Florida year. If
they have come from warm climates
and protection from cold, betimes, is
all that is needed, their requirements
may be met by simply keeping them
warm during those periods when low
temperatures are reached. On the oth-
er hand, if they have been brought
from cold climates they cannot be
grown successfully, with few except-
ions. Apparently food storage, and the

changes that food supplies stored in
different parts must undergo, are
affected adversely. In the main the
food stored in plants, against future
needs, when they become dormant is
in the form of starch, and it must
become changed to sugar before being
put to use in growth. Cool or cold
temperatures bear relation to this
In addition to this there are other
factors that interfere with the growth
of many plants under Florida condi-
tions. In years gone by attempts were
mads in Florida at growing vwnifera
grapes. These attempts failed, for the
most part because the varieties proved
susceptible to certain diseases found
For the most part plants adapted
to dry climates have not been succes-
sful. Among these may be listed the
Mexican Pepper (Schinus molle); the
Alcaroba, the pods of which are so
largely used in parts of the Mediter-
ranean region as a feed for cattle and
horses; the Olive, essentially a Medi-
terranean area tree; and the Almond.
Mention has just been made of the
injurious effects of diseases on the
European crops, and in this same con-
nection there is no question but that
the Nema causing rootknot has inter-
fered with the establishment of many
plants in the State. Fortunately this
pest does not occur in virgin soils, but
after they are brought into cultivation
it is not long before it becomes establi-
shed therein. These are the main
reasons why many plants found in
other parts of the world are absent
from our gardens, orchards and fields.

4-H Poultry Show

The Florida 4-H Poultry Show of
1939 will be held in Orlando at the
Central Florida Exposition from Feb-
ruary 27 to March 4. The 4-H poultry
judging contest will be held March 4,
with teams of both boys and girls
competing. The winning county team
composed of three members will be
awarded a trip to the National 4-H
Club Congress to be held in Chicago
where they will compete for national
honors. In addition to this a team of
three will be sent to the World's Poul-
try Congress in Cleveland, Ohio. A
$100.00 scholarship will be awarded to
the outstanding individual judge.

The winning Florida team in the 4-H
contest for 1938 was the team from
Pasco County composed of Seth
Plank, Norman Rasmussen and Jack
Prator. These boys won seventh place
in the National 4-H poultry contest,
which was held in Chicago last Nov-
--Eric Mills, Jr.

.The Nation's Winter Garden

While recent climatic snowstorms
and blizzards have swept the Northern
and Eastern States, Florida has ex-
perienced the blessings of the sun's
rays practically every day of the past
year. This is not only true of this past
.year, but is a cherished fact in the
sunny land of green vegetables in mid-
winter. For this reason many of our
markets of the North and East are de-
pending upon agriculture in Florida to
furnish the housewives of the colder
regions with a plentiful supply of fresh
vegetables during the long winter
As early as 1870 vegetables were be-
ing raised commercially in the St.
John's River Valley around Jackson-
ville and Palatka. Within 30 years af-
terwards there were about 26,762 acres
of vegetables (mixed varieties) togeth-
er with 26,543 acres of Irish and sweet
potatoes in the State with a value of
more than 3 million dollars. Between
the years 1910 and 1935 the acreage in
Florida devoted to the raising of vege-
tables increased 167.3 per cent. If the
industry continues to expand within
the next 25 years and prices of citrus
continue to decline, the vegetable in-
dustry might easily become Florida's
leading industry. The industry has de-
veloped so rapidly that raising vege-
tables is today a major source of in-
come for farmers in the State. There
is no phase of Florida agriculture
which utilizes more adventageously the
value of climatic and geographic assets
than the production of vegetables dur-
ing the winter period. The raising of
tomatoes, cabbage, turnips, and other
vegetables has ceased to be merely a
means for the farmer to acquire
spending money but now represents an
industry with a gross income of more
than 33 million dollars annually.
Counties leading Florida in carload
rail shipments of vegetables are Palm
Beach, Broward, Dade, Seminole,
Manatee, Sarasota, and St. Johns. The
particular crops which make up this
advanced industry in Florida listed in
order of their crop value are tomatoes,
string beans, celery, strawberries, pep-
per, English peas, cabbage, lima beans,
watermelons, cucumbers, eggplants,
squash and at least 26 other vegetables
of recognized value. With the exception
of very few, all of these vegetables can
be provided in Florida during the
winter growing season. There are
great possibilities for the future de-
velopment of the vegetable industry.
Of Florida's 35 million acres of land,
only 6 million are being farmed. Some
of our land is not suited to truck
farming but certainly there are vast
numbers of acres which could be ad-
.apted to raising vegetables of some
kind. Much of Florida's land is ideal

cCP~41We j, ag


Plant life, coupled with the in-
genuity of man, is rapidly conquering
many of the obstacles that lie between
the plant and the degree of efficiency
expected of it by the human race. It
was, at one t:me a vague theory of the
best scientists that plant life would
ever develop into the stage of useful-
ness to mankind, that we are now
It seems that every available means
has been employed for the destruction
of the plant, all the way from destroy-
ing it for animal benefit, to destruc-
tive logging. There have also been oJ-
posing these forces men who have
spent their life's work in applying
many new techniques and scientific
discoveries for plant benefit ranging
from giving them their required food
to the juggling of the chromosomes of
plant cells.
Horticultural Research.
Much progress has been made in
horticultural research over a long per-
iod of time, assisting this science to
serve its purpose with a greater degree
of efficiency. It is accepted that this
investigation dates back to unwritten
history when the ancients selected seed
and suitable land for the best develop-
ment of the food plants. It has been
in this field of economic plants that
the majority of research has been at-
tracted. The history and possibilities of
horticultural research are so great
that anyone writing anything short of
a long series of volumes would have to
restrict himself to some particular
phase of the subject. I prefer mention-
ing some of the latest accomplishments
of this research.
Soil problems are very important to
horticulture because of the latter's in-
capacity in many cases to produce
plants as efficiently as desired. Many
things cause chlorotic conditions of
crops, which are identified by a yellow-
ing of the leaves and somet mes re-
sult in death to the plant. Crops grown
on slightly acid or alkaline peat soil
often develop chlorosis. This can b.
traced to a deficiency of available
manganese for plant food. Upon the
occurrence of these common conditions,
soil specialists have recently recom-
mended manganese supplements in the
diet and in some cases a dilute spray
of the same.
It is a rather recent discovery that
the discoloration of centipede grass is
due in many cases to the soil being de-
ficient in available iron. In advanced
stages of the discoloration of grass it
often dies as if some fungous disease
were responsible. The specialists res-
ponsible for this discovery recommend
spraying with a dilute solution of iron
sulphate, which proves to be very ef-
fective. The practice of planting cover
crops and employing crop rotation has

