Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00026
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text


Florida College Farmer


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Consumers Lumber

and Veneer Company
Established 1896 Incorporated 1903

Manufacturers of nailed and wire bound
Citrus and Vegetable Crates.

Apopka, Florida
HENRY W. LAND, BSA '33 Pres. & Gen'l Mgr.

Citrus Culture Corporation

We have been manufacturing fertilizers here
in Mount Dora, Florida, for the past 15 years.
We are owned by growers who will have noth-
ing but the very best fertilizer and fertilizer
materials, ample stocks of which we carry at
all times.

Telephone 148 Mt. Dora, Fla.


In One or More Colors


The Tampa Times Engraving Plant



Engravers for the "Seminole" and "Florida Alligator"

Page 2


May, 1938




Intimate knowledge of a subject, a business, or a
profession, increases interest in it. 4-HI club work
teaches young folk who make it a study, to master
the rudiments of agriculture and domestic duti-s per-
taining thereto. Ile who masters his job will be more
content, more prosperous and better qualified in good
citizenship than he who attempts to conduct a busi-
ness with which he is not familiar in both a scientific
and practical way.
If the rural population of America is to meet the
requirements of tomorrow it must prepare itself in
the manner laid out and followed by the 4-11 club
instructors today.
Haphazard farming and home-making cannot
measure up to the standard of requirements for hold-
ing red-blooded Americans on the farm.
There must be an intellectual interest as well as
economic interest in rural life if the rural citizenship
is to remain the anchor of the republic in the future
as it has been in the past.
The future successful farmers, both men and
women, will come from the ranks of the 4-H club
workers. The old idea that one need not be educated
to be a farmer has long since been exploded. Agri-
culture has its science the same as any other branch
of industry. In this modern world of keen competi-
tion, he who is not armed with scientific knowledge
is at a disadvantage.
The successful farmer
of Florida is potentially a
successful farmer in any T i
other state. A successful I e FlOrida
farmer in the United
States is potentially a sue- Ililished by represeutat
cessful farmer in other COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
parts of the world. GAINESVI
When Brazil wanted a
man to instruct Brazilians EDITOT
in Agriculture they sent to J. CLYDE DIGGERS, '38
Florida and got Dr. P. H. EDWIN B. WEISSINGER,
Rolfs from the College of J. LESTER POUCIER, '40
Agriculture. State Uni- BUSIN]
versity. When R u s s a HENRY (J. LUNSFORD, '38
wanted a man to teach Ross E. MowRY, '38
agriculture they sent to E. II. IOYLES, '41
Montana and got Mr.
Campbell and told him to EDITORIAL S'
write his own salary; that OSCAR K. MOORE, '38
they would not set it but MYRON GRENNELL, '41 ..
let him name the figure. MRS. JULIET H. CARRIN(
I merely mention these WILLIAM H. STONE, '38
instances to emphasize the CHARLES CLYMORE, '38
fact that there is a call R. T. NEUMANN, '38 ....
throughout the world in WAYNE P. DEAN, '38
every line of business for FRANK H. RICH. '38
experts, and agriculture SIDNEY P. MARSHAI.L. '
is no exception. CHiARLEB JAMISON, '40
is no exception. RE
I congratulate every
student in 4-H club work F. Tcker, '38; J. H
'38; A. L. French, Jr.,
and beg him to go forward Wadsworth, '39.
and be proud of the knowl- FACULTY ADV
edge he gains and the H. H. HI
power it gives him. C. H. WILLOUGBY
(Com. of Agriculture.


A million editorial lines have been composed prais-
ing 4-II work, its advantages to the rural boys and
girls who participate in the organization, and its
value as a training ground in qualities of usefulness
and citizenship.
Though these eulogies are undoubtedly as true as
they ever were, it seems to us that they tend to lose
rather than gain by repetition. Therefore we today
shall point out one aspect of 4-H clubs which has
in the past been neglected rather than over-empha-
sized. This view of the young people's work sees it
as perhaps our only genuine example of truly Ameri-
can culture.
We are a young nation; our social inheritance was
bequeathed to us by all the nations who preceded us.
Language, customs, law, literature, art-all of them
we had at second-hand. But almost since its birth
the United States has led the world in agriculture,
and the 4-II organization was an inevitable outgrowth
of our supremacy in that field. Today no one can
accuse us of borrowing to establish this institution
as the vital force it is today. Four-H work is essen-
tially, typically, American. It has been nourished
with American dreams and aspirations, its ranks of
more than a million young people are filled with the
aristocracy of American citizenship, and the 4-H

clubs today sand in a

College Farmer

lives of Stiudent Organizations


'40 .....

.......... .. .... ....................E editor
....... Managing Editor
.......... .Associate Editor

.. ....................Business M manager
..Assistant Business Manager
.............. Circulation Manager
.A tircrising Manager
.....................College of Agriculture
4-H Club
.Future Farmers of America
GTON, '38 .................Alumni Notes
............................ A g. E engineering
........ ........................ A g. E conom ics
18 ......... ........ Horticulture
...... ... ....................... F forestry
..... Entomology
..... gronomy
8 ......A.. Animal Husbandry
..... Poultry Husbandry
SJones, '38; G. L. Boydston.
41; S. Rothe, '39, and Merle

uME, Chairman

strength as beautifully Amer-
ican as that of the tower-
ing skyscrapers in our
.great cities.
-E. B. W.

The 4-H organization is
probably the largest or-
ganization of young peo-
ple in the world. It has
a membership of hundreds
of thousands of boys and
girls who have taken for
their aim the promotion of
better farm practices, bet-
ter homes, and the devel-
opment of leadership and
citizenship among the
rural people.
4-H club work was
founded on the basis of
"Learn by Doing." The
club member learns by
actual experience and by
doing the job. The source
of information is the Ex-
tension Service, but the
actual school is the club
member and the club pro-
ject. Club work is, and
will always be, what the
club member makes of it.

May, 1938


Page 3


My Club Work

I started my truck garden on August
3 of last year: and had the land plow-
Y f rr ed harrowed, rows laid off and plant-
o c en t f c F rm ed before school started. T tried to do
most of the heavy work before school
started, so I could play football.
From the earnings of last year's
garden, I bought a garden tractor
.Have a clear grasp of the need for good which has made my work easier and
Quicker: and also made the playing of
fertilizers, backed by scientific knowledge and cor- football possible, because I can do five
times as much work with it as I could
pounded from fine materials. IDEAL Brands are with the push plow. and grow better
p d quality vegetables.
such fertilizers-the helpful tools that, in your skill- This year, to enable me to get the
garden tractor down the middle of the
ed hands, will make Florida lands produce larger, rows. they had to be considerably
nwid(er than I had been making them,
better crops. We urge you to test for yourselves so. just as an experiment, I pnt two
rows of carrots in the same bed about
the superior merits of IDEAL Fertilizers. three inches apart. when they were
up about three inches high I thinned
out all the small stunted carrots until
I had a hardy, uniform stand about
an inch apart. Almost all of the carrots
from these rows were saleable. Here-
after I am going to grow all my car-
rots this way. I think the main thing
in high yield and good quality produc-
W ILSON & TOOMER FERTILIZER COMPANY tion is well prepared land and the best
seed you can buy.
The worst thing that happened to
Jacksonville, Florida. my garden was the freeze. Although
I fired all night, the wind was blow-
ing and it didn't do much good. The
turnips were killed and the mustard
and beets were killed back consider-
ably. In the way of bugs and worms
as pests, I had green worms, cut
worms, and aphids. I kept the green
worlmls under control with arsenate
and lime mixed thirty to one, and the
cut worms under control with paris
green mixed with bran and syrup. In
T previous years I have tried different
T HE RIGHT plant foods in the formllas for controlling aphids with-
out success. so this year I didn't do
right amounts at the right time, anything for them: but I found that
plus dependable all-the-year Field when the aphids got about the worst.
an aphid killing fungus or tiny wasp
Service, is the GULF formula for came and killed them out.
crop success. Growers of all cor- The expenses for my garden have
Been: rent of one acre of land $3.00,
Sin mercial crops in Florida have found preparation $9.50. planting $14.10. culti-
it a formula that pays. nation $14.30, harvesting $10.80, mark-
eting $15.30. seed $10.05. plants $2.61,
fertilizer $14.40. and dust materials
$1.40. which totals $95.46.
I have sold $31.64 of turnips, $15.66
of mustard, $9.36 of onions. $14.89 of
collards. $35.96 of carrots, $3.80 of
cabbage. $8.94 of broccoli. $3.37 of
lettuce, $9.77 of spinach, and $8.74 of
beets, which totals $142.13. This gives
me a net profit of $46.67, although I
am not through with the garden, I
think with the continued help of Mr.
M.oore, our County Agent, I will clear
about $200 by the end of the year.
I attribute my success to getting a
market. to growing high quality
vegetables. and to putting up nice
(-lean graded bunches.
During February I Iput an exhibit
of vegetables in the "Central Florida
Exposition" in Orlando and got the
The Gulf Fertilizer Co. ~blue ribbon.
The Gulf Fertilizer Co. hLast week I was elected president
of the 4-H Club County Council of
Tampa, Florida Orange (oulnty.