long been profitable. But farmers have
recently been shocked to find that
their most economical legume and
cover crop, Crotalaria spectabilis, is
fatal to livestock. If consumed as
feed, the seed of this plant upsets most
especially the nervous, respiratory,
digestive, and urinal systems, often re-
sulting in death. This should be re-
garded when crops are grown to be
grazed by livestock, since very small
amounts consumed daily will prove
fatal to the animal.
Tobacco Blue Mold.
The production of tobacco plants in
seedbeds has been hampered greatly
in the last few years by downy mil-
dew, more commonly known as blue
meld. This disease is caused by a para-
sitic fungus which grows on the inside
of the plant leaf until suitable weather
prevails. Then it appears on the out-
side of the leaf in a blue downy coat-
ing, the familiar blue mold. To prevent
this mold all possible methods of
transfer from infected beds to unin-
fected beds should be stopped. It can
be carried on shoes, clothes and in the
air, or may even be present in the
soil at the planting. Therefore, sterili-
zation of the land before planting is
considered a good practice. For recov-
ery from the disease a good practice is
to apply a solution available nitrogen
if it were not used as a fertilizer when
planting the bed.
There are many methods of dealing
with crop pests. Probably the most
unique method is parasitization, that
is to introduce some other form of life
into the infested area that can in
some way break the chain of pro-
duction of the undesirable pest. One of
the most outstanding examples of this
recently is the introduction of Lydella
stabulaus, Inareolata punctoria and
Chelonus annupiles (parasites of Eu-
rope and the Orient). These were in-
troduced into the northern part of the
United States corn belt to parasitize
the European corn borer, Pyrausta
nubilalis, which is a pest in the north-
east and middlewest. The European
corn borer must be very tasty to these
parasites for they are rapidly destroy-
ing the pest.
Plant Introduction.
Plant introduction and propagation
play very important roles in plant pro-
duction in that native and foreign
plants are continually being used by
many scientific techniques, while at
the same time plant breeders are
rapidly breeding plants for prolific
characteristics. Some examples are the
present breeding of rust-resistant water
melons and cucumbers that resist one
of the common Florida rust diseases.
One of the most widely known intro-
duced plants in the South at the pre-
sent time is Dallis grass which was
introduced by the Florida Experiment

Station and United States Department
of Agriculture. It has shown up well in
Gally 2 Science Points the Way ....
the station cafeteria. The Experiment
Station cafeteria is probably a puzzl-
ing term to people not acquainted with
the pasture developments at the Uni-
versity of Florida Experiment Station.
It is called cafeteria because the ani-
mals that are fed, choose their own
diet. This same idea is carried out in
the pastures by planting many plots
of different kinds of pasture in the
same enclosure. While the animals are
grazing in this enclosure, accurate re-
cords are kept of the amount-of grass
,grazed from each plot. So it was in this
way that the value of Dallis grass was
discovered and this grass was later in-
troduced into the southern pastures.
The people whom this vast amount
of research is designed to affect dir-
ectly are the group that use it to the
least advantage. It seems that the
major problem common to all agricul-
tural organizations at the present is
making it benefit directly the group or
groups of people for which it is es-
pecially designed.

Gold Watch Awarded

The Wilson gold watch, awarded by
Wilson and Company to the best 4-H
livestock producer in Florida, was won
by Daniel Cannon of Pasco County,
Dan is 18 years of age and has been
an outstanding member of the 4-H
club for the last three years. He has
carried projects in beef cattle, swine,
dairy cattle, corn, peanuts, velvet
beans, bees, and wild life.
In 1937, Dan was the Florida 4-H
champion beef judge and a member of
the winning dairy demonstration team
from Florida. Last year at the Pasco
County Fair his livestock exhibits won
lirst prize in almost every instance.
He was awarded the $50.00 gold watch
because of his splendid work in live-
stock production, and because he made
more profit on livestock projects than
any other 4-H boy in Florida.
--Eric Mills, Jr.

Leona--The Leona Chapter of which
P. A. Browning is adviser recently
sponsored a very successful carnival
which included a faculty play, a box
supper, and a beauty contest.

Bushnell--The Bushnell and Webster
Chapters of the F. F. A., under the
direction of their adviser, B. L. Mc-
Laughlin, sold $200.00 worth of pure-
bred pigs on Saturday, December 3, to
W. H. Stone, for the F. F. A. members
to purchase at Newberry and Archer.
The sale of purebreds by these two
chapters during the past year totals
slightly more than $4,000.

February 1939


Page 5


Future Farmers Face the Future

Director of Classroom Instruction Scate
Department of education
i appreciate greatly this opporLuity
of speaKing to tme members oi tie
lioriaa Associalon of future farmers
ui America and to their Irienas. i
have always been interescea in your
.National Organizaton and in your
program. I think that you should real-
ie chat citizens general, as well as
school men and women, are watching
the progress of the Future farmers'
program with keen interest, and that
they regard it as one of the most im-
portant programs in our national life.
That interest which I have always had
in your program has been greatly in-
creased during the last two years as
I have had the opportunity of visiting
with several of your chapters and of
attending your state banquet in Gain-
esville this past year.
One of the the finest features of
your work is the forward-looking
characteristics of Future Farmers.
Critics of modern youth claim that
many young people do no planning for
the future; that they are too flippant
in their manner; that they take too
literally the verse of the Bible which
advises that we take no thought for the
morrow. This criticism cannot be fair-
ly applied to the Future Farmers of
America. There is no group of young
people with which I come in contact
that gives more evidence of wise
planning for the future. As a matter
of fact, all people who are sensible try
to look into the future, to foretell as
accurately as they can the probable
events, to foresee difficulties, to plan
ways of overcoming them, to prepare
themselves for probable situations. The
boy who does not look ahead trying to
guess what will come next in order
that he may be prepared for it, has
very little chance of success in base-
ball, football, or in the game of life.
There probably never was a time
when it was more difficult to foretell
the future and to be prepared for it.
The uncertainty, the complexity, and
the instability of our period of history
are its most outstanding characteris-
tics. There is nothing that is certain
We know that most of the profes-

sions are already over-crowded. It
seems that there is no profession or
type of job which is a safe "bet" now-
adays. However, this uncertainty, this
difficulty of seeing into the future,
does not make it less important that
we try now to plan for that future.
It makes planning and preparation all
the more important. If competition is
wo be keener so far as making a living
is concerned, then it is all the more
important that you get the best pre-
paration possible in order that you
may hold your own or forge your way
ahead in the face of the greater dif-
ficulties. The insurance people of
America coined a good slogan last year
when they used in their advertisements
the statement, "The sooner you plan
your future the brighter your future
will be."
Years ago Horace Greeley gave ad-
vice that has become famous: "Go
West, young man." Today, Roger Bab-
son, in commenting on the uncertain-
ties of the future, is repeating over
and over in his articles the advice to
people in all professions and in all
walks of life, that they buy for them-
selves small farms on which they can
make a living no matter what happens.
For many years farming has been
such a discouraging business that most
farm families have become dishearten-
ed and discouraged. The outlook for
the farmer is becoming definitely

brighter. The most important single
factor in this improved outlook is the
change in attitude on the part of our
national government. For many years
our government proceeded on the the-
ory that industries should be subsidi-
zed by protective tariffs but that
government assistance to farmers in
solving their problems is unnecessary,
futile, or sinful. Regardless of the
question as to which political party
will be in power, I do not believe that
we will depart soon from a policy of
giving whatever government coopera-
tion and assistance is necessary, in
order to enable farmers to make a liv-
ing on their farms.
There is another change which seems
to me to be evident and which inter-
ests me very much. For many years
there has been a continuing increase
in the percentage of our population
who live in towns and cities. It seems
to me that more and more people are
anxious to move out of the cities into
the country. Good roads, automobiles,
and modern inventions will more and
more increase the advantages of coun-
try life.
I have said these things because I
think it important that we adopt a
policy of looking into the future, and
if there are things in the future to
warrant it, of being cheerful and op-
tomistic as we face our problems. Of
course optimism will not be enough.
Training which you are getting in
your Future Farmer work is another
indispensable ingredient of success.
The prepared, trained man is one who
will get ahead in every line of work.
Editor's Note: "Future Farmers Face
The Future", by M. W. Carothers, Direc-
tor of Classroom Instruction, State De-
partment of Education, was delivered
recently on the series of broadcasts over
WRUF sponsored by the Florida Asso-
ciation, Future Farmers of America. Mr.
Carothers has shown great interest in
rural youth and has responded whole-
heartedly to the many requests for him
to speak at various F. F. A. Father-Son
banquets over the state.