The Florida College Farmer

Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida

VOL. VI MAY, 1938 NO. 4

Baker County Dedicates Club Building

By J. FRANCIS COOPER, Extension Editor

Circus managers. theater proprietors,
politicians and others appealing to the
masses are always searching for some-
thing that will really "wow" the pub-
lic, that will pack their auditoriums
and till their coffers. In Baker County,
Florida, they would do well to hitch
their wagons to boys' 4-H club work,
for it is the biggest "wow" of recent
years. Conducted by the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, with fed-
eral and county financial assistance, it
has brought unity of purpose and in-
terest to everyone in the county, and a
recent rally drew more people than
the most sanguine politician could hope
to attract to one of his breast-beating
For Baker County was dedicating
the first county 4-H club building in
Florida, erected for the exclusive use
of rural boys enrolled in agricultural
projects with their county agent. Near-
ly everybody in the county had con-
tributed to the building, one way or
another, and had eagerly watched it
assume shape, form and reality. For
whoever thought that Baker County
could have brought a thing like that
to fruition? Nobody but some fool-
hardy but indomitable souls like the
county agent and his club boys.
A small county, with no large and
thriving cities, Baker's total popula-
tion is only around 7,500. It is a rural
county, with large acreages devoted
to pine forests which are turpentined
and other large areas grazed to range
cattle. Boasting two nurseries, it might
lie called a nursery center. It is too far
north for the production of Florida's
famous citrus fruits, and so it is more

of a general farming area. Its people
are not wealthy. so far as wordly goods
are concerned, but are generous in-
deed in spirit.
So the dedication of Baker County's
4-H club building on April 1 was an
event in the history of the county. The
day's exercises attracted around 3,000
people, or about 40 per cent of the
county's population. Both old and
young turned out for this important
The log-walled building consists of
a large recreation and meeting room,
with a small kitchen attached. Ad-
jacent is a show-ring, arena and pavil-
lion, with raised seats for spectators,
pens for 60 animals, and gates and
runways. The building was complete
when dedicated, but the livestock pavil-
lion did not yet have its roof and
other finishing touches.
Regular meetings will be held in the
building throughout the year, but the
biggest event on its calendar will be
the annual county contest when club
boys will exhibit their crops and live-
stock and compete for awards on their
year's work and records.
Funds with which to buy materials
needed in constructing the building
were raised throughout the county andl
in adjoining counties by the Baker
4-H boys and their county agent. Labor
was provided by the National Youth
Administration. The work was rushed
so that dedication exercises could be
held on April 1, which also marked tihe
second anniversary of the appointment
of the present county agent and the
initiation of club work on a large scale

(Cut Courtesy Nat. 4-H Club News)

in the county. Baker County citizens
don't believe in April Fool jokes.
Mabry D. Futch is their county
agent. A native Floridian and gradu-
ate of the University of Florida Col-
lege of Agriculture, he is growing in
the work with his county. Baker is
his first appointment, and he is build-
ing in more ways than one.
Schools of the county cooperate
heartily with the 4- club endeavors.
and on dedication day every school
was dismissed for the occasion. School
buses brought children nind adults from
every rural community in the county
to Macclenny. the county seat, for the
exercises. The Robert E. Lee High
School of Jacksonville sent its 35-piece
band to furnish music for the occasion
:ad to lead a big parade through the
streets of Macclenny preceding the
To the strains of The Star Spangled
Banner, played by the and, while the ee
United States flag was raised to the
top of the flag. pole, the dedication
exercises got under way. Former Gov-
ernor Doyle E. Carlton was the princi-
pal speaker, and paid a glowing tribute
to 4-H club work as a builder of rural
youth, fitting them for better citizen-
ship and enabling them to cope with
problems which will face them in the
Vice-Director A. P. Spencer of the
State Agricultural Extension Service
declared that this service, realizing
the great value of youth training, is
extending every effort to fit rural boys
and girls for service to their com-
munities, state and nation. State Boys'
Club Agent R. W. Blacklock congratu-
lated the agent and the people of the
county on their endeavors, declaring
that the building is concrete evidence
of what can be accomplished when the
people of a county work together. He
urged adults present to continue their
excellent aid to rural youth of the
A big fish dinner was served to all
visitors following the speaking pro-
gram by a group of farm women, and
a motion picture, Under the 4-H Flag,
was shown by Sears-Roebuck Agricul-
tural Foundation, in the afternoon to
conclude the gala day.
Deed to the property was presented
to the county commissioners by County
Agent Futch, who expressed deep ap-
preciation for the assistance rendered
by everyone.
Typical of the sentiment of all rural
residents of the county was that ex-
pressed by an elderly woman. Almost
with tears in her eyes, she told the
chairman: "You don't know how happy
I am to see this. My boy is in the 4-H
club, I like to see progress."


May, 1938


Florida Experiment Station Celebrating Golden Anniversary


Recognition of agriculture as the
basis of all permanent prosperity im-
plies an obligation from the community
to the farmer. Profits are sought in
tilling the soil that farm families may
be provided with the nesessities and
the comforts of life. Food crops es-
sential to all classes cannot be grown
indefinitely unless the producers re-
ceive reasonable rewards for their work.
While Nature was munificent in her
gift of favoring conditions to the farm-
ing areas of Florida, she also made pro-
visions of offsetting elements on a
prodigal scale. Climate, location, rain-
fall and soil advantages must contend
with disadvantages composed of crop
enemies, marketing difficulties and re-
lated obstacles.
Means for overcoming the handicaps
of Florida agriculture cannot be ef-
ficiently developed by a few farmers,
acting independently. Nor can many of
them do the experimental work requir-
ed to determine how the State's agri-
cultural assets may be best utilized. A
central research agency is essential
for these purposes.
The Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station was established to serve
Florida farmers in this manner just 50
years ago. It is this year celebrating
its Golden Anniversary. Founded at
Lake City in 1888, it was removed to
Gainesville during 1905H and 1906. when
the University of Florida began its ex-
istence at that place. Branch stations
since have been located at Belle Glade,
Homestead, Lake Alfred and Quincy.
Field laboratories are maintained inl
Bradenton, Cocoa, Iastings. Leesburg.
Monticello and Plant City. Studies
frequently are conducted at other
points, under actual field conditions.
Relations of a cooperative character
are sustained with numerous similar
institutions, federal and state.
Diversified Research
Agriculture in Florida is most
diversified, climate ranging from sub-
tropical to temperate, hence the pro1b-
lems are highly varied. Conditions
differ radically from those found in
other states, and unfortunately much
of the agricultural research elsewhere
does not apply here.
Delving into the realm of the un-
known and emerging with verified
knowledge, the Florida Experiment
Station for 50 years has kept pace with
the demands of farmers and growers
for practical information based on
scientific findings. Millions of dollars
have been saved by following its ad-
vice. Findings of the Station are
furnished to the farmers and growers
of Florida mainly through these chan-
nels: (1) articles written by staff
members appearing in farm journals,
newspapers and other periodicals; (2)
bulletins, more than 319 of which have
been printed, now having a circulation

of 100.000 copies annually; (3) cor-
respondence consisting of some 5,000
letters a month, most of them written
in response to requests for inforlml-
tion: (4) radio broadcasts, daily over
State and University of Florida Sta-
tion WRUF. frequently over other sta-
tions; (5) field contacts by the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which
federal, state and county governments
jointly maintain, with farm agents in
43 counties and home demonstration
agents in 33.

Director, Agricultural Experiment

New and Valuable Crops
New crops introduced by the Sta-
tion, in conjunction with the United
States Department of Agriculture, now
are of major importance, not only in
Florida but to other Southern States.
Velvet beans. tung oil trees, dallis,
centipede and bahia grasses and cro-
talaria are excellent examples.
Tung trees afford an outstanding ex-
ample of the constructive achievements
which the Florida Stations have at-
tained in research with new crops.
Adaptability of this importation from
the Orient for large sections border-
ing on tie northern Gulf Coast was
in fact chiefly established through the
persistent methods employed by the in-
stitution. Il later periods, remedies
have been found for destructive dis-
eases; experiments are now under way
which seek varieties suitable for sub-
tropical areas.

In the program of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station particular
attention has been paid to grasses for
pasturage. Rainfall and related condi-
tion of climate lessen the value of hay
varieties in the state. Exhaustive tests
have been made with hundreds of
kinds, in determining which are blest
for pastures. The work is still pro-
Overcoming Pests
Varieties resistant to plant enemies,
including Cayana 10 sugarcane, rela-
tively free from mosaic and root-knot,
cigar wrapper tobaccos resisting black-
shank and the Marglobe tomato, with-
standing nailhead rust, have been
proved of value in Florida through the
work of the Experiment Station.
Research in sugarcane at the Experi-
ment Station began with the endeavor
to overcome mosaic and root-knot.
Foothold had been gained in the state
by these diseases through which the
destruction of the cane-growing indus--
try seriously was threatened. Cayana
10 sugarcane, brought into Florida by
the State Ilant Board and demon-
strated as of superior merit by the
Agricultural Experiment Station and
affiliated farm service agencies in the
University at Gainesville, soon replac-
ed older kinds because of its resistance
to mosaic and root-knot. Without a
variety possessing that quality, cane
growing largely would have vanished.
New and better varieties have been
tried in the Everglades since then.
Blackshank no longer seriously wor-
ries the shade tobacco farmers of
North and West Florida. By crossing
varieties of good quality but poor re-
sistance with ones more resistant bll
turning off inferior leaf. the best of
the progeny were selected and bred
further, by the specialists for the Ex-
periment Station. The desired resist-
ance and quality were finally attained
in two strains, first by 301 and later
by Rg.
In ascertaining how to control or
eradicate insect pests and plane dis-
eases, the Station has noteworthy
achievements to its credit. It brought
to Florida the Australian lady-beetle,
saving the citrus groves from the
destructive cottony-cushion s c a 1 e,
previously a great menace. Control of
the scale by the ladybeetle, making
possible production of fruit despite
infestations, has been relatively com-
plete and inexpensive. Savings to the
citrus growers have been enormous.
Other importations of insect para-
sites into Florida have been the tachi-
nid fly, a parasite which largely holds
the pumpkin bug in check: the
Cryptolnemus ladybeetle, used in con-
trol of the mealy bug. Both of these
are from Australia. China contributed
to Florida the Chinese ladybeetle
which feasts on aphids.

Page 6


For Slicker Cattle
Salt sick in cattle defied the Station
workers for 40 years, but finally they
discovered preventive and corrective
agencies of inestimable worth to the
livestock raisers whose herds have
been affected. Cattle in Florida, graz-
ing around the phosphate mines. were
free from salt sick. Feeding of calcium
and phosphate thus was suggested, but
when tried the results were negative.
Iron added to the feed turned out much
more successfully. Affected animals
responded well in repeated experi-
ments, but now and then a herd failed
to improve. Research dealing with the
digestive processes of cattle had shown
that copper often was needed to rend-
er the iron efficient. Copper according-
ly was included with iron in the mix-
ture, after which the desired effect
was obtained in most cases. Cobalt
added to feed mixtures seems to com-
plete the requirements.
Avenues for the profitable utilization
of grapefruit cannery waste have been
sought by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station with a consider-
able degree of success. Investigation
concerning the feasibility of convert-
ing the refuse into feed for livestock
have revealed promising possibilities
along that line. Feeding tests with the
material gave excellent results.
Convenient, economical means for
making fresh orange juice generally
obtainable have been earnestly sought
in the citrus industry for a number of
years. Sale and delivery of fresh juice
along with milk, and in the same type
of containers, would place it in the
largest possible number of households.
When the system devised in the Ex-
periment Station laboratories is fol-
lowed, fresh orange juice may be pro-
duced, in specially equipped cold stor-
age plants, without sterilization, that
is of excellent and uniform quality.
Distribution can be made in ordinary
milk bottles with full assurance that
the juice will retain all desirable at-
tributes for at least four days.

Building an Empire
Organic soils usually are remarkably
productive, when properly drained and
cultivated. Expectation was logical that
the Everglades would develop into a
veritable garden spot after drainage
had been furnished. Florida undertook
to open up the Everglades for settle-
ment. Results in the main proved sur-
prisingly negative. This led to the es-
tablishment of the Belle Glade branch
of the Experiment Station in 1923.
When copper sulphate and zinc sul-
phate were applied, the "saw-grass"
soil began to give wonderful plant
growth. The key had been found for
one of the doors tlat Nature left lock-
ed. Manganese sulphate also proved to
be a dependable corrective for bean
"yellows" caused by soil alkalinity.
And again, experiments at the Ever-
glades Station promptly identified a
shortage of potash as the responsible
factor for feeble and undernourished
Chemists at the State Station have
analyzed a great many Florida pro-
ducts to determine their relative stand-
ing in food and health values. In ad-
dition to citrus fruits, a long list of
vegetables has been studied in the pro-
gram. All were found to be comparable
to vegetables grown elsewhere. Studies
of certain Florida crops have develop-
ed by-products of considerable worth.
Oranges and grapefruit peel contain
from 3 to 0 per cent of pectin, in many
ways superior to the apple pectin of
Florida's Agricultural Experiment
Station was one of the first research
agencies in this country to take up the
study of the effects of rare elements,
added to the soil, on plant growth.
Boron, copper, magnesium and zinc are
the less common constituents of plant
food that were disclosed to give the
most positive results in the Florida in-
vestigations. Crop rotation was found
frequently to lessen soil deficiencies.
Land allowed to grow volunteer weeds
and grasses for a year or two indi-

cated partial restoration of the missing
Watermelons again can be grown in
Florida on land where they have been
raised before, with a minimum of risk
that the crop will be wholly or in part
destroyed by the soil-inhabiting fusar-
ium wilt. A new variety of excellent
quality for commercial shipments
which is resistant to the disease has
been developed by research workers in
the Florida Station, as the result of
more than five years' endeavor.
Thus we have a very brief review
of some of the experiment station's
accomplishments of the past 50 years.
and we find that farming in Florida
has made progress most rapidly when
intimately linked with research. Keep-
ing open the doors to farm profits and
pleasure is the responsibility of the
F o r i d a Agricultural Experiment

4-H Council Has
Successful Year

The 4-HI Boys' State Council was
organized in 1936 by a group of am-
bitious 4-H workers and completed its
first year with much success. Reports
show a total membership of 4,039, an
increase of 35% over 1935. Organized
clubs increased from 205 to 217 in
The State Council holds its meetings
on the campus of the U. of F. and
attracts much attention, especially
from the Agricultural College, in its
A fellowship meeting was held by the
Council of the old 4-H club members
on the campus to draw interest among
the group. This was the first meeting
of its type ever attempted. A program
of entertainment was furnished with
several interesting speakers on the
-D. C. Hanks, '40.


Properly grown, the citrus crop of this State represents a veritable gold mine.
Gold signifies a fineness of character and quality-there is never any substitute for pure
gold. There should not be any substitute for the materials that help to bring out the gold
of the orange.
Receivers of fruit up North, and Buyers in Florida are beginning to judge the quality of
citrus fruit by testing for eating quality and flavor.
Quality fertilizer will produce such crops of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines for you.

Lyons Fertilizers Have Been Doing This Job For Growers All Over The State For
Many Years. It Can Do The Same Job For You.