Fort White--The Fort White Chap-
ter recently sponsored a Chain Gang
Minstrel and realized a net profit of
$25.00 for the Chapter treasury. G. R.
Graham is adviser.

February 1939

Page 6



The most convenient manner by
which to portray an accurate descrip-
tion of plantation life in Cuba is to
center ones remarks around the sugar
milm ana its elI ct upon inhabitants.
Around Cuban mills is manifest and
developed to a large extent the indus-
trial, agricultural, and commercial life
of me island, inasmuch as these three
major factors which play so great a
part in uhe life of a nation, are cant-
ered there.
Anyone who has vsited a mill of
any great consequence where sugar is
manufactured wll have observed tha.
wherever machinery nas been installed
a modern town has also grown up.
'niere one will find a post office, tele-
graph office, hospitals, schools, whole-
sale and reil grocery ana other stores,
novels, restaurants, social clubs, rail-
roads, and modern highways. Tne mill
may have its "colonies" or own plant-
tatuon lands wnich it administers it-
sell, or property of private citizens.
The plant land, known as "bae;y," on
wnicn is located the plant proper and
where is housed the equipment for the
manufacture, weighing and storage for
sugar, constitutst the mill or "sugar
Before proceeding further in the de-
velopmenc of this subject, I wish to
touch briefly upon the history and
background of the Cuban sugar mill.
Sugarcane was brought to Cuba by
Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, the fire
governor of the island, during the
second decade of the 16th century.
Thereafter, it began to be manufactur-
ed inl small quantities for exportation
purposes. -rroduction, however, was of
no great consequence until the British
occupation of fHabana in 1762, when
impetuss was given the product conm-
merc.ally. Tne success of these first
eniorts was greatly augmented after
i i91 because of the civil war in Haiti,
which eliminated what was then the
principal sugar producing country of
the world by the removal of many of
the French plantations to Cuba. Dur-
ing the Napoleonic era Cuban ports
were opened to foreign commerce, slave
trade b-came prevalent, and coloniza-
t on by means of immigration made it
possible for plantation owners to reap
laige profits from the favorable sugar
market of the United States and Great
Britian. From 1b00 to 1840 production
tripled and in the two succeeding de-
cades it again tripled itself. In 1868 it
reached a total of 749,000 tons with an
average annual price of 10 cents per
Up until the middle of the past
century, the sugar mills were operated
by steam machinery; after that they
began to function by airtight appara-
tus and the machinily was gradually
modernized until they ultimately

reached the type now existing in some
sugar "centrals" which have a pro-
duculon capacity of one million sacks
of sugar weighing 13 arrobass" or 325
pounds to a sacK, within a period or
season of 90 days. As we have hitherto
observed, Cuba's tocal sugar product-
ion in tne year 1860 amounted to only
749,000 tons, whereas the development
in me industry since that time m-
cieased so greatly that in 1925 a peaK
of D,l1t9,o'b tons was reached. At pre-
sent, aue to restrictive agreement en-
terea into by sugar producing nations
Cuba is manuiacurnng only about 2,-
suU,uU0 tons.
The "centrales" or nulls were Cuu-
an sugar is made, which as I nave sala
constuute Une main plans, anad tie
uroan population wun Lneir com-
merce, social clubs, ana plocs o0 sugar-
cane, are aamnnisuered by a general
administrator who has jurisdiction over
an tue technical and personnel admnu.-
isuration necessary lor the actual op-
eraton of tne mm. lie, in reanuy, is a
small "chief witn dictatorial powers.
everyone consults uhn and al activi-
ties are conducra under nis direct ob-
The sugar nuils have two periods of
worK, known as the slacK and ousy
seasons. ihe slack period starts at the
end of aie busy season wmcn is the
oegminng ol tne monn o01 May or ume
beginning of the rainy weaker. Tnat
period is used lor ale planning, tne
cultivation of tne sugarcane, reparuiii
and cleaning tie macnmery, ana iltWo
untie tUe mnale of tme montin 01
December which begins the rush sea-
son. These plentiful perioos uoea tu
last for four months bur toaay tney
last about three months. The inacnmn
shops or "bateyes' of tne mui a,
where we find tne worKmen's social.
lue. Tne nucieous of its populaion is
mane of persons wno live in large
citus and bring taeir previously ac-
quired customs o0 social mIercours;.
treriouicary, sports o0 an Kinds, dances
and lectures are held. in al titese ac-
tivities people of every staLus as-
sociate harmoniously. Tie socall-d '400
participating with me gay countrymen
who add to the festivities their natural
aesthetic ingenuity, happy characters,
and quaint nabies peculiar to country-
men who live and grow in a tropical
land bathed by the ocean breezes and
equitorial sun; where the hills and
valleys are covered by carpets of na-
tural vegetation as though it were et-
ernal springtime.

Bunnell-The Future Farmers assist-
ed the local Red Cross in their annual
Christmas drive by repainting and
reconditioning old toys which were
donated. Adviser of the local chapter
is J. H. Norfleet.


Chicks To Checks

nsomuch as only healthy chicks and
pullets can become a profitable flock,
it should be well worth our while to
look into the matter and try to see
just what factors would make up a
good plan for rearing healthy birds.
Florida's "GTow Healthy Chicks" pro-
gram as set forth by Professor N. R.
Mehrhof and Dr. M. W. Emmel in-
cludes six factors which are essential
if chicks are to produce healthy checks.
These are early hatching, using clean
eggs and chicks, keeping brooder hous-
es clean, utilizing clean land, feeding
a balanced ration and separating pull-
ets from cockerels early.
Early hatching is advisable for pro-
ducing pullets for winter production.
Chicks hatched in February, March
and April get a good start before hot
weather begins, and they will be in
production when egg prices are high.
The prices of early hatched friers are
also good. Good quality eggs and chicks
will produce layers that are capable of
high yields. A high mortality and poor
stock will result from weak or diseased
checks. Clean brooder houses are in-
dispensable to keep the chicks healthy.
A thorough cleaning once each week
is recommended. This means plenty of
hard work, but negligence on this point
is bound to mean high mortality re-
sulting from. unsanitary conditions. An
important factor for growing healthy
poultry is clean land. Contaminated
land, like dirty brooder houses, will
surely cause disease. At least one year
and preferably several years should
have elapsed since chicken or poultry
manure were put on it if the land is
to be considered "clean." A balanced
ration is absolutely necessary to get
proper results. There are a number of
tested formulas available and several
.good commerical feeds are on the
market. Only the best of feed and care
can produce the best layers. Plenty of
fresh, clean water must always be
available in containers so designed that
the chicks or the litter cannoe get wet.
separation of pullets from cockerels
must be made as soon as possible, so
there will be additional floor and feed-
er space for the pullets.
The above six factors comprise Flor-
ida's "Grow Healthy Chick" program.
Records kept on many thousands of
birds over a period of years prove the
effectiveness of this program and im-
press us with the importance of ad-
opting all six factors. The records
show that the two most important fac-
tors are clean brooder houses and
clean land, but negligence of even one
factor usually caused the mortality to
be three times as high as when all six
were adopted.