Lyons Fertilizer Company

Tampa, Florida

May, 1938

Page 7


Tampa. The Executive Committee
of the Florida Association. Future
Farmers of America, met here recent-
ly and completed plans for the Annual
State Convention which will be held in
Gainesville June 14-17.
Havana. As a result of terracing
being studied in the Havana-Concord
schools, members of the local F. F. A.
Chapter have run 11,000 feet of ter-
races for farmers in the community.
Sarasota. Several cooperative agri-
cultural projects have been launched
by the Sarasota Chapter of Future
Farmers of America. One of these
projects is the growing and fattening
of 19 hogs. When the hogs reach a
weight of 125 pounds, they are butch-
ered and sold and the proceeds divided
among the members who raised the
Wauchula. A very important meet-
ing of the Future Farmer Federation
in District V was held here recently.
Plans were made at this meeting so
that the chapters represented might
do more effective Future Farmer work
in the District.
Williston. The local charter of Fu-
ture Farmers of America report that
the members have produced and sold
thousands of tomato and pepper plants
during the past few weeks. The boys
treated seed in class for diseases be-
fore planting them.
Redland. The Homestead Chapter,
Future Farmers of America, was
awarded the William D. Joyce cup for
their outstanding exhibit at the Dade
County Fruit Festival.
Sandford. The Seminole High
School Fair and Carnival was held on
May 6 and 7. All schools in the county
participated and all phases of school
work were dj~played. The Fair was
sponsored by the Seminole Chapter
F. F. A.
Tallahassee. The State Adviser an-
nounces that the following F. F. A.
Chapters have held banquets recently:
WTalnut Hill, Laural Hill, Greensboro,
Bristol, St. Cloud-Kissimmee, DeSoto,
Citrus, Sanford, and Athenian.
Graceville. Graceville Future Farm-
ers laid down their plows and hoes and
took the day off to go oyster hunting
recently. The hunt ended down near
Panama City where they located plenty
of oysters.
Quincy. The local chapter of Future
Farmers of America recently entertain-
ed the Home Economics girls with a
fish fry at Lake Talquin. This was

Page 8


given them as a token of appreciation
for services rendered in entertaining
the fathers at their Father-and-Son
banquent. The local chapter has also
sponsored a boxing program recently
and earned $51.00 for the chapter
Washington, D. C. J. Lester Pouch-
er of Florida, National President of
the Future Farmers of America, re-
turned recently from Honolulu, Hawaii,
where lie was a guest of the Hawaii
Association, Future Fariner s of
America. On his return he visited sev-
eral meetings of state associations in
the Northwest.
Bunnell. The Bunnell Chapter of
Future Farmers of America has been
assisting in replanting trees on idle
land. Its members collected and plant-
ed several pounds of slash pine seed.
The seedlings will be planted in the
local community.
Crescent City. The Crescent City
Future Farmers have been busily en-
gaged in constructing a slat house
which they will use in propagating
ornamentals for school and home
DeLand. The Athenian Chapter of
Future Farmers of America sponsored
a cooperative pruning project. The
chapter earned money for its treasury
by pruning a large orange grove.
Pahokee. The Pahokee Chapter,
F. F. A., reports that it has earned
from a cooperative bean project a prof-
it of more than $400 for the Chapter
treasury. In addition, the Chapter
members are raising cooperatively 000
baby chicks with the idea of develop-
ing a laying flock. They plan also to
purchase a purebred dairy bull for the
Chiefland. Earl Faircloth, State
President of the Florida Association,
1'. F. A., of Chiefland is setting a pace
for other Future Farmer members in
the State of Florida in project work
by carrying 12 projects this year. We
hope that nany other Future Farmers
will follow in his footsteps.
Greenville. The Greenville Chapter,
F. F. A., is beautifying the school
ground by setting out 140 abelia,
yaupon, and cherry laurel plants.
Arcadia. The DeSoto Chapter, F.
F. A., reports that it has very suc-
cessfully conducted two outstanding
activities. It sponsored a Queen Car-
nival Contest and a concession at the
All-Florida Rodeo.
Bushnell. The Bushnell Chapter,
F. F. A., is planting a cooperative
4-acre tobacco project.

May, 1938



F. F. A. Chapter Activities

Marianna. The Marianna Future
Farmer Chapter is carrying a coopera-
tive broiler project. The broilers are
grown out from baby chicks by the
battery brooder method. The boys are
demonstrating that it is possible for
a boy to make a success with his
poultry project on a small plot of
ground. They are marketing 25 broil-
ers each week.
Ponce de Leon. The Ponce de Leon
Chapter of Future Farmers report that
live of their members recently pur-
chased live registered Poland-China
gilts. They have brought a total of 14
purebred hogs into the community. One
of the objectives is to build up the
grade of livestock in the community,
andll the Chapter has made it possible
for anyone desiring this stock to get
it with very little cost.
Tallahassee. Tne following F. F. A.
Chapters have held banquets recently:
Chipley, Hastings, Largo, Homestead,
Redhland, Allentown, Crescent City,
Hilliard, Greenville, Bradenton, Chief-
land, Ft. White, Bunnell, Wauchula,
Altha-Blountstown, Callahan, Miami,
and Hawthorne.
Largo. The Largo Chapter of F. F.
A., reports that tne Future Farmers
are carrying a cooperative poultry pro-
ject. Twice a month they buy 200 baby
chicks to place in their brooders and
each week they sell about 100 2-lb.
fryers. They keep about 1,000 chicks
on hand at all times.
Uainesville. 'The Third District Fed-
eration of Future Farmers of America
held a meeting in Gainesville recently.
The theme or the program was the
duties of Future Farmer officers. Each
chapter in the district was represented
at the meeting.
Ocala. Members of the Ocala Chap-
ter of the F. F. A., recently initiated
members of the Bushnell Chapter into
the Green Hand degree.
Webster. The Webster Chapter of
F. F. A., reports that it has a 2-acre
general truck cooperative project.

Each 4-H club girl of eastern Hills-
borough County who had completed
her sewing for the year and had it
scored was given permission to march
in the Strawberry Festival parade.
Forty-two of the girls were on hand
for the parade. They wore white
dresses and caps.

Sumter County 4-H Club Council
was organized this month with two
representatives from each club, ac-
cording to Miss Martha Briese, home
agent. The Council agreed to help
sponsor a county fair in the spring.


Who's Who Among 4-H'ers on Campus


This year there is a larger number
of former 4-H club members on the
campus than ever before. In the fresh-
man class are 10 who received scholar-
ships given by Sears, Roebuck and
Company. Most of these boys are mak-
ing high scholastic averages.
Many of the boys are working their
way through school as student assist-
ants, office assistants, newspaper car-
riers, and off-campus employees. At
present there are several former 4-H
club men working in the Experiment
Station and Extension Service.
Among the 4-H boys on the campus
are Earl Powers, a freshman in the
Law College. He is a member of the
Sigma Nu social fraternity, a newly
elected member of the Hall of Fame,
and organizer of University Union
Party, a student government political
party. Next is Bobby Collins, a senior in
the College of Business Administration,
captain of the University Swimming
team, Chancellor of the Honor Court,
and newly elected member of the Hall
of Fame.
Donaldson Curtis '40, won two
scholarships given by the Model Land
Company and the State Banker's As-
sociation, and also winner of a trip
to Washington several years ago. He
is on the Advisory Committee for the
State 4-H Club Council. Raymon Tuck-
er, '38, College of Agriculture, gradu-
ates in Animal Husbandry. He was
president of the Ag Club for the first
quarter of this school year, reporter
for the Block and Bridle Club, and a
member of the Alpha Gamma Rho
Social Franternity.
Ed Weissinger, '40, is the newly
elected Editor of the "F" Book. Monitor
of the N.Y.A. Barracks, and managing
Editor of The Florida College Farmer:
G. T. Huggins, '39, College of Agricul-
ture, member of the Executive Council.


and director of Camp McQuarrie for
the past two summers; 0. Z. Revell,
'38, Agricultural Education; Culver
Revell, '41, and winner of a Sears.
Roebuck Scholarship; Frank Kainiya.
'39, College of Education; Kazuo
Kamiya. '41; Robert Gunson, 41:
Irving Hurst, '41; Jim Beardsly, '41
winner of a Sears, Roebuck Scholar-
ship and secretary of the Sears, Roe-
buck Scholarship Club; Jim McCor-
mick, '41, Winner of Sears, Roebuck
Scholarship; Burt Bassett, '39, Agri-
cultural College, a member of the Sigma
Nu social fraternity, and Student As-
sistant at the Presbyterian Church;
Wendel Patrick, '41, winner of Sears,
Roebuck Scholarship; Gray Miley, As-
sistant Agricultural Economist, Agri-
cultural Extension Service; D. C.
Hanks, '40, a former president of the
State 4-H Council, assistant camp di-
rector at Camp Timpoochee, winner
of Washington trip several years ago,
and advisor to the State 4-H Council;
Adin Maltby, '41, winner of trip to
Washington last year and winner of
Scholarship given by the Hastings
Potato Growers Association; Carl
Hendricks, '41; Alvin Spurlock, As-
sistant Chemist in the Experiment
Station; Marcus Williams, '38, College
of Agriculture, and officer in the
R.O.T.C., infantry; A. Lee French, '41
winner of Sears, Roebuck Scholarship,
president of that organization and a
member of the Ag Club.
Thomas Henry, Jr., '40, a member of
the Block and Bridle Club and Ag
Club also winner of a State Bankers
Scholarship several years ago; Clark
Bryan, '41, a member of the Delta
Chi Social Fraternity and on the
champion Intramural Basketball team;
Oscar Watson, '41; HI. H. Babb, '41, a
member of the Block and Bridle Club;
Charles "Pat" Parrish, '41, a Sears,
Roebuck Scholarship holder; Eugene
Boyles, '41, 4-11 Editor for the Florida
College Farmer, winner of the Frank
E. Dennis Scholarship, and a holder
of one of the Sears, Roebuck Scholar-
ships; nervery Sharpe, '41, a holder
of a Sears, Roebuck Scholarship;
George Baker, '38 College of Arts and
Sciences; Murry Fulford, '40; Randall
Fulford, '39, Agricultural College;
Ormond Hendry, '41, Member of the
Florida Freshman Friendship Club and
lirst Vice-President of State 4-H Club
Council; Ottis Pippen, '39 Agricul-
tural Education, Secretary of the Block
and Bridle Club; M. L. Bishop, '41;
Mitchell Hope, '40, a winner of the
State Bankers Scholarship several
years ago; Woodrow Brown, '41; Rus-
sell Peeples, '41; Albert Alenius, '41;
Louis Daigle, 41; Walter Badger, 40,
winner of the Model Land Company
scholarship in 1936.
We are highly honored with having
two 4-H club girls going to school here.
Miss Kathleen Wheeler, the first girl
to graduate from the College of Agri-
culture, also Miss Dorothy Dailey, a
freshman this year.


Suwannee Fair Group
To Aid 4-H Club Boys
In Livestock Project

The Suwannee County Fair Associa-
tion is planning to assist 4-H club boys
of the county financially in their hog,
poultry and beef cattle projects, it has
informed County Agent S. C. Kierce.
The Association expects to buy two
bred gilts, good Poland China and
Duroc, to place with two 4-H boys
as a nucleus for expanding pig club
work, Mr. Kierce says. After the gilt
has farrowed and the pigs are about
12 weeks old, the boy will return half
of the litter, or at least three pigs,
if he desires to keep the sow for his
own herd. The pigs returned will be
placed with other boys on the same
The Association plans to sponsor
two poultry projects along the same
line, and to finance boys in the pur-
chase of four steers to feed out for
the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale
to be held in Jacksonville next March.
The steers will be bought next fall,
and the boys will repay their loans
on them with interest at 5 per cent,
Mr. Kierce explains.

Dade County 4-H club boys know
how to raise baby chicks, a recent re-
port from Assistant County Agent J.
Lawrence Edwards indicates. Twenty
boys bought 25 chicks each about four
months ago and all but one of them
realized a profit on their investment,
the failure of the one being due to his
purchase of inferior grade chicks.
Three of the boys, Gene Cummings,
Neil Smoak, and Charles Smith raised
all their 25 chicks. Another club boy,
Joe Campbell, raised 50 out of 50 he

May, 1938

Page 9



Activities of

Florida 4-H Clubs Boys and Girls

Boys' Short Course Begins May 30


On Monday afternoon, May 30, some
300 4-H club boys representing all
parts of the state will assemble on the
beautiful campus of the University of
Florida to enjoy a week indulging in
sports, comradeship, and learning under
the very able leadership of Mr. R. W.
Blacklock and his qualified staff of
extension men who will direct the boys
in study of the various phases of
The boys will be arriving from the
four corners of the state and will
register for the 5-day short course that
will end Saturday, June 4. Living in
the University dormitories, eating in
the University cafeteria, and assembl-
ing in the University auditorium, these
fortunate lads from the promising
rural sections of Florida will have ac-
cess to the full benefits of the College
of Agriculture, Experiment Station,
Extension Service, and many other
parts of the University, including the
swimming pool, infirmary, athletic
fields, and gymnasiums.
While attending this convention the
boys will be divided into squads of
approximately 25 boys each, which will
act as the primary administrative unit
of the school. There will be two groups
of squads: the junior squads, consist-
ing of boys under 14 and ones attend-
ing their first short course, will devote
their class time to visiting the various
departments of the College of Agricul-
ture and getting acquainted with the
University; the senior squads, consist-
ing of boys who have successfully com-
pleted one short course, will each
devote its time to the study of one
particular field of agriculture, such as
Dairying, Agronomy, Farm Manage-
ment, Citrus, Poultry, Swine Produc-
tion, and Forestry under the instruc-
tion of the experts of the Extension
Service. These squads will be in com-
petition, during the week, for the best
squad in their group-an honor that
is given only two squads a year and
one of which each boy can feel rightly
After arising from a restful night on
the dormitory beds and eating a de-
licious breakfast in the cafeteria, the
boys will gather at 8:00 o'clock for the
first of the three daily assemblies held
in the University auditorium. These
gatherings tend to unify 4-H club boys
from over the State and also give them
contact with the agricultural world
through short addresses by prominent
men in the field and entertainment
through song and stunts conducted by
themselves. The program includes:
songs led by Billy Matthews, who is
well known to all club members; ad-
dresses by Dean Wilmon Newell, di-
rector of the Agricultural Experiment
Station and Dean of the College of
Agriculture, Major W. L. Floyd, assist-

ant dean of the College of Agriculture,
and Mr. A. P. Spencer, vice-director
of the Agricultural Extension Service;
talks by several outstanding club
members, including winners of the trip
to Washington, demonstrations by the
senior squads; many interesting an-
nouncements; and a special entertain-
ment by the former 4-H club boys who
are now in college.
But the boys do many other things
besides attending classes and assemb-
lies; they spend the afternoons play-
ing diamond ball and other sports.
During their stay in Gainesville, each
squad picks a team front among its
boys and plays other squads and at
the end of the week the champion
squad is honored. Also, every afternoon
the large University swimming pool is
available to all boys who are not other-
wise enjoying themselves for bathing
and basking in the sunshine. On Fri-
day afternoon a swimming meet is
held under the direction of Prof. N. R.
Mehrhof, and swimming coach Frank
Genovar in which both squads and
counties vie for top honors.

State Club Leader
joy the privileges and shoulder the re-
sponsibilities of self-government as do
the regular University students. The
boys have a vigilance committee com-
posed of members of their own group
which meets every night in a solemn
Honor Court to try any boy who has
not been able to conduct himself to
the benefit of the body. The boys, also.
publish their own daily paper which
gives the highlights of their day's

State Council of 4-H Clubs
For Boys Has Leading Role

The idea of having a State organiza-
tion carried on for and by 4-H club
boys originated several years ago. The
first real steps toward the fulfilment
of this plan were taken during the
short course in June 1935. A few of
the older boys who showing consider-
able interest along this line were given
the privilege of setting up a State
In this first meeting there were only
five or six boys. Some of these were
D. C. Hanks, Howard Hughey, Donald
Curtis, Wilbur Burden and Eugene
Boyles. All of these boys are real lead-
ers and have the interest of club work
at heart.
It was seen at the very beginning
that an intermediary was needed be-
tween the local club and the State
Council. The answer to this was the
county council.
Steps were taken to build councils
in every county. The plan was to have
every local club send two delegates to
the county council. The county council
would hold its meetings monthly and
would in turn send delegates to the
State Council which would meet
The first rule these boys made was
that every county must have an active
council before it could be eligible for
representative in the State Council.
These boys had upon their shoulders
the responsibility of organizing county
councils before the next year. They
accepted the task and diligently set to
work upon it. As a result the State
Council met in June 1936 with 13
counties as charter members and a
total of 25 boys on the roll.
This first council got right down to
work. They drew up a constitution,
set goals, formed a program for the
year and elected officers. The officers
were, D. C. Hanks, president; Wilbur
Burden, first vice-president; Donaldson
Curtis, second vice-president; Eugene
Boyles, secretary; Howard Hughey,
treasurer. With tills industrious set of
officers the council thrived for the
next year. The goals were accomplish-
ed and eight more counties were added
to the State Council.
The Council met in June 1937 with
42 boys on roll. Reports were given
from each county. All kinds of prob-
lems confronting 4-H work were dis-
cussed pro and con. A few constitution-
al amendments were made, goals and
programs were set up for the new year.
The program endeavored to organize
more county councils. Out of 56 coun-
ties doing club work only 21 were rep-
resented in the State Council. Though
the progress that has been made has
been conmmendable, there is vast room
for advancement.
The Council is attempting. through
pooling the ideas of boys from all over

Page 10

May, 1938


the State, to help tile local clubs solve
their problems. We found that it was
best for tile morale of the club that
all funds should be raised by group
action. We are urging that every club
use this imetlhod s far as possible.
We found that in too many cases
prizes have been awarded to the pig
and not to the boy. To eliminate such
circumstances a new system of prizes
and awards has been recommended. It
vwas decided that leadership and in-
terest in club work should be given
consideration before the awarding of
any prize. The State Council is trying
to help and encourage the local clubs
in setting higher standards in club
work. We urge that a goodly percent-
age of boys attend club camps but we
feel that they must be carrying a pro-
ject and have it up to date.
In addition to the fulfilhent of the
program and trying to achieve the goals
the councill is offering a silver loving
cul) to tie county that makes the most
progress this year.