Page 7


February 1939





The Florida Boys' 4-H Club Council
began its third year of organization a,
the Annual Short Course held la't
summer, with a membership of 44 boys
from 23 counties. This group repres-
ented approximately 3,390 club boys of
the more than 4,000 enrolled over the
state. The officers chosen for the year
1938-'39 were President, Leroy Fortnel
of Alachua County; First Vice-Presi-
dent, Jack Prator of Pasco County;
Second Vice-President, Wilbur Burden
of Palm Beach County; Secretary,
Fred Geottar of Escambia County; and
Treasurer, Eric Mills of Marion Coun-
The State Council, as a part of its
program, each year offers a large lov-
ing cup to the county making the
highest proportionate progress or set-
ting the highest standard in organized
4-H club work during the current club
year. Lake County was awarded the
cup last June for its outstanding work
during the first half of 1938, with
Pasco County running a close second
The group decided to change itS
method of award so as to include a
whole year's work and to consider
more points than were previously con-
sidered. This score card has been
drawn up by the Executive Council,
and distributed throughout the state.
Among the new objectives set up for
the 1938-'39 year were encouraging and
assisting the organization of more
county councils; acquainting more
local clubs with the requirements for
standard, gold and purple seal clubs;
recommending that all money raised be
done by group action; urging club of-
ficers and County Agents to allow only
the boys having their record books up
to date to attend camp; recommend-
ing that where possible the county
councils raise the money to send their
delegates to the annual Short Course.
Since the State Council was organi-
zed the group has worked toward a
standardization of local clubs and
county councils. For the first time,
charters and gold seals were given to
the representatives of various county
councils for their compliance with pre-
viously set standards. The counties and
their respective clubs receiving gold
seals were Micanopy in Alachua,
Quintette and Walnut Hill in Escambia
Day Progressive in Lafayette, Eustis
and Umatilla in Lake and Zephyrhills
in Pasco. Those receiving charters
were: Brandon and Springhead in

Hillsborough, Grandridge in Jackson,
Wacissa and Aucilla in Jefferson, Mayo
and in Lafayette, Eustis, Leesburg,
Umatilla, Clermont-Minneola, Lady
Lake, Groveland, Altoona, Tavares,
Monteverde, Mascotte, Okahumpha,
Fruitland, Park, Cassia, Mt. Dora,
Sorrento, Springhead, and Paisley in
Lake; North Military Trail, Southern
Boulevard Pines, Jupiter, Delray Beach
and South Bay in Palm Beach County.
J. Lee Smith, District Agent, was
named again to act as councilor. Of-
ficers of previous years were named
to act as advisers to the Executive
Committee of the State Council.
The year 1937-'38 was the most suc-
cessful that the State Council has had
since the date of its organization, as iL
evidenced by larger enrollment, more
newly organized county councils, more
interest, and in many other ways.
Leaders in the movement for more
organization in 4-H Club work hail the
work of the State Council as one of the
most progressive steps since 4-H club
work was started in Florida more than
25 years ago.

The Pasco County 4-H Club Council
was organized in March of 1936 with
12 local clubs affiliated under the
leadership of James A. McClellan, Jr,
county agent. With the added enthusi-
asm furnished by the council, more
clubs were organized until in March
1938 there were 21 local clubs repres-
ented on the council with four de-
legates each.
The council is a real working or-
ganization, exerting great influence or.
the club work done in Pasco County.
The program for the year is worked up
and set forth by the council, as well
as enforced. Dates and programs for
all club affairs such as tours, rallies,
and contests are formulated and direc-
ted by the council.
As an example of what this organi-
zation has done, the 1936 Achievement
Day can well be cited. An old dilapid-
ated building was the only available
place to hold the contest. The council
raised money and did most of the work
in repairing it so that it would be n'
suitable condition for the show, even
causing some of the members to work
all the night before the contest. The
affair was so successful that since the
show, the building and eight acres have
been deeded the council for an exhibit
place, a community poultry and live-
(Continued on page 10)


Florida Team

By JOHN HENTZ, Bay County Agent
The Bay County 4-H dairy demon-
stration team represented the State
4-H organization in the National Dairy
Production Demonstration contest
which was held during the 1938 Na-
tional Dairy Show at Columbus, Ohio,
October 8-15, 1938. The team consisted
of two members, Billy Mowat, 17, of
Lynn Haven annd Horace Calhoun, 15,
of Youngstown. Attending with these
two team members were Mr. and Mrs.
John Hentz, of Panama City, and
Jimmy Mowat of Lynn Haven.
The group left Panama City on the
morning of October 7 and reached
Columbus on the evening of October 9.
The delegates were properly regist-
ered at 4-H club headquarters and
spent the afternoon visiting various
other teams from different states. A
leaders' meeting was held on Sunday
afternoon for the purpose of getting
acquainted and also to discuss details
of the contest. During the same even-
ing a picnic lunch was enjoyed on the
Ohio State University campus.
The Florida team was scheduled to
put on their demonstration on Tues-
,day morning. They were free to attend
the dairy show and see the teams from
the other states put on their demon-
strations Monday. The Florida boys
were very much amused at the large
cows and unusually high records made
by some of the cows exhibited. The
World Champion Cow was a Jersey
having a record of over 19,000 pounds
of milk during one lactation period. A
great many cows were exhibited with
records running as high as 17,000
pounds of milk. One Ayrshire cow was
on exhibition at the show that had
produced over 50 tons of milk during
her life time and was still going strong.
The Bay County team presented
their demonstration on "Breeding for
Production" on Tuesday morning in
the Southern section. Before noon
winners for each Extension section
were announced. Virginia won first and
Mississippi won second in the South-
ern section.
During the afternoon the winners
from each section rehearsed their de-
monstrations and pictures were taken.
The boys watched the demonstrations
and attended the show.
The 1938 contest was one of the
largest ever held. Forty teams from 10
(Continued on page 12)


February 1939

Page 8




The farm, as always, is the life pulse
of the nation. If the pulse of the farm
grows weak so does the nation. From
records of the past may be determined
the effects which agricultural trends
have had upon the world. If product-
ion on the nation's farms is radically
abnormal it is immediately registered
in the prices of all commodities and
the amount of consumption of the
various products of the world. If. in
the nation itself, one state is out of
line with the other states, th. reaction
is felt throughout the nation. When
states are in harmony in the agricul-
tural industry, then it is almost a
certainty that all of the nation's in-
dustries will be in harmony. Offering
this principle to Florida let us look at
the situation in our own State and
take into consideration the various
phases through which the products of
the farms must pass.
Production is the first phase to con-
sider, and in considering it we must
look at the charges against the farm
which must be taken care of before the
crop may be planted. First to be con-
sidered before the planting of the
year's crop are the types of crops which
are best adapted to the particular loc-
ality under consideration. After having
answered this question it must be de-
cided what is the most efficient pro-
gram for that locality. Should a
number of crops be grown, and if so,
will the seasons of these crops overlap
one another in such manner that it
will be necessary to force one crop in-
to early maturity, or set the second too
late to get the produce to the market
at the proper time? In selecting or
planning for the year's production the
prospective market for the various pos-
sible products must be considered for
it would indeed be poor judgement to
set a crop which is already being set
on neighboring farm in excessive am-
ounts, for such a program for any
community would tend to result in
lower prices for that product. In other
words, when planning the year's crops,
anticipate planting those crops which
are likely to bring the highest returns.
It is also essential to plan the year's
program to minimize the months in
which the farm is idle. Florida is
blessed with a climate that makes it
possible for nearly a year round pro-
duction program.
On many farms it is necessary to
obtain aid in financing the yearly crop
[or it takes capital to pay for seed.
fertilizer, spray and dust material,
labor, and harvesting materials. Such
aid may be obtained through a govern-
ment loan agency, a bank, a real es-
tate brokerage firm or advances by
buyers and shippers, or cooperative
loan organizations. In obtaining this

aid it ;s important that the source of
the loan be thoroughly invest gated,
for the pitfalls which await the unwise
borrower are many.
When the crop has matured and is
ready fcr harvesting, a vital phase of
management has been approached.
How is it to be marketed? How can the
best returns be obtained? It may be
marketed through the local produce
markets, bought in the field by a cash
buyer, marketed through a cooperative
marketing organizations, or it may be
handled through a packer or sh-pper
who ships it on consignment or sells it
f. o. b. or through the produce auction.
The method selected for marketing is
largely determined by the prevailing
facilities in the community concerned.
Regardless of the method selected for
marketing, it must be remembered that
high quality of products assures desir-
ed premiums in the market, provided
the reputation of the producer and the
handler is sound. The consuming
market must have confidence in the
brand under which the produce is
marketed. This may only be obtained
by faithful grading and honest pack-
ing. The consumer's confidence may be
lost for one car lot of product which
has a certain classification but is be-
low the standard which its classifica-
tion represents. The principles of
marketing, though they may be set
forth in the good will of the various
organizations which are the go-
4:3tweens for the producer and the
consumer, are often violated under the
stress of business conditions or in some
cases because of unscrupulous busi-
ness methods practiced. The producer
is as often guilty of unethical practices
as is the shipper and handler who has,
in some cases, acquired an unethical
reputation. To insure the most efficient
and ethical methods of marketing pro-
duce for the state the proper laws must
be made and passed by the state legi-
slature, for only with sufficient legal
control is it possible to obtain uniform
and beneficial marketing practices.
After the law is established it is nec-
essary that it be properly enforced and
The marketing problems today are
not those of yesterday. Yesterday's
problems were getting the produce to
market. Today they are distributing
produce properly to the markets and
building reliable reputations for the
brands under which they are handled.
Florida's well equipped packing and
shipping facilities with its up-to-date
packinghouses, special freight trains
and good highways for trucks are a
great aid in solving these two problems
which are at the present the most vital
in obtaining profitable returns for
Florida's produce.

Wauchula F. F. A. Chapter

Cattle Project Found

Working toward a set goal, an ideal
type of farming, is the objective of
every Future Farmer. Bob Campbell is
no exception to this rule for in his
freshman year of vocational agricul-
ture he chose livestock farming as the
type for which he wished to train.
After completing three years of voca-
tional agriculture, Bob finds himself
well on the way to the type of farm-
ing which he desires to follow.
Holding the degree of "State Plant-
er," and having served as President of
the Wauchula Chapter, Future Farm-
ers of America, and also as a member
of the State Executive Committee, Bob
is still building up his range cattle
herd. Truck crops have baen a minor
enterprise with Bob for he has invest-
ed his earnings in more cattle. His
major enterprise is beef cattle, around
which he has built his entire project
program. Beginning with 20 head, he
has conducted his farming program
with plans to invest all the earnings
from his crop projects in cattle. In this
way he has carried out the objective
of vocational agriculture of investing
his earnings into farming ultimately
leading to permanent establishment in
farming. Today, Bob's range cattle
total 173 head. Of these, many are
grade Brahmas bred from a purebred
Brahma sire.
During the past three years while he
was building up his range cattle herd,
Bob has carried on 15 productive pro-
jects to date, numerous supplementary
jobs and improvement projects.

In the November, 1938 issue, page
nine of the Farmer, the outdoor living
room of which a photograph was
shown, was visited rather than owned
by the Homestead Chapter.

Page 9

February 1939




The state of Florida has perhaps the
greatest diversity of ornamentals of
any state--some being adapted to
South Florida while others do well in
North Florida, and some grow equally
well over all the state.
Starting with the broad-leaved ever-
greens, we find Ligustrum lucidum to
be one of the most popular. The fact
that this plant is very bushy and
spreading with rich, dark waxy leaves
and adaptable to many soil conditions,
makes it the most widely used ornam-
ental in our state for foundation plant-
ings. In addition to lucidum, we have
Ligustrum noblis which resembles
lucidum except that it is an upright
grower and thus adapted to situations
where a taller plant than lucidum is
required. Ligustrum japonicum is per-
haps the most rapid grower of the
ligustrums, and should be used only
where height is desired.
Next in importance to the ligustrums
we have Feijoa sellowiana, Pittosporum
tobira, Elaeagnus pungens, and Pod-
ocarpus macrophylla maki. Feijoa is
used for foundation plantings. It makes
a very desirable border or informal
hedge where height is desired. Pittos-
porum, with its dark green and shiny
foliage arranged in a rosette, does well
in full sun or shade, and for seashore
plantings it is unsurpassed. Elaeagnas
pungens is a vigorous spreading ever-
green which may reach 30 feet unless
it is checked. The foliage, which is dark
green above and silvery beneath, mak-
es the plant very distinctive. The vari-
egated form of Elaeagnus is very good
where a yellow-bordered leaf is desired.
Podocarpus macrophylla maki, we will
recall, is a compact, upright branching
shrub with dark green foliage. For use
as sheared specimens at entrances and
corners it cannot be surpassed. For
use as a sheared hedge we need only
to mention the excellent hedge speci-
men around the Post Office in Jack-
sonville, Florida.
The Hollies embrace one of the most
important groups of evergreen shrubs
and trees in Florida. American Holly
or Ilex opaca is an excellent holly for
specimen plantings. The dark green,
spiny leaves and attractive red berries
makes this holly a very desirable ever-
green to have. Yaupon or Ilex vomi-
toria differs from Ilex opoca in being
more compact and bushy, and in hav-
ing spineless, small green leaves. This
holly may be sheared to any size or
shape desired and for this reason it is
used extensively for foundation, border
and hedge plantings.
For early spring flowers the differ-
ent varieties of oriental magnolias are
very good. These hardy deciduous
shrubs are well adapted to central and
northern Florida conditions. Magnolia
soulangeana lennei has large cup-

shaped flowers which are deep reddishl
purple outside and lighter inside.
Magnolia liliflora has large, tulipshaped
flowers which are purple outside and
purplish-pink inside. The flowers of
these two magnolias open just before
or at the time new leaves appear ir
the early spring.
Another flowering deciduous shrub
blooming in spring is the double
Spiraea cantoniensis. When in bloom,
the dense umbels of pure white flowers
present a sight long to be remembered,
especially when they are grown in
mass plantings. Spiraea will thrive and
bloom profusely all over the state ex-
cept in the extreme southernmost part.
Another flowering decAduous shrub of
importance in Florida is Hydrangea
hortensis. Although it doesn't grow as
well in the southernmost half of the
peninsula as farther north, it is a very
suitable ornamental when grown in the
shade. The white varieties of Hydrang-
ea bloom true to color, but the others
may be pink or blue depending on the
soil and cultural conditions. The plant
does well in most well-drained soils.
Ordinarily when one speaks of the
oleander we think of a tender ever-
green shrub. Yet there is a variety of
oleander that is quite hardy as far
north as Macon, Georgia. This variety
is Cardinal, and as the name indicates
it has deep-red clusters of flowers, in
addition to this variety there are many
others varying in color from white to
a double yellow. The oleander is one
of the few flowering shrubs well ad-
apted to seashore plantings. The pride
of all Southern gardens are perhaps
Camellia japonica and the azalea.
Whereas the camellia will not grow
successfully south of the Gainesville
erea, and the azalea south of the Lake-
land area, these plants are easily
grown where adapted. Both require an
acid soil with plenty of organic matter
and water. The blooming season for
the camellia lasts from mid-winter till
late spring and it is at this time that
they should be transplanted. The
azalea starts flowering in late winter
and lasts through spring and like the
camellia should be transplanted during
the flowering season. Both camellia
and azalea are slow growers, but th.y
make desirable subjects for foundation
and for specimen plants.
In the southern half of the slate we
find such flowering ornamentals as the
hibiscus, plumbago, buginvillae, thry-
allis, and many others. Lately many
new varieties of hibiscus have been de-
veloped, ranging in color from a double
white to a red and white striped. How-
ever, most of these new hibiscus
creations lack the vigorous growth and
bushy type of the older hibiscus. The
American Beauty hibiscus is perhaps
the best one for foundation plantings
and for hedges. The plumbago is a