4-H News Flashes

More than 100 club girls are en-
rolled in food preparation demonstra-
tion in Putnam County, according to
Miss Josephine Nimino, home agent,
as a result of demonstrations in salad
making, using vegetables and fruits
which were grown at home. The girls
have produced in their home gardens
an abundance of carrots, cabbage,
onions, beets, and other vegetables
which were combined in attractive,
succulent, and appetizing salads.
Achievement Day, the day of the
year on which 4-H club girls give an
accounting of their work, is now being
observed in various counties of the
state. The Achievement Day season
opened on April 22, when eastern Hills-
borough County girls turned in their
records and gave other evidence of
their activities.

Club girls in eastern Hillsborough
County, Brevard, Holmes, Orange, Cal-
houn, and Alachua have held their
achievement days. Achievement Days
scheduled for this month are: Pinellas
and Madison, May 6; Lake, Gadsden,
Volusia, Broward, and Dade, May 7;
Citrus, May 10; Jefferson, May 13;
Polk, Marion, Wakulla, Duval, Colunm-
bia, and Seminole, May 14; Clay,
Sulnter, Putnam, and Leon, May 1S or
May 19; Manatee, May 20 and 21; and
Suwannee, May 21.

Chickens being raised this season
by Orange countyy 4-H club boys have
grown exceptionally well, only two out
of the 12 boys reporting as much as
10 per cent mortality in their flocks,
according to a report from County
Agent K. C. Moore. Another interest-
ing Orange County 4-H club event of
recent weeks was the formation of a
county council with the election of the
following officers: Ralph Townsend.
president; Delbert Gilliam. vice-
president; James Jones, secretary.

Fifteen members of the Medulla
4-H club for girls are making dresses
from sacks as a part of a thrift pro-
ject being carried on by the organiza-
tion, according to a report from Miss
Margaret Alford, assistant home dem-
oustration agent for Polk County.

Florida club work lost one of its
finest and brightest girls when Louise
Grantham, of Jefferson County, died
of a streptococcus infection on April
8. Miss Grantham was not only a
leader in club work in her county, but
she was state winner in the home
pantry canning contest in 1936 and
represented the state at the National
4-H Club Congress in Chicago. Of a
tine, cheerful nature, she was loved by
many other club members and by her
home agent, Miss Ruby Brown, and
other workers of the State Home Dem-
onstration Department.

Many Holmes County homee demon-
stration and 4-H club members attend-
ed recent demonstration by Mrs. Bettie
A. Caudle. home agent, on meal plan-
ning and food preparation. Demonstra-
tions were given by Mrs. Caudle in
22 communities.



Election of new officers and discus-
sion of plans for annual Achievement
Day, which is to be held on May 7.
were features of the recent meeting
of the Gadsden countyy girls' 4-H club
council, according to a report from
Miss Elise Laffitte. home agent. New
officers are Mary Frances Wilson,
president: Edna Andrews, vice-presi-
dent; and Almnna Rogers, secretary-

Orange County's poultry team stood
highest in the state among the girls
in the judging contest, and second to
the winning tealn of boys from Pasco
County at the Central Florida Exposi-
tion in Orlando.

"Selecting and Preparing Fruits" is
lie demonstration which Mrs. Bonnie
J. Carter. home agent, gave to all clubs
in Jackson County and to which she
attributes an increased interest in the
use of fruits in the diet.

Four-H girls sold orange juice dur-
ing the Cocoa Jubilee and earned $9.00
above expenses.

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May, 1938

Page 11

or Your Old


Interesting Campus News Notes

First Students Graduate

From School of Forestry

The School of Forestry of the Col-
lege of Agriculture at the University
presents for the first time a class of
nine candidates for the degree of B.S.
in Forestry, as follows:
J. Mac Galbraith, O. Struthers,
E. W. Kreher. HI. C. Lunsford, Ben
David Harrell, D. 11. Means, i. S.
Pryor, R. T. Neuman and A. A. Rich,
The School is very proud, indeed,
of this situation which is the result
of the efforts of the State Legislature
of 1935. authorizing the original De-
partment of Forestry, and of the Leg-
islature of 1937, authorizing this De-
partment to become a School of
Forestry affording the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Forestry to
those candidates who have completed
four years of academic work, including
two years of the underclassman
courses in the General College.
The School of Forestry also has a
Semi-Professional or Ranger Cur-
riculum with four candidates during
this Commencement for the certificate
attesting to their completion of tihe
Ranger Course, as follows:
Paul F. Hendrick, Dill Roberts,
Lynton Townsend, and Oscar L.
The first-year Rangers are to be
considered as candidates for a similar
certificate next year. This Ranger
Course is open to those persons at
least 18 years of age who are located
in the profession of forestry or in
any one of the wood-using industries
and who may desire to pursue these
studies at the University but for
various reasons cannot consider the
four-year course. Such persons are
entitled to take this special course in
semi-professional forestry which does
not require the General College courses
of two-years.
The Profession of forestry requires
for administrative positions and for
positions of leadership in this field of
endeavor the background of training
such as is given in the four-year De-
gree Course. Otherwise, those men who
are employed in the public forest ser-
vices, both Federal and State, and in
the wood-using industries are enabled
to benefit themselves through the
Ranger Curriculum; but if they may
desire to advance to positions of re-
sponsibility-where the policies of the
field work are dictated-they should
avail themselves of the opportunity of
a four-year Degree Course in Forestry.
The Demonstration Forest of the
University is located 10 miles from the
campus and at the entrance-way in-
cludes the Memorial, of the Society of
American Foresters and friends, as a
tribute to the late Dr. Austin Cary,
who died suddenly April 28, 1936, upon
the University campus.



Noted Forester Visits
Agricultural College

Dr. John C. Gifford, a charter mem-
her of the Society of American For-
esters (an honor borne by few) and
professor of tropical forestry at the
University of Miami, was guest speak-
er at the School of Forestry, College
of Agriculture, University of Florida,
throughout one week in April.
To Professor H. S. Newins credit
must he extended for having secured
this outstanding lecturer to the Uni-
versity of Florida. Professor Newins.
director of the School of Forestry,
however, has attracted numerous other
prominent foresters to the campus, and
although the School of Forestry is the
most recent addition to the college,
Professor Newins has rapidly erected
an excellent new field of science on
the campus and one that is rapidly
marching to the front in Florida agri-
While visiting the University, Doctor
Gifford delivered many interesting lec-
tures including one given at the initia-
tion banquet of Phi Sigma, honorary
biological society, and another given
to Thyrsus, honorary horticultural
Doctor Gifford likewise lectured to
members of various classes in the
School of Forestry and to those of
the plant science course of the General
College. The Forestry Club was also
honored by having Doctor Gifford be
their speaker of the evening.

Ag Club Sees Secrets
Of Life in Technicolor
By O. K. MOORE, '38

On April 19 members of the Ag
Club and staff members of the Col-
lege and Experiment Station witnessed
one of the most fascinating motion
pictures ever produced. Through the
efforts of Professor Norman R. Mehr-
hof, head of the Poultry Department,
the Ag Club was able to sponsor a
full color movie produced at Cornell
University with funds provided by the
research department of the Ralston
Purina Company.
This half-hour movie showing the
hatching of an egg is one of the
marvels of science. First you see the
eggs placed in the incubator; then
presently blood vessels appear, and by
the end of 48 hours you can see a tiny
heart beating. No sign of the chicken
is yet visible-just a heating heart.
Then as days elapse, the form of the
chick appears. At the end of 21 days
the completely developed chick pips the
shell and hatches before your eyes!
In making the film more than three
month's of labor was involved. Over
2,000 eggs were used. Surgical skill of
high degree was necessitated, for to
produce the pictures it was essential
to dissect away parts of the shell with-
out breaking the fragile embryonic
membranes inside the shell which
would have ended the life of the chick
immediately. The eggs less their shells
were then gently placed on a watch
glass that all details could be pictured.
One thing adding to the photographers
difficulties was that all his work had
to be done at incubation temperature
and under glaring lights in order that
the movie would show a developing
chick in motion within the shell.
When you see the photographs of
the second day wherein the heart starts
pumping away, you sit right up in
your chair amazed by this unfolding
secret of life. This minute heart is
beating 140 times per minute, too.
Little by little, blood vessels spread
throughout the egg with the chick con-
stantly taking shape. Perhaps most in-
teresting of all is the continuous,
rhythmic motion of the embryo as the
processes in life move along. Here you
see creation of a new life.
Producing the picture gave new
knowledge about hatching to the re-
searchers who made it. The picture
portrays vividly the hazards of life in
the egg shell during the entire 21 days.
It helps explain why of the billion
of eggs put in incubators annually
only 650,000,000 hatch.