very compact shrub which has clusters
of blue flowers all summer. This plant
is well adapted for foundation work
and for low informal hedges. Similar
to plumbago is thryallis. This, too, is a
compact shrub with clusters of yellow
flowers all during the summer. Like
plumbago it is very desirable for
foundation work and is very effective
where group plantings are made. The
plumbago and thryallis do well on al-
most any well drained soil. Both are
killed by freezing temperatures.
Of all the vines grown in Florida the
buginvillae is without doubt one of
the most showy, especially when in
full bloom. However, the tenderness of
this vine limits its .growth to the sou-
thern half of the state. Lately a
number of new buginvillaes have been
developed and while these are not as
free-flowering as the original crimson
and purple flowering types, they are
very attractive. The purple flowering
buginvillas is a very heavy grower and
flowers more profusely than the crim-
son. It too, can be made into sheared
specirrens, whereas the crimson one
doesn't stand shearing so well. The
buginvillaes do well on most well-
drained soils, and to insure early flow-
ering a liberal supply of compost fer-
tilizer should be added to the soil early
in the fall. Buginvillaes start flowering
in late fall and continue throughout
the spring.

State Council Active
(Continued from page 8)
stock market, and a center for 4-H
activities in that county.
While the council has been except-
ional in operations, the financial phase
has been particularly outstanding. To
aid several members who wanted to
buy some pigs, but were enable to raise
the money, the council secured a loan
from a local businessman. This money
was sub-loaned to the individual club
members. The businessman was so
pleased when he was repaid on the
date due and saw what was being ac-
complished that he donated $50.00 to
the organization to start a revolving
loan fund.
From this start the council built a
larger fund to finance projects for he
club members. An executive committee
was formed to handle all the applica-
tions for loans. Money for this fund
was raised in many ways. Club dues,
fines, interest on loans, and donations
were the start. The council bought
registered sires and charged breeding
fees. The offspring of several bred
gilts which were bought and placed
with selected boys were sold, returns
adding materially to the treasury. An-
other source of income has been the
picture shows given in all sections of
the county with moving picture ma-
chine recently purchased.


February 1939

Page 10


Responsibility of Family Members

Family life is a cooperative enter-
prise with each individual member
sharing the responsibility for its suc-
cess. No one member can make the
home successful, yet one uncooperative
member may ruin the joy of the entice
family. Family members should share
their responsibility for family life, and
if one person fails to do his part the
entire cooperative enterprise will suf-
fer and peace and harmony are apt
to be destroyed.
Every member has a part in making
the home successful. If all the many
responsibilities and problems that a-
rise in meeting economical ethical, cul-
tural, and social conditions are placed
upon one individual, the picture be-
comes unbalanced and the family be-
comes a burden upon that individual.
When these same responsibilities and
problems are discussed and cheerfully
shared, they make for a clearer under-
standing of existing conditions and give
the individuals a splendid opportunity
for personal growth and development.
Ruth Lindquist shows the importance
of the division of home responsibilities
by her statement, "The degree to which
the children and the father share re-
gularly in the daily and seasonal ac-
tivities affects the plane of living
and the economic soundness of the
Working for the home increases love
and the feeling of responsibility. An
individual appreciates most those
things for which he must work. The
more work or material contributions
put into the home, the greater the love
for it. As the old saying goes, "Where
your treasure is, there wl11 your heart
te also." Delegated responsibility in the
home, in proportion to one's ability,
encourages participation and makes for
development. Satisfaction from skills
learned and work accomplished in-
creases harmony and contributes to
personal growth. Working for the home
s an important integrating factor
which makes for family solidarity .
American family life had its early
roots in European culture patterns
which were introduced and adapted to
meet the conditions found in the new
country. The type of family organiza-
tion followed very closely the patriar-
chal pattern which had been prevalent

since ancient times in Europe.
Life in early Colonial America was
largely rural and the homes were small)
industrial, educational, and recreation-
al centers in which every type of ac-
tivity was carried on to make the
home self-sustaining. The same types
of homes, simpler in character, were
established by the pioneers as they
moved westward.
Industry was almost wholly organiz-
ed around the family until after the
middle of the eighteenth century, at
which time the industrial revolution
brought about decided changes in
home production and in family life it-
self. Diversified production, which
largely met family needs, was changed
to specialized production under which
system the family has been dependent
upon its money income to purchase the
majority of the products necessary foi
home consumption from outside sourc-
es. The depression of the last decade
has emphasized the need for a partial
return to diversified home production.
The goal of family life was for gen-
erations the achievement of income,
which meant a continuous program of
lator and relative self-denial for each
member of the family. The struggle for
more land and more goods took a
heavy toll of human energy, and fre-
quently resulted in warped and un-
balanced development. Today new in-
terests in better standards of living are
developing and the family is recogniz-
ed as an institution for individual de-
velopment and the creation of happin-
ess patterns. A first interest of today
is "What is successful family life and
how can we achieve it?"
The place of the family is deep-
ly imbedded in the human race. It
came into being to provide offspring
with the protection necessary for phy-
sical survival. The purpose has widen-
ed so that the family now has become
not only a means of protection but also
an important means of transmitting
the culture of the race. These contri-
butions to society are important. How-
ever, the influence of the family on
its individual members is of greater
Family life modifies human behavior.
When several people live together as a
family, a constant "give and take"
cccurs through which family life be-
comes modified and the character of

the individual is affected. The needs,
desires, ambitions, and plans of the
members of the family group interplay
to such an extent that no one member
is just what he would be without this
influence. The interplay between family
members increases with the size of the
family and may or may not bring a-
bout a greater modification of human

Good family life refines and develops
ideals. For example, a young child is
self-centered and is primarily inter-
ested in his own desires and pleasures.
He seizes food if he is hungry, snatches
a toy from another child if he wants it,
and commands the interest of those
about him. Through the influence of
.good family life the child soon learns
to take others into consideration, to
respect their rights and property, and
to become less selfish and more co-
operative. Good family life, through its
intimacies, its kindly spirit, and its
loving consideration develops in its
members the finest and best qualities.
Family life not only plays an im-
portant role in the development of
character, personality, and ideals, but
also supplies the many little intangible
satisfactions that give meaning to life.
It should provide for the desires of
each individual, insofar as these de-
sires are consistent with the promotion
of physical and social fitness, to such
a degree that happiness and content-
ment result for the several members of
the group.

The home which is considered the
foundation of the community may be
defined as family life within the house.
Therefore, good family living is fund-
amental to a progressive community
and national life. Good homes and
contented families have a stabilizing
influence on both the community and
the nation.

Editor's Note: Miss Ruth Durrenberger,
Home Demonstration Agent in Columbia
County, has graciously permitted use of
these excerpts from her thesis concerning
better rural living which she prepared in
Washington, D. C., while a Payne Fellow
in the United States Department of Ag-
riculture. Inasmuch as this section is
devoted to the interests of improving
family living in Florida's rural homes,
the Staf is indeed grateful for Miss Dur-
renberger's contribution.

February 1939


Page 11

Pae1 H LRD OLEEFRE eray13


Among the list of new publications
is a book entitled, "Programs For Fu-
ture Farmer Chapter Meetings," by A.
W. Tenney. This book is a complete
outline for chapter meetings of all oc-
casions. It includes games, yells, and
various suggestions for F. F. A. social
activities. Not only may this book be
used for F. F. A. meetings but it may
also be used for other types of agri-
cultural meetings. It is invaluable to
all agricultural teachers. The author,
A. W. Tenney, is Associate Professor
of Agricultural Education at the Uni-
versity of Florida. The book is publish-
ed by Interstate, Danville. Illinois.
Getting into a more technical field
is G. W. Robinson's new book, "Soils,
Their Origin, Constitution, and Class-
ification," which deals mainly with
the soil groups of the world. It goes in-
to detail with the interrelationships of
soils, plant growth and agriculture.
This book taken as a whole gives a
very broad view of the soils found the
world over and is of interest to any
inquiring mind.
Of interest to citrus growers of Flor-
ida is Howard S. Fawcett's recently
published revision of "Citrus Diseases
and Their Control." Fawcett was form-
erly Plant athologist at the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. His
viewpoints and recommendations are
indeed understandable to the Florida
citrus grower. All new diseases and
findings of a pathological nature are
carefully treated.
Another book which might be termed
technical but indeed practical is Van
Dersel's 1938 publication, "Native
Woody Plants of the United States."
The subject matter deals with plants
and their prevention of soil erosion
plus their benefit to wild life. Where
soil erodes, wild life -- such as birds,
rabbits, and even deer -- are starved
out because of no vegetation upon
which to feed. The author points out
a direct relationship between the rate
of soil erosion and the disappearance
of wild life in our country. Various
shrubs and trees are recommended as
soil binders in preventing soil erosion.
Of very recent publication is John K.
Small's book, "Ferns of the South-
Eastern United States." This illustrat-
ed book gives descriptions of native
fern plants growing in the states south
of the Virginia-Kentucky line and
east of the Mississippi River. Ferns
found growing in Florida are discussed
with particular attention. The author
died a few months before this book
was published. However, the material
went to press and is now available. We
might mention that in the very first
of the book a brief biographical sketch
in appreciation of the author is ex-

pressed by H. Harold Hume, now Dean
cf the College of Agriculture at the
University of Florida.
Extension Bulletin 100, "Preserving
Florida Citrus Fruits," is perhaps in-
teresting to every housewife in the
citrus sections. The writer of this
bulletin, Isabelle S. Thursby, mentions
several products that can be made
from Florida fruits such as jellies,
marmalades, spreads, crushes, juices,
syrups, relishes, preserves, conserves,
spiced and crystalized products that
are not only beautiful but tasty and
healthful. Recipes for many of these
are given in simple, understandable
manner which makes an easy prepara-
For hog raisers in the State of Flor-
ida, P'ress Bulletin 518, by R. M. Crown
of the Agricultural Experiment Station
is highly beneficial. It is a two-page
discussion on raising pigs in Florida.
The author gives special attention and
practical suggestions on care of the
herd boar, selection and care of the
brood sow, care of the sow at farrow-
ing time, and care of young pigs.
"Lysimeter Studies With the Decom-
position of Summer Cover Crops,"
Bulletin 327 of the Experiment Station,
covers the effect of leaching on cro-
talaria, velvet beans, and natal grass.

Florida Team

(Continued from page 8)
states competed. All sections of the
United States were represented, except
the New England states where
severe damage was caused by the re-
cent storm. All Extension workers were
on relief duty and unable to send a
The group experienced a very suc-
cessful trip. All members of the party
cessful trip. Some of the places
visited by the group enroute to
and from Columbus were Lookout
Mountain at Chattanooga, Tennessee;
"My Old Kentucky Home" at Bards-
town, Kentucky; Abraham Lincoln's
birthplace at Hodgenville, Kentucky;
and Mammouth Cave at Cave City,

. .The Nation's Winter Garden

Continued from page 4)
for vegetable raising and with the in-
fluence of proper drainage, irrigation,
and scientific experiment, it is evident
that farmers engaging in this phase
of agriculture shall succeed to a
measurable degree.


Controlling Insects

The purpose of this article is to dis-
cuss a few of the most common and
most serious citrus insect pests, and
tell the beg.nner how to recognize them
and to give him a few hints concern-
ing their control.
PURPLE SCALE: This is the most
destructive insect in Flor-da citrus
groves, being found on twigs, fruit and
leaves. This scale is shaped somewhat
like an oyster shell, is about 1-8 inch
long, and is purplish brown in color.
Entomogenous fungi are an active aid
in the control of this pest. For this
reason, spraying with a fungicide
should be followed by an oil emulsion
to prevent an increase of the scale.
More than spraying is often necessary
io control the purple scale.
is more pernicious than the purple
scale, but not as common. It is dark
reddish brown in color, with a con-
spicuous center, and is about 11/ inch
in diameter. In addition to the same
oil emulsion used for the purple scale,
lime-sulpher has been found to be ef-
fective. The lime-sulpher used in a
1-40 proportion is effective against the
crawler stage but not very successful
against the more mature stages of the
MEALYBUGS: These insects cover
themselves and their eggs with a mea-
ly wax. They are very destructive and
are even capable of killing the tree.
Mealybugs are rather common, but are
usually controlled by natural enemies.
If it is necessary to spray, it is im-
portant that a good strong pressure be
used. Sometimes a spray of water
alone will suffice, but an oil emulsion
or a fish oil soap spray is recommend-
This scale is easily identified by the
large cottony egg sacs of the female.
Since these cottony masses have a
fluted appearance the insect is some-
times called a fluted scale. The only
permanent and satisfactory control is
the introduction of the natural enemy,
Vedalia. However sprays, limesulfur
and the oils are sometimes used with
high pressure.
FLY: This pest is not as serious as
formerly but it still does a grear
deal of damage. The control is the
same as for purple scale; that is,
spraying with an oil emulsion.
APHIDS: Signs of this insect are
readily observed because of the curled
foilage, which is caused by the aphid.
Under certain conditions aphids are
controlled by their natural enemies,
the ladybeetles and syrphid flies. If
the damage is not too widespread, dip
the leaves into an insecticide such as
nicotine sulfate. Dusting or spraying
(Continued on page 14)

Page 12


February 1939



What a spring-like day this is! The
nation's garden spot is without a doubt
right here in Florida. One would hard-
ly suspect, if he had not seen it, that
in Florida may be seen the vegetables
growing, the flowers blooming, the
woods glowing with greenness and
beauty, and the fruit trees loaded with
yellow fruit in the middle of winter.
If it isn't springtime, what is the
difference? Florida is the only state in
which to live if one wants springtime
all the year with its beauty and en-

If professors were not professors,
what would they be? This is a question
which is often asked and usually has
a disparaging twang to it. One cannot
think that way about professors in the
"Ag" College. They are men who would
be real men in most any other profes-
sion in every respect. Even the Dean
of the College knows the Ag boys-
their faces at lease, and you bet he
greets them and is always friendly.
Due consideration and respect is shown
by all the professors of the Ag College
and this statement is made without
fear of successful contradiction.
In speaking of organizations in my
last article, the 4-H Club-the girls'
club in Tallahassee-was not even so
much as mentioned. The writer admits
that not even considering this group as
a part of us is a serious mistake and
he apologizes for such an act. The
ladies of this club are away up there
in Tally, but just the same they take
a responsible part of this magazine and
their part is done well.
Kenneth Clark, the senior in the Ag
College who won the Danforth Scholar
ship, wrote an article in the last issue
of this magazine on the four-fold
character development which he studi-
ed and lived while in the Danforth
Camp last summer. This four-fold pro-
gram includes religious, social, physi-
cal, and mental development. A person
would probably say at first thought
that mental development is far better
than any of the others but regardless
of how well a man is educated, he will
be poorly equipped for life if he is not
physically able to do the work which
his vocation calls for. How well is a
man educated if he is not socially able
to represent himself with people? So

one could keep discussing the impor-
tance of this four-fold development
and never be able to say which of the
four is most important. The student
who comes to college must keep in
mind that he will not be educated un-
less he develops in each one of these.