Hardee County's newest 4-H club
was organized recently at Oak Grove
with 17 charter members. Club work
in the county is directed by County
Agent H. L. Miller.

The Girls' 4-H Club at Riverview
has reached the 100 mark. This is the
largest club in Duval County.

Page 12

May, 1938



State Extension Service

Conducts Citrus Meetings

Florida citrus growers were given
an opportunity to learn first-hand facts
surrounding their production and
marketing problems through a series
of meetings now nearing completion
conducted by the State Agricultural
Extension Service.
At 29 meetings throughout the citrus
belt from April 20 to May 6, represen-
tatives of the Extension Service and
the State Experiment Station explain-
ed and discussed with growers the
situation in the citrus industry 'and
the prospects for the future.
Most of the problems facing the
citrus industry are due to the sharp
increases in production of oranges and
grapefruit during the last few years.
The trends in citrus production and
prices, and Florida's place in the citrus
industry were discussed at the meet-
ings by D. E. Timmons of the State
Extension Service staff, and W. C.
Ockey of the United States Department
of Agriculture.
The importance of the citrus in-
dustry to Florida is indicated by the
fact that it represents 50 per cent of
the farm income from cultivated crop
production in the state. For a long
time Florida was first in grapefruit
production. During the early twenties,
Florida supplied over 90 per cent of
the nation's grapefruit. Today. this
state furnishes less than half of the
total supply, because of big increases
in grapefruit production in other areas.
The orange situation indicates con-
tinued increases in production, but at
a more moderate rate than hlas been
the case in the last few years. The
biggest increase in volume is expected
to take place in the Valencia and other
late varieties which have most of the
young trees.
Florida oranges are sold mainly in
markets east of the Mississippi river.
most of them being marketed along
the eastern seaboard. During the
Florida shipping season, Florida
oranges virtually dominate the east-
ern markets.
While Florida growers are wrestling
with the problem of how to market
bigger citrus crops to better advantage,
it looks as if some efforts will have
to be made to lower production costs
and produce quality fruit more ef-
This was indicated by R. H. Howard
of the Extension Service staff who
pointed out that about 38 per cent
of the cash cost for taking care of a
grove represented an outlay for ferti-
lizer. These records indicate that of
all the items of cost involved in grow-
ing citrus fruit, the amount spent for
fertilizer paid greater dividends for
every dollar invested than any other
item of expense.
Other steps which growers are tak-
ing to cut costs include more efficient
use of equipment necessary in caring
for groves. Since the average citrus
grove in Florida is too small to war-
rant the expensive machinery and
equipment which is necessary, there
has been a tendency to consolidate

production units to facilitate the buy-
intg and operating of this equipment
with savings to the average grower.
How returns to growers may be
safeguarded through proper spraying
and dusting to prevent damage from
insect pests and diseases, was dis-
cussed at the meeting by J. R. Watson
and W. L. Thompson of the Experi-
ment Station.
R. M. Barnette and R. V. Allison
of the Experiment Station discussed
practices in handling Florida's citrus
soils in order to produce quality fruit
more profitably. Other production
problems were dealt with by Ed. L.
Ayers. county agent of Manatee coun-
ty, and H. H. Hume of the Experi-
nment Station.
Growers attending the 29 citrus
meetings showed a genuine desire to
obtain the facts relating to their pro-
duction and marketing problems. Many
of them expressed the view that a
better understanding of these problems
was necessary before steps could be
taken to work out satisfactory

Little International Show
And Rodeo Held in Stadium

This year, for the first time in his-
tory, the Little International Livestock
Show and Rodeo was held in the Uni-
versity of Florida football stadium.
Approximately 7,000 people attended
the exhibition on April 30.
The F. F. A. chapters and 4-IT clubs
from various sections of the State at-
tended and gained incentives for pro-
ducing better beef cattle, dairy cattle,
hogs, and chickens.
Through the influence of the presi-
dent of the club. Sidney Marshall. the
Toreador (lub. former local organiza-
tion, has become a member of the Na-
tional Block and Bridle (lub. It is
through the efforts of the members of
this organization that the show is held
each year.
The livestock show within itself was
well worth the time spent, because the
condition of the animals evidenced the
fact that the boys had spent much time
in fitting them for the show. In addi-

tion. there was the rodeo that provided
nearly 2 hours of exciting entertain-
Also, there was an educational ex-
hibit of poultry and other products
which attracted much attention.
Many worthwhile prizes were given
the winners of the various contests
held, and it is to the givers of these
prizes, to the club officials, to the pro-
fessors of animal husbandry and the
officials who so willingly gave permis-
sion for the use of the football stadium
that the success of the show is due.
-Raymond Tucker, '38.

Ag College-ers Swing It

One of the most gleeful occasions to
be witnessed on the University of
Florida Campus is the annual Ag Col-
lege Night where the college's student
body goes co-ed in a big way. This
year's event was staged on May 7 in
the Florida Union Annex with a 10-
piece orchestra furnishing entertain-
ment by way of rhythm.
Among those participating in the
frolic were members of the College of
Agriculture student body, faculty mem-
bers, Experiment Station researchers
and their secretaries, and last but most
important of all-at least to the stu-
dents' way of thinking-were the num-
erous attractive ladies from Tallahas-
see and various other sections of the
Throughout the evening various
modes of entertainment were in-
augurated in addition to that of
Responsible for this featured Ag
College outing of the year are the Ag
Club and other student organizations
in the college. Doctor P. H. Senn,
through his untiring assistance during
the past few years, has made these
events outstanding.

West Hillsborough 4-H club girls
under the direction of their home dem-
onstration agent. Miss Allie Lee Rush.
went on a shopping tour of the stores
of Tampa to study materials suitable
for spring dresses. The object was to
give the girls an idea of the types
of materials on the spring market
and to help them select the color,
texture and design of fabric within
their means to make a dress. This is
the final step in their clothing dem-
onstration for this year. Twenty-five
girls are taking part in this dem-

(The Op ^ strabinj Coiupat u nc.
Jacksonvill C-florida




May, 1938

Page 13




May, 1938

Washington Trip Winners Announced


Florida's greatest 4-H honor, the
privilege of representing the state at
the National 4-H Club Camp in Wash-
ington, D. C.. in June. was awarded
to Leroy Fortner of Alachua County
and John D. Campbell of Dade County.
This award is given on leadership and
achievements in 4-H club work. These
two boys have shown that they are
leaders in their respective counties and
in the State.
Leroy Fortner has been outstanding
since he enrolled in 4-H club work four
years ago. He is 19 years of age and
is a senior in the P. K. Yonge High
School in Gainesville. Over the period
of four years, lie has practically man-
aged a farm, having carried projects
totaling 12 acres of corn. 2 acres of
tobacco, 11 acres of peaniits. acres
of chulfas. 10 ac of ct 2 res f cot cr
of okra. 7 purebred Poland China Hogs,
9 Hereford steers and cows. 1 Jersey
cow. I Hanpishire sow. anll 1 Duroc
Jersey sow. His financial rIecord for the
last three years shows tl tolta expense
of $1.421.42. receipts of $2,2i66.02, and
a total profit of $860.51. Al the Fat
Stock Show held in Jaclsonville this
spring, Leroy showed two Hereford
steers, one winning a third, an eighth.
and a ninth, while the other won a
sixth and an eighth. and lhe wals run-
ner up for $100 scholarship Liven for
the best record in beef catlle proIduc-
tion. He has served as vice -president
of his club for two years, and as presi-
dent for two years, as well as being
vice-president of the Alachna County
C('onil. and represent tive to the
State councill last year. te has attendl-
ed 4 short courses and C6 canlps.
"T'nquestionallly. Leroy has caught
the full vision of 4-H club work." states
ien L. Gittings, assistant county agent
in Alacla ('County. "Tt lias been the
means of four-fold development for
him. lTnselfishly, Leroy has endowed
all of his associates with true 4-11
idealism. His example of the great
number of completed projects per year
has been one of the greatest inspira-
tions to every 4-H c111 1)1iy in this
county. Further. his lprojecils have lhoon
the means of influencing ilbe neighbor-
ing farmers to adopt the points
brought out in his demonstration pro-
jects. Other farmers have been influ-
enced to keep purebred livestock be-
cause of the successful projects lie
has grown in his community."
Leroy says, "My work in connection
with the 4-H1 club has been profitable
to me in every way, and I feel that
the things that I have learned here
will be of great importance to me in
making my way through the world."
John D. (ampbell has shown that
he was a leader since lie helped organ-
ize the local club, of which he is now
a member, seven years ago in Miami
During these seven years, John has
carried a livestock project, either a
dairy animal or poultry, a truck cro,.
usually strawberries, and this year an
acre of Irish potatoes and one-quarter
acre of broccoli, and a large garden.
The planning for his projects has been
noteworthy. Due to John's initiative,
a county council was organized in
Dade County, of which he was elected
president. Besides he has served as
president, secretary. and reporter for

his local club. Because of the four
short courses he has attended. John
plans to nmtriculate at the TTniversity
of Florida next year.
Of John, Assistant (Conty Agent
J. Lawrence Edwards. says, "He has
helped his club to be the best in the
county each year by encouraging the
boys with their demonstrations. Last
year this club turned in record books,
one hundred per cent, largely due to
John's efforts to help them. John has
also helped organize several local
cluhs. John's projects have been a real
demonstration and something for a boy
who lives in town to be proud of. His
land is limited to about three acres
and each year his father farms some
of that so taking this into considera-
tion. John has done an outstanding
piece of work in demonstrating what
a boy can do on a small piece of land
in South Florida."
Summing nup his conception of 4-TT
club work, John says. "I am glad to
he a 4-H club member and hope that
I can lbe of assistance to other boys
of the lull so that they c('an get the
most out of their 4-II club activities."

Florida Produces
High Quality Hogs

Florida's swine situation at present
is the best that it has been in the
state's history and it has an even
better outlook for the future. There
is an accessibility of good markets for
Florida produced meat. A few years
ago there were no established grades,
ino year-around market. keen co()mpci-
tion, and very few. small, local killing
plants which paid very low prices.
There was little profit in raising hogs
except for home use.
Today. through the efforts of the
state's agricultural forces, there are
available markets during the entire
year which pay current prices. This
sufficient dlennd warrants large scale
production and is conducive to thll
factors which have largely contributed
to better livestock conditions in Florida.
The quality of hogs is much im-
proved over that of former years :and
farmers know that it is better to raise
hogs for quality than for quantity.
As proof of this we might sight that
the president of Armour & Company
in 1926 said, that if and when the
farmers of the Southeast would im-
prove the quality of their swine, meat
packing companies of the Middle West
would establish plants in that section.
There are now established in the
Southeast branches of the big four
(Wilson. Armour, Swift, and Cudahy)
meat packing companies which buy
Florida produced pork. The Florida
farmer receives current prices in pro-
portion to those paid in (<'I.-. .. There
is rarely more than 2 cents spread
per pound of pork. while there was
from 21% to 31/ cents spread in prices
a few years ago.
The quality of meat produced for
home use is much improved, more
and more farmers are using cold stor-
age plants over the state to cure their
home supply of imeat. There is now
one cold storage ieat cllring plant in

every hog producing county, and all
have the capacity to cure from six
to seven million pounds of meat an-
nually. This iniprovelent in quality
is duei to the use of purebred stock
with the common hogs. certain n people
have Irollught into tlie state some of
the best hogs in the United States,
thereby showing the farmers that they
could produce better pork and thus
secure better prices by using purebred
boars of good quality.
The swine situation is now tile best
that Florida has ever seen. It is the
duty of the hog producers to see that
these measures are kept up to improve
the quality and market demand, there-
by increasing the profits which will
he derived.

New officers of the Suwannee Coun-
ty 4-hI Club Council include Louise
Townsend, Antioch, president; Merine
Warren. Live Oak. vice president:
Frances Townsend. Antioch. secretary-
treasurer; Lassie ('onnell. Live Oak.
song leader: Myrl Baker, Clayland,
historian: Thelma Schlieffer, Dowling
Par k, program chalirnan.

More than 300 Gadsden County girls
are enrolled in 4-II club work under
the supervision of Miss Elise Laffitte.
home demonstration agent. Each girl
is carrying on a "living-growing" denm-
onstration either il gardening or poul-
try. Every girl enrolled is doing a
demonstration in sewing, looking for-
ward to achievement day in May.
Twenty-four club girls helped with a
drive for raising funds to build a
picnic shelter at Glen Julia park and
secured a total of $128.07.

New Port Richey's club qualified for
a gold seal on its 1937 record.
To qualify for a gold seal. a club
must hold regular meetings, both busi-
ness and social, must have local and
project leaders, and must have 75
per cent of its membership completing
their year's project work and exhibit-
ing at the county contest. A gold seal
is hard to earn and the New Port
Richey club is to be congratulated.
The clul works under the direction
of James McClellan. Pasco County

"Under the 4-H Flag." a moving
picture dramatized from the book of
the same name by John Francis Case,
is being shown to large audiences
throughout the state. Showing of the
picture is being sponsored by Sears,
Roebuck and Company.

When you are aspiring to the high-
est place, it is honorable to reach the
second or even third rank.

Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a
Where wealth accumulates and men

Our greatest glory is not in never
falling, but in rising every time we

Page 14


Adapted Clovers May Prove

Ideal for Florida Cattle

Cows in clover, long a reality in
other sections of the country but most-
ly a dream in Florida, may be a reality
here soon. Experiments conducted
during tile past few months have indi-
cated that a number of winter clovers
can be grown in this state to supple-
ment other pasture and grazing crops.
Roy E. Blaser. assistant agronomist
with the State Experiment Station,
says a recent inspection of these test
pastures shows the leguminous crops
to be nimkin- excellent growth in at
least four different sections of the
Clovers and other legumes are de-
sirable in Florida pastures because
they not only provide excellent feed
and grazing for farm animals, hut
also improve the soil a nd stimlalnte
grass growth. Clovers ,and other
legumes can be seeded on existing
perivanent pastures, or can be estab-
lished at the same time grasses are
planted, says Mr. Blaser. Better
pastures, particularly those providing
winter grazing. will keep beef cattle
in better condition, enable cattlemen
to sell their animals at an earlier age
and result in better quality beef and
higher prices received for it, he be-
Available green feed fr.in winter
pastures also aids dairymen by in-

creasing the milk flow of the cows
and reducing production costs.
Winter legume seed mixtures sown
last fall included White Dutch.
Persian, Alsike. Yellow Hop, Black
Medic, and California Burr clovers
and Augusta vetch. These were
chosen because each will reseed it-
self, and White Dutch clover is a
perennial if properly managed.
Mr. Blaser reports that White
Dutch. Persian and Alsike clovers are
apparently adapted to soils having
plenty of moisture, while Yellow Hop.
Black Medic. California Burr and
vetch are adanled to soniewhat drier,
bhut not very dry, soils.
Fertilization and inoculation prior
to seeding are essential for success
with the plants. which are seeded in
October or other fall months. Mr.
Blaser recolnmenelds the application of
a ton of lime and 600 pounds of super-
phosphate and 150O pounds muriate of
potash before planting. The potash
should ie applied every year. and the
lime and phosphate every three to
five years, lie believes. Inoculation
can be accomplished by the use of
commercial cultures or soil which has
grown these leguminous crops.
Satisfactory lest plots of these
winter legumes are now growing at
Gainesville. Penney Farms, Dinsmore.
and Brooksville.







Enable grower to produce the
earliest fruit of finest

Jackson Grain Co.

State Distributors



If the great lumber industry, the navel stores
industry, the paper industry, even the profit-
able tourist trade of our fine State of Florida
are to continue to flourish and be leading
sources of income for the inhabitants of this
state, we must act now to PREVENT FOREST

Forest fires can be largely eliminated by pre-
venting cattle from running at large, thus
eliminating the incentive for cattle men to set
fire and burn other people's land and destroy
the young growth of pine and other timber.



May, 1938


Page 15





one of the largest and most
complete plants in the Southeast

Printers Publishers Bookbinders Rulers

Southern Dairies
Ice Cream


University Book
Store and Cafeteria


University Bookstore
Soda Fountain
Wish to welcome the Future Farmers and 4-H Club members, and take this method of extend-
ing an invitation to them to visit us as often as possible during the State Convention in June.


May, 1938

Page 16

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