Farming is today and has been since
eerl:est civilization the most important
industry in the world. Stop. Give this
one serious thought. All other im-
portant industries would immediately
become paralyzed; people would perish
civilization would go to ruin if farm-
ing were discontinued. Still agriculture
as an industry is considered to be
backward. Less salary is paid to the
farming people than to any other
Consequently, many of the smartest
men of the country do not go nto agri-
culture as a vocation. What will
happen if this continues? The agricul-
tural industry will continue to lag be-
hind. What can we as students do about
Here is where capable leadership
wlil render a great service to agricul-
I am reminded that this is a New
Year, 1939. Many resolutions have been
made and many will be broken what is
the use of making resolutions, anyway?
Do not even promise yourself to do
something if you do not see how you
can fulfill this promise. Maybe the
best thing you can do is to promise
yourself that you will conscientiously
do the best you can and really work to
carry out that promise.

Looking Ahead .

Agricultural College Dance, Spring,
Rural Young Conference, Spring,
Little International Livestock Show,
Spring, Campus.
Agriculture College Night, Spring,
World's Poultry Congress, Summer,
State F. F. A. Convention, Summer,
State 4-H Short Course, Summer,

National 4-H Congress Fall, Chicago.
National Convention, Future Farm-
ers of America, Fall, Kansas City.
Annual Poultry Institute, Summer,
Camp McQuarrie.
Annual Citrus Institute, Summer.
Camp McQuarrie.
State F. F. A. Camp, Summer,
St'te 4-H Camp, Summer, Camps
McQuarrie, Cherry Lake and Tim-
Entomological Conference, February
21-23, Tampa.

College 4-H Club

On Sunday morning, January 15,
55 freshmen were initiated into mem-
bership of the Florida State College
4-H Club at a formal initiation service
at Ruge Hall, Episcopal student head-
A devotional was conducted by Laura
McCaughan, Freshman Adviser for the
club, after which Miss Mary E. Keown,
state home demonstration agent, spoke
on the opportunities of 4-H member-
An invitation to join was issued by
Margaret Alford, president of the club,
after which each pledge was presented
for membership by her "big sister."
The 4-H Club of Florida State Col-
lege for Women was organized in the
tall of 1926 when a group of 10 form-
er 4-H girls banded together. Since
that time it has grown into a strong
organization with a roll of 75 active
members. Officers for the present year
are: President, Margaret Alford; 1st
Vice-President, Betty Reed; 2nd Vice-
President, Jeanette Rish; Secretary,
Frances Palmer; Assistant Secretary,
Hazel Lacey; Treasurer, Beatrice Ar-
nold; Freshman Adviser, Laura Mc-
Caughan; Program Chairman, Edna
Simms and Ruth Shepherd.
Immediately following the formal
initation a breakfast honoring the new
initiates was served in the lower college
dining hall. Among those attending
were: Miss Keown, Miss Virginia P.
Moore, home improvement specialist,
Misses McDavid, Ethel Holloway, and
Lucy Belle Settle, district home de-
monstration agents, and Misses Clarine
Belcher, Isabelle S. Thursby, and Anna
Mae Sikes, state extension specialists.

Wauchula--The Wauchula chapter
of which D. G. Allen is adviser held its
first Old Time Fiddler's Contest re-
cently. Fifteen fiddlers, guitar and
harmonica players participated and
entertained a crowd of approximately
600 people. The net proceeds of the
affair augmented the chapter fund by
about $75.00. Prizes awarded to the
winners were donated by local mer-

Tallahassee--Several west Florida
chapters apparently have taken the
lead in originating plans for raising
funds with which to sponsor the an-
nual Father-Son banquets to be given
by the various chapters throughout the
state this spring. The Chipley Chapter
has purchased 600 pounds of mineral
mixture 'to sell; the Vernon Chapter
has a "Birthday Method." When a
member has a birthday, he contributes
one cent for each year of his age and
each other member contributes one
cent also; the Bethlehem Chapter net-
ted a near profit when they sponsored
the play, "Treasure Farm."


Page 13


February 1939


Otto F. Stock Gainesville, Florida

Timely Tips ...

Analyze carefully farm records for
previous year.
Set up a new record system and
make a beginning inventory.
Plan farming program for year, in-
cluding kind, scope, variety.
Plant seedbeds, such as tomatoes,
tobacco, and sweet potato.
Get rid of surplus feed by selling or
feeding to stock.
Fields should be harrowed and turn-
ed under in January.
Fence rows should be cleared and
fences repaired.
Kill porkers for market early in
Bed land, apply fertilizer, make
planting preparations.
Contract for tenant farmers early in
the year.
Clear new land early for spring
Install or repair irrigation system.
Terraces should have been already
Farm machinery should be repaired.
Build new farm buildings and repair
old ones.
Tobacco shades, grape arbors, should
be constructed.
Transplant ornamental trees and
An adequate home garden should be
started for home supply.
Chicks should be hatched or bought.

Game Fowl and Baby Chick,;
Fine Game Cocks and Pullets and
ALL BREEDS Baby Chicks.
Write for price list.
Rockmart, Georgia


Controlling Insects

(Continued from page 12)
with nicotine compounds if effective.
RUST MITE: This is an expensive
pest because of the damage that it
does to fruit which is known as rus-
seting. The pest is about 1-200 of an
inch in length, light yellow in color,
and is wedge-shaped. Where there is a
large number of these insects powdery
appearance can be detected. During
dry weather the grower should watch
constantly for signs of rust mite, and
if detected spraying should be begin
immediately. The rust mite is very
sensitive to sulfur and thus either
spray or dust, free or compound forms
of sulfur are effective. A lime-sulfur
solution of 1 to from 40 to 65 gallons
plus 5 pounds of wettable sulfur is
commonly used for control.
RED SPIDERS: This term applies
to the six-spotted mite and another
spider mite. The control is the same
as for the rust mile.
is a soft-bodied, winged insect, yello'v
to orange in color. It is about 1-25
inch in length and is common to many
flowers, including citrus blossoms.
There is little natural control for this
thrips and it usually pays to spray only
when the pest is abundant. The spray
should be applied while the trees are
in full bloom with a good pressure

Reddick--T. H. Rivers, adviser of the
Ieddici, Chapter, recently distributed
checks totaling $152.00 to 15 members
who engaged in a cooperative project
of raising cabDage planes for sale.
Three quarters of a million plants were
raised by the boys and sold at 60 cents
a hundred.

Ft. Meade--Under the supervision of
the chapter adviser, J. F. Higgins, the
r L. Meace Cnapter staged an old fash-
ioned rodeo. it was preceded by a
western style parade, whicn advertised
the affair. The admission o0 5 cents
per person neuted the members a con-
sideraole sum.

Uainesville--A Christmas party was
held by the Gainesville Chapter mem-
bers on December 16. The boys pre-
sented each other with gifts which in
turn were given to tile empty stocking
fund. Dr. T. V. McCall of the Baptist
Church was the guest speaker.

Largo--The Largo Chapter recently
held the annual Father-Son banquet
with record attendance. Dr. Ludd M.
plivey, President of Southern College,
was the main speaker.

directed at the blossom. If it is neces-
sary a second application should be
made within a week or 10 days. Nico-
tine sulfate used with a spreader is
very effective.



University Ave. Garage and Complete Repair Service GAINESVILLE



Dairy and Poultry Supplies






February 1939

Page 14

SPaIe 15

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February 1939


Page 15

Page 16 TEFOIACLEEFRE eray13




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February 1939

Page 16

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